Science.gov

Sample records for main research tool

  1. Measurement and Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on measurement and research tools for human resource development (HRD). "The 'Best Fit' Training: Measure Employee Learning Style Strengths" (Daniel L. Parry) discusses a study of the physiological aspect of sensory intake known as modality, more specifically, modality as measured by the…

  2. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Katherine E; Currie, David J

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task. PMID:22567111

  3. Main transformation tools in ANALITIK-93 programming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gorovoi, V.D.; Klimenko, V.P.; Fishman, Yu.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews the main functions incorporated in the latest version of the source language for the ANALITIK programming system. These functions are intended as transformation tools for nonnumerical models and problems, which are usually represented by systems of symbolic expressions of arbitrary length with a hierarchical structure. Such problems are often connected with nonlinear dependences and oscillating functions, which require multiple integration and differentiation, opening of parentheses, reduction of simmilar terms, various simplifications, etc. Such transformations are available in the languages of the ANALITIK family, REDUCE, Formac, Lisp, MACSYMA, Mathematica, and others. Languages of the ANALITIK family, and especially ANALITIK-93, are distinguished by greater generality and a higher level of intelligence, which is determined by an advanced automatic recognition system of functional properties of the objects being transformed and by a developed interactive system.

  4. Ecosystem Indicators and Tools in the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment is a U.S.-Canadian partnership of government and non-government organizations focused on the health, environmental quality and productivity of the Gulf of Maine. In 2006, the Ecosystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) commenced acti...

  5. A Tool for Medical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.

  6. Brooklyn Union develops tool for replacing steel, cast iron mains

    SciTech Connect

    Marazzo, J.J. )

    1994-12-01

    Over the last 10 years, Brooklyn Union Gas Co. has undergone significant changes in the methods it has used to install gas service and gas main systems. Recently, Brooklyn Union engineers developed a user friendly method of replacing steel and cast iron gas mains and service lines with same size or larger polyethylene pipe without using conventional trench excavation. The system, known as the ''Bullet'' pipe replacement system, involves splitting steel and cast iron pipe using a series of rolling cutter wheels. After consecutive cutting wheels completely penetrate both pipe and fittings, both pipe and soil are spread with an expander and new polyethylene pipe is inserted. The ''Bullet'' pipe splitting system for 1[1/4] in. (32 mm) through 6 in. (150 mm) diameter has been developed.

  7. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  8. MHK Research, Tools, and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses improved testing, analysis, and design tools needed to more accurately model operational conditions, to optimize design parameters, and predict technology viability.

  9. The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

  10. Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

  11. Blogging as a Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetser, Douglas

    2011-11-01

    I work on variations of the Maxwell Lagrange density using quaternions and hypercomplex products of covariant 4-derivatives and 4-potentials. The hope is to unify gravity with the symmetries found in the standard model. It is difficult for someone outside academia to get constructive criticism. I have chosen to blog once a week at Science20.com since March, 2011. Over thirty blogs have been generated, most getting more than a thousand views (high mark is 5k for ``Why Quantum Mechanics is Wierd''). The tools used for web and video blogging will be reviewed. A discussion of my efforts to represent electroweak symmetry with quaternions convinced me I was in error. Instead, my hope is to exploit the observation that U(1) is formally a subgroup of SU(2). A battle over gauge symmetry may be reviewed.

  12. Scalable combinatorial tools for health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Langston, Michael A; Levine, Robert S; Kilbourne, Barbara J; Rogers, Gary L; Kershenbaum, Anne D; Baktash, Suzanne H; Coughlin, Steven S; Saxton, Arnold M; Agboto, Vincent K; Hood, Darryl B; Litchveld, Maureen Y; Oyana, Tonny J; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual's genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject. PMID:25310540

  13. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Langston, Michael A.; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Rogers, Gary L.; Kershenbaum, Anne D.; Baktash, Suzanne H.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Hood, Darryl B.; Litchveld, Maureen Y.; Oyana, Tonny J.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject. PMID:25310540

  14. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  15. Telerehabilitation: Policy Issues and Research Tools

    PubMed Central

    Seelman, Katherine D.; Hartman, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR) policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors. PMID:25945162

  16. Parallel software tools at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moitra, Stuti; Tennille, Geoffrey M.; Lakeotes, Christopher D.; Randall, Donald P.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Hammond, Dana P.; Mall, Gerald H.

    1993-01-01

    This document gives a brief overview of parallel software tools available on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel computer at Langley Research Center. It is intended to provide a source of information that is somewhat more concise than vendor-supplied material on the purpose and use of various tools. Each of the chapters on tools is organized in a similar manner covering an overview of the functionality, access information, how to effectively use the tool, observations about the tool and how it compares to similar software, known problems or shortfalls with the software, and reference documentation. It is primarily intended for users of the iPSC/860 at Langley Research Center and is appropriate for both the experienced and novice user.

  17. Research as an educational tool

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, R.; Perlmutter, D.; Klaczynski, P.

    1994-12-31

    Our students have participated in original group research projects focused on the natural environment which culminate in a written manuscript published in-house, and an oral presentation to peers, faculty, and the university community. Our goal has been to develop their critical thinking skills so that they will be more successful in high school and college. We have served ninety-three students (47.1% white, 44.1% black, 5.4% hispanic, 2.2% American Indian, 1.2% asian) from an eight state region in the southeast over the past three years. Thirty-one students have graduated from high school with over 70% enrolled in college and another thirty-four are seniors this year. We are tracking students` progress in college and are developing our own critical thinking test to measure the impact of our program. Although preliminary, the results from the critical thinking test indicated that students are often prone to logical errors; however, higher levels of critical thinking were observed on items which raised issues that conflicted with students` pre-existing beliefs.

  18. Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Charles; Ceraj, Ivica; Riley, Justin

    2009-01-01

    The advancement of computer technology used for research is creating the need to change the way classes are taught in higher education. "Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom" has become a major focus of the work of the Office of Educational Innovation and Technology (OEIT) for the Dean of Undergraduate Education (DUE) at the Massachusetts…

  19. Evaluating the Performance of Calculus Classes Using Operational Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares de Mello, Joao Carlos C. B.; Lins, Marcos P. E.; Soares de Mello, Maria Helena C.; Gomes, Eliane G.

    2002-01-01

    Compares the efficiency of calculus classes and evaluates two kinds of classes: traditional and others that use computational methods in teaching. Applies quantitative evaluation methods using two operational research tools, multicriteria decision aid methods (mainly using the MACBETH approach) and data development analysis. (Author/YDS)

  20. New Software Framework to Share Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Kevin; Becker, Thorsten W.; Boschi, Lapo; Sain, Jared; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Waterhouse, Hannah

    2009-03-01

    Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. The software provides a stand-alone open-source package that allows users to operate in a “black box” mode, which hides implementation details, while also allowing them to dig deeper into the underlying source code. The overlying user interfaces are written in the Python programming language using a modern, object-oriented design, including graphical user interactions. SEATREE, which provides an interface to a range of new and existing lower level programs that can be written in any computer programming language, may in the long run contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research. By sharing both data and modeling tools in a consistent framework, published (numerical) experiments can be made truly reproducible again.

  1. Focus group discussion: a tool for health and medical research.

    PubMed

    Wong, L P

    2008-03-01

    Focus group discussion is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gather to discuss a specified topic or an issue to generate data. The main characteristic of a focus group is the interaction between the moderator and the group, as well as the interaction between group members. The objective is to give the researcher an understanding of the participants' perspective on the topic in discussion. Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity in health and medical research. This paper presents a general introduction of the use of focus groups as a research tool within the context of health research, with the intention of promoting its use among researchers in healthcare. A detailed methodology for the conduct of focus groups and analysis of focus group data are discussed. The potentials and limitations of this qualitative research technique are also highlighted.

  2. Oceanographic visualization interactive research tool (OVIRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Robert J., II; Hamann, Bernd; Everitt, Cass; Jones, Stephen C.; McAllister, Joel; Barlow, Jonathan

    1994-04-01

    The Oceanographic Visualization Interactive Research Tool (OVIRT) was developed to explore the utility of scalar field volume rendering in visualizing environmental ocean data and to extend some of the classical 2D oceanographic displays into a 3D visualization environment. It has five major visualization tools: cutting planes, minicubes, isosurfaces, sonic-surfaces, and direct volume rendering. The cutting planes tool provides three orthogonal cutting planes which can be interactively moved through the volume. The minicubes routine renders small cubes whose faces are shaded according to function value. The isosurface tool is conceptually similar to the well-known marching cubes technique. The sonic surfaces are an extension of the 2D surfaces which have been classically used to display acoustic propagation paths and inflection lines within the ocean. The surfaces delineate the extent and axis of the shallow and deep sound channels. The direct volume rendering (DVR) techniques give a global view of the data. Other features include the ability to overlay the shoreline and inlay the bathymetry. There are multiple colormaps, an automatic histogramming feature, a macro and scripting capability, a picking function, and the ability to display animations of DVR imagery. There is a network feature to allow computationally expensive functions to be executed on remote machines.

  3. Inductive knowledge acquisition experience with commercial tools for space shuttle main engine testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984, an effort has been underway at Rocketdyne, manufacturer of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), to automate much of the analysis procedure conducted after engine test firings. Previously published articles at national and international conferences have contained the context of and justification for this effort. Here, progress is reported in building the full system, including the extensions of integrating large databases with the system, known as Scotty. Inductive knowledge acquisition has proven itself to be a key factor in the success of Scotty. The combination of a powerful inductive expert system building tool (ExTran), a relational data base management system (Reliance), and software engineering principles and Computer-Assisted Software Engineering (CASE) tools makes for a practical, useful and state-of-the-art application of an expert system.

  4. Microfluidics as a tool for C. elegans research.

    PubMed

    San-Miguel, Adriana; Lu, Hang

    2013-09-24

    Microfluidics has emerged as a set of powerful tools that have greatly advanced some areas of biological research, including research using C. elegans. The use of microfluidics has enabled many experiments that are otherwise impossible with conventional methods. Today there are many examples that demonstrate the main advantages of using microfluidics for C. elegans research, achieving precise environmental conditions and facilitating worm handling. Examples range from behavioral analysis under precise chemical or odor stimulation, locomotion studies in well-defined structural surroundings, and even long-term culture on chip. Moreover, microfluidics has enabled coupling worm handling and imaging thus facilitating genetic screens, optogenetic studies, and laser ablation experiments. In this article, we review some of the applications of microfluidics for C. elegans research and provide guides for the design, fabrication, and use of microfluidic devices for C. elegans research studies.

  5. Tools and collaborative environments for bioinformatics research

    PubMed Central

    Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Advanced research requires intensive interaction among a multitude of actors, often possessing different expertise and usually working at a distance from each other. The field of collaborative research aims to establish suitable models and technologies to properly support these interactions. In this article, we first present the reasons for an interest of Bioinformatics in this context by also suggesting some research domains that could benefit from collaborative research. We then review the principles and some of the most relevant applications of social networking, with a special attention to networks supporting scientific collaboration, by also highlighting some critical issues, such as identification of users and standardization of formats. We then introduce some systems for collaborative document creation, including wiki systems and tools for ontology development, and review some of the most interesting biological wikis. We also review the principles of Collaborative Development Environments for software and show some examples in Bioinformatics. Finally, we present the principles and some examples of Learning Management Systems. In conclusion, we try to devise some of the goals to be achieved in the short term for the exploitation of these technologies. PMID:21984743

  6. Determination of clopidogrel main metabolite in plasma: a useful tool for monitoring therapy?

    PubMed

    Mani, Helen; Toennes, Stefan W; Linnemann, Birgit; Urbanek, Dorota A; Schwonberg, Jan; Kauert, Gerold F; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2008-02-01

    This study was performed to determine whether analysis of clopidogrel and its main carboxylic acid metabolite in plasma provides additional information about the wide variability of platelet aggregation inhibition in clopidogrel-treated patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Consecutive outpatients (n = 56) with stable peripheral arterial occlusive disease treated with 75 mg clopidogrel daily, without co-administration of aspirin, were investigated. With use of a standardized questionnaire, the time of drug intake was documented. Blood sampling was performed within 24 hours after the most recent drug intake. Platelet function was measured by optical aggregometry using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (2 mumol/L) as the agonist. Plasma concentrations of clopidogrel and its main metabolite, clopidogrel carboxylic acid, were quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. In 95% (53/56) of patients, clopidogrel carboxylic acid was detected. In 40% (22/56) of patients, the ADP-induced aggregation response was within the normal range despite clopidogrel treatment. In 14% (3/22) of these patients, neither clopidogrel nor its main metabolite could be detected. Two of these patients agreed to ingest 75 mg/d clopidogrel under observation and to undergo blood sampling after 2, 12, and 24 hours. Clopidogrel carboxylic acid and a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation were detected even after 24 hours in both patients, confirming noncompliance as the reason for the lack of inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation observed in the initial measurements. In the subgroup of patients who had taken clopidogrel within 4 hours before blood sampling, a large range of carboxylic acid concentrations was detected, indicating a high variability of drug metabolism among patients. In conclusion, determining clopidogrel metabolite plasma concentrations could be a useful tool for identifying poor compliance and variable

  7. Healthcare, molecular tools and applied genome research.

    PubMed

    Groves, M

    2000-11-01

    Biotechnology 2000 offered a rare opportunity for scientists from academia and industry to present and discuss data in fields as diverse as environmental biotechnology and applied genome research. The healthcare section of the meeting encompassed a number of gene therapy delivery systems that are successfully treating genetic disorders. Beta-thalassemia is being corrected in mice by continous erythropoeitin delivery from engineered muscles cells, and from naked DNA electrotransfer into muscles, as described by Dr JM Heard (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). Dr Reszka (Max-Delbrueck-Centrum fuer Molekulare Medizin, Berlin, Germany), meanwhile, described a treatment for liver metastasis in the form of a drug carrier emolization system, DCES (Max-Delbrueck-Centrum fuer Molekulare Medizin), composed of surface modified liposomes and a substance for chemo-occlusion, which drastically reduces the blood supply to the tumor and promotes apoptosis, necrosis and antiangiogenesis. In the molecular tools section, Willem Stemmer (Maxygen Inc, Redwood City, CA, USA) gave an insight into the importance that techniques, such as molecular breeding (DNA shuffling), have in the evolution of molecules with improved function, over a range of fields including pharmaceuticals, vaccines, agriculture and chemicals. Technologies, such as ribosome display, which can incorporate the evolution and the specific enrichment of proteins/peptides in cycles of selection, could play an enormous role in the production of novel therapeutics and diagnostics in future years, as explained by Andreas Plückthun (Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland). Applied genome research offered technologies, such as the 'in vitro expression cloning', described by Dr Zwick (Promega Corp, Madison, WI, USA), are providing a functional analysis for the overwhelming flow of data emerging from high-throughput sequencing of genomes and from high-density gene expression microarrays (DNA chips). The

  8. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the research project described is to define and demonstrate methods to advance the state of the art of pressure sensors for the space shuttle main engine (SSME). Silicon piezoresistive technology was utilized in completing tasks: generation and testing of three transducer design concepts for solid state applications; silicon resistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures; experimental chip mounting characterization; frequency response optimization and prototype design and fabrication. Excellent silicon sensor performance was demonstrated at liquid nitrogen temperature. A silicon resistor ion implant dose was customized for SSME temperature requirements. A basic acoustic modeling software program was developed as a design tool to evaluate frequency response characteristics.

  9. Some Tooling for Manufacturing Research Reactor Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.W.

    1999-10-03

    This paper will discuss some of the tooling necessary to manufacture aluminum-based research reactor fuel plates. Most of this tooling is intended for use in a high-production facility. Some of the tools shown have manufactured more than 150,000 pieces. The only maintenance has been sharpening. With careful design, tools can be made to accommodate the manufacture of several different fuel elements, thus, reducing tooling costs and maintaining tools that the operators are trained to use. An important feature is to design the tools using materials with good lasting quality. Good tools can increase return on investment.

  10. VAO Tools Enhance CANDELS Research Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Gretchen; Donley, J.; Rodney, S.; LAZIO, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Busko, I.; Hanisch, R. J.; VAO Team; CANDELS Team

    2013-01-01

    The formation of galaxies and their co-evolution with black holes through cosmic time are prominent areas in current extragalactic astronomy. New methods in science research are building upon collaborations between scientists and archive data centers which span large volumes of multi-wavelength and heterogeneous data. A successful example of this form of teamwork is demonstrated by the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) collaboration. The CANDELS project archive data provider services are registered and discoverable in the VAO through an innovative web based Data Discovery Tool, providing a drill down capability and cross-referencing with other co-spatially located astronomical catalogs, images and spectra. The CANDELS team is working together with the VAO to define new methods for analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions of galaxies containing active galactic nuclei, and helping to evolve advanced catalog matching methods for exploring images of variable depths, wavelengths and resolution. Through the publication of VOEvents, the CANDELS project is publishing data streams for newly discovered supernovae that are bright enough to be followed from the ground.

  11. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the Space Shuttle Main Engine SSME performance design goals is discussed. The fabrication, testing and delivery of 10 prototype units is examined. Silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology is used to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors in terms of reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture. Integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of this technology.

  12. [Main results of scientific researches in oil industry].

    PubMed

    Bakirov, A B; Gimranova, G G

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and hygienic research was carried out in major oil extracting, oil processing and petrochemical enterpirses. Complex of industrial hazards results in occupational diseases of mild and medium severity, in increase of occupationally mediated diseases. The article covers sanitary and epidemiologic evaluation of oil processing and petrochemical products, technical documentation certificates for these products are obtained. PMID:20099388

  13. Concept as the Main Research Object of Cognitive Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdikalyk, Kunimzhan Sadirkyzy; Abitzhanova, Zhanar Altynbekovna; Otarbekova, Zhamilya Kerimbaevna; Kaidarova, Gulyaim Kablakatovna; Seidullayeva, Gulzhan Abutalipovna

    2016-01-01

    This article dwells upon the basic unit of cognitive linguistics, which is a concept. Firstly, we provide an overview of major scientific works written by foreign linguists who pay attention to special aspects and lines of research. Secondly, we analyse conclusions on modern problems in linguistics that are drawn in cognitological studies…

  14. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  15. Streamlining Research by Using Existing Tools

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Sarah M.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Dolor, Rowena J.; Thompson, Ella; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the health research enterprise has matured rapidly, and many recognize an urgent need to translate pertinent research results into practice, to help improve the quality, accessibility, and affordability of U.S. health care. Streamlining research operations would speed translation, particularly for multi-site collaborations. However, the culture of research discourages reusing or adapting existing resources or study materials. Too often, researchers start studies and multi-site collaborations from scratch—reinventing the wheel. Our team developed a compendium of resources to address inefficiencies and researchers’ unmet needs and compiled them in a research toolkit website (www.ResearchToolkit.org). Through our work, we identified philosophical and operational issues related to disseminating the toolkit to the research community. We explore these issues here, with implications for the nation’s investment in biomedical research. PMID:21884513

  16. Microfluidic tools for cell biological research

    PubMed Central

    Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Maël; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications. PMID:21152269

  17. Tools for Ephemeral Gully Erosion Process Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Techniques to quantify ephemeral gully erosion have been identified by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as one of gaps in current erosion assessment tools. One reason that may have contributed to this technology gap is the difficulty to quantify changes in channel geometry to asses...

  18. Participatory Research: A Tool for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Given their positions in communities across the United States, Extension educators are poised to have meaningful partnerships with the communities they serve. This article presents a case for the use of participatory research, which is a departure from more conventional forms of research based on objectivity, researcher distance, and social…

  19. Narratives and Activity Theory as Reflective Tools in Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…

  20. Modeling as a research tool in poultry science.

    PubMed

    Gous, R M

    2014-01-01

    The World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) is a long-established and unique organization that strives to advance knowledge and understanding of all aspects of poultry science and the poultry industry. Its 3 main aims are education, organization, and research. The WPSA Keynote Lecture, titled "Modeling as a research tool in poultry science," addresses 2 of these aims, namely, the value of modeling in research and education. The role of scientists is to put forward and then to test theories. These theories, or models, may be simple or highly complex, but they are aimed at improving our understanding of a system or the interaction between systems. In developing a model, the scientist must take into account existing knowledge, and in this process gaps in our knowledge of a system are identified. Useful ideas for research are generated in this way, and experiments may be designed specifically to address these issues. The resultant models become more accurate and more useful, and can be used in education and extension as a means of explaining many of the complex issues that arise in poultry science.

  1. The Child Diary as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the…

  2. Equity Audit: A Teacher Leadership Tool for Nurturing Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    View, Jenice L.; DeMulder, Elizabeth; Stribling, Stacia; Dodman, Stephanie; Ra, Sophia; Hall, Beth; Swalwell, Katy

    2016-01-01

    This is a three-part essay featuring six teacher educators and one classroom teacher researcher. Part one describes faculty efforts to build curriculum for teacher research, scaffold the research process, and analyze outcomes. Part two shares one teacher researcher's experience using an equity audit tool in several contexts: her teaching practice,…

  3. Computational fluid dynamics as a design tool for the hot gas manifold of the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziebarth, J. P.; Barson, S.; Rosen, R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of computational fluid dynamics as a design tool for the Hot Gas Manifold of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. An improved Hot Gas Manifold configuration was arrived at computationally. This configuration was then built and air flow tested. Testing verified this configuration to be a substantial improvement over existing flight designs.

  4. Using Wordle as a Supplementary Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Carmel; Lam, Paul

    2010-01-01

    A word cloud is a special visualization of text in which the more frequently used words are effectively highlighted by occupying more prominence in the representation. We have used Wordle to produce word-cloud analyses of the spoken and written responses of informants in two research projects. The product demonstrates a fast and visually rich way…

  5. Visualization tools for comprehensive test ban treaty research

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.L.; Harris, J.M.; Simons, R.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on tools used in Data Visualization efforts at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy CTBT R&D program. These tools provide interactive techniques for the examination and interpretation of scientific data, and can be used for many types of CTBT research and development projects. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the tools to display and analyze CTBT scientific data. While the tools may be used for everyday applications, our discussion will focus on the use of these tools for visualization of data used in research and verification of new theories. Our examples focus on uses with seismic data, but the tools may also be used for other types of data sets. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Methodology and tools for astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacconi, Riccardo

    1997-03-01

    We are fortunate to live in a new heroic period of astronomy. In the second half of this century our understanding of the universe has undergone an exciting and profound change. This has been brought about by a number of factors: the development of physics, the discovery of astronomy, the extension of observations to all wavelengths from radio to x rays and finally the development of computers. These new findings and tools have permitted us to elaborate new theories and models of the universe as a whole. In my own mind I see three great themes for the next century of astronomy. The first is the quest for physics. The second is the quest for the origins. The third is what I could call the quest for living space. To pursue these themes we study the universe in the entire electromagnetic spectrum of wavelengths with ever larger telescopes and ever more refined detectors and instruments as we heard at this conference. The new facilities are producing and will produce ever larger quantities of data in such amounts that the information cannot be received, calibrated, analyzed and even understood in traditional ways.

  7. Simulation tools for robotics research and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, MaryAnne; Brewer, Ralph; Edge, Harris L.; Pusey, Jason L.; Weller, Ed; Patel, Dilip G.; DiBerardino, Charles A.

    2016-05-01

    The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) program focuses on four overlapping technology areas: Perception, Intelligence, Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), and Dexterous Manipulation and Unique Mobility (DMUM). In addition, the RCTA program has a requirement to assess progress of this research in standalone as well as integrated form. Since the research is evolving and the robotic platforms with unique mobility and dexterous manipulation are in the early development stage and very expensive, an alternate approach is needed for efficient assessment. Simulation of robotic systems, platforms, sensors, and algorithms, is an attractive alternative to expensive field-based testing. Simulation can provide insight during development and debugging unavailable by many other means. This paper explores the maturity of robotic simulation systems for applications to real-world problems in robotic systems research. Open source (such as Gazebo and Moby), commercial (Simulink, Actin, LMS), government (ANVEL/VANE), and the RCTA-developed RIVET simulation environments are examined with respect to their application in the robotic research domains of Perception, Intelligence, HRI, and DMUM. Tradeoffs for applications to representative problems from each domain are presented, along with known deficiencies and disadvantages. In particular, no single robotic simulation environment adequately covers the needs of the robotic researcher in all of the domains. Simulation for DMUM poses unique constraints on the development of physics-based computational models of the robot, the environment and objects within the environment, and the interactions between them. Most current robot simulations focus on quasi-static systems, but dynamic robotic motion places an increased emphasis on the accuracy of the computational models. In order to understand the interaction of dynamic multi-body systems, such as limbed robots, with the environment, it may be necessary to build component

  8. Participant-Centric Initiatives: Tools to Facilitate Engagement In Research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicholas; Bragg, Caleb; Hartzler, Andrea; Edwards, Kelly

    2012-12-01

    Clinical genomic research faces increasing challenges in establishing participant privacy and consent processes that facilitate meaningful choice and communication capacity for longitudinal and secondary research uses. There are an evolving range of participant-centric initiatives that combine web-based informatics tools with new models of engagement and research collaboration. These emerging initiatives may become valuable approaches to support large-scale and longitudinal research studies. We highlight and discuss four types of emerging initiatives for engaging and sustaining participation in research.

  9. Geographical Information Systems: A Tool for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, James E.; Carlson, Christina E.

    This paper addresses the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), a computerized tool for associating key information by geographical location, to the institutional research function at institutions of higher education. The first section investigates the potential of GIS as an analytical and planning tool for institutional…

  10. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  11. Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

    2012-01-01

    Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

  12. Innovations in scholarly communication - global survey on research tool usage.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Bianca; Bosman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Many new websites and online tools have come into existence to support scholarly communication in all phases of the research workflow. To what extent researchers are using these and more traditional tools has been largely unknown. This 2015-2016 survey aimed to fill that gap. Its results may help decision making by stakeholders supporting researchers and may also help researchers wishing to reflect on their own online workflows. In addition, information on tools usage can inform studies of changing research workflows. The online survey employed an open, non-probability sample. A largely self-selected group of 20663 researchers, librarians, editors, publishers and other groups involved in research took the survey, which was available in seven languages. The survey was open from May 10, 2015 to February 10, 2016. It captured information on tool usage for 17 research activities, stance towards open access and open science, and expectations of the most important development in scholarly communication. Respondents' demographics included research roles, country of affiliation, research discipline and year of first publication. PMID:27429740

  13. Innovations in scholarly communication - global survey on research tool usage

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Bianca; Bosman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Many new websites and online tools have come into existence to support scholarly communication in all phases of the research workflow. To what extent researchers are using these and more traditional tools has been largely unknown. This 2015-2016 survey aimed to fill that gap. Its results may help decision making by stakeholders supporting researchers and may also help researchers wishing to reflect on their own online workflows. In addition, information on tools usage can inform studies of changing research workflows. The online survey employed an open, non-probability sample. A largely self-selected group of 20663 researchers, librarians, editors, publishers and other groups involved in research took the survey, which was available in seven languages. The survey was open from May 10, 2015 to February 10, 2016. It captured information on tool usage for 17 research activities, stance towards open access and open science, and expectations of the most important development in scholarly communication. Respondents’ demographics included research roles, country of affiliation, research discipline and year of first publication. PMID:27429740

  14. SAGE Research Methods Datasets: A Data Analysis Educational Tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    SAGE Research Methods Datasets (SRMD) is an educational tool designed to offer users the opportunity to obtain hands-on experience with data analysis. Users can search for and browse authentic datasets by method, discipline, and data type. Each of the datasets are supplemented with educational material on the research method and clear guidelines for how to approach data analysis. PMID:27391182

  15. The WWW Cabinet of Curiosities: A Serendipitous Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Josie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the WWW is able to be fruitfully understood as a research tool when we utilise the metaphor of the cabinet of curiosities, the wunderkammer. It unpeels some of the research attributes of the metaphor as it reveals the multiplicity of connectivity on the web that provides serendipitous interactions between unexpected…

  16. SAGE Research Methods Datasets: A Data Analysis Educational Tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    SAGE Research Methods Datasets (SRMD) is an educational tool designed to offer users the opportunity to obtain hands-on experience with data analysis. Users can search for and browse authentic datasets by method, discipline, and data type. Each of the datasets are supplemented with educational material on the research method and clear guidelines for how to approach data analysis.

  17. Enabling laboratory EUV research with a compact exposure tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brose, Sascha; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Tempeler, Jenny; Kim, Hyun-su; Loosen, Peter; Juschkin, Larissa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present the capabilities of the designed and realized extreme ultraviolet laboratory exposure tool (EUVLET) which has been developed at the RWTH-Aachen, Chair for the Technology of Optical Systems (TOS), in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT) and Bruker ASC GmbH. Main purpose of this laboratory setup is the direct application in research facilities and companies with small batch production, where the fabrication of high resolution periodic arrays over large areas is required. The setup can also be utilized for resist characterization and evaluation of its pre- and post-exposure processing. The tool utilizes a partially coherent discharge produced plasma (DPP) source and minimizes the number of other critical components to a transmission grating, the photoresist coated wafer and the positioning system for wafer and grating and utilizes the Talbot lithography approach. To identify the limits of this approach first each component is analyzed and optimized separately and relations between these components are identified. The EUV source has been optimized to achieve the best values for spatial and temporal coherence. Phase-shifting and amplitude transmission gratings have been fabricated and exposed. Several commercially available electron beam resists and one EUV resist have been characterized by open frame exposures to determine their contrast under EUV radiation. Cold development procedure has been performed to further increase the resist contrast. By analyzing the exposure results it can be demonstrated that only a 1:1 copy of the mask structure can be fully resolved by the utilization of amplitude masks. The utilized phase-shift masks offer higher 1st order diffraction efficiency and allow a demagnification of the mask structure in the achromatic Talbot plane.

  18. Spec Tool; an online education and research resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maman, S.; Shenfeld, A.; Isaacson, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Education and public outreach (EPO) activities related to remote sensing, space, planetary and geo-physics sciences have been developed widely in the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. These programs aim to motivate the learning of geo-scientific and technologic disciplines. For over the past decade, the facility hosts research and outreach activities for researchers, local community, school pupils, students and educators. As software and data are neither available nor affordable, the EPIF Spec tool was created as a web-based resource to assist in initial spectral analysis as a need for researchers and students. The tool is used both in the academic courses and in the outreach education programs and enables a better understanding of the theoretical data of spectroscopy and Imaging Spectroscopy in a 'hands-on' activity. This tool is available online and provides spectra visualization tools and basic analysis algorithms including Spectral plotting, Spectral angle mapping and Linear Unmixing. The tool enables to visualize spectral signatures from the USGS spectral library and additional spectra collected in the EPIF such as of dunes in southern Israel and from Turkmenistan. For researchers and educators, the tool allows loading collected samples locally for further analysis.

  19. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the

  20. Survey design research: a tool for answering nursing research questions.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Butler, Robert S; Burchill, Christian N

    2015-01-01

    The clinical nurse specialist is in a unique position to identify and study clinical problems in need of answers, but lack of time and resources may discourage nurses from conducting research. However, some research methods can be used by the clinical nurse specialist that are not time-intensive or cost prohibitive. The purpose of this article is to explain the utility of survey methodology for answering a number of nursing research questions. The article covers survey content, reliability and validity issues, sample size considerations, and methods of survey delivery.

  1. Databases and registers: useful tools for research, no studies.

    PubMed

    Curbelo, Rafael J; Loza, Estíbaliz; de Yébenes, Maria Jesús García; Carmona, Loreto

    2014-04-01

    There are many misunderstandings about databases. Database is a commonly misused term in reference to any set of data entered into a computer. However, true databases serve a main purpose, organising data. They do so by establishing several layers of relationships; databases are hierarchical. Databases commonly organise data over different levels and over time, where time can be measured as the time between visits, or between treatments, or adverse events, etc. In this sense, medical databases are closely related to longitudinal observational studies, as databases allow the introduction of data on the same patient over time. Basically, we could establish four types of databases in medicine, depending on their purpose: (1) administrative databases, (2) clinical databases, (3) registers, and (4) study-oriented databases. But a database is a useful tool for a large variety of studies, not a type of study itself. Different types of databases serve very different purposes, and a clear understanding of the different research designs mentioned in this paper would prevent many of the databases we launch from being just a lot of work and very little science. PMID:24509895

  2. Overview of EPA Research On Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation provides an overview of condition assessment research that is part of EPA Office of Research and Development’s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Plan (AWIRP). The primary focus is on a water main condition assessment technology forum and associated whit...

  3. miRQuest: integration of tools on a Web server for microRNA research.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, R R; Ambrosio, L A; Sepúlveda-Hermosilla, G; Maracaja-Coutinho, V; Paschoal, A R

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the miRQuest - a novel middleware available in a Web server that allows the end user to do the miRNA research in a user-friendly way. It is known that there are many prediction tools for microRNA (miRNA) identification that use different programming languages and methods to realize this task. It is difficult to understand each tool and apply it to diverse datasets and organisms available for miRNA analysis. miRQuest can easily be used by biologists and researchers with limited experience with bioinformatics. We built it using the middleware architecture on a Web platform for miRNA research that performs two main functions: i) integration of different miRNA prediction tools for miRNA identification in a user-friendly environment; and ii) comparison of these prediction tools. In both cases, the user provides sequences (in FASTA format) as an input set for the analysis and comparisons. All the tools were selected on the basis of a survey of the literature on the available tools for miRNA prediction. As results, three different cases of use of the tools are also described, where one is the miRNA identification analysis in 30 different species. Finally, miRQuest seems to be a novel and useful tool; and it is freely available for both benchmarking and miRNA identification at http://mirquest.integrativebioinformatics.me/. PMID:27050998

  4. Stem diameter variations as a versatile research tool in ecophysiology.

    PubMed

    De Swaef, Tom; De Schepper, Veerle; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-10-01

    High-resolution stem diameter variations (SDV) are widely recognized as a useful drought stress indicator and have therefore been used in many irrigation scheduling studies. More recently, SDV have been used in combination with other plant measurements and biophysical modelling to study fundamental mechanisms underlying whole-plant functioning and growth. The present review aims to scrutinize the important insights emerging from these more recent SDV applications to identify trends in ongoing fundamental research. The main mechanism underlying SDV is variation in water content in stem tissues, originating from reversible shrinkage and swelling of dead and living tissues, and irreversible growth. The contribution of different stem tissues to the overall SDV signal is currently under debate and shows variation with species and plant age, but can be investigated by combining SDV with state-of-the-art technology like magnetic resonance imaging. Various physiological mechanisms, such as water and carbon transport, and mechanical properties influence the SDV pattern, making it an extensive source of information on dynamic plant behaviour. To unravel these dynamics and to extract information on plant physiology or plant biophysics from SDV, mechanistic modelling has proved to be valuable. Biophysical models integrate different mechanisms underlying SDV, and help us to explain the resulting SDV signal. Using an elementary modelling approach, we demonstrate the application of SDV as a tool to examine plant water relations, plant hydraulics, plant carbon relations, plant nutrition, freezing effects, plant phenology and dendroclimatology. In the ever-expanding SDV knowledge base we identified two principal research tracks. First, in detailed short-term experiments, SDV measurements are combined with other plant measurements and modelling to discover patterns in phloem turgor, phloem osmotic concentrations, root pressure and plant endogenous control. Second, long-term SDV time

  5. Stem diameter variations as a versatile research tool in ecophysiology.

    PubMed

    De Swaef, Tom; De Schepper, Veerle; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-10-01

    High-resolution stem diameter variations (SDV) are widely recognized as a useful drought stress indicator and have therefore been used in many irrigation scheduling studies. More recently, SDV have been used in combination with other plant measurements and biophysical modelling to study fundamental mechanisms underlying whole-plant functioning and growth. The present review aims to scrutinize the important insights emerging from these more recent SDV applications to identify trends in ongoing fundamental research. The main mechanism underlying SDV is variation in water content in stem tissues, originating from reversible shrinkage and swelling of dead and living tissues, and irreversible growth. The contribution of different stem tissues to the overall SDV signal is currently under debate and shows variation with species and plant age, but can be investigated by combining SDV with state-of-the-art technology like magnetic resonance imaging. Various physiological mechanisms, such as water and carbon transport, and mechanical properties influence the SDV pattern, making it an extensive source of information on dynamic plant behaviour. To unravel these dynamics and to extract information on plant physiology or plant biophysics from SDV, mechanistic modelling has proved to be valuable. Biophysical models integrate different mechanisms underlying SDV, and help us to explain the resulting SDV signal. Using an elementary modelling approach, we demonstrate the application of SDV as a tool to examine plant water relations, plant hydraulics, plant carbon relations, plant nutrition, freezing effects, plant phenology and dendroclimatology. In the ever-expanding SDV knowledge base we identified two principal research tracks. First, in detailed short-term experiments, SDV measurements are combined with other plant measurements and modelling to discover patterns in phloem turgor, phloem osmotic concentrations, root pressure and plant endogenous control. Second, long-term SDV time

  6. Using High-Tech Tools for Student Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plati, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Discusses incorporating high technology research tools into the curriculum for grades 5 through 12 in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, public schools. The use of CD-ROM and online databases is described, teacher training is discussed, and steps to integrate this new technology are listed, including budget proposals and evaluation. (LRW)

  7. Measurement and Research Tools. Symposium 37. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on measurement and research tools consists of three presentations. "An Examination of the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS)" (Albert Wiswell et al.) explores MIDAS's psychometric saliency. Findings indicates this instrument represents an incomplete attempt to develop a valid assessment of multiple…

  8. A Tool for Mapping Research Skills in Undergraduate Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Gillian A.; Crook, Anne C.; Park, Julian R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable interest recently in the teaching of skills to undergraduate students. However, existing methods for collating data on how much, where and when students are taught and assessed skills have often been shown to be time-consuming and ineffective. Here, we outline an electronic research skills audit tool that has been…

  9. Database Advisor: A New Tool for K-12 Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berteaux, Susan S.; Strong, Sandra S.

    The Database Advisor (DBA) is a tool designed to guide users to the most appropriate World Wide Web-based databases for their research. Developed in 1997 by the Science Libraries at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), DBA is a Web-based front-end to bibliographic and full-text databases to which UCSD has remote access. DBA allows the…

  10. Facilitating Metacognitive Talk: A Research and Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kate; Higgins, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a research tool which aims to gather data about pupils' views of learning and teaching, with a particular focus on their thinking about their learning (metacognition). The approach has proved to be an adaptable and effective technique to examine different learning contexts from the pupils' perspective, while also acting as an…

  11. Research for research: tools for knowledge discovery and visualization.

    PubMed Central

    Van Mulligen, Erik M.; Van Der Eijk, Christiaan; Kors, Jan A.; Schijvenaars, Bob J. A.; Mons, Barend

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method to construct from a set of documents a spatial representation that can be used for information retrieval and knowledge discovery. The proposed method has been implemented in a prototype system and allows the researcher to browse interactively and in real-time a network of relationships obtained from a set of full text articles. These relationships are combined with the potential relationships between concepts as defined in the UMLS semantic network. The browser allows the user to select a seed term and find all related concepts, to find a path between concepts (hypothesis testing), and to retrieve the references to documents or database entries that support the relationship between concepts. PMID:12463942

  12. Benchmarking biology research organizations using a new, dedicated tool.

    PubMed

    van Harten, Willem H; van Bokhorst, Leonard; van Luenen, Henri G A M

    2010-02-01

    International competition forces fundamental research organizations to assess their relative performance. We present a benchmark tool for scientific research organizations where, contrary to existing models, the group leader is placed in a central position within the organization. We used it in a pilot benchmark study involving six research institutions. Our study shows that data collection and data comparison based on this new tool can be achieved. It proved possible to compare relative performance and organizational characteristics and to generate suggestions for improvement for most participants. However, strict definitions of the parameters used for the benchmark and a thorough insight into the organization of each of the benchmark partners is required to produce comparable data and draw firm conclusions.

  13. Technical phosphoproteomic and bioinformatic tools useful in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most important forms of cellular regulation. Thus, phosphoproteomic analysis of protein phosphorylation in cells is a powerful tool to evaluate cell functional status. The importance of protein kinase-regulated signal transduction pathways in human cancer has led to the development of drugs that inhibit protein kinases at the apex or intermediary levels of these pathways. Phosphoproteomic analysis of these signalling pathways will provide important insights for operation and connectivity of these pathways to facilitate identification of the best targets for cancer therapies. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins or peptides from tissue or bodily fluid samples is required. The application of technologies such as phosphoenrichments, mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to bioinformatics tools is crucial for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation sites for advancing in such relevant clinical research. A combination of different phosphopeptide enrichments, quantitative techniques and bioinformatic tools is necessary to achieve good phospho-regulation data and good structural analysis of protein studies. The current and most useful proteomics and bioinformatics techniques will be explained with research examples. Our aim in this article is to be helpful for cancer research via detailing proteomics and bioinformatic tools. PMID:21967744

  14. Technical phosphoproteomic and bioinformatic tools useful in cancer research.

    PubMed

    López, Elena; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; López, Isabel; Mendieta, Jesús; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Muñoz, Sarbelio Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most important forms of cellular regulation. Thus, phosphoproteomic analysis of protein phosphorylation in cells is a powerful tool to evaluate cell functional status. The importance of protein kinase-regulated signal transduction pathways in human cancer has led to the development of drugs that inhibit protein kinases at the apex or intermediary levels of these pathways. Phosphoproteomic analysis of these signalling pathways will provide important insights for operation and connectivity of these pathways to facilitate identification of the best targets for cancer therapies. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins or peptides from tissue or bodily fluid samples is required. The application of technologies such as phosphoenrichments, mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to bioinformatics tools is crucial for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation sites for advancing in such relevant clinical research. A combination of different phosphopeptide enrichments, quantitative techniques and bioinformatic tools is necessary to achieve good phospho-regulation data and good structural analysis of protein studies. The current and most useful proteomics and bioinformatics techniques will be explained with research examples. Our aim in this article is to be helpful for cancer research via detailing proteomics and bioinformatic tools. PMID:21967744

  15. Integrating research training into residency: tools of human investigation.

    PubMed

    Oxnard, Geoffrey R; Zinkus, Tanya Milosh; Bazari, Hasan; Wolf, Myles

    2009-09-01

    Although the need for new physician-clinical scientists has never been greater, significant obstacles deter young physicians from careers in clinical research. Local and federal programs have sought to stimulate interest in clinical research among young physicians, medical students, and even undergraduates, but few formal programs have specifically focused on stimulating interest among residents in training. The recent implementation of strict duty hours regulations has provided residents with additional time to focus on career choices, and this has created an opportunity for training programs to offer new educational initiatives during residency. The authors present Tools of Human Investigation (THI), a two-week rotation offered during the second year of residency. The goals of THI are to provide seminar-based exposure to research methodologies, to impart the tools required to critically appraise the scientific literature, and to provide a small-group forum for career discussions. These three goals are achieved by drawing on a group of research faculty to lead sessions that combine didactics with career development guidance. A course like THI is one innovative way to stimulate interest in human research during residency that could help bridge the discontinuity between the research explorations promoted during medical school and the rigorous expectations of fellowship.

  16. [Analysis of researchers' implication in a research-intervention in the Stork Network: a tool for institutional analysis].

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Mesquita, Luana Pinho de; Matumoto, Silvia; Monceau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study is based on institutional analysis as the methodological theoretical reference with the objective of analyzing researchers' implication during a research-intervention and the interferences caused by this analysis. The study involved researchers from courses in medicine, nursing, and dentistry at two universities and workers from a Regional Health Department in follow-up on the implementation of the Stork Network in São Paulo State, Brazil. The researchers worked together in the intervention and in analysis workshops, supported by an external institutional analysis. Two institutions stood out in the analysis: the research, established mainly with characteristics of neutrality, and management, with Taylorist characteristics. Differences between researchers and difficulties in identifying actions proper to network management and research were some of the interferences that were identified. The study concludes that implication analysis is a powerful tool for such studies. PMID:27653198

  17. Genephony: a knowledge management tool for genome-wide research

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzo, Angelo; Riva, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the consequences of the rapid and widespread adoption of high-throughput experimental technologies is an exponential increase of the amount of data produced by genome-wide experiments. Researchers increasingly need to handle very large volumes of heterogeneous data, including both the data generated by their own experiments and the data retrieved from publicly available repositories of genomic knowledge. Integration, exploration, manipulation and interpretation of data and information therefore need to become as automated as possible, since their scale and breadth are, in general, beyond the limits of what individual researchers and the basic data management tools in normal use can handle. This paper describes Genephony, a tool we are developing to address these challenges. Results We describe how Genephony can be used to manage large datesets of genomic information, integrating them with existing knowledge repositories. We illustrate its functionalities with an example of a complex annotation task, in which a set of SNPs coming from a genotyping experiment is annotated with genes known to be associated to a phenotype of interest. We show how, thanks to the modular architecture of Genephony and its user-friendly interface, this task can be performed in a few simple steps. Conclusion Genephony is an online tool for the manipulation of large datasets of genomic information. It can be used as a browser for genomic data, as a high-throughput annotation tool, and as a knowledge discovery tool. It is designed to be easy to use, flexible and extensible. Its knowledge management engine provides fine-grained control over individual data elements, as well as efficient operations on large datasets. PMID:19728881

  18. A Query Tool Enabling Clinicians and Researchers to Explore Patient Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lim Choi Keung, Sarah N; Khan, Omar; Asadipour, Ali; Dereli, Huseyin; Zhao, Lei; Robbins, Tim; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing amount of health information being gathered and the potential benefit of data reuse, it is now becoming a necessity for tools, which collect and analyse this data, to support integration of heterogeneous datasets, as well as provide intuitive user interfaces, which allow clinicians and researchers to query the data without needing to form complex SQL queries. The West Midlands Query Tool consists of an easy-to-use graph-based GUI, which interacts with a flexible middleware application. It has the main objective of querying heterogeneous data sources for exploring patient cohorts through a query builder and criteria set. PMID:26152952

  19. ACNP and NILDE: Essential Tools for Access to Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, F.; Bonora, O.; Filippucci, G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes ACNP and NILDE, the two main Italian cooperative systems for access to scientific information. Used by the Italian Astronomical Libraries (IAL), they are two essential channels to access information resources that are otherwise unreachable. At the same time, they allow IAL (Italian Astronomical Libraries) to share their very rich and unique holdings with other research and university libraries.

  20. FOSS Tools for Research Infrastructures - A Success Story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, V.; Schroeder, M.; Wächter, J.

    2015-12-01

    Established initiatives and mandated organizations, e.g. the Initiative for Scientific Cyberinfrastructures (NSF, 2007) or the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI, 2008), promote and foster the development of sustainable research infrastructures. The basic idea behind these infrastructures is the provision of services supporting scientists to search, visualize and access data, to collaborate and exchange information, as well as to publish data and other results. Especially the management of research data is gaining more and more importance. In geosciences these developments have to be merged with the enhanced data management approaches of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI). The Centre for GeoInformationTechnology (CeGIT) at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences has the objective to establish concepts and standards of SDIs as an integral part of research infrastructure architectures. In different projects, solutions to manage research data for land- and water management or environmental monitoring have been developed based on a framework consisting of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) components. The framework provides basic components supporting the import and storage of data, discovery and visualization as well as data documentation (metadata). In our contribution, we present our data management solutions developed in three projects, Central Asian Water (CAWa), Sustainable Management of River Oases (SuMaRiO) and Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) where FOSS components build the backbone of the data management platform. The multiple use and validation of tools helped to establish a standardized architectural blueprint serving as a contribution to Research Infrastructures. We examine the question of whether FOSS tools are really a sustainable choice and whether the increased efforts of maintenance are justified. Finally it should help to answering the question if the use of FOSS for Research Infrastructures is a

  1. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.

  2. High School Accreditation in Maine: Perceptions of Costs and Benefits. Penquis Superintendents' Association Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairman, Janet; Peirce, Brenda; Harris, Walter

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the findings of an exploratory study conducted by the Center for Research and Evaluation during the summer and fall of 2009, which focuses on perceptions of the costs and benefits of the accreditation process for high schools in Maine. The study was commissioned by the Penquis Superintendents' Association, a professional…

  3. Developing College Readiness Indices for Maine High Schools: An Exploratory Study. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Sloan, James E.; Paul, Chelsea R.; Linet, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    This Research Brief describes the results of an exploratory study of the development and potential uses of a set of college readiness measures for Maine high schools. The study was designed to: (1) explore the viability of creating a series of school-level college readiness indices; (2) examine the relationships between the indices and other…

  4. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  5. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  6. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-15

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  7. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  8. Rural outreach in Maine: A research-driven professional development teacher community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (MainePSP), researchers at the University of Maine have joined together with the state's Department of Education, non-profits, and teachers in multiple school districts to create a dynamic and growing community dedicated to improving K12 education of the physical sciences. Through ongoing efforts to introduce and adapt instructional materials, guided by education research and research-guided professional development, we have built a community responsive to student and teacher needs. This work has fed back into the university setting, where teachers are playing a role in graduate courses taken by our Master of Science in Teaching students. In this talk, I will focus on the role of education research in the partnership, showing how we use research in professional development, the development of assessments, and the analysis of the resulting data. I will describe two projects, one to understand how teachers' content knowledge affects the development of items assessing knowledge of acceleration, the other to see how teachers use their content knowledge of systems and energy to make pedagogical choices based on students' incorrect ideas about conservation of energy. Sponsored in part by NSF Grants MSP-0962805, DRL-1222580, and DUE-1340033.

  9. Ethics: the risk management tool in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Wadlund, Jill; Platt, Leslie A

    2002-01-01

    Scientific discovery and knowledge expansion in the post genome era holds great promise for new medical technologies and cellular-based therapies with multiple applications that will save and enhance lives. While human beings long have hoped to unlock the mysteries of the molecular basis of life; our society is now on the verge of doing so. But new scientific and technological breakthroughs often come with some risks attached. Research--especially clinical trials and research involving human participants--must be conducted in accordance with the highest ethical and scientific principles. Yet, as the number and complexity of clinical trials increase, so do pressures for new revenue sources and shorter product development cycles, which could have an adverse impact on patient safety. This article explores the use of risk management tools in clinical research.

  10. Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

  11. The Research Tools of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Berriman, G. B.; Lazio, T. J.; Project, VAO

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy is being transformed by the vast quantities of data, models, and simulations that are becoming available to astronomers at an ever-accelerating rate. The U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) has been funded to provide an operational facility that is intended to be a resource for discovery and access of data, and to provide science services that use these data. Over the course of the past year, the VAO has been developing and releasing for community use five science tools: 1) "Iris", for dynamically building and analyzing spectral energy distributions, 2) a web-based data discovery tool that allows astronomers to identify and retrieve catalog, image, and spectral data on sources of interest, 3) a scalable cross-comparison service that allows astronomers to conduct pair-wise positional matches between very large catalogs stored remotely as well as between remote and local catalogs, 4) time series tools that allow astronomers to compute periodograms of the public data held at the NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) and the Harvard Time Series Center, and 5) A VO-aware release of the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) that provides transparent access to VO-available data collections and is SAMP-enabled, so that IRAF users can easily use tools such as Aladin and Topcat in conjuction with IRAF tasks. Additional VAO services will be built to make it easy for researchers to provide access to their data in VO-compliant ways, to build VO-enabled custom applications in Python, and to respond generally to the growing size and complexity of astronomy data. Acknowledgements: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Semantic Differential as One of the Research Tools Suitable for Establishing the Attitudes of Pupils to Old Age and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divilová, Sona

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the pre-research conducted under the project entitled "Seniors in the Eyes of Children". The main objective of the project was to create and test a research tool in order to establish what the attitudes of pupils to old age and seniors were. Semantic differential was chosen for these purposes. Semantic…

  13. Designing and implementing full immersion simulation as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Belinda; Buckley, Thomas; Curtis, Kate; Morris, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Simulation is a valuable research tool used to evaluate the clinical performance of devices, people and systems. The simulated setting may address concerns unique to complex clinical environments such as the Emergency Department, which make the conduct of research challenging. There is limited evidence available to inform the development of simulated clinical scenarios for the purpose of evaluating practice in research studies, with the majority of literature focused on designing simulated clinical scenarios for education and training. Distinct differences exist in scenario design when implemented in education compared with use in clinical research studies. Simulated scenarios used to assess practice in clinical research must not comprise of any purposeful or planned teaching and be developed with a high degree of validity and reliability. A new scenario design template was devised to develop two standardised simulated clinical scenarios for the evaluation of a new assessment framework for emergency nurses. The scenario development and validation processes undertaken are described and provide an evidence-informed guide to scenario development for future clinical research studies. PMID:26917415

  14. Vaccinia Virus: A Tool for Research and Vaccine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Bernard

    1991-06-01

    Vaccinia virus is no longer needed for smallpox immunization, but now serves as a useful vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize biologically active proteins and analyze structure-function relations, determine the targets of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the immune responses needed for protection against specific infectious diseases. When more data on safety and efficacy are available, recombinant vaccinia and related poxviruses may be candidates for live vaccines and for cancer immunotherapy.

  15. Tissue fluid pressures - From basic research tools to clinical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Akeson, Wayne H.; Mubarak, Scott J.; Owen, Charles A.; Gershuni, David H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes clinical applications of two basic research tools developed and refined in the past 20 years: the wick catheter (for measuring tissue fluid pressure) and the colloid osmometer (for measuring osmotic pressure). Applications of the osmometer include estimations of the reduced osmotic pressure of sickle-cell hemoglobin with deoxygenation, and of reduced swelling pressure of human nucleus pulposus with hydration or upon action of certain enzymes. Clinical uses of the wick-catheter technique include an improvement of diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic compartment syndromes, the elucidation of the tissue pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction, and the development of a better tourniquet for orthopedics.

  16. Basic statistical tools in research and data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Bhaskar, S Bala

    2016-01-01

    Statistical methods involved in carrying out a study include planning, designing, collecting data, analysing, drawing meaningful interpretation and reporting of the research findings. The statistical analysis gives meaning to the meaningless numbers, thereby breathing life into a lifeless data. The results and inferences are precise only if proper statistical tests are used. This article will try to acquaint the reader with the basic research tools that are utilised while conducting various studies. The article covers a brief outline of the variables, an understanding of quantitative and qualitative variables and the measures of central tendency. An idea of the sample size estimation, power analysis and the statistical errors is given. Finally, there is a summary of parametric and non-parametric tests used for data analysis. PMID:27729694

  17. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  18. ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

  19. Operations other than war: Requirements for analysis tools research report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the research effort to determine the requirements for new or improved analysis tools to support decisions at the strategic and operational levels for military Operations Other than War (OOTW). The work was performed for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC). The data collection was based on workshops attended by experts in OOTWs: analysis personnel from each of the Combatant Commands, the Services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and other knowledgeable personnel. Further data were gathered from other workshops and conferences and from the literature. The results of this research begin with the creation of a taxonomy of OOTWs: categories of operations, attributes of operations, and tasks requiring analytical support. The tasks are connected to the Joint Staff`s Universal Joint Task List (UJTL). Historical OOTWs are analyzed to produce frequency distributions by category and responsible CINC. The analysis products are synthesized into a list of requirements for analytical tools and definitions of the requirements. The report concludes with a timeline or roadmap for satisfying the requirements.

  20. Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research

    PubMed Central

    Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

  1. The Second Life Researcher Toolkit - An Exploration of Inworld Tools, Methods and Approaches for Researching Educational Projects in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschini, Elena

    Academics are beginning to explore the educational potential of Second LifeTM (SL) by setting up inworld educational activities and projects. Given the relative novelty of the use of virtual world environments in higher education many such projects are still at pilot stage. However the initial pilot and experimentation stage will have to be followed by a rigorous evaluation process as for more traditional teaching projects. The chapter addresses issues about SL research tools and research methods. It introduces a "researcher toolkit" that includes: the various stages in the evaluation of SL educational projects and the theoretical framework that can inform such projects; an outline of the inworld tools that can be utilised or customised for academic research purposes; a review of methods for collecting feedback from participants and of the main ethical issues involved in researching virtual world environments; a discussion on the technical skills required to operate a research project in SL. The chapter also offers an indication of the inworld opportunities for the dissemination of SL research findings.

  2. NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Y. R.; Rasbury, J.; Johnson, J.; Barsten, K.; Saile, L.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for exploration-class missions, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) has compiled a large evidence base, which previously was available only to persons within the NASA community. The evidence base is comprised of several types of data, for example: information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight, derived from several sources (including data on incidence and potential outcomes of these medical conditions, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model's Clinical Finding Forms). In addition, approximately 35 gap reports are included in the evidence base, identifying current understanding of the medical challenges for exploration, as well as any gaps in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions. In an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration with subject matter experts within and outside of NASA, ExMC has developed an online collaboration tool, very similar to a wiki, titled the NASA Human Research Wiki. The platform chosen for this data sharing, and the potential collaboration it could generate, is a MediaWiki-based application that would house the evidence, allow "read only" access to all visitors to the website, and editorial access to credentialed subject matter experts who have been approved by the Wiki's editorial board. Although traditional wikis allow users to edit information in real time, the NASA Human Research Wiki includes a peer review process to ensure quality and validity of information. The wiki is also intended to be a pathfinder project for other HRP elements that may want to use this type of web-based tool. The wiki website will be released with a subset of the data described and will continue to be populated throughout the year.

  3. Astonishing advances in mouse genetic tools for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Jackson, Walker S

    2015-01-01

    The humble house mouse has long been a workhorse model system in biomedical research. The technology for introducing site-specific genome modifications led to Nobel Prizes for its pioneers and opened a new era of mouse genetics. However, this technology was very time-consuming and technically demanding. As a result, many investigators continued to employ easier genome manipulation methods, though resulting models can suffer from overlooked or underestimated consequences. Another breakthrough, invaluable for the molecular dissection of disease mechanisms, was the invention of high-throughput methods to measure the expression of a plethora of genes in parallel. However, the use of samples containing material from multiple cell types could obfuscate data, and thus interpretations. In this review we highlight some important issues in experimental approaches using mouse models for biomedical research. We then discuss recent technological advances in mouse genetics that are revolutionising human disease research. Mouse genomes are now easily manipulated at precise locations thanks to guided endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both also having the potential to turn the dream of human gene therapy into reality. Newly developed methods of cell type-specific isolation of transcriptomes from crude tissue homogenates, followed by detection with next generation sequencing (NGS), are vastly improving gene regulation studies. Taken together, these amazing tools simplify the creation of much more accurate mouse models of human disease, and enable the extraction of hitherto unobtainable data. PMID:26513700

  4. Astonishing advances in mouse genetic tools for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Jackson, Walker S

    2015-01-01

    The humble house mouse has long been a workhorse model system in biomedical research. The technology for introducing site-specific genome modifications led to Nobel Prizes for its pioneers and opened a new era of mouse genetics. However, this technology was very time-consuming and technically demanding. As a result, many investigators continued to employ easier genome manipulation methods, though resulting models can suffer from overlooked or underestimated consequences. Another breakthrough, invaluable for the molecular dissection of disease mechanisms, was the invention of high-throughput methods to measure the expression of a plethora of genes in parallel. However, the use of samples containing material from multiple cell types could obfuscate data, and thus interpretations. In this review we highlight some important issues in experimental approaches using mouse models for biomedical research. We then discuss recent technological advances in mouse genetics that are revolutionising human disease research. Mouse genomes are now easily manipulated at precise locations thanks to guided endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both also having the potential to turn the dream of human gene therapy into reality. Newly developed methods of cell type-specific isolation of transcriptomes from crude tissue homogenates, followed by detection with next generation sequencing (NGS), are vastly improving gene regulation studies. Taken together, these amazing tools simplify the creation of much more accurate mouse models of human disease, and enable the extraction of hitherto unobtainable data.

  5. Conservation of Mass: An Important Tool in Renal Research.

    PubMed

    Sargent, John A

    2016-05-01

    The dialytic treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is based on control of solute concentrations and management of fluid volume. The application of the principal of conservation of mass, or mass balance, is fundamental to the study of such treatment and can be extended to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in general. This review discusses the development and use of mass conservation and transport concepts, incorporated into mathematical models. These concepts, which can be applied to a wide range of solutes of interest, represent a powerful tool for quantitatively guided studies of dialysis issues currently and into the future. Incorporating these quantitative concepts in future investigations is key to achieving positive control of known solutes, and in the analysis of such studies; to relate future research to known results of prior studies; and to help in the understanding of the obligatory physiological perturbations that result from dialysis therapy.

  6. THE LASER AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR CELL RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Rounds, Donald E.; Olson, Robert S.; Johnson, Fred M.

    1965-01-01

    Freshly prepared hemoglobin solutions were successively irradiated up to five times with 1 MW (monochromatic wavelength) of green (530 mµ) laser power. Oxygenated hemoglobin showed no detectable change, but the spectral absorption of reduced hemoglobin showed a shift toward the characteristic curve for the oxygenated form. Intact human erythrocytes exposed to a power density of 110 MW/cm2 of green laser radiation showed no appreciable change in diameter or mass, but they became transparent to a wavelength range from 400 to 600 mµ. A similar power density from a ruby laser failed to produce this bleaching effect. This response in the erythrocyte demonstrates a principle which suggests the laser as a tool for cell research: specific molecular components within a cell may be selectively altered by laser irradiation when an appropriate wavelength and a suitable power density are applied. PMID:5857254

  7. Spacelab - New tool for research and investigations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, R.; Lord, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Orbiter/Spacelab system is regarded as an entity that provides an orbital platform for experiments in a wide variety of scientific and technological fields. The paper presents a brief summary of the Spacelab system and its operation as an introduction to a new tool to be available to an international community of users through the 1980s. Investigations have shown that all the more conventional fields of space research and applications can benefit from the use of Spacelab, such as astronomy, magnetospheric physics, remote sensing, communications, and many others. It is expected that new areas that would gain from using Spacelab will be recognized as its operational life matures. Numerous sketches and photographs supplement the text.

  8. [Degradation pathways and main degradation products of tetracycline antibiotics: research progress].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ming; Bao, Yan-Yu; Zhou, Qi-Xing

    2012-08-01

    Tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) can produce a series of abiotic degradation reactions in the process of production and storage, and some of the degradation products have lower antibacterial activity but higher toxicity, as compared to the parent antibiotics. TCs can enter the environment via the disposal of livestock and poultry wastes, and then degrade in one or more ways according to the external conditions. Besides abiotic degradation, bio-degradation also happens. This paper reviewed the degradation pathways and main degradation products of TCs in different ecological environments, and discussed the future research directions, aimed to provide valuable reference for the ecological risk assessment of the antibiotics.

  9. Technology insight: tools for research, diagnosis and clinical assessment of treatment in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Ingrid E; Alexanderson, Helene

    2007-05-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, known collectively as myositis, are chronic diseases that cause disability, mainly from muscle weakness, despite the use of immunosuppressive therapies. An improved outcome requires increased knowledge of the key molecular pathways that cause symptoms in muscles and other organs. Technological advances offer promise for improving our understanding of disease mechanisms, and some tools will be helpful in diagnosis and the assessment of therapeutic success. The application of new tools depends on their validation in longitudinal studies using clinical outcome measures combined with assessments of molecular events in affected organs. Clinical outcome measures and definitions of improvement have been developed and validated through the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies collaboration. Some imaging techniques, such as MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of muscles, and high-resolution CT of lungs, can assess changes in local inflammatory activity, among many other aspects of pathology. Changes in protein and gene expression patterns in repeated biopsies from affected organs (muscle, skin and lungs) provide molecular information and allow increasingly precise disease classifications and therapeutic evaluation, but are to date only research tools. This Review focuses on advances in diagnostic and outcome tools and their roles in clinical practice and clinical research in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis.

  10. The GATO gene annotation tool for research laboratories.

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Massirer, K B; Durham, A M; Ferreira, C E; Sogayar, M C

    2005-11-01

    Large-scale genome projects have generated a rapidly increasing number of DNA sequences. Therefore, development of computational methods to rapidly analyze these sequences is essential for progress in genomic research. Here we present an automatic annotation system for preliminary analysis of DNA sequences. The gene annotation tool (GATO) is a Bioinformatics pipeline designed to facilitate routine functional annotation and easy access to annotated genes. It was designed in view of the frequent need of genomic researchers to access data pertaining to a common set of genes. In the GATO system, annotation is generated by querying some of the Web-accessible resources and the information is stored in a local database, which keeps a record of all previous annotation results. GATO may be accessed from everywhere through the internet or may be run locally if a large number of sequences are going to be annotated. It is implemented in PHP and Perl and may be run on any suitable Web server. Usually, installation and application of annotation systems require experience and are time consuming, but GATO is simple and practical, allowing anyone with basic skills in informatics to access it without any special training. GATO can be downloaded at [http://mariwork.iq.usp.br/gato/]. Minimum computer free space required is 2 MB. PMID:16258624

  11. IT Tools for Teachers and Scientists, Created by Undergraduate Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, A. Z.; Perry, S.

    2007-12-01

    Interns in the Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) program conduct computer science research for the benefit of earthquake scientists and have created products in growing use within the SCEC education and research communities. SCEC/UseIT comprises some twenty undergraduates who combine their varied talents and academic backgrounds to achieve a Grand Challenge that is formulated around needs of SCEC scientists and educators and that reflects the value SCEC places on the integration of computer science and the geosciences. In meeting the challenge, students learn to work on multidisciplinary teams and to tackle complex problems with no guaranteed solutions. Meantime, their efforts bring fresh perspectives and insight to the professionals with whom they collaborate, and consistently produces innovative, useful tools for research and education. The 2007 Grand Challenge was to design and prototype serious games to communicate important earthquake science concepts. Interns broke themselves into four game teams, the Educational Game, the Training Game, the Mitigation Game and the Decision-Making Game, and created four diverse games with topics from elementary plate tectonics to earthquake risk mitigation, with intended players ranging from elementary students to city planners. The games were designed to be versatile, to accommodate variation in the knowledge base of the player; and extensible, to accommodate future additions. The games are played on a web browser or from within SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects). SCEC-VDO, also engineered by UseIT interns, is a 4D, interactive, visualization software that enables integration and exploration of datasets and models such as faults, earthquake hypocenters and ruptures, digital elevation models, satellite imagery, global isochrons, and earthquake prediction schemes. SCEC-VDO enables the user to create animated movies during a session, and is now part

  12. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a "hot" tool for genomic research.

    PubMed

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/

  13. RTNS-II - a fusion materials research tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, C. M.; Heikkinen, D. W.

    1982-09-01

    Rotating Target Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) is a national facility for fusion materials research. It contains two 14 MeV neutron sources. Deuterons are accelerated to ˜ 400 keV and transported to a rotating titanium tritide target. Present source strength is greater than 1 × 10 13 n/s and source diameter is 1 cm fwhm. An air-levitated vacuum seal permits rotation of the target at 5000 rpm with negligible impact on accelerator vacuum system gas load. Targets are cooled by chilled water flowing through internal channels in a copper alloy substrate. Substrates are produced by solid-state diffusion bonding of two sheets, one containing etched cooling channels. An electroforming process is being developed which will reduce substrate cost and improve reliability. Titanium tritide coating thickness is ˜ 10 μm giving an initial tritium inventory for the present 23 cm diameter targets of 3.7 × 10 7 MBq. Operating interval between target changes is typically about 80 h. Thirteen laboratories and universities have participated in the experimental program at RTNS-II. Most measurements have been directed at understanding defect production and low-dose damage microstructure. The principal diagnostic tools have been cryogenic resistivity measurements, mechanical properties assessment and transmission electron microscopy. Some engineering tests have been conducted in support of near-term magnetic confinement experiments and of reactor materials which will see small lifetime doses.

  14. Microgravity as a research tool to improve US agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bula, R. J.; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2000-01-01

    Crop production and utilization are undergoing significant modifications and improvements that emanate from adaptation of recently developed plant biotechnologies. Several innovative technologies will impact US agriculture in the next century. One of these is the transfer of desirable genes from organisms to economically important crop species in a way that cannot be accomplished with traditional plant breeding techniques. Such plant genetic engineering offers opportunities to improve crop species for a number of characteristics as well as use as source materials for specific medical and industrial applications. Although plant genetic engineering is having an impact on development of new crop cultivars, several major constraints limit the application of this technology to selected crop species and genotypes. Consequently, gene transfer systems that overcome these constraints would greatly enhance development of new crop materials. If results of a recent gene transfer experiment conducted in microgravity during a Space Shuttle mission are confirmed, and with the availability of the International Space Station as a permanent space facility, commercial plant transformation activity in microgravity could become a new research tool to improve US agriculture. .

  15. Concept Mapping as a Research Tool to Evaluate Conceptual Change Related to Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kevin J.; Koury, Kevin A.; Fitzgerald, Gail E.; Hollingsead, Candice; Mitchem, Katherine J.; Tsai, Hui-Hsien; Park, Meeaeng Ko

    2009-01-01

    Concept maps are commonly used in a variety of educational settings as a learning aid or instructional tool. Additionally, their potential as a research tool has been recognized. This article defines features of concept maps, describes the use of pre- and postconcept maps as a research tool, and offers a protocol for employing concept maps as an…

  16. Physics Education Research at the Upper Division at the University of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, John

    2013-04-01

    Researchers from the University of Maine Physics Education Research Laboratory are conducting several investigations of the learning and teaching of physics beyond the introductory level. Content topics include intermediate mechanics, electronics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. One focus of our work is the identification and addressing of specific student difficulties with topics such as damped harmonic motion, bipolar junction transistor (BJT) circuits, work, entropy, and the Boltzmann factor. Student understanding and use of the underlying mathematics has been one important emerging theme, including definite integrals, partial derivatives, and linear differential equations. Recent work in mechanics has focused on understanding the interplay of mathematical and physical reasoning when describing damped harmonic motion, including framing and representational issues. In electronics, there has been an ongoing investigation of student understanding of the behavior of basic BJT follower and amplifier circuits as well as related issues of signal and bias. In thermal physics, student understanding of state functions, heat engines and the Carnot cycle, the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics, and the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives on entropy have been investigated. The greater content sophistication in these courses has drawn attention to the specific needs, constraints, and advantages of instructional materials tailored to the upper division. Future directions include more attention to interdisciplinary topics across mathematics, physics, and engineering in particular, as well as metacognition in the laboratory.

  17. Main topics in transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Laban, Cornelis J; van Dijk, Rob

    2013-12-01

    The population of the Netherlands has become increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity and religion, and anti-immigrant attitudes have become more apparent. At the same time, interest in issues linked to transcultural psychiatry has grown steadily. The purpose of this article is to describe the most important results in Dutch transcultural psychiatric research in the last decade and to discuss their relationship with relevant social and political developments in the Netherlands. All relevant PhD theses (N = 27) between 2000 and 2011 were selected. Screening of Dutch journals in the field of transcultural psychiatry and medical anthropology and a PubMed query yielded additional publications. Forensic and addiction psychiatry were excluded from this review. The results of the review indicate three main topics: (a) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their relation to migration issues as social defeat and ethnic density, showing considerable intra- and interethnic differences in predictors and prevalence rates, (b) the social position of refugees and asylum seekers, and its effect on mental health, showing especially high risk among asylum seekers, and (c) the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and use of mental health services, showing a differentiated picture among various migrant groups. Anthropological research brought additional knowledge on all the above topics. The overall conclusion is that transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands has made a giant leap since the turn of the century. The results are of international importance and invite redefinition of the relationship between migration and mental health, and reconsideration of its underlying mechanisms in multiethnic societies.

  18. Main topics in transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Laban, Cornelis J; van Dijk, Rob

    2013-12-01

    The population of the Netherlands has become increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity and religion, and anti-immigrant attitudes have become more apparent. At the same time, interest in issues linked to transcultural psychiatry has grown steadily. The purpose of this article is to describe the most important results in Dutch transcultural psychiatric research in the last decade and to discuss their relationship with relevant social and political developments in the Netherlands. All relevant PhD theses (N = 27) between 2000 and 2011 were selected. Screening of Dutch journals in the field of transcultural psychiatry and medical anthropology and a PubMed query yielded additional publications. Forensic and addiction psychiatry were excluded from this review. The results of the review indicate three main topics: (a) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their relation to migration issues as social defeat and ethnic density, showing considerable intra- and interethnic differences in predictors and prevalence rates, (b) the social position of refugees and asylum seekers, and its effect on mental health, showing especially high risk among asylum seekers, and (c) the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and use of mental health services, showing a differentiated picture among various migrant groups. Anthropological research brought additional knowledge on all the above topics. The overall conclusion is that transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands has made a giant leap since the turn of the century. The results are of international importance and invite redefinition of the relationship between migration and mental health, and reconsideration of its underlying mechanisms in multiethnic societies. PMID:24071745

  19. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  20. Concept Maps as a Research and Evaluation Tool To Assess Conceptual Change in Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Ahmet Ilhan

    2002-01-01

    Informs teachers about using concept maps as a learning tool and alternative assessment tools in education. Presents research results of how students might use concept maps to communicate their cognitive structure. (Author/KHR)

  1. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  2. Research Tools, Tips, and Resources for Financial Aid Administrators. Monograph, A NASFAA Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohning, David D.; Redd, Kenneth E.; Simmons, Barry W., Sr.

    This monograph provides research tools, tips, and resources to financial aid administrators who need to undertake research tasks. It answers: What is research? How can financial aid administrators get started on research projects? What resources are available to help answer research questions quickly and accurately? How can research efforts assist…

  3. Software Tools to Support Research on Airport Departure Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Francis; Evans, Antony; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    A simple, portable and useful collection of software tools has been developed for the analysis of airport surface traffic. The tools are based on a flexible and robust traffic-flow model, and include calibration, validation and simulation functionality for this model. Several different interfaces have been developed to help promote usage of these tools, including a portable Matlab(TM) implementation of the basic algorithms; a web-based interface which provides online access to automated analyses of airport traffic based on a database of real-world operations data which covers over 250 U.S. airports over a 5-year period; and an interactive simulation-based tool currently in use as part of a college-level educational module. More advanced applications for airport departure traffic include taxi-time prediction and evaluation of "windowing" congestion control.

  4. Computer as Research Tools 4.Use Your PC More Effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Hajime

    This article shows the useful tools on personal computers. The electronical dictionaries, the full-text search system, the simple usage of the preprint server, and the numeric computation language for applications in engineering and science are introduced.

  5. METABOLOMICS AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR SMALL FISH TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolomics involves the application of advanced analytical and statistical tools to profile changes in levels of endogenous metabolites in tissues and biofluids resulting from disease onset or stress. While certain metabolites are being specifically targeted in these studies, w...

  6. Advances in the Research and Development of Natural Health Products as Main Stream Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadje, Pamela; Roma, Alessia; Steckle, Matthew; Nicoletti, Leah; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2015-01-01

    Natural health products (NHPs) are defined as natural extracts containing polychemical mixtures; they play a leading role in the discovery and development of drugs, for disease treatment. More than 50% of current cancer therapeutics are derived from natural sources. However, the efficacy of natural extracts in treating cancer has not been explored extensively. Scientific research into the validity and mechanism of action of these products is needed to develop NHPs as main stream cancer therapy. The preclinical and clinical validation of NHPs would be essential for this development. This review summarizes some of the recent advancements in the area of NHPs with anticancer effects. This review also focuses on various NHPs that have been studied to scientifically validate their claims as anticancer agents. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the efficacy of these NHPs in targeting the multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells for a more selective efficacious treatment. The studies reviewed here have paved the way for the introduction of more NHPs from traditional medicine to the forefront of modern medicine, in order to provide alternative, safer, and cheaper complementary treatments for cancer therapy and possibly improve the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:25883673

  7. MEETING TODAY'S EMERGING CONTAMINANTS WITH TOMORROW'S RESEARCH TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will explore the many facets of research and development for emerging contaminants within the USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratories (Athens, Cincinnati, Las Vegas, and Research Triangle Park).

  8. Is research working for you? validating a tool to examine the capacity of health organizations to use research

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anita; Edwards, Nancy; Hamel, Nadia; Judd, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background 'Is research working for you? A self-assessment tool and discussion guide for health services management and policy organizations', developed by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, is a tool that can help organizations understand their capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research. Objectives were to: determine whether the tool demonstrated response variability; describe how the tool differentiated between organizations that were known to be lower-end or higher-end research users; and describe the potential usability of the tool. Methods Thirty-two focus groups were conducted among four sectors of Canadian health organizations. In the first hour of the focus group, participants individually completed the tool and then derived a group consensus ranking on items. In the second hour, the facilitator asked about overall impressions of the tool, to identify insights that emerged during the review of items on the tool and to elicit comments on research utilization. Discussion data were analyzed qualitatively, and individual and consensus item scores were analyzed using descriptive and non-parametric statistics. Results The tool demonstrated good usability and strong response variability. Differences between higher-end and lower-end research use organizations on scores suggested that this tool has adequate discriminant validity. The group discussion based on the tool was the more useful aspect of the exercise, rather than the actual score assigned. Conclusion The tool can serve as a catalyst for an important discussion about research use at the organizational level; such a discussion, in and of itself, demonstrates potential as an intervention to encourage processes and supports for research translation. PMID:19627601

  9. "This Ain't the Projects": A Researcher's Reflections on the Local Appropriateness of Our Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Danny C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article I examine the ways in which Black and Latina/o urban high school youth pressed me to reflexively examine my positionality and that of my research tools during a year-long ethnographic study documenting their communicative repertoires. I reflect on youth comments on my researcher tools, as well as myself, in order to wrestle with…

  10. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. II. Development of Research-Based Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students'…

  11. Chemometrics Tools in Detection and Quantitation of the Main Impurities Present in Aspirin/Dipyridamole Extended-Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    El-Ragehy, Nariman A; Yehia, Ali M; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Tantawy, Mahmoud A; Abdelkawy, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin (ASP) and dipyridamole (DIP) in combination is widely used in the prevention of secondary events after stroke and transient ischemic attack. Salicylic acid is a well-known impurity of ASP, and the DIP extended-release formulation may contain ester impurities originating from the reaction with tartaric acid. UV spectral data analysis of the active ingredients in the presence of their main impurities is presented using multivariate approaches. Four chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods, namely, partial least-squares, concentration residuals augmented classical least-squares (CRACLS), multivariate curve resolution (MCR) alternating least-squares (ALS), and artificial neural networks, were developed and validated. The quantitative analyses of all the proposed calibrations were compared by percentage recoveries, root mean square error of prediction, and standard error of prediction. In addition, r(2) values between the pure and estimated spectral profiles were used to evaluate the qualitative analysis of CRACLS and MCR-ALS. The lowest error was obtained by the CRACLS model, whereas the best correlation was achieved using MCR-ALS. The four multivariate calibration methods could successfully be applied for the extended-release formulation analysis. The application results were also validated by analysis of the stored dosage-form solution, which showed a susceptibility of DIP esterification in the extended-release formulation. Statistical comparison between the proposed and official methods showed no significant difference. PMID:27302874

  12. Chaos Modeling: Increasing Educational Researchers' Awareness of a New Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobner, Ronald F.; And Others

    Chaos theory is being used as a tool to study a wide variety of phenomena. It is a philosophical and empirical approach that attempts to explain relationships previously thought to be totally random. Although some relationships are truly random, many data appear to be random but reveal repeatable patterns of behavior under further investigation.…

  13. Specially Made for Science: Researchers Develop Online Tools For Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    Blogs, wikis, and social-networking sites such as Facebook may get media buzz these days, but for scientists, engineers, and doctors, they are not even on the radar. The most effective tools of the Internet for such people tend to be efforts more narrowly aimed at their needs, such as software that helps geneticists replicate one another's…

  14. "Mythbusters": A Tool for Teaching Research Methods in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkley, Edward; Burkley, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    "Mythbusters" uses multiple research methods to test interesting topics, offering research methods students an entertaining review of course material. To test the effectiveness of "Mythbusters" clips in a psychology research methods course, we systematically selected and showed 4 clips. Students answered questions about the clips, offered their…

  15. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

  16. STELLA software as a tool for modelling phosphorus removal in a constructed wetland employing dewatered alum sludge as main substrate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J L G; Wang, Z Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H; Jørgensen, S E

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model was developed for the removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) using a dynamic software program called STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) 9.1.3 to aid in simulating the environmental nature and succession of relationship between interdependent components and processes in the VFCW system. In particular, the VFCW employed dewatered alum sludge as its main substrate to enhance phosphorus (P) immobilization. Although computer modelling of P in treatment wetland has been well studied especially in recent years, there is still a need to develop simple and realistic models that can be used for investigating the dynamics of SRP in VFCWs. The state variables included in the model are dissolved phosphorus (DISP), plant phosphorus (PLAP), detritus phosphorus (DETP), plant biomass (PLBI) and adsorbed phosphorus (ADSP). The major P transformation processes considered in this study were adsorption, plant and microbial uptake and decomposition. The forcing functions which were considered in the model are temperature, radiation, volume of wastewater, P concentration, contact time, flow rate and the adsorbent (i.e., alum sludge). The model results revealed that up to 72% of the SRP can be removed through adsorption process whereas the uptake by plants is about 20% and the remaining processes such as microbial P utilization and decomposition, accounted for 7% SRP removal based on the mass balance calculations. The results obtained indicate that the model can be used to simulate outflow SRP concentration, and it can also be used to estimate the amount of P removed by individual processes in the VFCW using alum-sludge as a substrate. PMID:21644152

  17. Research-based measurement tools in the audit process: issues of use, validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Mead, D; Moseley, L G

    1996-03-01

    The National Health Service is in a period of extensive reform. Value for money is now a key objective. As a consequence, audit has become a widely used concept and activity. There has been some discussion in the literature of the use of tools for measurement in audit. These tools have mainly been used to measure outcomes. When they are used in isolation from other measures, an incomplete picture can result. Closs and Tierney ( 1 ) have noted that the current vogue for outcomes in NHS research has resulted in a less than complete evaluation of the phenomena under study, largely because the structures and processes are not being measured in parallel with the outcomes. Thomas and Bond ( 2 ) also noted that research has tended to concentrate on the outcomes of care, and that structures and processes are left assumed and undefined, thus making it impossible to link outcomes (favourable or unfavourable) to specific features of nursing input in particular. This has meant that the actual processes have tended to remain somewhat obscure.

  18. Research Tool Patents--Rumours of their Death are Greatly Exaggerated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Peter G.; Roberts, John S.

    2006-01-01

    Using a patented drug during clinical trials is not infringement [35 U.S.C. 271(e)(1)]. Merck v Integra enlarged this "safe harbour" to accommodate preclinical use of drugs and patented "research tools" if "reasonably related" to FDA approval. The decision allowed lower courts, should they wish, to find any use of a research tool, except for…

  19. Report on the Property Research Workshop (Orono, Maine, June 25-28, 1975). Publication No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colyer, Dale, Comp.

    In response to the complexities of technological, social, political, and institutional change, the Property Research Workshop focused on the theoretical, rather than the empirical aspects of property-related research. Specifically, emphasis was on analytical and institutional approaches to research. Ten institutionally-related propositions were…

  20. Main trends in experimental morphological research in angiology and outlook for its development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzhavakhishvili, N. A.; Melman, Y. P.

    1980-01-01

    The main prospective trends in the problem of collateral circulation and new trends in experimental angiology with respect to the effect of gravitational forces, hypodynamia and hypokinesia on the vascular bed are discussed.

  1. Practical library research: a tool for effective library management.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, E; Mankin, C J; Bastille, J D

    1995-01-01

    Librarians are being urged to conduct research as one of their professional responsibilities. Many librarians, however, avoid research, because they believe it is beyond their capabilities or resources. This paper discusses the importance of conducting applied research-research directed toward solving practical problems. The paper describes how one library conducted practical research projects, including use studies and surveys, over an eighteen-year period. These projects produced objective data that were used by the library to make management decisions that benefited both the library and its parent institution. This paper encourages other librarians to conduct practical research projects and to share the results with their colleagues through publication in the professional literature. PMID:7703934

  2. Use of an enterprise wiki as a research collaboration tool.

    PubMed

    Desai, Bimal R; O'Hara, Ryan T; White, Peter S

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical research projects are highly collaborative endeavors with unique information management and communication needs. We describe the pilot use of an enterprise wiki solution to facilitate group communication, secure file sharing, and collaborative writing within a pediatric hospital and research center. We discuss the choice of software, examples of use, and initial user feedback. We conclude that a wiki is a low-cost and high-yield approach to enhance research collaboration. PMID:18694032

  3. Stress analysis and design considerations for Shuttle pointed autonomous research tool for astronomy /SPARTAN/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferragut, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) family of spacecraft are intended to operate with minimum interfaces with the U.S. Space Shuttle in order to increase flight opportunities. The SPARTAN I Spacecraft was designed to enhance structural capabilities and increase reliability. The approach followed results from work experience which evolved from sounding rocket projects. Structural models were developed to do the analyses necessary to satisfy safety requirements for Shuttle hardware. A loads analysis must also be performed. Stress analysis calculations will be performed on the main structural elements and subcomponents. Attention is given to design considerations and program definition, the schematic representation of a finite element model used for SPARTAN I spacecraft, details of loads analysis, the stress analysis, and fracture mechanics plan implications.

  4. Recent and Potential Application of Engineering Tools to Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Martin I.

    This paper presents a summary of some recent engineering research in education and identifies some research areas with high payoff potential. The underlying assumption is that a school is a system with a set of subsystems which is potentially susceptible to analysis, design, and eventually some sort of optimization. This assumption leads to the…

  5. Teacher Research as a Practical Tool for Learning to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaker, Judith; Thompson, Becky

    2013-01-01

    Teacher research has a long, rich history. However, teacher research is primarily limited to practicing teachers and those pursuing graduate education. It is only beginning to be used as means of understanding the instructional needs of English learners. In this article, a preservice teacher and her university instructor describe the role of…

  6. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  7. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  8. International research through networking: an old idea with new tools.

    PubMed

    Henson, J B; Rodewald, E

    1995-03-01

    The growth and refinement of electronic media capabilities, Internet, other electronic highways, fiber optics, microwaves, and satellites will have major impact on researchers and scholars, facilitating the timely sharing of information. The balance of time saved and money available may be the crucial issues in the rapidity of development. The dissemination of research results to a large audience through electronic journals, bulletin boards and data bases will become a dominant force in the formal publication of such results, with instant feedback from colleagues. The productivity of scientists and the quality of their research will be higher through better communications. Networking, however, is more than communications. It is shared interests and interaction, building on information received and provided and creating a relationship and a knowledge base to enhance international research.

  9. Applying Web-Based Tools for Research, Engineering, and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Personnel in the NASA Glenn Research Center Network and Architectures branch have performed a variety of research related to space-based sensor webs, network centric operations, security and delay tolerant networking (DTN). Quality documentation and communications, real-time monitoring and information dissemination are critical in order to perform quality research while maintaining low cost and utilizing multiple remote systems. This has been accomplished using a variety of Internet technologies often operating simultaneously. This paper describes important features of various technologies and provides a number of real-world examples of how combining Internet technologies can enable a virtual team to act efficiently as one unit to perform advanced research in operational systems. Finally, real and potential abuses of power and manipulation of information and information access is addressed.

  10. On the Use of Factor Analysis as a Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jeri; Nasser, Fadia

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the conceptual/theoretical design, statistical, and reporting issues in choosing factor analysis for research. Provides questions to consider when planning, analyzing, or reporting an exploratory factor analysis study. (SK)

  11. Education of research ethics for clinical investigators with Moodle tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In clinical research scientific, legal as well as ethical aspects are important. It is well known that clinical investigators at university hospitals have to undertake their PhD-studies alongside their daily work and reconciling work and study can be challenging. The aim of this project was to create a web based course in clinical research bioethics (5 credits) and to examine whether the method is suitable for teaching bioethics. The course comprised of six modules: an initial examination (to assess knowledge in bioethics), information on research legislation, obtaining permissions from authorities, writing an essay on research ethics, preparing one’s own study protocol, and a final exam. All assignments were designed with an idea of supporting students to reflect on their learning with their own research. Methods 57 PhD-students (medical, nursing and dental sciences) enrolled and 46 completed the course. Course evaluation was done using a questionnaire. The response rate was 78%. Data were analyzed using quantitative methods and qualitative content analysis. Results The course was viewed as useful and technically easy to perform. Students were pleased with the guidance offered. Personal feedback from teachers about students’ own performance was seen advantageous and helped them to appreciate how these aspects could be applied their own studies. The course was also considered valuable for future research projects. Conclusions Ethical issues and legislation of clinical research can be understood more easily when students can reflect the principles upon their own research project. Web based teaching environment is a feasible learning method for clinical investigators. PMID:24330709

  12. Challenges Faced by Maine School Districts in Providing High Quality Public Education. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Linet, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to: (1) identify challenges faced by Maine school districts in providing high quality public education; (2) describe the magnitude of the challenges; and (3) identify areas where school districts were experiencing some success in meeting these challenges. The School Districts Challenge Survey was distributed online to…

  13. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to

  14. The Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT): Evaluating Treatment Research as Part of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Bothe, Anne K.; Bramlett, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents, and explains the issues behind, the Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT), an instrument created to assist clinicians, researchers, students, and other readers in the process of critically appraising reports of stuttering treatment research. Method: The STREAT was developed by…

  15. Main differences between volatiles of sparkling and base wines accessed through comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Welke, Juliane Elisa; Zanus, Mauro; Lazzarotto, Marcelo; Pulgati, Fernando Hepp; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz

    2014-12-01

    The main changes in the volatile profile of base wines and their corresponding sparkling wines produced by traditional method were evaluated and investigated for the first time using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (GC×GC/TOFMS) and chemometric tools. Fisher ratios helped to find the 119 analytes that were responsible for the main differences between base and sparkling wines and principal component analysis explained 93.1% of the total variance related to the selected 78 compounds. It was also possible to observe five subclusters in base wines and four subclusters in sparkling wines samples through hierarchical cluster analysis, which seemed to have an organised distribution according to the regions where the wines came from. Twenty of the most important volatile compounds co-eluted with other components and separation of some of them was possible due to GC×GC/TOFMS performance.

  16. The airborne infrared scanner as a geophysical research tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jules D.

    1970-01-01

    The infrared scanner is proving to be an effective anomaly-mapping tool, albeit one which depicts surface emission directly and heat mass transfer from depths only indirectly and at a threshold level 50 to 100 times the normal conductive heat flow of the earth. Moreover, successive terrain observations are affected by time-dependent variables such as the diurnal and seasonal warming and cooling cycle of a point on the earth's surface. In planning precise air borne surveys of radiant flux from the earth's surface, account must be taken of background noise created by variations in micrometeorological factors and emissivity of surface materials, as well as the diurnal temperature cycle. The effect of the diurnal cycle may be minimized by planning predawn aerial surveys. In fact, the diurnal change is very small for most water bodies and the emissivity factor for water (e) =~ 1 so a minimum background noise is characteristic of scanner records of calm water surfaces.

  17. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  18. A Web Tool for Research in Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhod'ko, Nikolay V.; Abramovsky, Viktor A.; Abramovskaya, Natalia V.; Demichev, Andrey P.; Kryukov, Alexandr P.; Polyakov, Stanislav P.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a project of developing the web platform called WebNLO for computer modeling of nonlinear optics phenomena. We discuss a general scheme of the platform and a model for interaction between the platform modules. The platform is built as a set of interacting RESTful web services (SaaS approach). Users can interact with the platform through a web browser or command line interface. Such a resource has no analogues in the field of nonlinear optics and will be created for the first time therefore allowing researchers to access high-performance computing resources that will significantly reduce the cost of the research and development process.

  19. ``Tools for Astrometry": A Windows-based Research Tool for Asteroid Discovery and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. A.; Marschall, L. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a Windows-based interactive digital astrometry package with a simple, ergonomic interface, designed for the discovery, measurement, and recording of asteroid positions by individual observers. The software, "Tools For Astrometry", will handle FITS and SBIG format images up to 2048 x 2048 (or larger, depending on RAM), and provides features for blinking images or subframes of images, and measurement of positions and magnitudes against both the HST Guide Star Catalog and the USNO SA-1 catalog,. In addition, the program can calculate ephemerides from element tables, including the Lowell Asteroid Database available online, can generate charts of star-fields showing the motion of asteroids from the ephemeris superimposed against the background star field, can project motions of measured asteroids ahead several days using linear interpolation for purposes of reacquisition, and can calculate projected baselines for asteroid parallax measurements. Images, charts, and tables of ephemerides can printed as well as displayed, and reports can be generated in the standard format of the IAU Minor Planet Center. The software is designed ergonomically, and one can go from raw images to completed astrometric report in a matter of minutes. The software is an extension of software developed for introductory astronomy laboratories by Project CLEA, which is supported by grants from Gettysburg College and the National Science Foundation.

  20. Administrative Data Linkage as a Tool for Child Maltreatment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Marni D.; Jutte, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Linking administrative data records for the same individuals across services and over time offers a powerful, population-wide resource for child maltreatment research that can be used to identify risk and protective factors and to examine outcomes. Multistage de-identification processes have been developed to protect privacy and maintain…

  1. Ready Reference Tools: EBSCO Topic Search and SIRS Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  2. The Portable Usability Testing Lab: A Flexible Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Michael E.; And Others

    A group of faculty at the University of Georgia obtained funding for a research and development facility called the Learning and Performance Support Laboratory (LPSL). One of the LPSL's primary needs was obtaining a portable usability lab for software testing, so the facility obtained the "Luggage Lab 2000." The lab is transportable to any site…

  3. New research and tools lead to improved earthquake alerting protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.

    2009-01-01

    What’s the best way to get alerted about the occurrence and potential impact of an earthquake? The answer to that question has changed dramatically of late, in part due to improvements in earthquake science, and in part by the implementation of new research in the delivery of earthquake information

  4. TPACK: An Emerging Research and Development Tool for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Evrim; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Thompson, Ann

    2011-01-01

    TPACK (technological pedagogical content knowledge) has emerged as a clear and useful construct for researchers working to understand technology integration in learning and teaching. Whereas first generation TPACK work focused upon explaining and interpreting the construct, TPACK has now entered a second generation where the focus is upon using…

  5. Online Tools Allow Distant Students to Collaborate on Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Wesleyan Academy and Moravian School in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, recently joined forces with Evergreen Elementary in Fort Lewis, Wash., to collaborate on a research project using My eCoach Online (http://myecoach.com) as the primary medium to share information, post ideas and findings, and develop inquiry projects on 10 topics about water.…

  6. The National ALS Registry: A Recruitment Tool for Research

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Angela M.; Stickler, David E.; Antao, Vinicius C.; Horton, D. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Subject recruitment is critical for understanding fatal diseases like ALS, however linking patients with researchers can be challenging. The US population-based National ALS Registry allows recruitment of persons with ALS (PALS) for research opportunities. Methods The Registry’s Research Notification Mechanism was used to recruit PALS aged ≥21 years; participants completed a web-based epidemiologic survey. PALS (n=2,232) were sent an email describing the study, and 268 surveys were completed. Results The mean age (± SD) of eligible participants was 57.7 ± 9.3 years for men and 61.5 ± 8.9 for women. Most were men (63%) and Caucasian (92%). Of 256 potentially eligible participants, 37.5% (n=96) returned an authorization to disclose protected health information. ALS was confirmed for 94% (83/88) from physician responses. Discussion This analysis demonstrates the National ALS Registry’s usefulness in recruiting PALS for research. This recruitment source can potentially foster the discovery of better treatment options and therapies, and of prevention strategies. PMID:25111654

  7. Reimagining Science Education and Pedagogical Tools: Blending Research with Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline S.

    2010-01-01

    The future of higher education in the sciences will be marked by programs that link skilled educators and research scientists from around the world with teachers for professional development and with students for high-impact learning--either virtually or physically in the field. These programs will use technology where possible to build new and…

  8. Friending Adolescents on Social Networking Websites: A Feasible Research Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researcher’s profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226

  9. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  10. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  11. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval.

  12. Developing a Research Tool to Gauge Student Metacognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerny, Alistair; Boudreaux, Andrew; Rishal, Sepideh; Clare, Kelci

    2012-10-01

    Metacognition refers to the family of thought processes and skills used to evaluate and manage learning. A research and curriculum development project underway at Western Washington University uses introductory physics labs as a context to promote students' abilities to learn and apply metacognitive skills. A required ``narrative reflection'' has been incorporated as a weekly end-of-lab assignment. The goal of the narrative reflection is to encourage and support student metacognition while generating written artifacts that can be used by researchers to study metacognition in action. We have developed a Reflective Thinking Rubric (RTR) to analyze scanned narrative reflections. The RTR codes student writing for Metacognitive Elements, identifiable steps or aspects of metacognitive thinking at a variety of levels of sophistication. We hope to use the RTR to monitor the effect of weekly reflection on metacognitive ability and to search for correlations between metacognitive ability and conceptual understanding.

  13. Governments and Universities as the Main Drivers of Enhanced Australian University Research Commercialisation Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2004-01-01

    In building capacity in research commercialisation and science-based entrepreneurship, Australia has adopted neither the Swedish top-down approach depending on government initiative, nor the American bottom-up approach depending on incentive systems related to university ownership of intellectual property and a highly competitive and…

  14. CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of research studies that were carried out with a PC-based task environment called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS) simulating the operation of a spacecraft's life support system. As CAMS was a multiple task environment, it allowed the measurement of performance at different levels. Four task components of different priority were embedded in the task environment: diagnosis and repair of system faults, maintaining atmospheric parameters in a safe state, acknowledgement of system alarms (reaction time), and keeping a record of critical system resources (prospective memory). Furthermore, the task environment permitted the examination of different task management strategies and changes in crew member state (fatigue, anxiety, mental effort). A major goal of the research programme was to examine how crew members adapted to various forms of sub-optimal working conditions, such as isolation and confinement, sleep deprivation and noise. None of the studies provided evidence for decrements in primary task performance. However, the results showed a number of adaptive responses of crew members to adjust to the different sub-optimal working conditions. There was evidence for adjustments in information sampling strategies (usually reductions in sampling frequency) as a result of unfavourable working conditions. The results also showed selected decrements in secondary task performance. Prospective memory seemed to be somewhat more vulnerable to sub-optimal working conditions than performance on the reaction time task. Finally, suggestions are made for future research with the CAMS environment.

  15. Modelling as an indispensible research tool in the information society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Science and society would be well advised to develop a different relationship as the information revolution penetrates all aspects of modern life. Rather than produce clear answers to clear questions in a top-down manner, land-use issues related to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present "wicked"problems involving different, strongly opiniated, stakeholders with conflicting ideas and interests and risk-averse politicians. The Dutch government has invited its citizens to develop a "science agenda", defining future research needs, implicitly suggesting that the research community is unable to do so. Time, therefore, for a pro-active approach to more convincingly define our:"societal license to research". For soil science this could imply a focus on the SDGs , considering soils as living, characteristically different, dynamic bodies in a landscape, to be mapped in ways that allow generation of suitable modelling data. Models allow a dynamic characterization of water- and nutrient regimes and plant growth in soils both for actual and future conditions, reflecting e.g. effects of climate or land-use change or alternative management practices. Engaging modern stakeholders in a bottom-up manner implies continuous involvement and "joint learning" from project initiation to completion, where modelling results act as building blocks to explore alternative scenarios. Modern techniques allow very rapid calculations and innovative visualization. Everything is possible but only modelling can articulate the economic, social and environmental consequences of each scenario, demonstrating in a pro-active manner the crucial and indispensible role of research. But choices are to be made by stakeholders and reluctant policy makers and certainly not by scientists who should carefully guard their independance. Only clear results in the end are convincing proof for the impact of science, requiring therefore continued involvement of scientists up to the very end of projects. To

  16. Guiding Independence: Developing a Research Tool to Support Student Decision Making in Selecting Online Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baildon, Rindi; Baildon, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The development and use of a research tool to guide fourth-grade students' use of information sources during a research project is described in this article. Over a period of five weeks, 21 fourth-grade students in an international school in Singapore participated in a study investigating the extent to which the use of a "research resource guide"…

  17. Conceptualising the Use of Facebook in Ethnographic Research: As Tool, as Data and as Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a three-part conceptualisation of the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as a tool, as data and as context. Longitudinal research with young adults at a time of significant change provides many challenges for the ethnographic researcher, such as maintaining channels of communication and high rates of participant…

  18. Searching for New Directions: Developing MA Action Research Project as a Tool for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young Ah; Wang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Action research has been recognized as a useful professional development tool for teaching, but for inservice teachers, conducting action research can be challenging. Their learning about action research can be influenced by social situations--whether in an MA (Master of Arts) program or other professional development. The purpose of this…

  19. The "Metaphorical Collage" as a Research Tool in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a research tool in the field of education--the "metaphorical collage." This tool facilitates the understanding of concepts and processes in education through the analysis of metaphors in collage works that include pictorial images and verbal images. We believe the "metaphorical collage" to be…

  20. Positioning Mentoring as a Coach Development Tool: Recommendations for Future Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sarah; Davis, Louise; Nash, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Current thinking in coach education advocates mentoring as a development tool to connect theory and practice. However, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the effectiveness of mentoring as a coach development tool. Business, education, and nursing precede the coaching industry in their mentoring practice, and research findings offered in…

  1. NASTRAN as an analytical research tool for composite mechanics and composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Selected examples are described in which NASTRAN is used as an analysis research tool for composite mechanics and for composite structural components. The examples were selected to illustrate the importance of using NASTRAN as an analysis tool in this rapidly advancing field.

  2. CDPP tools : Promoting research and education with AMDA, 3DView and the propagation tool in space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, Vincent; Cecconi, Baptiste

    The CDPP (Centre de Données de la Physique des Plasmas, http://cdpp.eu/), the French data center for plasma physics, is engaged for more than a decade in the archiving and dissemination of plasma data products from space missions and ground observatories. Besides these activities, the CDPP developed an online analysis tool, AMDA (http://amda.cdpp.eu/). It enables in depth analysis of large amount of space physics, planetary and model data through dedicated functionalities such as: visualization, data mining, cataloguing ... It is used (about 250 connections per month) by scientists for their own research, but also by graduate students in the classroom and for dedicated projects. AMDA is ideally complemented by two companion tools also developed at CDPP : 3DView (http://3dview.cdpp.eu/) which provides immersive data visualisations in planetary environments and the Propagation Tool (http://propagationtool.cdpp.eu/) which enables tracking of solar perturbations in the heliosphere with different analytical models and white light imaging techniques. This presentation will focus on some scientific cases combining the use of the three tools. (2.1) Data Mining and Intelligent Systems for Massive Data Sets

  3. [Scientific information systems: tools for measures of biomedical research impact].

    PubMed

    Navarrete Cortés, José; Banqueri Ozáez, Jesús

    2008-12-01

    The present article provides an analysis and description of the use of scientific information systems as instruments to measure and monitor results and investigative activity in biomedicine. Based on the current situation concerning the use and implementation of these systems, we offer a detailed description of the actors of these systems and propose a functional architecture for this class of software. In addition, the instruments that these types of systems offer for the measurement of the impact of the results of research are described in depth, as these instruments can help in decision making. Finally, a selection of national and international scientific information systems are listed and reviewed. PMID:19631827

  4. Digital storytelling: an innovative tool for practice, education, and research.

    PubMed

    Lal, Shalini; Donnelly, Catherine; Shin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Digital storytelling is a method of using storytelling, group work, and modern technology to facilitate the creation of 2-3 minute multi-media video clips to convey personal or community stories. Digital storytelling is being used within the health care field; however, there has been limited documentation of its application within occupational therapy. This paper introduces digital storytelling and proposes how it can be applied in occupational therapy clinical practice, education, and research. The ethical and methodological challenges in relation to using the method are also discussed. PMID:25338054

  5. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  6. Electromagnetic Levitation: A Useful Tool in Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szekely, Julian; Schwartz, Elliot; Hyers, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Electromagnetic levitation is one area of the electromagnetic processing of materials that has uses for both fundamental research and practical applications. This technique was successfully used on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the Spacelab IML-2 mission in July 1994 as a platform for accurately measuring the surface tensions of liquid metals and alloys. In this article, we discuss the key transport phenomena associated with electromagnetic levitation, the fundamental relationships associated with thermophysical property measurement that can be made using this technique, reasons for working in microgravity, and some of the results obtained from the microgravity experiments.

  7. 2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Max Hoggblom

    2012-02-09

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  8. The NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Yael; Rasbury, Jack; Johnson, Jordan; Barstend, Kristina; Saile, Lynn; Watkins, Sharmi

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: "Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member" for exploration-class missions In preparation for exploration-class missions, ExMC has compiled a large evidence base, previously available only to persons within the NASA community. ExMC has developed the "NASA Human Research Wiki" in an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration within and outside of NASA. The ExMC evidence base is comprised of several types of data, including: (1)Information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight (a)Derived from several sources (b)Including data on incidence and potential outcomes, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model s (IMM) Clinical Finding Forms (CliFFs). (2)Approximately 25 gap reports (a)Identify any "gaps" in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions.

  9. CECILIA, a versatile research tool for cellular responses to gravity.

    PubMed

    Braucker, Richard; Machemer, Hans

    2002-01-01

    We describe a centrifuge designed and constructed according to current demands for a versatile instrument in cellular gravitational research, in particular protists (ciliates, flagellates). The instrument (called CECILIA, centrifuge for ciliates) is suited for videomonitoring, videorecording, and quantitative evaluation of data from large numbers of swimming cells in a ground-based laboratory or in a drop tower/drop shaft under microgravity conditions. The horizontal rotating platform holds up to six 8mm-camcorders and six chambers holding the experimental cells. Under hypergravity conditions (up to 15 g) chambers can be rotated about 2 axes to adjust the swimming space at right angles or parallel to the resulting gravity vector. Evaluations of cellular responses to central acceleration-- in the presence of gravitational 1 g--are used for extrapolation of cellular behaviour under hypogravity conditions. CECILIA is operated and monitored by computer using a custom-made software. Times and slopes of rising and decreasing acceleration, values and and quality of steady acceleration are supervised online. CECILIA can serve as an on-ground research instrument for precursor investigations of the behaviour of ciliates and flagellates under microgravity conditions such as long-term experiments in the International Space Station.

  10. Main lines of scientific and technical research at the Soviet Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII), 1933 - 1942

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetinkov, Y. S.

    1977-01-01

    The rapid development of rocketry in the U.S.S.R. during the post-war years was due largely to pre-war activity; in particular, to investigations conducted in the Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII). The history of RNII commenced in 1933, resulting from the merger of two rocket research organizations. Previous research was continued in areas of solid-propellant rockets, jet-assisted take-off of aircraft, liquid propellant engines (generally with nitric acid as the oxidizer), liquid-propellant rockets (generally with oxgen as the oxidizer), ram jet engines, rockets with and without wings, and rocket planes. RNII research is described and summarized for the years 1933-1942.

  11. Composition and emissions of VOCs in main- and side-stream smoke of research cigarettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Simone M.; Batterman, S. A.; Jia, Chunrong

    It is well known that mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke contains a vast number of chemical substances. Previous studies have emphasized SS smoke rather than MS smoke to which smokers are exposed, and most have used chamber tests that have several disadvantages such as wall losses. Emissions from standard research cigarettes have been measured, but relatively few constituents have been reported, and only the 1R4F (low nicotine) cigarette type has been tested. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of total, MS and SS smoke emissions for the 1R5F (ultra low nicotine), 2R4F (low nicotine), and 1R3F (standard nicotine) research cigarettes research cigarettes, including emission factors for a number of toxic compounds (e.g., benzene) and tobacco smoke tracers (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl furan). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) are quantified using a dynamic dilution emission measurement system that is shown to produce accurate, rapid and reproducible results for over 30 VOCs and PM. SS and MS emissions were accurately apportioned based on a mass balance of total emissions. As expected, SS emissions greatly exceeded MS emissions. The ultra low nicotine cigarette had lower emissions of most VOCs compared to low and standard nicotine cigarettes, which had similar emissions. Across the three types of cigarettes, emissions of benzene (296-535 μg cig -1), toluene (541-1003 μg cig -1), styrene (90-162 μg cig -1), 2-dimethyl furan (71-244 μg cig -1), naphthalene (15-18 μg cig -1) and other VOCs were generally comparable to or somewhat higher than literature estimates using chamber tests.

  12. Air Enquirer's multi-sensor boxes as a tool for High School Education and Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morguí, Josep-Anton; Font, Anna; Cañas, Lidia; Vázquez-García, Eusebi; Gini, Andrea; Corominas, Ariadna; Àgueda, Alba; Lobo, Agustin; Ferraz, Carlos; Nofuentes, Manel; Ulldemolins, Delmir; Roca, Alex; Kamnang, Armand; Grossi, Claudia; Curcoll, Roger; Batet, Oscar; Borràs, Silvia; Occhipinti, Paola; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    An educational tool was designed with the aim of making more comprehensive the research done on Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the ClimaDat Spanish network of atmospheric observation stations (www.climadat.es). This tool is called Air Enquirer and it consist of a multi-sensor box. It is envisaged to build more than two hundred boxes to yield them to the Spanish High Schools through the Education department (www.educaixa.com) of the "Obra Social 'La Caixa'", who funds this research. The starting point for the development of the Air Enquirers was the experience at IC3 (www.ic3.cat) in the CarboSchools+ FP7 project (www.carboschools.cat, www.carboschools.eu). The Air Enquirer's multi-sensor box is based in Arduino's architecture and contains sensors for CO2, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and both infrared and visible luminance. The Air Enquirer is designed for taking continuous measurements. Every Air Enquirer ensemble of measurements is used to convert values to standard units (water content in ppmv, and CO2 in ppmv_dry). These values are referred to a calibration made with Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry (Picarro®) under different temperature, pressure, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Multiple sets of Air Enquirers are intercalibrated for its use in parallel during the experiments. The different experiments proposed to the students will be outdoor (observational) or indoor (experimental, in the lab) focusing on understanding the biogeochemistry of GHGs in the ecosystems (mainly CO2), the exchange (flux) of gases, the organic matter production, respiration and decomposition processes, the influence of the anthropogenic activities on the gases (and particles) exchanges, and their interaction with the structure and composition of the atmosphere (temperature, water content, cooling and warming processes, radiative forcing, vertical gradients and horizontal patterns). In order to ensure Air Enquirers a high-profile research performance the experimental designs

  13. Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Pramod K.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

  14. Electrostatic Levitation: A Tool to Support Materials Research in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; SanSoucie, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Containerless processing represents an important topic for materials research in microgravity. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container, which permits studies of deeply undercooled melts, and high-temperature, highly reactive materials. Containerless processing provides data for studies of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable state formation, microstructure formation, undercooling, and nucleation. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) jointly developed an electromagnetic levitator facility (MSL-EML) for containerless materials processing in space. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center provides support for the development of containerless processing studies for the ISS. Apparatus and techniques have been developed to use the ESL to provide data for phase diagram determination, creep resistance, emissivity, specific heat, density/thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and triggered nucleation of melts. The capabilities and results from selected ESL-based characterization studies performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center will be presented.

  15. Cell stretching devices as research tools: engineering and biological considerations.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Harshad; Barton, Matthew J; Jun, Myeongjun; Park, Sungsu; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-08-16

    Cells within the human body are subjected to continuous, cyclic mechanical strain caused by various organ functions, movement, and growth. Cells are well known to have the ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. This process is referred to as mechanotransduction. A better understanding of mechanotransduction is of great interest to clinicians and scientists alike to improve clinical diagnosis and understanding of medical pathology. However, the complexity involved in in vivo biological systems creates a need for better in vitro technologies, which can closely mimic the cells' microenvironment using induced mechanical strain. This technology gap motivates the development of cell stretching devices for better understanding of the cell response to mechanical stimuli. This review focuses on the engineering and biological considerations for the development of such cell stretching devices. The paper discusses different types of stretching concepts, major design consideration and biological aspects of cell stretching and provides a perspective for future development in this research area. PMID:27440436

  16. Research on bait resources in the Main Stream of Wulie River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Yan, Denghua; Gan, Hong; Fu, Xiaocheng; Sun, Xiumin

    2010-05-01

    Wulie river is the first branch of Luanhe river, and most of the water use for industrial, agricultural and living of the Chengde city is coming from it. The investigation results of 8 monitoring sections in July, 2009 show that there are 44 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phylum in the Main stream of Wulie river. The Bacillariophyta has the most species comparing with other species, and is the dominant species. The phytoplankton species is more in the lower reach than that in the upper reach which is relevant to the intensity of the human disturbance. There are 28 kinds of zooplanktons in the river, in which the protozoa and rotatoria are the dominant species. The zooplankton species in the lower reach show the lake characteristics which is relevant to the 12 rubber dams. There are 18 macrozoobenthos in the river, and Hydropyche, Ephemera, Baetidae and Caenis are the dominant genus. The macrozoobenthos community is simple and most of them belong to the species fond of rapids and oxygen. Investigation of the bait resources show that the water quality is good in this river, but the lower reach has appeared the lake characteristics because of the water intercepting and impounding by the rubber dams. The establishment of water conservancy engineering has changed the hydrology and river morphology, which as a result altered the bait resources of the fishes living in the rivers.

  17. Advanced imaging microscope tools applied to microgravity research investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, L.; Samson, J.; Conrad, D.; Clark, K.

    1998-01-01

    The inability to observe and interact with experiments on orbit has been an impediment for both basic research and commercial ventures using the shuttle. In order to open the frontiers of space, the Center for Microgravity Automation Technology has developed a unique and innovative system for conducting experiments at a distance, the ``Remote Scientist.'' The Remote Scientist extends laboratory automation capability to the microgravity environment. While the Remote Scientist conceptually encompasses a broad spectrum of elements and functionalities, the development approach taken is to: • establish a baseline capability that is both flexible and versatile • incrementally augment the baseline with additional functions over time. Since last year, the application of the Remote Scientist has changed from protein crystal growth to tissue culture, specifically, the development of skeletal muscle under varying levels of tension. This system includes a series of bioreactor chambers that allow for three-dimensional growth of muscle tissue on a membrane suspended between the two ends of a programmable force transducer that can provide automated or investigator-initiated tension on the developing tissue. A microscope objective mounted on a translation carriage allows for high-resolution microscopy along a large area of the tissue. These images will be mosaiced on orbit to detect features and structures that span multiple images. The use of fluorescence and pseudo-confocal microscopy will maximize the observational capabilities of this system. A series of ground-based experiments have been performed to validate the bioreactor, the force transducer, the translation carriage and the image acquisition capabilities of the Remote Scientist. • The bioreactor is capable of sustaining three dimensional tissue culture growth over time. • The force transducer can be programmed to provide static tension on cells or to simulate either slow or fast growth of underlying tissues in

  18. Citizen Science as a New Tool in Dog Cognition Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Laughlin; MacLean, Evan L.; Ivy, David; Woods, Vanessa; Cohen, Eliot; Rodriguez, Kerri; McIntyre, Matthew; Mukherjee, Sayan; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádám; Wrangham, Richard W.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Family dogs and dog owners offer a potentially powerful way to conduct citizen science to answer questions about animal behavior that are difficult to answer with more conventional approaches. Here we evaluate the quality of the first data on dog cognition collected by citizen scientists using the Dognition.com website. We conducted analyses to understand if data generated by over 500 citizen scientists replicates internally and in comparison to previously published findings. Half of participants participated for free while the other half paid for access. The website provided each participant a temperament questionnaire and instructions on how to conduct a series of ten cognitive tests. Participation required internet access, a dog and some common household items. Participants could record their responses on any PC, tablet or smartphone from anywhere in the world and data were retained on servers. Results from citizen scientists and their dogs replicated a number of previously described phenomena from conventional lab-based research. There was little evidence that citizen scientists manipulated their results. To illustrate the potential uses of relatively large samples of citizen science data, we then used factor analysis to examine individual differences across the cognitive tasks. The data were best explained by multiple factors in support of the hypothesis that nonhumans, including dogs, can evolve multiple cognitive domains that vary independently. This analysis suggests that in the future, citizen scientists will generate useful datasets that test hypotheses and answer questions as a complement to conventional laboratory techniques used to study dog psychology. PMID:26376443

  19. Citizen Science as a New Tool in Dog Cognition Research.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Laughlin; MacLean, Evan L; Ivy, David; Woods, Vanessa; Cohen, Eliot; Rodriguez, Kerri; McIntyre, Matthew; Mukherjee, Sayan; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádám; Wrangham, Richard W; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Family dogs and dog owners offer a potentially powerful way to conduct citizen science to answer questions about animal behavior that are difficult to answer with more conventional approaches. Here we evaluate the quality of the first data on dog cognition collected by citizen scientists using the Dognition.com website. We conducted analyses to understand if data generated by over 500 citizen scientists replicates internally and in comparison to previously published findings. Half of participants participated for free while the other half paid for access. The website provided each participant a temperament questionnaire and instructions on how to conduct a series of ten cognitive tests. Participation required internet access, a dog and some common household items. Participants could record their responses on any PC, tablet or smartphone from anywhere in the world and data were retained on servers. Results from citizen scientists and their dogs replicated a number of previously described phenomena from conventional lab-based research. There was little evidence that citizen scientists manipulated their results. To illustrate the potential uses of relatively large samples of citizen science data, we then used factor analysis to examine individual differences across the cognitive tasks. The data were best explained by multiple factors in support of the hypothesis that nonhumans, including dogs, can evolve multiple cognitive domains that vary independently. This analysis suggests that in the future, citizen scientists will generate useful datasets that test hypotheses and answer questions as a complement to conventional laboratory techniques used to study dog psychology.

  20. Cephalopod culture: current status of main biological models and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Erica A G; Villanueva, Roger; Andrade, José P; Gleadall, Ian G; Iglesias, José; Koueta, Noussithé; Rosas, Carlos; Segawa, Susumu; Grasse, Bret; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Albertin, Caroline B; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Chimal, Maria E; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Gallardo, Pedro; Le Pabic, Charles; Pascual, Cristina; Roumbedakis, Katina; Wood, James

    2014-01-01

    A recent revival in using cephalopods as experimental animals has rekindled interest in their biology and life cycles, information with direct applications also in the rapidly growing ornamental aquarium species trade and in commercial aquaculture production for human consumption. Cephalopods have high rates of growth and food conversion, which for aquaculture translates into short culture cycles, high ratios of production to biomass and high cost-effectiveness. However, at present, only small-scale culture is possible and only for a few species: the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana and the octopuses Octopus maya and O. vulgaris. These four species are the focus of this chapter, the aims of which are as follows: (1) to provide an overview of the culture requirements of cephalopods, (2) to highlight the physical and nutritional requirements at each phase of the life cycle regarded as essential for successful full-scale culture and (3) to identify current limitations and the topics on which further research is required. Knowledge of cephalopod culture methods is advanced, but commercialization is still constrained by the highly selective feeding habits of cephalopods and their requirement for large quantities of high-quality (preferably live) feed, particularly in the early stages of development. Future research should focus on problems related to the consistent production of viable numbers of juveniles, the resolution of which requires a better understanding of nutrition at all phases of the life cycle and better broodstock management, particularly regarding developments in genetic selection, control of reproduction and quality of eggs and offspring. PMID:24880794

  1. Cephalopod culture: current status of main biological models and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Erica A G; Villanueva, Roger; Andrade, José P; Gleadall, Ian G; Iglesias, José; Koueta, Noussithé; Rosas, Carlos; Segawa, Susumu; Grasse, Bret; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Albertin, Caroline B; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Chimal, Maria E; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Gallardo, Pedro; Le Pabic, Charles; Pascual, Cristina; Roumbedakis, Katina; Wood, James

    2014-01-01

    A recent revival in using cephalopods as experimental animals has rekindled interest in their biology and life cycles, information with direct applications also in the rapidly growing ornamental aquarium species trade and in commercial aquaculture production for human consumption. Cephalopods have high rates of growth and food conversion, which for aquaculture translates into short culture cycles, high ratios of production to biomass and high cost-effectiveness. However, at present, only small-scale culture is possible and only for a few species: the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana and the octopuses Octopus maya and O. vulgaris. These four species are the focus of this chapter, the aims of which are as follows: (1) to provide an overview of the culture requirements of cephalopods, (2) to highlight the physical and nutritional requirements at each phase of the life cycle regarded as essential for successful full-scale culture and (3) to identify current limitations and the topics on which further research is required. Knowledge of cephalopod culture methods is advanced, but commercialization is still constrained by the highly selective feeding habits of cephalopods and their requirement for large quantities of high-quality (preferably live) feed, particularly in the early stages of development. Future research should focus on problems related to the consistent production of viable numbers of juveniles, the resolution of which requires a better understanding of nutrition at all phases of the life cycle and better broodstock management, particularly regarding developments in genetic selection, control of reproduction and quality of eggs and offspring.

  2. [The main directions of research on the causes conditioning the occurrence of the borderline personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-10-01

    Currently, there are two main directions of explaining the occurrence of the borderline personality disorders (BPD). The first of them attempts to explain them upon the constitutional basis, finding the causes in the genetic conditioning, biological and organic factors. The other one underline a role of the psychological developmental categories. A significant role is ascribed to traumatic childhood mental experiences such as: harassment and sexual abuse, as well as neglect of emotional and developmental needs of a child. About 40-71% of the infirm with the borderline personality admits to have been sexually abused. It was observed that there is a connection between the extent of sexual abuse of an individual in childhood and the intensification of the disorders proper for the borderline personality. One should, however, point out that sexual abuse, although they are regarded as a risk factor, are not seen as specific to the infirm with the borderline personality disorders. Moreover, there is a third direction referred to in the literature, seeking the causes of the occurrence of the borderline personality in a significant influence of social-cultural and environment factors. It was noticed that there is a significant correlation between the social situation and the degree of dissemination of those disorders. The borderline personality disorders are more frequent among the people of the low social status background and with relatively low level of education. More and more frequently, theorists and clinical personnel adhere to the view that the development of that disorder is caused by a combination of neurobiological and social factors, together with the pathological qualities of early-childhood development.

  3. Emerging Imaging Tools for Use with Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Tong, Karen A.; Holshouser, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article identifies emerging neuroimaging measures considered by the inter-agency Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Neuroimaging Workgroup. This article attempts to address some of the potential uses of more advanced forms of imaging in TBI as well as highlight some of the current considerations and unresolved challenges of using them. We summarize emerging elements likely to gain more widespread use in the coming years, because of 1) their utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the natural course of degeneration or recovery following TBI, and potential for evaluating treatment strategies; 2) the ability of many centers to acquire these data with scanners and equipment that are readily available in existing clinical and research settings; and 3) advances in software that provide more automated, readily available, and cost-effective analysis methods for large scale data image analysis. These include multi-slice CT, volumetric MRI analysis, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), arterial spin tag labeling (ASL), functional MRI (fMRI), including resting state and connectivity MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and hyperpolarization scanning. However, we also include brief introductions to other specialized forms of advanced imaging that currently do require specialized equipment, for example, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), encephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)/magnetic source imaging (MSI). Finally, we identify some of the challenges that users of the emerging imaging CDEs may wish to consider, including quality control, performing multi-site and longitudinal imaging studies, and MR scanning in infants and children. PMID:21787167

  4. The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System: Data and Tools for Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosp, B. W.; Ao, C. O.; Chao, Y.; Dang, V.; Garay, M.; Haddad, Z.; Hristova-Veleva, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P. P.; Park, K.; Poulsen, W. L.; Rosenman, M. A.; Su, H.; Vane, D.; Vu, Q. A.; Willis, J. K.; Wu, D.

    2008-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) is now open to the public. This web portal is designed to assist researchers by providing a one-stop shop for hurricane related data and analysis tools. While there are currently many places that offer storm data, plots, and other information, none offer an extensive archive of data files and images in a common space. The JPL TCIS was created to fill this gap. As currently configured, the JPL Tropical Cyclone Portal has three main features for researchers. The first feature consists of storm-scale data and plots for both observed and modeled data. As of the TCIS' first release, the entire 2005 storm season has been populated with data and plots from AIRS, MLS, AMSU-A, QuikSCAT, Argo floats, WRF models, GPS, and others. Storm data is subsetted to a 1000x1000 km window around the hurricane track for all six oceanic cyclone basins, and all the available data during the life time of any storm can be downloaded with one mouse click. Users can also view pre-generated storm-scale plots from all these data sets that are all co-located to the same temporal and spatial parameters. Work is currently underway to backfill all storm seasons to 1998 with as many relevant data sets as possible. The second offering from this web portal are large-scale data sets and associated visualization tools powered by Google Maps. On this interactive map, researchers can view a particular storm's intensity and track. Users may also overlay large-scale data such as aerosol maps from MODIS and MISR, and a blended microwave sea-surface temperature (SST) to gain an understanding of the large-scale environment of the storm. For example, by using this map, the cold sea-surface temperature wake can be tracked as a storm passes by. The third feature of this portal deals with interactive model and data analysis. A single-parameter analysis tools has recently been developed and added to this portal where users can plot maps, profiles, and histograms of

  5. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  6. Research on efficient and stable milling using CNC small size tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yongxin; Zhao, Beichen; Long, Hua; Yu, Nanlin

    2011-05-01

    In order to mill efficiently and stably using small size tool on computer numerical control machine(CNC machine), the paper establishes dual-objective function on the basis of the minimum tool wear and the largest cutting efficiency. Meanwhile, the influence of diameter and length of tool suspended on stability is considered under the guidance of chatter stability analysis relationship. Research results show that, Pareto solution set which has two factors into account conflicting can be obtained by Genetic Algorithms, combined Pareto solution set with the frequency response function (FRF) chatter stability diagram, Pareto solutions of the smaller range of options, the milling parameters which meet the requirements of efficient and stable milling of CNC machine tools can be optimized conveniently and accurately. When the tool suspended length increases, the system stiffness decreases and the chatter stability domain graphic drops down, Stability region narrows.

  7. Development of Advanced Computational Aeroelasticity Tools at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has continued to develop its long standing computational tools to address new challenges in aircraft and launch vehicle design. This paper discusses the application and development of those computational aeroelastic tools. Four topic areas will be discussed: 1) Modeling structural and flow field nonlinearities; 2) Integrated and modular approaches to nonlinear multidisciplinary analysis; 3) Simulating flight dynamics of flexible vehicles; and 4) Applications that support both aeronautics and space exploration.

  8. Communication research between working capacity of hard- alloy cutting tools and fractal dimension of their wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, K.; Nesterenko, V.; Daneykina, N.

    2016-06-01

    The results of communication research between the wear resistance of the K applicability hard-alloy cutting tools and the fractal dimension of the wear surface, which is formed on a back side of the cutting edge when processing the materials showing high adhesive activity are presented in the paper. It has been established that the wear resistance of tested cutting tools samples increases according to a fractal dimension increase of their wear surface.

  9. A Tool for Measuring NASA's Aeronautics Research Progress Toward Planned Strategic Community Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. For efficiency and speed, the tool takes advantage of a function developed in Excels Visual Basic for Applications. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly discussed. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples of using the tool are also presented.

  10. Interactive Data Visualization for HIV Cohorts: Leveraging Data Exchange Standards to Share and Reuse Research Tools

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Meridith; Wehbe, Firas H.; Rebeiro, Peter F.; Caro-Vega, Yanink; McGowan, Catherine C.; Shepherd, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and disseminate tools for interactive visualization of HIV cohort data. Design and Methods If a picture is worth a thousand words, then an interactive video, composed of a long string of pictures, can produce an even richer presentation of HIV population dynamics. We developed an HIV cohort data visualization tool using open-source software (R statistical language). The tool requires that the data structure conform to the HIV Cohort Data Exchange Protocol (HICDEP), and our implementation utilized Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet) data. Results This tool currently presents patient-level data in three classes of plots: (1) Longitudinal plots showing changes in measurements viewed alongside event probability curves allowing for simultaneous inspection of outcomes by relevant patient classes. (2) Bubble plots showing changes in indicators over time allowing for observation of group level dynamics. (3) Heat maps of levels of indicators changing over time allowing for observation of spatial-temporal dynamics. Examples of each class of plot are given using CCASAnet data investigating trends in CD4 count and AIDS at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, CD4 trajectories after ART initiation, and mortality. Conclusions We invite researchers interested in this data visualization effort to use these tools and to suggest new classes of data visualization. We aim to contribute additional shareable tools in the spirit of open scientific collaboration and hope that these tools further the participation in open data standards like HICDEP by the HIV research community. PMID:26963255

  11. Isotope pattern deconvolution as rising tool for isotope tracer studies in environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade stable isotope tracers have emerged as versatile tool in ecological research. Besides 'intrinsic' isotope tracers caused by the natural variation of isotopes, the intentional introduction of 'extrinsic' enriched stable isotope tracers into biological systems has gained significant interest. Hereby the induced change in the natural isotopic composition of an element allows amongst others for studying the fate and fluxes of metals, trace elements and species in organisms or provides an intrinsic marker or tag of particular biological samples. Due to the shoreless potential of this methodology, the number of publications dealing with applications of isotope (double) spikes as tracers to address research questions in 'real world systems' is constantly increasing. However, some isotope systems like the natural Sr isotopic system, although potentially very powerful for this type of application, are still rarely used, mainly because their adequate measurement/determination poses major analytical challenges; as e.g. Sr is available in significant amounts in natural samples. In addition, biological systems underlie complex processes such as metabolism, adsorption/desorption or oxidation/reduction. As a consequence, classic evaluation approaches such as the isotope dilution mass spectrometry equation are often not applicable because of the unknown amount of tracer finally present in the sample. Isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD), based on multiple linear regression, serves as simplified alternative data processing strategy to double spike isotope dilution calculations. The outstanding advantage of this mathematical tool lies in the possibility of deconvolving the isotope pattern in a spiked sample without knowing the quantities of enriched isotope tracer being incorporated into the natural sample matrix as well as the degree of impurities and species-interconversion (e.g. from sample preparation). Here, the potential of IPD for environmental tracer

  12. Basics, common errors and essentials of statistical tools and techniques in anesthesiology research

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2015-01-01

    The statistical portion is a vital component of any research study. The research methodology and the application of statistical tools and techniques have evolved over the years and have significantly helped the research activities throughout the globe. The results and inferences are not accurately possible without proper validation with various statistical tools and tests. The evidencebased anesthesia research and practice has to incorporate statistical tools in the methodology right from the planning stage of the study itself. Though the medical fraternity is well acquainted with the significance of statistics in research, there is a lack of in-depth knowledge about the various statistical concepts and principles among majority of the researchers. The clinical impact and consequences can be serious as the incorrect analysis, conclusions, and false results may construct an artificial platform on which future research activities are replicated. The present tutorial is an attempt to make anesthesiologists aware of the various aspects of statistical methods used in evidence-based research and also to highlight the common areas where maximum number of statistical errors are committed so as to adopt better statistical practices. PMID:26702217

  13. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  14. Research-tool patents: issues for health in the developing world.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The patent system is now reaching into the tools of medical research, including gene sequences themselves. Many of the new patents can potentially preempt large areas of medical research and lay down legal barriers to the development of a broad category of products. Researchers must therefore consider redesigning their research to avoid use of patented techniques, or expending the effort to obtain licences from those who hold the patents. Even if total licence fees can be kept low, there are enormous negotiation costs, and one "hold-out" may be enough to lead to project cancellation. This is making it more difficult to conduct research within the developed world, and poses important questions for the future of medical research for the benefit of the developing world. Probably the most important implication for health in the developing world is the possible general slowing down and complication of medical research. To the extent that these patents do slow down research, they weaken the contribution of the global research community to the creation and application of medical technology for the benefit of developing nations. The patents may also complicate the granting of concessional prices to developing nations - for pharmaceutical firms that seek to offer a concessional price may have to negotiate arrangements with research-tool firms, which may lose royalties as a result. Three kinds of response are plausible. One is to develop a broad or global licence to permit the patented technologies to be used for important applications in the developing world. The second is to change technical patent law doctrines. Such changes could be implemented in developed and developing nations and could be quite helpful while remaining consistent with TRIPS. The third is to negotiate specific licence arrangements, under which specific research tools are used on an agreed basis for specific applications. These negotiations are difficult and expensive, requiring both scientific and

  15. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  16. Knowledge Translation Tools are Emerging to Move Neck Pain Research into Practice

    PubMed Central

    MacDermid, Joy C.; Miller, Jordan; Gross, Anita R.

    2013-01-01

    Development or synthesis of the best clinical research is in itself insufficient to change practice. Knowledge translation (KT) is an emerging field focused on moving knowledge into practice, which is a non-linear, dynamic process that involves knowledge synthesis, transfer, adoption, implementation, and sustained use. Successful implementation requires using KT strategies based on theory, evidence, and best practice, including tools and processes that engage knowledge developers and knowledge users. Tools can provide instrumental help in implementing evidence. A variety of theoretical frameworks underlie KT and provide guidance on how tools should be developed or implemented. A taxonomy that outlines different purposes for engaging in KT and target audiences can also be useful in developing or implementing tools. Theoretical frameworks that underlie KT typically take different perspectives on KT with differential focus on the characteristics of the knowledge, knowledge users, context/environment, or the cognitive and social processes that are involved in change. Knowledge users include consumers, clinicians, and policymakers. A variety of KT tools have supporting evidence, including: clinical practice guidelines, patient decision aids, and evidence summaries or toolkits. Exemplars are provided of two KT tools to implement best practice in management of neck pain—a clinician implementation guide (toolkit) and a patient decision aid. KT frameworks, taxonomies, clinical expertise, and evidence must be integrated to develop clinical tools that implement best evidence in the management of neck pain. PMID:24155807

  17. Medical informatics: an essential tool for health sciences research in acute care.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Pickering, Brian W; Smith, Vernon D; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Gajic, Ognjen; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU). We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and administrative data from heterogeneous sources within the EMR to support research and practice improvement in the ICUs. Examples of intelligent alarms -- "sniffers", administrative reports, decision support and clinical research applications are presented.

  18. The Research-Teaching Nexus: Using a Construction Teaching Event as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanovas-Rubio, Maria del Mar; Ahearn, Alison; Ramos, Gonzalo; Popo-Ola, Sunday

    2016-01-01

    In principle, the research-teaching nexus should be seen as a two-way link, showing not only ways in which research supports teaching but also ways in which teaching supports research. In reality, the discussion has been limited almost entirely to the first of these practices. This paper presents a case study in which some student field-trip…

  19. Research-IQ: Development and Evaluation of an Ontology-anchored Integrative Query Tool

    PubMed Central

    Borlawsky, Tara B.; Lele, Omkar; Payne, Philip R. O.

    2011-01-01

    Investigators in the translational research and systems medicine domains require highly usable, efficient and integrative tools and methods that allow for the navigation of and reasoning over emerging large-scale data sets. Such resources must cover a spectrum of granularity from bio-molecules to population phenotypes. Given such information needs, we report upon the initial design and evaluation of an ontology-anchored integrative query tool, Research-IQ, which employs a combination of conceptual knowledge engineering and information retrieval techniques to enable the intuitive and rapid construction of queries, in terms of semi-structured textual propositions, that can subsequently be applied to integrative data sets. Our initial results, based upon both quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the efficacy and usability of Research-IQ, demonstrate its potential to increase clinical and translational research throughput. PMID:21821150

  20. (Re)braiding to Tell: Using "Trenzas" as a Metaphorical-Analytical Tool in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiñones, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Metaphors can be used in qualitative research to illuminate the meanings of participant experiences and examine phenomena from insightful and creative perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how I utilized "trenzas" (braids) as a metaphorical and analytical tool for understanding the experiences and perspectives of…

  1. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: A meta-analysis exemplar

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sharon A.; Martin, Ellen E.; Garcia, Theresa J.; Winter, Mary A.; García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E.; Sumlin, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, e.g., EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process, as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this paper is to describe the electronic processes we designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive quantitative model-testing meta-analysis we are conducting. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to: decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be employed, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

  2. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  3. Family Myths, Beliefs, and Customs as a Research/Educational Tool to Explore Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines a qualitative research tool designed to explore personal identity formation as described by Erik Erikson and offers self-reflective and anonymous evaluative comments made by college students after completing this task. Subjects compiled a list of 200 myths, customs, fables, rituals, and beliefs from their family of origin and…

  4. Basic Reference Tools for Nursing Research. A Workbook with Explanations and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Topsy N.

    This workbook is designed to introduce nursing students to basic concepts and skills needed for searching the literatures of medicine, nursing, and allied health areas for materials relevant to specific information needs. The workbook introduces the following research tools: (1) the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE searches, including a…

  5. A Portfolio Analysis Tool for Measuring NASAs Aeronautics Research Progress toward Planned Strategic Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly described. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples are also presented.

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Grant Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…

  7. Creating the Tools for Multilingualism: A School-Based Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the small-scale evaluation of a school-based action research project, focusing on the creation of teaching materials aimed at developing tools for multilingualism for pupils aged 7-14. This three-year project was launched in September 2004 in 12 state primary schools and two secondary schools in two local authorities in the…

  8. Improving the Usefulness of Concept Maps as a Research Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zele, Els; Lenaerts, Josephina; Wieme, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The search for authentic science research tools to evaluate student understanding in a hybrid learning environment with a large multimedia component has resulted in the use of concept maps as a representation of student's knowledge organization. One hundred and seventy third-semester introductory university-level engineering students represented…

  9. DMPwerkzeug - A tool to support the planning, implementation, and organization of research data management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klar, Jochen; Engelhardt, Claudia; Neuroth, Heike; Enke, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Following the call to make the results of publicly funded research openly accessible, more and more funding agencies demand the submission of a data management plan (DMP) as part of the application process. These documents specify, how the data management of the project is organized and what datasets will be published when. Of particular importance for European researchers is the Open Data Research Pilot of Horizon 2020 which requires data management plans for a set of 9 selected research fields from social sciences to nanotechnology. In order to assist the researchers creating these documents, several institutions developed dedicated software tools. The most well-known are DMPonline by the Digital Curation Centre (DCC) and DMPtool by the California Digital Library (CDL) - both extensive and well received web applications. The core functionality of these tools is the assisted editing of the DMP templates provided by the particular funding agency.While this is certainly helpful, especially in an environment with a plethora of different funding agencies like the UK or the USA, these tools are somewhat limited to this particular task and don't utilise the full potential of DMP. Beyond the purpose of fulfilling funder requirements, DMP can be useful for a number of additional tasks. In the initial conception phase of a project, they can be used as a planning tool to determine which date management activities and measures are necessary throughout the research process, to assess which resources are needed, and which institutions (computing centers, libraries, data centers) should be involved. During the project, they can act as a constant reference or guideline for the handling of research data. They also determine where the data will be stored after the project has ended and whether it can be accessed by the public, helping to take into account resulting requirements of the data center or actions necessary to ensure re-usability by others from early on. Ideally, a DMP

  10. Stone tool analysis and human origins research: some advice from Uncle Screwtape.

    PubMed

    Shea, John J

    2011-01-01

    The production of purposefully fractured stone tools with functional, sharp cutting edges is a uniquely derived hominin adaptation. In the long history of life on earth, only hominins have adopted this remarkably expedient and broadly effective technological strategy. In the paleontological record, flaked stone tools are irrefutable proof that hominins were present at a particular place and time. Flaked stone tools are found in contexts ranging from the Arctic to equatorial rainforests and on every continent except Antarctica. Paleolithic stone tools show complex patterns of variability, suggesting that they have been subject to the variable selective pressures that have shaped so many other aspects of hominin behavior and morphology. There is every reason to expect that insights gained from studying stone tools should provide vital and important information about the course of human evolution. And yet, one senses that archeological analyses of Paleolithic stone tools are not making as much of a contribution as they could to the major issues in human origins research.

  11. Building genetic tools in Drosophila research: an interview with Gerald Rubin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Gerald (Gerry) Rubin, pioneer in Drosophila genetics, is Founding Director of the HHMI-funded Janelia Research Campus. In this interview, Gerry recounts key events and collaborations that have shaped his unique approach to scientific exploration, decision-making, management and mentorship – an approach that forms the cornerstone of the model adopted at Janelia to tackle problems in interdisciplinary biomedical research. Gerry describes his remarkable journey from newcomer to internationally renowned leader in the fly field, highlighting his contributions to the tools and resources that have helped establish Drosophila as an important model in translational research. Describing himself as a ‘tool builder’, his current focus is on developing approaches for in-depth study of the fly nervous system, in order to understand key principles in neurobiology. Gerry was interviewed by Ross Cagan, Senior Editor of Disease Models & Mechanisms. PMID:27053132

  12. The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA): Online Research Data, Tools, and References

    PubMed Central

    Finke, Roger; Adamczyk, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) currently archives over 400 local, national, and international data files, and offers a wide range of research tools to build surveys, preview data on-line, develop customized maps and reports of U.S. church membership, and examine religion differences across nations and regions of the world. The ARDA also supports reference and teaching tools that draw on the rich data archive. This research note offers a brief introduction to the quantitative data available for exploration or download, and a few of the website features most useful for research and teaching. Supported by the Lilly Endowment, the John Templeton Foundation, the Pennsylvania State University, and the Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion, all data downloads and online services are free of charge. PMID:25484914

  13. Information Technology Research Services: Powerful Tools to Keep Up with a Rapidly Moving Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Marty firms offer Information Technology Research reports, analyst calls, conferences, seminars, tools, leadership development, etc. These entities include Gartner, Forrester Research, IDC, The Burton Group, Society for Information Management, 1nfoTech Research, The Corporate Executive Board, and so on. This talk will cover how a number of such services are being used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to improve our IT management practices, workforce skills, approach to innovation, and service delivery. These tools and services are used across the workforce, from the executive leadership to the IT worker. The presentation will cover the types of services each vendor provides and their primary engagement model. The use of these services at other NASA Centers and Headquarters will be included. In addition, I will explain how two of these services are available now to the entire NASA IT workforce through enterprise-wide subscriptions.

  14. "Blogs" and "wikis" are valuable software tools for communication within research groups.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Igor M; Bialek, Dominik; Efimova, Ekaterina; Schwartlander, Ruth; Pless, Gesine; Neuhaus, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate software tools may improve communication and ease access to knowledge for research groups. A weblog is a website which contains periodic, chronologically ordered posts on a common webpage, whereas a wiki is hypertext-based collaborative software that enables documents to be authored collectively using a web browser. Although not primarily intended for use as an intranet-based collaborative knowledge warehouse, both blogs and wikis have the potential to offer all the features of complex and expensive IT solutions. These tools enable the team members to share knowledge simply and quickly-the collective knowledge base of the group can be efficiently managed and navigated.

  15. Integrated Decision-Making Tool to Develop Spent Fuel Strategies for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, Randy L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    IAEA Member States operating or having previously operated a Research Reactor are responsible for the safe and sustainable management and disposal of associated radioactive waste, including research reactor spent nuclear fuel (RRSNF). This includes the safe disposal of RRSNF or the corresponding equivalent waste returned after spent fuel reprocessing. One key challenge to developing general recommendations lies in the diversity of spent fuel types, locations and national/regional circumstances rather than mass or volume alone. This is especially true given that RRSNF inventories are relatively small, and research reactors are rarely operated at a high power level or duration typical of commercial power plants. Presently, many countries lack an effective long-term policy for managing RRSNF. This paper presents results of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) #T33001 on Options and Technologies for Managing the Back End of the Research Reactor Nuclear Fuel Cycle which includes an Integrated Decision Making Tool called BRIDE (Back-end Research reactor Integrated Decision Evaluation). This is a multi-attribute decision-making tool that combines the Total Estimated Cost of each life-cycle scenario with Non-economic factors such as public acceptance, technical maturity etc and ranks optional back-end scenarios specific to member states situations in order to develop a specific member state strategic plan with a preferred or recommended option for managing spent fuel from Research Reactors.

  16. Comparing probability and non-probability sampling methods in Ecstasy research: implications for the internet as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Miller, Peter G; Johnston, Jennifer; Dunn, Matthew; Fry, Craig L; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2010-02-01

    The usage of Ecstasy and related drug (ERD) has increasingly been the focus of epidemiological and other public health-related research. One of the more promising methods is the use of the Internet as a recruitment and survey tool. However, there remain methodological concerns and questions about representativeness. Three samples of ERD users in Melbourne, Australia surveyed in 2004 are compared in terms of a number of key demographic and drug use variables. The Internet, face-to-face, and probability sampling methods appear to access similar but not identical groups of ERD users. Implications and limitations of the study are noted and future research is recommended.

  17. Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy: An Emerging Tool for Fundamental Catalysis Research.

    PubMed

    Altman, Eric I; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Schwarz, Udo D

    2015-09-15

    Although atomic force microscopy (AFM) was rapidly adopted as a routine surface imaging apparatus after its introduction in 1986, it has not been widely used in catalysis research. The reason is that common AFM operating modes do not provide the atomic resolution required to follow catalytic processes; rather the more complex noncontact (NC) mode is needed. Thus, scanning tunneling microscopy has been the principal tool for atomic scale catalysis research. In this Account, recent developments in NC-AFM will be presented that offer significant advantages for gaining a complete atomic level view of catalysis. The main advantage of NC-AFM is that the image contrast is due to the very short-range chemical forces that are of interest in catalysis. This motivated our development of 3D-AFM, a method that yields quantitative atomic resolution images of the potential energy surfaces that govern how molecules approach, stick, diffuse, and rebound from surfaces. A variation of 3D-AFM allows the determination of forces required to push atoms and molecules on surfaces, from which diffusion barriers and variations in adsorption strength may be obtained. Pushing molecules towards each other provides access to intermolecular interaction between reaction partners. Following reaction, NC-AFM with CO-terminated tips yields textbook images of intramolecular structure that can be used to identify reaction intermediates and products. Because NC-AFM and STM contrast mechanisms are distinct, combining the two methods can produce unique insight. It is demonstrated for surface-oxidized Cu(100) that simultaneous 3D-AFM/STM yields resolution of both the Cu and O atoms. Moreover, atomic defects in the Cu sublattice lead to variations in the reactivity of the neighboring O atoms. It is shown that NC-AFM also allows a straightforward imaging of work function variations which has been used to identify defect charge states on catalytic surfaces and to map charge transfer within an individual

  18. New Tools for New Research in Psychiatry: A Scalable and Customizable Platform to Empower Data Driven Smartphone Research

    PubMed Central

    Torous, John; Kiang, Mathew V; Lorme, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Background A longstanding barrier to progress in psychiatry, both in clinical settings and research trials, has been the persistent difficulty of accurately and reliably quantifying disease phenotypes. Mobile phone technology combined with data science has the potential to offer medicine a wealth of additional information on disease phenotypes, but the large majority of existing smartphone apps are not intended for use as biomedical research platforms and, as such, do not generate research-quality data. Objective Our aim is not the creation of yet another app per se but rather the establishment of a platform to collect research-quality smartphone raw sensor and usage pattern data. Our ultimate goal is to develop statistical, mathematical, and computational methodology to enable us and others to extract biomedical and clinical insights from smartphone data. Methods We report on the development and early testing of Beiwe, a research platform featuring a study portal, smartphone app, database, and data modeling and analysis tools designed and developed specifically for transparent, customizable, and reproducible biomedical research use, in particular for the study of psychiatric and neurological disorders. We also outline a proposed study using the platform for patients with schizophrenia. Results We demonstrate the passive data capabilities of the Beiwe platform and early results of its analytical capabilities. Conclusions Smartphone sensors and phone usage patterns, when coupled with appropriate statistical learning tools, are able to capture various social and behavioral manifestations of illnesses, in naturalistic settings, as lived and experienced by patients. The ubiquity of smartphones makes this type of moment-by-moment quantification of disease phenotypes highly scalable and, when integrated within a transparent research platform, presents tremendous opportunities for research, discovery, and patient health. PMID:27150677

  19. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Main report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B.

    1995-06-01

    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer e following software development and assurance activities: Requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, inclukding static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire ran e identification, categorization and prioritization of technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary includes an overview of the framwork and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; this document, Volume 2, is the main report.

  20. The need for novel informatics tools for integrating and planning research in molecular and cellular cognition

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2015-01-01

    The sheer volume and complexity of publications in the biological sciences are straining traditional approaches to research planning. Nowhere is this problem more serious than in molecular and cellular cognition, since in this neuroscience field, researchers routinely use approaches and information from a variety of areas in neuroscience and other biology fields. Additionally, the multilevel integration process characteristic of this field involves the establishment of experimental connections between molecular, electrophysiological, behavioral, and even cognitive data. This multidisciplinary integration process requires strategies and approaches that originate in several different fields, which greatly increases the complexity and demands of this process. Although causal assertions, where phenomenon A is thought to contribute or relate to B, are at the center of this integration process and key to research in biology, there are currently no tools to help scientists keep track of the increasingly more complex network of causal connections they use when making research decisions. Here, we propose the development of semiautomated graphical and interactive tools to help neuroscientists and other biologists, including those working in molecular and cellular cognition, to track, map, and weight causal evidence in research papers. There is a great need for a concerted effort by biologists, computer scientists, and funding institutions to develop maps of causal information that would aid in integration of research findings and in experiment planning. PMID:26286658

  1. A new research tool for hybrid Bayesian networks using script language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Park, Cheol Young; Carvalho, Rommel

    2011-06-01

    While continuous variables become more and more inevitable in Bayesian networks for modeling real-life applications in complex systems, there are not much software tools to support it. Popular commercial Bayesian network tools such as Hugin, and Netica etc., are either expensive or have to discretize continuous variables. In addition, some free programs existing in the literature, commonly known as BNT, GeNie/SMILE, etc, have their own advantages and disadvantages respectively. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed Java tool for model construction and inference for hybrid Bayesian networks. Via the representation power of the script language, this tool can build the hybrid model automatically based on a well defined string that follows the specific grammars. Furthermore, it implements several inference algorithms capable to accommodate hybrid Bayesian networks, including Junction Tree algorithm (JT) for conditional linear Gaussian model (CLG), and Direct Message Passing (DMP) for general hybrid Bayesian networks with CLG structure. We believe this tool will be useful for researchers in the field.

  2. A Runtime Environment for Supporting Research in Resilient HPC System Software & Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Vallee, Geoffroy R; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Boehm, Swen; Engelmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community continues to increase the size and complexity of hardware platforms that support advanced scientific workloads. The runtime environment (RTE) is a crucial layer in the software stack for these large-scale systems. The RTE manages the interface between the operating system and the application running in parallel on the machine. The deployment of applications and tools on large-scale HPC computing systems requires the RTE to manage process creation in a scalable manner, support sparse connectivity, and provide fault tolerance. We have developed a new RTE that provides a basis for building distributed execution environments and developing tools for HPC to aid research in system software and resilience. This paper describes the software architecture of the Scalable runTime Component Infrastructure (STCI), which is intended to provide a complete infrastructure for scalable start-up and management of many processes in large-scale HPC systems. We highlight features of the current implementation, which is provided as a system library that allows developers to easily use and integrate STCI in their tools and/or applications. The motivation for this work has been to support ongoing research activities in fault-tolerance for large-scale systems. We discuss the advantages of the modular framework employed and describe two use cases that demonstrate its capabilities: (i) an alternate runtime for a Message Passing Interface (MPI) stack, and (ii) a distributed control and communication substrate for a fault-injection tool.

  3. A New Tool for Identifying Research Standards and Evaluating Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.; Paul, Pallab; Stewart, Kim A.; Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the evaluation of faculty research productivity in promotion and tenure decisions, including many articles that seek to determine the rank of various marketing journals. Yet how faculty evaluators combine journal quality, quantity, and author contribution to form judgments of a scholar's performance is unclear. A…

  4. Using Digital Video as a Research Tool: Ethical Issues for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuck, Sandy; Kearney, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Digital video and accompanying editing software are increasingly becoming more accessible for researchers in terms of ease of use and cost. The rich, visually appealing and seductive nature of video-based data can convey a strong sense of direct experience with the phenomena studied (Pea, 1999). However, the ease of selection and editing of…

  5. CRISPR: a versatile tool for both forward and reverse genetics research.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Grati, M'hamed; Ohtsuka, Masato; Schilit, Samantha L P; Quadros, Rolen M; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Human genetics research employs the two opposing approaches of forward and reverse genetics. While forward genetics identifies and links a mutation to an observed disease etiology, reverse genetics induces mutations in model organisms to study their role in disease. In most cases, causality for mutations identified by forward genetics is confirmed by reverse genetics through the development of genetically engineered animal models and an assessment of whether the model can recapitulate the disease. While many technological advances have helped improve these approaches, some gaps still remain. CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated), which has emerged as a revolutionary genetic engineering tool, holds great promise for closing such gaps. By combining the benefits of forward and reverse genetics, it has dramatically expedited human genetics research. We provide a perspective on the power of CRISPR-based forward and reverse genetics tools in human genetics and discuss its applications using some disease examples. PMID:27384229

  6. CRISPR: a versatile tool for both forward and reverse genetics research.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Grati, M'hamed; Ohtsuka, Masato; Schilit, Samantha L P; Quadros, Rolen M; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Human genetics research employs the two opposing approaches of forward and reverse genetics. While forward genetics identifies and links a mutation to an observed disease etiology, reverse genetics induces mutations in model organisms to study their role in disease. In most cases, causality for mutations identified by forward genetics is confirmed by reverse genetics through the development of genetically engineered animal models and an assessment of whether the model can recapitulate the disease. While many technological advances have helped improve these approaches, some gaps still remain. CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated), which has emerged as a revolutionary genetic engineering tool, holds great promise for closing such gaps. By combining the benefits of forward and reverse genetics, it has dramatically expedited human genetics research. We provide a perspective on the power of CRISPR-based forward and reverse genetics tools in human genetics and discuss its applications using some disease examples.

  7. Open Virtual Worlds as Pedagogical Research Tools: Learning from the Schome Park Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Peachey, Anna

    This paper introduces the term Open Virtual Worlds and argues that they are ‘unclaimed educational spaces’, which provide a valuable tool for researching pedagogy. Having explored these claims the way in which Teen Second Life® virtual world was used for pedagogical experimentation in the initial phases of the Schome Park Programme is described. Four sets of pedagogical dimensions that emerged are presented and illustrated with examples from the Schome Park Programme.

  8. DataUp: A tool to help researchers describe and share tabular data

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Carly; Kunze, John; Abrams, Stephen; Cruse, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Scientific datasets have immeasurable value, but they lose their value over time without proper documentation, long-term storage, and easy discovery and access. Across disciplines as diverse as astronomy, demography, archeology, and ecology, large numbers of small heterogeneous datasets (i.e., the long tail of data) are especially at risk unless they are properly documented, saved, and shared. One unifying factor for many of these at-risk datasets is that they reside in spreadsheets. In response to this need, the California Digital Library (CDL) partnered with Microsoft Research Connections and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to create the DataUp data management tool for Microsoft Excel. Many researchers creating these small, heterogeneous datasets use Excel at some point in their data collection and analysis workflow, so we were interested in developing a data management tool that fits easily into those work flows and minimizes the learning curve for researchers. The DataUp project began in August 2011. We first formally assessed the needs of researchers by conducting surveys and interviews of our target research groups: earth, environmental, and ecological scientists. We found that, on average, researchers had very poor data management practices, were not aware of data centers or metadata standards, and did not understand the benefits of data management or sharing. Based on our survey results, we composed a list of desirable components and requirements and solicited feedback from the community to prioritize potential features of the DataUp tool. These requirements were then relayed to the software developers, and DataUp was successfully launched in October 2012. PMID:25653834

  9. DataUp: A tool to help researchers describe and share tabular data.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Carly; Kunze, John; Abrams, Stephen; Cruse, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Scientific datasets have immeasurable value, but they lose their value over time without proper documentation, long-term storage, and easy discovery and access. Across disciplines as diverse as astronomy, demography, archeology, and ecology, large numbers of small heterogeneous datasets (i.e., the long tail of data) are especially at risk unless they are properly documented, saved, and shared. One unifying factor for many of these at-risk datasets is that they reside in spreadsheets. In response to this need, the California Digital Library (CDL) partnered with Microsoft Research Connections and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to create the DataUp data management tool for Microsoft Excel. Many researchers creating these small, heterogeneous datasets use Excel at some point in their data collection and analysis workflow, so we were interested in developing a data management tool that fits easily into those work flows and minimizes the learning curve for researchers. The DataUp project began in August 2011. We first formally assessed the needs of researchers by conducting surveys and interviews of our target research groups: earth, environmental, and ecological scientists. We found that, on average, researchers had very poor data management practices, were not aware of data centers or metadata standards, and did not understand the benefits of data management or sharing. Based on our survey results, we composed a list of desirable components and requirements and solicited feedback from the community to prioritize potential features of the DataUp tool. These requirements were then relayed to the software developers, and DataUp was successfully launched in October 2012.

  10. Easily configured real-time CPOE Pick Off Tool supporting focused clinical research and quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Silkin, Nikolay; Miller, Randolph A

    2014-01-01

    Real-time alerting systems typically warn providers about abnormal laboratory results or medication interactions. For more complex tasks, institutions create site-wide ‘data warehouses’ to support quality audits and longitudinal research. Sophisticated systems like i2b2 or Stanford's STRIDE utilize data warehouses to identify cohorts for research and quality monitoring. However, substantial resources are required to install and maintain such systems. For more modest goals, an organization desiring merely to identify patients with ‘isolation’ orders, or to determine patients’ eligibility for clinical trials, may adopt a simpler, limited approach based on processing the output of one clinical system, and not a data warehouse. We describe a limited, order-entry-based, real-time ‘pick off’ tool, utilizing public domain software (PHP, MySQL). Through a web interface the tool assists users in constructing complex order-related queries and auto-generates corresponding database queries that can be executed at recurring intervals. We describe successful application of the tool for research and quality monitoring. PMID:24287172

  11. CCMC: Serving research and space weather communities with unique space weather services, innovative tools and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Maddox, Marlo

    2015-04-01

    With the addition of Space Weather Research Center (a sub-team within CCMC) in 2010 to address NASA’s own space weather needs, CCMC has become a unique entity that not only facilitates research through providing access to the state-of-the-art space science and space weather models, but also plays a critical role in providing unique space weather services to NASA robotic missions, developing innovative tools and transitioning research to operations via user feedback. With scientists, forecasters and software developers working together within one team, through close and direct connection with space weather customers and trusted relationship with model developers, CCMC is flexible, nimble and effective to meet customer needs. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of CCMC/SWRC’s space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases, and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  12. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The

  13. Metaphors and Drawings as Research Tools of Head Teachers' Perceptions on Their Management and Leadership Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulou, Eleftheria; Hatira, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an alternative qualitative research tool: metaphor and drawing, as projections of personality features, to explore underlying concepts and values, thoughts and beliefs, fears and hesitations, aspirations and ambitions of the research subjects. These two projective tools are used to explore Greek state kindergarten head…

  14. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Council, Sarah E.; Horvath, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects. PMID:27047587

  15. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom.

    PubMed

    Council, Sarah E; Horvath, Julie E

    2016-03-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects.

  16. NASA System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools Research on NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.

  17. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom.

    PubMed

    Council, Sarah E; Horvath, Julie E

    2016-03-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects. PMID:27047587

  18. Approaches, tools and methods used for setting priorities in health research in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Background Health research is difficult to prioritize, because the number of possible competing ideas for research is large, the outcome of research is inherently uncertain, and the impact of research is difficult to predict and measure. A systematic and transparent process to assist policy makers and research funding agencies in making investment decisions is a permanent need. Methods To obtain a better understanding of the landscape of approaches, tools and methods used to prioritize health research, I conducted a methodical review using the PubMed database for the period 2001–2014. Results A total of 165 relevant studies were identified, in which health research prioritization was conducted. They most frequently used the CHNRI method (26%), followed by the Delphi method (24%), James Lind Alliance method (8%), the Combined Approach Matrix (CAM) method (2%) and the Essential National Health Research method (<1%). About 3% of studies reported no clear process and provided very little information on how priorities were set. A further 19% used a combination of expert panel interview and focus group discussion (“consultation process”) but provided few details, while a further 2% used approaches that were clearly described, but not established as a replicable method. Online surveys that were not accompanied by face–to–face meetings were used in 8% of studies, while 9% used a combination of literature review and questionnaire to scrutinise the research options for prioritization among the participating experts. Conclusion The number of priority setting exercises in health research published in PubMed–indexed journals is increasing, especially since 2010. These exercises are being conducted at a variety of levels, ranging from the global level to the level of an individual hospital. With the development of new tools and methods which have a well–defined structure – such as the CHNRI method, James Lind Alliance Method and Combined Approach Matrix – it is

  19. The development of a two-component force dynamometer and tool control system for dynamic machine tool research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, I. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development is presented of a tooling system that makes a controlled sinusoidal oscillation simulating a dynamic chip removal condition. It also measures the machining forces in two mutually perpendicular directions without any cross sensitivity.

  20. Helping to drive the robustness of preclinical research – the assay capability tool

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Katrina; Stanley, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Numerous articles in Nature, Science, Pharmacology Research and Perspectives, and other biomedical research journals over the past decade have highlighted that research is plagued by findings that are not reliable and cannot be reproduced. Poor experiments can occur, in part, as a consequence of inadequate statistical thinking in the experimental design, conduct and analysis. As it is not feasible for statisticians to be involved in every preclinical experiment many of the same journals have published guidelines on good statistical practice. Here, we outline a tool that addresses the root causes of irreproducibility in preclinical research in the pharmaceutical industry. The Assay Capability Tool uses 13 questions to guide scientists and statisticians during the development of in vitro and in vivo assays. It promotes the absolutely essential experimental design and analysis strategies and documents the strengths, weaknesses, and precision of an assay. However, what differentiates it from other proposed solutions is the emphasis on how the resulting data will be used. An assay can be assigned a low, medium, or high rating to indicate the level of confidence that can be afforded when making important decisions using data from that assay. This provides transparency on the appropriate interpretation of the assay's results in the light of its current capability. We suggest that following a well-defined process during assay development and use such as that laid out within the Assay Capability Tool means that whatever the results, positive or negative, a researcher can have confidence to make decisions upon and publish their findings. PMID:26236488

  1. Lowering the Barrier to Reproducible Research by Publishing Provenance from Common Analytical Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Slaughter, P.; Walker, L.; Jones, C. S.; Missier, P.; Ludäscher, B.; Cao, Y.; McPhillips, T.; Schildhauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific provenance describes the authenticity, origin, and processing history of research products and promotes scientific transparency by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. These products include papers, findings, input data, software products to perform computations, and derived data and visualizations. The geosciences community values this type of information, and, at least theoretically, strives to base conclusions on computationally replicable findings. In practice, capturing detailed provenance is laborious and thus has been a low priority; beyond a lab notebook describing methods and results, few researchers capture and preserve detailed records of scientific provenance. We have built tools for capturing and publishing provenance that integrate into analytical environments that are in widespread use by geoscientists (R and Matlab). These tools lower the barrier to provenance generation by automating capture of critical information as researchers prepare data for analysis, develop, test, and execute models, and create visualizations. The 'recordr' library in R and the `matlab-dataone` library in Matlab provide shared functions to capture provenance with minimal changes to normal working procedures. Researchers can capture both scripted and interactive sessions, tag and manage these executions as they iterate over analyses, and then prune and publish provenance metadata and derived products to the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Provenance traces conform to the ProvONE model extension of W3C PROV, enabling interoperability across tools and languages. The capture system supports fine-grained versioning of science products and provenance traces. By assigning global identifiers such as DOIs, reseachers can cite the computational processes used to reach findings. And, finally, DataONE has built a web portal to search, browse, and clearly display provenance relationships between input data, the software

  2. Autonomous profiling buoy system: a new powerful tool for research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aracri, Simona; Borghini, Mireno; Canesso, Devis; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Durante, Sara; Griffa, Annalisa; Schroeder, Katrin; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Vetrano, Anna; Kitawaza, Yuji; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    Oceanography is nowadays a fast-changing field. The scientific community is orienting towards the implementation of a growing array of satellite-borne or mobile and moored high-tech devices and sensors, while sending fewer scientists at sea to collect measurements, minimizing the expensive ship-time costs. In other words, oceanography is now moving from a platform-centric sensing system to a net-centric distributed sensing system. Integration with operational ocean models, providing the best estimate of the ocean state by means of data assimilation, is the step forward, with nowadays mature initiatives at global scale and at regional scale in the Mediterranean Sea. While the ocean still remains a complex system, largely undersampled, multiplatform-integration, improvements in tools capabilities and assimilation in models represents one way to reduce uncertainties in marine areas. In this context, and differently from mobile platforms (e.g, gliders, argos), fixed-point moorings nicely provide long term point wise time-series, but limited by a low vertical resolution. Technology is fast evolving towards the implementation of automatic profilers, which partially overcome this limitation. In June 2013 the Institute of Marine Sciences of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-ISMAR) started the test phase of one of the very few Mediterranean autonomous profiling systems installed in a open-sea mooring, transmitting, daily, hydrological vertical profiles in real time through satellite communication. The selected site was the Corsica Channel, a narrow passage between Corsica and Capraia islands, connecting the two main regions of the western Mediterranean: the Tyrrhenian and the Liguro-Provençal basins. The Corsica Channel represents a 'choke point' for the study of the dynamics and evolution of the western Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies in this passage indicate an annual and seasonal cycle with northward winter fluxes representing about the 60% of the total

  3. Extending the XNAT archive tool for image and analysis management in ophthalmology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Andreas; Lee, Kyungmoo; Harding, Adam T.; Garvin, Mona K.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Sonka, Milan; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmology, various modalities and tests are utilized to obtain vital information on the eye's structure and function. For example, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is utilized to diagnose, screen, and aid treatment of eye diseases like macular degeneration or glaucoma. Such data are complemented by photographic retinal fundus images and functional tests on the visual field. DICOM isn't widely used yet, though, and frequently images are encoded in proprietary formats. The eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Tool (XNAT) is an open-source NIH-funded framework for research PACS and is in use at the University of Iowa for neurological research applications. Its use for ophthalmology was hence desirable but posed new challenges due to data types thus far not considered and the lack of standardized formats. We developed custom tools for data types not natively recognized by XNAT itself using XNAT's low-level REST API. Vendor-provided tools can be included as necessary to convert proprietary data sets into valid DICOM. Clients can access the data in a standardized format while still retaining the original format if needed by specific analysis tools. With respective project-specific permissions, results like segmentations or quantitative evaluations can be stored as additional resources to previously uploaded datasets. Applications can use our abstract-level Python or C/C++ API to communicate with the XNAT instance. This paper describes concepts and details of the designed upload script templates, which can be customized to the needs of specific projects, and the novel client-side communication API which allows integration into new or existing research applications.

  4. VoiceThread as a Peer Review and Dissemination Tool for Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    VoiceThread has been utilized in an undergraduate research methods course for peer review and final research project dissemination. VoiceThread (http://www.voicethread.com) can be considered a social media tool, as it is a web-based technology with the capacity to enable interactive dialogue. VoiceThread is an application that allows a user to place a media collection online containing images, audio, videos, documents, and/or presentations in an interface that facilitates asynchronous communication. Participants in a VoiceThread can be passive viewers of the online content or engaged commenters via text, audio, video, with slide annotations via a doodle tool. The VoiceThread, which runs across browsers and operating systems, can be public or private for viewing and commenting and can be embedded into any website. Although few university students are aware of the VoiceThread platform (only 10% of the students surveyed by Ng (2012)), the 2009 K-12 edition of The Horizon Report (Johnson et al., 2009) lists VoiceThread as a tool to watch because of the opportunities it provides as a collaborative learning environment. In Fall 2011, eleven students enrolled in an undergraduate research methods course at Penn State Brandywine each conducted their own small-scale research project. Upon conclusion of the projects, students were required to create a poster summarizing their work for peer review. To facilitate the peer review process outside of class, each student-created PowerPoint file was placed in a VoiceThread with private access to only the class members and instructor. Each student was assigned to peer review five different student posters (i.e., VoiceThread images) with the audio and doodle tools to comment on formatting, clarity of content, etc. After the peer reviews were complete, the students were allowed to edit their PowerPoint poster files for a new VoiceThread. In the new VoiceThread, students were required to video record themselves describing their research

  5. Exploration tools for drug discovery and beyond: applying SciFinder to interdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Haldeman, Margaret; Vieira, Barbara; Winer, Fred; Knutsen, Lars J S

    2005-06-01

    Chemists have long recognized the value of online databases for surveying the literature of their field. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) databases covering almost a century's worth of journal articles and patent documents are among the best known and widely used for searching information on compounds. Today's research presents a new challenge, however, as the boundaries of chemistry and biological sciences overlap increasingly. This trend is especially true in the drug discovery field where published findings relating to both chemical and biological entities and their interactions are examined. CAS has expanded its resources to meet the requirements of the new, interdisciplinary challenges faced by today's researchers. This is evident both in the content of CAS databases, which have been expanded to include more biology-related information, and in the technology of the search tools now available to researchers on their desktop. It is the integration of content and search-and-retrieval technology that enables new insights to be made in the vast body of accumulated information. CAS's SciFinder is a widely used research tool for this purpose. PMID:16472231

  6. sRNAtoolbox: an integrated collection of small RNA research tools

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Antonio; Barturen, Guillermo; Lebrón, Ricardo; Gómez-Martín, Cristina; Alganza, Ángel; Oliver, José L.; Hackenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA research is a rapidly growing field. Apart from microRNAs, which are important regulators of gene expression, other types of functional small RNA molecules have been reported in animals and plants. MicroRNAs are important in host-microbe interactions and parasite microRNAs might modulate the innate immunity of the host. Furthermore, small RNAs can be detected in bodily fluids making them attractive non-invasive biomarker candidates. Given the general broad interest in small RNAs, and in particular microRNAs, a large number of bioinformatics aided analysis types are needed by the scientific community. To facilitate integrated sRNA research, we developed sRNAtoolbox, a set of independent but interconnected tools for expression profiling from high-throughput sequencing data, consensus differential expression, target gene prediction, visual exploration in a genome context as a function of read length, gene list analysis and blast search of unmapped reads. All tools can be used independently or for the exploration and downstream analysis of sRNAbench results. Workflows like the prediction of consensus target genes of parasite microRNAs in the host followed by the detection of enriched pathways can be easily established. The web-interface interconnecting all these tools is available at http://bioinfo5.ugr.es/srnatoolbox PMID:26019179

  7. Real simulation tools in introductory courses: packaging and repurposing our research code.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heagy, L. J.; Cockett, R.; Kang, S.; Oldenburg, D.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulations are an important tool for scientific research and applications in industry. They provide a means to experiment with physics in a tangible, visual way, often providing insights into the problem. Over the last two years, we have been developing course and laboratory materials for an undergraduate geophysics course primarily taken by non-geophysics majors, including engineers and geologists. Our aim is to provide the students with resources to build intuition about geophysical techniques, promote curiosity driven exploration, and help them develop the skills necessary to communicate across disciplines. Using open-source resources and our existing research code, we have built modules around simulations, with supporting content to give student interactive tools for exploration into the impacts of input parameters and visualization of the resulting fields, fluxes and data for a variety of problems in applied geophysics, including magnetics, seismic, electromagnetics, and direct current resistivity. The content provides context for the problems, along with exercises that are aimed at getting students to experiment and ask 'what if...?' questions. In this presentation, we will discuss our approach for designing the structure of the simulation-based modules, the resources we have used, challenges we have encountered, general feedback from students and instructors, as well as our goals and roadmap for future improvement. We hope that our experiences and approach will be beneficial to other instructors who aim to put simulation tools in the hands of students.

  8. Research concerning optimum cutting parameters according with tool path strategy for finishing procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, A. E.; Anania, F. D.; Zapciu, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optimization of cutting parameters in NC milling needs to be studied because of its influence on machining time and cost. Today, any CAM software offers many tool path strategies to milling free form geometries. However, the users must have the know-how to choose the strategies according to geometry complexity, cutting tool geometry and its contact on the machined surface. Choosing the right strategy with the right cutting parameter is a rather difficult task to do on the machine tool. In this paper we try to take into account the influence of the toolpath over the surface quality for finishing operation. The main goal is to establish a direct link between machining parameters and toolpath in order to obtain the same surface quality for different trajectories. The first step consist in making a series of experiments for standards toolpaths (which can be found in any CAM software) like one-way, zig-zag, spiral from outside to inside, zig-zag at 45 dgr on a milling center. Based on the results, a correction coefficient for the feed rate was established.

  9. Systems thinking tools as applied to community-based participatory research: a case study.

    PubMed

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2012-12-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention.

  10. Participant Satisfaction With a Preference-Setting Tool for the Return of Individual Research Results in Pediatric Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ingrid A; Iles, Brittany R; Ziniel, Sonja I; Bacon, Phoebe L; Savage, Sarah K; Christensen, Kurt D; Weitzman, Elissa R; Green, Robert C; Huntington, Noelle L

    2015-10-01

    The perceived benefit of return of individual research results (IRRs) in accordance to participants' preferences in genomic biobank research is unclear. We developed an online preference-setting tool for return of IRRs based on the preventability and severity of a condition, which included an opt-out option for IRRs for mental illness, developmental disorders, childhood-onset degenerative conditions, and adult-onset conditions. Parents of patients <18 years of age at Boston Children's Hospital were randomized to the hypothetical scenario that their child was enrolled in one of four biobanks with different policies for IRRs to receive (a) "None," (b) "All," (c) "Binary"--choice to receive all or none, and (d) "Granular"--use the preference-setting tool to choose categories of IRRs. Parents were given a hypothetical IRRs report for their child. The survey was sent to 11,391 parents and completed by 2,718. The Granular group was the most satisfied with the process, biobank, and hypothetical IRRs received. The None group was least satisfied and least likely to agree that the biobank was beneficial (p < .001). The response to the statement that the biobank was harmful was not different between groups. Our data suggest that the ability to designate preferences leads to greater satisfaction and may increase biobank participation.

  11. Participant Satisfaction With a Preference-Setting Tool for the Return of Individual Research Results in Pediatric Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ingrid A; Iles, Brittany R; Ziniel, Sonja I; Bacon, Phoebe L; Savage, Sarah K; Christensen, Kurt D; Weitzman, Elissa R; Green, Robert C; Huntington, Noelle L

    2015-10-01

    The perceived benefit of return of individual research results (IRRs) in accordance to participants' preferences in genomic biobank research is unclear. We developed an online preference-setting tool for return of IRRs based on the preventability and severity of a condition, which included an opt-out option for IRRs for mental illness, developmental disorders, childhood-onset degenerative conditions, and adult-onset conditions. Parents of patients <18 years of age at Boston Children's Hospital were randomized to the hypothetical scenario that their child was enrolled in one of four biobanks with different policies for IRRs to receive (a) "None," (b) "All," (c) "Binary"--choice to receive all or none, and (d) "Granular"--use the preference-setting tool to choose categories of IRRs. Parents were given a hypothetical IRRs report for their child. The survey was sent to 11,391 parents and completed by 2,718. The Granular group was the most satisfied with the process, biobank, and hypothetical IRRs received. The None group was least satisfied and least likely to agree that the biobank was beneficial (p < .001). The response to the statement that the biobank was harmful was not different between groups. Our data suggest that the ability to designate preferences leads to greater satisfaction and may increase biobank participation. PMID:26376753

  12. Growth and maturation in the zebrafish, Danio rerio: a staging tool for teaching and research.

    PubMed

    Singleman, Corinna; Holtzman, Nathalia G

    2014-08-01

    Zebrafish have been increasingly used as a teaching tool to enhance the learning of many biological concepts from genetics, development, and behavior to the understanding of the local watershed. Traditionally, in both research and teaching, zebrafish work has focused on embryonic stages; however, later stages, from larval through adulthood, are increasingly being examined. Defining developmental stages based on age is a problematic way to assess maturity, because many environmental factors, such as temperature, population density, and water quality, impact growth and maturation. Fish length and characterization of key external morphological traits are considered better markers for maturation state. While a number of staging series exist for zebrafish, here we present a simplified normalization table of post-embryonic maturation well suited to both educational and research use. Specifically, we utilize fish size and four easily identified external morphological traits (pigment pattern, tail fin, anal fin, and dorsal fin morphology) to describe three larval stages, a juvenile stage, and an adult stage. These simplified maturation standards will be a useful tool for both educational and research protocols.

  13. Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) user's guide, version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillin, Mark L.; Spangler, Jan L.; Dahmen, Stephen M.; Rehder, John J.

    1993-01-01

    The Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) software package is used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. It provides a highly interactive and dynamic capability for generating geometries with Bezier cubic patches. Features include automatic generation of commonly used aerospace constructs (e.g., wings and multilobed tanks); cross-section skinning; wireframe and shaded presentation; area, volume, inertia, and center-of-gravity calculations; and interfaces to various aerodynamic and structural analysis programs. A comprehensive description of SMART and how to use it is provided.

  14. Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: next generation research tools and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lienert, Florian; Lohmueller, Jason J; Garg, Abhishek; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-02-01

    Recent progress in DNA manipulation and gene circuit engineering has greatly improved our ability to programme and probe mammalian cell behaviour. These advances have led to a new generation of synthetic biology research tools and potential therapeutic applications. Programmable DNA-binding domains and RNA regulators are leading to unprecedented control of gene expression and elucidation of gene function. Rebuilding complex biological circuits such as T cell receptor signalling in isolation from their natural context has deepened our understanding of network motifs and signalling pathways. Synthetic biology is also leading to innovative therapeutic interventions based on cell-based therapies, protein drugs, vaccines and gene therapies.

  15. Frontal affinity chromatography: A unique research tool for biospecific interaction that promotes glycobiology

    PubMed Central

    KASAI, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Combination of bioaffinity and chromatography gave birth to affinity chromatography. A further combination with frontal analysis resulted in creation of frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). This new versatile research tool enabled detailed analysis of weak interactions that play essential roles in living systems, especially those between complex saccharides and saccharide-binding proteins. FAC now becomes the best method for the investigation of saccharide-binding proteins (lectins) from viewpoints of sensitivity, accuracy, and efficiency, and is contributing greatly to the development of glycobiology. It opened a door leading to deeper understanding of the significance of saccharide recognition in life. The theory is also concisely described. PMID:25169774

  16. Frontal affinity chromatography: a unique research tool for biospecific interaction that promotes glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Combination of bioaffinity and chromatography gave birth to affinity chromatography. A further combination with frontal analysis resulted in creation of frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). This new versatile research tool enabled detailed analysis of weak interactions that play essential roles in living systems, especially those between complex saccharides and saccharide-binding proteins. FAC now becomes the best method for the investigation of saccharide-binding proteins (lectins) from viewpoints of sensitivity, accuracy, and efficiency, and is contributing greatly to the development of glycobiology. It opened a door leading to deeper understanding of the significance of saccharide recognition in life. The theory is also concisely described. PMID:25169774

  17. Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: Next generation research tools and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lienert, Florian; Lohmueller, Jason J; Garg, Abhishek; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in DNA manipulation and gene circuit engineering has greatly improved our ability to programme and probe mammalian cell behaviour. These advances have led to a new generation of synthetic biology research tools and potential therapeutic applications. Programmable DNA-binding domains and RNA regulators are leading to unprecedented control of gene expression and elucidation of gene function. Rebuilding complex biological circuits such as T cell receptor signalling in isolation from their natural context has deepened our understanding of network motifs and signalling pathways. Synthetic biology is also leading to innovative therapeutic interventions based on cell-based therapies, protein drugs, vaccines and gene therapies. PMID:24434884

  18. Ocular static and dynamic light scattering: a noninvasive diagnostic tool for eye research and clinical practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2004-01-01

    The noninvasive techniques of static and dynamic light scattering are emerging as valuable diagnostic tools for the early detection of ocular and systemic diseases. These include corneal abnormalities, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic vitreopathy, and possibly macular degeneration. Systemic conditions such as diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's disease can potentially be detected early via ocular tissues. The current state of development of these techniques for application to ophthalmic research and ultimately clinical practice is reviewed. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  19. [The stimulated recall method: a research tool applicable to learning at science museums].

    PubMed

    Falcão, Douglas; Gilbert, John

    2005-01-01

    The article reports on preliminary research aimed at developing a methological tool applicable to studies of learning in informal educational settings. The study was conducted at two science museums, using a modified version of the stimulated recall method. Digital photographs replaced the traditional video in the final phase, during which eight interviews were conducted, with satisfactory results. The digital photos efficaciously and efficiently stimulated visitors to narrate their experiences and to convey the meanings they took with them from their interactions with the exhibits.

  20. High throughput tools to access images from clinical archives for research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Shawn N; Herrick, Christopher; Wang, Yanbing; Wang, Taowei David; Sack, Darren; Andriole, Katherine P; Wei, Jesse; Reynolds, Nathaniel; Plesniak, Wendy; Rosen, Bruce R; Pieper, Steven; Gollub, Randy L

    2015-04-01

    Historically, medical images collected in the course of clinical care have been difficult to access for secondary research studies. While there is a tremendous potential value in the large volume of studies contained in clinical image archives, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are designed to optimize clinical operations and workflow. Search capabilities in PACS are basic, limiting their use for population studies, and duplication of archives for research is costly. To address this need, we augment the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) open source software, providing investigators with the tools necessary to query and integrate medical record and clinical research data. Over 100 healthcare institutions have installed this suite of software tools that allows investigators to search medical record metadata including images for specific types of patients. In this report, we describe a new Medical Imaging Informatics Bench to Bedside (mi2b2) module ( www.mi2b2.org ), available now as an open source addition to the i2b2 software platform that allows medical imaging examinations collected during routine clinical care to be made available to translational investigators directly from their institution's clinical PACS for research and educational use in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Omnibus Rule. Access governance within the mi2b2 module is customizable per institution and PACS minimizing impact on clinical systems. Currently in active use at our institutions, this new technology has already been used to facilitate access to thousands of clinical MRI brain studies representing specific patient phenotypes for use in research. PMID:25316195

  1. [Cooperative health research networks: a description and analysis of a coordination tool in a public biomedical research institute].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Márcia de Oliveira; Machado, Carlos José Saldanha; Filipecki, Ana Tereza Pinto; Cortes, Bianca Antunes; Klein, Helena Espellet

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the dynamics of cooperative public health research networks, and their utilization as the principal coordination instrument for a technological development program in a public health research institution. It begins with a few methodological considerations in regard to carrying out surveys and systemizing and analyzing data. Next a brief conceptual explanation of cooperative networks is made along with the characteristics of the program. Then the cooperative networks are described and analyzed, observing the relationships between the various actors that dynamize the program, the presence of IT and communications tools, and the sharing of the techno-scientific base among the projects of cooperative networks. The article concludes by interlacing some considerations about the local appropriation of a conceptual techno-scientific organizational model - the cooperative networks. The creation of a data bank of empirical data, and of local concepts and categories for analyses are considered to be decisive factors for increasing the knowledge acquired through sociology and anthropology about research best practices and administration of biomedical research.

  2. Designing simulator tools for rail research: the case study of a train driving microworld.

    PubMed

    Naweed, A; Hockey, G R J; Clarke, S D

    2013-05-01

    The microworld simulator paradigm is well established in the areas of ship-navigation and spaceflight, but has yet to be applied to rail. This paper presents a case study aiming to address this research gap, and describes the development of a train driving microworld as a tool to overcome some common research barriers. A theoretical framework for microworld design is tested and used to explore some key methodological issues and characteristics of train driving, enhancing theory development and providing a useful guideline for the designers of other collision-avoidance systems. A detailed description is given of the ATREIDES (Adaptive Train Research Enhanced Information Display & Environment Simulator) microworld, which simulates the work environment of a train driver in a high-speed passenger train. General indications of the testable driving scenarios that may be simulated are given, and an example of an ATREIDES-based study is presented to illustrate its applied research potential. The article concludes with a review of the design process, considers some strengths and limitations, and explores some future initiatives towards enhancing the systematic study of rail research in the human factors community. PMID:23107003

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new tool for neuroeconomic research.

    PubMed

    Kopton, Isabella M; Kenning, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the application of neuroscience to economic research has gained in importance and the number of neuroeconomic studies has grown extensively. The most common method for these investigations is fMRI. However, fMRI has limitations (particularly concerning situational factors) that should be countered with other methods. This review elaborates on the use of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a new and promising tool for investigating economic decision making both in field experiments and outside the laboratory. We describe results of studies investigating the reliability of prototype NIRS studies, as well as detailing experiments using conventional and stationary fNIRS devices to analyze this potential. This review article shows that further research using mobile fNIRS for studies on economic decision making outside the laboratory could be a fruitful avenue helping to develop the potential of a new method for field experiments outside the laboratory. PMID:25147517

  4. ArrayTrack: a free FDA bioinformatics tool to support emerging biomedical research--an update.

    PubMed

    Xu, Joshua; Kelly, Reagan; Fang, Hong; Tong, Weida

    2010-08-01

    ArrayTrack is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) bioinformatics tool that has been widely adopted by the research community for genomics studies. It provides an integrated environment for microarray data management, analysis and interpretation. Most of its functionality for statistical, pathway and gene ontology analysis can also be applied independently to data generated by other molecular technologies. ArrayTrack has been undergoing active development and enhancement since its inception in 2001. This review summarises its key functionalities, with emphasis on the most recent extensions in support of the evolving needs of FDA's research programmes. ArrayTrack has added capability to manage, analyse and interpret proteomics and metabolomics data after quantification of peptides and metabolites abundance, respectively. Annotation information about single nucleotide polymorphisms and quantitative trait loci has been integrated to support genetics-related studies. Other extensions have been added to manage and analyse genomics data related to bacterial food-borne pathogens.

  5. Research-Based Monitoring, Prediction, and Analysis Tools of the Spacecraft Charging Environment for Spacecraft Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti A.; Maddox, Marlo M.; Mays, Mona Leila

    2015-01-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc. gsfc.nasa.gov) at NASA Goddard, part of the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov), is committed to providing research-based forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs, in addition to its critical role in space weather education. It provides a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, and weekly summaries and reports. In this paper, we focus on how (near) real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the integrated Space Weather Analysis system (http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable monitoring, analyzing, and predicting the spacecraft charging environment for spacecraft users. Relevant tools and resources are discussed.

  6. Genome Elimination: Translating Basic Research into a Future Tool for Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Comai, Luca

    2014-01-01

    During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach—genome elimination—for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America. PMID:24915001

  7. Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

  8. Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Michal; Matz, Sandra C; Gosling, Samuel D; Popov, Vesselin; Stillwell, David

    2015-09-01

    Facebook is rapidly gaining recognition as a powerful research tool for the social sciences. It constitutes a large and diverse pool of participants, who can be selectively recruited for both online and offline studies. Additionally, it facilitates data collection by storing detailed records of its users' demographic profiles, social interactions, and behaviors. With participants' consent, these data can be recorded retrospectively in a convenient, accurate, and inexpensive way. Based on our experience in designing, implementing, and maintaining multiple Facebook-based psychological studies that attracted over 10 million participants, we demonstrate how to recruit participants using Facebook, incentivize them effectively, and maximize their engagement. We also outline the most important opportunities and challenges associated with using Facebook for research, provide several practical guidelines on how to successfully implement studies on Facebook, and finally, discuss ethical considerations. PMID:26348336

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new tool for neuroeconomic research

    PubMed Central

    Kopton, Isabella M.; Kenning, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the application of neuroscience to economic research has gained in importance and the number of neuroeconomic studies has grown extensively. The most common method for these investigations is fMRI. However, fMRI has limitations (particularly concerning situational factors) that should be countered with other methods. This review elaborates on the use of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a new and promising tool for investigating economic decision making both in field experiments and outside the laboratory. We describe results of studies investigating the reliability of prototype NIRS studies, as well as detailing experiments using conventional and stationary fNIRS devices to analyze this potential. This review article shows that further research using mobile fNIRS for studies on economic decision making outside the laboratory could be a fruitful avenue helping to develop the potential of a new method for field experiments outside the laboratory. PMID:25147517

  10. InterMOD: integrated data and tools for the unification of model organism research

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Julie; Karra, Kalpana; Moxon, Sierra A. T.; Vallejos, Andrew; Motenko, Howie; Wong, J. D.; Aleksic, Jelena; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Harris, Todd; Hitz, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Lyne, Rachel; Neuhauser, Steven; Pich, Christian; Smith, Richard N.; Trinh, Quang; Cherry, J. Michael; Richardson, Joel; Stein, Lincoln; Twigger, Simon; Westerfield, Monte; Worthey, Elizabeth; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    Model organisms are widely used for understanding basic biology, and have significantly contributed to the study of human disease. In recent years, genomic analysis has provided extensive evidence of widespread conservation of gene sequence and function amongst eukaryotes, allowing insights from model organisms to help decipher gene function in a wider range of species. The InterMOD consortium is developing an infrastructure based around the InterMine data warehouse system to integrate genomic and functional data from a number of key model organisms, leading the way to improved cross-species research. So far including budding yeast, nematode worm, fruit fly, zebrafish, rat and mouse, the project has set up data warehouses, synchronized data models, and created analysis tools and links between data from different species. The project unites a number of major model organism databases, improving both the consistency and accessibility of comparative research, to the benefit of the wider scientific community. PMID:23652793

  11. InterMOD: integrated data and tools for the unification of model organism research.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Julie; Karra, Kalpana; Moxon, Sierra A T; Vallejos, Andrew; Motenko, Howie; Wong, J D; Aleksic, Jelena; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Harris, Todd; Hitz, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Lyne, Rachel; Neuhauser, Steven; Pich, Christian; Smith, Richard N; Trinh, Quang; Cherry, J Michael; Richardson, Joel; Stein, Lincoln; Twigger, Simon; Westerfield, Monte; Worthey, Elizabeth; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    Model organisms are widely used for understanding basic biology, and have significantly contributed to the study of human disease. In recent years, genomic analysis has provided extensive evidence of widespread conservation of gene sequence and function amongst eukaryotes, allowing insights from model organisms to help decipher gene function in a wider range of species. The InterMOD consortium is developing an infrastructure based around the InterMine data warehouse system to integrate genomic and functional data from a number of key model organisms, leading the way to improved cross-species research. So far including budding yeast, nematode worm, fruit fly, zebrafish, rat and mouse, the project has set up data warehouses, synchronized data models, and created analysis tools and links between data from different species. The project unites a number of major model organism databases, improving both the consistency and accessibility of comparative research, to the benefit of the wider scientific community. PMID:23652793

  12. Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Michal; Matz, Sandra C; Gosling, Samuel D; Popov, Vesselin; Stillwell, David

    2015-09-01

    Facebook is rapidly gaining recognition as a powerful research tool for the social sciences. It constitutes a large and diverse pool of participants, who can be selectively recruited for both online and offline studies. Additionally, it facilitates data collection by storing detailed records of its users' demographic profiles, social interactions, and behaviors. With participants' consent, these data can be recorded retrospectively in a convenient, accurate, and inexpensive way. Based on our experience in designing, implementing, and maintaining multiple Facebook-based psychological studies that attracted over 10 million participants, we demonstrate how to recruit participants using Facebook, incentivize them effectively, and maximize their engagement. We also outline the most important opportunities and challenges associated with using Facebook for research, provide several practical guidelines on how to successfully implement studies on Facebook, and finally, discuss ethical considerations.

  13. Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.

    2002-01-01

    While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plugin' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

  14. Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Trujillo, Anna; Pritchett, Amy R.

    2000-01-01

    While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plug-in' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

  15. High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography: An Emerging Tool for Small Animal Cancer Research1

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Michael J; Gleason, Shaun S; Kennel, Stephen J; Hunsicker, Patricia R; Johnson, Dabney K

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems have recently emerged as important new tools for cancer research. These new imaging systems permit researchers to noninvasively screen animals for mutations or pathologies and to monitor disease progression and response to therapy. One imaging modality, X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) shows promise as a cost-effective means for detecting and characterizing soft-tissue structures, skeletal abnormalities, and tumors in live animals. MicroCT systems provide high-resolution images (typically 50 microns or less), rapid data acquisition (typically 5 to 30 minutes), excellent sensitivity to skeletal tissue and good sensitivity to soft tissue, particularly when contrast-enhancing media are employed. The development of microCT technology for small animal imaging is reviewed, and key considerations for designing small animal microCT imaging protocols are summarized. Recent studies on mouse prostate, lung and bone tumor models are overviewed. PMID:10933069

  16. Visualising the past: potential applications of Geospatial tools to paleoclimate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A.; Turney, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in geospatial data acquisition, analysis and web-based data sharing offer new possibilities for understanding and visualising past modes of change. The availability, accessibility and cost-effectiveness of data is better than ever. Researchers can access remotely sensed data including terrain models; use secondary data from large consolidated repositories; make more accurate field measurements and combine data from disparate sources to form a single asset. An increase in the quantity and consistency of data is coupled with subtle yet significant improvements to the way in which geospatial systems manage data interoperability, topological and textual integrity, resulting in more stable analytical and modelling environments. Essentially, researchers now have greater control and more confidence in analytical tools and outputs. Web-based data sharing is growing rapidly, enabling researchers to publish and consume data directly into their spatial systems through OGC-compliant Web Map Services (WMS), Web Feature Services (WFS) and Web Coverage Services (WCS). This has been implemented at institutional, organisational and project scale around the globe. Some institutions have gone one step further and established Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) based on Federated Data Structures where the participating data owners retain control over who has access to what. It is important that advances in knowledge are transferred to audiences outside the scientific community in a way that is interesting and meaningful. The visualisation of paleodata through multi-media offers significant opportunities to highlight the parallels and distinctions between past climate dynamics and the challenges of today and tomorrow. Here we present an assessment of key innovations that demonstrate how Geospatial tools can be applied to palaeo-research and used to communicate the results to a diverse array of audiences in the digital age.

  17. Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team

    2010-05-01

    The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 μg m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary

  18. The National Science Digital Library: New Tools for Geoscience Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gundy, S. E.; Pandya, R.

    2003-12-01

    Just as the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) serves at a catalyst for collaboration among its partner institutions and throughout the Geoscience community, DLESE is also a key partner in the broader collaborative efforts of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). Established by the National Science Foundation to support continual improvement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, NSDL provides an organized point of access to materials created by a broad range of collaborating partner institutions including universities, museums, professional organizations, government agencies, national research laboratories, and publishers of textbooks and journals. NSDL is a network of content and data-rich collections, educational resources, learning environments, and technology-based tools created to address the needs of educators and learners at all levels (K-12, higher education, and lifelong learning). This session will provide an overview of NSDL and explore the ways in which DLESE's active role in the NSDL community can facilitate collaborations with other Geoscience partners. Presenters will demonstrate online tools that can enhance cooperative learning and engagement with digital library resources. Funding opportunities for the development of future NSDL collections, services, and research will also be discussed.

  19. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites: an Online Tool for Researchers Educators and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    The Virtual Museum for Meteorites (Figure 1) was created as a tool for students, educators and researchers [1, 2]. One of the aims of this online resource is to promote the interest in meteorites. Thus, the role of meteorites in education and outreach is fundamental, as these are very valuable tools to promote the public's interest in Astronomy and Planetary Sciences. Meteorite exhibitions reveal the fascination of students, educators and even researchers for these extraterrestrial rocks and how these can explain many key questions origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts related to the origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts of private collectors, museums and other institutions to organize meteorite exhibitions, the reach of these is usually limited. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites takes advantage of HTML and related technologies to overcome local boundaries and offer its contents for a global audience. A description of the recent developments performed in the framework of this virtual museum is given in this work.

  20. Action-Research and Food and Nutrition Security: A School Experience Mediated by Conceptual Graphic Representation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graebner, Ivete Teresinha; de Souza, Elizabeth Maria Tala; Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the development of a graphic representation tool as a way to support educational planning in an elementary school in the rural area of Brasilia (Brazil's capital), aiming at the implementation of an integrated action-research project focusing on hunger and nutrition. The graphic tool made it possible to promote…

  1. 76 FR 47216 - Expediting Research Tools to NIH Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of Royalty Payments AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public... tools through the use of Pay.gov for rapid processing of their royalty payments. SUPPLEMENTARY... payment site within Pay.gov expedites processing times for shipment of their research tools licensed...

  2. Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

    1997-02-01

    On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

  3. Evaluating the Development of Science Research Skills in Work-Integrated Learning through the Use of Workplace Science Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Susan M.; Zegwaard, Karsten E.; Dalgety, Jacinta

    2013-01-01

    Concept understanding, the development of analytical skills and a research mind set are explored through the use of academic tools common in a tertiary science education and relevant work-integrated learning (WIL) experiences. The use and development of the tools; laboratory book, technical report, and literature review are examined by way of…

  4. Text analysis tools for identification of emerging topics and research gaps in conservation science.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Martin J; Barton, Philip S; Pierson, Jennifer C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-12-01

    Keeping track of conceptual and methodological developments is a critical skill for research scientists, but this task is increasingly difficult due to the high rate of academic publication. As a crisis discipline, conservation science is particularly in need of tools that facilitate rapid yet insightful synthesis. We show how a common text-mining method (latent Dirichlet allocation, or topic modeling) and statistical tests familiar to ecologists (cluster analysis, regression, and network analysis) can be used to investigate trends and identify potential research gaps in the scientific literature. We tested these methods on the literature on ecological surrogates and indicators. Analysis of topic popularity within this corpus showed a strong emphasis on monitoring and management of fragmented ecosystems, while analysis of research gaps suggested a greater role for genetic surrogates and indicators. Our results show that automated text analysis methods need to be used with care, but can provide information that is complementary to that given by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, increasing scientists' capacity for research synthesis.

  5. Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: a tool for research in social media.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided.

  6. Text analysis tools for identification of emerging topics and research gaps in conservation science.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Martin J; Barton, Philip S; Pierson, Jennifer C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-12-01

    Keeping track of conceptual and methodological developments is a critical skill for research scientists, but this task is increasingly difficult due to the high rate of academic publication. As a crisis discipline, conservation science is particularly in need of tools that facilitate rapid yet insightful synthesis. We show how a common text-mining method (latent Dirichlet allocation, or topic modeling) and statistical tests familiar to ecologists (cluster analysis, regression, and network analysis) can be used to investigate trends and identify potential research gaps in the scientific literature. We tested these methods on the literature on ecological surrogates and indicators. Analysis of topic popularity within this corpus showed a strong emphasis on monitoring and management of fragmented ecosystems, while analysis of research gaps suggested a greater role for genetic surrogates and indicators. Our results show that automated text analysis methods need to be used with care, but can provide information that is complementary to that given by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, increasing scientists' capacity for research synthesis. PMID:26271213

  7. DataUp 2.0: Improving On a Tool For Helping Researchers Archive, Manage, and Share Their Tabular Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, C.; Borda, S.; Cruse, P.; Kunze, J.

    2013-12-01

    There are many barriers to data management and sharing among earth and environmental scientists; among the most significant are a lack of knowledge about best practices for data management, metadata standards, or appropriate data repositories for archiving and sharing data. Last year we developed an open source web application, DataUp, to help researchers overcome these barriers. DataUp helps scientists to (1) determine whether their file is CSV compatible, (2) generate metadata in a standard format, (3) retrieve an identifier to facilitate data citation, and (4) deposit their data into a repository. With funding from the NSF via a supplemental grant to the DataONE project, we are working to improve upon DataUp. Our main goal for DataUp 2.0 is to ensure organizations and repositories are able to adopt and adapt DataUp to meet their unique needs, including connecting to analytical tools, adding new metadata schema, and expanding the list of connected data repositories. DataUp is a collaborative project between the California Digital Library, DataONE, the San Diego Supercomputing Center, and Microsoft Research Connections.

  8. The Development of a Communication Tool to Facilitate the Cancer Trial Recruitment Process and Increase Research Literacy among Underrepresented Populations.

    PubMed

    Torres, Samantha; de la Riva, Erika E; Tom, Laura S; Clayman, Marla L; Taylor, Chirisse; Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A

    2015-12-01

    Despite increasing need to boost the recruitment of underrepresented populations into cancer trials and biobanking research, few tools exist for facilitating dialogue between researchers and potential research participants during the recruitment process. In this paper, we describe the initial processes of a user-centered design cycle to develop a standardized research communication tool prototype for enhancing research literacy among individuals from underrepresented populations considering enrollment in cancer research and biobanking studies. We present qualitative feedback and recommendations on the prototype's design and content from potential end users: five clinical trial recruiters and ten potential research participants recruited from an academic medical center. Participants were given the prototype (a set of laminated cards) and were asked to provide feedback about the tool's content, design elements, and word choices during semi-structured, in-person interviews. Results suggest that the prototype was well received by recruiters and patients alike. They favored the simplicity, lay language, and layout of the cards. They also noted areas for improvement, leading to card refinements that included the following: addressing additional topic areas, clarifying research processes, increasing the number of diverse images, and using alternative word choices. Our process for refining user interfaces and iterating content in early phases of design may inform future efforts to develop tools for use in clinical research or biobanking studies to increase research literacy.

  9. Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel

    2011-04-01

    New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance.

  10. Emerging role of bioinformatics tools and software in evolution of clinical research.

    PubMed

    Gill, Supreet Kaur; Christopher, Ajay Francis; Gupta, Vikas; Bansal, Parveen

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research is making toiling efforts for promotion and wellbeing of the health status of the people. There is a rapid increase in number and severity of diseases like cancer, hepatitis, HIV etc, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Clinical research involves drug discovery and development whereas clinical trials are performed to establish safety and efficacy of drugs. Drug discovery is a long process starting with the target identification, validation and lead optimization. This is followed by the preclinical trials, intensive clinical trials and eventually post marketing vigilance for drug safety. Softwares and the bioinformatics tools play a great role not only in the drug discovery but also in drug development. It involves the use of informatics in the development of new knowledge pertaining to health and disease, data management during clinical trials and to use clinical data for secondary research. In addition, new technology likes molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, proteomics and quantitative structure activity relationship in clinical research results in faster and easier drug discovery process. During the preclinical trials, the software is used for randomization to remove bias and to plan study design. In clinical trials software like electronic data capture, Remote data capture and electronic case report form (eCRF) is used to store the data. eClinical, Oracle clinical are software used for clinical data management and for statistical analysis of the data. After the drug is marketed the safety of a drug could be monitored by drug safety software like Oracle Argus or ARISg. Therefore, softwares are used from the very early stages of drug designing, to drug development, clinical trials and during pharmacovigilance. This review describes different aspects related to application of computers and bioinformatics in drug designing, discovery and development, formulation designing and clinical research. PMID:27453827

  11. Emerging role of bioinformatics tools and software in evolution of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Supreet Kaur; Christopher, Ajay Francis; Gupta, Vikas; Bansal, Parveen

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research is making toiling efforts for promotion and wellbeing of the health status of the people. There is a rapid increase in number and severity of diseases like cancer, hepatitis, HIV etc, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Clinical research involves drug discovery and development whereas clinical trials are performed to establish safety and efficacy of drugs. Drug discovery is a long process starting with the target identification, validation and lead optimization. This is followed by the preclinical trials, intensive clinical trials and eventually post marketing vigilance for drug safety. Softwares and the bioinformatics tools play a great role not only in the drug discovery but also in drug development. It involves the use of informatics in the development of new knowledge pertaining to health and disease, data management during clinical trials and to use clinical data for secondary research. In addition, new technology likes molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, proteomics and quantitative structure activity relationship in clinical research results in faster and easier drug discovery process. During the preclinical trials, the software is used for randomization to remove bias and to plan study design. In clinical trials software like electronic data capture, Remote data capture and electronic case report form (eCRF) is used to store the data. eClinical, Oracle clinical are software used for clinical data management and for statistical analysis of the data. After the drug is marketed the safety of a drug could be monitored by drug safety software like Oracle Argus or ARISg. Therefore, softwares are used from the very early stages of drug designing, to drug development, clinical trials and during pharmacovigilance. This review describes different aspects related to application of computers and bioinformatics in drug designing, discovery and development, formulation designing and clinical research. PMID:27453827

  12. Benchmark and Framework for Encouraging Research on Multi-Threaded Testing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Stoller, Scott D.; Ur, Shmuel

    2003-01-01

    A problem that has been getting prominence in testing is that of looking for intermittent bugs. Multi-threaded code is becoming very common, mostly on the server side. As there is no silver bullet solution, research focuses on a variety of partial solutions. In this paper (invited by PADTAD 2003) we outline a proposed project to facilitate research. The project goals are as follows. The first goal is to create a benchmark that can be used to evaluate different solutions. The benchmark, apart from containing programs with documented bugs, will include other artifacts, such as traces, that are useful for evaluating some of the technologies. The second goal is to create a set of tools with open API s that can be used to check ideas without building a large system. For example an instrumentor will be available, that could be used to test temporal noise making heuristics. The third goal is to create a focus for the research in this area around which a community of people who try to solve similar problems with different techniques, could congregate.

  13. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles.

    PubMed

    Iwema, Carrie L; LaDue, John; Zack, Angela; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2016-01-01

    The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1) to make their research immediately and freely available and (2) to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  14. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles

    PubMed Central

    Iwema, Carrie L.; LaDue, John; Zack, Angela; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2016-01-01

    The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1) to make their research immediately and freely available and (2) to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint. PMID:27508060

  15. On the use of EEG or MEG brain imaging tools in neuromarketing research.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries.

  16. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles.

    PubMed

    Iwema, Carrie L; LaDue, John; Zack, Angela; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2016-01-01

    The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1) to make their research immediately and freely available and (2) to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint. PMID:27508060

  17. Reactive Transport Modeling: An Essential Tool and a New ResearchApproach for the Earth Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2005-08-25

    Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting the advancing capabilities for materials characterization at the atomic scale with the macroscopic behavior of complex Earth systems. Reactive transport modeling has had a significant impact on the treatment of contaminant retardation in the subsurface, the description of elemental and nutrient fluxes between major Earth reservoirs, and in the treatment of deep Earth processes such as metamorphism and magma transport. Active topics of research include the development of pore scale and hybrid, or multiple continua, models to capture the scale dependence of coupled reactive transport processes. Frontier research questions, that are only now being addressed, include the effects of chemical microenvironments, coupled thermal mechanical chemical processes, controls on mineral fluid reaction rates in natural media, and scaling of reactive transport processes from the microscopic to pore to field scale.

  18. On the Use of EEG or MEG Brain Imaging Tools in Neuromarketing Research

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries. PMID:21960996

  19. On the use of EEG or MEG brain imaging tools in neuromarketing research.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries. PMID:21960996

  20. [Consideration on molecular imaging technology as a tool for drug research and development].

    PubMed

    Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Nishimura, Shintaro

    2009-03-01

    Molecular imaging technology such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are known as powerful tools for clinical diagnosis in neurology, oncology and so on. As applications to new drug research and development, there are three methodologies which are PK (Pharmacokinetics study), PD (Pharmacodynamic study), and efficacy study. When we use these methodologies for the drug research, we must consider construction of technological environment (tracer, animal model, imaging analysis software, and clinical database) and regulatory environment for GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) and GCP (Good Clinical Practice) level. Additionally, concept of microdosing and exploratory clinical study was proposed in western countries and the guidance on microdosing study was also announced by Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry on June 3rd 2008. However they may be still in learning phase, we must meet with complexity, high cost, and indigestion. To promote molecular imaging technology into the drug research, integration of the scientists between academia and industry is important because it needs much type of the advanced technologies and skills.

  1. The Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS): a new measurement tool for audit and research

    PubMed Central

    Horne, R; Hankins, M; Jenkins, R

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS), a new 17-item tool designed to assess the extent to which patients feel they have received enough information about prescribed medicines. Methods—Patients from eight diagnostic categories were recruited at hospitals in London and Brighton and completed the SIMS questionnaire during hospital admission or attendance at outpatient clinic appointments. The SIMS was evaluated in terms of its ease of use, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion related validity using existing self-report measures of adherence and patient beliefs about medicines. Results—The SIMS was well accepted by patients in a variety of clinical settings and showed satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. As predicted, higher levels of satisfaction with medicines information were associated with higher levels of reported adherence, and lower levels of satisfaction were associated with stronger concerns about the potential adverse effects of medicines, providing evidence of criterion related validity. Conclusion—The SIMS performed well on a number of psychometric indicators and shows promise as a tool for audit (measuring patients' satisfaction with information about their prescribed medicines), research (evaluating current or new forms of information provision), and clinical practice (identifying the information needs of individual patients and as an aid to planning medicine related consultations). Key Words: patients' views; medicines information; questionnaires; reliability; validity PMID:11533420

  2. The dorsal skinfold chamber: A versatile tool for preclinical research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Laschke, M W; Menger, M D

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal skinfold chamber is a rodent model for non-invasive microcirculatory analyses of striated muscle and skin tissue throughout an observation period of 2-3 weeks. In combination with intravital fluorescence microscopy, this model allows the quantitative assessment of dynamic processes such as inflammation, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling and microcirculation. Accordingly, the dorsal skinfold chamber is increasingly used for preclinical research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This includes studies on biocompatibility, vascularisation and incorporation of medical implants and artificial tissue constructs. Moreover, the chamber implantation procedure has been modified to analyse primary and secondary wound healing as well as revascularisation and blood perfusion of dermal substitutes, skin grafts and myocutaneous flaps. Hence, the dorsal skinfold chamber model does not only provide deep insights into fundamental regenerative mechanisms but also represents a versatile tool for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27646143

  3. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes as Research and Therapeutic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Pesl, Martin; Lacampagne, Alain; Dvorak, Petr; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Meli, Albano C.

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), namely, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with their ability of indefinite self-renewal and capability to differentiate into cell types derivatives of all three germ layers, represent a powerful research tool in developmental biology, for drug screening, disease modelling, and potentially cell replacement therapy. Efficient differentiation protocols that would result in the cell type of our interest are needed for maximal exploitation of these cells. In the present work, we aim at focusing on the protocols for differentiation of hPSCs into functional cardiomyocytes in vitro as well as achievements in the heart disease modelling and drug testing on the patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs). PMID:24800237

  4. Yeast on drugs: Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a tool for anticancer drug research.

    PubMed

    Menacho-Márquez, M; Murguía, J R

    2007-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is being widely used as a model for investigating fundamental processes relevant to all living organisms. Many of these processes are affected by genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer such as cell cycle progression, DNA replication and segregation, maintenance of genomic integrity and stress responses. Therefore, yeast emerges as an attractive model for anticancer drug research. The genetic tractability of budding yeast, its ease of manipulation and the wealth of functional genomics tools available in this organism makes it ideal for genome-wide analysis of biological functions and chemical screenings. The present review will discuss some of the innovative advantages based on yeast genetics and genomics for antitumour drug target identification and drug discovery.

  5. The dorsal skinfold chamber: A versatile tool for preclinical research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Laschke, M W; Menger, M D

    2016-09-20

    The dorsal skinfold chamber is a rodent model for non-invasive microcirculatory analyses of striated muscle and skin tissue throughout an observation period of 2-3 weeks. In combination with intravital fluorescence microscopy, this model allows the quantitative assessment of dynamic processes such as inflammation, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling and microcirculation. Accordingly, the dorsal skinfold chamber is increasingly used for preclinical research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This includes studies on biocompatibility, vascularisation and incorporation of medical implants and artificial tissue constructs. Moreover, the chamber implantation procedure has been modified to analyse primary and secondary wound healing as well as revascularisation and blood perfusion of dermal substitutes, skin grafts and myocutaneous flaps. Hence, the dorsal skinfold chamber model does not only provide deep insights into fundamental regenerative mechanisms but also represents a versatile tool for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  6. The styrene-maleic acid copolymer: a versatile tool in membrane research.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Jonas M; Scheidelaar, Stefan; Koorengevel, Martijn C; Dominguez, Juan J; Schäfer, Marre; van Walree, Cornelis A; Killian, J Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    A new and promising tool in membrane research is the detergent-free solubilization of membrane proteins by styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMAs). These amphipathic molecules are able to solubilize lipid bilayers in the form of nanodiscs that are bounded by the polymer. Thus, membrane proteins can be directly extracted from cells in a water-soluble form while conserving a patch of native membrane around them. In this review article, we briefly discuss current methods of membrane protein solubilization and stabilization. We then zoom in on SMAs, describe their physico-chemical properties, and discuss their membrane-solubilizing effect. This is followed by an overview of studies in which SMA has been used to isolate and investigate membrane proteins. Finally, potential future applications of the methodology are discussed for structural and functional studies on membrane proteins in a near-native environment and for characterizing protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions. PMID:26639665

  7. Unraveling the web of viroinformatics: computational tools and databases in virus research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Priyadarshini, Pragya; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2015-02-01

    The beginning of the second century of research in the field of virology (the first virus was discovered in 1898) was marked by its amalgamation with bioinformatics, resulting in the birth of a new domain--viroinformatics. The availability of more than 100 Web servers and databases embracing all or specific viruses (for example, dengue virus, influenza virus, hepatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], hemorrhagic fever virus [HFV], human papillomavirus [HPV], West Nile virus, etc.) as well as distinct applications (comparative/diversity analysis, viral recombination, small interfering RNA [siRNA]/short hairpin RNA [shRNA]/microRNA [miRNA] studies, RNA folding, protein-protein interaction, structural analysis, and phylotyping and genotyping) will definitely aid the development of effective drugs and vaccines. However, information about their access and utility is not available at any single source or on any single platform. Therefore, a compendium of various computational tools and resources dedicated specifically to virology is presented in this article.

  8. Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Denise R.; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J. M.; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true ‘snapshot’ data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

  9. The Right Tools for the Job: The Challenges of Theory and Method in Geoscience Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    beginners. Thus researchers must embrace the uncontrolled nature of the setting, the qualitative nature of the data collected, and the researcher's role in interpreting geologically appropriate actions as evidence of successful problem solving and investigation. Working to understand the role of diversity and culture in the geosciences also involves a wide array of theory, from affective issues through culturally and linguistically-influenced cognition, through gender, self-efficacy, and many other areas of inquiry. Research in understanding spatial skills draws heavily on techniques from cognition research but also must involve the field-specific knowledge of geoscientists to infuse these techniques with exemplars, a catalog of meaningful actions by students, and an understanding of how to recognize success. These examples illustrate briefly the wide array of tools from other fields that is being brought to bear to advance rigorous geoscience education research. We will illustrate a few of these and the insights we have gained, and the power of theory and method from other fields to enlighten us as we attempt to educate a broader array of earth scientists.

  10. Review and evaluation of electronic health records-driven phenotype algorithm authoring tools for clinical and translational research

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Luke V; Shaw, Pamela L; Jiang, Guoqian; Kiefer, Richard C; Mo, Huan; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Speltz, Peter; Zhu, Qian; Denny, Joshua C; Pathak, Jyotishman; Thompson, William K; Montague, Enid

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review and evaluate available software tools for electronic health record–driven phenotype authoring in order to identify gaps and needs for future development. Materials and Methods Candidate phenotype authoring tools were identified through (1) literature search in four publication databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus) and (2) a web search. A collection of tools was compiled and reviewed after the searches. A survey was designed and distributed to the developers of the reviewed tools to discover their functionalities and features. Results Twenty-four different phenotype authoring tools were identified and reviewed. Developers of 16 of these identified tools completed the evaluation survey (67% response rate). The surveyed tools showed commonalities but also varied in their capabilities in algorithm representation, logic functions, data support and software extensibility, search functions, user interface, and data outputs. Discussion Positive trends identified in the evaluation included: algorithms can be represented in both computable and human readable formats; and most tools offer a web interface for easy access. However, issues were also identified: many tools were lacking advanced logic functions for authoring complex algorithms; the ability to construct queries that leveraged un-structured data was not widely implemented; and many tools had limited support for plug-ins or external analytic software. Conclusions Existing phenotype authoring tools could enable clinical researchers to work with electronic health record data more efficiently, but gaps still exist in terms of the functionalities of such tools. The present work can serve as a reference point for the future development of similar tools. PMID:26224336

  11. PCDS as a tool in teaching and research at the University of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Physics Research Laboratory's (SPRL) use of the Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS) is discussed. For this purpose, a computer center was established to provide the hardware and software necessary to fully utilize existing data bases for research and teaching purposes. A schematic of the SPRL network is given. The core of the system consists of two VAX 11/750s and a VAX 8600, networked through ETHERNET to several LSI 11/23 microprocessors. Much of the system is used for external communications with major networks and data centers. A VAX 11/750 provides DECNET services through the SPAN network to the PCDS. A functional diagram of PCDS usage is given. The browsing capabilities of the PCDS are used to generate data files, which are later transferred to the SPRL center for further data manipulation and display. This mode of operation for classroom instruction will be used to effectively use terminals and to simplify usage of the data base. The Atmosphere Explorer data base has been used successfully in a similar manner in courses related to the thermosphere and ionosphere. The main motivation to access the PCDS was to complement research efforts related to the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI), to be flown on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).

  12. Artificial Exo-Society Modeling: a New Tool for SETI Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, James N.

    2002-01-01

    One of the newest fields of complexity research is artificial society modeling. Methodologically related to artificial life research, artificial society modeling utilizes agent-based computer simulation tools like SWARM and SUGARSCAPE developed by the Santa Fe Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Bookings Institution in an effort to introduce an unprecedented degree of rigor and quantitative sophistication into social science research. The broad aim of artificial society modeling is to begin the development of a more unified social science that embeds cultural evolutionary processes in a computational environment that simulates demographics, the transmission of culture, conflict, economics, disease, the emergence of groups and coadaptation with an environment in a bottom-up fashion. When an artificial society computer model is run, artificial societal patterns emerge from the interaction of autonomous software agents (the "inhabitants" of the artificial society). Artificial society modeling invites the interpretation of society as a distributed computational system and the interpretation of social dynamics as a specialized category of computation. Artificial society modeling techniques offer the potential of computational simulation of hypothetical alien societies in much the same way that artificial life modeling techniques offer the potential to model hypothetical exobiological phenomena. NASA recently announced its intention to begin exploring the possibility of including artificial life research within the broad portfolio of scientific fields comprised by the interdisciplinary astrobiology research endeavor. It may be appropriate for SETI researchers to likewise commence an exploration of the possible inclusion of artificial exo-society modeling within the SETI research endeavor. Artificial exo-society modeling might be particularly useful in a post-detection environment by (1) coherently organizing the set of data points derived from a detected

  13. Maine Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

  14. Evidence-Based Dialogue Maps as a Research Tool to Investigate the Quality of School Pupils' Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Alexandra; Shum, Simon Buckingham

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study focuses on the potential of Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping as a participatory action research tool to investigate young teenagers' scientific argumentation. Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping is a technique for representing graphically an argumentative dialogue through Questions, Ideas, Pros, Cons and Data. Our research objective is…

  15. Rapid development of image analysis research tools: Bridging the gap between researcher and clinician with pyOsiriX.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    We present pyOsiriX, a plugin built for the already popular dicom viewer OsiriX that provides users the ability to extend the functionality of OsiriX through simple Python scripts. This approach allows users to integrate the many cutting-edge scientific/image-processing libraries created for Python into a powerful DICOM visualisation package that is intuitive to use and already familiar to many clinical researchers. Using pyOsiriX we hope to bridge the apparent gap between basic imaging scientists and clinical practice in a research setting and thus accelerate the development of advanced clinical image processing. We provide arguments for the use of Python as a robust scripting language for incorporation into larger software solutions, outline the structure of pyOsiriX and how it may be used to extend the functionality of OsiriX, and we provide three case studies that exemplify its utility. For our first case study we use pyOsiriX to provide a tool for smooth histogram display of voxel values within a user-defined region of interest (ROI) in OsiriX. We used a kernel density estimation (KDE) method available in Python using the scikit-learn library, where the total number of lines of Python code required to generate this tool was 22. Our second example presents a scheme for segmentation of the skeleton from CT datasets. We have demonstrated that good segmentation can be achieved for two example CT studies by using a combination of Python libraries including scikit-learn, scikit-image, SimpleITK and matplotlib. Furthermore, this segmentation method was incorporated into an automatic analysis of quantitative PET-CT in a patient with bone metastases from primary prostate cancer. This enabled repeatable statistical evaluation of PET uptake values for each lesion, before and after treatment, providing estaimes maximum and median standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmed respectively). Following treatment we observed a reduction in lesion volume, SUVmax and SUVmed for

  16. Rapid development of image analysis research tools: Bridging the gap between researcher and clinician with pyOsiriX.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    We present pyOsiriX, a plugin built for the already popular dicom viewer OsiriX that provides users the ability to extend the functionality of OsiriX through simple Python scripts. This approach allows users to integrate the many cutting-edge scientific/image-processing libraries created for Python into a powerful DICOM visualisation package that is intuitive to use and already familiar to many clinical researchers. Using pyOsiriX we hope to bridge the apparent gap between basic imaging scientists and clinical practice in a research setting and thus accelerate the development of advanced clinical image processing. We provide arguments for the use of Python as a robust scripting language for incorporation into larger software solutions, outline the structure of pyOsiriX and how it may be used to extend the functionality of OsiriX, and we provide three case studies that exemplify its utility. For our first case study we use pyOsiriX to provide a tool for smooth histogram display of voxel values within a user-defined region of interest (ROI) in OsiriX. We used a kernel density estimation (KDE) method available in Python using the scikit-learn library, where the total number of lines of Python code required to generate this tool was 22. Our second example presents a scheme for segmentation of the skeleton from CT datasets. We have demonstrated that good segmentation can be achieved for two example CT studies by using a combination of Python libraries including scikit-learn, scikit-image, SimpleITK and matplotlib. Furthermore, this segmentation method was incorporated into an automatic analysis of quantitative PET-CT in a patient with bone metastases from primary prostate cancer. This enabled repeatable statistical evaluation of PET uptake values for each lesion, before and after treatment, providing estaimes maximum and median standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmed respectively). Following treatment we observed a reduction in lesion volume, SUVmax and SUVmed for

  17. MUST - An integrated system of support tools for research flight software engineering. [Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Foudriat, E. C.; Will, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's MUST (Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology) program at Langley Research Center are to cut the cost of producing software which effectively utilizes digital systems for flight research. These objectives will be accomplished by providing an integrated system of support software tools for use throughout the research flight software development process. A description of the overall MUST program and its progress toward the release of a first MUST system will be presented. This release includes: a special interactive user interface, a library of subroutines, assemblers, a compiler, automatic documentation tools, and a test and simulation system.

  18. A Comparison of Student Knowledge and Attitude toward Research: Are Main Campus Students Different from Those in a Hybrid Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Rachel L.; Mathews, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The trend toward the use of distance education in teaching social work students has been rapidly growing over the past two decades. A constant issue of concern is related to student outcomes. This paper reports on a longitudinal quasi-experimental study assessing the differential knowledge and attitude toward research between social work students…

  19. Thermal Protection System Evaluation Using Arc-jet Flows: Flight Simulation or Research Tool?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The arc-jet has been used to evaluate thermal protection systems (TPS) and materials for the past forty years. Systems that have been studied in this environmerd include ablators, active, and passive TPS concepts designed for vehicles entering planetary and Earth atmospheres. The question of whether arc-jet flow can simulate a flight environment or is it a research tool that provides an aero-thermodynamic heating environment to obtain critical material properties will be addressed. Stagnation point tests in arc-jets are commonly used to obtain material properties such as mass loss rates, thermal chemical stability data, optical properties, and surface catalytic efficiency. These properties are required in computational fluid dynamic codes to accurately predict the performance of a TPS during flight. Special facilities have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to approximate the flow environment over the mid-fuselage and body flap regions of proposed space-planes type vehicles. This paper compares flow environments generated in flight over a vehicle with those created over an arc-jet test articles in terms of scale, chemistry, and fluid dynamic properties. Flight experiments are essential in order to validate the material properties obtained from arc-jet tests and used to predict flight performance of any TPS being considered for use on a vehicle entering the Earth atmosphere at hypersonic speed.

  20. Development of Complexity Science and Technology Tools for NextGen Airspace Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Sawhill, Bruce K.; Herriot, James; Seehart, Ken; Zellweger, Dres; Shay, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research by NextGen AeroSciences, LLC is twofold: 1) to deliver an initial "toolbox" of algorithms, agent-based structures, and method descriptions for introducing trajectory agency as a methodology for simulating and analyzing airspace states, including bulk properties of large numbers of heterogeneous 4D aircraft trajectories in a test airspace -- while maintaining or increasing system safety; and 2) to use these tools in a test airspace to identify possible phase transition structure to predict when an airspace will approach the limits of its capacity. These 4D trajectories continuously replan their paths in the presence of noise and uncertainty while optimizing performance measures and performing conflict detection and resolution. In this approach, trajectories are represented as extended objects endowed with pseudopotential, maintaining time and fuel-efficient paths by bending just enough to accommodate separation while remaining inside of performance envelopes. This trajectory-centric approach differs from previous aircraft-centric distributed approaches to deconfliction. The results of this project are the following: 1) we delivered a toolbox of algorithms, agent-based structures and method descriptions as pseudocode; and 2) we corroborated the existence of phase transition structure in simulation with the addition of "early warning" detected prior to "full" airspace. This research suggests that airspace "fullness" can be anticipated and remedied before the airspace becomes unsafe.

  1. ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Brett A; White, Bill C; Grill, Diane E; Li, Peter W; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Oberg, Ann L

    2013-01-01

    Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main

  2. ReliefSeq: A Gene-Wise Adaptive-K Nearest-Neighbor Feature Selection Tool for Finding Gene-Gene Interactions and Main Effects in mRNA-Seq Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Brett A.; White, Bill C.; Grill, Diane E.; Li, Peter W.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.; Oberg, Ann L.

    2013-01-01

    Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main

  3. ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Brett A; White, Bill C; Grill, Diane E; Li, Peter W; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Oberg, Ann L

    2013-01-01

    Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main

  4. Adventures in the microlensing cloud: Large datasets, eResearch tools, and GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2014-10-01

    As astronomy enters the petascale data era, astronomers are faced with new challenges relating to storage, access and management of data. A shift from the traditional approach of combining data and analysis at the desktop to the use of remote services, pushing the computation to the data, is now underway. In the field of cosmological gravitational microlensing, future synoptic all-sky surveys are expected to bring the number of multiply imaged quasars from the few tens that are currently known to a few thousands. This inflow of observational data, together with computationally demanding theoretical modeling via the production of microlensing magnification maps, requires a new approach. We present our technical solutions to supporting the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). This extensive dataset for cosmological microlensing modeling comprises over 70 000 individual magnification maps and ˜106 related results. We describe our approaches to hosting, organizing, and serving ˜ 30 TB of data and metadata products. We present a set of online analysis tools developed with PHP, JavaScript and WebGL to support access and analysis of GELRUMPH data in a Web browser. We discuss our use of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate data production, and we release the core of the GPU-D direct inverse ray-shooting code (Thompson et al., 2010, 2014) used to generate the magnification maps. All of the GERLUMPH data and tools are available online from http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au. This project made use of gSTAR, the GPU Supercomputer for Theoretical Astrophysical Research.

  5. SMART, a simple modular architecture research tool: identification of signaling domains.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J; Milpetz, F; Bork, P; Ponting, C P

    1998-05-26

    Accurate multiple alignments of 86 domains that occur in signaling proteins have been constructed and used to provide a Web-based tool (SMART: simple modular architecture research tool) that allows rapid identification and annotation of signaling domain sequences. The majority of signaling proteins are multidomain in character with a considerable variety of domain combinations known. Comparison with established databases showed that 25% of our domain set could not be deduced from SwissProt and 41% could not be annotated by Pfam. SMART is able to determine the modular architectures of single sequences or genomes; application to the entire yeast genome revealed that at least 6.7% of its genes contain one or more signaling domains, approximately 350 greater than previously annotated. The process of constructing SMART predicted (i) novel domain homologues in unexpected locations such as band 4.1-homologous domains in focal adhesion kinases; (ii) previously unknown domain families, including a citron-homology domain; (iii) putative functions of domain families after identification of additional family members, for example, a ubiquitin-binding role for ubiquitin-associated domains (UBA); (iv) cellular roles for proteins, such predicted DEATH domains in netrin receptors further implicating these molecules in axonal guidance; (v) signaling domains in known disease genes such as SPRY domains in both marenostrin/pyrin and Midline 1; (vi) domains in unexpected phylogenetic contexts such as diacylglycerol kinase homologues in yeast and bacteria; and (vii) likely protein misclassifications exemplified by a predicted pleckstrin homology domain in a Candida albicans protein, previously described as an integrin.

  6. Photomat: A Mobile Tool for Aiding in Student Construction of Research Questions and Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Tia Renee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Silva, Alexandra; Lyons, Leilah; Moher, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile software tool, PhotoMAT (Photo Management and Analysis Tool), and students' experiences with this tool within a scaffolded curricular unit--Neighborhood Safari. PhotoMAT was designed to support learners' investigations of backyard animal behavior and works with image sets obtained using fixed-position field cameras…

  7. A Microsoft Excel interface for rhyolite-MELTS: a tool for research and teaching of magma properties and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualda, G. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The thermodynamic modeling software MELTS (and its derivatives) is a powerful and much utilized tool for investigating crystallization and melting in natural magmatic systems. Rhyolite-MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012, J. Petrol. 53:875-890) is a recent recalibration of MELTS aimed at better capturing the evolution of magmas present in the upper crust (up to ~400 MPa pressure). Currently, most users of rhyolite-MELTS rely on a graphical user interface (GUI), which can be run on UNIX/LINUX and Mac OS X computers. While the interface is powerful and flexible, it can be somewhat cumbersome for the novice and the output is in the form of text files that need to be processed offline. This situation is probably the main reason why MELTS - despite great potential - has not been used more frequently for teaching purposes. We are currently developing an alternative GUI for rhyolite-MELTS using web services consumed by a VBA backend in Microsoft Excel©. The goal is to create a much more interactive tool, that is easy to use that can be made available to a widespread audience, and that will be useful for both research and teaching. The interface is contained within a macro-enabled workbook, which includes editable cells where the user can insert the model input information. Interface buttons initiate computations that are executed on a central server at OFM Research in Seattle (WA). Results of simple calculations are shown immediately within the interface itself. For instance, a user can very rapidly determine the temperature at which a magma of a given composition is completely molten (i.e. find the liquidus); or determine which phases are present, in what abundances, their compositions, and their physical properties (e.g. density, viscosity) at any given combination of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. We expect that using the interface in this mode will greatly facilitate building intuition about magmas and their properties. It is also possible to combine a sequence of

  8. A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) vocabularies

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Jules J

    2003-01-01

    to find at least one term for a medical phrase, the Category 0 vocabularies performed 86% as well as the complete UMLS metathesaurus. Conclusion The Category 0 vocabularies of UMLS constitute a large nomenclature that can be used by biomedical researchers to annotate biomedical data. These annotated data sets can be distributed for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. These vocabularies may be of particular importance for sharing heterogeneous data from diverse biomedical data sets. The software tools to extract the Category 0 vocabularies are freely available Perl scripts entered into the public domain and distributed with this article. PMID:12809560

  9. Authors report lack of time as main reason for unpublished research presented at biomedical conferences: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Roberta W.; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Schmucker, Christine; Meerpohl, Joerg J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review reports that queried abstract authors about reasons for not subsequently publishing abstract results as full length articles. Study Design and setting Systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and study bibliographies for empirical studies in which investigators examined subsequent full publication of results presented at a biomedical conference and reasons for non-publication. Results The mean full publication rate was 55.9% (95% CI, 54.8% to 56.9%) for 24 of 27 eligible reports providing this information, and 73.0% (95% CI, 71.2% to 74.7%) for 7 reports of abstracts describing clinical trials. 24 studies itemized 1,831 reasons for non-publication, and 6 itemized 428 reasons considered the most important reason. Lack of time was the most frequently reported reason (weighted average = 30.2% (95% CI, 27.9% to 32.4%)) and the most important reason (weighted average = 38.4% (95% CI, 33.7% to 43.2%)). Other commonly stated reasons were lack of time and/or resources, publication not an aim, low priority, incomplete study and trouble with co-authors. Conclusions Across medical specialties, the main reasons for not subsequently publishing an abstract in full lies with factors related to the abstract author rather than with journals. PMID:25797837

  10. [Research on Sha zheng quan shu (A complete book for Sha disease) and its main circulating editions].

    PubMed

    Ji, Zheng-han

    2008-07-01

    Sha zheng quan shu (A Complete Book for Sha Disease), the famous books on sha diseases in the early Qing dynasty, did exert influence on the classification and names of the sha disease ever since. During its circulation, deletions and supplementations with frequent changes in its form and contents made its versions so diversified and lead to difficulties in both its cataloguing, inheriting and searching for its origin and development. By comparing more than dozens of its editions, four main groups of version can be recognized, among which Zhang Zhong--xin's edition was the earliest one, published four years after Wang Kai's original version completed, which could reflect the authentic appearance of Wang's original version. Shen Jin-ao re--compiled and modified Zhang's version which has several separate editions with substantial changes in its contents, book title and author's names, while He Fen revised and reprinted Zhang's version, and his version was often misunderstood as the primitive one of Wang's version due to its extensive circulation. Hu Jie made a little abridgement based on He's version with another book Sha yi lun (Treatise on Pestilent Sha Disease) included and attached.

  11. Research on the Yin-Yang structure of the main city of Nanjing by the method of GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wen; Zhu, Xigang; Zhao, Bo

    2007-06-01

    Chinese government has proposed a strategic development thought named as "Harmonious Society", which contains the requirements to apply Chinese traditional theory to nowadays construction. However, the available theoretical achievement almost all stems from the western, and entirely not suitable for the real situation in China. Meanwhile the research method is fairly traditional. The appearance of the concepts of yin-region, yang-region and yin-yang structure changes the situation of the dominance by a series of westerners' concepts of describing the urban and regional space and theories of spatial structures. Based on the primary achievement of the theory, this article tries to apply GIS methods into the new theory, which makes it more consummate and scientific. This paper will put emphases on discussing the quantitative definition with GIS, evaluate effect and harmonious mechanism about urban yin-yang spatial structure based on existing primary researches of the author's mentor. By means of reasonable division, the yin region and yang region can be defined, and which makes the new definition be quantified and the theory more scientific. First, considering the aspect of economy, social progress and environment, 11 indexes composed of 24 factors are elected as the appraisal foundation. Then, decide the importance of each factor by gifting them different scores(hundred mark system is adopted, that is to say 100 stands for the strongest affection, while 0 stands for having no affection, the score between them from low to high represents the importance variety). Furthermore, rely on AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) synthesizing experts' marking methods, the final point is determined. In this way, the scale of the appraisal units scold be fixed. Then we could construct the effect of the factors. By doing this, the factors' entirety affection on every units can be reflected. Accumulating the factors' scores of each unit, the ultimate affection score could be determined

  12. Developing and assessing research-based tools for teaching quantum mechanics and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Benjamin R.

    Research-based tools to educate college students in physics courses from introductory level to graduate level are essential for helping students with a diverse set of goals and backgrounds learn physics. This thesis explores issues related to student common difficulties with some topics in undergraduate quantum mechanics and thermodynamics courses. Student difficulties in learning quantum mechanics and thermodynamics are investigated by administering written tests and surveys to many classes and conducting individual interviews with a subset of students outside the class to unpack the cognitive mechanisms of the difficulties. The quantum mechanics research also focuses on using the research on student difficulties for the development and evaluation of a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) to help students learn about the time-dependence of expectation values using the context of Larmor precession of spin and evaluating the role of asking students to self-diagnose their mistakes on midterm examination on their performance on subsequent problem solving. The QuILT on Larmor precession of spin has both paper-pencil activities and a simulation component to help students learn these foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Preliminary evaluations suggest that the QuILT, which strives to help students build a robust knowledge structure of time-dependence of expectation values in quantum mechanics using a guided approach, is successful in helping students learn these topics in the junior-senior level quantum mechanics courses. The technique to help upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses effectively engage in the process of learning from their mistakes is also found to be effective. In particular, research shows that the self-diagnosis activity in upper-level quantum mechanics significantly helps students who are struggling and this activity can reduce the gap between the high and low achieving students on subsequent problem solving. Finally, a survey

  13. Academic nursing education guidelines: tool for bridging the gap between theory, research and practice.

    PubMed

    Jerlock, Margaretha; Falk, Kristin; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop educational guidelines to be used as a tool for the integration of theory, research and practice to ensure that nursing knowledge and practical skills form the basis of academic nursing education. An additional aim was to describe the nursing competence expected of the students at four academic levels: introductory, intermediate and advanced levels I and II. Clinical nursing education plays a crucial role in assisting nursing students to integrate the theory and practice of nursing at the baccalaureate level, as well as in further specialization and in-depth nursing studies at the advanced level. A research group consisting of lecturers from the Institute of Nursing, Göteborg University, Sweden, was given the objective to formulate educational guidelines for clinical practice within nursing education. The study took the form of a literature search. In addition, the Delphi method, aimed at reaching a consensus of opinion among colleagues, was used. Based on the literature review and the collegial discussions, four core concepts emerged: professional stance, reflective processes, problem-solving processes, and practical skills, from which the educational guidelines were developed. Guidelines were formulated both in general and abstract form. They were not connected to a specific care context, specific patient group or specific nursing problems. The most important objective of academic education is that the student develops abilities and techniques necessary for life-long learning. Students will, in their professional life as nurses, continuously meet situations where they are challenged to take appropriate decisions and actions. This demands training in problem-solving, reflection, decision-making and the ability to use both deductive and inductive learning strategies. The guidelines describe what is expected of the students in terms of nursing competence and personal qualifications to ensure that they will be ready to

  14. Future technology insight: mass spectrometry imaging as a tool in drug research and development

    PubMed Central

    Cobice, D F; Goodwin, R J A; Andren, P E; Nilsson, A; Mackay, C L; Andrew, R

    2015-01-01

    In pharmaceutical research, understanding the biodistribution, accumulation and metabolism of drugs in tissue plays a key role during drug discovery and development. In particular, information regarding pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and transport properties of compounds in tissues is crucial during early screening. Historically, the abundance and distribution of drugs have been assessed by well-established techniques such as quantitative whole-body autoradiography (WBA) or tissue homogenization with LC/MS analysis. However, WBA does not distinguish active drug from its metabolites and LC/MS, while highly sensitive, does not report spatial distribution. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can discriminate drug and its metabolites and endogenous compounds, while simultaneously reporting their distribution. MSI data are influencing drug development and currently used in investigational studies in areas such as compound toxicity. In in vivo studies MSI results may soon be used to support new drug regulatory applications, although clinical trial MSI data will take longer to be validated for incorporation into submissions. We review the current and future applications of MSI, focussing on applications for drug discovery and development, with examples to highlight the impact of this promising technique in early drug screening. Recent sample preparation and analysis methods that enable effective MSI, including quantitative analysis of drugs from tissue sections will be summarized and key aspects of methodological protocols to increase the effectiveness of MSI analysis for previously undetectable targets addressed. These examples highlight how MSI has become a powerful tool in drug research and development and offers great potential in streamlining the drug discovery process. PMID:25766375

  15. GERLUMPH DATA RELEASE 1: HIGH-RESOLUTION COSMOLOGICAL MICROLENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS AND eResearch TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Croton, D.; Bate, N. F.

    2014-03-01

    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (≈0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/.

  16. Characterizing Urban Traffic Exposures Using Transportation Planning Tools: An Illustrated Methodology for Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Gute, David M.; Brugge, Doug; Peterson, Scott; Parmenter, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of vehicular traffic has been associated with adverse cardiovascular and respiratory health effects in a range of populations, including children, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing heart conditions, diabetes, obesity, and genetic susceptibilities. As these relationships become clearer, public health officials will need to have access to methods to identify areas of concern in terms of elevated traffic levels and susceptible populations. This paper briefly reviews current approaches for characterizing traffic exposure and then presents a detailed method that can be employed by public health officials and other researchers in performing screening assessments to define areas of potential concern within a particular locale and, with appropriate caveats, in epidemiologic studies examining traffic-related health impacts at the intra-urban scale. The method is based on two exposure parameters extensively used in numerous epidemiologic studies of traffic and health—proximity to high traffic roadways and overall traffic density. The method is demonstrated with publically available information on susceptible populations, traffic volumes, and Traffic Analysis Zones, a transportation planning tool long used by Metropolitan Planning Agencies and planners across the USA but presented here as a new application which can be used to spatially assess possible traffic-related impacts on susceptible populations. Recommendations are provided for the appropriate use of this methodology, along with its limitations. PMID:20094920

  17. You talkin' to me? Interactive playback is a powerful yet underused tool in animal communication research.

    PubMed

    King, Stephanie L

    2015-07-01

    Over the years, playback experiments have helped further our understanding of the wonderful world of animal communication. They have provided fundamental insights into animal behaviour and the function of communicative signals in numerous taxa. As important as these experiments are, however, there is strong evidence to suggest that the information conveyed in a signal may only have value when presented interactively. By their very nature, signalling exchanges are interactive and therefore, an interactive playback design is a powerful tool for examining the function of such exchanges. While researchers working on frog and songbird vocal interactions have long championed interactive playback, it remains surprisingly underused across other taxa. The interactive playback approach is not limited to studies of acoustic signalling, but can be applied to other sensory modalities, including visual, chemical and electrical communication. Here, I discuss interactive playback as a potent yet underused technique in the field of animal behaviour. I present a concise review of studies that have used interactive playback thus far, describe how it can be applied, and discuss its limitations and challenges. My hope is that this review will result in more scientists applying this innovative technique to their own study subjects, as a means of furthering our understanding of the function of signalling interactions in animal communication systems.

  18. Unraveling the Web of Viroinformatics: Computational Tools and Databases in Virus Research

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshini, Pragya; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the second century of research in the field of virology (the first virus was discovered in 1898) was marked by its amalgamation with bioinformatics, resulting in the birth of a new domain—viroinformatics. The availability of more than 100 Web servers and databases embracing all or specific viruses (for example, dengue virus, influenza virus, hepatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], hemorrhagic fever virus [HFV], human papillomavirus [HPV], West Nile virus, etc.) as well as distinct applications (comparative/diversity analysis, viral recombination, small interfering RNA [siRNA]/short hairpin RNA [shRNA]/microRNA [miRNA] studies, RNA folding, protein-protein interaction, structural analysis, and phylotyping and genotyping) will definitely aid the development of effective drugs and vaccines. However, information about their access and utility is not available at any single source or on any single platform. Therefore, a compendium of various computational tools and resources dedicated specifically to virology is presented in this article. PMID:25428870

  19. SMART II : the spot market agent research tool version 2.0.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J. N.

    2000-12-14

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has worked closely with Western Area Power Administration (Western) over many years to develop a variety of electric power marketing and transmission system models that are being used for ongoing system planning and operation as well as analytic studies. Western markets and delivers reliable, cost-based electric power from 56 power plants to millions of consumers in 15 states. The Spot Market Agent Research Tool Version 2.0 (SMART II) is an investigative system that partially implements some important components of several existing ANL linear programming models, including some used by Western. SMART II does not implement a complete model of the Western utility system but it does include several salient features of this network for exploratory purposes. SMART II uses a Swarm agent-based framework. SMART II agents model bulk electric power transaction dynamics with recognition for marginal costs as well as transmission and generation constraints. SMART II uses a sparse graph of nodes and links to model the electric power spot market. The nodes represent power generators and consumers with distinct marginal decision curves and varying investment capital as well individual learning parameters. The links represent transmission lines with individual capacities taken from a range of central distribution, outlying distribution and feeder line types. The application of SMART II to electric power systems studies has produced useful results different from those often found using more traditional techniques. Use of the advanced features offered by the Swarm modeling environment simplified the creation of the SMART II model.

  20. Hyperacusis Questionnaire as a Tool for Measuring Hypersensitivity to Sound in a Tinnitus Research Population

    PubMed Central

    Fackrell, Kathryn; Fearnley, Constance; Hoare, Derek J.; Sereda, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to external sounds is often comorbid with tinnitus and may be significant for adherence to certain types of tinnitus management. Therefore, a clear measure of sensitivity to sound is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ) for use as a measurement tool using data from a sample of 264 adults who took part in tinnitus research. We evaluated the HQ factor structure, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and floor and ceiling effects. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88) and moderate correlations were observed between the HQ, uncomfortable loudness levels, and other health questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original HQ three-factor solution and a one-factor solution were both a poor fit to the data. Four problematic items were removed and exploratory factor analysis identified a two-factor (attentional and social) solution. The original three-factor structure of the HQ was not confirmed. All fourteen items do not accurately assess hypersensitivity to sound in a tinnitus population. We propose a 10-item (2-factor) version of the HQ, which will need to be confirmed using a new tinnitus and perhaps nontinnitus population. PMID:26557658

  1. You talkin’ to me? Interactive playback is a powerful yet underused tool in animal communication research

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, playback experiments have helped further our understanding of the wonderful world of animal communication. They have provided fundamental insights into animal behaviour and the function of communicative signals in numerous taxa. As important as these experiments are, however, there is strong evidence to suggest that the information conveyed in a signal may only have value when presented interactively. By their very nature, signalling exchanges are interactive and therefore, an interactive playback design is a powerful tool for examining the function of such exchanges. While researchers working on frog and songbird vocal interactions have long championed interactive playback, it remains surprisingly underused across other taxa. The interactive playback approach is not limited to studies of acoustic signalling, but can be applied to other sensory modalities, including visual, chemical and electrical communication. Here, I discuss interactive playback as a potent yet underused technique in the field of animal behaviour. I present a concise review of studies that have used interactive playback thus far, describe how it can be applied, and discuss its limitations and challenges. My hope is that this review will result in more scientists applying this innovative technique to their own study subjects, as a means of furthering our understanding of the function of signalling interactions in animal communication systems. PMID:26136047

  2. The Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE): a prototype federated query tool for clinical data repositories.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N; McMurry, Andrew J; Macfadden, Douglas; Nigrin, Daniel J; Churchill, Susanne; Kohane, Isaac S

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a prototype Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) to identify the technical, regulatory, and political challenges of creating a federated query tool for clinical data repositories. Separate Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at Harvard's three largest affiliated health centers approved use of their data, and the Harvard Medical School IRB approved building a Query Aggregator Interface that can simultaneously send queries to each hospital and display aggregate counts of the number of matching patients. Our experience creating three local repositories using the open source Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) platform can be used as a road map for other institutions. The authors are actively working with the IRBs and regulatory groups to develop procedures that will ultimately allow investigators to obtain identified patient data and biomaterials through SHRINE. This will guide us in creating a future technical architecture that is scalable to a national level, compliant with ethical guidelines, and protective of the interests of the participating hospitals.

  3. Electron Tomography: A Three-Dimensional Analytic Tool for Hard and Soft Materials Research

    PubMed Central

    Alaidi, Osama; Rames, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis is essential to understand the relationship between the structure and function of an object. Many analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, neutron spectroscopy, and electron microscopy imaging, are used to provide structural information. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), one of the most popular analytic tools, has been widely used for structural analysis in both physical and biological sciences for many decades, in which 3D objects are projected into two-dimensional (2D) images. In many cases, 2D-projection images are insufficient to understand the relationship between the 3D structure and the function of nanoscale objects. Electron tomography (ET) is a technique that retrieves 3D structural information from a tilt series of 2D projections, and is gradually becoming a mature technology with sub-nanometer resolution. Distinct methods to overcome sample-based limitations have been separately developed in both physical and biological science, although they share some basic concepts of ET. This review discusses the common basis for 3D characterization, and specifies difficulties and solutions regarding both hard and soft materials research. It is hoped that novel solutions based on current state-of-the-art techniques for advanced applications in hybrid matter systems can be motivated. PMID:26087941

  4. Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale

    2007-01-01

    As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

  5. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a “hot” tool for genomic research

    PubMed Central

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/ PMID:22359434

  6. Engineering plastid genomes: methods, tools, and applications in basic research and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The small bacterial-type genome of the plastid (chloroplast) can be engineered by genetic transformation, generating cells and plants with transgenic plastid genomes, also referred to as transplastomic plants. The transformation process relies on homologous recombination, thereby facilitating the site-specific alteration of endogenous plastid genes as well as the precisely targeted insertion of foreign genes into the plastid DNA. The technology has been used extensively to analyze chloroplast gene functions and study plastid gene expression at all levels in vivo. Over the years, a large toolbox has been assembled that is now nearly comparable to the techniques available for plant nuclear transformation and that has enabled new applications of transplastomic technology in basic and applied research. This review describes the state of the art in engineering the plastid genomes of algae and land plants (Embryophyta). It provides an overview of the existing tools for plastid genome engineering, discusses current technological limitations, and highlights selected applications that demonstrate the immense potential of chloroplast transformation in several key areas of plant biotechnology. PMID:25494465

  7. A seismic modelling environment as a research and teaching tool for 3-D subsurface modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burford, Dennis J.; Ger, Larry; Blake, Edwin H.; de Wit, Maarten J.; Doucouré, C. Moctar; Hart, Roger J.

    Early geological modelling and visualisation techniques were limited to manual cross-sections or isometric perspectives. Computer modelling has automated this task to a certain degree, but traditional approaches do not allow iterative validation during the modelling process. When the structure is complex and data sparse, as is often the case in geology, interactive 3-D modelling techniques should be employed that can interrogate new and existing data, guided by the geological experience of the modeller. Using the Vredefort dome in South Africa as a case study, we describe a Seismic Modelling Environment (SME) to demonstrate the potential of this type of computer-based modelling and geological visualisation. SME offers a novel approach to interactive 3-D modelling of complex geological structures using an extension of sweep representations and user-controlled forward modelling with seismic analysis for validation. Incorporation of validation techniques allows early confirmation or rejection of models. Tested by a group of third-year geology students, SME's iterative construction and exploration of a 3-D model clearly provided users with a superior understanding through visualisation. SME has, therefore, potential both as an educational as well as a research tool.

  8. Unraveling the web of viroinformatics: computational tools and databases in virus research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Priyadarshini, Pragya; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2015-02-01

    The beginning of the second century of research in the field of virology (the first virus was discovered in 1898) was marked by its amalgamation with bioinformatics, resulting in the birth of a new domain--viroinformatics. The availability of more than 100 Web servers and databases embracing all or specific viruses (for example, dengue virus, influenza virus, hepatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], hemorrhagic fever virus [HFV], human papillomavirus [HPV], West Nile virus, etc.) as well as distinct applications (comparative/diversity analysis, viral recombination, small interfering RNA [siRNA]/short hairpin RNA [shRNA]/microRNA [miRNA] studies, RNA folding, protein-protein interaction, structural analysis, and phylotyping and genotyping) will definitely aid the development of effective drugs and vaccines. However, information about their access and utility is not available at any single source or on any single platform. Therefore, a compendium of various computational tools and resources dedicated specifically to virology is presented in this article. PMID:25428870

  9. Engineering plastid genomes: methods, tools, and applications in basic research and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The small bacterial-type genome of the plastid (chloroplast) can be engineered by genetic transformation, generating cells and plants with transgenic plastid genomes, also referred to as transplastomic plants. The transformation process relies on homologous recombination, thereby facilitating the site-specific alteration of endogenous plastid genes as well as the precisely targeted insertion of foreign genes into the plastid DNA. The technology has been used extensively to analyze chloroplast gene functions and study plastid gene expression at all levels in vivo. Over the years, a large toolbox has been assembled that is now nearly comparable to the techniques available for plant nuclear transformation and that has enabled new applications of transplastomic technology in basic and applied research. This review describes the state of the art in engineering the plastid genomes of algae and land plants (Embryophyta). It provides an overview of the existing tools for plastid genome engineering, discusses current technological limitations, and highlights selected applications that demonstrate the immense potential of chloroplast transformation in several key areas of plant biotechnology.

  10. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations

    PubMed Central

    Posner, A; Hesse, M; St Cyr, O C

    2014-01-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations. Key Points Manuscript assesses current and near-future space weather assets Current assets unreliable for forecasting of severe geomagnetic storms Near-future assets will not improve the situation PMID:26213516

  11. The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Arik; Hesse, Michael; SaintCyr, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  12. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, A.; Hesse, M.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    2014-04-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  13. MARSTHERM: A Web-based System Providing Thermophysical Analysis Tools for Mars Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, N. E.; Barratt, E. M.; Mellon, M. T.; Michaels, T. I.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce MARSTHERM, a web-based system that will allow researchers access to a standard numerical thermal model of the Martian near-surface and atmosphere. In addition, the system will provide tools for the derivation, mapping, and analysis of apparent thermal inertia from temperature observations by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). Adjustable parameters for the thermal model include thermal inertia, albedo, surface pressure, surface emissivity, atmospheric dust opacity, latitude, surface slope angle and azimuth, season (solar longitude), and time steps for calculations and output. The model computes diurnal surface and brightness temperatures for either a single day or a full Mars year. Output options include text files and plots of seasonal and diurnal surface, brightness, and atmospheric temperatures. The tools for the derivation and mapping of apparent thermal inertia from spacecraft data are project-based, wherein the user provides an area of interest (AOI) by specifying latitude and longitude ranges. The system will then extract results within the AOI from prior global mapping of elevation (from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, for calculating surface pressure), TES annual albedo, and TES seasonal and annual-mean 2AM and 2PM apparent thermal inertia (Putzig and Mellon, 2007, Icarus 191, 68-94). In addition, a history of TES dust opacity within the AOI is computed. For each project, users may then provide a list of THEMIS images to process for apparent thermal inertia, optionally overriding the TES-derived dust opacity with a fixed value. Output from the THEMIS derivation process includes thumbnail and context images, GeoTIFF raster data, and HDF5 files containing arrays of input and output data (radiance, brightness temperature, apparent thermal inertia, elevation, quality flag, latitude, and longitude) and ancillary information. As a demonstration of capabilities

  14. A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as a Measurement Tool for Wind-Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In wind energy meteorology, RPA have the clear advantage compared to manned aircraft that they allow to fly very close to the ground and even in between individual wind turbines in a wind farm. Compared to meteorological towers and lidar systems, the advantage is the flexibility of the system, which makes it possible to measure at the desired site on short notice and not only in main wind direction. At the Center of Applied Geoscience at the University of Tübingen, the research RPA MASC (Multi-purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed. RPA of type MASC have a wingspan of about 3 m and a maximum take-off weight of 7.5 kg, including payload. The standard meteorological payload includes instruments for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and wind measurement. It is possible to resolve turbulence fluctuations of wind and temperature up to 20 Hz. The autopilot ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System), which is developed at the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Control, University of Stuttgart, makes it possible to automatically follow predefined waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. At a cruising speed of 24 m/s and a battery life of approx. one hour, a range of 80 km is feasible. The project 'Lidar Complex', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, is part of the research network 'WindForS', based in Southern Germany. The goal of the project is to establish lidar technology for wind energy plant site evaluation in complex terrain. Additional goals are the comparison of different measurement techniques and the validation of wind-field models in not IEC 61400 conform terrain. It is planned to design a turbulent wind-field generator, fed by real measurement data, which can be used to analyse WEC behaviour. Two test sites were defined for the 'Lidar Complex' project, one in IEC-conform terrain about 15 km from the Baltic Sea, the other in the Swabian Alb, only 2 km downstream of a 100 m steep

  15. Leading for Learning: Reflective Tools for School and District Leaders. CTP Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Michael S.; Copland, Michael A.; Talbert, Joan E.

    The framework of reflective ideas and tools presented here, and in the companion, "Leading for Learning Sourcebook: Concepts and Examples," supports leaders' efforts to improve student learning in schools and districts. Overall, the framework sees to enable powerful, equitable learning for all students. Its ideas and tools highlight five areas of…

  16. The BIOMAT facility at FAIR: a new tool for ground-based research in space radiation biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    The BIOMAT facility at FAIR: a new tool for ground-based research in space radiation biophysics M.Durante The FAIR accelerator complex at GSI (placeCityDarmstadt, country-regionGermany) will be a unique facility, where heavy ions with energies up to about 45 A GeV can be used for radiation biology experiments. The study of these very high charge and energy (HZE) particles is not only interesting for understanding the mechanisms of radiation action in living system, but also for radiation protection purposes. For space radiobiology, it is generally acknowledged that accelerator-based experiments are preferable to expensive and poorly reproducible flight tests, which are also presently unable to simulate the space radiation field beyond Earth's geomagnetic field. For these very reason, NASA has started the Space Radiation Health Program, building the 34 M NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY), and funding several research groups for studying biological effects of heavy ions with mass up to 56 (iron) and energy up to metricconverterProductID1 A1 A GeV. FAIR offers a number of unique opportunities in this frame. First, the beamtime available at NSRL is not sufficient to accommodate many non-US research groups, while the research needs are becoming urgent: uncertainty should be reduced to ±50% and effective countermeasures (physical and medical) developed by 2025 if a mission to Mars has to be performed within the first half of the XXI century. FAIR can be used to test a higher energy range (1- metricconverterProductID35 A35 A GeV), which has a low flux in space but is particularly penetrating and consequently impossible to shield. Finally, the raster scanning system used at GSI offers unique opportunities for biological experiments requiring precise exposures of parts of tissue or animal targets. The group of Biophysics at GSI has along experience in the field of space radiation protection, which naturally stems from heavy

  17. Google vs. the Library: Student Preferences and Perceptions when Doing Research Using Google and a Federated Search Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgas, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Federated searching was once touted as the library world's answer to Google, but ten years since federated searching technology's inception, how does it actually compare? This study focuses on undergraduate student preferences and perceptions when doing research using both Google and a federated search tool. Students were asked about their…

  18. TOOLS FOR DETERMINING SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH APPLICATION OF LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT: UPDATE ON U.S. RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an update on U.S. research to develop tools and information for evaluating integrated solid waste management strategies. In the past, waste management systems consisted primarily of waste collection and disposal at a local landfill. Today's municipal solid waste ma...

  19. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Archive eggs: a research and management tool for avian conservation breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Des H.V.; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Christensen, Nancy; Knapik, Dwight; Gibson, Keith; Converse, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 168 bird species are captive-bred for reintroduction into the wild. Programs tend to be initiated for species with a high level of endangerment. Depressed hatching success can be a problem for such programs and has been linked to artificial incubation. The need for artificial incubation is driven by the practice of multiclutching to increase egg production or by uncertainty over the incubation abilities of captive birds. There has been little attempt to determine how artificial incubation differs from bird-contact incubation. We describe a novel archive (data-logger) egg and use it to compare temperature, humidity, and egg-turning in 5 whooping crane (Grus americana) nests, 4 sandhill crane (G. canadensis) nests, and 3 models of artificial incubator; each of which are used to incubate eggs in whooping crane captive-breeding programs. Mean incubation temperature was 31.7° C for whooping cranes and 32.83° C for sandhill cranes. This is well below that of the artificial incubators (which were set based on a protocol of 37.6° C). Humidity in crane nests varied considerably, but median humidity in all 3 artificial incubators was substantially different from that in the crane nests. Two artificial incubators failed to turn the eggs in a way that mimicked crane egg-turning. Archive eggs are an effective tool for guiding the management of avian conservation breeding programs, and can be custom-made for other species. They also have potential to be applied to research on wild populations.

  1. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum.

    PubMed

    Grativol, Clícia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Zerlotini Neto, Adhemar; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes that hamper their sequencing by standard methods such as whole genome shotgun (WGS). Large tracts of methylated repeats occur in plant genomes that are interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene-enrichment strategies based on methylation profiles offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration with McrBC endonuclease digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions in the sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of methylation filtration and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using methyl-filtered (MF) and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The use of methy filtration allowed a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5× more scaffolds and 1.7× more assembled Mb in length compared with unfiltered dataset. The coverage of sorghum coding sequences (CDS) by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by the use of UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134× the coverage of gene regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds that covered all genes of the sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), 97.2% of sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds from encoded enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes was also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and for improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop.

  2. Dual signature tracer: A new tool for soil management and research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poleykett, Jack; Quinton, John; Armstrong, Alona; Maher, Barbara; Black, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The significant detrimental effects that occur, both on and off site due to the transport of soil are well documented. Now more than ever, it is vital to understand the pathways, processes and fate of transported sediments, to underpin environmental strategy and develop robust forecast models. Researchers have employed a broad range of materials and techniques to trace the movement of soil through space and time. However, three primary challenges still remain: 1) to develop a tracer that has the same or similar hydraulic characteristics as soil: 2) to develop a tracer able to replicate the broad and variable particle size distribution of soils; and: 3) to develop a tracing methodology that increases the volume, and quality of data collected from the field. This study approaches these challenges using a unique 'dual signature' tracer comprising natural mineral material directly coated with a fluorescent dye pigment and loaded during coating with a naturally occurring magnetic mineral oxide creating a tracer with both fluorescent properties and para-magnetic character. An assessment of the effectiveness of the tracer as a tracer of soil was conducted at the soil box and plot scale under controlled rainfall conditions, to: 1) examine the behaviour of the tracer, and: 2) to assess the efficiency of the different tools available to monitor the tracer post- deployment. At the plot scale, a unique site specific tracer was developed to match the hydraulic characteristics (particle size distribution and specific gravity), of the native soil enabling the source-sink relationship, transport pathways and transport rate through the environment to be investigated. Spatial mapping of the tracer distribution within each plot was also conducted using photography and Ultra Violet (UV) illumination. The results of this study provide the basis for the development of a unique soil tracing methodology, which can be applied to investigate soil transport processes, at a range of scales in

  3. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum.

    PubMed

    Grativol, Clícia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Zerlotini Neto, Adhemar; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes that hamper their sequencing by standard methods such as whole genome shotgun (WGS). Large tracts of methylated repeats occur in plant genomes that are interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene-enrichment strategies based on methylation profiles offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration with McrBC endonuclease digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions in the sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of methylation filtration and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using methyl-filtered (MF) and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The use of methy filtration allowed a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5× more scaffolds and 1.7× more assembled Mb in length compared with unfiltered dataset. The coverage of sorghum coding sequences (CDS) by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by the use of UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134× the coverage of gene regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds that covered all genes of the sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), 97.2% of sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds from encoded enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes was also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and for improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop. PMID:24773339

  4. Tools for Virtual Collaboration Designed for High Resolution Hydrologic Research with Continental-Scale Data Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Leonard, Lorne; Shi, Yuning; Bhatt, Gopal; Hanson, Paul; Gil, Yolanda; Yu, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Using a series of recent examples and papers we explore some progress and potential for virtual (cyber-) collaboration inspired by access to high resolution, harmonized public-sector data at continental scales [1]. The first example describes 7 meso-scale catchments in Pennsylvania, USA where the watershed is forced by climate reanalysis and IPCC future climate scenarios (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). We show how existing public-sector data and community models are currently able to resolve fine-scale eco-hydrologic processes regarding wetland response to climate change [2]. The results reveal that regional climate change is only part of the story, with large variations in flood and drought response associated with differences in terrain, physiography, landuse and/or hydrogeology. The importance of community-driven virtual testbeds are demonstrated in the context of Critical Zone Observatories, where earth scientists from around the world are organizing hydro-geophysical data and model results to explore new processes that couple hydrologic models with land-atmosphere interaction, biogeochemical weathering, carbon-nitrogen cycle, landscape evolution and ecosystem services [3][4]. Critical Zone cyber-research demonstrates how data-driven model development requires a flexible computational structure where process modules are relatively easy to incorporate and where new data structures can be implemented [5]. From the perspective of "Big-Data" the paper points out that extrapolating results from virtual observatories to catchments at continental scales, will require centralized or cloud-based cyberinfrastructure as a necessary condition for effectively sharing petabytes of data and model results [6]. Finally we outline how innovative cyber-science is supporting earth-science learning, sharing and exploration through the use of on-line tools where hydrologists and limnologists are sharing data and models for simulating the coupled impacts of catchment

  5. Unmanned Aerial Systems as Versatile Tools for Atmospheric and Environmental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos; Levin, Zev

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) are increasingly recognized as versatile tools for different earth-sciences applications providing chiefly a link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations. Based on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute (APAESO is co-financed by the European Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation: ΝΕΑ ΥΠΟΔΟΜΗ/ΝΕΚΥΠ/0308/09), we have acquired four CRUISERS (ET-Air, Slovakia) as UAS platforms and a substantial range of scientific instruments to be employed on these platforms. The APAESO platforms are aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the (Eastern) Mediterranean They will enable 3D measurements for determining physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations and atmospheric dynamics as well as 2D investigations into land management practices, vegetation and agricultural mapping, contaminant detection and the monitoring and assessment of hydrological parameters and processes of a given region at high spatial resolution. Currently, we are building up an Unmanned Airplane Facility at CyI. In the process of reaching full operational capacity, we have initiated and carried out first test missions involving highly specialized and specifically adapted instrumentation for atmospheric investigations. The first scientific mission involves the employment of a DOAS-system (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) in cooperation with colleagues from Heidelberg and Mainz, Germany and has been successfully completed. More recently, we started work on a new collaborative project aimed at measuring vertical profiles of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean. The project involves colleagues from the University of Frankfurt

  6. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  7. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    plots was randomized and every treatment was fivefold replicated. Soil solution was collected weekly with plastic suction cups. Concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat and soil solution were measured with ICP-MS. As a result, we found that both, concentrations of trace elements in oat plants, as well as the mobility of P and trace metals in soil solution was increased by an intercropping with white lupine. Mixed culture of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of the trace nutrients Fe, Mn and Zn, as well as the concentrations of the trace metals Pb, La, Nd, Sc, Th and U in tissues of oat. Surprisingly, mixed cultures with 33 % white lupin did not significantly affect trace metal concentrations in oat, what might be the consequence of an increasing competition of roots of white lupin and oat for nutrients and trace metals. In conclusion we found that mixed cultures of white lupin with cereals might be a powerful tool for enhanced phytoremediation and phytomining. However, processes involved in the physiochemical mechanism of element uptake as affected by the oat/white lupin co-cultivation remain unknown and further studies on this topic are planned. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  8. Foil Blanking Mechanism Research Using Rubber Tool by Finite Element Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang-Kai; Li, Xiao-Xing; Lang, Li-Hui; Xiao, Rui; Ge, Yu-Long

    2016-08-01

    For foil blanking process, the usage of flexible tool can effectively reduce the requirement of the manufacturing and assembling precision, compared with using conventional tool. However, the blanking mechanism using rubber tool is not clear. To investigate this question, the Finite Element (FE) model of rubber and process is established using ABAQUS package. The result of FE simulation affirm that the fracture emerges as a result of shear, not tensile. Then, for titanium foil with 0.08mm thickness, the cutting experiment is executed to verify the validity of blanking mechanism and FE simulation.

  9. Developing a tool for mapping adult mental health care provision in Europe: the REMAST research protocol and its contribution to better integrated care

    PubMed Central

    Amaddeo, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencia R.; Salazzari, Damiano; Gonzalez-Caballero, Juan Luis; Montagni, Ilaria; Tedeschi, Federico; Cetrano, Gaia; Chevreul, Karine; Kalseth, Jorid; Hagmair, Gisela; Straßmayr, Christa; Park, A-La; Sfetcu, Raluca; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe. Method The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool) combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS) to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a) Population Data; (b) the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES) Index; (c) the Mental Health System Checklist; (d) the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e) Geographical Data. Expected results The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain. Discussion The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care. PMID:27118959

  10. InteractoMIX: a suite of computational tools to exploit interactomes in biological and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Poglayen, Daniel; Marín-López, Manuel Alejandro; Bonet, Jaume; Fornes, Oriol; Garcia-Garcia, Javier; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Segura, Joan; Oliva, Baldo; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis

    2016-06-15

    Virtually all the biological processes that occur inside or outside cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Hence, the charting and description of the PPI network, initially in organisms, the interactome, but more recently in specific tissues, is essential to fully understand cellular processes both in health and disease. The study of PPIs is also at the heart of renewed efforts in the medical and biotechnological arena in the quest of new therapeutic targets and drugs. Here, we present a mini review of 11 computational tools and resources tools developed by us to address different aspects of PPIs: from interactome level to their atomic 3D structural details. We provided details on each specific resource, aims and purpose and compare with equivalent tools in the literature. All the tools are presented in a centralized, one-stop, web site: InteractoMIX (http://interactomix.com). PMID:27284060

  11. The Development of an Online Research Tool to Investigate Children's Social Bonds with Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenstra, Dana Nathalie; Evers, Vanessa

    As children are increasingly exposed to robots, it is important to learn more about the social interaction and bond that may develop between robots and children. In this paper we report the development of an interactive tool to measure children's attitudes toward social robots for children ages 6-10. A first version of the KidSAR instrument was tested and a pilot study was carried out to evaluate and improve the design of the KidSAR (Children's Social Attitude toward Robots) tool. The pilot study involved a small scale field experiment assessing whether children feel more social connection with a robot in a caring role compared with a role where it needed to be taken care of. The final KidSAR tool was developed after evaluation of children's responses and observation of children using the tool.

  12. Patent Office Search Files: A Tool for Historical Research and Technological Development.

    PubMed

    Newman, S M

    1962-08-31

    The classified search files of the U. S. Patent Office are useful for locating a desired patent record. The method of constructing these files, and the tools needed to enter the classification scheme at the proper locus, are described.

  13. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  14. Building a Central Repository for Research Ethics Consultation Data: A Proposal for a Standard Data Collection Tool.

    PubMed

    Cho, Mildred K; Taylor, Holly; McCormick, Jennifer B; Anderson, Nick; Barnard, David; Boyle, Mary B; Capron, Alexander M; Dorfman, Elizabeth; Havard, Kathryn; Reider, Carson; Sadler, John; Schwartz, Peter; Sharp, Richard R; Danis, Marion; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2015-08-01

    Clinical research ethics consultation services have been established across academic health centers over the past decade. This paper presents the results of collaboration within the CTSA consortium to develop a standard approach to the collection of research ethics consultation information to serve as a foundation for quality improvement, education, and research efforts. This approach includes categorizing and documenting descriptive information about the requestor, research project, the ethical question, the consult process, and describing the basic structure for a consult note. This paper also explores challenges in determining how to share some of this information between collaborating institutions related to concerns about confidentially, data quality, and informatics. While there is much still to be learned to improve the process of clinical research ethics consultation, these tools can advance these efforts, which, in turn, can facilitate the ethical conduct of research.

  15. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  16. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G) coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73) than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89). Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5) when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9) when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research use in policymaking

  17. Photovoice as Participatory Action Research Tool for Engaging People with Intellectual Disabilities in Research and Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Janine M.

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have few opportunities to actively participate in research affecting programs and policies. Employment of participatory action research has been recommended. Although use of this approach with people who have intellectual disabilities is growing, articles on specific participatory research methods are rare.…

  18. Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, K. O.; Fournier, C.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

    2008-07-01

    The risk assessment for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation has been challenged by a growing body of experimental evidence showing that non-irradiated bystander cells can receive signals from irradiated cells to elicit a variety of cellular responses. These may be significant for radiation protection but also for radiation therapy using heavy ions. Charged particle microbeams for radiobiological application provide a unique means to address these issues by allowing the precise irradiation of single cells with a counted numbers of ions. Here, we focus specifically on heavy ion microbeam facilities currently in use for biological purposes, describing their technical features and biological results. Typically, ion species up to argon are used for targeted biological irradiation at the vertically collimated microbeam at JAEA (Takasaki, Japan). At the SNAKE microprobe in Munich, mostly oxygen ions have been used in a horizontal focused beam line for cell targeting. At GSI (Darmstadt), a horizontal microprobe with a focused beam for defined targeting using ion species up to uranium is operational. The visualization of DNA damage response proteins relocalizing to defined sites of ion traversal has been accomplished at the three heavy ion microbeam facilities described above and is used to study mechanistic aspects of heavy ion effects. However, bystander studies have constituted the main focus of biological applications. While for cell inactivation and effects on cell cycle progression a response of non-targeted cells has been described at JAEA and GSI, respectively, in part controversial results have been obtained for the induction of DNA damage measured by double-strand formation or at the cytogenetic level. The results emphasize the influence of the cellular environment, and standardization of experimental conditions for cellular studies at different facilities as well as the investigation of bystander effects in tissue will be the aims of future

  19. Towards a Reflection Repertoire: Using a Thinking Tool to Understand Tensions in an Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aas, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Most action researchers agree that action research consists of cycles of planning, acting, reflecting, and taking further action. However, in action research literature, there is something missing. The nature of reflection in the action research process, including its relationship with the tensions that arise while discussing purposes, processes,…

  20. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, A. Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The "Vision and Change" report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area…

  1. Effective communication tools to engage Torres Strait Islanders in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Barnett, B.; Williams, A. J.; Grayson, J.; Busilacchi, S.; Duckworth, A.; Evans-Illidge, E.; Begg, G. A.; Murchie, C. D.

    2008-09-01

    Often, research activities in Torres Strait have not delivered full benefit to Torres Strait Islanders due to a lack of consultation, ineffectual communication of research information and lack of empathy for the needs of Islander communities. As for other stakeholder groups, integration of Islanders into the research process through practical involvement in research may overcome these problems. Three case studies from research projects conducted in Torres Strait are discussed to highlight a variety of communication and engagement activities carried out by non-Indigenous researchers. How these communication and extension activities facilitate collaboration between Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous researchers provides insight in the importance of these activities to the relative success of research projects. The benefits for Islanders in collaborating with researchers may be: improved understanding of the research and how it contributes to natural resource management; a sense of control in future management decisions; a greater likelihood of successful self-regulatory management systems; enhanced skills; and increased employment opportunities. The potential benefits for researchers are enhanced support for research projects resulting in increased access to data and logistic support that may ultimately impact the successful completion of projects. Such an approach will require researchers to take time to develop relationships with Torres Strait Islanders, effectively involve Islanders in research on an equitable basis and be flexible. This will ultimately require funding organisations to recognise the importance of such activities in research proposals and provide support through sufficient funding to enable these activities to be carried out.

  2. Connectivity research in Iceland - using scientific tools to establish sustainable water management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David

    2015-04-01

    Since the ninth century when the first settlers arrived in Iceland the island has undergone deforestation and subsequent vegetation degradation and soil erosion. Almost the entire birch forest and woodland, which originally covered ~ 25% of the nation, have been deforested through wood cutting and overgrazing. Consequently, soil erosion seriously affects over 40% of the country. During the last 50 years extensive drainage of wetlands has taken place. Furthermore, about 75% of Iceland electricity production comes from hydropower plants, constructed along the main rivers. Along with seismic and volcanic activities the above mentioned anthropogenic impacts continuously altered the hydro-geomorphic connectivity in many parts of the island. In the framework of ongoing efforts to restore ecosystems and their services in Iceland a thorough understanding of the hydro-geomorphic processes is essential. Field observations and numerical models are crucial tools to adopt appropriate management strategies and help decision makers establish sustainable governance strategies. Sediment transport models have been used in the past to investigate the impacts of hydropower dams on sediment transport in downstream rivers (Finger et al., 2006). Hydropower operations alter the turbidity dynamics in downstream freshwater systems, affecting visibility and light penetration into the water, leading to significant changes in primary production (Finger et al., 2007a). Overall, the interruption of connectivity by physical obstructions can affect the entire food chain, hampering the fishing yields in downstream waters (Finger et al., 2007b). In other locations hydraulic connectivity through retreating glaciers assures water transfer from upstream to downstream areas. The drastically retreat of glaciers can raise concerns of future water availability in remote mountain areas (Finger et al., 2013). Furthermore, the drastic reduction of glacier mass also jeopardizes the water availability for

  3. Evaluating mastery of biostatistics for medical researchers: need for a new assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Enders, Felicity

    2011-12-01

    Research training has enabled academic clinicians to contribute significantly to the body of medical research literature. Biostatistics represents a critical methodological skill for such researchers, as statistical methods are increasingly a necessary part of medical research. However, there is no validated knowledge and skills assessment for graduate level biostatistics for academic medical researchers. In this paper, I review graduate level statistical competencies and existing instruments intended to assess physicians' ability to read the medical literature and for undergraduate statistics for their alignment with core competencies necessary for successful use of statistics. This analysis shows a need for a new instrument to assess biostatistical competencies for medical researchers.

  4. The one-pager: a practical policy advocacy tool for translating community-based participatory research into action.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Betty T; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Reyes, Angela G; Martin, Jenifer; Lichtenstein, Richard L; Wilson, Christine; Sand, Sharon L

    2010-01-01

    The multiple and diverse perspectives, skills, and experiences inherent in community-academic partnerships make them uniquely positioned to educate policy makers and advocate for health equity. Effective communication tools are critical to successfully engage in the policy-making process. Yet few resources emphasize the development and use of practical tools for translating community-based participatory research (CBPR) findings into action. The purpose of this article is to describe a CBPR process for developing and using a one-page summary, or "one-pager," of research findings and their policy implications. This article draws on the experience of the Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP), a community-academic partnership in Detroit, Michigan. In addition to describing these processes, this article includes a template for a one-pager and an example of a one-pager that was written for and presented to federal policy makers. PMID:20543489

  5. PRE-QAPP AGREEMENT (PQA) AND ANALYTICAL METHOD CHECKLISTS (AMCS): TOOLS FOR PLANNING RESEARCH PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division (LRPCD) QA Manager strives to assist LRPCD researchers in developing functional planning documents for their research projects. As part of the planning process, several pieces of information are needed, including information re...

  6. Research Notes. Archimedes: Analysis of a HyperCard Reference Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottaviani, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of Archimedes as a HyperCard reference tool at the University of Michigan, and compares uses to similar projects. Results from studied points (i.e., system design and use statistics) support Archimedes: the system sees more use during reference hours when a librarian is unavailable, and user time is comparable to time spent with a…

  7. Challenges in Higher Education Research: The Use of Quantitative Tools in Comparative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reale, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Despite the value of the comparative perspective for the study of higher education is widely recognised, there is little consensus about the specific methodological approaches. Quantitative tools outlined their relevance for addressing comparative analyses since they are supposed to reducing the complexity, finding out and graduating similarities…

  8. Assessing Digital Humanities Tools: Use of Scalar at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    As librarians increasingly support digital publication platforms, they must also understand the user experience of these tools. This case study assesses use of Scalar, a digital humanities publishing platform for media-rich projects, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Based on a survey, interviews, and content analysis, the study…

  9. Hardware Improvements To The Helmet Mounted Projector On The Visual Display Research Tool (VDRT) At The Naval Training Systems Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Richard; Murray, Paul M.

    1989-09-01

    The Visual Pisplay Research Tool includes a helmet mounted projector for the display of flight simulation Area-of-Interest imagery on a 10 foot radius dome. The imagery is transmitted to the helmet using two coherent fibre optic ribbons. Some improvements have been made to the fibre optic system and to the helmet fit. The imagery is head and eye slaved and the concepts for image positioning and stabilisation are described.

  10. NCCR Chemical Biology: Interdisciplinary Research Excellence, Outreach, Education, and New Tools for Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Sturzenegger, Susi; Johnsson, Kai; Riezman, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation to promote cutting edge research as well as the advancement of young researchers and women, technology transfer, outreach and education, the NCCR (Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research) Chemical Biology is co-led by Howard Riezman, University of Geneva and Kai Johnsson, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL).

  11. Heuristics Diagrams as a Tool to Formatively Assess Teachers' Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, J. A.; Garcia-Franco, A.

    2013-01-01

    Many teacher education programs include different forms of teachers doing research. Be it in the form of action research or general inquiries about their practice, it has been argued that when teachers do research on their own practice, they are able to take a more reflective stance towards their work which is necessary to bring about educational…

  12. Action Research as a Tool of Professional Development of Advisers and Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim; Milovic, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Whilst educational action research is not unknown in Croatia, its use is not widespread. In part, this might be because action research assumes a high level of autonomy for practitioner-researchers, and a constructivist view of knowledge, neither of which are traditional characteristics of the Croatian system. This article reports on a capacity…

  13. Joining the Tots: Visual Research Tools to Connect Families and Community in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Judith; One, Sarah Te

    2014-01-01

    Over a two-year teacher-researcher project in New Zealand we used a mosaic of research methods (Clark, 2010) to capture the perspectives of staff, parents and children. As a team of teachers and academic researchers, we recorded and documented reconceptualised pedagogical practices that included active adult participation in a cluster of early…

  14. Pou4f2 knock-in Cre mouse: A multifaceted genetic tool for vision researchers

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Aaron B.; Bloomsburg, Samuel J.; Billingslea, Samuel A.; Merrill, Morgan M.; Li, Shuai; Thomas, Marshall W.

    2016-01-01

    nucleus, and superior colliculus. Conclusions: Pou4f2Cre provides multiple uses for the vision researcher’s genetic toolkit. First, Pou4f2Cre is a knock-in allele that can be used to eliminate Pou4f2, resulting in depletion of RGCs. Second, expression of Cre in male germ cells makes this strain an efficient germline activator of recombination, for example, to target LoxP-flanked sequences in the whole mouse. Third, Pou4f2Cre efficiently targets RGCs, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and a small number of photoreceptors within the retina, as well as the visual centers in the brain. Unlike other Cre recombinase lines that target retinal neurons, no recombination was observed in Müller or other retinal glia. These properties make this Cre recombinase line a useful tool for vision researchers. PMID:27390513

  15. Quality management tools: facilitating clinical research data integrity by utilizing specialized reports with electronic case report forms.

    PubMed

    Trocky, N M; Fontinha, M

    2005-01-01

    Data collected throughout the course of a clinical research trial must be reviewed for accuracy and completeness continually. The Oracle Clinical (OC) data management application utilized to capture clinical data facilitates data integrity through pre-programmed validations, edit and range checks, and discrepancy management modules. These functions were not enough. Coupled with the use of specially created reports in Oracle Discoverer and Integrated Review, both ad-hoc query and reporting tools, research staff have enhanced their ability to clean, analyze and report more accurate data captured within and among Case Report Forms (eCRFs) by individual study or across multiple studies.

  16. Quality Management Tools: Facilitating Clinical Research Data Integrity by Utilizing Specialized Reports with Electronic Case Report Forms

    PubMed Central

    Trocky, NM; Fontinha, M

    2005-01-01

    Data collected throughout the course of a clinical research trial must be reviewed for accuracy and completeness continually. The Oracle Clinical® (OC) data management application utilized to capture clinical data facilitates data integrity through pre-programmed validations, edit and range checks, and discrepancy management modules. These functions were not enough. Coupled with the use of specially created reports in Oracle Discoverer® and Integrated Review TM, both ad-hoc query and reporting tools, research staff have enhanced their ability to clean, analyze and report more accurate data captured within and among Case Report Forms (eCRFs) by individual study or across multiple studies. PMID:16779428

  17. Imaging Spectrograph as a Tool to Enhance the Undergraduate Student Research Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B.; Nielsen, K.; Johnson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate students often engage in research activities that are part of a larger project outlined by research faculty, while it is less common for students to explore and define their own research project. The later has been shown to have tremendous impact on the learning outcome of the students and provide a stronger sense of pride and ownership of the research project. It is unrealistic to expect starting undergraduate students to define transformative research projects. However, with the proper training and guidance student-driven transformative research is possible for upper division students. We have instituted a student research paradigm with focus on the development of student research skills in coordination with their course progress. We present here a specific student project that engage students in aeronomy research activities and provide them with a solid base to establish their own research projects for senior year. The core of the project is an imaging spectrograph, which is constructed, tested, and calibrated by the students. The instrument provides unique opportunities student research projects across subject such as optics, quantum mechanics, and how these subjects are applied in the geosciences of aeronomy and space physics.

  18. Qualitative evaluation of the implementation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool: a reflective tool to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork using Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Smith, Tony; Ariss, Steven; Enderby, Pamela M

    2015-07-01

    Reflective practice is used increasingly to enhance team functioning and service effectiveness; however, there is little evidence of its use in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool (IMT), an evidence-based change tool designed to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork through structured team reflection. The IMT incorporates three components: an evidence-based resource guide; a reflective implementation framework based on Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation methodology; and formative and summative evaluation components. The IMT was implemented with intermediate care teams supported by independent facilitators in England. Each intervention lasted 6 months and was evaluated over a 12-month period. Data sources include interviews, a focus group with facilitators, questionnaires completed by team members and documentary feedback from structured team reports. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. The IMT was implemented with 10 teams, including 253 staff from more than 10 different disciplines. Team challenges included lack of clear vision; communication issues; limited career progression opportunities; inefficient resource use; need for role clarity and service development. The IMT successfully engaged staff in the change process, and resulted in teams developing creative strategies to address the issues identified. Participants valued dedicated time to focus on the processes of team functioning; however, some were uncomfortable with a focus on teamwork at the expense of delivering direct patient care. The IMT is a relatively low-cost, structured, reflective way to enhance team function. It empowers individuals to understand and value their own, and others' roles and responsibilities within the team; identify barriers to effective teamwork, and develop and implement appropriate solutions to these. To be successful, teams need protected time to take

  19. Qualitative evaluation of the implementation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool: a reflective tool to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork using Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Smith, Tony; Ariss, Steven; Enderby, Pamela M

    2015-07-01

    Reflective practice is used increasingly to enhance team functioning and service effectiveness; however, there is little evidence of its use in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool (IMT), an evidence-based change tool designed to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork through structured team reflection. The IMT incorporates three components: an evidence-based resource guide; a reflective implementation framework based on Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation methodology; and formative and summative evaluation components. The IMT was implemented with intermediate care teams supported by independent facilitators in England. Each intervention lasted 6 months and was evaluated over a 12-month period. Data sources include interviews, a focus group with facilitators, questionnaires completed by team members and documentary feedback from structured team reports. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. The IMT was implemented with 10 teams, including 253 staff from more than 10 different disciplines. Team challenges included lack of clear vision; communication issues; limited career progression opportunities; inefficient resource use; need for role clarity and service development. The IMT successfully engaged staff in the change process, and resulted in teams developing creative strategies to address the issues identified. Participants valued dedicated time to focus on the processes of team functioning; however, some were uncomfortable with a focus on teamwork at the expense of delivering direct patient care. The IMT is a relatively low-cost, structured, reflective way to enhance team function. It empowers individuals to understand and value their own, and others' roles and responsibilities within the team; identify barriers to effective teamwork, and develop and implement appropriate solutions to these. To be successful, teams need protected time to take

  20. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level. PMID:26203395

  1. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-06-29

    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level.

  2. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M.; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level.  PMID:26203395

  3. German translation of the Alberta context tool and two measures of research use: methods, challenges and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Methods Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. Results We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons’ unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Conclusion Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument

  4. Trial Promoter: A Web-Based Tool for Boosting the Promotion of Clinical Research Through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Ukpolo, Francis; Ward, Edward; Wilson, Melissa L

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce information about clinical research, in particular clinical trials, is among the top reasons why potential participants do not take part in clinical studies. Without volunteers, on the other hand, clinical research and the development of novel approaches to preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease are impossible. Promising digital options such as social media have the potential to work alongside traditional methods to boost the promotion of clinical research. However, investigators and research institutions are challenged to leverage these innovations while saving time and resources. Objective To develop and test the efficiency of a Web-based tool that automates the generation and distribution of user-friendly social media messages about clinical trials. Methods Trial Promoter is developed in Ruby on Rails, HTML, cascading style sheet (CSS), and JavaScript. In order to test the tool and the correctness of the generated messages, clinical trials (n=46) were randomized into social media messages and distributed via the microblogging social media platform Twitter and the social network Facebook. The percent correct was calculated to determine the probability with which Trial Promoter generates accurate messages. Results During a 10-week testing phase, Trial Promoter automatically generated and published 525 user-friendly social media messages on Twitter and Facebook. On average, Trial Promoter correctly used the message templates and substituted the message parameters (text, URLs, and disease hashtags) 97.7% of the time (1563/1600). Conclusions Trial Promoter may serve as a promising tool to render clinical trial promotion more efficient while requiring limited resources. It supports the distribution of any research or other types of content. The Trial Promoter code and installation instructions are freely available online. PMID:27357424

  5. Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.

    PubMed

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research.

  6. Premier Tools of Energy Research Also Probe Secrets of Viral Disease

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chui, Glennda

    2011-03-28

    Advanced light sources peer into matter at the atomic and molecular scales, with applications ranging from physics, chemistry, materials science, and advanced energy research, to biology and medicine.

  7. Making a commitment to ethics in global health research partnerships: a practical tool to support ethical practice.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jill; Hatfield, Jennifer; Afsana, Kaosar; Neufeld, Vic

    2015-03-01

    Global health research partnerships have many benefits, including the development of research capacity and improving the production and use of evidence to improve global health equity. These partnerships also include many challenges, with power and resource differences often leading to inequitable and unethical partnership dynamics. Responding to these challenges and to important gaps in partnership scholarship, the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) conducted a three-year, multi-regional consultation to capture the research partnership experiences of stakeholders in South Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consultation participants described persistent inequities in the conduct of global health research partnerships and called for a mechanism through which to improve accountability for ethical conduct within partnerships. They also called for a commitment by the global health research community to research partnership ethics. The Partnership Assessment Toolkit (PAT) is a practical tool that enables partners to openly discuss the ethics of their partnership and to put in place structures that create ethical accountability. Clear mechanisms such as the PAT are essential to guide ethical conduct to ensure that global health research partnerships are beneficial to all collaborators, that they reflect the values of the global health endeavor more broadly, and that they ultimately lead to improvements in health outcomes and health equity.

  8. Developing a Framework for Using E-Portfolios as a Research and Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sun-young

    2013-01-01

    As Tarone (1998) stated, an understanding of interlanguage variation in relation to contextual changes has been a key issue in both second language acquisition (SLA) and language assessment (LA) research. Research on interlanguage variation has shown that systematic variation is often evidenced when different phonological and syntactic forms are…

  9. Comparative community case studies as research tools: A national effort to support local sustainability planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    The provisioning of aquatic ecosystem goods and services (EGS) is a key concept in USEPA Office of Research and Development research programs. This is a national issue, yet many decisions affecting EGS sustainability are made at the local level where decisions can have substanti...

  10. Research as Pedagogy: Using Experimental Data Collection as a Course Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Virginia; Booke, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Integrating research in the classroom experience is recognized as potentially important in enhancing student learning (Price 2001; Schmid 1992). This article asks if student integration as research subjects augments their learning about political science. A quasi-experimental project focused on media usage, construction, and influences on the…

  11. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions…

  12. The Need for Novel Informatics Tools for Integrating and Planning Research in Molecular and Cellular Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Alcino J.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2015-01-01

    The sheer volume and complexity of publications in the biological sciences are straining traditional approaches to research planning. Nowhere is this problem more serious than in molecular and cellular cognition, since in this neuroscience field, researchers routinely use approaches and information from a variety of areas in neuroscience and other…

  13. Action Research: A Tool for Promoting Faculty Development and Continuous Improvement in Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Cynthia L.; Klein, C. Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of action research to examine the content and outcomes of university-based leadership preparation programs. Using examples drawn from an ongoing action research project with candidates in a master's level principal preparation program, we demonstrate how the collection and analysis of candidate's written…

  14. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    PubMed

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  15. Head mounted DLP for visual stimulation in freely moving rats: a novel tool for visual neuroscience research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Yossi; Arens-Arad, Tamar; Farah, Nairouz; Zlotnik, Alex; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-03-01

    Novel technologies are constantly under development for vision restoration in blind patients. In some of these techniques, such as photodiode implants or optogenetics based treatment, a glasses mounted optical projection system projects the visual scene onto the retina. The desired projection system is characterized by a relatively high power density, a localized retinal stimulation area and compatibility for wavelengths that are specific for the technology at hand. The challenges of obtaining such a projection system are not only limited by developing the tools and the apparatus for testing the visual performance of artificial retina, but also devising the technique and the methodology for training and testing the behaving animals using this tool. Current research techniques used for evaluation of visual function in behaving animals utilize computer screens for retinal stimulation, and therefore do not fulfill the requirements of the evaluation of retinal implant performance or optogenetics based treatment (inefficient power and no wavelength flexibility). In the following work we will present and evaluate a novel projection system that is suited for behavioral animal studies and meet the requirements for artificial retinal stimulation. The proposed system is based on a miniature Digital Mirror Device (DMD) for pattern projection and a telescope for relaying the pattern directly onto the animal eye. This system facilitates the projection of patterns with high spatial resolution at high light intensities with the desired wavelength and may prove to be a vital tool in natural and artificial vision performance research in behaving animals.

  16. Solar Flares and Coronal Physics Using P/OF as a Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg, E. (Editor); Wilson, R. M. (Editor); Hudson, R. M. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This NASA Conference Publication contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Solar High-Resolution Astrophysics Using the Pinhole/Occulter Facility held at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, on May 8 to 10, 1985. These proceedings include primarily the invited tutorial papers, extended abstracts of contributed poster papers, and summaries of subpanel (X-Ray and Coronal Physics) discussions. Both observational and theoretical results are presented. Although the emphasis of the Workshop was focused primarily on topics peculiar to solar physics, one paper is included that discusses the P/0F as a tool for X-ray astronomy.

  17. Logistics Intra-Theater Support Tool: Combining artificial intelligence and operations research techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Van Groningen, C.N.; Duffy, M.K.; Widing, M.A.; Macal, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Logistics Intra-theater Support Tool (LIST) is a prototype system that analyzes courses of action to see if they are logistically feasible. A course of action (COA) specifies the movement of a specified combat force, its supporting forces, and its supplies to a location by a certain time. LIST answers the following questions. Is the intra-theater infrastructure capable of meeting the COA requirements given the assigned resources If the COA is not logistically feasible, what are the bottlenecks How could the COA be modified to improve its feasibility 8 refs., 10 figs.

  18. The Potential to use Publication of Undergraduate Research as a Teaching Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Lindbo, David L.; Belcher, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Several studies crossing numerous disciplinary boundaries have demonstrated that undergraduate students benefit from research experiences. These benefits include personal and intellectual development, more and closer contact with faculty, the use of active learning techniques, the creation of high expectations, the development of creative and problem-solving skills, and the development of greater independence and intrinsic motivation to learn. The discipline also gains in that studies show undergraduates who engage in research experiences are more likely to remain science majors and finish their degree program. Research experiences come as close as possible to allowing undergraduates to experience what it is like to be an academic or research member of their profession working to advance their discipline, therefore enhancing their professional socialization into their chosen field. If the goals achieved by undergraduate research include introducing these students to the advancement of their chosen field, it stands to reason the ultimate ending to this experience would be the publication of a peer-reviewed paper. While not all undergraduate projects will end with a product worthy of peer-reviewed publication, some definitely do, and the personal experience of the authors indicates that undergraduate students who achieve publication get great satisfaction and a sense of personal achievement from that publication. While a top-tier international journal probably isn't going to be the ultimate destination for many of these projects, there are several appropriate outlets. The SSSA journal Soil Horizons has published several undergraduate projects in recent years, and good undergraduate projects can often be published in state academy of science journals. Journals focused expressly on publishing undergraduate research include the Journal of Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Excellence, Reinvention, and the American Journal of Undergraduate Research. Case studies of

  19. NASA's use of McIDAS technology - A data systems tool for meteorological research and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Meyer, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    The Earth Science and Applications Division of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been chartered to conduct research, and to develop and use space technology to gain a basic understanding of the earth processes with emphasis on atmospheric processes. An integral part of the research and development efforts has been the Man computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS). The McIDAS computer system has permitted integration of data from satellites, aircraft remote sensors, ground based meteorological data sources, and modeled atmospheric radiances. The result has been an increase in knowlege of mesoscale atmospheric processes and has enabled researchers to recommend improvements and suggestions for planned future remote sensing instruments.

  20. Ethnobotany as a Pharmacological Research Tool and Recent Developments in CNS-active Natural Products from Ethnobotanical Sources

    PubMed Central

    McClatchey, Will C.; Mahady, Gail B.; Bennett, Bradley C.; Shiels, Laura; Savo, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    The science of ethnobotany is reviewed in light of its multidisciplinary contributions to natural product research for the development of pharmaceuticals and pharmacological tools. Some of the issues reviewed involve ethical and cultural perspectives of healthcare and medicinal plants. While these are not usually part of the discussion of pharmacology, cultural concerns potentially provide both challenges and insight for field and laboratory researchers. Plant evolutionary issues are also considered as they relate to development of plant chemistry and accessing this through ethnobotanical methods. The discussion includes presentation of a range of CNS-active medicinal plants that have been recently examined in the field, laboratory and/or clinic. Each of these plants is used to illustrate one or more aspects about the valuable roles of ethnobotany in pharmacological research. We conclude with consideration of mutually beneficial future collaborations between field ethnobotanists and pharmacologists. PMID:19422851

  1. TextHunter--A User Friendly Tool for Extracting Generic Concepts from Free Text in Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Jackson MSc, Richard G; Ball, Michael; Patel, Rashmi; Hayes, Richard D; Dobson, Richard J B; Stewart, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Observational research using data from electronic health records (EHR) is a rapidly growing area, which promises both increased sample size and data richness - therefore unprecedented study power. However, in many medical domains, large amounts of potentially valuable data are contained within the free text clinical narrative. Manually reviewing free text to obtain desired information is an inefficient use of researcher time and skill. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of applying Natural Language Processing (NLP) to extract information. However, in real world research environments, the demand for NLP skills outweighs supply, creating a bottleneck in the secondary exploitation of the EHR. To address this, we present TextHunter, a tool for the creation of training data, construction of concept extraction machine learning models and their application to documents. Using confidence thresholds to ensure high precision (>90%), we achieved recall measurements as high as 99% in real world use cases.

  2. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-comparative effectiveness research infrastructure investments: emerging data resources, tools and publications.

    PubMed

    Segal, Courtney; Holve, Erin

    2014-11-01

    The Recovery Act provided a substantial, one-time investment in data infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research (CER). A review of the publications, data, and tools developed as a result of this support has informed understanding of the level of effort undertaken by these projects. Structured search queries, as well as outreach efforts, were conducted to identify and review resources from American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 CER projects building electronic clinical data infrastructure. The findings from this study provide a spectrum of productivity across a range of topics and settings. A total of 451 manuscripts published in 192 journals, and 141 data resources and tools were identified and address gaps in evidence on priority populations, conditions, and the infrastructure needed to support CER.

  3. Microgravity: A New Tool for Basic and Applied Research in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This brochure highlights selected aspects of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. So that we can expand our understanding and control of physical processes, this program supports basic and applied research in electronic materials, metals, glasses and ceramics, biological materials, combustion and fluids and chemicals. NASA facilities that provide weightless environments on the ground, in the air, and in space are available to U.S. and foreign investigators representing the academic and industrial communities. After a brief history of microgravity research, the text explains the advantages and methods of performing microgravity research. Illustrations follow of equipment used and experiments preformed aboard the Shuttle and of prospects for future research. The brochure concludes be describing the program goals and the opportunities for participation.

  4. MEDES clinical research facility as a tool to prepare ISSA space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillet, A.; Traon, A. Pavy-Le

    This new multi-disciplinary medical experimentation center provides the ideal scientific, medical and technical environment required for research programs and to prepare international space station Alpha (ISSA) missions, where space and healthcare industries can share their expertise. Different models are available to simulate space flight effects (bed-rest, confinement,…). This is of particular interest for research in Human psychology, physiology, physiopathology and ergonomics, validation of biomedical materials and procedures, testing of drugs, and other healthcare related products. This clinical research facility (CRF) provides valuable services in various fields of Human research requiring healthy volunteers. CRF is widely accessible to national and international, scientific, medical and industrial organisations. Furthermore, users have at their disposal the multi-disciplinary skills of MEDES staff and all MEDES partners on a single site.

  5. Understanding attitudes towards the use of animals in research using an online public engagement tool.

    PubMed

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Molento, Carla F M; Weary, Daniel M

    2015-04-01

    Using an online public engagement experiment, we probed the views of 617 participants on the use of pigs as research animals (to reduce agricultural pollution or to improve organ transplant success in humans) with and without genetic modification and using different numbers of pigs. In both scenarios and across demographics, level of opposition increased when the research required the use of GM corn or GM pigs. Animal numbers had little effect. A total of 1037 comments were analyzed to understand decisions. Participants were most concerned about the impact of the research on animal welfare. Genetic modification was viewed as an intervention in nature and there was worry about unpredictable consequences. Both opponents and supporters sought assurances that concerns were addressed. Governing bodies for animal research should make efforts to document and mitigate consequences of GM and other procedures, and increase efforts to maintain a dialogue with the public around acceptability of these procedures.

  6. Little research on effective tools to improve patient safety in the dental setting.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Dominic

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline via OVID, Embase via OVID, HMIC via OVID, CINAHL via EBSCO and Web of Science.Study selectionDescriptive, observational and experimental studies that used or described the development of patient safety interventions relating to dental care. Outcomes of interest were: patient safety, harm prevention, risk minimisation, patient satisfaction and patient acceptability, professional acceptability, efficacy, cost-effectiveness and efficiency.Data extraction and synthesisAll titles and abstracts were screened by at least two authors. The eligible studies were data extracted by two authors, with disagreements resolved by a third reviewer if necessary. A narrative approach was taken and quality assessed using CASP tools.ResultsNine studies were identified. Four described the use of checklists, three the use of reporting systems, one the use of electronic reminders and one the use of trigger tools. The risk of bias in the studies was high.ConclusionsThe available literature on patient safety is in its infancy. Surgical checklists may be effective in reducing surgical errors. PMID:27339232

  7. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Matthew E.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Zussblatt, Niels P.; Plourde, Kenton J.; Wender, Ben A.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis—methods commonly applied in financial and operations management—to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios—combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  8. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Zussblatt, Niels P; Plourde, Kenton J; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis-methods commonly applied in financial and operations management-to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios-combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  9. The Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment, a new software framework to share research tools in the classroom and across disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, K.; Becker, T. W.; Boschi, L.; Sain, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Waterhouse, H.

    2009-12-01

    The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical mode, while giving more advanced users the opportunity to view and modify the source code. Top level graphical user interfaces which initiate the calculations and visualize results, are written in the Python programming language using an object-oriented, modern design. Results are plotted with either Matlab-like Python libraries, or SEATREE’s own Generic Mapping Tools wrapper. The underlying computational codes used to produce the results can be written in any programming language and accessed through Python wrappers. There are currently four fully developed science modules for SEATREE: (1) HC is a global geodynamics tool based on a semi-analytical mantle-circulation program based on work by B. Steinberger, Becker, and C. O'Neill. HC can compute velocities and tractions for global, spherical Stokes flow and radial viscosity variations. HC is fast enough to be used for classroom instruction, for example to let students interactively explore the role of radial viscosity variations for global geopotential (geoid) anomalies. (2) ConMan wraps Scott King’s 2D finite element mantle convection code, allowing users to quickly observe how modifications to input parameters affect heat flow over time. As seismology modules, SEATREE includes, (3), Larry, a global, surface wave phase-velocity inversion tool and, (4), Syn2D, a Cartesian tomography teaching tool for ray-theory wave propagation in synthetic, arbitrary velocity structure in the presence of noise. Both underlying programs were contributed by Boschi. Using Syn2D, students can explore, for example, how well a given

  10. DART: Tools and Support for Ensemble Data Assimilation Research, Operations, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoar, T. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Collins, N.; Raeder, K.; Kershaw, H.; Romine, G. S.; Mizzi, A. P.; Chatterjee, A.; Karspeck, A. R.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Ha, S. Y.; Barre, J.; Gaubert, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) is a community facility for ensemble data assimilation developed and supported by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. DART provides a comprehensive suite of software, documentation, examples and tutorials that can be used for ensemble data assimilation research, operations, and education. Scientists and software engineers from the Data Assimilation Research Section at NCAR are available to actively support DART users who want to use existing DART products or develop their own new applications. Current DART users range from university professors teaching data assimilation, to individual graduate students working with simple models, through national laboratories doing operational prediction with large state-of-the-art models. DART runs efficiently on many computational platforms ranging from laptops through thousands of cores on the newest supercomputers. This poster focuses on several recent research activities using DART with geophysical models. First, DART is being used with the Community Atmosphere Model Spectral Element (CAM-SE) and Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) global atmospheric models that support locally enhanced grid resolution. Initial results from ensemble assimilation with both models are presented. DART is also being used to produce ensemble analyses of atmospheric tracers, in particular CO, in both the global CAM-Chem model and the regional Weather Research and Forecast with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model by assimilating observations from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instruments. Results from ensemble analyses in both models are presented. An interface between DART and the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model has been completed and ensemble land surface analyses with DART/CABLE will be discussed. Finally, an update on ensemble analyses in the fully-coupled Community Earth System (CESM

  11. Process Design and Costing of Bioethanol Technology: A Tool for Determining the Status and Direction of Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Wooley; Ruth; Glassner; Sheehan

    1999-10-01

    Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the U.S. Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. We use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help us understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on our latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Our analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

  12. Process design and costing of bioethanol technology: A tool for determining the status and direction of research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Glassner, D.; Sheehan, J.

    1999-10-01

    Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the US Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. The authors use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help them understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on their latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Their analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

  13. Development of “-omics” research in Schistosoma spp. and -omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuqi; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those “-omics” researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal “-omics” researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by “-omics” researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by “-omics” studies. PMID:25018752

  14. A collaborative Alzheimer disease research exchange using a community-based Helpline as a recruitment tool.

    PubMed

    Austrom, Mary Guerriero; Bachman, Jennifer; Altmeyer, Linda; Gao, Sujuan; Farlow, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Although barriers to research participation present challenges for researchers trying to recruit participants, community-based organizations typically have a relationship with and access to potential participants, but often lack information about local studies recruiting participants and/or specifics about studies, how to describe them and how to refer their clients to a study. Therefore, a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR)model of collaboration may be a mutually advantageous option for recruiting participants to Alzheimer disease research. The broad goal of this study was to assess whether this void could be bridged and relationships developed between the Alzheimer's Association of Greater Indiana and researchers at the Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, and improve flow of information to increase research participation to any or all of 4 projects recruiting research participants at the time. Of the 257 Helpline callers who received information about the 4 local studies recruiting participants, 4 family caregivers called the research coordinators and 2 participants were enrolled into 2 separate studies. One person was interested and had completed and returned initial paperwork but had not yet scheduled a screening visit. The National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease received 0 calls (participation in National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease was 1 of the 4 projects offered to potential participants). Active CBPR is a good goal to strive toward. Community partners are critical to gain access to potential participants for our research. Despite the low number of recruits to Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center studies, this CBPR project was considered a success. Distributing information about local studies to family members and persons with dementia using the Alzheimer's Association of Greater Indiana Helpline was seen as important by the family members in this study. The Helpline may prove to be an excellent mechanism to do this once revisions are

  15. Considering Research Outcomes as Essential Tools for Medical Education Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen Hughes; Miller, Bonnie M; Karani, Reena

    2015-11-01

    As medical educators face the challenge of incorporating new content, learning methods, and assessment techniques into the curriculum, the need for rigorous medical education research to guide efficient and effective instructional planning increases. When done properly, well-designed education research can provide guidance for complex education decision making. In this Commentary, the authors consider the 2015 Research in Medical Education (RIME) research and review articles in terms of the critical areas in teaching and learning that they address. The broad categories include (1) assessment (the largest collection of RIME articles, including both feedback from learners and instructors and the reliability of learner assessment), (2) the institution's impact on the learning environment, (3) what can be learned from program evaluation, and (4) emerging issues in faculty development. While the articles in this issue are broad in scope and potential impact, the RIME committee noted few studies of sufficient rigor focusing on areas of diversity and diverse learners. Although challenging to investigate, the authors encourage continuing innovation in research focused on these important areas.

  16. Myositis registries and biorepositories: powerful tools to advance clinical, epidemiologic and pathogenic research

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Lisa G.; Dankó, Katalin; Miller, Frederick W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Clinical registries and biorepositories have proven extremely useful in many studies of diseases, especially rare diseases. Given their rarity and diversity, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, or myositis syndromes, have benefited from individual researchers’ collections of cohorts of patients. Major efforts are being made to establish large registries and biorepositories that will allow many additional studies to be performed that were not possible before. Here we describe the registries developed by investigators and patient support groups that are currently available for collaborative research purposes. Recent findings We have identified 46 myositis research registries, including many with biorepositories, which have been developed for a wide variety of purposes and have resulted in great advances in understanding the range of phenotypes, clinical presentations, risk factors, pathogenic mechanisms, outcome assessment, therapeutic responses, and prognoses. These are now available for collaborative use to undertake additional studies. Two myositis patient registries have been developed for research, and myositis patient support groups maintain demographic registries with large numbers of patients available to be contacted for potential research participation. Summary Investigator-initiated myositis research registries and biorepositories have proven extremely useful in understanding many aspects of these rare and diverse autoimmune diseases. These registries and biorepositories, in addition to those developed by myositis patient support groups, deserve continued support to maintain the momentum in this field as they offer major opportunities to improve understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of these diseases in cost-effective ways. PMID:25225838

  17. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change.

  18. Development of inhibitors as research tools for carbohydrate-processing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gloster, Tracey M

    2012-10-01

    Carbohydrates, which are present in all domains of life, play important roles in a host of cellular processes. These ubiquitous biomolecules form highly diverse and often complex glycan structures without the aid of a template. The carbohydrate structures are regulated solely by the location and specificity of the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. These enzymes, glycosyltransferases and glycoside hydrolases, need to be functionally well characterized in order to investigate the structure and function of glycans. The use of enzyme inhibitors, which target a particular enzyme, can significantly aid this understanding, and may also provide insights into therapeutic applications. The present article describes some of the approaches used to design and develop enzyme inhibitors as tools for investigating carbohydrate-processing enzymes.

  19. Tools for 3D scientific visualization in computational aerodynamics at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bancroft, Gordon; Plessel, Todd; Merritt, Fergus; Watson, Val

    1989-01-01

    Hardware, software, and techniques used by the Fluid Dynamics Division (NASA) for performing visualization of computational aerodynamics, which can be applied to the visualization of flow fields from computer simulations of fluid dynamics about the Space Shuttle, are discussed. Three visualization techniques applied, post-processing, tracking, and steering, are described, as well as the post-processing software packages used, PLOT3D, SURF (Surface Modeller), GAS (Graphical Animation System), and FAST (Flow Analysis software Toolkit). Using post-processing methods a flow simulation was executed on a supercomputer and, after the simulation was complete, the results were processed for viewing. It is shown that the high-resolution, high-performance three-dimensional workstation combined with specially developed display and animation software provides a good tool for analyzing flow field solutions obtained from supercomputers.

  20. Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model DOE Tool for Assessing Impact of Research on Cost of Power

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a spreadsheet model to provide insight as to how its research activities can impact of cost of producing power from geothermal energy. This model is referred to as GETEM, which stands for “Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model”. Based on user input, the model develops estimates of costs associated with exploration, well field development, and power plant construction that are used along with estimated operating costs to provide a predicted power generation cost. The model allows the user to evaluate how reductions in cost, or increases in performance or productivity will impact the predicted power generation cost. This feature provides a means of determining how specific technology improvements can impact generation costs, and as such assists DOE in both prioritizing research areas and identifying where research is needed.

  1. Psychometric Properties of a Decisional Capacity Screening Tool for Individuals Contemplating Participation in Alzheimer's disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Seaman, Jennifer Burgher; Terhorst, Lauren; Gentry, Amanda; Hunsaker, Amanda; Parker, Lisa S.; Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty

    2016-01-01

    Background With the growing population of individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders, there is a pressing demand for research on late life cognitive disorders. However, the high risk for decisional incapacity in this population necessitates the evaluation of capacity to consent to research participation, adding to the cost and complexity of the research process. The University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent (UBACC) was initially validated in a sample of persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Objective To assess the psychometric properties of the UBACC when used in a sample of individuals contemplating participation in research on AD. Methods The UBACC was administered to a convenience sample (n=132) consisting of individuals with mild to moderate cognitive impairment (n=52), their study partners (n= 52) and healthy older adults control subjects (n=30), as part of a broader study to evaluate perceived burden of research participation. Reliability tests, correlational analyses, and exploratory factor analytic methods were used to examine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Results UBACC scores were significantly associated with both global cognition (rs = .564, p < .001) and verbal fluency (rs = .511, P <.001), indicating concurrent validity with related constructs. The resulting factor structure differed from that reported by the developers in their initial testing. Items clustered almost entirely on one factor, and items reflecting the construct of understanding accounted for 32.12% of the total variance, with no evidence for distinct reasoning or appreciation scales. Conclusion The UBACC shows promise when used to screen for decisional capacity among those considering participation in AD research. PMID:25765917

  2. California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

    2006-11-28

    The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

  3. [The software QSR Nvivo 2.0 in qualitative data analysis: a tool for health and human sciences researches].

    PubMed

    Guizzo, Bianca Salazar; Krziminski, Clarissa de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa

    2003-04-01

    The QSR Nvivo 2.0 is one of the latest versions of qualitative data analysis software package. Taking on board our experience as QSR Nvivo 2.0 users we describe here the software's most important tools. The QSR Nvivo 2.0 was used to facilitate the qualitative analysis of data gathered in a Health and Education research. Considering the shortage of published materials about the issue, which suggests a lack of knowledge about the program in our context, our aim is to show how the QSR Nvivo 2.0 can assist qualitative data analysis.

  4. A New Catalog of Microbiological Tools for Women's Infectious Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary infections pose serious health risks. But, little is known about how genitourinary bacteria attach, maintain colonization, compete for resources, and cause pathology. In this issue, we introduce a new set of 62 genitourinary reference strains of bacteria and their genomes to spur experimental research on infectious diseases that impact women. PMID:27688331

  5. The Plant Protoplast: A Useful Tool for Plant Research and Student Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, George J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A plant protoplast is basically a plant cell that lacks a cell wall. This article outlines some of the ways in which protoplasts may be used to advance understanding of plant cell biology in research and student instruction. Topics include high efficiency experimental virus infection, organelle isolation, and osmotic effects. (Author/MA)

  6. World Wide Web as a Research Tool for Self Motivated Learning of Ozone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Student use of computers and the internet has increased rapidly in recent years. Teachers ask what types of learning experiences can be facilitated by using the internet in their classrooms (NSBF, 2007). Various surveys of U.S. teachers on internet usage report that having students use the internet for research and information gathering purposes…

  7. S.O.S. for Information Literacy: A Tool for Improving Research and Information Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.

    At no time in history has the ability to locate, organize, evaluate, manage and use information, skills collectively referred to as information literacy, been more important to today's learners. Classroom and technology teachers and library media specialists are challenged to find effective, innovative techniques for teaching research and…

  8. The Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (BARCdb): a new research tool for the analysis of biobank samples.

    PubMed

    Galli, Joakim; Oelrich, Johan; Taussig, Michael J; Andreasson, Ulrika; Ortega-Paino, Eva; Landegren, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a new database of technology services and products for analysis of biobank samples in biomedical research. BARCdb, the Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (http://www.barcdb.org), is a freely available web resource, listing expertise and molecular resource capabilities of research centres and biotechnology companies. The database is designed for researchers who require information on how to make best use of valuable biospecimens from biobanks and other sample collections, focusing on the choice of analytical techniques and the demands they make on the type of samples, pre-analytical sample preparation and amounts needed. BARCdb has been developed as part of the Swedish biobanking infrastructure (BBMRI.se), but now welcomes submissions from service providers throughout Europe. BARCdb can help match resource providers with potential users, stimulating transnational collaborations and ensuring compatibility of results from different labs. It can promote a more optimal use of European resources in general, both with respect to standard and more experimental technologies, as well as for valuable biobank samples. This article describes how information on service and reagent providers of relevant technologies is made available on BARCdb, and how this resource may contribute to strengthening biomedical research in academia and in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25336620

  9. Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management

    EPA Science Inventory

    River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

  10. Wild-derived mouse stocks: an underappreciated tool for aging research

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Virtually all biomedical research makes use of a relatively small pool of laboratory-adapted, inbred, isogenic stocks of mice. Although the advantages of these models are many, there are a number of disadvantages as well. When studying a multifaceted process such as aging, the problems associated with using laboratory stocks are greatly inflated. On the other hand, wild-derived mouse stocks, loosely defined here as either wild-caught individuals or the recent progeny of wild-caught individuals, have much to offer to biogerontology research. Hence, the aims of this review are threefold: (1) to (re)acquaint readers with the pros and cons of using a typical inbred laboratory mouse model for aging research; (2) to reintroduce the notion of using wild-derived mouse stocks in aging research as championed by Austad, Miller and others for more than a decade, and (3) to provide an overview of recent advances in biogerontology using wild-derived mouse stocks. PMID:19424863

  11. Pathways to Participatory Research in Developing a Tool to Measure Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Michelle; Davies, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    People with a learning disability, the experts of their own experience are increasingly involved in research. We will be discussing in this paper their centrality in the development of a psychological therapy outcome measure for people with learning disabilities. Their involvement needs to go beyond giving their views to being included in the…

  12. Tools for Evaluating Research Output: Are Citation-based Rankings of Economics Journals Stable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Matthias; Kocher, Martin G.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the assignment of economics journals to different quartiles of citation-based rankings, a measure of journal quality that has implications for evaluating research output and academic promotions. Found that about 60% of journals remain in the same quartile, and about 95% remain the same or move up within 5- to 10-year intervals, suggesting…

  13. The Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (BARCdb): a new research tool for the analysis of biobank samples

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Joakim; Oelrich, Johan; Taussig, Michael J.; Andreasson, Ulrika; Ortega-Paino, Eva; Landegren, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a new database of technology services and products for analysis of biobank samples in biomedical research. BARCdb, the Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (http://www.barcdb.org), is a freely available web resource, listing expertise and molecular resource capabilities of research centres and biotechnology companies. The database is designed for researchers who require information on how to make best use of valuable biospecimens from biobanks and other sample collections, focusing on the choice of analytical techniques and the demands they make on the type of samples, pre-analytical sample preparation and amounts needed. BARCdb has been developed as part of the Swedish biobanking infrastructure (BBMRI.se), but now welcomes submissions from service providers throughout Europe. BARCdb can help match resource providers with potential users, stimulating transnational collaborations and ensuring compatibility of results from different labs. It can promote a more optimal use of European resources in general, both with respect to standard and more experimental technologies, as well as for valuable biobank samples. This article describes how information on service and reagent providers of relevant technologies is made available on BARCdb, and how this resource may contribute to strengthening biomedical research in academia and in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25336620

  14. Simulation As a Tool in Education Research and Development. A Technical Paper. EdTalk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Paul

    This document introduces simulation as a field of endeavor that has great potential for education research, development, and training. Simulation allows education developers to explore, develop, and test new educational programs and practices before communities, educators, and students are asked to participate in them. Simulation technologies…

  15. A New Catalog of Microbiological Tools for Women's Infectious Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Amanda L; Lewis, Warren G

    2016-09-29

    Genitourinary infections pose serious health risks. But, little is known about how genitourinary bacteria attach, maintain colonization, compete for resources, and cause pathology. In this issue, we introduce a new set of 62 genitourinary reference strains of bacteria and their genomes to spur experimental research on infectious diseases that impact women.

  16. Use of Library Facilities: Behavioral Research as a Tool for Library Space Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.; Montanelli, Dale S.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the literature of librarianship and related behavioral research to identify evaluation methods that have been successfully applied to the analysis of library space planning. The discussion covers the appropriate conditions for the use of various evaluation techniques, including questionnaires, interviews, behavior mapping, time budgets,…

  17. Handbook of Research on Hybrid Learning Models: Advanced Tools, Technologies, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fu Lee, Ed.; Fong, Joseph, Ed.; Kwan, Reggie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid learning is now the single-greatest trend in education today due to the numerous educational advantages when both traditional classroom learning and e-learning are implemented collectively. This handbook collects emerging research and pedagogies related to the convergence of teaching and learning methods. This significant "Handbook of…

  18. The Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (BARCdb): a new research tool for the analysis of biobank samples.

    PubMed

    Galli, Joakim; Oelrich, Johan; Taussig, Michael J; Andreasson, Ulrika; Ortega-Paino, Eva; Landegren, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a new database of technology services and products for analysis of biobank samples in biomedical research. BARCdb, the Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (http://www.barcdb.org), is a freely available web resource, listing expertise and molecular resource capabilities of research centres and biotechnology companies. The database is designed for researchers who require information on how to make best use of valuable biospecimens from biobanks and other sample collections, focusing on the choice of analytical techniques and the demands they make on the type of samples, pre-analytical sample preparation and amounts needed. BARCdb has been developed as part of the Swedish biobanking infrastructure (BBMRI.se), but now welcomes submissions from service providers throughout Europe. BARCdb can help match resource providers with potential users, stimulating transnational collaborations and ensuring compatibility of results from different labs. It can promote a more optimal use of European resources in general, both with respect to standard and more experimental technologies, as well as for valuable biobank samples. This article describes how information on service and reagent providers of relevant technologies is made available on BARCdb, and how this resource may contribute to strengthening biomedical research in academia and in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Action Research as a Professional Development Tool for Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Christine; Tovar, Deanna

    2006-01-01

    Many teachers and administrators would acknowledge there are areas of concern in their classrooms and schools. Whether termed "problems," "issues," "challenges," or, as Nunan (1994) put it "puzzles," they provide committed professionals with an opportunity to improve the status quo. Action research is one…

  20. System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances: A Tool for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Escudero, Valentin; Horvath, Adam O.; Heatherington, Laurie; Cabero, Andres; Martens, Matthew P.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and inform practice, the authors developed an observational rating system of client behavior reflecting strong and weak therapeutic alliances in couple and family therapy. The System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances (SOFTA), in both English and Spanish, has 2 dimensions that are common across therapy modalities…

  1. Integrating Critical Thinking and Memorandum Writing into Course Curriculum Using the Internet as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, De Vee E.

    2008-01-01

    Employers seek job candidates with critically thinking abilities, great written and oral communication skills, and honesty, among other characteristics. Research supports the need to develop those qualities and business faculty are charged with the task of developing and improving them. As a result faculty are continually searching for new and…

  2. Special Strategies Observation System-Revised: A Useful Tool for Educational Research and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Finch, Nicole L.; Chadwick, Kristine L.; Ermolov, Lisa D.; Riffle, M. Joy S.

    2004-01-01

    A review of the critical literature provides a brief history of systematic observation of classroom behaviors, long valued as an important data collection method in educational research. Milestones in systematic observation of classrooms are traced back to 1914 and the development and use of the Special Strategies Observation System (SSOS) through…

  3. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  4. Using Research Based Assessment Tools in Professional Development in Current Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ji; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wiegers, John F.; McMahon, Ann P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a practical way of adapting and using four research-based assessments for different purposes in an electricity and magnetism course for K-8 science teachers. The course is designed to accomplish conceptual change toward accepted scientific conceptions as well as introducing teachers to materials and activities appropriate for their…

  5. Youth Participatory Action Research and Educational Transformation: The Potential of Intertextuality as a Methodological Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Melanie Bertrand explores the potential of using the concept of intertextuality--which captures the way snippets of written or spoken text from one source become incorporated into other sources--in the study and practice of youth participatory action research (YPAR). Though this collective and youth-centered form of research…

  6. Present Research on the Flipped Classroom and Potential Tools for the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehring, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom can support the implementation of a communicative, student-centered learning environment in the English as a foreign language classroom. Unfortunately, there is little research which supports the incorporation of flipped learning in the English as a foreign language classroom. Numerous studies have focused on flipped learning…

  7. Predicting Retention of Mathematics and Science Majors at a Research One Institution and Suggested Advising Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Tolson, Homer, Huang, Tse-Yang

    2009-01-01

    In this study an entering cohort of freshmen majors in mathematics and science at a land grant, research one institution was examined to first determine if a group of students who persisted in science and mathematics disciplines were different in terms of pre-college characteristics from a group of students who dropped with grade point averages…

  8. Image Processing for Teaching: Transforming a Scientific Research Tool into an Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Image Processing for Teaching (IPT) project which provides digital image processing to excite students about science and mathematics as they use research-quality software on microcomputers. Provides information on IPT whose components of this dissemination project have been widespread teacher education, curriculum-based materials…

  9. Assessing Customer Satisfaction at the NIST Research Library: Essential Tool for Future Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Rosa; Allmang, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a campus-wide customer satisfaction survey undertaken by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Research Library in 2007. The methodology, survey instrument, data analysis, results, and actions taken in response to the survey are described. The outcome and recommendations will guide the library both…

  10. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

  11. A New Catalog of Microbiological Tools for Women's Infectious Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Amanda L; Lewis, Warren G

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary infections pose serious health risks. But, little is known about how genitourinary bacteria attach, maintain colonization, compete for resources, and cause pathology. In this issue, we introduce a new set of 62 genitourinary reference strains of bacteria and their genomes to spur experimental research on infectious diseases that impact women. PMID:27688331

  12. Issues Related to Student Persistence toward Graduation in Public Schools: A Research Based Tool for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Ronald D.; Fisher, Deanne L.; Scott, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    This abstract focuses on a project report addressing persistence toward graduation. The product will provide a comprehensive resource for school district leaders to use in the identification of at-risk students and research based dropout prevention programs. With the passage of "No Child Left Behind" in 2002 legislation has put a greater…

  13. Agent-Based Learning Environments as a Research Tool for Investigating Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses intelligent learning environments for computer-based learning, such as agent-based learning environments, and their advantages over human-based instruction. Considers the effects of multiple agents; agents and research design; the use of Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) for instructional design for…

  14. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students’ perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  15. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes.

  16. Intermediate energy heavy ions: An emerging multi-disciplinary research tool

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1988-10-01

    In the ten years that beams of intermediate energy ({approx}50 MeV/amu{le}E{le}{approx}2 GeV/amu) heavy ions (Z{le}92) have been available, an increasing number of new research areas have been opened up. Pioneering work at the Bevalac at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, still the world's only source of the heaviest beams in this energy range, has led to the establishment of active programs in nuclear physics, atomic physics, cosmic ray physics, as well as biology and medicine, and industrial applications. The great promise for growth of these research areas has led to serious planning for new facilities capable of delivering such beams; several such facilities are now in construction around the world. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  18. ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The project was an attempt to integrate ERTS-1 data into teaching introductory, specialized, and graduate courses in the Department of Geology, University of Alaska. This data was to be utilized principally through a specially selected, high quality collection of black and white, and color 9.5 mosaics of the State of Alaska. In completing these tasks, the data accumulated has proved highly useful in a variety of ways including: (1) discussions of the uses and availability of ERTS imagery; (2) as a medium for talking about and showing various areas of Alaska; (3) in discussing geology in general; and (4) as an aid in doing research and as possible research topics themselves. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in geology proved highly successful and its use is now an integral part of many courses.

  19. Comparative Evaluation for Brain Structural Connectivity Approaches: Towards Integrative Neuroinformatics Tool for Epilepsy Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Ghosh, Kaushik; Lacuey-Lecumberri, Nuria; Lhatoo, Samden D; Sahoo, Satya S

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in brain fiber tractography algorithms and diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collection techniques are providing new approaches to study brain white matter connectivity, which play an important role in complex neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Epilepsy affects approximately 50 million persons worldwide and it is often described as a disorder of the cortical network organization. There is growing recognition of the need to better understand the role of brain structural networks in the onset and propagation of seizures in epilepsy using high resolution non-invasive imaging technologies. In this paper, we perform a comparative evaluation of two techniques to compute structural connectivity, namely probabilistic fiber tractography and statistics derived from fractional anisotropy (FA), using diffusion MRI data from a patient with rare case of medically intractable insular epilepsy. The results of our evaluation demonstrate that probabilistic fiber tractography provides a more accurate map of structural connectivity and may help address inherent complexities of neural fiber layout in the brain, such as fiber crossings. This work provides an initial result towards building an integrative informatics tool for neuroscience that can be used to accurately characterize the role of fiber tract connectivity in neurological disorders such as epilepsy. PMID:27570685

  20. Neuroproteomics as a promising tool in Parkinson’s disease research

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, William M. U.; Götz, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Despite the vast number of studies on Parkinson’s disease (PD), its effective diagnosis and treatment remains unsatisfactory. Hence, the relentless search for an optimal cure continues. The emergence of neuroproteomics, with its sophisticated techniques and non-biased ability to quantify proteins, provides a methodology with which to study the changes in neurons that are associated with neurodegeneration. Neuroproteomics is an emerging tool to establish disease-associated protein profiles, while also generating a greater understanding as to how these proteins interact and undergo post-translational modifications. Furthermore, due to the advances made in bioinformatics, insight is created concerning their functional characteristics. In this review, we first summarize the most prominent proteomics techniques and then discuss the major advances in the fast-growing field of neuroproteomics in PD. Ultimately, it is hoped that the application of this technology will lead towards a presymptomatic diagnosis of PD, and the identification of risk factors and new therapeutic targets at which pharmacological intervention can be aimed. PMID:18523721