Science.gov

Sample records for main research tool

  1. Universal main magnetic focus ion source: A new tool for laboratory research of astrophysics and Tokamak microplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsyannikov, V. P.; Nefiodov, A. V.; Levin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A novel room-temperature ion source for the production of atomic ions in electron beam within wide ranges of electron energy and current density is developed. The device can operate both as conventional Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) and novel Main Magnetic Focus Ion Source. The ion source is suitable for generation of the low-, medium- and high-density microplasma in steady state, which can be employed for investigation of a wide range of physical problems in ordinary university laboratory, in particular, for microplasma simulations relevant to astrophysics and ITER reactor. For the electron beam characterized by the incident energy Ee = 10 keV, the current density je ∼ 20 kA/cm2 and the number density ne ∼ 2 × 1013 cm‑3 were achieved experimentally. For Ee ∼ 60 keV, the value of electron number density ne ∼ 1014 cm‑3 is feasible. The efficiency of the novel ion source for laboratory astrophysics significantly exceeds that of other existing warm and superconducting EBITs.

  2. Measurement and Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on measurement and research tools for human resource development (HRD). "The 'Best Fit' Training: Measure Employee Learning Style Strengths" (Daniel L. Parry) discusses a study of the physiological aspect of sensory intake known as modality, more specifically, modality as measured by…

  3. Aircraft as Research Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.

  4. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Katherine E; Currie, David J

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task.

  5. Main challenges in demulsifier research and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fusheng; Liu, Guoliang; Ma, Junhan; Ouyang, Jian; Yi, Xiaoling; Su, Huimin

    2017-01-01

    Main challenges in demulsifier research, such as demulsification of ASP flooding produced liquid, demulsification of heavy oil produced liquid, low temperature demulsification and fast demulsification, are summarized. Some importance technology routes to solve the challenges are proposed according to demulsification mechanisms and emulsion characteristics. The proposed routes include increasing aromaticity, molecular weight and branch degree of demulsifiers, and introducing double-function groups to demulsifiers for W/O and O/W emulsions, or groups with alkyl matching with alkyl carbon number of the crude oil into demulsifier molecule. The demulsification mechanisms of the above-mentioned research routes are described in detail.

  6. Main transformation tools in ANALITIK-93 programming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gorovoi, V.D.; Klimenko, V.P.; Fishman, Yu.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews the main functions incorporated in the latest version of the source language for the ANALITIK programming system. These functions are intended as transformation tools for nonnumerical models and problems, which are usually represented by systems of symbolic expressions of arbitrary length with a hierarchical structure. Such problems are often connected with nonlinear dependences and oscillating functions, which require multiple integration and differentiation, opening of parentheses, reduction of simmilar terms, various simplifications, etc. Such transformations are available in the languages of the ANALITIK family, REDUCE, Formac, Lisp, MACSYMA, Mathematica, and others. Languages of the ANALITIK family, and especially ANALITIK-93, are distinguished by greater generality and a higher level of intelligence, which is determined by an advanced automatic recognition system of functional properties of the objects being transformed and by a developed interactive system.

  7. Research Study: Space Shuttle Main Engine Plume Flowfield Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The initial research effort was an in-depth analysis of the shuttle main engine plumes in an effort to improve the flowfield model and to enhance shuttle base heating equipment predictions during ascent. A prediction methodology code was developed incorporating the improved plume model into a predictive tool which could consider different trajectoreis and engine perfromance variables. Various plume flow model improvement studies were ongoing at the time of the 51-L accident. Since that time, base heating and plume methodology improvements have continued as part of the overall emphasis on Shuttle design assurance before resuming flight schedule.

  8. Ecosystem Indicators and Tools in the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment is a U.S.-Canadian partnership of government and non-government organizations focused on the health, environmental quality and productivity of the Gulf of Maine. In 2006, the Ecosystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) commenced acti...

  9. A Tool for Medical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.

  10. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  11. The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

  12. MHK Research, Tools, and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses improved testing, analysis, and design tools needed to more accurately model operational conditions, to optimize design parameters, and predict technology viability.

  13. Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

  14. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Langston, Michael A.; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Rogers, Gary L.; Kershenbaum, Anne D.; Baktash, Suzanne H.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Hood, Darryl B.; Litchveld, Maureen Y.; Oyana, Tonny J.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject. PMID:25310540

  15. Blogging as a Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetser, Douglas

    2011-11-01

    I work on variations of the Maxwell Lagrange density using quaternions and hypercomplex products of covariant 4-derivatives and 4-potentials. The hope is to unify gravity with the symmetries found in the standard model. It is difficult for someone outside academia to get constructive criticism. I have chosen to blog once a week at Science20.com since March, 2011. Over thirty blogs have been generated, most getting more than a thousand views (high mark is 5k for ``Why Quantum Mechanics is Wierd''). The tools used for web and video blogging will be reviewed. A discussion of my efforts to represent electroweak symmetry with quaternions convinced me I was in error. Instead, my hope is to exploit the observation that U(1) is formally a subgroup of SU(2). A battle over gauge symmetry may be reviewed.

  16. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  17. Parallel software tools at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moitra, Stuti; Tennille, Geoffrey M.; Lakeotes, Christopher D.; Randall, Donald P.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Hammond, Dana P.; Mall, Gerald H.

    1993-01-01

    This document gives a brief overview of parallel software tools available on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel computer at Langley Research Center. It is intended to provide a source of information that is somewhat more concise than vendor-supplied material on the purpose and use of various tools. Each of the chapters on tools is organized in a similar manner covering an overview of the functionality, access information, how to effectively use the tool, observations about the tool and how it compares to similar software, known problems or shortfalls with the software, and reference documentation. It is primarily intended for users of the iPSC/860 at Langley Research Center and is appropriate for both the experienced and novice user.

  18. Research as an educational tool

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, R.; Perlmutter, D.; Klaczynski, P.

    1994-12-31

    Our students have participated in original group research projects focused on the natural environment which culminate in a written manuscript published in-house, and an oral presentation to peers, faculty, and the university community. Our goal has been to develop their critical thinking skills so that they will be more successful in high school and college. We have served ninety-three students (47.1% white, 44.1% black, 5.4% hispanic, 2.2% American Indian, 1.2% asian) from an eight state region in the southeast over the past three years. Thirty-one students have graduated from high school with over 70% enrolled in college and another thirty-four are seniors this year. We are tracking students` progress in college and are developing our own critical thinking test to measure the impact of our program. Although preliminary, the results from the critical thinking test indicated that students are often prone to logical errors; however, higher levels of critical thinking were observed on items which raised issues that conflicted with students` pre-existing beliefs.

  19. Planning Research on Student Services: Variety in Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard C.

    This paper discusses the seven types of research tools that have potential for advancing knowledge about student services in California Community Colleges. The seven tools are the following: literature review, data validation, survey research, case study, quasi experiment, meta analysis, and statistical modeling. The report gives reasons why each…

  20. Enabling Research Tools for Sustained Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidner, Allison K.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Jasinski, Michael F.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Waliser, Duane Edward; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program Sustained Assessment process benefits from long-term investments in Earth science research that enable the scientific community to conduct assessment-relevant science. To this end, NASA initiated several research programs over the past five years to support the Earth observation community in developing indicators, datasets, research products, and tools to support ongoing and future National Climate Assessments. These activities complement NASA's ongoing Earth science research programs. One aspect of the assessment portfolio funds four "enabling tools" projects at NASA research centers. Each tool leverages existing capacity within the center, but has developed tailored applications and products for National Climate Assessments. The four projects build on the capabilities of a global atmospheric reanalysis (MERRA-2), a continental U.S. land surface reanalysis (NCA-LDAS), the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), and a Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES). Here, we provide a brief overview of each enabling tool, highlighting the ways in which it has advanced assessment science to date. We also discuss how the assessment community can access and utilize these tools for National Climate Assessments and other sustained assessment activities.

  1. Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Charles; Ceraj, Ivica; Riley, Justin

    2009-01-01

    The advancement of computer technology used for research is creating the need to change the way classes are taught in higher education. "Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom" has become a major focus of the work of the Office of Educational Innovation and Technology (OEIT) for the Dean of Undergraduate Education (DUE) at the…

  2. Evaluating the Performance of Calculus Classes Using Operational Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares de Mello, Joao Carlos C. B.; Lins, Marcos P. E.; Soares de Mello, Maria Helena C.; Gomes, Eliane G.

    2002-01-01

    Compares the efficiency of calculus classes and evaluates two kinds of classes: traditional and others that use computational methods in teaching. Applies quantitative evaluation methods using two operational research tools, multicriteria decision aid methods (mainly using the MACBETH approach) and data development analysis. (Author/YDS)

  3. High fidelity simulation as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Keith E

    2011-12-01

    Medical simulation has grown explosively over the last decade. Simulation is becoming commonplace in clinical education but can also be used as an investigative clinical tool in its own right. There are thus two arms of simulation in clinical research. The first is investigation of the clinical impact of simulation as an educational tool and the second as an instrument to assess the function of clinical practitioners and systems. This article reviews the terminology, current practice and current research in simulation. The use of simulation in assessment of the clinical performance of devices, people and systems will then be discussed and some current work in these areas presented. Finally, medical simulation will be discussed within the paradigm of translational research. Early examples of this 'tool-bench to bedside' model will be presented as possible prototypes for future work directed towards patient safety.

  4. Biomedical research tools from the seabed.

    PubMed

    Folmer, Florence; Houssen, Wael E; Scott, Roderick H; Jaspars, Marcel

    2007-03-01

    This review covers the applications of small-molecule and peptidic compounds isolated from marine organisms for biomedical research. Enzymes and proteins from marine sources are already on the market for biomedical applications, but the use of small-molecule biomedical research tools of marine origin is less developed. For many studies involving these molecules the ultimate goal is the application of small-molecule therapeutics in the clinic, but those that do not succeed in the clinic still have clearly defined biological activities, which may be of use as biomedical research tools. In other cases, the investigation of marine-derived compounds has led directly to the discovery of therapeutics with clinical applications. Both as tools and therapeutics, these small-molecule compounds are effective for investigating biological processes, and in this review the authors have chosen to concentrate on the ability of marine natural products to affect membrane processes, ion channels and intracellular processes.

  5. Using Virtual Observatory Tools for Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Chul; Taylor, John D.; Panter, Benjamin; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Heavens, Alan F.; Mann, Robert G.

    2005-06-01

    Construction of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is a great concern to the astronomical community in the 21st century. We present an outline of the concept and necessity of the VO and the current status of various VO projects including the 15 national ones and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). %, and of Grid project. We summarize the possible science cases that could be solved by using the VO data/tools, real science cases which are the results of using current VO tools, and our own work of using AstroGrid, the United Kingdom national VO, for a research on star formation history of galaxies.

  6. Contemporary outcomes research: tools of the trade.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Casey M

    2008-05-01

    Outcomes are, simply put, why a surgeon comes to work each day. For decades, surgeons have insisted on a regular self-examination of outcomes to ensure the optimal treatment of our patients. Clinical research in pediatric surgery has largely subsisted on outcome analysis as it relates to the rudimentary end-result of an operation, utilizing variables such as mortality, operative time, specific complication rates, and hospital length of stay to name a few. Recently, outcomes research has become a more complex endeavor. This issue of Seminars in Pediatric Surgery addresses a wide array of these newfound complexities in contemporary outcomes research. The purpose of this review is to assist the pediatric surgeon in understanding the tools that are used in contemporary outcomes research and to be able to use this information to ask new questions of our patients and ourselves as we continue to strive for excellence in caring for sick infants and children.

  7. Metabolic stability: main enzymes involved and best tools to assess it.

    PubMed

    Laine, Romuald

    2008-11-01

    The introduction of in vitro tools to predict clearance in the early discovery process has led to new ways of working. Combined with metabolite identification, such tools have allowed design of compounds with low clearance. Encouraged by the success of such an approach and by the better knowledge of the enzyme involved in the metabolism, in vitro teams have begun to develop a plethora of assays to assess the metabolic clearance, understand the route of metabolism, and predict the human clearance. Although the diversity of assays may have allowed a more thorough approach to addressing specific issues, in the time of budget constrictions, limited access to resources and materials in vitro teams have now to decide what are the 'must have' and 'nice to have' assays to enable them to help as efficiently as possible projects at the discovery stage. Reducing the number of assays and focusing on the most relevant ones is an option to consider. Knowledge of the main enzymes involved in the drug metabolism should help to select the most relevant in vitro tools. Although the systems presented here have their merits, the author proposes that hepatocytes should be considered as the in vitro tool of choice.

  8. Inductive knowledge acquisition experience with commercial tools for space shuttle main engine testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984, an effort has been underway at Rocketdyne, manufacturer of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), to automate much of the analysis procedure conducted after engine test firings. Previously published articles at national and international conferences have contained the context of and justification for this effort. Here, progress is reported in building the full system, including the extensions of integrating large databases with the system, known as Scotty. Inductive knowledge acquisition has proven itself to be a key factor in the success of Scotty. The combination of a powerful inductive expert system building tool (ExTran), a relational data base management system (Reliance), and software engineering principles and Computer-Assisted Software Engineering (CASE) tools makes for a practical, useful and state-of-the-art application of an expert system.

  9. Microfluidics as a tool for C. elegans research.

    PubMed

    San-Miguel, Adriana; Lu, Hang

    2013-09-24

    Microfluidics has emerged as a set of powerful tools that have greatly advanced some areas of biological research, including research using C. elegans. The use of microfluidics has enabled many experiments that are otherwise impossible with conventional methods. Today there are many examples that demonstrate the main advantages of using microfluidics for C. elegans research, achieving precise environmental conditions and facilitating worm handling. Examples range from behavioral analysis under precise chemical or odor stimulation, locomotion studies in well-defined structural surroundings, and even long-term culture on chip. Moreover, microfluidics has enabled coupling worm handling and imaging thus facilitating genetic screens, optogenetic studies, and laser ablation experiments. In this article, we review some of the applications of microfluidics for C. elegans research and provide guides for the design, fabrication, and use of microfluidic devices for C. elegans research studies.

  10. Tools and collaborative environments for bioinformatics research

    PubMed Central

    Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Advanced research requires intensive interaction among a multitude of actors, often possessing different expertise and usually working at a distance from each other. The field of collaborative research aims to establish suitable models and technologies to properly support these interactions. In this article, we first present the reasons for an interest of Bioinformatics in this context by also suggesting some research domains that could benefit from collaborative research. We then review the principles and some of the most relevant applications of social networking, with a special attention to networks supporting scientific collaboration, by also highlighting some critical issues, such as identification of users and standardization of formats. We then introduce some systems for collaborative document creation, including wiki systems and tools for ontology development, and review some of the most interesting biological wikis. We also review the principles of Collaborative Development Environments for software and show some examples in Bioinformatics. Finally, we present the principles and some examples of Learning Management Systems. In conclusion, we try to devise some of the goals to be achieved in the short term for the exploitation of these technologies. PMID:21984743

  11. Metabolomics, a Powerful Tool for Agricultural Research

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Lam, Sin Man; Shui, Guanghou

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics, which is based mainly on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas-chromatography (GC) or liquid-chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) analytical technologies to systematically acquire the qualitative and quantitative information of low-molecular-mass endogenous metabolites, provides a direct snapshot of the physiological condition in biological samples. As complements to transcriptomics and proteomics, it has played pivotal roles in agricultural and food science research. In this review, we discuss the capacities of NMR, GC/LC-MS in the acquisition of plant metabolome, and address the potential promise and diverse applications of metabolomics, particularly lipidomics, to investigate the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana, a primary plant model for agricultural research, to environmental stressors including heat, freezing, drought, and salinity. PMID:27869667

  12. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the research project described is to define and demonstrate methods to advance the state of the art of pressure sensors for the space shuttle main engine (SSME). Silicon piezoresistive technology was utilized in completing tasks: generation and testing of three transducer design concepts for solid state applications; silicon resistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures; experimental chip mounting characterization; frequency response optimization and prototype design and fabrication. Excellent silicon sensor performance was demonstrated at liquid nitrogen temperature. A silicon resistor ion implant dose was customized for SSME temperature requirements. A basic acoustic modeling software program was developed as a design tool to evaluate frequency response characteristics.

  13. Some Tooling for Manufacturing Research Reactor Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.W.

    1999-10-03

    This paper will discuss some of the tooling necessary to manufacture aluminum-based research reactor fuel plates. Most of this tooling is intended for use in a high-production facility. Some of the tools shown have manufactured more than 150,000 pieces. The only maintenance has been sharpening. With careful design, tools can be made to accommodate the manufacture of several different fuel elements, thus, reducing tooling costs and maintaining tools that the operators are trained to use. An important feature is to design the tools using materials with good lasting quality. Good tools can increase return on investment.

  14. VAO Tools Enhance CANDELS Research Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Gretchen; Donley, J.; Rodney, S.; LAZIO, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Busko, I.; Hanisch, R. J.; VAO Team; CANDELS Team

    2013-01-01

    The formation of galaxies and their co-evolution with black holes through cosmic time are prominent areas in current extragalactic astronomy. New methods in science research are building upon collaborations between scientists and archive data centers which span large volumes of multi-wavelength and heterogeneous data. A successful example of this form of teamwork is demonstrated by the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) collaboration. The CANDELS project archive data provider services are registered and discoverable in the VAO through an innovative web based Data Discovery Tool, providing a drill down capability and cross-referencing with other co-spatially located astronomical catalogs, images and spectra. The CANDELS team is working together with the VAO to define new methods for analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions of galaxies containing active galactic nuclei, and helping to evolve advanced catalog matching methods for exploring images of variable depths, wavelengths and resolution. Through the publication of VOEvents, the CANDELS project is publishing data streams for newly discovered supernovae that are bright enough to be followed from the ground.

  15. New research tools for urogenital schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Young, Neil D; Honeycutt, Jared D; Brindley, Paul J; Gasser, Robin B; Hsieh, Michael H

    2015-03-15

    Approximately 200,000,000 people have schistosomiasis (schistosome infection). Among the schistosomes, Schistosoma haematobium is responsible for the most infections, which are present in 110 million people globally, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. This pathogen causes an astonishing breadth of sequelae: hematuria, anemia, dysuria, stunting, uremia, bladder cancer, urosepsis, and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Refined estimates of the impact of schistosomiasis on quality of life suggest that it rivals malaria. Despite S. haematobium's importance, relevant research has lagged. Here, we review advances that will deepen knowledge of S. haematobium. Three sets of breakthroughs will accelerate discoveries in the pathogenesis of urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS): (1) comparative genomics, (2) the development of functional genomic tools, and (3) the use of animal models to explore S. haematobium-host interactions. Comparative genomics for S. haematobium is feasible, given the sequencing of multiple schistosome genomes. Features of the S. haematobium genome that are conserved among platyhelminth species and others that are unique to S. haematobium may provide novel diagnostic and drug targets for UGS. Although there are technical hurdles, the integrated use of these approaches can elucidate host-pathogen interactions during this infection and can inform the development of techniques for investigating schistosomes in their human and snail hosts and the development of therapeutics and vaccines for the control of UGS.

  16. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  17. Concept as the Main Research Object of Cognitive Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdikalyk, Kunimzhan Sadirkyzy; Abitzhanova, Zhanar Altynbekovna; Otarbekova, Zhamilya Kerimbaevna; Kaidarova, Gulyaim Kablakatovna; Seidullayeva, Gulzhan Abutalipovna

    2016-01-01

    This article dwells upon the basic unit of cognitive linguistics, which is a concept. Firstly, we provide an overview of major scientific works written by foreign linguists who pay attention to special aspects and lines of research. Secondly, we analyse conclusions on modern problems in linguistics that are drawn in cognitological studies…

  18. Streamlining Research by Using Existing Tools

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Sarah M.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Dolor, Rowena J.; Thompson, Ella; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the health research enterprise has matured rapidly, and many recognize an urgent need to translate pertinent research results into practice, to help improve the quality, accessibility, and affordability of U.S. health care. Streamlining research operations would speed translation, particularly for multi-site collaborations. However, the culture of research discourages reusing or adapting existing resources or study materials. Too often, researchers start studies and multi-site collaborations from scratch—reinventing the wheel. Our team developed a compendium of resources to address inefficiencies and researchers’ unmet needs and compiled them in a research toolkit website (www.ResearchToolkit.org). Through our work, we identified philosophical and operational issues related to disseminating the toolkit to the research community. We explore these issues here, with implications for the nation’s investment in biomedical research. PMID:21884513

  19. Sociometry: Tools for Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Thomas W.; Kumar, V. K.; Stein, Steven A.; Prosnick, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    Reviews basic sociometric tools and their analysis, provides information on computer programs to analyze sociometric data, and briefly examines considerations in conducting sociometric investigations. Looks at the social atom (significant others), constructing sociometry questions, and offers an analysis of individual status and interactional…

  20. Microfluidic tools for cell biological research

    PubMed Central

    Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Maël; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications. PMID:21152269

  1. Tools for Ephemeral Gully Erosion Process Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Techniques to quantify ephemeral gully erosion have been identified by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as one of gaps in current erosion assessment tools. One reason that may have contributed to this technology gap is the difficulty to quantify changes in channel geometry to asses...

  2. Modeling as a research tool in poultry science.

    PubMed

    Gous, R M

    2014-01-01

    The World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) is a long-established and unique organization that strives to advance knowledge and understanding of all aspects of poultry science and the poultry industry. Its 3 main aims are education, organization, and research. The WPSA Keynote Lecture, titled "Modeling as a research tool in poultry science," addresses 2 of these aims, namely, the value of modeling in research and education. The role of scientists is to put forward and then to test theories. These theories, or models, may be simple or highly complex, but they are aimed at improving our understanding of a system or the interaction between systems. In developing a model, the scientist must take into account existing knowledge, and in this process gaps in our knowledge of a system are identified. Useful ideas for research are generated in this way, and experiments may be designed specifically to address these issues. The resultant models become more accurate and more useful, and can be used in education and extension as a means of explaining many of the complex issues that arise in poultry science.

  3. The Child Diary as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the…

  4. Equity Audit: A Teacher Leadership Tool for Nurturing Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    View, Jenice L.; DeMulder, Elizabeth; Stribling, Stacia; Dodman, Stephanie; Ra, Sophia; Hall, Beth; Swalwell, Katy

    2016-01-01

    This is a three-part essay featuring six teacher educators and one classroom teacher researcher. Part one describes faculty efforts to build curriculum for teacher research, scaffold the research process, and analyze outcomes. Part two shares one teacher researcher's experience using an equity audit tool in several contexts: her teaching practice,…

  5. Database tools in genetic diseases research.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Anna Monica; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Girardelli, Martina; Vuch, Josef; Crovella, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    The knowledge of the human genome is in continuous progression: a large number of databases have been developed to make meaningful connections among worldwide scientific discoveries. This paper reviews bioinformatics resources and database tools specialized in disseminating information regarding genetic disorders. The databases described are useful for managing sample sequences, gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. In relation to data sets available from genome-wide association studies, we describe databases that could be the starting point for developing studies in the field of complex diseases, particularly those in which the causal genes are difficult to identify.

  6. Visualization tools for comprehensive test ban treaty research

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.L.; Harris, J.M.; Simons, R.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on tools used in Data Visualization efforts at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy CTBT R&D program. These tools provide interactive techniques for the examination and interpretation of scientific data, and can be used for many types of CTBT research and development projects. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the tools to display and analyze CTBT scientific data. While the tools may be used for everyday applications, our discussion will focus on the use of these tools for visualization of data used in research and verification of new theories. Our examples focus on uses with seismic data, but the tools may also be used for other types of data sets. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Research-Based Communication Tool Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sherry; Campbell-Zopf, Mary; Hooper, Jeffrey; Marshall, David; McLaughlin, Beck

    2007-01-01

    Significant research over the last decade has built a strong case for the value of arts learning. Major summaries, including "Schools, Communities, and the Arts" (1995); "Champions of Change" (2000); "The Arts in Education: Evaluating the Evidence for a Causal Link" (2000); "Critical Links" (2002); and now "Critical Evidence: How the Arts Benefit…

  8. Sea otter research methods and tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Maldini, Daniela; Calkins, Donald; Atkinson, Shannon; Meehan, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Sea otters possess physical characteristics and life history attributes that provide both opportunity and constraint to their study. Because of their relatively limited diving ability they occur in nearshore marine habitats that are usually viewable from shore, allowing direct observation of most behaviors. Because sea otters live nearshore and forage on benthic invertebrates, foraging success and diet are easily measured. Because they rely almost exclusively on their pelage for insulation, which requires frequent grooming, successful application of external tags or instruments has been limited to attachments in the interdigital webbing of the hind flippers. Techniques to surgically implant instruments into the intraperitoneal cavity are well developed and routinely applied. Because they have relatively small home ranges and rest in predictable areas, they can be recaptured with some predictability using closed-circuit scuba diving technology. The purpose of this summary is to identify some of the approaches, methods, and tools that are currently engaged for the study of sea otters, and to suggest potential avenues for applying advancing technologies.

  9. Patenting genome research tools and the law.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Patenting genes encoding therapeutic proteins was relatively uncontroversial in the early days of biotechnology. Controversy arose in the era of high-throughput DNA sequencing, when gene patents started to look less like patents on drugs and more like patents on scientific information. Evolving scientific and business strategies for exploiting genomic information raised concerns that patents might slow subsequent research. The trend towards stricter enforcement of the utility and disclosure requirements by the patent offices should help clarify the current confusion.

  10. Simulation tools for robotics research and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, MaryAnne; Brewer, Ralph; Edge, Harris L.; Pusey, Jason L.; Weller, Ed; Patel, Dilip G.; DiBerardino, Charles A.

    2016-05-01

    The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) program focuses on four overlapping technology areas: Perception, Intelligence, Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), and Dexterous Manipulation and Unique Mobility (DMUM). In addition, the RCTA program has a requirement to assess progress of this research in standalone as well as integrated form. Since the research is evolving and the robotic platforms with unique mobility and dexterous manipulation are in the early development stage and very expensive, an alternate approach is needed for efficient assessment. Simulation of robotic systems, platforms, sensors, and algorithms, is an attractive alternative to expensive field-based testing. Simulation can provide insight during development and debugging unavailable by many other means. This paper explores the maturity of robotic simulation systems for applications to real-world problems in robotic systems research. Open source (such as Gazebo and Moby), commercial (Simulink, Actin, LMS), government (ANVEL/VANE), and the RCTA-developed RIVET simulation environments are examined with respect to their application in the robotic research domains of Perception, Intelligence, HRI, and DMUM. Tradeoffs for applications to representative problems from each domain are presented, along with known deficiencies and disadvantages. In particular, no single robotic simulation environment adequately covers the needs of the robotic researcher in all of the domains. Simulation for DMUM poses unique constraints on the development of physics-based computational models of the robot, the environment and objects within the environment, and the interactions between them. Most current robot simulations focus on quasi-static systems, but dynamic robotic motion places an increased emphasis on the accuracy of the computational models. In order to understand the interaction of dynamic multi-body systems, such as limbed robots, with the environment, it may be necessary to build component

  11. Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

    2012-01-01

    Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

  12. Innovations in scholarly communication - global survey on research tool usage

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Bianca; Bosman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Many new websites and online tools have come into existence to support scholarly communication in all phases of the research workflow. To what extent researchers are using these and more traditional tools has been largely unknown. This 2015-2016 survey aimed to fill that gap. Its results may help decision making by stakeholders supporting researchers and may also help researchers wishing to reflect on their own online workflows. In addition, information on tools usage can inform studies of changing research workflows. The online survey employed an open, non-probability sample. A largely self-selected group of 20663 researchers, librarians, editors, publishers and other groups involved in research took the survey, which was available in seven languages. The survey was open from May 10, 2015 to February 10, 2016. It captured information on tool usage for 17 research activities, stance towards open access and open science, and expectations of the most important development in scholarly communication. Respondents’ demographics included research roles, country of affiliation, research discipline and year of first publication. PMID:27429740

  13. Innovations in scholarly communication - global survey on research tool usage.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Bianca; Bosman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Many new websites and online tools have come into existence to support scholarly communication in all phases of the research workflow. To what extent researchers are using these and more traditional tools has been largely unknown. This 2015-2016 survey aimed to fill that gap. Its results may help decision making by stakeholders supporting researchers and may also help researchers wishing to reflect on their own online workflows. In addition, information on tools usage can inform studies of changing research workflows. The online survey employed an open, non-probability sample. A largely self-selected group of 20663 researchers, librarians, editors, publishers and other groups involved in research took the survey, which was available in seven languages. The survey was open from May 10, 2015 to February 10, 2016. It captured information on tool usage for 17 research activities, stance towards open access and open science, and expectations of the most important development in scholarly communication. Respondents' demographics included research roles, country of affiliation, research discipline and year of first publication.

  14. The use of metacognitive tools in a multidimensional research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuli, Richard John

    Metacognition may be thought of as "cognition about cognition", or "thinking about thinking." A number of strategies and tools have been developed to help individuals understand the nature of knowledge, and to enhance their "thinking about thinking." Two metacognitive tools, concept maps and Gowin's Vee, were first developed for use in educational research. Subsequently, they were used successfully to help learners "learn how to learn." The success of metacognitive tools in educational settings suggests that they may help scientists understand the nature of knowledge production and organization, thereby facilitating their research activities and enhancing their understanding of the events and objects they study. In September 1993 I began an ethnographic, naturalistic study of the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service - Rhizobotany Project at Cornell University in Ithaca, NY. I spent the next two and one-half years as a participant observer with the Project. The focus of my research was to examine the application of metacognitive tools to an academic research setting. The knowledge claims that emerged from my research were: (1) Individual researchers tended to have narrow views of the Rhizobotany Project that centered on their individual areas of research; (2) The researchers worked in "conceptual isolation", or failing to see the connections and interrelatedness of their own work with the work of the others; (3) For those researchers who constructed concept maps and Vee diagrams, these heuristics helped them to build a deeper conceptual understanding of their own work; and (4) Half of the members of the research team did not find concept mapping and Vee diagramming useful. Their reluctance to use these tools was interpreted as an indication of epistemological confusion. The prevalence of conceptual isolation and epistemological confusion among members of the Rhizobotany Project parallels the results of previous studies that have

  15. SAGE Research Methods Datasets: A Data Analysis Educational Tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    SAGE Research Methods Datasets (SRMD) is an educational tool designed to offer users the opportunity to obtain hands-on experience with data analysis. Users can search for and browse authentic datasets by method, discipline, and data type. Each of the datasets are supplemented with educational material on the research method and clear guidelines for how to approach data analysis.

  16. Practitioner-Oriented Research as a Tool for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Vuorinen, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse how a model for practitioner-oriented research can be used as a tool for professional development in the preschool. The focus of interest is the type of knowledge that is formed when researchers and preschool staff cooperate on local projects, and what this new knowledge means for the images of professional…

  17. The WWW Cabinet of Curiosities: A Serendipitous Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Josie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the WWW is able to be fruitfully understood as a research tool when we utilise the metaphor of the cabinet of curiosities, the wunderkammer. It unpeels some of the research attributes of the metaphor as it reveals the multiplicity of connectivity on the web that provides serendipitous interactions between unexpected…

  18. Enabling laboratory EUV research with a compact exposure tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brose, Sascha; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Tempeler, Jenny; Kim, Hyun-su; Loosen, Peter; Juschkin, Larissa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present the capabilities of the designed and realized extreme ultraviolet laboratory exposure tool (EUVLET) which has been developed at the RWTH-Aachen, Chair for the Technology of Optical Systems (TOS), in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT) and Bruker ASC GmbH. Main purpose of this laboratory setup is the direct application in research facilities and companies with small batch production, where the fabrication of high resolution periodic arrays over large areas is required. The setup can also be utilized for resist characterization and evaluation of its pre- and post-exposure processing. The tool utilizes a partially coherent discharge produced plasma (DPP) source and minimizes the number of other critical components to a transmission grating, the photoresist coated wafer and the positioning system for wafer and grating and utilizes the Talbot lithography approach. To identify the limits of this approach first each component is analyzed and optimized separately and relations between these components are identified. The EUV source has been optimized to achieve the best values for spatial and temporal coherence. Phase-shifting and amplitude transmission gratings have been fabricated and exposed. Several commercially available electron beam resists and one EUV resist have been characterized by open frame exposures to determine their contrast under EUV radiation. Cold development procedure has been performed to further increase the resist contrast. By analyzing the exposure results it can be demonstrated that only a 1:1 copy of the mask structure can be fully resolved by the utilization of amplitude masks. The utilized phase-shift masks offer higher 1st order diffraction efficiency and allow a demagnification of the mask structure in the achromatic Talbot plane.

  19. Spec Tool; an online education and research resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maman, S.; Shenfeld, A.; Isaacson, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Education and public outreach (EPO) activities related to remote sensing, space, planetary and geo-physics sciences have been developed widely in the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. These programs aim to motivate the learning of geo-scientific and technologic disciplines. For over the past decade, the facility hosts research and outreach activities for researchers, local community, school pupils, students and educators. As software and data are neither available nor affordable, the EPIF Spec tool was created as a web-based resource to assist in initial spectral analysis as a need for researchers and students. The tool is used both in the academic courses and in the outreach education programs and enables a better understanding of the theoretical data of spectroscopy and Imaging Spectroscopy in a 'hands-on' activity. This tool is available online and provides spectra visualization tools and basic analysis algorithms including Spectral plotting, Spectral angle mapping and Linear Unmixing. The tool enables to visualize spectral signatures from the USGS spectral library and additional spectra collected in the EPIF such as of dunes in southern Israel and from Turkmenistan. For researchers and educators, the tool allows loading collected samples locally for further analysis.

  20. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the

  1. Databases and registers: useful tools for research, no studies.

    PubMed

    Curbelo, Rafael J; Loza, Estíbaliz; de Yébenes, Maria Jesús García; Carmona, Loreto

    2014-04-01

    There are many misunderstandings about databases. Database is a commonly misused term in reference to any set of data entered into a computer. However, true databases serve a main purpose, organising data. They do so by establishing several layers of relationships; databases are hierarchical. Databases commonly organise data over different levels and over time, where time can be measured as the time between visits, or between treatments, or adverse events, etc. In this sense, medical databases are closely related to longitudinal observational studies, as databases allow the introduction of data on the same patient over time. Basically, we could establish four types of databases in medicine, depending on their purpose: (1) administrative databases, (2) clinical databases, (3) registers, and (4) study-oriented databases. But a database is a useful tool for a large variety of studies, not a type of study itself. Different types of databases serve very different purposes, and a clear understanding of the different research designs mentioned in this paper would prevent many of the databases we launch from being just a lot of work and very little science.

  2. Overview of EPA Research On Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation provides an overview of condition assessment research that is part of EPA Office of Research and Development’s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Plan (AWIRP). The primary focus is on a water main condition assessment technology forum and associated whit...

  3. A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Bauer, G.; Dörnbrack, A.

    2011-09-01

    We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS) standard, a technology that has gained increased attention in meteorology in recent years. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python. In the present article, we describe the architecture of the tool. As an example application, we discuss a case study research flight planned for the scenario of the 2010 Eyjafjalla volcano eruption. Usage and implementation details are provided as Supplement.

  4. A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Bauer, G.; Dörnbrack, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS) standard, a technology that has gained increased attention in meteorology in recent years. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python. In the present article, we describe the architecture of the tool. As an example application, we discuss a case study research flight planned for the scenario of the 2010 Eyjafjalla volcano eruption. Usage and implementation details are provided as Supplement.

  5. Measurement and Research Tools. Symposium 37. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on measurement and research tools consists of three presentations. "An Examination of the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS)" (Albert Wiswell et al.) explores MIDAS's psychometric saliency. Findings indicates this instrument represents an incomplete attempt to develop a valid assessment of…

  6. Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

  7. Narrative Inquiry: Research Tool and Medium for Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conle, Carola

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of narrative inquiry, highlighting one institutional setting, and discussing how narrative inquiry moved from being a research tool to a vehicle for curriculum within both graduate and preservice teacher development. After discussing theoretical resources for narrative inquiry, the paper examines criteria and terms…

  8. Research for research: tools for knowledge discovery and visualization.

    PubMed Central

    Van Mulligen, Erik M.; Van Der Eijk, Christiaan; Kors, Jan A.; Schijvenaars, Bob J. A.; Mons, Barend

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method to construct from a set of documents a spatial representation that can be used for information retrieval and knowledge discovery. The proposed method has been implemented in a prototype system and allows the researcher to browse interactively and in real-time a network of relationships obtained from a set of full text articles. These relationships are combined with the potential relationships between concepts as defined in the UMLS semantic network. The browser allows the user to select a seed term and find all related concepts, to find a path between concepts (hypothesis testing), and to retrieve the references to documents or database entries that support the relationship between concepts. PMID:12463942

  9. L.I. Novikova's Research School: Main Ideas and Prospects for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selivanova, Natalia Leonidovna; Stepanov, Pavel Valentinovich; Shakurova, Marina Viktorovna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the main ideas of L.I. Novikova's research school "Systems Approach to Character Education (Russian Vospitaniye-Editor) and Socialization in Children and Young Adults," which is the leading research school in the sphere of education. It also shows how these ideas were developed in the activities of five generations…

  10. Echocardiography as a Research and Clinical Tool in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Echocardiography is the accepted term for the study of cardiac ultrasound. Although a relatively new tool for the study of the heart in man it has already found wide acceptance in the area of cardiac research and in the study of clinical cardiac disease. Animals had often been used in the early experiments with cardiac ultrasound, but only recently has echocardiography been used as a research and clinical tool in veterinary medicine. In this report echocardiography is used in the research of anesthetic effects on ventricular function and clinically in the diagnosis of congestive cardiomyopathy in a cat, ventricular septal defect in a calf, and pericardial effusion in a dog. Echocardiography is now an important adjunct to the field of veterinary cardiology. ImagesFigure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422196

  11. Technical phosphoproteomic and bioinformatic tools useful in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most important forms of cellular regulation. Thus, phosphoproteomic analysis of protein phosphorylation in cells is a powerful tool to evaluate cell functional status. The importance of protein kinase-regulated signal transduction pathways in human cancer has led to the development of drugs that inhibit protein kinases at the apex or intermediary levels of these pathways. Phosphoproteomic analysis of these signalling pathways will provide important insights for operation and connectivity of these pathways to facilitate identification of the best targets for cancer therapies. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins or peptides from tissue or bodily fluid samples is required. The application of technologies such as phosphoenrichments, mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to bioinformatics tools is crucial for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation sites for advancing in such relevant clinical research. A combination of different phosphopeptide enrichments, quantitative techniques and bioinformatic tools is necessary to achieve good phospho-regulation data and good structural analysis of protein studies. The current and most useful proteomics and bioinformatics techniques will be explained with research examples. Our aim in this article is to be helpful for cancer research via detailing proteomics and bioinformatic tools. PMID:21967744

  12. [Analysis of researchers' implication in a research-intervention in the Stork Network: a tool for institutional analysis].

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Mesquita, Luana Pinho de; Matumoto, Silvia; Monceau, Gilles

    2016-09-19

    This qualitative study is based on institutional analysis as the methodological theoretical reference with the objective of analyzing researchers' implication during a research-intervention and the interferences caused by this analysis. The study involved researchers from courses in medicine, nursing, and dentistry at two universities and workers from a Regional Health Department in follow-up on the implementation of the Stork Network in São Paulo State, Brazil. The researchers worked together in the intervention and in analysis workshops, supported by an external institutional analysis. Two institutions stood out in the analysis: the research, established mainly with characteristics of neutrality, and management, with Taylorist characteristics. Differences between researchers and difficulties in identifying actions proper to network management and research were some of the interferences that were identified. The study concludes that implication analysis is a powerful tool for such studies.

  13. SEACOIN--an investigative tool for biomedical informatics researchers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eva K; Lee, Hee-Rin; Quarshie, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Peer-reviewed scientific literature is a prime source for accessing knowledge in the biomedical field. Its rapid growth and diverse domain coverage require systematic efforts in developing interactive tools for efficiently searching and summarizing current advances for acquiring knowledge and referencing, and for furthering scientific discovery. Although information retrieval systems exist, the conventional tools and systems remain difficult for biomedical investigators to use. There remain gaps even in the state-of-the-art systems as little attention has been devoted to understanding the needs of biomedical researchers. Our work attempts to bridge the gap between the needs of biomedical users and systems design efforts. We first study the needs of users and then design a simple visual analytic application tool, SEACOIN. A key motivation stems from biomedical researchers' request for a "simple interface" that is suitable for novice users in information technology. The system minimizes information overload, and allows users to search easily even in time-constrained situations. Users can manipulate the depth of information according to the purpose of usage. SEACOIN enables interactive exploration and filtering of search results via "metamorphose topological visualization" and "tag cloud," visualization tools that are commonly used in social network sites. We illustrate SEACOIN's usage through applications on PubMed publications on heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and asthma.

  14. [Study monitoring: a useful tool for quality health research].

    PubMed

    Arias Valencia, Samuel Andrés; Hernández Pinzón, Giovanna

    2009-05-01

    As well as protecting the rights of participants, a study's ethics must encompass the quality of its execution. As such, international standards have been established for studies involving human subjects. The objective of this review is to evaluate the usefulness of the Guide to Good Clinical Practice and "study monitoring" as tools useful to producing quality research. The Guide provides scientific ethics and quality standards for designing, conducting, registering, and notifying studies involving human subjects. By implementing specific processes and procedures, study monitoring seeks to ensure that research is followed and evaluated from inception, through execution and closure, thus producing studies with high quality standards.

  15. Research gaps for three main tropical diseases in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This scoping review analyzes the research gaps of three diseases: schistosomiasis japonica, malaria and echinococcosis. Based on available data in the P.R. China, we highlight the gaps between control capacity and prevalence levels, and between diagnostic/drug development and population need for treatment at different stages of the national control programme. After reviewing the literature from 848 original studies and consultations with experts in the field, the gaps were identified as follows. Firstly, the malaria research gaps include (i) deficiency of active testing in the public community and no appropriate technique to evaluate elimination, (ii) lack of sensitive diagnostic tools for asymptomatic patients, (iii) lack of safe drugs for mass administration. Secondly, gaps in research of schistosomiasis include (i) incongruent policy in the implementation of integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis, (ii) lack of effective tools for Oncomelania sp. snail control, (iii) lack of a more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic test for large population samples, (iv) lack of new drugs in addition to praziquantel. Thirdly, gaps in research of echinococcosis include (i) low capacity in field epidemiology studies, (ii) lack of sanitation improvement studies in epidemic areas, (iii) lack of a sensitivity test for early diagnosis, (iv) lack of more effective drugs for short-term treatment. We believe these three diseases can eventually be eliminated in mainland China if all the research gaps are abridged in a short period of time. PMID:23895635

  16. FOSS Tools for Research Infrastructures - A Success Story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, V.; Schroeder, M.; Wächter, J.

    2015-12-01

    Established initiatives and mandated organizations, e.g. the Initiative for Scientific Cyberinfrastructures (NSF, 2007) or the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI, 2008), promote and foster the development of sustainable research infrastructures. The basic idea behind these infrastructures is the provision of services supporting scientists to search, visualize and access data, to collaborate and exchange information, as well as to publish data and other results. Especially the management of research data is gaining more and more importance. In geosciences these developments have to be merged with the enhanced data management approaches of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI). The Centre for GeoInformationTechnology (CeGIT) at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences has the objective to establish concepts and standards of SDIs as an integral part of research infrastructure architectures. In different projects, solutions to manage research data for land- and water management or environmental monitoring have been developed based on a framework consisting of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) components. The framework provides basic components supporting the import and storage of data, discovery and visualization as well as data documentation (metadata). In our contribution, we present our data management solutions developed in three projects, Central Asian Water (CAWa), Sustainable Management of River Oases (SuMaRiO) and Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) where FOSS components build the backbone of the data management platform. The multiple use and validation of tools helped to establish a standardized architectural blueprint serving as a contribution to Research Infrastructures. We examine the question of whether FOSS tools are really a sustainable choice and whether the increased efforts of maintenance are justified. Finally it should help to answering the question if the use of FOSS for Research Infrastructures is a

  17. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.

  18. A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Dörnbrack, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool, which we call the "Mission Support System" (MSS), provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS) standard. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. The MSS is focused on the primary needs of mission scientists responsible for planning a research flight, addressing in particular the following requirements: (1) interactive exploration of available atmospheric forecasts, (2) interactive flight planning in relation to these forecasts, (3) computation of expected flight performance to assess the technical feasibility (in terms of total distance and vertical profile) of a flight, (4) no transfer of large forecast data files to the campaign site to allow deployment at remote locations and (5) low demand on hardware resources. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python.

  19. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning the utilization of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology for space shuttle main engine applications is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

  20. Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…

  1. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning the development of pressure instrumentation for the space shuttle main engine is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

  2. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  3. Identification and visualization of the intellectual structure and the main research lines in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the worldwide level.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Écija, Teresa; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make manifest the intellectual and cognitive structure of nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) by means of visualization techniques. To this end, we used data from the Web of Science (WoS), delimiting the data to the category NST during the period of 2000-2013, retrieving a total of 198,275 documents. Through direct author citation of these works, we identified their origins and the seminal papers, and through word co-occurrence extracted from the titles and abstracts, the main lines of research were identified. In view of both structures, we may affirm that NST is a young scientific discipline in constant expansion, needing time to establish its foundations but showing a strongly interdisciplinary character; its development is furthermore dependent upon knowledge from other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, or material sciences. We believe that this information may be very useful for the NST scientific community, as it reflects a large-scale analysis of the research lines of NST and how research has changed over time in the diverse areas of NST. This study is moreover intended to offer a useful tool for the NST scientific community, revealing at a glance the main research lines and landmark papers. Finally, the methodology used in this study can be replicated in any other field of science to explore its intellectual and cognitive structure.

  4. Identification and visualization of the intellectual structure and the main research lines in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the worldwide level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Écija, Teresa; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to make manifest the intellectual and cognitive structure of nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) by means of visualization techniques. To this end, we used data from the Web of Science (WoS), delimiting the data to the category NST during the period of 2000-2013, retrieving a total of 198,275 documents. Through direct author citation of these works, we identified their origins and the seminal papers, and through word co-occurrence extracted from the titles and abstracts, the main lines of research were identified. In view of both structures, we may affirm that NST is a young scientific discipline in constant expansion, needing time to establish its foundations but showing a strongly interdisciplinary character; its development is furthermore dependent upon knowledge from other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, or material sciences. We believe that this information may be very useful for the NST scientific community, as it reflects a large-scale analysis of the research lines of NST and how research has changed over time in the diverse areas of NST. This study is moreover intended to offer a useful tool for the NST scientific community, revealing at a glance the main research lines and landmark papers. Finally, the methodology used in this study can be replicated in any other field of science to explore its intellectual and cognitive structure.

  5. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-15

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  6. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  7. Rural outreach in Maine: A research-driven professional development teacher community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (MainePSP), researchers at the University of Maine have joined together with the state's Department of Education, non-profits, and teachers in multiple school districts to create a dynamic and growing community dedicated to improving K12 education of the physical sciences. Through ongoing efforts to introduce and adapt instructional materials, guided by education research and research-guided professional development, we have built a community responsive to student and teacher needs. This work has fed back into the university setting, where teachers are playing a role in graduate courses taken by our Master of Science in Teaching students. In this talk, I will focus on the role of education research in the partnership, showing how we use research in professional development, the development of assessments, and the analysis of the resulting data. I will describe two projects, one to understand how teachers' content knowledge affects the development of items assessing knowledge of acceleration, the other to see how teachers use their content knowledge of systems and energy to make pedagogical choices based on students' incorrect ideas about conservation of energy. Sponsored in part by NSF Grants MSP-0962805, DRL-1222580, and DUE-1340033.

  8. Ethics: the risk management tool in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Wadlund, Jill; Platt, Leslie A

    2002-01-01

    Scientific discovery and knowledge expansion in the post genome era holds great promise for new medical technologies and cellular-based therapies with multiple applications that will save and enhance lives. While human beings long have hoped to unlock the mysteries of the molecular basis of life; our society is now on the verge of doing so. But new scientific and technological breakthroughs often come with some risks attached. Research--especially clinical trials and research involving human participants--must be conducted in accordance with the highest ethical and scientific principles. Yet, as the number and complexity of clinical trials increase, so do pressures for new revenue sources and shorter product development cycles, which could have an adverse impact on patient safety. This article explores the use of risk management tools in clinical research.

  9. Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

  10. Semantic Differential as One of the Research Tools Suitable for Establishing the Attitudes of Pupils to Old Age and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divilová, Sona

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the pre-research conducted under the project entitled "Seniors in the Eyes of Children". The main objective of the project was to create and test a research tool in order to establish what the attitudes of pupils to old age and seniors were. Semantic differential was chosen for these purposes. Semantic…

  11. The Research Tools of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Berriman, G. B.; Lazio, T. J.; Project, VAO

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy is being transformed by the vast quantities of data, models, and simulations that are becoming available to astronomers at an ever-accelerating rate. The U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) has been funded to provide an operational facility that is intended to be a resource for discovery and access of data, and to provide science services that use these data. Over the course of the past year, the VAO has been developing and releasing for community use five science tools: 1) "Iris", for dynamically building and analyzing spectral energy distributions, 2) a web-based data discovery tool that allows astronomers to identify and retrieve catalog, image, and spectral data on sources of interest, 3) a scalable cross-comparison service that allows astronomers to conduct pair-wise positional matches between very large catalogs stored remotely as well as between remote and local catalogs, 4) time series tools that allow astronomers to compute periodograms of the public data held at the NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) and the Harvard Time Series Center, and 5) A VO-aware release of the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) that provides transparent access to VO-available data collections and is SAMP-enabled, so that IRAF users can easily use tools such as Aladin and Topcat in conjuction with IRAF tasks. Additional VAO services will be built to make it easy for researchers to provide access to their data in VO-compliant ways, to build VO-enabled custom applications in Python, and to respond generally to the growing size and complexity of astronomy data. Acknowledgements: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Designing and implementing full immersion simulation as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Belinda; Buckley, Thomas; Curtis, Kate; Morris, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Simulation is a valuable research tool used to evaluate the clinical performance of devices, people and systems. The simulated setting may address concerns unique to complex clinical environments such as the Emergency Department, which make the conduct of research challenging. There is limited evidence available to inform the development of simulated clinical scenarios for the purpose of evaluating practice in research studies, with the majority of literature focused on designing simulated clinical scenarios for education and training. Distinct differences exist in scenario design when implemented in education compared with use in clinical research studies. Simulated scenarios used to assess practice in clinical research must not comprise of any purposeful or planned teaching and be developed with a high degree of validity and reliability. A new scenario design template was devised to develop two standardised simulated clinical scenarios for the evaluation of a new assessment framework for emergency nurses. The scenario development and validation processes undertaken are described and provide an evidence-informed guide to scenario development for future clinical research studies.

  13. Vaccinia Virus: A Tool for Research and Vaccine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Bernard

    1991-06-01

    Vaccinia virus is no longer needed for smallpox immunization, but now serves as a useful vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize biologically active proteins and analyze structure-function relations, determine the targets of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the immune responses needed for protection against specific infectious diseases. When more data on safety and efficacy are available, recombinant vaccinia and related poxviruses may be candidates for live vaccines and for cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Tissue fluid pressures - From basic research tools to clinical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Akeson, Wayne H.; Mubarak, Scott J.; Owen, Charles A.; Gershuni, David H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes clinical applications of two basic research tools developed and refined in the past 20 years: the wick catheter (for measuring tissue fluid pressure) and the colloid osmometer (for measuring osmotic pressure). Applications of the osmometer include estimations of the reduced osmotic pressure of sickle-cell hemoglobin with deoxygenation, and of reduced swelling pressure of human nucleus pulposus with hydration or upon action of certain enzymes. Clinical uses of the wick-catheter technique include an improvement of diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic compartment syndromes, the elucidation of the tissue pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction, and the development of a better tourniquet for orthopedics.

  15. Development of proteasome inhibitors as research tools and cancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The proteasome is the primary site for protein degradation in mammalian cells, and proteasome inhibitors have been invaluable tools in clarifying its cellular functions. The anticancer agent bortezomib inhibits the major peptidase sites in the proteasome’s 20S core particle. It is a “blockbuster drug” that has led to dramatic improvements in the treatment of multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells. The development of proteasome inhibitors illustrates the unpredictability, frustrations, and potential rewards of drug development but also emphasizes the dependence of medical advances on basic biological research. PMID:23148232

  16. Fish in behavior research: unique tools with a great promise!

    PubMed

    Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-30

    Fish represent the most diverse class of vertebrates on Earth and also an unprecedented, but as of yet still largely untapped, resource for comparative analyses that can illuminate answers to questions about both how organisms work and how they evolved. The current review is a general discussion of some of the basic principles of why adding new species such as fish to the short list of biomedical model organisms (mainly the house mouse and the rat) has merit. In addition to the general points, it also reviews some questions about a newcomer, the zebrafish, which is rapidly gaining popularity in brain and behavior research. It discusses some examples demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of the zebrafish mainly in the context of biomedical research. It is followed by other articles that further elaborate on these questions.

  17. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  18. An evaluation tool for collaborative clinical research centers.

    PubMed

    Tragus, Robin; Cody, Jannine D

    2013-06-01

    There is a need for metrics that describe the full range of services provided by a clinical research unit; given that services have expanded to include such things as investigator training, regulatory compliance monitoring, and budget negotiations. We developed a tool and methodology that allows tracking of these expanded services. This not only allowed us to more accurately describe the work of the research unit staff, but to monitor the status of a study across the entire study lifespan from the idea to the publication. In addition to measuring work, it allows us to anticipate future needs in clinical staff and expertise because we are involved very early in study planning. We also expect that by analyzing these data from many studies over time, we will identify process barriers that will direct future program improvement.

  19. Multicenter patient records research: security policies and tools.

    PubMed

    Behlen, F M; Johnson, S B

    1999-01-01

    The expanding health information infrastructure offers the promise of new medical knowledge drawn from patient records. Such promise will never be fulfilled, however, unless researchers first address policy issues regarding the rights and interests of both the patients and the institutions who hold their records. In this article, the authors analyze the interests of patients and institutions in light of public policy and institutional needs. They conclude that the multicenter study, with Institutional Review Board approval of each study at each site, protects the interests of both. "Anonymity" is no panacea, since patient records are so rich in information that they can never be truly anonymous. Researchers must earn and respect the trust of the public, as responsible stewards of facts about patients' lives. The authors find that computer security tools are needed to administer multicenter patient records studies and describe simple approaches that can be implemented using commercial database products.

  20. ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy as a tool for driving research.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew; Pang, Changle; Zhou, Yuanji; Cai, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Driving a motor vehicle requires various cognitive functions to process surrounding information, to guide appropriate actions, and especially to respond to or integrate with numerous contextual and perceptual hindrances or risks. It is, thus, imperative to examine driving performance and road safety from a perspective of cognitive neuroscience, which considers both the behaviour and the functioning of the brain. However, because of technical limitations of current brain imaging approaches, studies have primarily adopted driving games or simulators to present participants with simulated driving environments that may have less ecological validity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a relatively new, non-invasive brain-imaging technique allowing measurement of brain activations in more realistic settings, even within real motor vehicles. This study reviews current NIRS driving research and explores NIRS' potential as a new tool to examine driving behaviour, along with various risk factors in natural situations, promoting our understanding about neural mechanisms of driving safety. Practitioner Summary: Driving a vehicle is dependent on a range of neurocognitive processing abilities. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive brain-imaging technique allowing measurement of brain activation even in on-road studies within real motor vehicles. This study reviews current NIRS driving research and explores the potential of NIRS as a new tool to examine driving behaviour.

  2. Operations other than war: Requirements for analysis tools research report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the research effort to determine the requirements for new or improved analysis tools to support decisions at the strategic and operational levels for military Operations Other than War (OOTW). The work was performed for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC). The data collection was based on workshops attended by experts in OOTWs: analysis personnel from each of the Combatant Commands, the Services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and other knowledgeable personnel. Further data were gathered from other workshops and conferences and from the literature. The results of this research begin with the creation of a taxonomy of OOTWs: categories of operations, attributes of operations, and tasks requiring analytical support. The tasks are connected to the Joint Staff`s Universal Joint Task List (UJTL). Historical OOTWs are analyzed to produce frequency distributions by category and responsible CINC. The analysis products are synthesized into a list of requirements for analytical tools and definitions of the requirements. The report concludes with a timeline or roadmap for satisfying the requirements.

  3. Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research

    PubMed Central

    Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

  4. Ultrasonic wavefield imaging: Research tool or emerging NDE method?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic wavefield imaging refers to acquiring full waveform data over a region of interest for waves generated by a stationary source. Although various implementations of wavefield imaging have existed for many years, the widespread availability of laser Doppler vibrometers that can acquire signals in the high kHz and low MHz range has resulted in a rapid expansion of fundamental research utilizing full wavefield data. In addition, inspection methods based upon wavefield imaging have been proposed for standalone nondestructive evaluation (NDE) with most of these methods coming from the structural health monitoring (SHM) community and based upon guided waves. If transducers are already embedded in or mounted on the structure as part of an SHM system, then a wavefield-based inspection can potentially take place with very little required disassembly. A frequently-proposed paradigm for wavefield NDE is its application as a follow-up inspection method using embedded SHM transducers as guided wave sources if the in situ SHM system generates an alarm. Discussed here is the broad role of wavefield imaging as it relates to ultrasonic NDE, both as a research tool and as an emerging NDE method. Examples of current research are presented based upon both guided and bulk wavefield imaging in metals and composites, drawing primarily from the author's work. Progress towards wavefield NDE is discussed in the context of defect detection and characterization capabilities, scan times, data quality, and required data analysis. Recent research efforts are summarized that can potentially enable wavefield NDE.

  5. Main development trends and some technical decisions on mining tools equipped with super-hard composite materials inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, LT; Krestovozdvizhensky, PD; Nikitenko, SM; Korneyev, VA; Korneyev, PA

    2017-02-01

    Directions of a significant increase in effectiveness of rock destruction with tools equipped with super-hard composite material inserts are reviewed and justified. Drilling tool designs with the cutting insert in the form of elliptical Cassinian oval and the asymmetric ring cleaves are suggested. Versions of laboratory stand designs in order to determine the power consumption of rock destruction are developed.

  6. NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Y. R.; Rasbury, J.; Johnson, J.; Barsten, K.; Saile, L.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for exploration-class missions, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) has compiled a large evidence base, which previously was available only to persons within the NASA community. The evidence base is comprised of several types of data, for example: information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight, derived from several sources (including data on incidence and potential outcomes of these medical conditions, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model's Clinical Finding Forms). In addition, approximately 35 gap reports are included in the evidence base, identifying current understanding of the medical challenges for exploration, as well as any gaps in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions. In an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration with subject matter experts within and outside of NASA, ExMC has developed an online collaboration tool, very similar to a wiki, titled the NASA Human Research Wiki. The platform chosen for this data sharing, and the potential collaboration it could generate, is a MediaWiki-based application that would house the evidence, allow "read only" access to all visitors to the website, and editorial access to credentialed subject matter experts who have been approved by the Wiki's editorial board. Although traditional wikis allow users to edit information in real time, the NASA Human Research Wiki includes a peer review process to ensure quality and validity of information. The wiki is also intended to be a pathfinder project for other HRP elements that may want to use this type of web-based tool. The wiki website will be released with a subset of the data described and will continue to be populated throughout the year.

  7. Effective Tooling for Linked Data Publishing in Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Purohit, Sumit; Smith, William P.; Chappell, Alan R.; West, Patrick; Lee, Benno; Stephan, Eric G.; Fox, Peter

    2016-02-05

    Challenges that make it difficult to find, share, and combine published data, such as data heterogeneity and resource discovery, have led to increased adoption of semantic data standards and data publishing technologies. To make data more accessible, interconnected and discoverable, some domains are being encouraged to publish their data as Linked Data. Consequently, this trend greatly increases the amount of data that semantic web tools are required to process, store, and interconnect. In attempting to process and manipulate large data sets, tools–ranging from simple text editors to modern triplestores– eventually breakdown upon reaching undefined thresholds. This paper offers a systematic approach that data publishers can use to categorize suitable tools to meet their data publishing needs. We present a real-world use case, the Resource Discovery for Extreme Scale Collaboration (RDESC), which features a scientific dataset(maximum size of 1.4 billion triples) used to evaluate a toolbox for data publishing in climate research. This paper also introduces a semantic data publishing software suite developed for the RDESC project.

  8. Direct writing of metal nanostructures: lithographic tools for nanoplasmonics research.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Graham J

    2011-03-22

    Continued progress in the fast-growing field of nanoplasmonics will require the development of new methods for the fabrication of metal nanostructures. Optical lithography provides a continually expanding tool box. Two-photon processes, as demonstrated by Shukla et al. (doi: 10.1021/nn103015g), enable the fabrication of gold nanostructures encapsulated in dielectric material in a simple, direct process and offer the prospect of three-dimensional fabrication. At higher resolution, scanning probe techniques enable nanoparticle particle placement by localized oxidation, and near-field sintering of nanoparticulate films enables direct writing of nanowires. Direct laser "printing" of single gold nanoparticles offers a remarkable capability for the controlled fabrication of model structures for fundamental studies, particle-by-particle. Optical methods continue to provide a powerful support for research into metamaterials.

  9. Conservation of Mass: An Important Tool in Renal Research.

    PubMed

    Sargent, John A

    2016-05-01

    The dialytic treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is based on control of solute concentrations and management of fluid volume. The application of the principal of conservation of mass, or mass balance, is fundamental to the study of such treatment and can be extended to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in general. This review discusses the development and use of mass conservation and transport concepts, incorporated into mathematical models. These concepts, which can be applied to a wide range of solutes of interest, represent a powerful tool for quantitatively guided studies of dialysis issues currently and into the future. Incorporating these quantitative concepts in future investigations is key to achieving positive control of known solutes, and in the analysis of such studies; to relate future research to known results of prior studies; and to help in the understanding of the obligatory physiological perturbations that result from dialysis therapy.

  10. Interactive Publication: The document as a research tool

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, George R.; Ford, Glenn; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chung, Michael; Simpson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multimedia and research data generated by scientific work affords an opportunity to reformulate the idea of a scientific article from the traditional static document, or even one with links to supplemental material in remote databases, to a self-contained, multimedia-rich interactive publication. This paper describes our concept of such a document, and the design of tools for authoring (Forge) and visualization/analysis (Panorama). They are platform-independent applications written in Java, and developed in Eclipse1 using its Rich Client Platform (RCP) framework. Both applications operate on PDF files with links to XML files that define the media type, location, and action to be performed. We also briefly cite the challenges posed by the potentially large size of interactive publications, the need for evaluating their value to improved comprehension and learning, and the need for their long-term preservation by the National Library of Medicine and other libraries. PMID:20657757

  11. Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students' Development of Scientific Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-06-01

    Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to understand the use of tools in human activity, namely cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). Accordingly, IT-based research tools constitute central moments of scientific research activity and neither can be seen apart from its objectives, nor can it be considered apart from the cultural-historical determined forms of activity (praxis) in which human subjects participate. Based on empirical data involving students participating in research activity, we point out how an appropriate account of IT-based research tools involves subjects' use of tools with respect to the objectives of research activity and the contribution to the praxis of research. We propose to reconceptualize the role of IT-based research tools as contributing to scientific literacy if students apply these tools with respect to the objectives of the research activity and contribute to praxis of research by evaluating and modifying the application of these tools. We conclude this paper by sketching the educational implications of this reconceptualized role of IT-based research tools.

  12. Research Tensions with the Use of Timed Numeracy Fluency Assessments as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Debbie; Graven, Mellony

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how we came to use timed fluency activities, along with personal learner reflections on those activities, in our after-school maths club as a complementary research and development tool for assessing the changing levels of learners' mathematical proficiency over time. We use data from one case-study after-school maths…

  13. Research experience in Maine leads to teacher and student success in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade-Redden, D.; Incze, L.; Census Of Marine Life-Maine

    2010-12-01

    As a High School science teacher it is my responsibility to present curriculum, to create enthusiasm for science, and to instill a passion and love for science in my students. Through a research experience as an ARMADA master teacher my passion and enthusiasm for the ocean was rekindled in the Gulf of Maine. Topics I had taught for years came alive in front of my eyes, and I was able to experience science to its fullest. I brought home many photographs, valuable information, and new enthusiasm to my students. I began a program called S.A.N.D. (Students As Nature Directors). In this program my students teach 3rd graders about the oceans and its many wonders. Also, I have incorporated hands-on research based projects. The research experience has enabled my students to become more scientifically literate and capable of sharing scientific knowledge with others. This presentation will show how research/teacher partnerships benefit students as well as teachers and how my students and district have benefited from my experience as an ARMADA master teacher. Author: Debra Slade-Redden Author #2: Lew Incze

  14. Informed consent for biobanking research: cancer patient recruitment from rural communities in Maine.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Deborah G; Farah, Christopher; Hock, Janet M

    2013-04-01

    Biobanking research seeks to improve the diversity, availability, and quality of human specimens critical for translational research, including biospecimen collections from disadvantaged minorities. American rural whites are seldom represented in such initiatives as geographic isolation makes obtaining informed consent challenging. We report a case series of 83 newly diagnosed cancer patients, attending a rural community medical center, who consented to participate in cancer research. To enable pooling with population studies, we created a BioGeoBank using 2007 NCI and ISBER Best Practices, after a protocol approval by Eastern Maine Medical Center (EMMC) IRB and OHP HRPO. Informed consent forms were at Flesch-Kincaid 8th Grade reading level, supplemented by NCI educational brochures. Of 108 patients identified, 85 were eligible. Of these, 83 patients (49 lung cancer, 21 breast cancer, and 13 other cancers) consented to donate data, blood, and tissue specimens for future research, and maintained eligibility. Two years later, we executed a legacy protocol to transfer specimens to NCI's biorepository. Of the 69 surviving patients, 9 patients could not be contacted. All those contacted (60) agreed to provide additional data on environmental risks, and consented to specimen transfer. Self-organizing map analyses showed no evidence that age, education, income, familial susceptibility, or lifestyle factors were associated with consent to donate data or biospecimens. Cancer cases reported 1-3 co-morbid chronic diseases (mostly cardiovascular), near lifetime smoking and/or alcohol consumption; familial cancer risks, and many had a prior cancer history. Anecdotally, willingness to consent was based on altruistic hopes that research would generate knowledge to reduce cancer incidence. Our study shows that cancer patients from disadvantaged white rural communities with health disparities associated with geographic isolation are motivated to consent to participate and support

  15. Models - Another tool for use in global change research

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D.; Baldocchi, D.D.; King, A.W.; Post, W.M. )

    1994-06-01

    Models are increasingly being used in the plant sciences to integrate and extrapolate information derived from laboratory and field investigations. To illustrate the utility of models in global change research, a series of leaf, canopy, ecosystem, and global-scale models are used to explore the response of trees to atmospheric CO[sub 2] enrichment. A biochemical model highlights the effects of elevated CO[sub 2] and temperature on photosynthesis, the consequences of Rubisco down-regulation to leaf and canopy carbon gain, and the relationships among stomatal conductance, transpiration, leaf area, and canopy energy balance. A forest succession model examines the effects of CO[sub 2] on species composition and forest productivity, while a model of the global carbon cycle illustrates the effects of rising CO[sub 2] on terrestrial carbon storage and the interaction of this affect with temperature. We conclude that models are appropriate tools for use both in guiding existing studies and in identifying new hypotheses for future research.

  16. The GATO gene annotation tool for research laboratories.

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Massirer, K B; Durham, A M; Ferreira, C E; Sogayar, M C

    2005-11-01

    Large-scale genome projects have generated a rapidly increasing number of DNA sequences. Therefore, development of computational methods to rapidly analyze these sequences is essential for progress in genomic research. Here we present an automatic annotation system for preliminary analysis of DNA sequences. The gene annotation tool (GATO) is a Bioinformatics pipeline designed to facilitate routine functional annotation and easy access to annotated genes. It was designed in view of the frequent need of genomic researchers to access data pertaining to a common set of genes. In the GATO system, annotation is generated by querying some of the Web-accessible resources and the information is stored in a local database, which keeps a record of all previous annotation results. GATO may be accessed from everywhere through the internet or may be run locally if a large number of sequences are going to be annotated. It is implemented in PHP and Perl and may be run on any suitable Web server. Usually, installation and application of annotation systems require experience and are time consuming, but GATO is simple and practical, allowing anyone with basic skills in informatics to access it without any special training. GATO can be downloaded at [http://mariwork.iq.usp.br/gato/]. Minimum computer free space required is 2 MB.

  17. GPCR-targeting nanobodies: attractive research tools, diagnostics, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mujić-Delić, Azra; de Wit, Raymond H; Verkaar, Folkert; Smit, Martine J

    2014-05-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a major therapeutic target class. A large proportion of marketed drugs exert their effect through modulation of GPCR function, and GPCRs have been successfully targeted with small molecules. Yet, the number of small new molecular entities targeting GPCRs that has been approved as therapeutics in the past decade has been limited. With new and improved immunization-related technologies and advances in GPCR purification and expression techniques, antibody-based targeting of GPCRs has gained attention. The serendipitous discovery of a unique class of heavy chain antibodies (hcAbs) in the sera of camelids may provide novel GPCR-directed therapies. Antigen-binding fragments of hcAbs, also referred to as nanobodies, combine the advantages of both small molecules (e.g., molecular cavity binding, low production costs) and monoclonal antibodies (e.g., high affinity and specificity). Nanobodies are gaining ground as therapeutics and are also starting to find application as diagnostics and as high-quality tools in GPCR research. Herein, we review recent advances in the use of nanobodies in GPCR research.

  18. Episcopic 3D Imaging Methods: Tools for Researching Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J; Geyer, Stefan H

    2008-01-01

    This work aims at describing episcopic 3D imaging methods and at discussing how these methods can contribute to researching the genetic mechanisms driving embryogenesis and tissue remodelling, and the genesis of pathologies. Several episcopic 3D imaging methods exist. The most advanced are capable of generating high-resolution volume data (voxel sizes from 0.5x0.5x1 µm upwards) of small to large embryos of model organisms and tissue samples. Beside anatomy and tissue architecture, gene expression and gene product patterns can be three dimensionally analyzed in their precise anatomical and histological context with the aid of whole mount in situ hybridization or whole mount immunohistochemical staining techniques. Episcopic 3D imaging techniques were and are employed for analyzing the precise morphological phenotype of experimentally malformed, randomly produced, or genetically engineered embryos of biomedical model organisms. It has been shown that episcopic 3D imaging also fits for describing the spatial distribution of genes and gene products during embryogenesis, and that it can be used for analyzing tissue samples of adult model animals and humans. The latter offers the possibility to use episcopic 3D imaging techniques for researching the causality and treatment of pathologies or for staging cancer. Such applications, however, are not yet routine and currently only preliminary results are available. We conclude that, although episcopic 3D imaging is in its very beginnings, it represents an upcoming methodology, which in short terms will become an indispensable tool for researching the genetic regulation of embryo development as well as the genesis of malformations and diseases. PMID:19452045

  19. Haystack, a web-based tool for metabolomics research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS) has become a widely used technique in metabolomics research for differential profiling, the broad screening of biomolecular constituents across multiple samples to diagnose phenotypic differences and elucidate relevant features. However, a significant limitation in LCMS-based metabolomics is the high-throughput data processing required for robust statistical analysis and data modeling for large numbers of samples with hundreds of unique chemical species. Results To address this problem, we developed Haystack, a web-based tool designed to visualize, parse, filter, and extract significant features from LCMS datasets rapidly and efficiently. Haystack runs in a browser environment with an intuitive graphical user interface that provides both display and data processing options. Total ion chromatograms (TICs) and base peak chromatograms (BPCs) are automatically displayed, along with time-resolved mass spectra and extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) over any mass range. Output files in the common .csv format can be saved for further statistical analysis or customized graphing. Haystack's core function is a flexible binning procedure that converts the mass dimension of the chromatogram into a set of interval variables that can uniquely identify a sample. Binned mass data can be analyzed by exploratory methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) to model class assignment and identify discriminatory features. The validity of this approach is demonstrated by comparison of a dataset from plants grown at two light conditions with manual and automated peak detection methods. Haystack successfully predicted class assignment based on PCA and cluster analysis, and identified discriminatory features based on analysis of EICs of significant bins. Conclusion Haystack, a new online tool for rapid processing and analysis of LCMS-based metabolomics data is described. It offers users a range of data visualization

  20. Food 21: a research program looking for measures and tools to increase food chain sustainability.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Rune; Algers, Bo; Bergström, Lars; Lundström, Kerstin; Nybrant, Thomas; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2005-06-01

    Food 21, an interdisciplinary research program encompassing the whole agro-food chain, was conducted in Sweden during 1997-2004. The challenges undertaken were to come up with environmental tools and solutions to existing nonsustainable practices along the entire food chain. This required close collaboration between the scientists and the food chain stakeholders. A set of goals characterizing sustainable food production is presented in this paper. Synthesis and systems analysis were the main tools used to analyze the sustainability of proposed changes. In this introduction we give an overview of the Food 21 concept and highlight some results. For example, we found that organic farming and organic products were not in general superior to conventional products and practices with respect to environmental impact and product quality. We also summarize the management experiences in this article, since we consider them to be rather unique and since they contributed to the overall success of the program.

  1. How should we assess knowledge translation in research organizations; designing a knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI) was designed to assess the status of knowledge translation in research institutes. The objective was, to identify the weaknesses and strengths of knowledge translation in research centres and faculties associated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Methods The tool, consisting of 50 statements in four main domains, was used in 20 TUMS-affiliated research centres and departments after its reliability was established. It was completed in a group discussion by the members of the research council, researchers and research users' representatives from each centre and/or department. Results The mean score obtained in the four domains of 'The question of research', 'Knowledge production', 'Knowledge transfer' and 'Promoting the use of evidence' were 2.26, 2.92, 2 and 1.89 (out of 5) respectively. Nine out of 12 interventional priorities with the lowest quartile score were related to knowledge transfer resources and strategies, whereas eight of them were in the highest quartile and related to 'The question of research' and 'Knowledge production'. Conclusions The self-assessment tool identifies the gaps in capacity and infrastructure of knowledge translation support within research organizations. Assessment of research institutes using SATORI pointed out that strengthening knowledge translation through provision of financial support for knowledge translation activities, creating supportive and facilitating infrastructures, and facilitating interactions between researchers and target audiences to exchange questions and research findings are among the priorities of research centres and/or departments. PMID:21342517

  2. IT Tools for Teachers and Scientists, Created by Undergraduate Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, A. Z.; Perry, S.

    2007-12-01

    Interns in the Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) program conduct computer science research for the benefit of earthquake scientists and have created products in growing use within the SCEC education and research communities. SCEC/UseIT comprises some twenty undergraduates who combine their varied talents and academic backgrounds to achieve a Grand Challenge that is formulated around needs of SCEC scientists and educators and that reflects the value SCEC places on the integration of computer science and the geosciences. In meeting the challenge, students learn to work on multidisciplinary teams and to tackle complex problems with no guaranteed solutions. Meantime, their efforts bring fresh perspectives and insight to the professionals with whom they collaborate, and consistently produces innovative, useful tools for research and education. The 2007 Grand Challenge was to design and prototype serious games to communicate important earthquake science concepts. Interns broke themselves into four game teams, the Educational Game, the Training Game, the Mitigation Game and the Decision-Making Game, and created four diverse games with topics from elementary plate tectonics to earthquake risk mitigation, with intended players ranging from elementary students to city planners. The games were designed to be versatile, to accommodate variation in the knowledge base of the player; and extensible, to accommodate future additions. The games are played on a web browser or from within SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects). SCEC-VDO, also engineered by UseIT interns, is a 4D, interactive, visualization software that enables integration and exploration of datasets and models such as faults, earthquake hypocenters and ruptures, digital elevation models, satellite imagery, global isochrons, and earthquake prediction schemes. SCEC-VDO enables the user to create animated movies during a session, and is now part

  3. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a "hot" tool for genomic research.

    PubMed

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/

  4. Microgravity as a research tool to improve US agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bula, R. J.; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2000-01-01

    Crop production and utilization are undergoing significant modifications and improvements that emanate from adaptation of recently developed plant biotechnologies. Several innovative technologies will impact US agriculture in the next century. One of these is the transfer of desirable genes from organisms to economically important crop species in a way that cannot be accomplished with traditional plant breeding techniques. Such plant genetic engineering offers opportunities to improve crop species for a number of characteristics as well as use as source materials for specific medical and industrial applications. Although plant genetic engineering is having an impact on development of new crop cultivars, several major constraints limit the application of this technology to selected crop species and genotypes. Consequently, gene transfer systems that overcome these constraints would greatly enhance development of new crop materials. If results of a recent gene transfer experiment conducted in microgravity during a Space Shuttle mission are confirmed, and with the availability of the International Space Station as a permanent space facility, commercial plant transformation activity in microgravity could become a new research tool to improve US agriculture. .

  5. Genetic research in schizophrenia: new tools and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Genetically, schizophrenia is a complex disease whose pathogenesis is likely governed by a number of different risk factors. While substantial efforts have been made to identify the underlying susceptibility alleles over the past 2 decades, they have been of only limited success. Each year, the field is enriched with nearly 150 additional genetic association studies, each of which either proposes or refutes the existence of certain schizophrenia genes. To facilitate the evaluation and interpretation of these findings, we have recently created a database for genetic association studies in schizophrenia ("SzGene"; available at http://www.szgene.org). In addition to systematically screening the scientific literature for eligible studies, SzGene also reports the results of allele-based meta-analyses for polymorphisms with sufficient genotype data. Currently, these meta-analyses highlight not only over 20 different potential schizophrenia genes, many of which represent the "usual suspects" (eg, various dopamine receptors and neuregulin 1), but also several that were never meta-analyzed previously. All the highlighted loci contain at least one variant showing modest (summary odds ratios approximately 1.20 [range 1.06-1.45]) but nominally significant risk effects. This review discusses some of the strengths and limitations of the SzGene database, which could become a useful bioinformatics tool within the schizophrenia research community.

  6. Physics Education Research at the Upper Division at the University of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, John

    2013-04-01

    Researchers from the University of Maine Physics Education Research Laboratory are conducting several investigations of the learning and teaching of physics beyond the introductory level. Content topics include intermediate mechanics, electronics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. One focus of our work is the identification and addressing of specific student difficulties with topics such as damped harmonic motion, bipolar junction transistor (BJT) circuits, work, entropy, and the Boltzmann factor. Student understanding and use of the underlying mathematics has been one important emerging theme, including definite integrals, partial derivatives, and linear differential equations. Recent work in mechanics has focused on understanding the interplay of mathematical and physical reasoning when describing damped harmonic motion, including framing and representational issues. In electronics, there has been an ongoing investigation of student understanding of the behavior of basic BJT follower and amplifier circuits as well as related issues of signal and bias. In thermal physics, student understanding of state functions, heat engines and the Carnot cycle, the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics, and the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives on entropy have been investigated. The greater content sophistication in these courses has drawn attention to the specific needs, constraints, and advantages of instructional materials tailored to the upper division. Future directions include more attention to interdisciplinary topics across mathematics, physics, and engineering in particular, as well as metacognition in the laboratory.

  7. Solar Data and Tools: Resources for Researchers, Industry, and Developers

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has created a suite of analytical tools and data that can inform decisions about implementing solar and that are increasingly forming the basis of private-sector tools and services to solar consumers. The following solar energy data sets and analytical tools are available free to the public.

  8. Concept Maps as a Research and Evaluation Tool To Assess Conceptual Change in Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Ahmet Ilhan

    2002-01-01

    Informs teachers about using concept maps as a learning tool and alternative assessment tools in education. Presents research results of how students might use concept maps to communicate their cognitive structure. (Author/KHR)

  9. Main topics in transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Laban, Cornelis J; van Dijk, Rob

    2013-12-01

    The population of the Netherlands has become increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity and religion, and anti-immigrant attitudes have become more apparent. At the same time, interest in issues linked to transcultural psychiatry has grown steadily. The purpose of this article is to describe the most important results in Dutch transcultural psychiatric research in the last decade and to discuss their relationship with relevant social and political developments in the Netherlands. All relevant PhD theses (N = 27) between 2000 and 2011 were selected. Screening of Dutch journals in the field of transcultural psychiatry and medical anthropology and a PubMed query yielded additional publications. Forensic and addiction psychiatry were excluded from this review. The results of the review indicate three main topics: (a) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their relation to migration issues as social defeat and ethnic density, showing considerable intra- and interethnic differences in predictors and prevalence rates, (b) the social position of refugees and asylum seekers, and its effect on mental health, showing especially high risk among asylum seekers, and (c) the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and use of mental health services, showing a differentiated picture among various migrant groups. Anthropological research brought additional knowledge on all the above topics. The overall conclusion is that transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands has made a giant leap since the turn of the century. The results are of international importance and invite redefinition of the relationship between migration and mental health, and reconsideration of its underlying mechanisms in multiethnic societies.

  10. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  11. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  12. Research Tools, Tips, and Resources for Financial Aid Administrators. Monograph, A NASFAA Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohning, David D.; Redd, Kenneth E.; Simmons, Barry W., Sr.

    This monograph provides research tools, tips, and resources to financial aid administrators who need to undertake research tasks. It answers: What is research? How can financial aid administrators get started on research projects? What resources are available to help answer research questions quickly and accurately? How can research efforts assist…

  13. Advances in the research and development of natural health products as main stream cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ovadje, Pamela; Roma, Alessia; Steckle, Matthew; Nicoletti, Leah; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2015-01-01

    Natural health products (NHPs) are defined as natural extracts containing polychemical mixtures; they play a leading role in the discovery and development of drugs, for disease treatment. More than 50% of current cancer therapeutics are derived from natural sources. However, the efficacy of natural extracts in treating cancer has not been explored extensively. Scientific research into the validity and mechanism of action of these products is needed to develop NHPs as main stream cancer therapy. The preclinical and clinical validation of NHPs would be essential for this development. This review summarizes some of the recent advancements in the area of NHPs with anticancer effects. This review also focuses on various NHPs that have been studied to scientifically validate their claims as anticancer agents. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the efficacy of these NHPs in targeting the multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells for a more selective efficacious treatment. The studies reviewed here have paved the way for the introduction of more NHPs from traditional medicine to the forefront of modern medicine, in order to provide alternative, safer, and cheaper complementary treatments for cancer therapy and possibly improve the quality of life of cancer patients.

  14. Advances in the Research and Development of Natural Health Products as Main Stream Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadje, Pamela; Roma, Alessia; Steckle, Matthew; Nicoletti, Leah; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2015-01-01

    Natural health products (NHPs) are defined as natural extracts containing polychemical mixtures; they play a leading role in the discovery and development of drugs, for disease treatment. More than 50% of current cancer therapeutics are derived from natural sources. However, the efficacy of natural extracts in treating cancer has not been explored extensively. Scientific research into the validity and mechanism of action of these products is needed to develop NHPs as main stream cancer therapy. The preclinical and clinical validation of NHPs would be essential for this development. This review summarizes some of the recent advancements in the area of NHPs with anticancer effects. This review also focuses on various NHPs that have been studied to scientifically validate their claims as anticancer agents. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the efficacy of these NHPs in targeting the multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells for a more selective efficacious treatment. The studies reviewed here have paved the way for the introduction of more NHPs from traditional medicine to the forefront of modern medicine, in order to provide alternative, safer, and cheaper complementary treatments for cancer therapy and possibly improve the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:25883673

  15. Software Tools to Support Research on Airport Departure Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Francis; Evans, Antony; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    A simple, portable and useful collection of software tools has been developed for the analysis of airport surface traffic. The tools are based on a flexible and robust traffic-flow model, and include calibration, validation and simulation functionality for this model. Several different interfaces have been developed to help promote usage of these tools, including a portable Matlab(TM) implementation of the basic algorithms; a web-based interface which provides online access to automated analyses of airport traffic based on a database of real-world operations data which covers over 250 U.S. airports over a 5-year period; and an interactive simulation-based tool currently in use as part of a college-level educational module. More advanced applications for airport departure traffic include taxi-time prediction and evaluation of "windowing" congestion control.

  16. MEETING TODAY'S EMERGING CONTAMINANTS WITH TOMORROW'S RESEARCH TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will explore the many facets of research and development for emerging contaminants within the USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratories (Athens, Cincinnati, Las Vegas, and Research Triangle Park).

  17. "This Ain't the Projects": A Researcher's Reflections on the Local Appropriateness of Our Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Danny C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article I examine the ways in which Black and Latina/o urban high school youth pressed me to reflexively examine my positionality and that of my research tools during a year-long ethnographic study documenting their communicative repertoires. I reflect on youth comments on my researcher tools, as well as myself, in order to wrestle with…

  18. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. II. Development of Research-Based Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students'…

  19. [Research on infrared safety protection system for machine tool].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuan-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yan, Hui-Ying; Wang, Song-De

    2008-04-01

    In order to ensure personal safety and prevent injury accident in machine tool operation, an infrared machine tool safety system was designed with infrared transmitting-receiving module, memory self-locked relay and voice recording-playing module. When the operator does not enter the danger area, the system has no response. Once the operator's whole or part of body enters the danger area and shades the infrared beam, the system will alarm and output an control signal to the machine tool executive element, and at the same time, the system makes the machine tool emergency stop to prevent equipment damaged and person injured. The system has a module framework, and has many advantages including safety, reliability, common use, circuit simplicity, maintenance convenience, low power consumption, low costs, working stability, easy debugging, vibration resistance and interference resistance. It is suitable for being installed and used in different machine tools such as punch machine, pour plastic machine, digital control machine, armor plate cutting machine, pipe bending machine, oil pressure machine etc.

  20. Research investigation of helicopter main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Kohlhepp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage aerodynamic interaction for moderate forward speed flight conditions. The details of the rotor models, experimental design and procedure, aerodynamic and acoustic data acquisition and reduction are presented. The model was initially operated in trim for selected fuselage angle of attack, main rotor tip-path-plane angle, and main rotor thrust combinations. The effects of repositioning the tail rotor in the main rotor wake and the corresponding tail rotor countertorque requirements were determined. Each rotor was subsequently tested in isolation at the thrust and angle of attack combinations for trim. The acoustic data indicated that the noise was primarily dominated by the main rotor, especially for moderate speed main rotor blade-vortex interaction conditions. The tail rotor noise increased when the main rotor was removed indicating that tail rotor inflow was improved with the main rotor present.

  1. Introduction to tools and techniques for ceramide-centered research.

    PubMed

    Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Luberto, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids are important components of eukaryotic cells, many of which function as bioactive signaling molecules. As thoroughly discussed elsewhere in this volume, ceramide, central metabolite of the sphingolipid pathway, plays key roles in a variety of cellular responses. Since the discovery of the bioactive function of ceramide, a growing number of tools and techniques have been and still are being developed in order to better decipher the complexity and implications of ceramide-mediated signaling. With this chapter it is our intention to provide new comers to the sphingolipid arena with a short overview of tools and techniques currently available for the study ofsphingolipid metabolism, with the focus on ceramide.

  2. Practical library research: a tool for effective library management.

    PubMed

    Schneider, E; Mankin, C J; Bastille, J D

    1995-01-01

    Librarians are being urged to conduct research as one of their professional responsibilities. Many librarians, however, avoid research, because they believe it is beyond their capabilities or resources. This paper discusses the importance of conducting applied research-research directed toward solving practical problems. The paper describes how one library conducted practical research projects, including use studies and surveys, over an eighteen-year period. These projects produced objective data that were used by the library to make management decisions that benefited both the library and its parent institution. This paper encourages other librarians to conduct practical research projects and to share the results with their colleagues through publication in the professional literature.

  3. STELLA software as a tool for modelling phosphorus removal in a constructed wetland employing dewatered alum sludge as main substrate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J L G; Wang, Z Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H; Jørgensen, S E

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model was developed for the removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) using a dynamic software program called STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) 9.1.3 to aid in simulating the environmental nature and succession of relationship between interdependent components and processes in the VFCW system. In particular, the VFCW employed dewatered alum sludge as its main substrate to enhance phosphorus (P) immobilization. Although computer modelling of P in treatment wetland has been well studied especially in recent years, there is still a need to develop simple and realistic models that can be used for investigating the dynamics of SRP in VFCWs. The state variables included in the model are dissolved phosphorus (DISP), plant phosphorus (PLAP), detritus phosphorus (DETP), plant biomass (PLBI) and adsorbed phosphorus (ADSP). The major P transformation processes considered in this study were adsorption, plant and microbial uptake and decomposition. The forcing functions which were considered in the model are temperature, radiation, volume of wastewater, P concentration, contact time, flow rate and the adsorbent (i.e., alum sludge). The model results revealed that up to 72% of the SRP can be removed through adsorption process whereas the uptake by plants is about 20% and the remaining processes such as microbial P utilization and decomposition, accounted for 7% SRP removal based on the mass balance calculations. The results obtained indicate that the model can be used to simulate outflow SRP concentration, and it can also be used to estimate the amount of P removed by individual processes in the VFCW using alum-sludge as a substrate.

  4. Specially Made for Science: Researchers Develop Online Tools For Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    Blogs, wikis, and social-networking sites such as Facebook may get media buzz these days, but for scientists, engineers, and doctors, they are not even on the radar. The most effective tools of the Internet for such people tend to be efforts more narrowly aimed at their needs, such as software that helps geneticists replicate one another's…

  5. Preservice Teachers as Researchers: Using Ethnographic Tools To Interpret Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Lois McFadyen

    The structures of meaning preservice teachers perceived and interpreted as a result of field placements in a methods course and through the use of ethnographic tools were studied in an ethnographic design. The study involved 11 preservice teachers. It described how they shaped each other's thinking about teaching and it examined how ethnographic…

  6. Chaos Modeling: Increasing Educational Researchers' Awareness of a New Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobner, Ronald F.; And Others

    Chaos theory is being used as a tool to study a wide variety of phenomena. It is a philosophical and empirical approach that attempts to explain relationships previously thought to be totally random. Although some relationships are truly random, many data appear to be random but reveal repeatable patterns of behavior under further investigation.…

  7. Exploiting the Brachypodium Tool Box in cereal and grass research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is now a decade since Brachypodium distachyon was suggested as a model species for temperate grasses and cereals. Since then transformation protocols, large expressed sequence tag (EST) populations, tools for forward and reverse genetic screens, highly refined cytogenetic probes, germplasm coll...

  8. "Mythbusters": A Tool for Teaching Research Methods in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkley, Edward; Burkley, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    "Mythbusters" uses multiple research methods to test interesting topics, offering research methods students an entertaining review of course material. To test the effectiveness of "Mythbusters" clips in a psychology research methods course, we systematically selected and showed 4 clips. Students answered questions about the clips, offered their…

  9. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

  10. Heuristics Diagrams as a Tool to Formatively Assess Teachers' Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, J. A.; Garcia-Franco, A.

    2013-01-01

    Many teacher education programs include different forms of teachers doing research. Be it in the form of action research or general inquiries about their practice, it has been argued that when teachers do research on their own practice, they are able to take a more reflective stance towards their work which is necessary to bring about educational…

  11. Research Tool Patents--Rumours of their Death are Greatly Exaggerated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Peter G.; Roberts, John S.

    2006-01-01

    Using a patented drug during clinical trials is not infringement [35 U.S.C. 271(e)(1)]. Merck v Integra enlarged this "safe harbour" to accommodate preclinical use of drugs and patented "research tools" if "reasonably related" to FDA approval. The decision allowed lower courts, should they wish, to find any use of a research tool, except for…

  12. Main trends in experimental morphological research in angiology and outlook for its development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzhavakhishvili, N. A.; Melman, Y. P.

    1980-01-01

    The main prospective trends in the problem of collateral circulation and new trends in experimental angiology with respect to the effect of gravitational forces, hypodynamia and hypokinesia on the vascular bed are discussed.

  13. Stress analysis and design considerations for Shuttle pointed autonomous research tool for astronomy /SPARTAN/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferragut, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) family of spacecraft are intended to operate with minimum interfaces with the U.S. Space Shuttle in order to increase flight opportunities. The SPARTAN I Spacecraft was designed to enhance structural capabilities and increase reliability. The approach followed results from work experience which evolved from sounding rocket projects. Structural models were developed to do the analyses necessary to satisfy safety requirements for Shuttle hardware. A loads analysis must also be performed. Stress analysis calculations will be performed on the main structural elements and subcomponents. Attention is given to design considerations and program definition, the schematic representation of a finite element model used for SPARTAN I spacecraft, details of loads analysis, the stress analysis, and fracture mechanics plan implications.

  14. Recent and Potential Application of Engineering Tools to Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Martin I.

    This paper presents a summary of some recent engineering research in education and identifies some research areas with high payoff potential. The underlying assumption is that a school is a system with a set of subsystems which is potentially susceptible to analysis, design, and eventually some sort of optimization. This assumption leads to the…

  15. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  16. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  17. Applying Web-Based Tools for Research, Engineering, and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Personnel in the NASA Glenn Research Center Network and Architectures branch have performed a variety of research related to space-based sensor webs, network centric operations, security and delay tolerant networking (DTN). Quality documentation and communications, real-time monitoring and information dissemination are critical in order to perform quality research while maintaining low cost and utilizing multiple remote systems. This has been accomplished using a variety of Internet technologies often operating simultaneously. This paper describes important features of various technologies and provides a number of real-world examples of how combining Internet technologies can enable a virtual team to act efficiently as one unit to perform advanced research in operational systems. Finally, real and potential abuses of power and manipulation of information and information access is addressed.

  18. Introduction: new tools for enhancing collaborative endometriosis research.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    This issue of Fertility and Sterility contains four articles by the World Endometriosis Research Foundation whose present objective is global standardization of the collection of phenotypic data and biological samples, designated as the Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project. The aim is to facilitate large-scale international, multicenter trials that are robust, and will result in biomarker and treatment targets to advance research in endometriosis.

  19. The Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT): Evaluating Treatment Research as Part of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Bothe, Anne K.; Bramlett, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents, and explains the issues behind, the Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT), an instrument created to assist clinicians, researchers, students, and other readers in the process of critically appraising reports of stuttering treatment research. Method: The STREAT was developed by…

  20. [Main results of research concerning asbestos-related diseases in Kazakhstan Republic].

    PubMed

    Amanbekova, A U; Sakiev, K Z; Ibraeva, L K; Otarbaeva, M B

    2014-01-01

    Problem of safety in asbestos usage attracts close attention of specialists and agencies responsible for public health preservation nowadays. According to European researchers, studies of uncontrolled usage of amphibole asbestos demonstrate high risk of asbestosis, lung cander and pleural mesothelioma among the workers and population exposed. The article covers results of research concerning influence of chrysotile asbestos on the workers, problems of asbestos-related diseases formation. The authors defined suggestions on a concept of controlled usage of chrysotile asbestos in Kazakhstan Republic.

  1. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  2. Utilizing Spectroscopic Research Tools and Software in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubbs, G. S., II

    2015-06-01

    Given today's technological age, it has become crucial to be able to reach the student in a more ''tech-savvy" way than traditional classroom methods afford. Given this, there are already a vast range of software packages available to the molecular spectroscopist that can easily be introduced to the classroom with success. This talk will highlight taking a few of these tools (Gaussian09, SPFIT/SPCAT, the AABS Package, LabViewTM, etc.) and implementing them in the classroom to teach subjects such as Quantum Mechanics and Thermodynamics as well as to aid in the linkage between these subjects. Examples of project implementation on both undergraduate and graduate level students will be presented with a discussion on the successes and failures of such attempts.

  3. The Portable Usability Testing Lab: A Flexible Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Michael E.; And Others

    A group of faculty at the University of Georgia obtained funding for a research and development facility called the Learning and Performance Support Laboratory (LPSL). One of the LPSL's primary needs was obtaining a portable usability lab for software testing, so the facility obtained the "Luggage Lab 2000." The lab is transportable to…

  4. Close range photogrammetry--a clinical dental research tool.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, R G

    1992-08-01

    Photogrammetry is the art, science and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects through processes of recording and interpreting photographic images. This review outlines the principles of the technique and summarizes the various methodologies and applications in clinical dental research.

  5. Ready Reference Tools: EBSCO Topic Search and SIRS Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  6. New research and tools lead to improved earthquake alerting protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.

    2009-01-01

    What’s the best way to get alerted about the occurrence and potential impact of an earthquake? The answer to that question has changed dramatically of late, in part due to improvements in earthquake science, and in part by the implementation of new research in the delivery of earthquake information

  7. Reimagining Science Education and Pedagogical Tools: Blending Research with Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline S.

    2010-01-01

    The future of higher education in the sciences will be marked by programs that link skilled educators and research scientists from around the world with teachers for professional development and with students for high-impact learning--either virtually or physically in the field. These programs will use technology where possible to build new and…

  8. Friending Adolescents on Social Networking Websites: A Feasible Research Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researcher’s profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226

  9. Miniature spinning as a tool for ginning research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton gin must balance efficient processing and cleaning with adversely affecting the quality of lint through damage and/or failure to remove sufficient material. Substantial research is conducted on all aspects of the cotton gin; however it is difficult to gauge the effect on fiber quality wi...

  10. Online Tools Allow Distant Students to Collaborate on Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Wesleyan Academy and Moravian School in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, recently joined forces with Evergreen Elementary in Fort Lewis, Wash., to collaborate on a research project using My eCoach Online (http://myecoach.com) as the primary medium to share information, post ideas and findings, and develop inquiry projects on 10 topics about water.…

  11. Some Tools and Techniques of Market Research for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaither, Gerald H.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of an effective, comprehensive marketing effort by higher education institutions is discussed in light of anticipated enrollment declines. A new professionalism in market research and techniques is called for and it is suggested that an effective marketing effort will provide primary and secondary benefits that can serve as guides…

  12. Administrative Data Linkage as a Tool for Child Maltreatment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Marni D.; Jutte, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Linking administrative data records for the same individuals across services and over time offers a powerful, population-wide resource for child maltreatment research that can be used to identify risk and protective factors and to examine outcomes. Multistage de-identification processes have been developed to protect privacy and maintain…

  13. Fish as research tools: alternatives to in vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Schaeck, Marlien; Van den Broeck, Wim; Hermans, Katleen; Decostere, Annemie

    2013-07-01

    The use of fish in scientific research is increasing worldwide, due to both the rapid expansion of the fish farming industry and growing awareness of questions concerning the humane use of mammalian models in basic research and chemical testing. As fish are lower on the evolutionary scale than mammals, they are considered to be less sentient. Fish models are providing researchers, and those concerned with animal welfare, with opportunities for adhering to the Three Rs principles of refinement, reduction and replacement. However, it should be kept in mind that fish should also be covered by the principles of the Three Rs. Indeed, various studies have shown that fish are capable of nociception, and of experiencing pain in a manner analogous to that in mammals. Thus, emphasis needs to be placed on the development of alternatives that replace, as much as possible, the use of all living vertebrate animals, including fish. This review gives the first comprehensive and critical overview of the existing alternatives for live fish experimental studies. The alternative methods described range from cell and tissue cultures, organ and perfusion models, and embryonic models, to in silico computer and mathematical models. This article aspires to guide scientists in the adoption of the correct alternative methods in their research, and, whenever possible, to reduce the use of live fish.

  14. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  15. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval.

  16. Using metrology in early prehistoric stone tool research: further work and a brief instrument comparison.

    PubMed

    Evans, A A; Macdonald, D

    2011-01-01

    Early prehistoric research aims to discover the activities of our ancestors and piece together the process of evolution and sociocultural development. A key element in this process is the study of stone tools, particularly how these tools functioned in prehistory. Currently, there are no established quantitative methods that address stone tool function. This article provides a summary of previous studies using metrological methods in stone tool research and details the use of laser scanning confocal microscopy to conduct areal surface analysis using three-dimensional data sets. Research to-date is preliminary but promising and shows that microscopic metrological approaches can provide a quantitative method to identify how stone tools were used. A limited comparison of two metrological systems is presented, the results of which highlight a need for caution and further investigation on the comparability of related data sets.

  17. Governments and Universities as the Main Drivers of Enhanced Australian University Research Commercialisation Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2004-01-01

    In building capacity in research commercialisation and science-based entrepreneurship, Australia has adopted neither the Swedish top-down approach depending on government initiative, nor the American bottom-up approach depending on incentive systems related to university ownership of intellectual property and a highly competitive and…

  18. Research Tools for the Measurement of Pain and Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pain is an integral aspect of many diseases and it is important to be able to measure it in the clinic so that the progression of disease and the animal’s response to treatment can be monitored. When research into pain is undertaken, it is also important to be able to measure the pain, but this time the aim is to provide meaningful results that will further our understanding of the mechanisms of pain or how it can be better treated. This change in emphasis between clinical and research measurement of pain means that the advantages and disadvantages of the many ways in which pain can be measured influence the choice of the most suitable technique and the way in which it is used. It is important to carefully select the most appropriate methodologies so that the data generated are relevant to the hypotheses being tested. Abstract There are many ways in which pain in animals can be measured and these are based on a variety of phenomena that are related to either the perception of pain or alterations in physical or behavioural features of the animal that are caused by that pain. The features of pain that are most useful for assessment in clinical environments are not always the best to use in a research environment. This is because the aims and objectives of the two settings are different and so whilst particular techniques will have the same advantages and disadvantages in clinical and research environments, these considerations may become more or less of a drawback when moving from one environment to the other. For example, a simple descriptive pain scale has a number of advantages and disadvantages. In a clinical setting the advantages are very useful and the disadvantages are less relevant, but in a research environment the advantages are less important and the disadvantages can become more problematic. This paper will focus on pain in the research environment and after a brief revision of the pathophysiological systems involved will attempt to

  19. Gene Editing: Powerful New Tools for Nephrology Research and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ayano; Lu, Aiwu; Humphreys, Benjamin D

    2016-10-01

    Biologic research is experiencing a transformation brought about by the ability of programmable nucleases to manipulate the genome. In the recently developed CRISPR/Cas system, short RNA sequences guide the endonuclease Cas9 to any location in the genome, causing a DNA double-strand break (DSB). Repair of DSBs allows the introduction of targeted genetic manipulations with high precision. Cas9-mediated gene editing is simple, scalable, and rapid, and it can be applied to virtually any organism. Here, we summarize the development of modern gene editing techniques and the biology of DSB repair on which these techniques are based. We discuss technical points in applying this technology and review its use in model organisms. Finally, we describe prospects for the use of gene editing to treat human genetic diseases. This technology offers tremendous promise for equipping the nephrology research community to better model and ultimately, treat kidney diseases.

  20. Developing a Research Tool to Gauge Student Metacognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerny, Alistair; Boudreaux, Andrew; Rishal, Sepideh; Clare, Kelci

    2012-10-01

    Metacognition refers to the family of thought processes and skills used to evaluate and manage learning. A research and curriculum development project underway at Western Washington University uses introductory physics labs as a context to promote students' abilities to learn and apply metacognitive skills. A required ``narrative reflection'' has been incorporated as a weekly end-of-lab assignment. The goal of the narrative reflection is to encourage and support student metacognition while generating written artifacts that can be used by researchers to study metacognition in action. We have developed a Reflective Thinking Rubric (RTR) to analyze scanned narrative reflections. The RTR codes student writing for Metacognitive Elements, identifiable steps or aspects of metacognitive thinking at a variety of levels of sophistication. We hope to use the RTR to monitor the effect of weekly reflection on metacognitive ability and to search for correlations between metacognitive ability and conceptual understanding.

  1. Bayes' theorem: a paradigm research tool in biomedical sciences.

    PubMed

    Okeh, U M; Ugwu, A C

    2009-04-01

    One of the most interesting applications of the results of probability theory involves estimating unknown probability and making decisions on the basis of new (sample) information. Biomedical scientists often use the Bayesian decision theory for the purposes of computing diagnostic values such as sensitivity and specificity for a certain diagnostic test and from which positive or negative predictive values are obtained in other to make decisions concerning the well-being of the patient. Often times error rates are encountered and estimated from the results of trials of the screening test with a view to calculating the overall case rate for which an accurate estimate is rarely available. The concept of conditional probability takes into account information about the occurrence of one event to predict the probability of another event. It is on this premise that this article presents Bayes' theorem as a vital tool. A brief intuitive development of this theorem and its application in diagnosis is given with minimum proof and examples.

  2. Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT Pro) Maintenance Model Enhancements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    September 2009 Air Force Research Laboratory 711 th Human Performance Wing Human Performance Integration Directorate Brooks City-Base, TX...Affairs Office, Brooks City-Base, Texas 78235. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Public Affairs Case file no. 09-485, 16 October 2009...Approved through 311th Public Affairs Office, Brooks City-Base, Texas 78235. NOTICES When Government drawings, specifications, or other

  3. Using Focus Groups in the Refinement of a Research Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    were needed to obtain the different perspectives on palliative care services. In Willgerodt’s (7) project, the research aim was to determine the...McLafferty (1) conducted a study to determine attitudes of different skilled nurses and nurse lecturers towards working with older patients in a...composition. Because this study focused on the attitudes of various types of skilled nurses , McLafferty’s (1) focus groups were organized into

  4. Conceptualising the Use of Facebook in Ethnographic Research: As Tool, as Data and as Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a three-part conceptualisation of the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as a tool, as data and as context. Longitudinal research with young adults at a time of significant change provides many challenges for the ethnographic researcher, such as maintaining channels of communication and high rates of participant…

  5. CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of research studies that were carried out with a PC-based task environment called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS) simulating the operation of a spacecraft's life support system. As CAMS was a multiple task environment, it allowed the measurement of performance at different levels. Four task components of different priority were embedded in the task environment: diagnosis and repair of system faults, maintaining atmospheric parameters in a safe state, acknowledgement of system alarms (reaction time), and keeping a record of critical system resources (prospective memory). Furthermore, the task environment permitted the examination of different task management strategies and changes in crew member state (fatigue, anxiety, mental effort). A major goal of the research programme was to examine how crew members adapted to various forms of sub-optimal working conditions, such as isolation and confinement, sleep deprivation and noise. None of the studies provided evidence for decrements in primary task performance. However, the results showed a number of adaptive responses of crew members to adjust to the different sub-optimal working conditions. There was evidence for adjustments in information sampling strategies (usually reductions in sampling frequency) as a result of unfavourable working conditions. The results also showed selected decrements in secondary task performance. Prospective memory seemed to be somewhat more vulnerable to sub-optimal working conditions than performance on the reaction time task. Finally, suggestions are made for future research with the CAMS environment.

  6. Development, Validation and Deployment of a Real Time 30 Day Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment Tool in the Maine Healthcare Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shiying; Wang, Yue; Jin, Bo; Shin, Andrew Young; Zhu, Chunqing; Huang, Min; Zheng, Le; Luo, Jin; Hu, Zhongkai; Fu, Changlin; Dai, Dorothy; Wang, Yicheng; Culver, Devore S.; Alfreds, Shaun T.; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G.; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Identifying patients at risk of a 30-day readmission can help providers design interventions, and provide targeted care to improve clinical effectiveness. This study developed a risk model to predict a 30-day inpatient hospital readmission for patients in Maine, across all payers, all diseases and all demographic groups. Methods Our objective was to develop a model to determine the risk for inpatient hospital readmission within 30 days post discharge. All patients within the Maine Health Information Exchange (HIE) system were included. The model was retrospectively developed on inpatient encounters between January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 from 24 randomly chosen hospitals, and then prospectively validated on inpatient encounters from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 using all HIE patients. Results A risk assessment tool partitioned the entire HIE population into subgroups that corresponded to probability of hospital readmission as determined by a corresponding positive predictive value (PPV). An overall model c-statistic of 0.72 was achieved. The total 30-day readmission rates in low (score of 0–30), intermediate (score of 30–70) and high (score of 70–100) risk groupings were 8.67%, 24.10% and 74.10%, respectively. A time to event analysis revealed the higher risk groups readmitted to a hospital earlier than the lower risk groups. Six high-risk patient subgroup patterns were revealed through unsupervised clustering. Our model was successfully integrated into the statewide HIE to identify patient readmission risk upon admission and daily during hospitalization or for 30 days subsequently, providing daily risk score updates. Conclusions The risk model was validated as an effective tool for predicting 30-day readmissions for patients across all payer, disease and demographic groups within the Maine HIE. Exposing the key clinical, demographic and utilization profiles driving each patient’s risk of readmission score may be useful to providers

  7. Positioning Mentoring as a Coach Development Tool: Recommendations for Future Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sarah; Davis, Louise; Nash, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Current thinking in coach education advocates mentoring as a development tool to connect theory and practice. However, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the effectiveness of mentoring as a coach development tool. Business, education, and nursing precede the coaching industry in their mentoring practice, and research findings offered in…

  8. The "Metaphorical Collage" as a Research Tool in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a research tool in the field of education--the "metaphorical collage." This tool facilitates the understanding of concepts and processes in education through the analysis of metaphors in collage works that include pictorial images and verbal images. We believe the "metaphorical collage" to be…

  9. Modelling as an indispensible research tool in the information society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Science and society would be well advised to develop a different relationship as the information revolution penetrates all aspects of modern life. Rather than produce clear answers to clear questions in a top-down manner, land-use issues related to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present "wicked"problems involving different, strongly opiniated, stakeholders with conflicting ideas and interests and risk-averse politicians. The Dutch government has invited its citizens to develop a "science agenda", defining future research needs, implicitly suggesting that the research community is unable to do so. Time, therefore, for a pro-active approach to more convincingly define our:"societal license to research". For soil science this could imply a focus on the SDGs , considering soils as living, characteristically different, dynamic bodies in a landscape, to be mapped in ways that allow generation of suitable modelling data. Models allow a dynamic characterization of water- and nutrient regimes and plant growth in soils both for actual and future conditions, reflecting e.g. effects of climate or land-use change or alternative management practices. Engaging modern stakeholders in a bottom-up manner implies continuous involvement and "joint learning" from project initiation to completion, where modelling results act as building blocks to explore alternative scenarios. Modern techniques allow very rapid calculations and innovative visualization. Everything is possible but only modelling can articulate the economic, social and environmental consequences of each scenario, demonstrating in a pro-active manner the crucial and indispensible role of research. But choices are to be made by stakeholders and reluctant policy makers and certainly not by scientists who should carefully guard their independance. Only clear results in the end are convincing proof for the impact of science, requiring therefore continued involvement of scientists up to the very end of projects. To

  10. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of Modification No. 5 of this contract is to expand the scope of work (Task C) of this research study effort to develop pressure instrumentation for the SSME. The objective of this contract (Task C) is to direct Honeywell's Solid State Electronics Division's (SSED) extensive experience and expertise in solid state sensor technology to develop prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the SSME performance design goals and to fabricate, test and deliver a total of 10 prototype units. SSED's basic approach is to effectively utilize the many advantages of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors in terms of reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture. More specifically, integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of this technology which will be exploited during this research study.

  11. 2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Max Hoggblom

    2012-02-09

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  12. Conceptual Systems Model as a Tool for Hypothesis Generation and Testing in Ecotoxicological Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray, proteomic, and metabonomic technologies are becoming increasingly accessible as tools for ecotoxicology research. Effective use of these technologies will depend, at least in part, on the ability to apply these techniques within a paradigm of hypothesis driven researc...

  13. Applying Collaborative and e-Learning Tools to Military Distance Learning: A Research Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    the instructor in such approaches, and the increasing importance of learner-centered approaches to instruction. Appropriate quantitative and qualitative ... research methodologies are then described. A summary of relevant findings on collaborative tools, individual differences, and learning communities is

  14. Research as a tool for the teaching of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Soudarssanane, M B; Rotti, S B; Roy, G; Srinivasa, D K

    1994-01-01

    At a medical school in India, undergraduates have been given the opportunity to volunteer to conduct research as a means of improving their knowledge and understanding of epidemiology. First-year clinical students have conducted case-control studies with emphasis on methodological detail. Second-year students have been involved in community-based epidemiological studies. At the intern level, projects related to social factors in health and disease and to health administration have been encouraged. This initiative has been largely welcomed by the students and has yielded highly encouraging results.

  15. Electromagnetic Levitation: A Useful Tool in Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szekely, Julian; Schwartz, Elliot; Hyers, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Electromagnetic levitation is one area of the electromagnetic processing of materials that has uses for both fundamental research and practical applications. This technique was successfully used on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the Spacelab IML-2 mission in July 1994 as a platform for accurately measuring the surface tensions of liquid metals and alloys. In this article, we discuss the key transport phenomena associated with electromagnetic levitation, the fundamental relationships associated with thermophysical property measurement that can be made using this technique, reasons for working in microgravity, and some of the results obtained from the microgravity experiments.

  16. Digital storytelling: an innovative tool for practice, education, and research.

    PubMed

    Lal, Shalini; Donnelly, Catherine; Shin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Digital storytelling is a method of using storytelling, group work, and modern technology to facilitate the creation of 2-3 minute multi-media video clips to convey personal or community stories. Digital storytelling is being used within the health care field; however, there has been limited documentation of its application within occupational therapy. This paper introduces digital storytelling and proposes how it can be applied in occupational therapy clinical practice, education, and research. The ethical and methodological challenges in relation to using the method are also discussed.

  17. Petasites hybridus: a tool for interdisciplinary research in phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Debrunner, B; Meier, B

    1998-02-01

    The 3rd Petasites gathering took place in Romanshorn, Switzerland on March 29, 1996 and gave 16 European scientists the opportunity to transmit their latest considerable discoveries to interested researchers working in different scientific disciplines such as pharmacognosy, botany, chemistry, pharmacology, medicine or clinical pharmacy. The newest findings on Petasites hybridus as a significant plant drug showed very promising aspects of therapeutic utility. Great progress has been made in chemical analytical methods and the determination of pharmacological activities. Substantial advances have also occurred in the production of bioassay procedures and plant materials, particularly utilizing cell- and tissue-culture techniques.

  18. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  19. Main lines of scientific and technical research at the Soviet Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII), 1933 - 1942

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetinkov, Y. S.

    1977-01-01

    The rapid development of rocketry in the U.S.S.R. during the post-war years was due largely to pre-war activity; in particular, to investigations conducted in the Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII). The history of RNII commenced in 1933, resulting from the merger of two rocket research organizations. Previous research was continued in areas of solid-propellant rockets, jet-assisted take-off of aircraft, liquid propellant engines (generally with nitric acid as the oxidizer), liquid-propellant rockets (generally with oxgen as the oxidizer), ram jet engines, rockets with and without wings, and rocket planes. RNII research is described and summarized for the years 1933-1942.

  20. The NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Yael; Rasbury, Jack; Johnson, Jordan; Barstend, Kristina; Saile, Lynn; Watkins, Sharmi

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: "Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member" for exploration-class missions In preparation for exploration-class missions, ExMC has compiled a large evidence base, previously available only to persons within the NASA community. ExMC has developed the "NASA Human Research Wiki" in an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration within and outside of NASA. The ExMC evidence base is comprised of several types of data, including: (1)Information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight (a)Derived from several sources (b)Including data on incidence and potential outcomes, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model s (IMM) Clinical Finding Forms (CliFFs). (2)Approximately 25 gap reports (a)Identify any "gaps" in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions.

  1. Composition and emissions of VOCs in main- and side-stream smoke of research cigarettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Simone M.; Batterman, S. A.; Jia, Chunrong

    It is well known that mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke contains a vast number of chemical substances. Previous studies have emphasized SS smoke rather than MS smoke to which smokers are exposed, and most have used chamber tests that have several disadvantages such as wall losses. Emissions from standard research cigarettes have been measured, but relatively few constituents have been reported, and only the 1R4F (low nicotine) cigarette type has been tested. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of total, MS and SS smoke emissions for the 1R5F (ultra low nicotine), 2R4F (low nicotine), and 1R3F (standard nicotine) research cigarettes research cigarettes, including emission factors for a number of toxic compounds (e.g., benzene) and tobacco smoke tracers (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl furan). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) are quantified using a dynamic dilution emission measurement system that is shown to produce accurate, rapid and reproducible results for over 30 VOCs and PM. SS and MS emissions were accurately apportioned based on a mass balance of total emissions. As expected, SS emissions greatly exceeded MS emissions. The ultra low nicotine cigarette had lower emissions of most VOCs compared to low and standard nicotine cigarettes, which had similar emissions. Across the three types of cigarettes, emissions of benzene (296-535 μg cig -1), toluene (541-1003 μg cig -1), styrene (90-162 μg cig -1), 2-dimethyl furan (71-244 μg cig -1), naphthalene (15-18 μg cig -1) and other VOCs were generally comparable to or somewhat higher than literature estimates using chamber tests.

  2. Air Enquirer's multi-sensor boxes as a tool for High School Education and Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morguí, Josep-Anton; Font, Anna; Cañas, Lidia; Vázquez-García, Eusebi; Gini, Andrea; Corominas, Ariadna; Àgueda, Alba; Lobo, Agustin; Ferraz, Carlos; Nofuentes, Manel; Ulldemolins, Delmir; Roca, Alex; Kamnang, Armand; Grossi, Claudia; Curcoll, Roger; Batet, Oscar; Borràs, Silvia; Occhipinti, Paola; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    An educational tool was designed with the aim of making more comprehensive the research done on Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the ClimaDat Spanish network of atmospheric observation stations (www.climadat.es). This tool is called Air Enquirer and it consist of a multi-sensor box. It is envisaged to build more than two hundred boxes to yield them to the Spanish High Schools through the Education department (www.educaixa.com) of the "Obra Social 'La Caixa'", who funds this research. The starting point for the development of the Air Enquirers was the experience at IC3 (www.ic3.cat) in the CarboSchools+ FP7 project (www.carboschools.cat, www.carboschools.eu). The Air Enquirer's multi-sensor box is based in Arduino's architecture and contains sensors for CO2, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and both infrared and visible luminance. The Air Enquirer is designed for taking continuous measurements. Every Air Enquirer ensemble of measurements is used to convert values to standard units (water content in ppmv, and CO2 in ppmv_dry). These values are referred to a calibration made with Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry (Picarro®) under different temperature, pressure, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Multiple sets of Air Enquirers are intercalibrated for its use in parallel during the experiments. The different experiments proposed to the students will be outdoor (observational) or indoor (experimental, in the lab) focusing on understanding the biogeochemistry of GHGs in the ecosystems (mainly CO2), the exchange (flux) of gases, the organic matter production, respiration and decomposition processes, the influence of the anthropogenic activities on the gases (and particles) exchanges, and their interaction with the structure and composition of the atmosphere (temperature, water content, cooling and warming processes, radiative forcing, vertical gradients and horizontal patterns). In order to ensure Air Enquirers a high-profile research performance the experimental designs

  3. Using quality assessment tools to critically appraise ageing research: a guide for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jennifer Kirsty; Reid, James; Quinn, Terry J; Shenkin, Susan Deborah

    2016-12-07

    Evidence based medicine tells us that we should not accept published research at face value. Even research from established teams published in the highest impact journals can have methodological flaws, biases and limited generalisability. The critical appraisal of research studies can seem daunting, but tools are available to make the process easier for the non-specialist. Understanding the language and process of quality assessment is essential when considering or conducting research, and is also valuable for all clinicians who use published research to inform their clinical practice.We present a review written specifically for the practising geriatrician. This considers how quality is defined in relation to the methodological conduct and reporting of research. Having established why quality assessment is important, we present and critique tools which are available to standardise quality assessment. We consider five study designs: RCTs, non-randomised studies, observational studies, systematic reviews and diagnostic test accuracy studies. Quality assessment for each of these study designs is illustrated with an example of published cognitive research. The practical applications of the tools are highlighted, with guidance on their strengths and limitations. We signpost educational resources and offer specific advice for use of these tools.We hope that all geriatricians become comfortable with critical appraisal of published research and that use of the tools described in this review - along with awareness of their strengths and limitations - become a part of teaching, journal clubs and practice.

  4. Electrostatic Levitation: A Tool to Support Materials Research in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; SanSoucie, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Containerless processing represents an important topic for materials research in microgravity. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container, which permits studies of deeply undercooled melts, and high-temperature, highly reactive materials. Containerless processing provides data for studies of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable state formation, microstructure formation, undercooling, and nucleation. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) jointly developed an electromagnetic levitator facility (MSL-EML) for containerless materials processing in space. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center provides support for the development of containerless processing studies for the ISS. Apparatus and techniques have been developed to use the ESL to provide data for phase diagram determination, creep resistance, emissivity, specific heat, density/thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and triggered nucleation of melts. The capabilities and results from selected ESL-based characterization studies performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center will be presented.

  5. Performance calculations for battery power supplies as laboratory research tools

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, J.J.; Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A. ); Petresky, H. )

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic Launcher (EML) research at the Air Force Armament Laboratory, Hypervelocity Launcher Branch (AFATL/SAH), Eglin AFB, has focused on developing the technologies required for repetitively launching several kilogram payloads to high velocities. Previous AFATL/SAH experiments have been limited by the available power supply resulting in small muzzle energies on the order of 100's of kJ. In an effort to advance the development of EML's, AFATL/SAH has designed and constructed a battery power supply (BPS) capable of providing several mega-Amperes of current for several seconds. This system consists of six modules each containing 2288 automotive batteries which may be connected in two different series - parallel arrangements. In this paper the authors define the electrical characteristics of the AFATL Battery Power supply at the component level.

  6. Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Pramod K.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

  7. Nucleic acid aptamers: research tools in disease diagnostics and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Santosh, Baby; Yadava, Pramod K

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug "Macugen" is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions.

  8. Research on bait resources in the Main Stream of Wulie River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Yan, Denghua; Gan, Hong; Fu, Xiaocheng; Sun, Xiumin

    2010-05-01

    Wulie river is the first branch of Luanhe river, and most of the water use for industrial, agricultural and living of the Chengde city is coming from it. The investigation results of 8 monitoring sections in July, 2009 show that there are 44 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phylum in the Main stream of Wulie river. The Bacillariophyta has the most species comparing with other species, and is the dominant species. The phytoplankton species is more in the lower reach than that in the upper reach which is relevant to the intensity of the human disturbance. There are 28 kinds of zooplanktons in the river, in which the protozoa and rotatoria are the dominant species. The zooplankton species in the lower reach show the lake characteristics which is relevant to the 12 rubber dams. There are 18 macrozoobenthos in the river, and Hydropyche, Ephemera, Baetidae and Caenis are the dominant genus. The macrozoobenthos community is simple and most of them belong to the species fond of rapids and oxygen. Investigation of the bait resources show that the water quality is good in this river, but the lower reach has appeared the lake characteristics because of the water intercepting and impounding by the rubber dams. The establishment of water conservancy engineering has changed the hydrology and river morphology, which as a result altered the bait resources of the fishes living in the rivers.

  9. Cephalopod culture: current status of main biological models and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Erica A G; Villanueva, Roger; Andrade, José P; Gleadall, Ian G; Iglesias, José; Koueta, Noussithé; Rosas, Carlos; Segawa, Susumu; Grasse, Bret; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Albertin, Caroline B; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Chimal, Maria E; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Gallardo, Pedro; Le Pabic, Charles; Pascual, Cristina; Roumbedakis, Katina; Wood, James

    2014-01-01

    A recent revival in using cephalopods as experimental animals has rekindled interest in their biology and life cycles, information with direct applications also in the rapidly growing ornamental aquarium species trade and in commercial aquaculture production for human consumption. Cephalopods have high rates of growth and food conversion, which for aquaculture translates into short culture cycles, high ratios of production to biomass and high cost-effectiveness. However, at present, only small-scale culture is possible and only for a few species: the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana and the octopuses Octopus maya and O. vulgaris. These four species are the focus of this chapter, the aims of which are as follows: (1) to provide an overview of the culture requirements of cephalopods, (2) to highlight the physical and nutritional requirements at each phase of the life cycle regarded as essential for successful full-scale culture and (3) to identify current limitations and the topics on which further research is required. Knowledge of cephalopod culture methods is advanced, but commercialization is still constrained by the highly selective feeding habits of cephalopods and their requirement for large quantities of high-quality (preferably live) feed, particularly in the early stages of development. Future research should focus on problems related to the consistent production of viable numbers of juveniles, the resolution of which requires a better understanding of nutrition at all phases of the life cycle and better broodstock management, particularly regarding developments in genetic selection, control of reproduction and quality of eggs and offspring.

  10. The research on tool wear of high speed milling titanium alloy TC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongliang; Wang, Zhichao; Ren, Huanhuan; Yuan, Haoteng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, carbide cutting tools with physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was used to high speed milling α+β phase TC4 titanium alloy. The PVD tool was used to study the process of milling TC4 titanium alloy tool wear patterns and wear mechanisms. The results showed that the PVD coating surface wear was small after cutter blade. The cutting life was long, it was suitable for processing of titanium alloy TC4, the wear of rake face was mainly adhesion wear and oxidation wear, the flank face was mainly boundary wear. That was because the adhesion wear of the rake face and the boundary wear of the flank face had a weakening effect on the cutting edge , which made the micro crack blade of the main cutting edge.

  11. Advanced imaging microscope tools applied to microgravity research investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, L.; Samson, J.; Conrad, D.; Clark, K.

    1998-01-01

    The inability to observe and interact with experiments on orbit has been an impediment for both basic research and commercial ventures using the shuttle. In order to open the frontiers of space, the Center for Microgravity Automation Technology has developed a unique and innovative system for conducting experiments at a distance, the ``Remote Scientist.'' The Remote Scientist extends laboratory automation capability to the microgravity environment. While the Remote Scientist conceptually encompasses a broad spectrum of elements and functionalities, the development approach taken is to: • establish a baseline capability that is both flexible and versatile • incrementally augment the baseline with additional functions over time. Since last year, the application of the Remote Scientist has changed from protein crystal growth to tissue culture, specifically, the development of skeletal muscle under varying levels of tension. This system includes a series of bioreactor chambers that allow for three-dimensional growth of muscle tissue on a membrane suspended between the two ends of a programmable force transducer that can provide automated or investigator-initiated tension on the developing tissue. A microscope objective mounted on a translation carriage allows for high-resolution microscopy along a large area of the tissue. These images will be mosaiced on orbit to detect features and structures that span multiple images. The use of fluorescence and pseudo-confocal microscopy will maximize the observational capabilities of this system. A series of ground-based experiments have been performed to validate the bioreactor, the force transducer, the translation carriage and the image acquisition capabilities of the Remote Scientist. • The bioreactor is capable of sustaining three dimensional tissue culture growth over time. • The force transducer can be programmed to provide static tension on cells or to simulate either slow or fast growth of underlying tissues in

  12. Citizen Science as a New Tool in Dog Cognition Research.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Laughlin; MacLean, Evan L; Ivy, David; Woods, Vanessa; Cohen, Eliot; Rodriguez, Kerri; McIntyre, Matthew; Mukherjee, Sayan; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádám; Wrangham, Richard W; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Family dogs and dog owners offer a potentially powerful way to conduct citizen science to answer questions about animal behavior that are difficult to answer with more conventional approaches. Here we evaluate the quality of the first data on dog cognition collected by citizen scientists using the Dognition.com website. We conducted analyses to understand if data generated by over 500 citizen scientists replicates internally and in comparison to previously published findings. Half of participants participated for free while the other half paid for access. The website provided each participant a temperament questionnaire and instructions on how to conduct a series of ten cognitive tests. Participation required internet access, a dog and some common household items. Participants could record their responses on any PC, tablet or smartphone from anywhere in the world and data were retained on servers. Results from citizen scientists and their dogs replicated a number of previously described phenomena from conventional lab-based research. There was little evidence that citizen scientists manipulated their results. To illustrate the potential uses of relatively large samples of citizen science data, we then used factor analysis to examine individual differences across the cognitive tasks. The data were best explained by multiple factors in support of the hypothesis that nonhumans, including dogs, can evolve multiple cognitive domains that vary independently. This analysis suggests that in the future, citizen scientists will generate useful datasets that test hypotheses and answer questions as a complement to conventional laboratory techniques used to study dog psychology.

  13. Genetic resources offer efficient tools for rice functional genomics research.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Fan, Ming-Jen; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Chen, Shu; Wen, Ien-Chie; Liu, Yi-Lun; Chen, Ku-Ting; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Lin, Ming-Kuang; Rao, Meng-Yen; Yu, Lin-Chih; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May

    2016-05-01

    Rice is an important crop and major model plant for monocot functional genomics studies. With the establishment of various genetic resources for rice genomics, the next challenge is to systematically assign functions to predicted genes in the rice genome. Compared with the robustness of genome sequencing and bioinformatics techniques, progress in understanding the function of rice genes has lagged, hampering the utilization of rice genes for cereal crop improvement. The use of transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertional mutagenesis offers the advantage of uniform distribution throughout the rice genome, but preferentially in gene-rich regions, resulting in direct gene knockout or activation of genes within 20-30 kb up- and downstream of the T-DNA insertion site and high gene tagging efficiency. Here, we summarize the recent progress in functional genomics using the T-DNA-tagged rice mutant population. We also discuss important features of T-DNA activation- and knockout-tagging and promoter-trapping of the rice genome in relation to mutant and candidate gene characterizations and how to more efficiently utilize rice mutant populations and datasets for high-throughput functional genomics and phenomics studies by forward and reverse genetics approaches. These studies may facilitate the translation of rice functional genomics research to improvements of rice and other cereal crops.

  14. Citizen Science as a New Tool in Dog Cognition Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Laughlin; MacLean, Evan L.; Ivy, David; Woods, Vanessa; Cohen, Eliot; Rodriguez, Kerri; McIntyre, Matthew; Mukherjee, Sayan; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádám; Wrangham, Richard W.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Family dogs and dog owners offer a potentially powerful way to conduct citizen science to answer questions about animal behavior that are difficult to answer with more conventional approaches. Here we evaluate the quality of the first data on dog cognition collected by citizen scientists using the Dognition.com website. We conducted analyses to understand if data generated by over 500 citizen scientists replicates internally and in comparison to previously published findings. Half of participants participated for free while the other half paid for access. The website provided each participant a temperament questionnaire and instructions on how to conduct a series of ten cognitive tests. Participation required internet access, a dog and some common household items. Participants could record their responses on any PC, tablet or smartphone from anywhere in the world and data were retained on servers. Results from citizen scientists and their dogs replicated a number of previously described phenomena from conventional lab-based research. There was little evidence that citizen scientists manipulated their results. To illustrate the potential uses of relatively large samples of citizen science data, we then used factor analysis to examine individual differences across the cognitive tasks. The data were best explained by multiple factors in support of the hypothesis that nonhumans, including dogs, can evolve multiple cognitive domains that vary independently. This analysis suggests that in the future, citizen scientists will generate useful datasets that test hypotheses and answer questions as a complement to conventional laboratory techniques used to study dog psychology. PMID:26376443

  15. NANIVID: A New Research Tool for Tissue Microenvironment Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Waseem K.

    Metastatic tumors are heterogeneous in nature and composed of subpopulations of cells having various metastatic potentials. The time progression of a tumor creates a unique microenvironment to improve the invasion capabilities and survivability of cancer cells in different microenvironments. In the early stages of intravasation, cancer cells establish communication with other cell types through a paracrine loop and covers long distances by sensing growth factor gradients through extracellular matrices. Cellular migration both in vitro and in vivo is a complex process and to understand their motility in depth, sophisticated techniques are required to document and record events in real time. This study presents the design and optimization of a new versatile chemotaxis device called the NANIVID (NANo IntraVital Imaging Device), developed using advanced Nano/Micro fabrication techniques. The current version of this device has been demonstrated to form a stable (epidermal growth factor) EGF gradient in vitro (2D and 3D) while a miniaturized size of NANIVID is used as an implantable device for intravital studies of chemotaxis and to collect cells in vivo. The device is fabricated using microfabrication techniques in which two substrates are bonded together using a thin polymer layer creating a bonded device with one point source (approximately 150 im x 50 im) outlet. The main structures of the device consist of two transparent substrates: one having etched chambers and channel while the second consists of a microelectrode system to measure real time cell arrival inside the device. The chamber of the device is loaded with a growth factor reservoir consisting of hydrogel to sustain a steady release of growth factor into the surrounding environment for long periods of time and establishing a concentration gradient from the device. The focus of this study was to design and optimize the new device for cell chemotaxis studies in breast cancer cells in cell culture. Our results

  16. Simple Tools to Facilitate Project Management of a Nursing Research Project.

    PubMed

    Aycock, Dawn M; Clark, Patricia C; Thomas-Seaton, LaTeshia; Lee, Shih-Yu; Moloney, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    Highly organized project management facilitates rigorous study implementation. Research involves gathering large amounts of information that can be overwhelming when organizational strategies are not used. We describe a variety of project management and organizational tools used in different studies that may be particularly useful for novice researchers. The studies were a multisite study of caregivers of stroke survivors, an Internet-based diary study of women with migraines, and a pilot study testing a sleep intervention in mothers of low-birth-weight infants. Project management tools were used to facilitate enrollment, data collection, and access to results. The tools included protocol and eligibility checklists, event calendars, screening and enrollment logs, instrument scoring tables, and data summary sheets. These tools created efficiency, promoted a positive image, minimized errors, and provided researchers with a sense of control. For the studies described, there were no protocol violations, there were minimal missing data, and the integrity of data collection was maintained.

  17. Emerging Imaging Tools for Use with Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Tong, Karen A.; Holshouser, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article identifies emerging neuroimaging measures considered by the inter-agency Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Neuroimaging Workgroup. This article attempts to address some of the potential uses of more advanced forms of imaging in TBI as well as highlight some of the current considerations and unresolved challenges of using them. We summarize emerging elements likely to gain more widespread use in the coming years, because of 1) their utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the natural course of degeneration or recovery following TBI, and potential for evaluating treatment strategies; 2) the ability of many centers to acquire these data with scanners and equipment that are readily available in existing clinical and research settings; and 3) advances in software that provide more automated, readily available, and cost-effective analysis methods for large scale data image analysis. These include multi-slice CT, volumetric MRI analysis, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), arterial spin tag labeling (ASL), functional MRI (fMRI), including resting state and connectivity MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and hyperpolarization scanning. However, we also include brief introductions to other specialized forms of advanced imaging that currently do require specialized equipment, for example, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), encephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)/magnetic source imaging (MSI). Finally, we identify some of the challenges that users of the emerging imaging CDEs may wish to consider, including quality control, performing multi-site and longitudinal imaging studies, and MR scanning in infants and children. PMID:21787167

  18. Satellite telemetry: A new tool for wildlife research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fancy, Steven G.; Pank, Larry F.; Douglas, David C.; Curby, Catherine H.; Garner, Gerald W.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regelin, Wayne L.

    1998-01-01

    operation, the UHF (ultra-high frequency) signal failed on three of 32 caribou transmitters and 10 of 36 polar bear transmitters.A geographic information system (GIS) incorporating other databases (e.g., land cover, elevation, slope, aspect, hydrology, ice distribution) was used to analyze and display detailed locational and behavioral data collected via satellite. Examples of GIS applications to research projects using satellite telemetry and examples of detailed movement patterns of caribou and polar bears are presented. This report includes documentation for computer software packages for processing Argos data and presents developments, as of March 1987, in transmitter design, data retrieval using a local user terminal, computer software, and sensor development and calibration.

  19. The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System: Data and Tools for Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosp, B. W.; Ao, C. O.; Chao, Y.; Dang, V.; Garay, M.; Haddad, Z.; Hristova-Veleva, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P. P.; Park, K.; Poulsen, W. L.; Rosenman, M. A.; Su, H.; Vane, D.; Vu, Q. A.; Willis, J. K.; Wu, D.

    2008-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) is now open to the public. This web portal is designed to assist researchers by providing a one-stop shop for hurricane related data and analysis tools. While there are currently many places that offer storm data, plots, and other information, none offer an extensive archive of data files and images in a common space. The JPL TCIS was created to fill this gap. As currently configured, the JPL Tropical Cyclone Portal has three main features for researchers. The first feature consists of storm-scale data and plots for both observed and modeled data. As of the TCIS' first release, the entire 2005 storm season has been populated with data and plots from AIRS, MLS, AMSU-A, QuikSCAT, Argo floats, WRF models, GPS, and others. Storm data is subsetted to a 1000x1000 km window around the hurricane track for all six oceanic cyclone basins, and all the available data during the life time of any storm can be downloaded with one mouse click. Users can also view pre-generated storm-scale plots from all these data sets that are all co-located to the same temporal and spatial parameters. Work is currently underway to backfill all storm seasons to 1998 with as many relevant data sets as possible. The second offering from this web portal are large-scale data sets and associated visualization tools powered by Google Maps. On this interactive map, researchers can view a particular storm's intensity and track. Users may also overlay large-scale data such as aerosol maps from MODIS and MISR, and a blended microwave sea-surface temperature (SST) to gain an understanding of the large-scale environment of the storm. For example, by using this map, the cold sea-surface temperature wake can be tracked as a storm passes by. The third feature of this portal deals with interactive model and data analysis. A single-parameter analysis tools has recently been developed and added to this portal where users can plot maps, profiles, and histograms of

  20. Ethical Review as a Tool for Enhancing Postgraduate Supervision and Research Outcomes in the Creative Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the potential for Research Higher Degree (RHD) supervisors at universities and similar institutions to use ethical review as a constructive, dynamic tool in guiding RHD students in the timely completion of effective, innovative research projects. Ethical review involves a bureaucratized process for checking that researchers…

  1. Capacity-to-Consent in Psychiatric Research: Development and Preliminary Testing of a Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Perez, M. Carmela

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Assuring research participants' capacity to provide informed consent has become increasingly important in health and mental health research, and each study faces unique capacity-assessment challenges, possibly requiring its own screening tool. This article describes the development and preliminary testing of a capacity-to-consent tool…

  2. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  3. [Tools to enhance the quality and transparency of health research reports: reporting guidelines].

    PubMed

    Galvão, Taís Freire; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Garcia, Leila Posenato

    2016-01-01

    Scientific writing is the cornestone for publishing the results of research. Reporting guidelines are important tools for all those involved in the process of research production and report writing. These guidelines detail what is expected to be found in each section of a report for a given study design. The EQUATOR Network (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) is an international initiative that seeks to improve the reliability and the value of health research literature by promoting transparent and accurate reporting and wider use of robust reporting guidelines. The use of reporting guidelines has contributed to improved reports as well as increased quality of research methods. Reporting guidelines need to be publicized in order to increase knowledge about these essential tools among health researchers. Encouraging their use by journals is key to enhancing the quality of scientific publications.

  4. Communication research between working capacity of hard- alloy cutting tools and fractal dimension of their wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, K.; Nesterenko, V.; Daneykina, N.

    2016-06-01

    The results of communication research between the wear resistance of the K applicability hard-alloy cutting tools and the fractal dimension of the wear surface, which is formed on a back side of the cutting edge when processing the materials showing high adhesive activity are presented in the paper. It has been established that the wear resistance of tested cutting tools samples increases according to a fractal dimension increase of their wear surface.

  5. Development of Advanced Computational Aeroelasticity Tools at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has continued to develop its long standing computational tools to address new challenges in aircraft and launch vehicle design. This paper discusses the application and development of those computational aeroelastic tools. Four topic areas will be discussed: 1) Modeling structural and flow field nonlinearities; 2) Integrated and modular approaches to nonlinear multidisciplinary analysis; 3) Simulating flight dynamics of flexible vehicles; and 4) Applications that support both aeronautics and space exploration.

  6. A Tool for Measuring NASA's Aeronautics Research Progress Toward Planned Strategic Community Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. For efficiency and speed, the tool takes advantage of a function developed in Excels Visual Basic for Applications. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly discussed. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples of using the tool are also presented.

  7. Interactive Data Visualization for HIV Cohorts: Leveraging Data Exchange Standards to Share and Reuse Research Tools

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Meridith; Wehbe, Firas H.; Rebeiro, Peter F.; Caro-Vega, Yanink; McGowan, Catherine C.; Shepherd, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and disseminate tools for interactive visualization of HIV cohort data. Design and Methods If a picture is worth a thousand words, then an interactive video, composed of a long string of pictures, can produce an even richer presentation of HIV population dynamics. We developed an HIV cohort data visualization tool using open-source software (R statistical language). The tool requires that the data structure conform to the HIV Cohort Data Exchange Protocol (HICDEP), and our implementation utilized Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet) data. Results This tool currently presents patient-level data in three classes of plots: (1) Longitudinal plots showing changes in measurements viewed alongside event probability curves allowing for simultaneous inspection of outcomes by relevant patient classes. (2) Bubble plots showing changes in indicators over time allowing for observation of group level dynamics. (3) Heat maps of levels of indicators changing over time allowing for observation of spatial-temporal dynamics. Examples of each class of plot are given using CCASAnet data investigating trends in CD4 count and AIDS at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, CD4 trajectories after ART initiation, and mortality. Conclusions We invite researchers interested in this data visualization effort to use these tools and to suggest new classes of data visualization. We aim to contribute additional shareable tools in the spirit of open scientific collaboration and hope that these tools further the participation in open data standards like HICDEP by the HIV research community. PMID:26963255

  8. Immersive virtual environment technology: a promising tool for future social and behavioral genomics research and practice.

    PubMed

    Persky, Susan; McBride, Colleen M

    2009-12-01

    Social and behavioral research needs to get started now if scientists are to direct genomic discoveries to address pressing public health problems. Advancing social and behavioral science will require innovative and rigorous communication methodologies that move researchers beyond reliance on traditional tools and their inherent limitations. One such emerging research tool is immersive virtual environment technology (virtual reality), a methodology that gives researchers the ability to maintain high experimental control and mundane realism of scenarios; portray and manipulate complex, abstract objects and concepts; and implement innovative implicit behavioral measurement. This report suggests the role that immersive virtual environment technology can play in furthering future research in genomics-related education, decision making, test intentions, behavior change, and health-care provider behaviors. Practical implementation and challenges are also discussed.

  9. Basics, common errors and essentials of statistical tools and techniques in anesthesiology research.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2015-01-01

    The statistical portion is a vital component of any research study. The research methodology and the application of statistical tools and techniques have evolved over the years and have significantly helped the research activities throughout the globe. The results and inferences are not accurately possible without proper validation with various statistical tools and tests. The evidencebased anesthesia research and practice has to incorporate statistical tools in the methodology right from the planning stage of the study itself. Though the medical fraternity is well acquainted with the significance of statistics in research, there is a lack of in-depth knowledge about the various statistical concepts and principles among majority of the researchers. The clinical impact and consequences can be serious as the incorrect analysis, conclusions, and false results may construct an artificial platform on which future research activities are replicated. The present tutorial is an attempt to make anesthesiologists aware of the various aspects of statistical methods used in evidence-based research and also to highlight the common areas where maximum number of statistical errors are committed so as to adopt better statistical practices.

  10. Isotope pattern deconvolution as rising tool for isotope tracer studies in environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade stable isotope tracers have emerged as versatile tool in ecological research. Besides 'intrinsic' isotope tracers caused by the natural variation of isotopes, the intentional introduction of 'extrinsic' enriched stable isotope tracers into biological systems has gained significant interest. Hereby the induced change in the natural isotopic composition of an element allows amongst others for studying the fate and fluxes of metals, trace elements and species in organisms or provides an intrinsic marker or tag of particular biological samples. Due to the shoreless potential of this methodology, the number of publications dealing with applications of isotope (double) spikes as tracers to address research questions in 'real world systems' is constantly increasing. However, some isotope systems like the natural Sr isotopic system, although potentially very powerful for this type of application, are still rarely used, mainly because their adequate measurement/determination poses major analytical challenges; as e.g. Sr is available in significant amounts in natural samples. In addition, biological systems underlie complex processes such as metabolism, adsorption/desorption or oxidation/reduction. As a consequence, classic evaluation approaches such as the isotope dilution mass spectrometry equation are often not applicable because of the unknown amount of tracer finally present in the sample. Isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD), based on multiple linear regression, serves as simplified alternative data processing strategy to double spike isotope dilution calculations. The outstanding advantage of this mathematical tool lies in the possibility of deconvolving the isotope pattern in a spiked sample without knowing the quantities of enriched isotope tracer being incorporated into the natural sample matrix as well as the degree of impurities and species-interconversion (e.g. from sample preparation). Here, the potential of IPD for environmental tracer

  11. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  12. Longevity, aging, and caloric restriction: Clive Maine McCay and the construction of a multidisciplinary research program.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Wook

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1930s scientists from fields such as biochemistry, pathology, immunology, genetics, neuroscience, and nutrition have studied the relation of dietary caloric intake to longevity and aging. This paper discusses how Clive Maine McCay, a professor of animal husbandry at Cornell University, began his investigation of the topic and promoted it as a productive research program in the multidisciplinary science of gerontology. Initially, McCay observed the effect of reduced-calorie diets on life span and senescence while pursuing his nutrition research in the context of animal husbandry and agriculture. But when he received funding from the Rockefeller Foundation and started to participate in the establishment of gerontology during the 1930s, the scope of his research was considerably expanded beyond his original disciplinary domain. It became a multidisciplinary research program that attracted scholars from a variety of scientific and medical disciplines. This paper argues that through this expansion McCay's research created a means of maintaining cooperation among the diverse and heterogeneous academic fields constituting gerontology.

  13. Research-tool patents: issues for health in the developing world.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The patent system is now reaching into the tools of medical research, including gene sequences themselves. Many of the new patents can potentially preempt large areas of medical research and lay down legal barriers to the development of a broad category of products. Researchers must therefore consider redesigning their research to avoid use of patented techniques, or expending the effort to obtain licences from those who hold the patents. Even if total licence fees can be kept low, there are enormous negotiation costs, and one "hold-out" may be enough to lead to project cancellation. This is making it more difficult to conduct research within the developed world, and poses important questions for the future of medical research for the benefit of the developing world. Probably the most important implication for health in the developing world is the possible general slowing down and complication of medical research. To the extent that these patents do slow down research, they weaken the contribution of the global research community to the creation and application of medical technology for the benefit of developing nations. The patents may also complicate the granting of concessional prices to developing nations - for pharmaceutical firms that seek to offer a concessional price may have to negotiate arrangements with research-tool firms, which may lose royalties as a result. Three kinds of response are plausible. One is to develop a broad or global licence to permit the patented technologies to be used for important applications in the developing world. The second is to change technical patent law doctrines. Such changes could be implemented in developed and developing nations and could be quite helpful while remaining consistent with TRIPS. The third is to negotiate specific licence arrangements, under which specific research tools are used on an agreed basis for specific applications. These negotiations are difficult and expensive, requiring both scientific and

  14. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  15. The Research-Teaching Nexus: Using a Construction Teaching Event as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanovas-Rubio, Maria del Mar; Ahearn, Alison; Ramos, Gonzalo; Popo-Ola, Sunday

    2016-01-01

    In principle, the research-teaching nexus should be seen as a two-way link, showing not only ways in which research supports teaching but also ways in which teaching supports research. In reality, the discussion has been limited almost entirely to the first of these practices. This paper presents a case study in which some student field-trip…

  16. Dancing on the Grid: using e-Science tools to extend choreographic research.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen; Bachler, Michelle; Buckingham Shum, Simon; Le Blanc, Anja; Popat, Sita; Rowley, Andrew; Turner, Martin

    2009-07-13

    This paper considers the role and impact of new and emerging e-Science tools on practice-led research in dance. Specifically, it draws on findings from the e-Dance project. This 2-year project brings together an interdisciplinary team combining research aspects of choreography, next generation of videoconferencing and human-computer interaction analysis incorporating hypermedia and nonlinear annotations for recording and documentation.

  17. Improving the Usefulness of Concept Maps as a Research Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zele, Els; Lenaerts, Josephina; Wieme, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The search for authentic science research tools to evaluate student understanding in a hybrid learning environment with a large multimedia component has resulted in the use of concept maps as a representation of student's knowledge organization. One hundred and seventy third-semester introductory university-level engineering students represented…

  18. A Portfolio Analysis Tool for Measuring NASAs Aeronautics Research Progress toward Planned Strategic Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly described. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples are also presented.

  19. Community College Fundraising: The Voluntary Support of Education Survey as a Sampling Tool for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Richard L.; Besikof, Rudolph J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Voluntary Support for Education (VSE) Survey, an instrument created by the Council for Aid to Education. Our objective is to explain VSE's potential value as a tool to inform both institutional and academic research regarding fund-raising activities at community colleges. Of particular interest is how the data available…

  20. Family Myths, Beliefs, and Customs as a Research/Educational Tool to Explore Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines a qualitative research tool designed to explore personal identity formation as described by Erik Erikson and offers self-reflective and anonymous evaluative comments made by college students after completing this task. Subjects compiled a list of 200 myths, customs, fables, rituals, and beliefs from their family of origin and…

  1. Basic Reference Tools for Nursing Research. A Workbook with Explanations and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Topsy N.

    This workbook is designed to introduce nursing students to basic concepts and skills needed for searching the literatures of medicine, nursing, and allied health areas for materials relevant to specific information needs. The workbook introduces the following research tools: (1) the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE searches, including a…

  2. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: a meta-analysis exemplar.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon A; Martin, Ellen E; Garcia, Theresa J; Winter, Mary A; García, Alexandra A; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E; Sumlin, Lisa L

    2013-06-01

    Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, for example, EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this article is to describe the electronic processes designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive, quantitative model-testing meta-analysis. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be used, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members.

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Grant Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…

  4. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  5. (Re)braiding to Tell: Using "Trenzas" as a Metaphorical-Analytical Tool in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiñones, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Metaphors can be used in qualitative research to illuminate the meanings of participant experiences and examine phenomena from insightful and creative perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how I utilized "trenzas" (braids) as a metaphorical and analytical tool for understanding the experiences and perspectives of…

  6. DMPwerkzeug - A tool to support the planning, implementation, and organization of research data management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klar, Jochen; Engelhardt, Claudia; Neuroth, Heike; Enke, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Following the call to make the results of publicly funded research openly accessible, more and more funding agencies demand the submission of a data management plan (DMP) as part of the application process. These documents specify, how the data management of the project is organized and what datasets will be published when. Of particular importance for European researchers is the Open Data Research Pilot of Horizon 2020 which requires data management plans for a set of 9 selected research fields from social sciences to nanotechnology. In order to assist the researchers creating these documents, several institutions developed dedicated software tools. The most well-known are DMPonline by the Digital Curation Centre (DCC) and DMPtool by the California Digital Library (CDL) - both extensive and well received web applications. The core functionality of these tools is the assisted editing of the DMP templates provided by the particular funding agency.While this is certainly helpful, especially in an environment with a plethora of different funding agencies like the UK or the USA, these tools are somewhat limited to this particular task and don't utilise the full potential of DMP. Beyond the purpose of fulfilling funder requirements, DMP can be useful for a number of additional tasks. In the initial conception phase of a project, they can be used as a planning tool to determine which date management activities and measures are necessary throughout the research process, to assess which resources are needed, and which institutions (computing centers, libraries, data centers) should be involved. During the project, they can act as a constant reference or guideline for the handling of research data. They also determine where the data will be stored after the project has ended and whether it can be accessed by the public, helping to take into account resulting requirements of the data center or actions necessary to ensure re-usability by others from early on. Ideally, a DMP

  7. New method development in prehistoric stone tool research: evaluating use duration and data analysis protocols.

    PubMed

    Evans, Adrian A; Macdonald, Danielle A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K

    2014-10-01

    Lithic microwear is a research field of prehistoric stone tool (lithic) analysis that has been developed with the aim to identify how stone tools were used. It has been shown that laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to be a useful quantitative tool in the study of prehistoric stone tool function. In this paper, two important lines of inquiry are investigated: (1) whether the texture of worn surfaces is constant under varying durations of tool use, and (2) the development of rapid objective data analysis protocols. This study reports on the attempt to further develop these areas of study and results in a better understanding of the complexities underlying the development of flexible analytical algorithms for surface analysis. The results show that when sampling is optimised, surface texture may be linked to contact material type, independent of use duration. Further research is needed to validate this finding and test an expanded range of contact materials. The use of automated analytical protocols has shown promise but is only reliable if sampling location and scale are defined. Results suggest that the sampling protocol reports on the degree of worn surface invasiveness, complicating the ability to investigate duration related textural characterisation.

  8. Photovoice as participatory action research tool for engaging people with intellectual disabilities in research and program development.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Janine M

    2008-02-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have few opportunities to actively participate in research affecting programs and policies. Employment of participatory action research has been recommended. Although use of this approach with people who have intellectual disabilities is growing, articles on specific participatory research methods are rare. Photovoice is a participatory method often used with underrepresented groups and is effective for engaging people with intellectual disabilities in research or program development. A literature review is presented for use with this population as is a description of Photovoice as a participatory research tool for engaging people with intellectual disabilities. An example of a participatory study among people with intellectual disabilities is provided. Benefits and challenges of employing Photovoice with this population are discussed.

  9. Information Technology Research Services: Powerful Tools to Keep Up with a Rapidly Moving Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Marty firms offer Information Technology Research reports, analyst calls, conferences, seminars, tools, leadership development, etc. These entities include Gartner, Forrester Research, IDC, The Burton Group, Society for Information Management, 1nfoTech Research, The Corporate Executive Board, and so on. This talk will cover how a number of such services are being used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to improve our IT management practices, workforce skills, approach to innovation, and service delivery. These tools and services are used across the workforce, from the executive leadership to the IT worker. The presentation will cover the types of services each vendor provides and their primary engagement model. The use of these services at other NASA Centers and Headquarters will be included. In addition, I will explain how two of these services are available now to the entire NASA IT workforce through enterprise-wide subscriptions.

  10. Building genetic tools in Drosophila research: an interview with Gerald Rubin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Gerald (Gerry) Rubin, pioneer in Drosophila genetics, is Founding Director of the HHMI-funded Janelia Research Campus. In this interview, Gerry recounts key events and collaborations that have shaped his unique approach to scientific exploration, decision-making, management and mentorship – an approach that forms the cornerstone of the model adopted at Janelia to tackle problems in interdisciplinary biomedical research. Gerry describes his remarkable journey from newcomer to internationally renowned leader in the fly field, highlighting his contributions to the tools and resources that have helped establish Drosophila as an important model in translational research. Describing himself as a ‘tool builder’, his current focus is on developing approaches for in-depth study of the fly nervous system, in order to understand key principles in neurobiology. Gerry was interviewed by Ross Cagan, Senior Editor of Disease Models & Mechanisms. PMID:27053132

  11. The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA): Online Research Data, Tools, and References.

    PubMed

    Finke, Roger; Adamczyk, Amy

    2008-12-01

    The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) currently archives over 400 local, national, and international data files, and offers a wide range of research tools to build surveys, preview data on-line, develop customized maps and reports of U.S. church membership, and examine religion differences across nations and regions of the world. The ARDA also supports reference and teaching tools that draw on the rich data archive. This research note offers a brief introduction to the quantitative data available for exploration or download, and a few of the website features most useful for research and teaching. Supported by the Lilly Endowment, the John Templeton Foundation, the Pennsylvania State University, and the Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion, all data downloads and online services are free of charge.

  12. Standardized nursing care plan: a case study on developing a tool for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Vizoso, Hector; Lyskawa, Meg; Couey, Paul

    2008-08-01

    The National Institutes of Health have developed a new organizational consortium through a funding mechanism called the Clinical and Translational Science Award. This program funds academic institutions to create a platform for research that expedites the development and delivery of new treatments through open interdisciplinary collaboration. As a result, the adult clinical research center at San Francisco General Hospital is now part of the Clinical and Translational Science Institute at the University of California San Francisco. Nurses on this research unit have begun to employ a standardized nursing care plan that focuses on the particular needs of the research participant, an advancement that if implemented nationwide among all adult clinical research centers will be of paramount importance in fostering a collaborative relationship within the new organizational structure. This standardized nursing care plan will provide research nurses with a tool that will enable them to provide safe and quality patient care.

  13. Psychometric evaluation of a short observational tool for small-scale research projects in dementia.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, J; Irvine, E; Coulter, F; Connery, H

    2001-03-01

    Dementia is a degenerating illness and the lack of a reliable measure of self-report in particular presents particular difficulties for research. Often in the later stages of dementia behavioural measurement is the only tool available for the evaluation of treatment techniques. This paper describes and evaluates a short observational tool suitable for clinical assessment purposes. The scale has been shown to have the potential for adequate inter-rater reliability, test retest reliability, and convergent and divergent validity, if the study limitations reflecting statistical rather than ecological validity, and limitations of sample size are borne in mind.

  14. Integrated Decision-Making Tool to Develop Spent Fuel Strategies for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, Randy L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    IAEA Member States operating or having previously operated a Research Reactor are responsible for the safe and sustainable management and disposal of associated radioactive waste, including research reactor spent nuclear fuel (RRSNF). This includes the safe disposal of RRSNF or the corresponding equivalent waste returned after spent fuel reprocessing. One key challenge to developing general recommendations lies in the diversity of spent fuel types, locations and national/regional circumstances rather than mass or volume alone. This is especially true given that RRSNF inventories are relatively small, and research reactors are rarely operated at a high power level or duration typical of commercial power plants. Presently, many countries lack an effective long-term policy for managing RRSNF. This paper presents results of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) #T33001 on Options and Technologies for Managing the Back End of the Research Reactor Nuclear Fuel Cycle which includes an Integrated Decision Making Tool called BRIDE (Back-end Research reactor Integrated Decision Evaluation). This is a multi-attribute decision-making tool that combines the Total Estimated Cost of each life-cycle scenario with Non-economic factors such as public acceptance, technical maturity etc and ranks optional back-end scenarios specific to member states situations in order to develop a specific member state strategic plan with a preferred or recommended option for managing spent fuel from Research Reactors.

  15. Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy: An Emerging Tool for Fundamental Catalysis Research.

    PubMed

    Altman, Eric I; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Schwarz, Udo D

    2015-09-15

    Although atomic force microscopy (AFM) was rapidly adopted as a routine surface imaging apparatus after its introduction in 1986, it has not been widely used in catalysis research. The reason is that common AFM operating modes do not provide the atomic resolution required to follow catalytic processes; rather the more complex noncontact (NC) mode is needed. Thus, scanning tunneling microscopy has been the principal tool for atomic scale catalysis research. In this Account, recent developments in NC-AFM will be presented that offer significant advantages for gaining a complete atomic level view of catalysis. The main advantage of NC-AFM is that the image contrast is due to the very short-range chemical forces that are of interest in catalysis. This motivated our development of 3D-AFM, a method that yields quantitative atomic resolution images of the potential energy surfaces that govern how molecules approach, stick, diffuse, and rebound from surfaces. A variation of 3D-AFM allows the determination of forces required to push atoms and molecules on surfaces, from which diffusion barriers and variations in adsorption strength may be obtained. Pushing molecules towards each other provides access to intermolecular interaction between reaction partners. Following reaction, NC-AFM with CO-terminated tips yields textbook images of intramolecular structure that can be used to identify reaction intermediates and products. Because NC-AFM and STM contrast mechanisms are distinct, combining the two methods can produce unique insight. It is demonstrated for surface-oxidized Cu(100) that simultaneous 3D-AFM/STM yields resolution of both the Cu and O atoms. Moreover, atomic defects in the Cu sublattice lead to variations in the reactivity of the neighboring O atoms. It is shown that NC-AFM also allows a straightforward imaging of work function variations which has been used to identify defect charge states on catalytic surfaces and to map charge transfer within an individual

  16. New Tools for New Research in Psychiatry: A Scalable and Customizable Platform to Empower Data Driven Smartphone Research

    PubMed Central

    Torous, John; Kiang, Mathew V; Lorme, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Background A longstanding barrier to progress in psychiatry, both in clinical settings and research trials, has been the persistent difficulty of accurately and reliably quantifying disease phenotypes. Mobile phone technology combined with data science has the potential to offer medicine a wealth of additional information on disease phenotypes, but the large majority of existing smartphone apps are not intended for use as biomedical research platforms and, as such, do not generate research-quality data. Objective Our aim is not the creation of yet another app per se but rather the establishment of a platform to collect research-quality smartphone raw sensor and usage pattern data. Our ultimate goal is to develop statistical, mathematical, and computational methodology to enable us and others to extract biomedical and clinical insights from smartphone data. Methods We report on the development and early testing of Beiwe, a research platform featuring a study portal, smartphone app, database, and data modeling and analysis tools designed and developed specifically for transparent, customizable, and reproducible biomedical research use, in particular for the study of psychiatric and neurological disorders. We also outline a proposed study using the platform for patients with schizophrenia. Results We demonstrate the passive data capabilities of the Beiwe platform and early results of its analytical capabilities. Conclusions Smartphone sensors and phone usage patterns, when coupled with appropriate statistical learning tools, are able to capture various social and behavioral manifestations of illnesses, in naturalistic settings, as lived and experienced by patients. The ubiquity of smartphones makes this type of moment-by-moment quantification of disease phenotypes highly scalable and, when integrated within a transparent research platform, presents tremendous opportunities for research, discovery, and patient health. PMID:27150677

  17. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Main report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B.

    1995-06-01

    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer e following software development and assurance activities: Requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, inclukding static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire ran e identification, categorization and prioritization of technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary includes an overview of the framwork and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; this document, Volume 2, is the main report.

  18. The need for novel informatics tools for integrating and planning research in molecular and cellular cognition.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alcino J; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2015-09-01

    The sheer volume and complexity of publications in the biological sciences are straining traditional approaches to research planning. Nowhere is this problem more serious than in molecular and cellular cognition, since in this neuroscience field, researchers routinely use approaches and information from a variety of areas in neuroscience and other biology fields. Additionally, the multilevel integration process characteristic of this field involves the establishment of experimental connections between molecular, electrophysiological, behavioral, and even cognitive data. This multidisciplinary integration process requires strategies and approaches that originate in several different fields, which greatly increases the complexity and demands of this process. Although causal assertions, where phenomenon A is thought to contribute or relate to B, are at the center of this integration process and key to research in biology, there are currently no tools to help scientists keep track of the increasingly more complex network of causal connections they use when making research decisions. Here, we propose the development of semiautomated graphical and interactive tools to help neuroscientists and other biologists, including those working in molecular and cellular cognition, to track, map, and weight causal evidence in research papers. There is a great need for a concerted effort by biologists, computer scientists, and funding institutions to develop maps of causal information that would aid in integration of research findings and in experiment planning.

  19. The need for novel informatics tools for integrating and planning research in molecular and cellular cognition

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2015-01-01

    The sheer volume and complexity of publications in the biological sciences are straining traditional approaches to research planning. Nowhere is this problem more serious than in molecular and cellular cognition, since in this neuroscience field, researchers routinely use approaches and information from a variety of areas in neuroscience and other biology fields. Additionally, the multilevel integration process characteristic of this field involves the establishment of experimental connections between molecular, electrophysiological, behavioral, and even cognitive data. This multidisciplinary integration process requires strategies and approaches that originate in several different fields, which greatly increases the complexity and demands of this process. Although causal assertions, where phenomenon A is thought to contribute or relate to B, are at the center of this integration process and key to research in biology, there are currently no tools to help scientists keep track of the increasingly more complex network of causal connections they use when making research decisions. Here, we propose the development of semiautomated graphical and interactive tools to help neuroscientists and other biologists, including those working in molecular and cellular cognition, to track, map, and weight causal evidence in research papers. There is a great need for a concerted effort by biologists, computer scientists, and funding institutions to develop maps of causal information that would aid in integration of research findings and in experiment planning. PMID:26286658

  20. Automated Tools for Clinical Research Data Quality Control using NCI Common Data Elements.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Cody L; Topaloglu, Umit; Bian, Jiang; Hogan, William; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research data generated by a federation of collection mechanisms and systems often produces highly dissimilar data with varying quality. Poor data quality can result in the inefficient use of research data or can even require the repetition of the performed studies, a costly process. This work presents two tools for improving data quality of clinical research data relying on the National Cancer Institute's Common Data Elements as a standard representation of possible questions and data elements to A: automatically suggest CDE annotations for already collected data based on semantic and syntactic analysis utilizing the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Terminology Services' Metathesaurus and B: annotate and constrain new clinical research questions though a simple-to-use "CDE Browser." In this work, these tools are built and tested on the open-source LimeSurvey software and research data analyzed and identified to contain various data quality issues captured by the Comprehensive Research Informatics Suite (CRIS) at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.

  1. Recent advances in hopanoids analysis: Quantification protocols overview, main research targets and selected problems of complex data exploration.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Portka, Joanna K

    2015-09-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenoids, particularly hopanoids, are organism-specific compounds and are generally considered as useful biomarkers that allow fingerprinting and classification of biological, environmental and geological samples. Simultaneous quantification of various hopanoids together with battery of related non-polar and low-molecular mass compounds may provide principal information for geochemical and environmental research focusing on both modern and ancient investigations. Target compounds can be derived from microbial biomass, water columns, sediments, coals, crude fossils or rocks. This create number of analytical problems due to different composition of the analytical matrix and interfering compounds and therefore, proper optimization of quantification protocols for such biomarkers is still the challenge. In this work we summarizing typical analytical protocols that were recently applied for quantification of hopanoids like compounds from different samples. Main steps including components of interest extraction, pre-purification, fractionation, derivatization and quantification involving gas (1D and 2D) as well as liquid separation techniques (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, planar and low resolution column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography) are described and discussed from practical point of view, mainly based on the experimental papers that were published within last two years, where significant increase in hopanoids research was noticed. The second aim of this review is to describe the latest research trends concerning determination of hopanoids and related low-molecular mass lipids analyzed in various samples including sediments, rocks, coals, crude oils and plant fossils as well as stromatolites and microbial biomass cultivated under different conditions. It has been found that majority of the most recent papers are based on uni- or bivariate approach for complex data analysis. Data interpretation involves

  2. Exploring Assessment Tools for Research and Evaluation in Astronomy Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S. R.; Wenger, M. C.; Dokter, E. F. C.

    2011-09-01

    The ability to effectively measure knowledge, attitudes, and skills in formal and informal educational settings is an important aspect of astronomy education research and evaluation. Assessments may take the form of interviews, observations, surveys, exams, or other probes to help unpack people's understandings or beliefs. In this workshop, we discussed characteristics of a variety of tools that exist to assess understandings of different concepts in astronomy as well as attitudes towards science and science teaching; these include concept inventories, surveys, interview protocols, observation protocols, card sorting, reflection videos, and other methods currently being used in astronomy education research and EPO program evaluations. In addition, we discussed common questions in the selection of assessment tools including issues of reliability and validity, time to administer, format of implementation, analysis, and human subject concerns.

  3. A semi-automatic web based tool for the selection of research projects reviewers.

    PubMed

    Pupella, Valeria; Monteverde, Maria Eugenia; Lombardo, Claudio; Belardelli, Filippo; Giacomini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The correct evaluation of research proposals continues today to be problematic, and in many cases, grants and fellowships are subjected to this type of assessment. A web based semi-automatic tool to help in the selection of reviewers was developed. The core of the proposed system is the matching of the MeSH Descriptors of the publications submitted by the reviewers (for their accreditation) and the Descriptor linked to the research keywords, which were selected. Moreover, a citation related index was further calculated and adopted in order to discard not suitable reviewers. This tool was used as a support in a web site for the evaluation of candidates applying for a fellowship in the oncology field.

  4. Using Digital Video as a Research Tool: Ethical Issues for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuck, Sandy; Kearney, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Digital video and accompanying editing software are increasingly becoming more accessible for researchers in terms of ease of use and cost. The rich, visually appealing and seductive nature of video-based data can convey a strong sense of direct experience with the phenomena studied (Pea, 1999). However, the ease of selection and editing of…

  5. Human Rights Education and the Research Process: Action Research as a Tool for Reflection and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Celma

    2016-01-01

    Human rights education (HRE) aims to achieve a change of mindsets and social attitudes that entails the construction of a culture of respect towards those values it teaches. Although HRE is a recent field of study, its consolidation in Latin America is a fact. During the latest decades several authors have carried out research related to HRE that…

  6. A New Tool for Identifying Research Standards and Evaluating Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.; Paul, Pallab; Stewart, Kim A.; Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the evaluation of faculty research productivity in promotion and tenure decisions, including many articles that seek to determine the rank of various marketing journals. Yet how faculty evaluators combine journal quality, quantity, and author contribution to form judgments of a scholar's performance is unclear. A…

  7. Research on USMC Marksmanship Training Assessment Tools, Instructional Simulations, and Qualitative Field-Based Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-10

    delivery of remedial training through the instructional simulations. ONR is also funding CHI Systems, Inc. to conduct field-based qualitative ... research on Navy and Marine Corps DL implementations to develop practical guidelines and procedures to support effective DL employment in the Navy and Marine Corps.

  8. Involving children and young people in the development of art-based research tools.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Plumridge, Gill; Metcalfe, Alison

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they worked with children and young people to develop art-based techniques and activities for use in a study exploring family communication about genetic conditions. It highlights key methodological issues about children and young people's participation in research, the concept of what constitutes an art-based activity and how this was applied to developing art-based data collection tools.

  9. Open Virtual Worlds as Pedagogical Research Tools: Learning from the Schome Park Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Peachey, Anna

    This paper introduces the term Open Virtual Worlds and argues that they are ‘unclaimed educational spaces’, which provide a valuable tool for researching pedagogy. Having explored these claims the way in which Teen Second Life® virtual world was used for pedagogical experimentation in the initial phases of the Schome Park Programme is described. Four sets of pedagogical dimensions that emerged are presented and illustrated with examples from the Schome Park Programme.

  10. DataUp: A tool to help researchers describe and share tabular data

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Carly; Kunze, John; Abrams, Stephen; Cruse, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Scientific datasets have immeasurable value, but they lose their value over time without proper documentation, long-term storage, and easy discovery and access. Across disciplines as diverse as astronomy, demography, archeology, and ecology, large numbers of small heterogeneous datasets (i.e., the long tail of data) are especially at risk unless they are properly documented, saved, and shared. One unifying factor for many of these at-risk datasets is that they reside in spreadsheets. In response to this need, the California Digital Library (CDL) partnered with Microsoft Research Connections and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to create the DataUp data management tool for Microsoft Excel. Many researchers creating these small, heterogeneous datasets use Excel at some point in their data collection and analysis workflow, so we were interested in developing a data management tool that fits easily into those work flows and minimizes the learning curve for researchers. The DataUp project began in August 2011. We first formally assessed the needs of researchers by conducting surveys and interviews of our target research groups: earth, environmental, and ecological scientists. We found that, on average, researchers had very poor data management practices, were not aware of data centers or metadata standards, and did not understand the benefits of data management or sharing. Based on our survey results, we composed a list of desirable components and requirements and solicited feedback from the community to prioritize potential features of the DataUp tool. These requirements were then relayed to the software developers, and DataUp was successfully launched in October 2012. PMID:25653834

  11. CCMC: Serving research and space weather communities with unique space weather services, innovative tools and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Maddox, Marlo

    2015-04-01

    With the addition of Space Weather Research Center (a sub-team within CCMC) in 2010 to address NASA’s own space weather needs, CCMC has become a unique entity that not only facilitates research through providing access to the state-of-the-art space science and space weather models, but also plays a critical role in providing unique space weather services to NASA robotic missions, developing innovative tools and transitioning research to operations via user feedback. With scientists, forecasters and software developers working together within one team, through close and direct connection with space weather customers and trusted relationship with model developers, CCMC is flexible, nimble and effective to meet customer needs. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of CCMC/SWRC’s space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases, and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  12. The 1999 Reginald Thomson Lecture. Custom-built mice: unique discovery tools in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Croy, B A

    2000-03-01

    The study of mouse genetics is a science in its own right. Currently, the mouse is the central platform for model building in biomedical research. Recombinant DNA technology and mouse transgenesis have provided an almost unlimited resource of new animals that is constantly expanding. Investigators, through their selection of the most appropriate type of mouse and by imaginative combinations of animals in breeding or culture experiments, have the opportunity for discovery of new information that will benefit the health of both humans and species of veterinary interest. Wider appreciation and use of the mouse as a discovery tool in veterinary research should be encouraged.

  13. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The

  14. Metaphors and Drawings as Research Tools of Head Teachers' Perceptions on Their Management and Leadership Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulou, Eleftheria; Hatira, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an alternative qualitative research tool: metaphor and drawing, as projections of personality features, to explore underlying concepts and values, thoughts and beliefs, fears and hesitations, aspirations and ambitions of the research subjects. These two projective tools are used to explore Greek state kindergarten head…

  15. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research - suggestion for an operational tool.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, L V; Dagnæs-Hansen, F; Herskin, M S

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, increasing interest in using the pig (Sus scrofa) for biomedical research has become evident. Today, the pig is considered an advantageous alternative animal model for various human diseases and conditions. However, even though a considerable amount of biomedical research has been done on pigs, hardly any studies include systematic welfare assessment. Still, it is essential to assess welfare of laboratory pigs, both domestic pig breeds and smaller purpose-bred breeds, as (1) scientific obligations entail responsibility to ensure and document a fair welfare standard for animals used for experimental purposes; and (2) the scientific outcome can be dependent upon the welfare state of the animals. In order to be able to quantify and control laboratory pig welfare, a practical tool is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the extent of welfare assessment in pigs used in biomedical research and to suggest a welfare assessment standard for research facilities based on an exposition of ethological considerations relevant for the welfare of pigs in biomedical research. The tools for porcine welfare assessment presented suggest a method for monitoring the welfare status of individual laboratory pigs, intended to relieve the practical scoring of the welfare of individual pigs as well as the interpretation of the findings.

  16. [EpiInfo as a research and teaching tool in epidemiology and statistics: strengths and weaknesses].

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; Bontempi, Claudio; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; de Waure, Chiara; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    EpiInfo is a free software developed in 1988 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta to facilitate field epidemiological investigations and statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the software represents, in the Italian biomedical field, an effective analytical research tool and a practical and simple epidemiology and biostatistics teaching tool. A questionnaire consisting of 20 multiple-choice and open questions was administered to 300 healthcare workers, including doctors, biologists, nurses, medical students and interns, at the end of a CME course in epidemiology and biostatistics. Sixty-four percent of participants were aged between 26 and 45 years, 52% were women and 73% were unmarried. Results show that women are more likely to utilize EpiInfo in their research activities with respect to men (p = 0.023), as are individuals aged 26-45 years with respect to the older and younger age groups (p = 0.023) and unmarried participants with respect to those married (p = 0.010). Thirty-one percent of respondents consider EpiInfo to be more than adequate for analysis of their research data and 52% consider it to be sufficiently so. The inclusion of an EpiInfo course in statistics and epidemiology modules facilitates the understanding of theoretical concepts and allows researchers to more easily perform some of the clinical/epidemiological research activities.

  17. A Mentoring Toolkit: Tips and Tools for Mentoring Early-Career Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Effective mentoring is a critical component in the training of early-career researchers, cultivating more independent, productive and satisfied scientists. For example, mentoring has been shown by the 2005 Sigma Xi National Postdoc Survey to be a key indicator for a successful postdoctoral outcome. Mentoring takes many forms and can include support for maximizing research skills and productivity as well as assistance in preparing for a chosen career path. Yet, because there is no "one-size-fits-all” approach, mentoring can be an activity that is hard to define. In this presentation, a series of tips and tools will be offered to aid mentors in developing a plan for their mentoring activities. This will include: suggestions for how to get started; opportunities for mentoring activities within the research group, within the institution, and outside the institution; tools for communicating and assessing professional milestones; and resources for fostering the professional and career development of mentees. Special considerations will also be presented for mentoring international scholars and women. These strategies will be helpful to the PI responding to the new NSF mentoring plan requirement for postdocs as well as to the student, postdoc, researcher or professor overseeing the research and training of others.

  18. Online survey tools: ethical and methodological concerns of human research ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Elizabeth A; Hvizdak, Erin E

    2009-06-01

    A SURVEY OF 750 UNIVERSITY HUMAN Research Ethics Boards (HRECs) in the United States revealed that Internet research protocols involving online or Web surveys are the type most often reviewed (94% of respondents), indicating the growing prevalence of this methodology for academic research. Respondents indicated that the electronic and online nature of these survey data challenges traditional research ethics principles such as consent, risk, privacy, anonymity, confidentiality, and autonomy, and adds new methodological complexities surrounding data storage, security, sampling, and survey design. Interesting discrepancies surfaced among respondents regarding strengths and weaknesses within extant guidelines, which are highlighted throughout the paper. The paper concludes with considerations and suggestions towards consistent protocol review of online surveys to ensure appropriate human subjects protections in the face of emergent electronic tools and methodologies.

  19. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom.

    PubMed

    Council, Sarah E; Horvath, Julie E

    2016-03-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects.

  20. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Council, Sarah E.; Horvath, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects. PMID:27047587

  1. NASA System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools Research on NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.

  2. Approaches, tools and methods used for setting priorities in health research in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Background Health research is difficult to prioritize, because the number of possible competing ideas for research is large, the outcome of research is inherently uncertain, and the impact of research is difficult to predict and measure. A systematic and transparent process to assist policy makers and research funding agencies in making investment decisions is a permanent need. Methods To obtain a better understanding of the landscape of approaches, tools and methods used to prioritize health research, I conducted a methodical review using the PubMed database for the period 2001–2014. Results A total of 165 relevant studies were identified, in which health research prioritization was conducted. They most frequently used the CHNRI method (26%), followed by the Delphi method (24%), James Lind Alliance method (8%), the Combined Approach Matrix (CAM) method (2%) and the Essential National Health Research method (<1%). About 3% of studies reported no clear process and provided very little information on how priorities were set. A further 19% used a combination of expert panel interview and focus group discussion (“consultation process”) but provided few details, while a further 2% used approaches that were clearly described, but not established as a replicable method. Online surveys that were not accompanied by face–to–face meetings were used in 8% of studies, while 9% used a combination of literature review and questionnaire to scrutinise the research options for prioritization among the participating experts. Conclusion The number of priority setting exercises in health research published in PubMed–indexed journals is increasing, especially since 2010. These exercises are being conducted at a variety of levels, ranging from the global level to the level of an individual hospital. With the development of new tools and methods which have a well–defined structure – such as the CHNRI method, James Lind Alliance Method and Combined Approach Matrix – it is

  3. The development of a two-component force dynamometer and tool control system for dynamic machine tool research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, I. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development is presented of a tooling system that makes a controlled sinusoidal oscillation simulating a dynamic chip removal condition. It also measures the machining forces in two mutually perpendicular directions without any cross sensitivity.

  4. Lowering the Barrier to Reproducible Research by Publishing Provenance from Common Analytical Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Slaughter, P.; Walker, L.; Jones, C. S.; Missier, P.; Ludäscher, B.; Cao, Y.; McPhillips, T.; Schildhauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific provenance describes the authenticity, origin, and processing history of research products and promotes scientific transparency by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. These products include papers, findings, input data, software products to perform computations, and derived data and visualizations. The geosciences community values this type of information, and, at least theoretically, strives to base conclusions on computationally replicable findings. In practice, capturing detailed provenance is laborious and thus has been a low priority; beyond a lab notebook describing methods and results, few researchers capture and preserve detailed records of scientific provenance. We have built tools for capturing and publishing provenance that integrate into analytical environments that are in widespread use by geoscientists (R and Matlab). These tools lower the barrier to provenance generation by automating capture of critical information as researchers prepare data for analysis, develop, test, and execute models, and create visualizations. The 'recordr' library in R and the `matlab-dataone` library in Matlab provide shared functions to capture provenance with minimal changes to normal working procedures. Researchers can capture both scripted and interactive sessions, tag and manage these executions as they iterate over analyses, and then prune and publish provenance metadata and derived products to the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Provenance traces conform to the ProvONE model extension of W3C PROV, enabling interoperability across tools and languages. The capture system supports fine-grained versioning of science products and provenance traces. By assigning global identifiers such as DOIs, reseachers can cite the computational processes used to reach findings. And, finally, DataONE has built a web portal to search, browse, and clearly display provenance relationships between input data, the software

  5. Extending the XNAT archive tool for image and analysis management in ophthalmology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Andreas; Lee, Kyungmoo; Harding, Adam T.; Garvin, Mona K.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Sonka, Milan; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmology, various modalities and tests are utilized to obtain vital information on the eye's structure and function. For example, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is utilized to diagnose, screen, and aid treatment of eye diseases like macular degeneration or glaucoma. Such data are complemented by photographic retinal fundus images and functional tests on the visual field. DICOM isn't widely used yet, though, and frequently images are encoded in proprietary formats. The eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Tool (XNAT) is an open-source NIH-funded framework for research PACS and is in use at the University of Iowa for neurological research applications. Its use for ophthalmology was hence desirable but posed new challenges due to data types thus far not considered and the lack of standardized formats. We developed custom tools for data types not natively recognized by XNAT itself using XNAT's low-level REST API. Vendor-provided tools can be included as necessary to convert proprietary data sets into valid DICOM. Clients can access the data in a standardized format while still retaining the original format if needed by specific analysis tools. With respective project-specific permissions, results like segmentations or quantitative evaluations can be stored as additional resources to previously uploaded datasets. Applications can use our abstract-level Python or C/C++ API to communicate with the XNAT instance. This paper describes concepts and details of the designed upload script templates, which can be customized to the needs of specific projects, and the novel client-side communication API which allows integration into new or existing research applications.

  6. Autonomous profiling buoy system: a new powerful tool for research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aracri, Simona; Borghini, Mireno; Canesso, Devis; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Durante, Sara; Griffa, Annalisa; Schroeder, Katrin; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Vetrano, Anna; Kitawaza, Yuji; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    Oceanography is nowadays a fast-changing field. The scientific community is orienting towards the implementation of a growing array of satellite-borne or mobile and moored high-tech devices and sensors, while sending fewer scientists at sea to collect measurements, minimizing the expensive ship-time costs. In other words, oceanography is now moving from a platform-centric sensing system to a net-centric distributed sensing system. Integration with operational ocean models, providing the best estimate of the ocean state by means of data assimilation, is the step forward, with nowadays mature initiatives at global scale and at regional scale in the Mediterranean Sea. While the ocean still remains a complex system, largely undersampled, multiplatform-integration, improvements in tools capabilities and assimilation in models represents one way to reduce uncertainties in marine areas. In this context, and differently from mobile platforms (e.g, gliders, argos), fixed-point moorings nicely provide long term point wise time-series, but limited by a low vertical resolution. Technology is fast evolving towards the implementation of automatic profilers, which partially overcome this limitation. In June 2013 the Institute of Marine Sciences of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-ISMAR) started the test phase of one of the very few Mediterranean autonomous profiling systems installed in a open-sea mooring, transmitting, daily, hydrological vertical profiles in real time through satellite communication. The selected site was the Corsica Channel, a narrow passage between Corsica and Capraia islands, connecting the two main regions of the western Mediterranean: the Tyrrhenian and the Liguro-Provençal basins. The Corsica Channel represents a 'choke point' for the study of the dynamics and evolution of the western Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies in this passage indicate an annual and seasonal cycle with northward winter fluxes representing about the 60% of the total

  7. VoiceThread as a Peer Review and Dissemination Tool for Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    VoiceThread has been utilized in an undergraduate research methods course for peer review and final research project dissemination. VoiceThread (http://www.voicethread.com) can be considered a social media tool, as it is a web-based technology with the capacity to enable interactive dialogue. VoiceThread is an application that allows a user to place a media collection online containing images, audio, videos, documents, and/or presentations in an interface that facilitates asynchronous communication. Participants in a VoiceThread can be passive viewers of the online content or engaged commenters via text, audio, video, with slide annotations via a doodle tool. The VoiceThread, which runs across browsers and operating systems, can be public or private for viewing and commenting and can be embedded into any website. Although few university students are aware of the VoiceThread platform (only 10% of the students surveyed by Ng (2012)), the 2009 K-12 edition of The Horizon Report (Johnson et al., 2009) lists VoiceThread as a tool to watch because of the opportunities it provides as a collaborative learning environment. In Fall 2011, eleven students enrolled in an undergraduate research methods course at Penn State Brandywine each conducted their own small-scale research project. Upon conclusion of the projects, students were required to create a poster summarizing their work for peer review. To facilitate the peer review process outside of class, each student-created PowerPoint file was placed in a VoiceThread with private access to only the class members and instructor. Each student was assigned to peer review five different student posters (i.e., VoiceThread images) with the audio and doodle tools to comment on formatting, clarity of content, etc. After the peer reviews were complete, the students were allowed to edit their PowerPoint poster files for a new VoiceThread. In the new VoiceThread, students were required to video record themselves describing their research

  8. Exploration tools for drug discovery and beyond: applying SciFinder to interdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Haldeman, Margaret; Vieira, Barbara; Winer, Fred; Knutsen, Lars J S

    2005-06-01

    Chemists have long recognized the value of online databases for surveying the literature of their field. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) databases covering almost a century's worth of journal articles and patent documents are among the best known and widely used for searching information on compounds. Today's research presents a new challenge, however, as the boundaries of chemistry and biological sciences overlap increasingly. This trend is especially true in the drug discovery field where published findings relating to both chemical and biological entities and their interactions are examined. CAS has expanded its resources to meet the requirements of the new, interdisciplinary challenges faced by today's researchers. This is evident both in the content of CAS databases, which have been expanded to include more biology-related information, and in the technology of the search tools now available to researchers on their desktop. It is the integration of content and search-and-retrieval technology that enables new insights to be made in the vast body of accumulated information. CAS's SciFinder is a widely used research tool for this purpose.

  9. Real simulation tools in introductory courses: packaging and repurposing our research code.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heagy, L. J.; Cockett, R.; Kang, S.; Oldenburg, D.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulations are an important tool for scientific research and applications in industry. They provide a means to experiment with physics in a tangible, visual way, often providing insights into the problem. Over the last two years, we have been developing course and laboratory materials for an undergraduate geophysics course primarily taken by non-geophysics majors, including engineers and geologists. Our aim is to provide the students with resources to build intuition about geophysical techniques, promote curiosity driven exploration, and help them develop the skills necessary to communicate across disciplines. Using open-source resources and our existing research code, we have built modules around simulations, with supporting content to give student interactive tools for exploration into the impacts of input parameters and visualization of the resulting fields, fluxes and data for a variety of problems in applied geophysics, including magnetics, seismic, electromagnetics, and direct current resistivity. The content provides context for the problems, along with exercises that are aimed at getting students to experiment and ask 'what if...?' questions. In this presentation, we will discuss our approach for designing the structure of the simulation-based modules, the resources we have used, challenges we have encountered, general feedback from students and instructors, as well as our goals and roadmap for future improvement. We hope that our experiences and approach will be beneficial to other instructors who aim to put simulation tools in the hands of students.

  10. sRNAtoolbox: an integrated collection of small RNA research tools

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Antonio; Barturen, Guillermo; Lebrón, Ricardo; Gómez-Martín, Cristina; Alganza, Ángel; Oliver, José L.; Hackenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA research is a rapidly growing field. Apart from microRNAs, which are important regulators of gene expression, other types of functional small RNA molecules have been reported in animals and plants. MicroRNAs are important in host-microbe interactions and parasite microRNAs might modulate the innate immunity of the host. Furthermore, small RNAs can be detected in bodily fluids making them attractive non-invasive biomarker candidates. Given the general broad interest in small RNAs, and in particular microRNAs, a large number of bioinformatics aided analysis types are needed by the scientific community. To facilitate integrated sRNA research, we developed sRNAtoolbox, a set of independent but interconnected tools for expression profiling from high-throughput sequencing data, consensus differential expression, target gene prediction, visual exploration in a genome context as a function of read length, gene list analysis and blast search of unmapped reads. All tools can be used independently or for the exploration and downstream analysis of sRNAbench results. Workflows like the prediction of consensus target genes of parasite microRNAs in the host followed by the detection of enriched pathways can be easily established. The web-interface interconnecting all these tools is available at http://bioinfo5.ugr.es/srnatoolbox PMID:26019179

  11. Systems thinking tools as applied to community-based participatory research: a case study.

    PubMed

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2012-12-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention.

  12. What Can We Learn from Bioactivity Data? Chemoinformatics Tools and Applications in Chemical Biology Research.

    PubMed

    Humbeck, Lina; Koch, Oliver

    2017-01-20

    The ever increasing bioactivity data that are produced nowadays allow exhaustive data mining and knowledge discovery approaches that change chemical biology research. A wealth of chemoinformatics tools, web services, and applications therefore exists that supports a careful evaluation and analysis of experimental data to draw conclusions that can influence the further development of chemical probes and potential lead structures. This review focuses on open-source approaches that can be handled by scientists who are not familiar with computational methods having no expert knowledge in chemoinformatics and modeling. Our aim is to present an easily manageable toolbox for support of every day laboratory work. This includes, among other things, the available bioactivity and related molecule databases as well as tools to handle and analyze in-house data.

  13. The DEDUCE Guided Query Tool: Providing Simplified Access to Clinical Data for Research and Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Monica M.; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction—the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a guided query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

  14. Growth and Maturation in the Zebrafish, Danio Rerio: A Staging Tool for Teaching and Research

    PubMed Central

    Singleman, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish have been increasingly used as a teaching tool to enhance the learning of many biological concepts from genetics, development, and behavior to the understanding of the local watershed. Traditionally, in both research and teaching, zebrafish work has focused on embryonic stages; however, later stages, from larval through adulthood, are increasingly being examined. Defining developmental stages based on age is a problematic way to assess maturity, because many environmental factors, such as temperature, population density, and water quality, impact growth and maturation. Fish length and characterization of key external morphological traits are considered better markers for maturation state. While a number of staging series exist for zebrafish, here we present a simplified normalization table of post-embryonic maturation well suited to both educational and research use. Specifically, we utilize fish size and four easily identified external morphological traits (pigment pattern, tail fin, anal fin, and dorsal fin morphology) to describe three larval stages, a juvenile stage, and an adult stage. These simplified maturation standards will be a useful tool for both educational and research protocols. PMID:24979389

  15. The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion.

  16. Narrative health research: exploring big and small stories as analytical tools.

    PubMed

    Sools, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    In qualitative health research many researchers use a narrative approach to study lay health concepts and experiences. In this article, I explore the theoretical linkages between the concepts narrative and health, which are used in a variety of ways. The article builds on previous work that conceptualizes health as a multidimensional, positive, dynamic and morally dilemmatic yet meaningful practice. I compare big and small stories as analytical tools to explore what narrative has to offer to address, nuance and complicate five challenges in narrative health research: (1) the interplay between health and other life issues; (2) the taken-for-granted yet rare character of the experience of good health; (3) coherence or incoherence as norms for good health; (4) temporal issues; (5) health as moral practice. In this article, I do not present research findings per se; rather, I use two interview excerpts for methodological and theoretical reflections. These interview excerpts are derived from a health promotion study in the Netherlands, which was partly based on peer-to-peer interviews. I conclude with a proposal to advance narrative health research by sensitizing researchers to different usages of both narrative and health, and the interrelationship(s) between the two.

  17. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Agonists and Antagonists as Research Tools and Potential Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Manning, M; Misicka, A; Olma, A; Bankowski, K; Stoev, S; Chini, B; Durroux, T; Mouillac, B; Corbani, M; Guillon, G

    2012-01-01

    We recently reviewed the status of peptide and nonpeptide agonists and antagonists for the V1a, V1b and V2 receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) and the oxytocin receptor for oxytocin (OT). In the present review, we update the status of peptides and nonpeptides as: (i) research tools and (ii) therapeutic agents. We also present our recent findings on the design of fluorescent ligands for V1b receptor localisation and for OT receptor dimerisation. We note the exciting discoveries regarding two novel naturally occurring analogues of OT. Recent reports of a selective VP V1a agonist and a selective OT agonist point to the continued therapeutic potential of peptides in this field. To date, only two nonpeptides, the V2/V1a antagonist, conivaptan and the V2 antagonist tolvaptan have received Food and Drug Administration approval for clinical use. The development of nonpeptide AVP V1a, V1b and V2 antagonists and OT agonists and antagonists has recently been abandoned by Merck, Sanofi and Pfizer. A promising OT antagonist, Retosiban, developed at Glaxo SmithKline is currently in a Phase II clinical trial for the prevention of premature labour. A number of the nonpeptide ligands that were not successful in clinical trials are proving to be valuable as research tools. Peptide agonists and antagonists continue to be very widely used as research tools in this field. In this regard, we present receptor data on some of the most widely used peptide and nonpeptide ligands, as a guide for their use, especially with regard to receptor selectivity and species differences. PMID:22375852

  18. Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: Next generation research tools and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lienert, Florian; Lohmueller, Jason J; Garg, Abhishek; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in DNA manipulation and gene circuit engineering has greatly improved our ability to programme and probe mammalian cell behaviour. These advances have led to a new generation of synthetic biology research tools and potential therapeutic applications. Programmable DNA-binding domains and RNA regulators are leading to unprecedented control of gene expression and elucidation of gene function. Rebuilding complex biological circuits such as T cell receptor signalling in isolation from their natural context has deepened our understanding of network motifs and signalling pathways. Synthetic biology is also leading to innovative therapeutic interventions based on cell-based therapies, protein drugs, vaccines and gene therapies. PMID:24434884

  19. Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) user's guide, version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillin, Mark L.; Spangler, Jan L.; Dahmen, Stephen M.; Rehder, John J.

    1993-01-01

    The Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) software package is used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. It provides a highly interactive and dynamic capability for generating geometries with Bezier cubic patches. Features include automatic generation of commonly used aerospace constructs (e.g., wings and multilobed tanks); cross-section skinning; wireframe and shaded presentation; area, volume, inertia, and center-of-gravity calculations; and interfaces to various aerodynamic and structural analysis programs. A comprehensive description of SMART and how to use it is provided.

  20. Ocular static and dynamic light scattering: a noninvasive diagnostic tool for eye research and clinical practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2004-01-01

    The noninvasive techniques of static and dynamic light scattering are emerging as valuable diagnostic tools for the early detection of ocular and systemic diseases. These include corneal abnormalities, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic vitreopathy, and possibly macular degeneration. Systemic conditions such as diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's disease can potentially be detected early via ocular tissues. The current state of development of these techniques for application to ophthalmic research and ultimately clinical practice is reviewed. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  1. High throughput tools to access images from clinical archives for research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Shawn N; Herrick, Christopher; Wang, Yanbing; Wang, Taowei David; Sack, Darren; Andriole, Katherine P; Wei, Jesse; Reynolds, Nathaniel; Plesniak, Wendy; Rosen, Bruce R; Pieper, Steven; Gollub, Randy L

    2015-04-01

    Historically, medical images collected in the course of clinical care have been difficult to access for secondary research studies. While there is a tremendous potential value in the large volume of studies contained in clinical image archives, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are designed to optimize clinical operations and workflow. Search capabilities in PACS are basic, limiting their use for population studies, and duplication of archives for research is costly. To address this need, we augment the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) open source software, providing investigators with the tools necessary to query and integrate medical record and clinical research data. Over 100 healthcare institutions have installed this suite of software tools that allows investigators to search medical record metadata including images for specific types of patients. In this report, we describe a new Medical Imaging Informatics Bench to Bedside (mi2b2) module ( www.mi2b2.org ), available now as an open source addition to the i2b2 software platform that allows medical imaging examinations collected during routine clinical care to be made available to translational investigators directly from their institution's clinical PACS for research and educational use in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Omnibus Rule. Access governance within the mi2b2 module is customizable per institution and PACS minimizing impact on clinical systems. Currently in active use at our institutions, this new technology has already been used to facilitate access to thousands of clinical MRI brain studies representing specific patient phenotypes for use in research.

  2. Research priorities for the development and implementation of serological tools for malaria surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Salenna R.; Fowkes, Freya J.I.; Richards, Jack S.; Reiling, Linda; Drew, Damien R.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance is a key component of control and elimination programs. Malaria surveillance has been typically reliant on case reporting by health services, entomological estimates and parasitemia (Plasmodium species) point prevalence. However, these techniques become less sensitive and relatively costly as transmission declines. There is great potential for the development and application of serological biomarkers of malaria exposure as sero-surveillance tools to strengthen malaria control and elimination. Antibodies to malaria antigens are sensitive biomarkers of population-level malaria exposure and can be used to identify hotspots of malaria transmission, estimate transmission levels, monitor changes over time or the impact of interventions on transmission, confirm malaria elimination, and monitor re-emergence of malaria. Sero-surveillance tools could be used in reference laboratories or developed as simple point-of-care tests for community-based surveillance, and different applications and target populations dictate the technical performance required from assays that are determined by properties of antigens and antibody responses. To advance the development of sero-surveillance tools for malaria elimination, major gaps in our knowledge need to be addressed through further research. These include greater knowledge of potential antigens, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody responses, and the longevity of these responses and defining antigens and antibodies that differentiate between exposure to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Additionally, a better understanding of the influence of host factors, such as age, genetics, and comorbidities on antibody responses in different populations is needed. PMID:25580254

  3. Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s). It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish

  4. Designing simulator tools for rail research: the case study of a train driving microworld.

    PubMed

    Naweed, A; Hockey, G R J; Clarke, S D

    2013-05-01

    The microworld simulator paradigm is well established in the areas of ship-navigation and spaceflight, but has yet to be applied to rail. This paper presents a case study aiming to address this research gap, and describes the development of a train driving microworld as a tool to overcome some common research barriers. A theoretical framework for microworld design is tested and used to explore some key methodological issues and characteristics of train driving, enhancing theory development and providing a useful guideline for the designers of other collision-avoidance systems. A detailed description is given of the ATREIDES (Adaptive Train Research Enhanced Information Display & Environment Simulator) microworld, which simulates the work environment of a train driver in a high-speed passenger train. General indications of the testable driving scenarios that may be simulated are given, and an example of an ATREIDES-based study is presented to illustrate its applied research potential. The article concludes with a review of the design process, considers some strengths and limitations, and explores some future initiatives towards enhancing the systematic study of rail research in the human factors community.

  5. InterMOD: integrated data and tools for the unification of model organism research

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Julie; Karra, Kalpana; Moxon, Sierra A. T.; Vallejos, Andrew; Motenko, Howie; Wong, J. D.; Aleksic, Jelena; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Harris, Todd; Hitz, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Lyne, Rachel; Neuhauser, Steven; Pich, Christian; Smith, Richard N.; Trinh, Quang; Cherry, J. Michael; Richardson, Joel; Stein, Lincoln; Twigger, Simon; Westerfield, Monte; Worthey, Elizabeth; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    Model organisms are widely used for understanding basic biology, and have significantly contributed to the study of human disease. In recent years, genomic analysis has provided extensive evidence of widespread conservation of gene sequence and function amongst eukaryotes, allowing insights from model organisms to help decipher gene function in a wider range of species. The InterMOD consortium is developing an infrastructure based around the InterMine data warehouse system to integrate genomic and functional data from a number of key model organisms, leading the way to improved cross-species research. So far including budding yeast, nematode worm, fruit fly, zebrafish, rat and mouse, the project has set up data warehouses, synchronized data models, and created analysis tools and links between data from different species. The project unites a number of major model organism databases, improving both the consistency and accessibility of comparative research, to the benefit of the wider scientific community. PMID:23652793

  6. New tools for experimental diabetes research: Cellular reprogramming and genome editing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Isolated human islets are a rare and precious material for diabetes research. However, their availability is limited, and it is impossible to obtain them from patients with specific genotypes. Human pluripotent stem cells provide an alternative. Induced pluripotent stem cells can be generated from any individual’s somatic cells and differentiated into pancreatic cells. Currently, this approach is limited by the immaturity of the islet-like cells derived from stem cells. However, this approach can already be used to model developmental defects, and the possibilities for studying insulin secretion are continuously improving. In addition, genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology provides powerful possibilities to study the impact of specific genotypes. The same technology can also be used for transcriptional regulation in order to improve the functional maturation of stem cell-derived islets. These tools are today becoming available for tomorrow’s translational diabetes research. PMID:27007444

  7. Research-Based Monitoring, Prediction, and Analysis Tools of the Spacecraft Charging Environment for Spacecraft Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti A.; Maddox, Marlo M.; Mays, Mona Leila

    2015-01-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc. gsfc.nasa.gov) at NASA Goddard, part of the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov), is committed to providing research-based forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs, in addition to its critical role in space weather education. It provides a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, and weekly summaries and reports. In this paper, we focus on how (near) real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the integrated Space Weather Analysis system (http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable monitoring, analyzing, and predicting the spacecraft charging environment for spacecraft users. Relevant tools and resources are discussed.

  8. Using Social Media as a Research Recruitment Tool: Ethical Issues and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gelinas, Luke; Pierce, Robin; Winkler, Sabune; Cohen, I Glenn; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Bierer, Barbara E

    2017-03-01

    The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. Despite this, to date there has been no specific regulatory guidance and there has been little in the bioethics literature to guide investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) faced with navigating the ethical issues such use raises. We begin to fill this gap by first defending a nonexceptionalist methodology for assessing social media recruitment; second, examining respect for privacy and investigator transparency as key norms governing social media recruitment; and, finally, analyzing three relatively novel aspects of social media recruitment: (i) the ethical significance of compliance with website "terms of use"; (ii) the ethics of recruiting from the online networks of research participants; and (iii) the ethical implications of online communication from and between participants. Two checklists aimed at guiding investigators and IRBs through the ethical issues are included as appendices.

  9. Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new tool for neuroeconomic research

    PubMed Central

    Kopton, Isabella M.; Kenning, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the application of neuroscience to economic research has gained in importance and the number of neuroeconomic studies has grown extensively. The most common method for these investigations is fMRI. However, fMRI has limitations (particularly concerning situational factors) that should be countered with other methods. This review elaborates on the use of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a new and promising tool for investigating economic decision making both in field experiments and outside the laboratory. We describe results of studies investigating the reliability of prototype NIRS studies, as well as detailing experiments using conventional and stationary fNIRS devices to analyze this potential. This review article shows that further research using mobile fNIRS for studies on economic decision making outside the laboratory could be a fruitful avenue helping to develop the potential of a new method for field experiments outside the laboratory. PMID:25147517

  11. Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A

    2001-12-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

  12. Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Trujillo, Anna; Pritchett, Amy R.

    2000-01-01

    While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plug-in' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

  13. Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Michal; Matz, Sandra C; Gosling, Samuel D; Popov, Vesselin; Stillwell, David

    2015-09-01

    Facebook is rapidly gaining recognition as a powerful research tool for the social sciences. It constitutes a large and diverse pool of participants, who can be selectively recruited for both online and offline studies. Additionally, it facilitates data collection by storing detailed records of its users' demographic profiles, social interactions, and behaviors. With participants' consent, these data can be recorded retrospectively in a convenient, accurate, and inexpensive way. Based on our experience in designing, implementing, and maintaining multiple Facebook-based psychological studies that attracted over 10 million participants, we demonstrate how to recruit participants using Facebook, incentivize them effectively, and maximize their engagement. We also outline the most important opportunities and challenges associated with using Facebook for research, provide several practical guidelines on how to successfully implement studies on Facebook, and finally, discuss ethical considerations.

  14. Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Comai, Luca

    2014-06-01

    During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach--genome elimination--for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America.

  15. Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.

    2002-01-01

    While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plugin' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

  16. Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

    1997-02-01

    On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

  17. Evaluating the Development of Science Research Skills in Work-Integrated Learning through the Use of Workplace Science Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Susan M.; Zegwaard, Karsten E.; Dalgety, Jacinta

    2013-01-01

    Concept understanding, the development of analytical skills and a research mind set are explored through the use of academic tools common in a tertiary science education and relevant work-integrated learning (WIL) experiences. The use and development of the tools; laboratory book, technical report, and literature review are examined by way of…

  18. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites: an Online Tool for Researchers Educators and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    The Virtual Museum for Meteorites (Figure 1) was created as a tool for students, educators and researchers [1, 2]. One of the aims of this online resource is to promote the interest in meteorites. Thus, the role of meteorites in education and outreach is fundamental, as these are very valuable tools to promote the public's interest in Astronomy and Planetary Sciences. Meteorite exhibitions reveal the fascination of students, educators and even researchers for these extraterrestrial rocks and how these can explain many key questions origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts related to the origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts of private collectors, museums and other institutions to organize meteorite exhibitions, the reach of these is usually limited. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites takes advantage of HTML and related technologies to overcome local boundaries and offer its contents for a global audience. A description of the recent developments performed in the framework of this virtual museum is given in this work.

  19. The National Science Digital Library: New Tools for Geoscience Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gundy, S. E.; Pandya, R.

    2003-12-01

    Just as the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) serves at a catalyst for collaboration among its partner institutions and throughout the Geoscience community, DLESE is also a key partner in the broader collaborative efforts of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). Established by the National Science Foundation to support continual improvement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, NSDL provides an organized point of access to materials created by a broad range of collaborating partner institutions including universities, museums, professional organizations, government agencies, national research laboratories, and publishers of textbooks and journals. NSDL is a network of content and data-rich collections, educational resources, learning environments, and technology-based tools created to address the needs of educators and learners at all levels (K-12, higher education, and lifelong learning). This session will provide an overview of NSDL and explore the ways in which DLESE's active role in the NSDL community can facilitate collaborations with other Geoscience partners. Presenters will demonstrate online tools that can enhance cooperative learning and engagement with digital library resources. Funding opportunities for the development of future NSDL collections, services, and research will also be discussed.

  20. Nutriproteomics: a promising tool to link diet and diseases in nutritional research.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Vijayalakshmi; Hettiarachchy, Navam S

    2012-10-01

    Nutriproteomics is a nascent research arena, exploiting the dynamics of proteomic tools to characterize molecular and cellular changes in protein expression and function on a global level as well as judging the interaction of proteins with food nutrients. As nutrients are present in complex mixtures, the bioavailability and functions of each nutrient can be influenced by the presence of other nutrients/compounds and interactions. The first half of this review focuses on the techniques used as nutriproteomic tools for identification, quantification, characterization and analyses of proteins including, two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis, chromatography, mass spectrometry, microarray and other emerging technologies involving visual proteomics. The second half narrates the potential of nutriproteomics in medical and nutritional research for revolutionizing biomarker and drug development, nutraceutical discovery, biological process modeling, preclinical nutrition linking diet and diseases and structuring ways to a personalized nutrition. Though several challenges such as protein dynamics, analytical complexity, cost and resolution still exist, the scope of applying proteomics to nutrition is rapidly expanding and promising as more holistic strategies are emerging.

  1. Text analysis tools for identification of emerging topics and research gaps in conservation science.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Martin J; Barton, Philip S; Pierson, Jennifer C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-12-01

    Keeping track of conceptual and methodological developments is a critical skill for research scientists, but this task is increasingly difficult due to the high rate of academic publication. As a crisis discipline, conservation science is particularly in need of tools that facilitate rapid yet insightful synthesis. We show how a common text-mining method (latent Dirichlet allocation, or topic modeling) and statistical tests familiar to ecologists (cluster analysis, regression, and network analysis) can be used to investigate trends and identify potential research gaps in the scientific literature. We tested these methods on the literature on ecological surrogates and indicators. Analysis of topic popularity within this corpus showed a strong emphasis on monitoring and management of fragmented ecosystems, while analysis of research gaps suggested a greater role for genetic surrogates and indicators. Our results show that automated text analysis methods need to be used with care, but can provide information that is complementary to that given by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, increasing scientists' capacity for research synthesis.

  2. Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: a tool for research in social media.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided.

  3. A tool for exploring space-time patterns : an animation user research

    PubMed Central

    Ogao, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    Background Ever since Dr. John Snow (1813–1854) used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are accurate, and easy to interpret to enable prompt decision making by health experts. Similar spatio-temporal maps are observed in urban growth and census mapping – all critical aspects a of a country's socio-economic development. In this paper, a user test research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of spatio-temporal maps (animation) in exploring geospatial structures encompassing disease, urban and census mapping. Results Three types of animation were used, namely; passive, interactive and inference-based animation, with the key differences between them being on the level of interactivity and complementary domain knowledge that each offers to the user. Passive animation maintains the view only status. The user has no control over its contents and dynamic variables. Interactive animation provides users with the basic media player controls, navigation and orientation tools. Inference-based animation incorporates these interactive capabilities together with a complementary automated intelligent view that alerts users to interesting patterns, trends or anomalies that may be inherent in the data sets. The test focussed on the role of animation passive and interactive capabilities in exploring space-time patterns by engaging test-subjects in thinking aloud evaluation protocol. The test subjects were selected from a geoinformatics (map reading, interpretation and analysis abilities) background. Every test-subject used each of the three types of animation and their performances for each session assessed. The results show that interactivity in animation is a preferred exploratory tool in identifying

  4. Evidence & Gap Maps: A tool for promoting evidence informed policy and strategic research agendas.

    PubMed

    Snilstveit, Birte; Vojtkova, Martina; Bhavsar, Ami; Stevenson, Jennifer; Gaarder, Marie

    2016-11-01

    A range of organizations are engaged in the production of evidence on the effects of health, social, and economic development programs on human welfare outcomes. However, evidence is often scattered around different databases, web sites, and the gray literature and is often presented in inaccessible formats. Lack of overview of the evidence in a specific field can be a barrier to the use of existing research and prevent efficient use of limited resources for new research. Evidence & Gap Maps (EGMs) aim to address these issues and complement existing synthesis and mapping approaches. EGMs are a new addition to the tools available to support evidence-informed policymaking. To provide an accessible resource for researchers, commissioners, and decision makers, EGMs provide thematic collections of evidence structured around a framework which schematically represents the types of interventions and outcomes of relevance to a particular sector. By mapping the existing evidence using this framework, EGMs provide a visual overview of what we know and do not know about the effects of different programs. They make existing evidence available, and by providing links to user-friendly summaries of relevant studies, EGMs can facilitate the use of existing evidence for decision making. They identify key "gaps" where little or no evidence from impact evaluations and systematic reviews is available and can be a valuable resource to inform a strategic approach to building the evidence base in a particular sector. The article will introduce readers to the concept and methods of EGMs and present a demonstration of the EGM tool using existing examples.

  5. DataUp 2.0: Improving On a Tool For Helping Researchers Archive, Manage, and Share Their Tabular Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, C.; Borda, S.; Cruse, P.; Kunze, J.

    2013-12-01

    There are many barriers to data management and sharing among earth and environmental scientists; among the most significant are a lack of knowledge about best practices for data management, metadata standards, or appropriate data repositories for archiving and sharing data. Last year we developed an open source web application, DataUp, to help researchers overcome these barriers. DataUp helps scientists to (1) determine whether their file is CSV compatible, (2) generate metadata in a standard format, (3) retrieve an identifier to facilitate data citation, and (4) deposit their data into a repository. With funding from the NSF via a supplemental grant to the DataONE project, we are working to improve upon DataUp. Our main goal for DataUp 2.0 is to ensure organizations and repositories are able to adopt and adapt DataUp to meet their unique needs, including connecting to analytical tools, adding new metadata schema, and expanding the list of connected data repositories. DataUp is a collaborative project between the California Digital Library, DataONE, the San Diego Supercomputing Center, and Microsoft Research Connections.

  6. The Development of a Communication Tool to Facilitate the Cancer Trial Recruitment Process and Increase Research Literacy among Underrepresented Populations.

    PubMed

    Torres, Samantha; de la Riva, Erika E; Tom, Laura S; Clayman, Marla L; Taylor, Chirisse; Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A

    2015-12-01

    Despite increasing need to boost the recruitment of underrepresented populations into cancer trials and biobanking research, few tools exist for facilitating dialogue between researchers and potential research participants during the recruitment process. In this paper, we describe the initial processes of a user-centered design cycle to develop a standardized research communication tool prototype for enhancing research literacy among individuals from underrepresented populations considering enrollment in cancer research and biobanking studies. We present qualitative feedback and recommendations on the prototype's design and content from potential end users: five clinical trial recruiters and ten potential research participants recruited from an academic medical center. Participants were given the prototype (a set of laminated cards) and were asked to provide feedback about the tool's content, design elements, and word choices during semi-structured, in-person interviews. Results suggest that the prototype was well received by recruiters and patients alike. They favored the simplicity, lay language, and layout of the cards. They also noted areas for improvement, leading to card refinements that included the following: addressing additional topic areas, clarifying research processes, increasing the number of diverse images, and using alternative word choices. Our process for refining user interfaces and iterating content in early phases of design may inform future efforts to develop tools for use in clinical research or biobanking studies to increase research literacy.

  7. The Development of a Communication Tool to Facilitate the Cancer Trial Recruitment Process and Increase Research Literacy among Underrepresented Populations

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Samantha; de la Riva, Erika E.; Tom, Laura S.; Clayman, Marla L.; Taylor, Chirisse; Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing need to boost the recruitment of underrepresented populations into cancer trials and biobanking research, few tools exist for facilitating dialogue between researchers and potential research participants during the recruitment process. In this paper, we describe the initial processes of a user-centered design cycle to create a standardized research communication tool prototype for enhancing research literacy among individuals from underrepresented populations considering enrollment in cancer research and biobanking studies. We present qualitative feedback and recommendations on the prototype's design and content from potential end users: five clinical trial recruiters and ten potential research participants recruited from an academic medical center. Participants were given the prototype (a set of laminated cards) and were asked to provide feedback about the tool's content, design elements, and word choices during semi-structured, in-person interviews. Results suggest that the prototype was well received by recruiters and patients alike. They favored the simplicity, lay language, and layout of the cards. They also noted areas for improvement, leading to card refinements that included: addressing additional topic areas, clarifying research processes, increasing the number of diverse images, and using alternative word choices. Our process for refining user interfaces and iterating content in early phases of design may inform future efforts to develop tools for use in clinical research or biobanking studies to increase research literacy. PMID:25820604

  8. Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel

    2011-04-01

    New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance.

  9. Emerging role of bioinformatics tools and software in evolution of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Supreet Kaur; Christopher, Ajay Francis; Gupta, Vikas; Bansal, Parveen

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research is making toiling efforts for promotion and wellbeing of the health status of the people. There is a rapid increase in number and severity of diseases like cancer, hepatitis, HIV etc, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Clinical research involves drug discovery and development whereas clinical trials are performed to establish safety and efficacy of drugs. Drug discovery is a long process starting with the target identification, validation and lead optimization. This is followed by the preclinical trials, intensive clinical trials and eventually post marketing vigilance for drug safety. Softwares and the bioinformatics tools play a great role not only in the drug discovery but also in drug development. It involves the use of informatics in the development of new knowledge pertaining to health and disease, data management during clinical trials and to use clinical data for secondary research. In addition, new technology likes molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, proteomics and quantitative structure activity relationship in clinical research results in faster and easier drug discovery process. During the preclinical trials, the software is used for randomization to remove bias and to plan study design. In clinical trials software like electronic data capture, Remote data capture and electronic case report form (eCRF) is used to store the data. eClinical, Oracle clinical are software used for clinical data management and for statistical analysis of the data. After the drug is marketed the safety of a drug could be monitored by drug safety software like Oracle Argus or ARISg. Therefore, softwares are used from the very early stages of drug designing, to drug development, clinical trials and during pharmacovigilance. This review describes different aspects related to application of computers and bioinformatics in drug designing, discovery and development, formulation designing and clinical research. PMID:27453827

  10. Emerging role of bioinformatics tools and software in evolution of clinical research.

    PubMed

    Gill, Supreet Kaur; Christopher, Ajay Francis; Gupta, Vikas; Bansal, Parveen

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research is making toiling efforts for promotion and wellbeing of the health status of the people. There is a rapid increase in number and severity of diseases like cancer, hepatitis, HIV etc, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Clinical research involves drug discovery and development whereas clinical trials are performed to establish safety and efficacy of drugs. Drug discovery is a long process starting with the target identification, validation and lead optimization. This is followed by the preclinical trials, intensive clinical trials and eventually post marketing vigilance for drug safety. Softwares and the bioinformatics tools play a great role not only in the drug discovery but also in drug development. It involves the use of informatics in the development of new knowledge pertaining to health and disease, data management during clinical trials and to use clinical data for secondary research. In addition, new technology likes molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, proteomics and quantitative structure activity relationship in clinical research results in faster and easier drug discovery process. During the preclinical trials, the software is used for randomization to remove bias and to plan study design. In clinical trials software like electronic data capture, Remote data capture and electronic case report form (eCRF) is used to store the data. eClinical, Oracle clinical are software used for clinical data management and for statistical analysis of the data. After the drug is marketed the safety of a drug could be monitored by drug safety software like Oracle Argus or ARISg. Therefore, softwares are used from the very early stages of drug designing, to drug development, clinical trials and during pharmacovigilance. This review describes different aspects related to application of computers and bioinformatics in drug designing, discovery and development, formulation designing and clinical research.

  11. On the Use of EEG or MEG Brain Imaging Tools in Neuromarketing Research

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries. PMID:21960996

  12. On the use of EEG or MEG brain imaging tools in neuromarketing research.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries.

  13. Reactive Transport Modeling: An Essential Tool and a New ResearchApproach for the Earth Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2005-08-25

    Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting the advancing capabilities for materials characterization at the atomic scale with the macroscopic behavior of complex Earth systems. Reactive transport modeling has had a significant impact on the treatment of contaminant retardation in the subsurface, the description of elemental and nutrient fluxes between major Earth reservoirs, and in the treatment of deep Earth processes such as metamorphism and magma transport. Active topics of research include the development of pore scale and hybrid, or multiple continua, models to capture the scale dependence of coupled reactive transport processes. Frontier research questions, that are only now being addressed, include the effects of chemical microenvironments, coupled thermal mechanical chemical processes, controls on mineral fluid reaction rates in natural media, and scaling of reactive transport processes from the microscopic to pore to field scale.

  14. [Consideration on molecular imaging technology as a tool for drug research and development].

    PubMed

    Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Nishimura, Shintaro

    2009-03-01

    Molecular imaging technology such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are known as powerful tools for clinical diagnosis in neurology, oncology and so on. As applications to new drug research and development, there are three methodologies which are PK (Pharmacokinetics study), PD (Pharmacodynamic study), and efficacy study. When we use these methodologies for the drug research, we must consider construction of technological environment (tracer, animal model, imaging analysis software, and clinical database) and regulatory environment for GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) and GCP (Good Clinical Practice) level. Additionally, concept of microdosing and exploratory clinical study was proposed in western countries and the guidance on microdosing study was also announced by Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry on June 3rd 2008. However they may be still in learning phase, we must meet with complexity, high cost, and indigestion. To promote molecular imaging technology into the drug research, integration of the scientists between academia and industry is important because it needs much type of the advanced technologies and skills.

  15. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles

    PubMed Central

    Iwema, Carrie L.; LaDue, John; Zack, Angela; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2016-01-01

    The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1) to make their research immediately and freely available and (2) to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint. PMID:27508060

  16. Benchmark and Framework for Encouraging Research on Multi-Threaded Testing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Stoller, Scott D.; Ur, Shmuel

    2003-01-01

    A problem that has been getting prominence in testing is that of looking for intermittent bugs. Multi-threaded code is becoming very common, mostly on the server side. As there is no silver bullet solution, research focuses on a variety of partial solutions. In this paper (invited by PADTAD 2003) we outline a proposed project to facilitate research. The project goals are as follows. The first goal is to create a benchmark that can be used to evaluate different solutions. The benchmark, apart from containing programs with documented bugs, will include other artifacts, such as traces, that are useful for evaluating some of the technologies. The second goal is to create a set of tools with open API s that can be used to check ideas without building a large system. For example an instrumentor will be available, that could be used to test temporal noise making heuristics. The third goal is to create a focus for the research in this area around which a community of people who try to solve similar problems with different techniques, could congregate.

  17. Fungal Identification Using Molecular Tools: A Primer for the Natural Products Research Community

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are morphologically, ecologically, metabolically, and phylogenetically diverse. They are known to produce numerous bioactive molecules, which makes them very useful for natural products researchers in their pursuit of discovering new chemical diversity with agricultural, industrial, and pharmaceutical applications. Despite their importance in natural products chemistry, identification of fungi remains a daunting task for chemists, especially those who do not work with a trained mycologist. The purpose of this review is to update natural products researchers about the tools available for molecular identification of fungi. In particular, we discuss (1) problems of using morphology alone in the identification of fungi to the species level; (2) the three nuclear ribosomal genes most commonly used in fungal identification and the potential advantages and limitations of the ITS region, which is the official DNA barcoding marker for species-level identification of fungi; (3) how to use NCBI-BLAST search for DNA barcoding, with a cautionary note regarding its limitations; (4) the numerous curated molecular databases containing fungal sequences; (5) the various protein-coding genes used to augment or supplant ITS in species-level identification of certain fungal groups; and (6) methods used in the construction of phylogenetic trees from DNA sequences to facilitate fungal species identification. We recommend that, whenever possible, both morphology and molecular data be used for fungal identification. Our goal is that this review will provide a set of standardized procedures for the molecular identification of fungi that can be utilized by the natural products research community. PMID:28199101

  18. SWATH-MS as a tool for biomarker discovery: From basic research to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Anjo, Sandra Isabel; Santa, Cátia; Manadas, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    In the era of quantitative proteomics, where mass spectrometry plays a pivotal role, in particular associated with the use of data-independent acquisition, it is time to perform an overview of this growing field with special focus on one of the most promising approaches: SWATH-MS, and to present future perspectives for its application as a translational tool. Therefore, a summary of this technique is presented focusing on two key relevant concepts associated with its application in biomarker discovery: the protein library and the individual digital maps concepts. It is also the purpose of this review to document the likely impact of SWATH-MS in both fundamental and translational research including biomarker identification and creation of diagnostic tools. To that end, the two concepts referred above were integrated with ongoing technical developments. Finally, some of the current restrictions for the implementation of SWATH-MS on a large scale are identified, and potential solutions presented, namely protocol standardization combined with the use of the proper standards.

  19. Spontaneous versus trained numerical abilities. A comparison between the two main tools to study numerical competence in non-human animals.

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-08-30

    A large body of experimental evidence shows that animals as diverse as mammals, birds, and fish are capable of processing numerical information. Considerable differences have been reported in some cases among species and a wide debate currently surrounds the issue of whether all vertebrates share the same numerical systems or not. Part of the problem is due to the fact that these studies often use different methods, a circumstance that potentially introduces confounding factors in a comparative analysis. In most studies, two main methodological approaches have been used: spontaneous choice tests and training procedures. The former approach consists of presenting to the subjects two groups of biologically-relevant stimuli (e.g., food items or social companions) differing in numerosity with the assumption that if they are able to discriminate between the two quantities, they are expected to spontaneously select the larger/smaller quantity. In the latter approach, subjects undergo extensive training in which some neutral stimuli (e.g., a quantity of dots) are associated with a reward and the capacity to learn a numerical rule is taken as evidence of numerical abilities. We review the literature on this topic, highlighting the relevance, and potential weaknesses in controlling confounding factors obtained with either approach.

  20. Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool (SMART): An Integrated Approach for Analyzing Single Molecule Data

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Hideo; Herschlag, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Single molecule studies have expanded rapidly over the past decade and have the ability to provide an unprecedented level of understanding of biological systems. A common challenge upon introduction of novel, data-rich approaches is the management, processing, and analysis of the complex data sets that are generated. We provide a standardized approach for analyzing these data in the freely available software package SMART: Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool. SMART provides a format for organizing and easily accessing single molecule data, a general hidden Markov modeling algorithm for fitting an array of possible models specified by the user, a standardized data structure and graphical user interfaces to streamline the analysis and visualization of data. This approach guides experimental design, facilitating acquisition of the maximal information from single molecule experiments. SMART also provides a standardized format to allow dissemination of single molecule data and transparency in the analysis of reported data. PMID:22363412

  1. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes as Research and Therapeutic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Pesl, Martin; Lacampagne, Alain; Dvorak, Petr; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Meli, Albano C.

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), namely, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with their ability of indefinite self-renewal and capability to differentiate into cell types derivatives of all three germ layers, represent a powerful research tool in developmental biology, for drug screening, disease modelling, and potentially cell replacement therapy. Efficient differentiation protocols that would result in the cell type of our interest are needed for maximal exploitation of these cells. In the present work, we aim at focusing on the protocols for differentiation of hPSCs into functional cardiomyocytes in vitro as well as achievements in the heart disease modelling and drug testing on the patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs). PMID:24800237

  2. Consumption value theory and the marketing of public health: an effective formative research tool.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Douglas G; Byus, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Contemporary public health requires the support and participation of its constituency. This study assesses the capacity of consumption value theory to identify the basis of this support. A telephone survey design used simple random sampling of adult residents of Cherokee County, Oklahoma. Factor analysis and stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify and classify personal and societal level support variables. Most residents base societal level support on epistemic values. Direct services clientele base their support on positive emotional values derived from personal contact and attractive programs. Residents are curious about public health and want to know more about the health department. Where marketing the effectiveness of public health programs would yield relatively little support, marketing health promotion activities may attract public opposition. This formative research tool suggests a marketing strategy for public health practitioners.

  3. URSSA, the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment: A Tool for Assessing Student Outcomes of Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. L.; Hunter, A.; Weston, T.; Thiry, H.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence-based thinking is essential both to science and to the development of effective educational programs. Thus assessment of student learning—gathering evidence about the nature and depth of students’ learning gains, and about how they arise—is a centerpiece of any effective undergraduate research (UR) program. Assessment data can be used to monitor progress, to diagnose problems, to strengthen program designs, and to report both good outcomes and strategies to improve them to institutional and financial stakeholders in UR programs. While the positive impact of UR on students’ educational, personal and professional development has long been a matter of faith, only recently have researchers and evaluators developed an empirical basis by which to identify and explain these outcomes. Based on this growing body of evidence, URSSA, the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment, is a survey tool that departments and programs can use to assess student outcomes of UR. URSSA focuses on what students learn from their UR experience, rather than whether they liked it. Both multiple-choice and open-ended items focus on students’ gains from UR, including: (1) skills such as lab work and communication; (2) conceptual knowledge and linkages among ideas in their field and with other fields; (3) deepened understanding of the intellectual and practical work of science; (4) growth in confidence and adoption of the identity of scientist; (5) preparation for a career or graduate school in science; and (6) greater clarity in understanding what career or educational path they might wish to pursue. Other items probe students’ participation in important activities that have been shown to lead to these gains; and a set of optional items can be included to probe specific program features that may supplement UR (e.g. field trips, career seminars, housing arrangements). The poster will describe URSSA's content, development, validation, and use. For more information about

  4. Review and evaluation of electronic health records-driven phenotype algorithm authoring tools for clinical and translational research

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Luke V; Shaw, Pamela L; Jiang, Guoqian; Kiefer, Richard C; Mo, Huan; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Speltz, Peter; Zhu, Qian; Denny, Joshua C; Pathak, Jyotishman; Thompson, William K; Montague, Enid

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review and evaluate available software tools for electronic health record–driven phenotype authoring in order to identify gaps and needs for future development. Materials and Methods Candidate phenotype authoring tools were identified through (1) literature search in four publication databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus) and (2) a web search. A collection of tools was compiled and reviewed after the searches. A survey was designed and distributed to the developers of the reviewed tools to discover their functionalities and features. Results Twenty-four different phenotype authoring tools were identified and reviewed. Developers of 16 of these identified tools completed the evaluation survey (67% response rate). The surveyed tools showed commonalities but also varied in their capabilities in algorithm representation, logic functions, data support and software extensibility, search functions, user interface, and data outputs. Discussion Positive trends identified in the evaluation included: algorithms can be represented in both computable and human readable formats; and most tools offer a web interface for easy access. However, issues were also identified: many tools were lacking advanced logic functions for authoring complex algorithms; the ability to construct queries that leveraged un-structured data was not widely implemented; and many tools had limited support for plug-ins or external analytic software. Conclusions Existing phenotype authoring tools could enable clinical researchers to work with electronic health record data more efficiently, but gaps still exist in terms of the functionalities of such tools. The present work can serve as a reference point for the future development of similar tools. PMID:26224336

  5. The Right Tools for the Job: The Challenges of Theory and Method in Geoscience Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    beginners. Thus researchers must embrace the uncontrolled nature of the setting, the qualitative nature of the data collected, and the researcher's role in interpreting geologically appropriate actions as evidence of successful problem solving and investigation. Working to understand the role of diversity and culture in the geosciences also involves a wide array of theory, from affective issues through culturally and linguistically-influenced cognition, through gender, self-efficacy, and many other areas of inquiry. Research in understanding spatial skills draws heavily on techniques from cognition research but also must involve the field-specific knowledge of geoscientists to infuse these techniques with exemplars, a catalog of meaningful actions by students, and an understanding of how to recognize success. These examples illustrate briefly the wide array of tools from other fields that is being brought to bear to advance rigorous geoscience education research. We will illustrate a few of these and the insights we have gained, and the power of theory and method from other fields to enlighten us as we attempt to educate a broader array of earth scientists.

  6. PCDS as a tool in teaching and research at the University of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Physics Research Laboratory's (SPRL) use of the Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS) is discussed. For this purpose, a computer center was established to provide the hardware and software necessary to fully utilize existing data bases for research and teaching purposes. A schematic of the SPRL network is given. The core of the system consists of two VAX 11/750s and a VAX 8600, networked through ETHERNET to several LSI 11/23 microprocessors. Much of the system is used for external communications with major networks and data centers. A VAX 11/750 provides DECNET services through the SPAN network to the PCDS. A functional diagram of PCDS usage is given. The browsing capabilities of the PCDS are used to generate data files, which are later transferred to the SPRL center for further data manipulation and display. This mode of operation for classroom instruction will be used to effectively use terminals and to simplify usage of the data base. The Atmosphere Explorer data base has been used successfully in a similar manner in courses related to the thermosphere and ionosphere. The main motivation to access the PCDS was to complement research efforts related to the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI), to be flown on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).

  7. Evidence-Based Dialogue Maps as a Research Tool to Investigate the Quality of School Pupils' Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Alexandra; Shum, Simon Buckingham

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study focuses on the potential of Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping as a participatory action research tool to investigate young teenagers' scientific argumentation. Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping is a technique for representing graphically an argumentative dialogue through Questions, Ideas, Pros, Cons and Data. Our research objective is…

  8. Supervision on Social Media: Use and Perception of Facebook as a Research Education Tool in Disadvantaged Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimmer, Christoph; Chipps, Jennifer; Brysiewicz, Petra; Walters, Fiona; Linxen, Sebastian; Gröhbiel, Urs

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates how a typically disadvantaged user group of older, female learners from rural, low-tech settings used and perceived a Facebook group as a research supervision and distance learning tool over time. The within-stage mixed-model research was carried out in a module of a part-time, advanced midwifery education…

  9. An informatics supported web-based data annotation and query tool to expedite translational research for head and neck malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs) that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. Results The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs) that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP) Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR) standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a "point and click" interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. Conclusion The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and scientific review committee

  10. Rapid development of image analysis research tools: Bridging the gap between researcher and clinician with pyOsiriX.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    We present pyOsiriX, a plugin built for the already popular dicom viewer OsiriX that provides users the ability to extend the functionality of OsiriX through simple Python scripts. This approach allows users to integrate the many cutting-edge scientific/image-processing libraries created for Python into a powerful DICOM visualisation package that is intuitive to use and already familiar to many clinical researchers. Using pyOsiriX we hope to bridge the apparent gap between basic imaging scientists and clinical practice in a research setting and thus accelerate the development of advanced clinical image processing. We provide arguments for the use of Python as a robust scripting language for incorporation into larger software solutions, outline the structure of pyOsiriX and how it may be used to extend the functionality of OsiriX, and we provide three case studies that exemplify its utility. For our first case study we use pyOsiriX to provide a tool for smooth histogram display of voxel values within a user-defined region of interest (ROI) in OsiriX. We used a kernel density estimation (KDE) method available in Python using the scikit-learn library, where the total number of lines of Python code required to generate this tool was 22. Our second example presents a scheme for segmentation of the skeleton from CT datasets. We have demonstrated that good segmentation can be achieved for two example CT studies by using a combination of Python libraries including scikit-learn, scikit-image, SimpleITK and matplotlib. Furthermore, this segmentation method was incorporated into an automatic analysis of quantitative PET-CT in a patient with bone metastases from primary prostate cancer. This enabled repeatable statistical evaluation of PET uptake values for each lesion, before and after treatment, providing estaimes maximum and median standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmed respectively). Following treatment we observed a reduction in lesion volume, SUVmax and SUVmed for

  11. A Comparison of Student Knowledge and Attitude toward Research: Are Main Campus Students Different from Those in a Hybrid Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Rachel L.; Mathews, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The trend toward the use of distance education in teaching social work students has been rapidly growing over the past two decades. A constant issue of concern is related to student outcomes. This paper reports on a longitudinal quasi-experimental study assessing the differential knowledge and attitude toward research between social work students…

  12. ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Brett A; White, Bill C; Grill, Diane E; Li, Peter W; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Oberg, Ann L

    2013-01-01

    Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main

  13. Development of Complexity Science and Technology Tools for NextGen Airspace Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Sawhill, Bruce K.; Herriot, James; Seehart, Ken; Zellweger, Dres; Shay, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research by NextGen AeroSciences, LLC is twofold: 1) to deliver an initial "toolbox" of algorithms, agent-based structures, and method descriptions for introducing trajectory agency as a methodology for simulating and analyzing airspace states, including bulk properties of large numbers of heterogeneous 4D aircraft trajectories in a test airspace -- while maintaining or increasing system safety; and 2) to use these tools in a test airspace to identify possible phase transition structure to predict when an airspace will approach the limits of its capacity. These 4D trajectories continuously replan their paths in the presence of noise and uncertainty while optimizing performance measures and performing conflict detection and resolution. In this approach, trajectories are represented as extended objects endowed with pseudopotential, maintaining time and fuel-efficient paths by bending just enough to accommodate separation while remaining inside of performance envelopes. This trajectory-centric approach differs from previous aircraft-centric distributed approaches to deconfliction. The results of this project are the following: 1) we delivered a toolbox of algorithms, agent-based structures and method descriptions as pseudocode; and 2) we corroborated the existence of phase transition structure in simulation with the addition of "early warning" detected prior to "full" airspace. This research suggests that airspace "fullness" can be anticipated and remedied before the airspace becomes unsafe.

  14. Thermal Protection System Evaluation Using Arc-jet Flows: Flight Simulation or Research Tool?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The arc-jet has been used to evaluate thermal protection systems (TPS) and materials for the past forty years. Systems that have been studied in this environmerd include ablators, active, and passive TPS concepts designed for vehicles entering planetary and Earth atmospheres. The question of whether arc-jet flow can simulate a flight environment or is it a research tool that provides an aero-thermodynamic heating environment to obtain critical material properties will be addressed. Stagnation point tests in arc-jets are commonly used to obtain material properties such as mass loss rates, thermal chemical stability data, optical properties, and surface catalytic efficiency. These properties are required in computational fluid dynamic codes to accurately predict the performance of a TPS during flight. Special facilities have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to approximate the flow environment over the mid-fuselage and body flap regions of proposed space-planes type vehicles. This paper compares flow environments generated in flight over a vehicle with those created over an arc-jet test articles in terms of scale, chemistry, and fluid dynamic properties. Flight experiments are essential in order to validate the material properties obtained from arc-jet tests and used to predict flight performance of any TPS being considered for use on a vehicle entering the Earth atmosphere at hypersonic speed.

  15. A Tropical Marine Microbial Natural Products Geobibliography as an Example of Desktop Exploration of Current Research Using Web Visualisation Tools

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Joydeep; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    Microbial marine biodiscovery is a recent scientific endeavour developing at a time when information and other technologies are also undergoing great technical strides. Global visualisation of datasets is now becoming available to the world through powerful and readily available software such as Worldwind™, ArcGIS Explorer™ and Google Earth™. Overlaying custom information upon these tools is within the hands of every scientist and more and more scientific organisations are making data available that can also be integrated into these global visualisation tools. The integrated global view that these tools enable provides a powerful desktop exploration tool. Here we demonstrate the value of this approach to marine microbial biodiscovery by developing a geobibliography that incorporates citations on tropical and near-tropical marine microbial natural products research with Google Earth™ and additional ancillary global data sets. The tools and software used are all readily available and the reader is able to use and install the material described in this article. PMID:19172194

  16. Freedom from the Tyranny of the Campus Main-Frame: Handling the Statistical Analysis of a 10-year Survey Research Study with a Personal Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Linda J.

    Technological advances in microcomputer hardware and software, including size of memory and increasingly more sophisticated statistical application packages, create a new era in educational research. The alternative to costly main-frame computer data processing and statistical analysis is explored in this paper. In the first section, typical…

  17. Adventures in the microlensing cloud: Large datasets, eResearch tools, and GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2014-10-01

    As astronomy enters the petascale data era, astronomers are faced with new challenges relating to storage, access and management of data. A shift from the traditional approach of combining data and analysis at the desktop to the use of remote services, pushing the computation to the data, is now underway. In the field of cosmological gravitational microlensing, future synoptic all-sky surveys are expected to bring the number of multiply imaged quasars from the few tens that are currently known to a few thousands. This inflow of observational data, together with computationally demanding theoretical modeling via the production of microlensing magnification maps, requires a new approach. We present our technical solutions to supporting the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). This extensive dataset for cosmological microlensing modeling comprises over 70 000 individual magnification maps and ˜106 related results. We describe our approaches to hosting, organizing, and serving ˜ 30 TB of data and metadata products. We present a set of online analysis tools developed with PHP, JavaScript and WebGL to support access and analysis of GELRUMPH data in a Web browser. We discuss our use of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate data production, and we release the core of the GPU-D direct inverse ray-shooting code (Thompson et al., 2010, 2014) used to generate the magnification maps. All of the GERLUMPH data and tools are available online from http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au. This project made use of gSTAR, the GPU Supercomputer for Theoretical Astrophysical Research.

  18. A Microsoft Excel interface for rhyolite-MELTS: a tool for research and teaching of magma properties and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualda, G. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The thermodynamic modeling software MELTS (and its derivatives) is a powerful and much utilized tool for investigating crystallization and melting in natural magmatic systems. Rhyolite-MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012, J. Petrol. 53:875-890) is a recent recalibration of MELTS aimed at better capturing the evolution of magmas present in the upper crust (up to ~400 MPa pressure). Currently, most users of rhyolite-MELTS rely on a graphical user interface (GUI), which can be run on UNIX/LINUX and Mac OS X computers. While the interface is powerful and flexible, it can be somewhat cumbersome for the novice and the output is in the form of text files that need to be processed offline. This situation is probably the main reason why MELTS - despite great potential - has not been used more frequently for teaching purposes. We are currently developing an alternative GUI for rhyolite-MELTS using web services consumed by a VBA backend in Microsoft Excel©. The goal is to create a much more interactive tool, that is easy to use that can be made available to a widespread audience, and that will be useful for both research and teaching. The interface is contained within a macro-enabled workbook, which includes editable cells where the user can insert the model input information. Interface buttons initiate computations that are executed on a central server at OFM Research in Seattle (WA). Results of simple calculations are shown immediately within the interface itself. For instance, a user can very rapidly determine the temperature at which a magma of a given composition is completely molten (i.e. find the liquidus); or determine which phases are present, in what abundances, their compositions, and their physical properties (e.g. density, viscosity) at any given combination of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. We expect that using the interface in this mode will greatly facilitate building intuition about magmas and their properties. It is also possible to combine a sequence of

  19. Designing an Exploratory Text Analysis Tool for Humanities and Social Sciences Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrikumar, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a new tool for exploratory text analysis that attempts to improve the experience of navigating and exploring text and its metadata. The design of the tool was motivated by the unmet need for text analysis tools in the humanities and social sciences. In these fields, it is common for scholars to have hundreds or thousands…

  20. Photomat: A Mobile Tool for Aiding in Student Construction of Research Questions and Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Tia Renee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Silva, Alexandra; Lyons, Leilah; Moher, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile software tool, PhotoMAT (Photo Management and Analysis Tool), and students' experiences with this tool within a scaffolded curricular unit--Neighborhood Safari. PhotoMAT was designed to support learners' investigations of backyard animal behavior and works with image sets obtained using fixed-position field cameras…

  1. Validation and Use of a Predictive Modeling Tool: Employing Scientific Findings to Improve Responsible Conduct of Research Education.

    PubMed

    Mulhearn, Tyler J; Watts, Logan L; Todd, E Michelle; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Although recent evidence suggests ethics education can be effective, the nature of specific training programs, and their effectiveness, varies considerably. Building on a recent path modeling effort, the present study developed and validated a predictive modeling tool for responsible conduct of research education. The predictive modeling tool allows users to enter ratings in relation to a given ethics training program and receive instantaneous evaluative information for course refinement. Validation work suggests the tool's predicted outcomes correlate strongly (r = 0.46) with objective course outcomes. Implications for training program development and refinement are discussed.

  2. Authors report lack of time as main reason for unpublished research presented at biomedical conferences: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Roberta W.; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Schmucker, Christine; Meerpohl, Joerg J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review reports that queried abstract authors about reasons for not subsequently publishing abstract results as full length articles. Study Design and setting Systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and study bibliographies for empirical studies in which investigators examined subsequent full publication of results presented at a biomedical conference and reasons for non-publication. Results The mean full publication rate was 55.9% (95% CI, 54.8% to 56.9%) for 24 of 27 eligible reports providing this information, and 73.0% (95% CI, 71.2% to 74.7%) for 7 reports of abstracts describing clinical trials. 24 studies itemized 1,831 reasons for non-publication, and 6 itemized 428 reasons considered the most important reason. Lack of time was the most frequently reported reason (weighted average = 30.2% (95% CI, 27.9% to 32.4%)) and the most important reason (weighted average = 38.4% (95% CI, 33.7% to 43.2%)). Other commonly stated reasons were lack of time and/or resources, publication not an aim, low priority, incomplete study and trouble with co-authors. Conclusions Across medical specialties, the main reasons for not subsequently publishing an abstract in full lies with factors related to the abstract author rather than with journals. PMID:25797837

  3. ReCAP: Clinical Trial Assessment of Infrastructure Matrix Tool to Improve the Quality of Research Conduct in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Zon, Robin T.; Weiner, Bryan J.; St. Germain, Diane; Denicoff, Andrea M.; Dempsey, Kandie; Carrigan, Angela C.; Teal, Randall W.; Good, Marjorie J.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Grubbs, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    QUESTION ASKED: Is there a tool for sites engaged in cancer clinical research to use to assess their infrastructure and improve their research conduct toward exemplary levels of performance beyond the standard of Good Clinical Practice (GCP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The NCI Community Cancer Center Program (NCCCP) sites, with NCI Clinical Trial advisor input, created a “Clinical Trials Best Practice Matrix” self-assessment tool to assess research infrastructure. The tool identified nine attributes (eg, physician engagement in clinical trials, accrual activity, clinical trial portfolio diversity), each with three progressive levels (I – III) for sites to score infrastructural elements from less (I) to more (III) exemplary. For example, a level-one site might have active Phase III treatment trials in two to three disease sites and review their portfolio diversity once a year, whereas a level-three site has active Phase II and also Phase I or I/II trials across five or more disease sites and reviews their portfolio quarterly. The tool also provided a road map toward more exemplary practices. METHODS: From 2011 to 2013, 21 NCCCP sites self-assessed their programs with the tool annually. Sites reported significant increases in level III (more exemplary) scores across the original nine attributes combined (P < .001 [see Figure 1]). During 2013 to 2014, NCI collaborators conducted a five-step formative evaluation of the tool resulting in expansion of attributes from nine to 11 and a new name: the Clinical Trials Assessment of Infrastructure Matrix, or CT AIM, tool which is described and fully presented in the manuscript. BIAS, CONFOUNDING FACTOR(S), DRAWBACKS: Tool scores are self-reported which are subject to potential bias. The tool was developed by community hospital based cancer centers and has not been psychometrically validated. Use of scores for ranking between programs is not recommended at this time. The attributes and indicators in the tool may need to be adapted

  4. Catalogue of space objects and events as a powerful tool for scientific researches on space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapov, V.; Stepanyants, V.; Tuchin, A.; Khutorovsky, Z.

    modeling and space objects and events dynamical catalogue maintenance has wide functionality. Following tasks are developed, programmed, tested and working by now:- querying and analysis of statistical data on objects and events- analysis of orbital evolution for real objects based on real orbital data andmodeling of long-term evolution for given orbit- determination and analysis of close approaches between orbital objects- analysis of possibilities of specific objects observations by various sensors- a priory and a posteriori orbital data accuracy estimation taking intoaccount different types of sensors and kinds of measurements,measurements quality estimation- meas urement processing: identification with object in the catalogue,construction of initial estimation of orbital parameters, orbitaldetermination- high - efficient (by time and quality) orbital propagation- dynamical catalogue of objects in GEO region maintenance- presenting of orbital data in universal form permitting to use them withoutspecial propagation software- calculation of near-Earth objects distribution density and probability ofcollision- re-entry prediction for large objects Each one will be discussed in the presentation. For providing high - efficient work with the Catalogue powerful GUI is developed. It permits easily to query data and present results in form of tables, charts, graphics, show them with the map at the background. Projection of trajectory and error ellipsoid can be displayed on the sky or Earth map. Special interactive tools permits to control process of calculation. Many of developed tools and stored data can be used not just for space debris analysis but also for space missions analysis, studying atmosphere drag, developing object observation strategy etc. The next important step in the complex developing is providing access to it for wide range of outer users from various scientific and research organizations over the world using modern Internet technologies. Organizations of

  5. Developing and assessing research-based tools for teaching quantum mechanics and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Benjamin R.

    Research-based tools to educate college students in physics courses from introductory level to graduate level are essential for helping students with a diverse set of goals and backgrounds learn physics. This thesis explores issues related to student common difficulties with some topics in undergraduate quantum mechanics and thermodynamics courses. Student difficulties in learning quantum mechanics and thermodynamics are investigated by administering written tests and surveys to many classes and conducting individual interviews with a subset of students outside the class to unpack the cognitive mechanisms of the difficulties. The quantum mechanics research also focuses on using the research on student difficulties for the development and evaluation of a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) to help students learn about the time-dependence of expectation values using the context of Larmor precession of spin and evaluating the role of asking students to self-diagnose their mistakes on midterm examination on their performance on subsequent problem solving. The QuILT on Larmor precession of spin has both paper-pencil activities and a simulation component to help students learn these foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Preliminary evaluations suggest that the QuILT, which strives to help students build a robust knowledge structure of time-dependence of expectation values in quantum mechanics using a guided approach, is successful in helping students learn these topics in the junior-senior level quantum mechanics courses. The technique to help upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses effectively engage in the process of learning from their mistakes is also found to be effective. In particular, research shows that the self-diagnosis activity in upper-level quantum mechanics significantly helps students who are struggling and this activity can reduce the gap between the high and low achieving students on subsequent problem solving. Finally, a survey

  6. Evaluation of the Newton Pen-Pad as a tool for collecting clinical research data at the bed-side.

    PubMed

    Grant, A M; Delisle, E; Champagne, S; Théroux, P

    1996-01-01

    A protocol for the study of practice variation between Quebec Intensive Care Units in the treatment of myocardial infarction by thrombolysis was coded into the Newton Pen-Pad. This tool for the direct recording of clinical data was tested in the working environment by research nurses of 4 different teaching hospitals. Data was sent directly from the pen-pad by telecommunication to the information coordinating center. The results of this evaluation confirm the reliability and robustness of this approach which promises to be an important tool for applied clinical research.

  7. Future technology insight: mass spectrometry imaging as a tool in drug research and development

    PubMed Central

    Cobice, D F; Goodwin, R J A; Andren, P E; Nilsson, A; Mackay, C L; Andrew, R

    2015-01-01

    In pharmaceutical research, understanding the biodistribution, accumulation and metabolism of drugs in tissue plays a key role during drug discovery and development. In particular, information regarding pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and transport properties of compounds in tissues is crucial during early screening. Historically, the abundance and distribution of drugs have been assessed by well-established techniques such as quantitative whole-body autoradiography (WBA) or tissue homogenization with LC/MS analysis. However, WBA does not distinguish active drug from its metabolites and LC/MS, while highly sensitive, does not report spatial distribution. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can discriminate drug and its metabolites and endogenous compounds, while simultaneously reporting their distribution. MSI data are influencing drug development and currently used in investigational studies in areas such as compound toxicity. In in vivo studies MSI results may soon be used to support new drug regulatory applications, although clinical trial MSI data will take longer to be validated for incorporation into submissions. We review the current and future applications of MSI, focussing on applications for drug discovery and development, with examples to highlight the impact of this promising technique in early drug screening. Recent sample preparation and analysis methods that enable effective MSI, including quantitative analysis of drugs from tissue sections will be summarized and key aspects of methodological protocols to increase the effectiveness of MSI analysis for previously undetectable targets addressed. These examples highlight how MSI has become a powerful tool in drug research and development and offers great potential in streamlining the drug discovery process. PMID:25766375

  8. Characterizing Urban Traffic Exposures Using Transportation Planning Tools: An Illustrated Methodology for Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Gute, David M.; Brugge, Doug; Peterson, Scott; Parmenter, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of vehicular traffic has been associated with adverse cardiovascular and respiratory health effects in a range of populations, including children, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing heart conditions, diabetes, obesity, and genetic susceptibilities. As these relationships become clearer, public health officials will need to have access to methods to identify areas of concern in terms of elevated traffic levels and susceptible populations. This paper briefly reviews current approaches for characterizing traffic exposure and then presents a detailed method that can be employed by public health officials and other researchers in performing screening assessments to define areas of potential concern within a particular locale and, with appropriate caveats, in epidemiologic studies examining traffic-related health impacts at the intra-urban scale. The method is based on two exposure parameters extensively used in numerous epidemiologic studies of traffic and health—proximity to high traffic roadways and overall traffic density. The method is demonstrated with publically available information on susceptible populations, traffic volumes, and Traffic Analysis Zones, a transportation planning tool long used by Metropolitan Planning Agencies and planners across the USA but presented here as a new application which can be used to spatially assess possible traffic-related impacts on susceptible populations. Recommendations are provided for the appropriate use of this methodology, along with its limitations. PMID:20094920

  9. Neutron tomography of particulate filters: a non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toops, Todd J.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Voisin, Sophie; Gregor, Jens; Walker, Lakeisha; Strzelec, Andrea; Finney, Charles E. A.; Pihl, Josh A.

    2013-11-01

    This research describes the development and implementation of high-fidelity neutron imaging and the associated analysis of the images. This advanced capability allows the non-destructive, non-invasive imaging of particulate filters (PFs) and how the deposition of particulate and catalytic washcoat occurs within the filter. The majority of the efforts described here were performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D neutron imaging beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the current spatial resolution is approximately 50 μm. The sample holder is equipped with a high-precision rotation stage that allows 3D imaging (i.e., computed tomography) of the sample when combined with computerized reconstruction tools. What enables the neutron-based image is the ability of some elements to absorb or scatter neutrons where other elements allow the neutron to pass through them with negligible interaction. Of particular interest in this study is the scattering of neutrons by hydrogen-containing molecules, such as hydrocarbons (HCs) and/or water, which are adsorbed to the surface of soot, ash and catalytic washcoat. Even so, the interactions with this adsorbed water/HC is low and computational techniques were required to enhance the contrast, primarily a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). This effort describes the following systems: particulate randomly distributed in a PF, ash deposition in PFs, a catalyzed washcoat layer in a PF, and three particulate loadings in a SiC PF.

  10. Engineering plastid genomes: methods, tools, and applications in basic research and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The small bacterial-type genome of the plastid (chloroplast) can be engineered by genetic transformation, generating cells and plants with transgenic plastid genomes, also referred to as transplastomic plants. The transformation process relies on homologous recombination, thereby facilitating the site-specific alteration of endogenous plastid genes as well as the precisely targeted insertion of foreign genes into the plastid DNA. The technology has been used extensively to analyze chloroplast gene functions and study plastid gene expression at all levels in vivo. Over the years, a large toolbox has been assembled that is now nearly comparable to the techniques available for plant nuclear transformation and that has enabled new applications of transplastomic technology in basic and applied research. This review describes the state of the art in engineering the plastid genomes of algae and land plants (Embryophyta). It provides an overview of the existing tools for plastid genome engineering, discusses current technological limitations, and highlights selected applications that demonstrate the immense potential of chloroplast transformation in several key areas of plant biotechnology.

  11. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a “hot” tool for genomic research

    PubMed Central

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/ PMID:22359434

  12. Research on controlling middle spatial frequency error of high gradient precise aspheric by pitch tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Hou, Xi; Wan, Yongjian; Shi, Chunyan; Zhong, Xianyun

    2016-09-01

    Extreme optical fabrication projects known as EUV and X-ray optic systems, which are representative of today's advanced optical manufacturing technology level, have special requirements for the optical surface quality. In synchroton radiation (SR) beamlines, mirrors of high shape accuracy is always used in grazing incidence. In nanolithograph systems, middle spatial frequency errors always lead to small-angle scattering or flare that reduces the contrast of the image. The slope error is defined for a given horizontal length, the increase or decrease in form error at the end point relative to the starting point is measured. The quality of reflective optical elements can be described by their deviation from ideal shape at different spatial frequencies. Usually one distinguishes between the figure error, the low spatial error part ranging from aperture length to 1mm frequencies, and the mid-high spatial error part from 1mm to 1 μm and from1 μm to some 10 nm spatial frequencies, respectively. Firstly, this paper will disscuss the relationship between slope error and middle spatial frequency error, which both describe the optical surface error along with the form profile. Then, experimental researches will be conducted on a high gradient precise aspheric with pitch tool, which aim to restraining the middle spatial frequency error.

  13. Hyperacusis Questionnaire as a Tool for Measuring Hypersensitivity to Sound in a Tinnitus Research Population

    PubMed Central

    Fackrell, Kathryn; Fearnley, Constance; Hoare, Derek J.; Sereda, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to external sounds is often comorbid with tinnitus and may be significant for adherence to certain types of tinnitus management. Therefore, a clear measure of sensitivity to sound is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ) for use as a measurement tool using data from a sample of 264 adults who took part in tinnitus research. We evaluated the HQ factor structure, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and floor and ceiling effects. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88) and moderate correlations were observed between the HQ, uncomfortable loudness levels, and other health questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original HQ three-factor solution and a one-factor solution were both a poor fit to the data. Four problematic items were removed and exploratory factor analysis identified a two-factor (attentional and social) solution. The original three-factor structure of the HQ was not confirmed. All fourteen items do not accurately assess hypersensitivity to sound in a tinnitus population. We propose a 10-item (2-factor) version of the HQ, which will need to be confirmed using a new tinnitus and perhaps nontinnitus population. PMID:26557658

  14. You talkin' to me? Interactive playback is a powerful yet underused tool in animal communication research.

    PubMed

    King, Stephanie L

    2015-07-01

    Over the years, playback experiments have helped further our understanding of the wonderful world of animal communication. They have provided fundamental insights into animal behaviour and the function of communicative signals in numerous taxa. As important as these experiments are, however, there is strong evidence to suggest that the information conveyed in a signal may only have value when presented interactively. By their very nature, signalling exchanges are interactive and therefore, an interactive playback design is a powerful tool for examining the function of such exchanges. While researchers working on frog and songbird vocal interactions have long championed interactive playback, it remains surprisingly underused across other taxa. The interactive playback approach is not limited to studies of acoustic signalling, but can be applied to other sensory modalities, including visual, chemical and electrical communication. Here, I discuss interactive playback as a potent yet underused technique in the field of animal behaviour. I present a concise review of studies that have used interactive playback thus far, describe how it can be applied, and discuss its limitations and challenges. My hope is that this review will result in more scientists applying this innovative technique to their own study subjects, as a means of furthering our understanding of the function of signalling interactions in animal communication systems.

  15. Electron Tomography: A Three-Dimensional Analytic Tool for Hard and Soft Materials Research

    PubMed Central

    Alaidi, Osama; Rames, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis is essential to understand the relationship between the structure and function of an object. Many analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, neutron spectroscopy, and electron microscopy imaging, are used to provide structural information. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), one of the most popular analytic tools, has been widely used for structural analysis in both physical and biological sciences for many decades, in which 3D objects are projected into two-dimensional (2D) images. In many cases, 2D-projection images are insufficient to understand the relationship between the 3D structure and the function of nanoscale objects. Electron tomography (ET) is a technique that retrieves 3D structural information from a tilt series of 2D projections, and is gradually becoming a mature technology with sub-nanometer resolution. Distinct methods to overcome sample-based limitations have been separately developed in both physical and biological science, although they share some basic concepts of ET. This review discusses the common basis for 3D characterization, and specifies difficulties and solutions regarding both hard and soft materials research. It is hoped that novel solutions based on current state-of-the-art techniques for advanced applications in hybrid matter systems can be motivated. PMID:26087941

  16. Electron Tomography: A Three-Dimensional Analytic Tool for Hard and Soft Materials Research.

    PubMed

    Ercius, Peter; Alaidi, Osama; Rames, Matthew J; Ren, Gang

    2015-10-14

    Three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis is essential to understand the relationship between the structure and function of an object. Many analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, neutron spectroscopy, and electron microscopy imaging, are used to provide structural information. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), one of the most popular analytic tools, has been widely used for structural analysis in both physical and biological sciences for many decades, in which 3D objects are projected into two-dimensional (2D) images. In many cases, 2D-projection images are insufficient to understand the relationship between the 3D structure and the function of nanoscale objects. Electron tomography (ET) is a technique that retrieves 3D structural information from a tilt series of 2D projections, and is gradually becoming a mature technology with sub-nanometer resolution. Distinct methods to overcome sample-based limitations have been separately developed in both physical and biological science, although they share some basic concepts of ET. This review discusses the common basis for 3D characterization, and specifies difficulties and solutions regarding both hard and soft materials research. It is hoped that novel solutions based on current state-of-the-art techniques for advanced applications in hybrid matter systems can be motivated.

  17. Unraveling the Web of Viroinformatics: Computational Tools and Databases in Virus Research

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshini, Pragya; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the second century of research in the field of virology (the first virus was discovered in 1898) was marked by its amalgamation with bioinformatics, resulting in the birth of a new domain—viroinformatics. The availability of more than 100 Web servers and databases embracing all or specific viruses (for example, dengue virus, influenza virus, hepatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], hemorrhagic fever virus [HFV], human papillomavirus [HPV], West Nile virus, etc.) as well as distinct applications (comparative/diversity analysis, viral recombination, small interfering RNA [siRNA]/short hairpin RNA [shRNA]/microRNA [miRNA] studies, RNA folding, protein-protein interaction, structural analysis, and phylotyping and genotyping) will definitely aid the development of effective drugs and vaccines. However, information about their access and utility is not available at any single source or on any single platform. Therefore, a compendium of various computational tools and resources dedicated specifically to virology is presented in this article. PMID:25428870

  18. You talkin’ to me? Interactive playback is a powerful yet underused tool in animal communication research

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, playback experiments have helped further our understanding of the wonderful world of animal communication. They have provided fundamental insights into animal behaviour and the function of communicative signals in numerous taxa. As important as these experiments are, however, there is strong evidence to suggest that the information conveyed in a signal may only have value when presented interactively. By their very nature, signalling exchanges are interactive and therefore, an interactive playback design is a powerful tool for examining the function of such exchanges. While researchers working on frog and songbird vocal interactions have long championed interactive playback, it remains surprisingly underused across other taxa. The interactive playback approach is not limited to studies of acoustic signalling, but can be applied to other sensory modalities, including visual, chemical and electrical communication. Here, I discuss interactive playback as a potent yet underused technique in the field of animal behaviour. I present a concise review of studies that have used interactive playback thus far, describe how it can be applied, and discuss its limitations and challenges. My hope is that this review will result in more scientists applying this innovative technique to their own study subjects, as a means of furthering our understanding of the function of signalling interactions in animal communication systems. PMID:26136047

  19. Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale

    2007-01-01

    As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

  20. The Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE): a prototype federated query tool for clinical data repositories.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N; McMurry, Andrew J; Macfadden, Douglas; Nigrin, Daniel J; Churchill, Susanne; Kohane, Isaac S

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a prototype Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) to identify the technical, regulatory, and political challenges of creating a federated query tool for clinical data repositories. Separate Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at Harvard's three largest affiliated health centers approved use of their data, and the Harvard Medical School IRB approved building a Query Aggregator Interface that can simultaneously send queries to each hospital and display aggregate counts of the number of matching patients. Our experience creating three local repositories using the open source Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) platform can be used as a road map for other institutions. The authors are actively working with the IRBs and regulatory groups to develop procedures that will ultimately allow investigators to obtain identified patient data and biomaterials through SHRINE. This will guide us in creating a future technical architecture that is scalable to a national level, compliant with ethical guidelines, and protective of the interests of the participating hospitals.

  1. The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Arik; Hesse, Michael; SaintCyr, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  2. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations.

    PubMed

    Posner, A; Hesse, M; St Cyr, O C

    2014-04-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  3. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, A.; Hesse, M.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    2014-04-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  4. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations

    PubMed Central

    Posner, A; Hesse, M; St Cyr, O C

    2014-01-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations. Key Points Manuscript assesses current and near-future space weather assets Current assets unreliable for forecasting of severe geomagnetic storms Near-future assets will not improve the situation PMID:26213516

  5. MARSTHERM: A Web-based System Providing Thermophysical Analysis Tools for Mars Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, N. E.; Barratt, E. M.; Mellon, M. T.; Michaels, T. I.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce MARSTHERM, a web-based system that will allow researchers access to a standard numerical thermal model of the Martian near-surface and atmosphere. In addition, the system will provide tools for the derivation, mapping, and analysis of apparent thermal inertia from temperature observations by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). Adjustable parameters for the thermal model include thermal inertia, albedo, surface pressure, surface emissivity, atmospheric dust opacity, latitude, surface slope angle and azimuth, season (solar longitude), and time steps for calculations and output. The model computes diurnal surface and brightness temperatures for either a single day or a full Mars year. Output options include text files and plots of seasonal and diurnal surface, brightness, and atmospheric temperatures. The tools for the derivation and mapping of apparent thermal inertia from spacecraft data are project-based, wherein the user provides an area of interest (AOI) by specifying latitude and longitude ranges. The system will then extract results within the AOI from prior global mapping of elevation (from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, for calculating surface pressure), TES annual albedo, and TES seasonal and annual-mean 2AM and 2PM apparent thermal inertia (Putzig and Mellon, 2007, Icarus 191, 68-94). In addition, a history of TES dust opacity within the AOI is computed. For each project, users may then provide a list of THEMIS images to process for apparent thermal inertia, optionally overriding the TES-derived dust opacity with a fixed value. Output from the THEMIS derivation process includes thumbnail and context images, GeoTIFF raster data, and HDF5 files containing arrays of input and output data (radiance, brightness temperature, apparent thermal inertia, elevation, quality flag, latitude, and longitude) and ancillary information. As a demonstration of capabilities

  6. A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as a Measurement Tool for Wind-Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In wind energy meteorology, RPA have the clear advantage compared to manned aircraft that they allow to fly very close to the ground and even in between individual wind turbines in a wind farm. Compared to meteorological towers and lidar systems, the advantage is the flexibility of the system, which makes it possible to measure at the desired site on short notice and not only in main wind direction. At the Center of Applied Geoscience at the University of Tübingen, the research RPA MASC (Multi-purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed. RPA of type MASC have a wingspan of about 3 m and a maximum take-off weight of 7.5 kg, including payload. The standard meteorological payload includes instruments for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and wind measurement. It is possible to resolve turbulence fluctuations of wind and temperature up to 20 Hz. The autopilot ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System), which is developed at the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Control, University of Stuttgart, makes it possible to automatically follow predefined waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. At a cruising speed of 24 m/s and a battery life of approx. one hour, a range of 80 km is feasible. The project 'Lidar Complex', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, is part of the research network 'WindForS', based in Southern Germany. The goal of the project is to establish lidar technology for wind energy plant site evaluation in complex terrain. Additional goals are the comparison of different measurement techniques and the validation of wind-field models in not IEC 61400 conform terrain. It is planned to design a turbulent wind-field generator, fed by real measurement data, which can be used to analyse WEC behaviour. Two test sites were defined for the 'Lidar Complex' project, one in IEC-conform terrain about 15 km from the Baltic Sea, the other in the Swabian Alb, only 2 km downstream of a 100 m steep

  7. The BIOMAT facility at FAIR: a new tool for ground-based research in space radiation biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    The BIOMAT facility at FAIR: a new tool for ground-based research in space radiation biophysics M.Durante The FAIR accelerator complex at GSI (placeCityDarmstadt, country-regionGermany) will be a unique facility, where heavy ions with energies up to about 45 A GeV can be used for radiation biology experiments. The study of these very high charge and energy (HZE) particles is not only interesting for understanding the mechanisms of radiation action in living system, but also for radiation protection purposes. For space radiobiology, it is generally acknowledged that accelerator-based experiments are preferable to expensive and poorly reproducible flight tests, which are also presently unable to simulate the space radiation field beyond Earth's geomagnetic field. For these very reason, NASA has started the Space Radiation Health Program, building the 34 M NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY), and funding several research groups for studying biological effects of heavy ions with mass up to 56 (iron) and energy up to metricconverterProductID1 A1 A GeV. FAIR offers a number of unique opportunities in this frame. First, the beamtime available at NSRL is not sufficient to accommodate many non-US research groups, while the research needs are becoming urgent: uncertainty should be reduced to ±50% and effective countermeasures (physical and medical) developed by 2025 if a mission to Mars has to be performed within the first half of the XXI century. FAIR can be used to test a higher energy range (1- metricconverterProductID35 A35 A GeV), which has a low flux in space but is particularly penetrating and consequently impossible to shield. Finally, the raster scanning system used at GSI offers unique opportunities for biological experiments requiring precise exposures of parts of tissue or animal targets. The group of Biophysics at GSI has along experience in the field of space radiation protection, which naturally stems from heavy

  8. An Investigation of Tool Mediation in the Research Activity of Eighth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Technology and a variety of resources play an important role in students' educational lives. Vygotsky's (1987) theory of tool mediation suggests that cultural tools, such as computer software influence individuals' thinking and action. However, it is not completely understood how technology and other resources influence student action. Middle…

  9. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important…

  10. Google vs. the Library: Student Preferences and Perceptions when Doing Research Using Google and a Federated Search Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgas, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Federated searching was once touted as the library world's answer to Google, but ten years since federated searching technology's inception, how does it actually compare? This study focuses on undergraduate student preferences and perceptions when doing research using both Google and a federated search tool. Students were asked about their…

  11. "Creative Blocs": Action Research Study on the Implementation of Lego as a Tool for Reflective Practice with Social Care Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliero, Tamsin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether Lego could be used as a tool for reflective practice with social care practitioners (SCPs) and student practitioners. This article outlines an action research study conducted in an institute of higher education in Ireland. Findings from this study suggest that Lego can be used to support student…

  12. TOOLS FOR DETERMINING SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH APPLICATION OF LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT: UPDATE ON U.S. RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an update on U.S. research to develop tools and information for evaluating integrated solid waste management strategies. In the past, waste management systems consisted primarily of waste collection and disposal at a local landfill. Today's municipal solid waste ma...

  13. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum.

    PubMed

    Grativol, Clícia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Zerlotini Neto, Adhemar; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes that hamper their sequencing by standard methods such as whole genome shotgun (WGS). Large tracts of methylated repeats occur in plant genomes that are interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene-enrichment strategies based on methylation profiles offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration with McrBC endonuclease digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions in the sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of methylation filtration and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using methyl-filtered (MF) and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The use of methy filtration allowed a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5× more scaffolds and 1.7× more assembled Mb in length compared with unfiltered dataset. The coverage of sorghum coding sequences (CDS) by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by the use of UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134× the coverage of gene regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds that covered all genes of the sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), 97.2% of sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds from encoded enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes was also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and for improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop.

  15. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum

    PubMed Central

    Grativol, Clícia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W. Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Neto, Adhemar Zerlotini; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A.; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes, which hampers sequencing of their genome by standard methods such as WGS. Large tracts of methylated repeats occur at plant genomes interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene enrichment strategies based on methylation profile offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration (MF) with McrBC digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions of sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of MF and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using MF and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The MF allowed the achievement of a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5 times more scaffolds and 1.7 times more assembled Mb compared to unfiltered scaffolds. The coverage of sorghum CDS by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134X the coverage of genic regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds covering all genes at sugarcane BACs, 97.2% of sugarcane ESTs, 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds encoding enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 SNPs in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes were also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop. PMID:24773339

  16. Archive eggs: a research and management tool for avian conservation breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Des H.V.; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Christensen, Nancy; Knapik, Dwight; Gibson, Keith; Converse, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 168 bird species are captive-bred for reintroduction into the wild. Programs tend to be initiated for species with a high level of endangerment. Depressed hatching success can be a problem for such programs and has been linked to artificial incubation. The need for artificial incubation is driven by the practice of multiclutching to increase egg production or by uncertainty over the incubation abilities of captive birds. There has been little attempt to determine how artificial incubation differs from bird-contact incubation. We describe a novel archive (data-logger) egg and use it to compare temperature, humidity, and egg-turning in 5 whooping crane (Grus americana) nests, 4 sandhill crane (G. canadensis) nests, and 3 models of artificial incubator; each of which are used to incubate eggs in whooping crane captive-breeding programs. Mean incubation temperature was 31.7° C for whooping cranes and 32.83° C for sandhill cranes. This is well below that of the artificial incubators (which were set based on a protocol of 37.6° C). Humidity in crane nests varied considerably, but median humidity in all 3 artificial incubators was substantially different from that in the crane nests. Two artificial incubators failed to turn the eggs in a way that mimicked crane egg-turning. Archive eggs are an effective tool for guiding the management of avian conservation breeding programs, and can be custom-made for other species. They also have potential to be applied to research on wild populations.

  17. TU-CD-304-11: Veritas 2.0: A Cloud-Based Tool to Facilitate Research and Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, P; Patankar, A; Etmektzoglou, A; Svatos, M; Lewis, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We introduce Veritas 2.0, a cloud-based, non-clinical research portal, to facilitate translation of radiotherapy research ideas to new delivery techniques. The ecosystem of research tools includes web apps for a research beam builder for TrueBeam Developer Mode, an image reader for compressed and uncompressed XIM files, and a trajectory log file based QA/beam delivery analyzer. Methods: The research beam builder can generate TrueBeam readable XML file either from scratch or from pre-existing DICOM-RT plans. DICOM-RT plan is first converted to XML format and then researcher can interactively modify or add control points to them. Delivered beam can be verified via reading generated images and analyzing trajectory log files. Image reader can read both uncompressed and HND-compressed XIM images. The trajectory log analyzer lets researchers plot expected vs. actual values and deviations among 30 mechanical axes. The analyzer gives an animated view of MLC patterns for the beam delivery. Veritas 2.0 is freely available and its advantages versus standalone software are i) No software installation or maintenance needed, ii) easy accessibility across all devices iii) seamless upgrades and iv) OS independence. Veritas is written using open-source tools like twitter bootstrap, jQuery, flask, and Python-based modules. Results: In the first experiment, an anonymized 7-beam DICOM-RT IMRT plan was converted to XML beam containing 1400 control points. kV and MV imaging points were inserted into this XML beam. In another experiment, a binary log file was analyzed to compare actual vs expected values and deviations among axes. Conclusions: Veritas 2.0 is a public cloud-based web app that hosts a pool of research tools for facilitating research from conceptualization to verification. It is aimed at providing a platform for facilitating research and collaboration. I am full time employee at Varian Medical systems, Palo Alto.

  18. Tools for Virtual Collaboration Designed for High Resolution Hydrologic Research with Continental-Scale Data Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Leonard, Lorne; Shi, Yuning; Bhatt, Gopal; Hanson, Paul; Gil, Yolanda; Yu, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Using a series of recent examples and papers we explore some progress and potential for virtual (cyber-) collaboration inspired by access to high resolution, harmonized public-sector data at continental scales [1]. The first example describes 7 meso-scale catchments in Pennsylvania, USA where the watershed is forced by climate reanalysis and IPCC future climate scenarios (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). We show how existing public-sector data and community models are currently able to resolve fine-scale eco-hydrologic processes regarding wetland response to climate change [2]. The results reveal that regional climate change is only part of the story, with large variations in flood and drought response associated with differences in terrain, physiography, landuse and/or hydrogeology. The importance of community-driven virtual testbeds are demonstrated in the context of Critical Zone Observatories, where earth scientists from around the world are organizing hydro-geophysical data and model results to explore new processes that couple hydrologic models with land-atmosphere interaction, biogeochemical weathering, carbon-nitrogen cycle, landscape evolution and ecosystem services [3][4]. Critical Zone cyber-research demonstrates how data-driven model development requires a flexible computational structure where process modules are relatively easy to incorporate and where new data structures can be implemented [5]. From the perspective of "Big-Data" the paper points out that extrapolating results from virtual observatories to catchments at continental scales, will require centralized or cloud-based cyberinfrastructure as a necessary condition for effectively sharing petabytes of data and model results [6]. Finally we outline how innovative cyber-science is supporting earth-science learning, sharing and exploration through the use of on-line tools where hydrologists and limnologists are sharing data and models for simulating the coupled impacts of catchment

  19. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    plots was randomized and every treatment was fivefold replicated. Soil solution was collected weekly with plastic suction cups. Concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat and soil solution were measured with ICP-MS. As a result, we found that both, concentrations of trace elements in oat plants, as well as the mobility of P and trace metals in soil solution was increased by an intercropping with white lupine. Mixed culture of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of the trace nutrients Fe, Mn and Zn, as well as the concentrations of the trace metals Pb, La, Nd, Sc, Th and U in tissues of oat. Surprisingly, mixed cultures with 33 % white lupin did not significantly affect trace metal concentrations in oat, what might be the consequence of an increasing competition of roots of white lupin and oat for nutrients and trace metals. In conclusion we found that mixed cultures of white lupin with cereals might be a powerful tool for enhanced phytoremediation and phytomining. However, processes involved in the physiochemical mechanism of element uptake as affected by the oat/white lupin co-cultivation remain unknown and further studies on this topic are planned. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  20. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  1. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  2. Foil Blanking Mechanism Research Using Rubber Tool by Finite Element Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang-Kai; Li, Xiao-Xing; Lang, Li-Hui; Xiao, Rui; Ge, Yu-Long

    2016-08-01

    For foil blanking process, the usage of flexible tool can effectively reduce the requirement of the manufacturing and assembling precision, compared with using conventional tool. However, the blanking mechanism using rubber tool is not clear. To investigate this question, the Finite Element (FE) model of rubber and process is established using ABAQUS package. The result of FE simulation affirm that the fracture emerges as a result of shear, not tensile. Then, for titanium foil with 0.08mm thickness, the cutting experiment is executed to verify the validity of blanking mechanism and FE simulation.

  3. A compilation of Web-based research tools for miRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vaibhav; Varghese, Vinay Koshy; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Mallya, Sandeep; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2017-02-25

    Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs that regulate the gene expression posttranscriptionally in sequence-specific manner, there has been a release of number of tools useful for both basic and advanced applications. This is because of the significance of miRNAs in many pathophysiological conditions including cancer. Numerous bioinformatics tools that have been developed for miRNA analysis have their utility for detection, expression, function, target prediction and many other related features. This review provides a comprehensive assessment of web-based tools for the miRNA analysis that does not require prior knowledge of any computing languages.

  4. Developing a tool for mapping adult mental health care provision in Europe: the REMAST research protocol and its contribution to better integrated care

    PubMed Central

    Amaddeo, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencia R.; Salazzari, Damiano; Gonzalez-Caballero, Juan Luis; Montagni, Ilaria; Tedeschi, Federico; Cetrano, Gaia; Chevreul, Karine; Kalseth, Jorid; Hagmair, Gisela; Straßmayr, Christa; Park, A-La; Sfetcu, Raluca; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe. Method The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool) combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS) to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a) Population Data; (b) the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES) Index; (c) the Mental Health System Checklist; (d) the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e) Geographical Data. Expected results The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain. Discussion The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care. PMID:27118959

  5. Building a Central Repository for Research Ethics Consultation Data: A Proposal for a Standard Data Collection Tool.

    PubMed

    Cho, Mildred K; Taylor, Holly; McCormick, Jennifer B; Anderson, Nick; Barnard, David; Boyle, Mary B; Capron, Alexander M; Dorfman, Elizabeth; Havard, Kathryn; Reider, Carson; Sadler, John; Schwartz, Peter; Sharp, Richard R; Danis, Marion; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2015-08-01

    Clinical research ethics consultation services have been established across academic health centers over the past decade. This paper presents the results of collaboration within the CTSA consortium to develop a standard approach to the collection of research ethics consultation information to serve as a foundation for quality improvement, education, and research efforts. This approach includes categorizing and documenting descriptive information about the requestor, research project, the ethical question, the consult process, and describing the basic structure for a consult note. This paper also explores challenges in determining how to share some of this information between collaborating institutions related to concerns about confidentially, data quality, and informatics. While there is much still to be learned to improve the process of clinical research ethics consultation, these tools can advance these efforts, which, in turn, can facilitate the ethical conduct of research.

  6. Report: Follow-Up Review - EPA Updated Information for Indoor Mold Research Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-P-0308, September 8, 2016. Corrective actions taken by the EPA should help ensure that the public has correct information about EPA approved technology and tools for evaluating indoor mold.

  7. Photovoice as Participatory Action Research Tool for Engaging People with Intellectual Disabilities in Research and Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Janine M.

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have few opportunities to actively participate in research affecting programs and policies. Employment of participatory action research has been recommended. Although use of this approach with people who have intellectual disabilities is growing, articles on specific participatory research methods are rare.…

  8. Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, K. O.; Fournier, C.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

    2008-07-01

    The risk assessment for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation has been challenged by a growing body of experimental evidence showing that non-irradiated bystander cells can receive signals from irradiated cells to elicit a variety of cellular responses. These may be significant for radiation protection but also for radiation therapy using heavy ions. Charged particle microbeams for radiobiological application provide a unique means to address these issues by allowing the precise irradiation of single cells with a counted numbers of ions. Here, we focus specifically on heavy ion microbeam facilities currently in use for biological purposes, describing their technical features and biological results. Typically, ion species up to argon are used for targeted biological irradiation at the vertically collimated microbeam at JAEA (Takasaki, Japan). At the SNAKE microprobe in Munich, mostly oxygen ions have been used in a horizontal focused beam line for cell targeting. At GSI (Darmstadt), a horizontal microprobe with a focused beam for defined targeting using ion species up to uranium is operational. The visualization of DNA damage response proteins relocalizing to defined sites of ion traversal has been accomplished at the three heavy ion microbeam facilities described above and is used to study mechanistic aspects of heavy ion effects. However, bystander studies have constituted the main focus of biological applications. While for cell inactivation and effects on cell cycle progression a response of non-targeted cells has been described at JAEA and GSI, respectively, in part controversial results have been obtained for the induction of DNA damage measured by double-strand formation or at the cytogenetic level. The results emphasize the influence of the cellular environment, and standardization of experimental conditions for cellular studies at different facilities as well as the investigation of bystander effects in tissue will be the aims of future

  9. Towards a Reflection Repertoire: Using a Thinking Tool to Understand Tensions in an Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aas, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Most action researchers agree that action research consists of cycles of planning, acting, reflecting, and taking further action. However, in action research literature, there is something missing. The nature of reflection in the action research process, including its relationship with the tensions that arise while discussing purposes, processes,…

  10. Action Research: A Tool for Improving Teacher Quality and Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Katherine A.; Greene, H. Carol; Anderson, Patricia J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Action research is a meaningful form of research because it is conducted by the teacher in his or her own classroom. Action research requires a teacher to design a study in an area of interest and conduct it in their own classroom. Action research is a requirement for some masters of education programs in the United States. Purpose: To…

  11. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, A. Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The "Vision and Change" report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area…

  12. Effective communication tools to engage Torres Strait Islanders in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Barnett, B.; Williams, A. J.; Grayson, J.; Busilacchi, S.; Duckworth, A.; Evans-Illidge, E.; Begg, G. A.; Murchie, C. D.

    2008-09-01

    Often, research activities in Torres Strait have not delivered full benefit to Torres Strait Islanders due to a lack of consultation, ineffectual communication of research information and lack of empathy for the needs of Islander communities. As for other stakeholder groups, integration of Islanders into the research process through practical involvement in research may overcome these problems. Three case studies from research projects conducted in Torres Strait are discussed to highlight a variety of communication and engagement activities carried out by non-Indigenous researchers. How these communication and extension activities facilitate collaboration between Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous researchers provides insight in the importance of these activities to the relative success of research projects. The benefits for Islanders in collaborating with researchers may be: improved understanding of the research and how it contributes to natural resource management; a sense of control in future management decisions; a greater likelihood of successful self-regulatory management systems; enhanced skills; and increased employment opportunities. The potential benefits for researchers are enhanced support for research projects resulting in increased access to data and logistic support that may ultimately impact the successful completion of projects. Such an approach will require researchers to take time to develop relationships with Torres Strait Islanders, effectively involve Islanders in research on an equitable basis and be flexible. This will ultimately require funding organisations to recognise the importance of such activities in research proposals and provide support through sufficient funding to enable these activities to be carried out.

  13. Connectivity research in Iceland - using scientific tools to establish sustainable water management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David

    2015-04-01

    Since the ninth century when the first settlers arrived in Iceland the island has undergone deforestation and subsequent vegetation degradation and soil erosion. Almost the entire birch forest and woodland, which originally covered ~ 25% of the nation, have been deforested through wood cutting and overgrazing. Consequently, soil erosion seriously affects over 40% of the country. During the last 50 years extensive drainage of wetlands has taken place. Furthermore, about 75% of Iceland electricity production comes from hydropower plants, constructed along the main rivers. Along with seismic and volcanic activities the above mentioned anthropogenic impacts continuously altered the hydro-geomorphic connectivity in many parts of the island. In the framework of ongoing efforts to restore ecosystems and their services in Iceland a thorough understanding of the hydro-geomorphic processes is essential. Field observations and numerical models are crucial tools to adopt appropriate management strategies and help decision makers establish sustainable governance strategies. Sediment transport models have been used in the past to investigate the impacts of hydropower dams on sediment transport in downstream rivers (Finger et al., 2006). Hydropower operations alter the turbidity dynamics in downstream freshwater systems, affecting visibility and light penetration into the water, leading to significant changes in primary production (Finger et al., 2007a). Overall, the interruption of connectivity by physical obstructions can affect the entire food chain, hampering the fishing yields in downstream waters (Finger et al., 2007b). In other locations hydraulic connectivity through retreating glaciers assures water transfer from upstream to downstream areas. The drastically retreat of glaciers can raise concerns of future water availability in remote mountain areas (Finger et al., 2013). Furthermore, the drastic reduction of glacier mass also jeopardizes the water availability for

  14. Assessing Digital Humanities Tools: Use of Scalar at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    As librarians increasingly support digital publication platforms, they must also understand the user experience of these tools. This case study assesses use of Scalar, a digital humanities publishing platform for media-rich projects, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Based on a survey, interviews, and content analysis, the study…

  15. Challenges in Higher Education Research: The Use of Quantitative Tools in Comparative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reale, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Despite the value of the comparative perspective for the study of higher education is widely recognised, there is little consensus about the specific methodological approaches. Quantitative tools outlined their relevance for addressing comparative analyses since they are supposed to reducing the complexity, finding out and graduating similarities…

  16. Contexts, Collaboration, and Cultural Tools: A Sociocultural Perspective on Researching Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Sociocultural theorists recognise that cognition is not an individual construction, but is distributed across people as they participate in culturally relevant activities. Thus, rather than being a universal skill, thinking is very much contextually specific, guided by others, and mediated by particular cultural tools and artefacts. Yet there is a…

  17. Research Notes. Archimedes: Analysis of a HyperCard Reference Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottaviani, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of Archimedes as a HyperCard reference tool at the University of Michigan, and compares uses to similar projects. Results from studied points (i.e., system design and use statistics) support Archimedes: the system sees more use during reference hours when a librarian is unavailable, and user time is comparable to time spent with a…

  18. FDA Bioinformatics Tool for Microbial Genomics Research on Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens Using Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Advances in microbial genomics and bioinformatics are offering greater insights into the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens in outbreak scenarios. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed the genomics tool ArrayTrackTM, which provides extensive functionalities to man...

  19. Joining the Tots: Visual Research Tools to Connect Families and Community in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Judith; One, Sarah Te

    2014-01-01

    Over a two-year teacher-researcher project in New Zealand we used a mosaic of research methods (Clark, 2010) to capture the perspectives of staff, parents and children. As a team of teachers and academic researchers, we recorded and documented reconceptualised pedagogical practices that included active adult participation in a cluster of early…

  20. Students' Framing of a Reading Annotation Tool in the Context of Research-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Jan Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the studied master's course, students participated both as research objects in a digital annotation experiment and as critical investigators of this technology in their semester projects. The students' role paralleled the researcher's role, opening an opportunity for researcher-student co-learning within what is often referred to as…

  1. Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education literature uses these taxonomies selectively and with limited justification, hindering comparison between existing and future studies. The first aim of this paper is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of the different taxonomies described in the literature and to organise the different views according to their similarities and differences. The second aim of the paper is to present a new research tool developed on the basis of the findings of the literature review. This tool consists of a short questionnaire allowing educational researchers to identify the different viewpoints held by pre-service teachers, undergraduates majoring in biology and school learners. We present the tool itself and demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for future science education research based on three empirical studies covering a range of geographical areas, religious backgrounds, educational levels, age groups and genders.

  2. Quality management tools: facilitating clinical research data integrity by utilizing specialized reports with electronic case report forms.

    PubMed

    Trocky, N M; Fontinha, M

    2005-01-01

    Data collected throughout the course of a clinical research trial must be reviewed for accuracy and completeness continually. The Oracle Clinical (OC) data management application utilized to capture clinical data facilitates data integrity through pre-programmed validations, edit and range checks, and discrepancy management modules. These functions were not enough. Coupled with the use of specially created reports in Oracle Discoverer and Integrated Review, both ad-hoc query and reporting tools, research staff have enhanced their ability to clean, analyze and report more accurate data captured within and among Case Report Forms (eCRFs) by individual study or across multiple studies.

  3. Imaging Spectrograph as a Tool to Enhance the Undergraduate Student Research Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B.; Nielsen, K.; Johnson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate students often engage in research activities that are part of a larger project outlined by research faculty, while it is less common for students to explore and define their own research project. The later has been shown to have tremendous impact on the learning outcome of the students and provide a stronger sense of pride and ownership of the research project. It is unrealistic to expect starting undergraduate students to define transformative research projects. However, with the proper training and guidance student-driven transformative research is possible for upper division students. We have instituted a student research paradigm with focus on the development of student research skills in coordination with their course progress. We present here a specific student project that engage students in aeronomy research activities and provide them with a solid base to establish their own research projects for senior year. The core of the project is an imaging spectrograph, which is constructed, tested, and calibrated by the students. The instrument provides unique opportunities student research projects across subject such as optics, quantum mechanics, and how these subjects are applied in the geosciences of aeronomy and space physics.

  4. Qualitative evaluation of the implementation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool: a reflective tool to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork using Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Smith, Tony; Ariss, Steven; Enderby, Pamela M

    2015-07-01

    Reflective practice is used increasingly to enhance team functioning and service effectiveness; however, there is little evidence of its use in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool (IMT), an evidence-based change tool designed to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork through structured team reflection. The IMT incorporates three components: an evidence-based resource guide; a reflective implementation framework based on Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation methodology; and formative and summative evaluation components. The IMT was implemented with intermediate care teams supported by independent facilitators in England. Each intervention lasted 6 months and was evaluated over a 12-month period. Data sources include interviews, a focus group with facilitators, questionnaires completed by team members and documentary feedback from structured team reports. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. The IMT was implemented with 10 teams, including 253 staff from more than 10 different disciplines. Team challenges included lack of clear vision; communication issues; limited career progression opportunities; inefficient resource use; need for role clarity and service development. The IMT successfully engaged staff in the change process, and resulted in teams developing creative strategies to address the issues identified. Participants valued dedicated time to focus on the processes of team functioning; however, some were uncomfortable with a focus on teamwork at the expense of delivering direct patient care. The IMT is a relatively low-cost, structured, reflective way to enhance team function. It empowers individuals to understand and value their own, and others' roles and responsibilities within the team; identify barriers to effective teamwork, and develop and implement appropriate solutions to these. To be successful, teams need protected time to take

  5. Trial Promoter: A Web-Based Tool for Boosting the Promotion of Clinical Research Through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Ukpolo, Francis; Ward, Edward; Wilson, Melissa L

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce information about clinical research, in particular clinical trials, is among the top reasons why potential participants do not take part in clinical studies. Without volunteers, on the other hand, clinical research and the development of novel approaches to preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease are impossible. Promising digital options such as social media have the potential to work alongside traditional methods to boost the promotion of clinical research. However, investigators and research institutions are challenged to leverage these innovations while saving time and resources. Objective To develop and test the efficiency of a Web-based tool that automates the generation and distribution of user-friendly social media messages about clinical trials. Methods Trial Promoter is developed in Ruby on Rails, HTML, cascading style sheet (CSS), and JavaScript. In order to test the tool and the correctness of the generated messages, clinical trials (n=46) were randomized into social media messages and distributed via the microblogging social media platform Twitter and the social network Facebook. The percent correct was calculated to determine the probability with which Trial Promoter generates accurate messages. Results During a 10-week testing phase, Trial Promoter automatically generated and published 525 user-friendly social media messages on Twitter and Facebook. On average, Trial Promoter correctly used the message templates and substituted the message parameters (text, URLs, and disease hashtags) 97.7% of the time (1563/1600). Conclusions Trial Promoter may serve as a promising tool to render clinical trial promotion more efficient while requiring limited resources. It supports the distribution of any research or other types of content. The Trial Promoter code and installation instructions are freely available online. PMID:27357424

  6. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-06-29

    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level.

  7. The Chemnitz LogAnalyzer: a tool for analyzing data from hypertext navigation research.

    PubMed

    Brunstein, Angela; Naumann, Anja; Krems, Josef F

    2005-05-01

    Computer-based studies usually produce log files as raw data. These data cannot be analyzed adequately with conventional statistical software. The Chemnitz LogAnalyzer provides tools for quick and comfortable visualization and analyses of hypertext navigation behavior by individual users and for aggregated data. In addition, it supports analogous analyses of questionnaire data and reanalysis with respect to several predefined orders of nodes of the same hypertext. As an illustration of how to use the Chemnitz LogAnalyzer, we give an account of one study on learning with hypertext. Participants either searched for specific details or read a hypertext document to familiarize themselves with its content. The tool helped identify navigation strategies affected by these two processing goals and provided comparisons, for example, of processing times and visited sites. Altogether, the Chemnitz LogAnalyzer fills the gap between log files as raw data of Web-based studies and conventional statistical software.

  8. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M.; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level.  PMID:26203395

  9. Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.

    PubMed

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research.

  10. Premier Tools of Energy Research Also Probe Secrets of Viral Disease

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chui, Glennda

    2011-03-28

    Advanced light sources peer into matter at the atomic and molecular scales, with applications ranging from physics, chemistry, materials science, and advanced energy research, to biology and medicine.

  11. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    PubMed

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  12. Analyzing HT-SELEX data with the Galaxy Project tools--A web based bioinformatics platform for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Thiel, William H; Giangrande, Paloma H

    2016-03-15

    The development of DNA and RNA aptamers for research as well as diagnostic and therapeutic applications is a rapidly growing field. In the past decade, the process of identifying aptamers has been revolutionized with the advent of high-throughput sequencing (HTS). However, bioinformatics tools that enable the average molecular biologist to analyze these large datasets and expedite the identification of candidate aptamer sequences have been lagging behind the HTS revolution. The Galaxy Project was developed in order to efficiently analyze genome, exome, and transcriptome HTS data, and we have now applied these tools to aptamer HTS data. The Galaxy Project's public webserver is an open source collection of bioinformatics tools that are powerful, flexible, dynamic, and user friendly. The online nature of the Galaxy webserver and its graphical interface allow users to analyze HTS data without compiling code or installing multiple programs. Herein we describe how tools within the Galaxy webserver can be adapted to pre-process, compile, filter and analyze aptamer HTS data from multiple rounds of selection.

  13. Comparative community case studies as research tools: A national effort to support local sustainability planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    The provisioning of aquatic ecosystem goods and services (EGS) is a key concept in USEPA Office of Research and Development research programs. This is a national issue, yet many decisions affecting EGS sustainability are made at the local level where decisions can have substanti...

  14. Research as Pedagogy: Using Experimental Data Collection as a Course Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Virginia; Booke, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Integrating research in the classroom experience is recognized as potentially important in enhancing student learning (Price 2001; Schmid 1992). This article asks if student integration as research subjects augments their learning about political science. A quasi-experimental project focused on media usage, construction, and influences on the…

  15. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions…

  16. The Need for Novel Informatics Tools for Integrating and Planning Research in Molecular and Cellular Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Alcino J.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2015-01-01

    The sheer volume and complexity of publications in the biological sciences are straining traditional approaches to research planning. Nowhere is this problem more serious than in molecular and cellular cognition, since in this neuroscience field, researchers routinely use approaches and information from a variety of areas in neuroscience and other…

  17. Head mounted DLP for visual stimulation in freely moving rats: a novel tool for visual neuroscience research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Yossi; Arens-Arad, Tamar; Farah, Nairouz; Zlotnik, Alex; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-03-01

    Novel technologies are constantly under development for vision restoration in blind patients. In some of these techniques, such as photodiode implants or optogenetics based treatment, a glasses mounted optical projection system projects the visual scene onto the retina. The desired projection system is characterized by a relatively high power density, a localized retinal stimulation area and compatibility for wavelengths that are specific for the technology at hand. The challenges of obtaining such a projection system are not only limited by developing the tools and the apparatus for testing the visual performance of artificial retina, but also devising the technique and the methodology for training and testing the behaving animals using this tool. Current research techniques used for evaluation of visual function in behaving animals utilize computer screens for retinal stimulation, and therefore do not fulfill the requirements of the evaluation of retinal implant performance or optogenetics based treatment (inefficient power and no wavelength flexibility). In the following work we will present and evaluate a novel projection system that is suited for behavioral animal studies and meet the requirements for artificial retinal stimulation. The proposed system is based on a miniature Digital Mirror Device (DMD) for pattern projection and a telescope for relaying the pattern directly onto the animal eye. This system facilitates the projection of patterns with high spatial resolution at high light intensities with the desired wavelength and may prove to be a vital tool in natural and artificial vision performance research in behaving animals.

  18. [Main indicators of educational activity at the Department of Operative Techniques and Surgical Research at the University of Debrecen between 2000-2013].

    PubMed

    Pető, Katalin; Németh, Norbert; Lesznyák, Tamás; Furka, István; Mikó, Irén

    2013-06-01

    The authors provide a review about the main parameters of the gradual and postgradual educational activity of the Department of Operative Techniques and Surgical Research between 2000-2013. In this period of time several new subjects and courses have been introduced. The thematics have been widened, and the educational topics underwent a significant change and development: new teaching videos, revised note-books and a new textbook have been prepared through these years. Further, new training models (surgical training models, phantom and biomodels) have also been evolved. The educational activity of the Department was supported significantly several times (financial, contribution, grants) from the University of Debrecen, partner companies, HEFOP and TÁMOP grants. Infrastructural development in conjunction with the above increased the quality of educational standards in gradual and postgradual education, too. All these changes and developments were presented on various professional meetings and published in relevant journals, as part ofinternal quality control.

  19. Staging data: theatre as a tool for analysis and knowledge transfer in health research.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Kate; Kontos, Pia; Colantonio, Angela; Gilbert, Julie; Gray, Julia; Keightley, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several decades, researchers have taken an interest in theatre as a unique method of analysing data and translating findings. Because of its ability to communicate research findings in an emotive and embodied manner, theatre holds particular potential for health research, which often engages complex questions of the human condition. In order to evaluate the research potential of theatre, this article critically examines examples of evaluated health research studies that have used theatre for the purposes of data analysis or translation. We examine these studies from two perspectives. First, the literature is divided and categorized into four theatre genres: (1) non-theatrical performances; (2) ethnodramas, which can be interactive or non-interactive; (3) theatrical research-based performances; and (4) fictional theatrical performances. This categorization highlights the importance of these genres of theatre and provides an analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of each, thus providing insight into how theatre may be most effectively utilized in health research. Second, we explore the efficacy of using theatre for the purposes of data analysis and knowledge transfer, and critically examine potential approaches to the evaluation of such endeavours.

  20. Simulation and experimental research on modal analysis for a new 5-axis superalloy blade machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. P.; Tang, X. Q.; Chen, X.; Wang, L. P.

    2011-05-01

    This paper considers a new type of 5-axis machine tool which is used to cut superalloy blades specially. Referring to this new structure system, this study presents modal simulation in detail to calculate the structure vibration resistance. The modal simulation include building suitable finite element models, considering boundary constraints and interpreting results. The physical impact test of prototype is conducted to validate the simulation results. The modal simulation also reveals that some important partial characteristics that affects the structure performance are ignored in the physical test data. The validated model can be used to complement the experimental test.

  1. Solar Flares and Coronal Physics Using P/OF as a Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg, E. (Editor); Wilson, R. M. (Editor); Hudson, R. M. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This NASA Conference Publication contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Solar High-Resolution Astrophysics Using the Pinhole/Occulter Facility held at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, on May 8 to 10, 1985. These proceedings include primarily the invited tutorial papers, extended abstracts of contributed poster papers, and summaries of subpanel (X-Ray and Coronal Physics) discussions. Both observational and theoretical results are presented. Although the emphasis of the Workshop was focused primarily on topics peculiar to solar physics, one paper is included that discusses the P/0F as a tool for X-ray astronomy.

  2. ModelDB in computational neuroscience education - a research tool as interactive educational media

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    ModelDB's mission is to link computational models and publications, supporting the field of computational neuroscience (CNS) by making model source code readily available. It is continually expanding, and currently contains source code for more than 300 models that cover more than 41 topics. Investigators, educators, and students can use it to obtain working models that reproduce published results and can be modified to test for new domains of applicability. Users can browse ModelDB to survey the field of computational neuroscience, or pursue more focused explorations of specific topics. Here we describe tutorials and initial experiences with ModelDB as an interactive educational tool. PMID:25089156

  3. The Potential to use Publication of Undergraduate Research as a Teaching Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Lindbo, David L.; Belcher, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Several studies crossing numerous disciplinary boundaries have demonstrated that undergraduate students benefit from research experiences. These benefits include personal and intellectual development, more and closer contact with faculty, the use of active learning techniques, the creation of high expectations, the development of creative and problem-solving skills, and the development of greater independence and intrinsic motivation to learn. The discipline also gains in that studies show undergraduates who engage in research experiences are more likely to remain science majors and finish their degree program. Research experiences come as close as possible to allowing undergraduates to experience what it is like to be an academic or research member of their profession working to advance their discipline, therefore enhancing their professional socialization into their chosen field. If the goals achieved by undergraduate research include introducing these students to the advancement of their chosen field, it stands to reason the ultimate ending to this experience would be the publication of a peer-reviewed paper. While not all undergraduate projects will end with a product worthy of peer-reviewed publication, some definitely do, and the personal experience of the authors indicates that undergraduate students who achieve publication get great satisfaction and a sense of personal achievement from that publication. While a top-tier international journal probably isn't going to be the ultimate destination for many of these projects, there are several appropriate outlets. The SSSA journal Soil Horizons has published several undergraduate projects in recent years, and good undergraduate projects can often be published in state academy of science journals. Journals focused expressly on publishing undergraduate research include the Journal of Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Excellence, Reinvention, and the American Journal of Undergraduate Research. Case studies of

  4. TextHunter--A User Friendly Tool for Extracting Generic Concepts from Free Text in Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Jackson MSc, Richard G; Ball, Michael; Patel, Rashmi; Hayes, Richard D; Dobson, Richard J B; Stewart, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Observational research using data from electronic health records (EHR) is a rapidly growing area, which promises both increased sample size and data richness - therefore unprecedented study power. However, in many medical domains, large amounts of potentially valuable data are contained within the free text clinical narrative. Manually reviewing free text to obtain desired information is an inefficient use of researcher time and skill. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of applying Natural Language Processing (NLP) to extract information. However, in real world research environments, the demand for NLP skills outweighs supply, creating a bottleneck in the secondary exploitation of the EHR. To address this, we present TextHunter, a tool for the creation of training data, construction of concept extraction machine learning models and their application to documents. Using confidence thresholds to ensure high precision (>90%), we achieved recall measurements as high as 99% in real world use cases.

  5. Ethnobotany as a Pharmacological Research Tool and Recent Developments in CNS-active Natural Products from Ethnobotanical Sources

    PubMed Central

    McClatchey, Will C.; Mahady, Gail B.; Bennett, Bradley C.; Shiels, Laura; Savo, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    The science of ethnobotany is reviewed in light of its multidisciplinary contributions to natural product research for the development of pharmaceuticals and pharmacological tools. Some of the issues reviewed involve ethical and cultural perspectives of healthcare and medicinal plants. While these are not usually part of the discussion of pharmacology, cultural concerns potentially provide both challenges and insight for field and laboratory researchers. Plant evolutionary issues are also considered as they relate to development of plant chemistry and accessing this through ethnobotanical methods. The discussion includes presentation of a range of CNS-active medicinal plants that have been recently examined in the field, laboratory and/or clinic. Each of these plants is used to illustrate one or more aspects about the valuable roles of ethnobotany in pharmacological research. We conclude with consideration of mutually beneficial future collaborations between field ethnobotanists and pharmacologists. PMID:19422851

  6. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-comparative effectiveness research infrastructure investments: emerging data resources, tools and publications.

    PubMed

    Segal, Courtney; Holve, Erin

    2014-11-01

    The Recovery Act provided a substantial, one-time investment in data infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research (CER). A review of the publications, data, and tools developed as a result of this support has informed understanding of the level of effort undertaken by these projects. Structured search queries, as well as outreach efforts, were conducted to identify and review resources from American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 CER projects building electronic clinical data infrastructure. The findings from this study provide a spectrum of productivity across a range of topics and settings. A total of 451 manuscripts published in 192 journals, and 141 data resources and tools were identified and address gaps in evidence on priority populations, conditions, and the infrastructure needed to support CER.

  7. MEDES clinical research facility as a tool to prepare ISSA space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillet, A.; Traon, A. Pavy-Le

    This new multi-disciplinary medical experimentation center provides the ideal scientific, medical and technical environment required for research programs and to prepare international space station Alpha (ISSA) missions, where space and healthcare industries can share their expertise. Different models are available to simulate space flight effects (bed-rest, confinement,…). This is of particular interest for research in Human psychology, physiology, physiopathology and ergonomics, validation of biomedical materials and procedures, testing of drugs, and other healthcare related products. This clinical research facility (CRF) provides valuable services in various fields of Human research requiring healthy volunteers. CRF is widely accessible to national and international, scientific, medical and industrial organisations. Furthermore, users have at their disposal the multi-disciplinary skills of MEDES staff and all MEDES partners on a single site.

  8. Value of Information: A Tool to Improve Research Prioritization and Reduce Waste.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Cosetta; Baio, Gianluca

    2015-09-01

    In a Guest Editorial, Cosetta Minelli and Gianluca Baio explain how VOI analysis can prioritize research projects by identifying uncertainty in existing knowledge and then estimating expected benefits from reducing that uncertainty.

  9. Microgravity: A New Tool for Basic and Applied Research in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This brochure highlights selected aspects of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. So that we can expand our understanding and control of physical processes, this program supports basic and applied research in electronic materials, metals, glasses and ceramics, biological materials, combustion and fluids and chemicals. NASA facilities that provide weightless environments on the ground, in the air, and in space are available to U.S. and foreign investigators representing the academic and industrial communities. After a brief history of microgravity research, the text explains the advantages and methods of performing microgravity research. Illustrations follow of equipment used and experiments preformed aboard the Shuttle and of prospects for future research. The brochure concludes be describing the program goals and the opportunities for participation.

  10. The Internet as a research tool: worth the price of admission?

    PubMed

    Lenert, Leslie; Skoczen, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The Internet is a rich multimodal communication environment where researchers can often recruit large numbers of participants for survey studies at low cost; however, there are many unanswered questions about the use of this technology in medical research. An important question is whether the results obtained in such surveys are generalizable to other populations. In this article, we describe different approaches for recruitment of participants on the Internet and how specific approaches may limit generalizability. Another issue clouding use of the Web in research is the essential anonymity of participants. We discuss the risk and benefits of anonymous surveys and technical methods that minimize the risks while preserving anonymity and confidentiality. A related problem may be accidental or deliberate enrollment of unqualified individuals in studies. Researchers can use survey design and statistical methods described herein to partially address threats to validity arising from such individuals; however, in some situations, confirmation of eligibility, by manual review of medical records, may be necessary.

  11. Tools of the Trade: Planned Missing Data Designs for Research in Cognitive Development.

    PubMed

    Rhemtulla, Mijke; Little, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Data collection can be the most time- and cost-intensive part of developmental research. This article describes some long-proposed but little-used research designs that have the potential to maximize data quality (reliability and validity) while minimizing research cost. In planned missing data designs, missing data are used strategically to improve the validity of data collection in one of two ways. Multi-form designs allow one to increase the number of measures assessed on each participant without increasing each participant's burden. Two-method measurement designs allow one to reap the benefits of a cost-intensive gold-standard measure, using a larger sample size made possible by a rougher, cheaper measure. We explain each method using examples relevant to cognitive development research. With the use of analysis methods that produce unbiased results, planned missing data designs are an efficient way to manage cost, improve data quality, and reduce participant fatigue and practice effects.

  12. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Matthew E.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Zussblatt, Niels P.; Plourde, Kenton J.; Wender, Ben A.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis—methods commonly applied in financial and operations management—to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios—combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  13. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Zussblatt, Niels P; Plourde, Kenton J; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis-methods commonly applied in financial and operations management-to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios-combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  14. The Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment, a new software framework to share research tools in the classroom and across disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, K.; Becker, T. W.; Boschi, L.; Sain, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Waterhouse, H.

    2009-12-01

    The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical mode, while giving more advanced users the opportunity to view and modify the source code. Top level graphical user interfaces which initiate the calculations and visualize results, are written in the Python programming language using an object-oriented, modern design. Results are plotted with either Matlab-like Python libraries, or SEATREE’s own Generic Mapping Tools wrapper. The underlying computational codes used to produce the results can be written in any programming language and accessed through Python wrappers. There are currently four fully developed science modules for SEATREE: (1) HC is a global geodynamics tool based on a semi-analytical mantle-circulation program based on work by B. Steinberger, Becker, and C. O'Neill. HC can compute velocities and tractions for global, spherical Stokes flow and radial viscosity variations. HC is fast enough to be used for classroom instruction, for example to let students interactively explore the role of radial viscosity variations for global geopotential (geoid) anomalies. (2) ConMan wraps Scott King’s 2D finite element mantle convection code, allowing users to quickly observe how modifications to input parameters affect heat flow over time. As seismology modules, SEATREE includes, (3), Larry, a global, surface wave phase-velocity inversion tool and, (4), Syn2D, a Cartesian tomography teaching tool for ray-theory wave propagation in synthetic, arbitrary velocity structure in the presence of noise. Both underlying programs were contributed by Boschi. Using Syn2D, students can explore, for example, how well a given

  15. Development of “-omics” research in Schistosoma spp. and -omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuqi; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those “-omics” researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal “-omics” researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by “-omics” researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by “-omics” studies. PMID:25018752

  16. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change.

  17. Research Tool to Evaluate the Safety Response of Lithium Batteries to an Internal Short Circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-19

    Li-ion cells provide the highest specific energy and energy density rechargeable battery with the longest life. Many safety incidents that take place in the field originate due to an internal short that was not detectable or predictable at the point of manufacture. NREL's internal short circuit (ISC) device is capable of simulating shorts and produces consistent and reproducible results. The cell behaves normally until the ISC device is activated wherein a latent defect (i.e., built into the cell during manufacturing) gradually moves into position to create an internal short while the battery is in use, providing relevant data to verify abuse models. The ISC device is an effective tool for studying the safety features of parts of Li-ion batteries.

  18. NY TBO Research: Integrated Demand Management (IDM): IDM Concept, Tools, and Training Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    A series of human-in-the-loop simulation sessions were conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) to evaluate a new traffic management concept called Integrated Demand Management (IDM). The simulation explored how to address chronic equity, throughput and delay issues associated with New Yorks high-volume airports by operationally integrating three current and NextGen capabilities the Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP), Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) and Required Time of Arrival (RTA) in order to better manage traffic demand within the National Air Traffic System. A package of presentation slides was developed to describe the concept, tools, and training materials used in the simulation sessions. The package will be used to outbrief our stakeholders by both presenting orally and disseminating of the materials via email.

  19. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Novel Tool in Psychiatric Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sewoong; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Oh, Daeyoung; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a valuable opportunity to study neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative psychiatric diseases by offering an unlimited source for patient-specific neuronal and glial cells. The present review focuses on the recent advancements in modeling psychiatric disorders such as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Timothy syndrome, Rett syndrome, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia. The treatment effects identified in studies on iPSCs using known therapeutic compounds are also summarized in this review. Here we discuss validation of cellular models and explore iPSCs as a novel drug screening tool. Although there are several limitations associated with the current methods used to study mental disorders, using iPSCs as a model system provides the advantage of rewinding and reviewing the development and degeneration of human neural cells. PMID:26766942

  20. Development of inhibitors as research tools for carbohydrate-processing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gloster, Tracey M

    2012-10-01

    Carbohydrates, which are present in all domains of life, play important roles in a host of cellular processes. These ubiquitous biomolecules form highly diverse and often complex glycan structures without the aid of a template. The carbohydrate structures are regulated solely by the location and specificity of the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. These enzymes, glycosyltransferases and glycoside hydrolases, need to be functionally well characterized in order to investigate the structure and function of glycans. The use of enzyme inhibitors, which target a particular enzyme, can significantly aid this understanding, and may also provide insights into therapeutic applications. The present article describes some of the approaches used to design and develop enzyme inhibitors as tools for investigating carbohydrate-processing enzymes.

  1. The narrated, nonnarrated, and the disnarrated: conceptual tools for analyzing narratives in health services research.

    PubMed

    Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia; Johnson, Ginger A

    2014-11-01

    While analyzing the narratives of children receiving pediatric oncology treatment and their parents, we encountered three ways to look at their narratives: what was narrated, nonnarrated, and disnarrated. The narrated refers to the actors (characters) and events (scenes) individuals decided to include in the narration of their experiences, the nonnarrated are everything not included in narration, and the disnarrated are elements that are narrated in the story but did not actually take place. We use our reflection to illustrate how an integrative analysis of these different forms of narration can allow us to produce a holistic interpretation of people's experiences of illness. This approach is still in the early stages of development, but we hope this article can promote a debate in the field and lead to the refinement of an important tool for narrative analysis.

  2. Feasibility of an electrodermal activity ring prototype as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Torniainen, Jari; Cowley, Benjamin; Henelius, Andreas; Lukander, Kristian; Pakarinen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Electrodermal activity is an indicator of sympathetic activation and a useful tool for investigating psychological and physiological arousal. Novel wearable skin conductivity sensors offer portable low-cost solutions for long-term monitoring. In this article we compare the similarity of signals between a prototype of the wearable Moodmetric EDA Ring and a laboratory-grade skin conductance sensor in a psychophysiological experiment. The similarity of the signals was estimated by calculating the cosine distance between phasic features extracted from decomposed signals. The similarity was on average 83.3% ± 16.4%. The compound error of the decomposition process was also investigated and no systematic bias was observed towards either device. We conclude that the prototype ring is a promising device for ecologically valid field studies.

  3. Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model DOE Tool for Assessing Impact of Research on Cost of Power

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a spreadsheet model to provide insight as to how its research activities can impact of cost of producing power from geothermal energy. This model is referred to as GETEM, which stands for “Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model”. Based on user input, the model develops estimates of costs associated with exploration, well field development, and power plant construction that are used along with estimated operating costs to provide a predicted power generation cost. The model allows the user to evaluate how reductions in cost, or increases in performance or productivity will impact the predicted power generation cost. This feature provides a means of determining how specific technology improvements can impact generation costs, and as such assists DOE in both prioritizing research areas and identifying where research is needed.

  4. Innovative Near Real-Time Data Dissemination Tools Developed by the Space Weather Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullinix, R.; Maddox, M. M.; Berrios, D.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Space weather affects virtually all of NASA's endeavors, from robotic missions to human exploration. Knowledge and prediction of space weather conditions are therefore essential to NASA operations. The diverse nature of currently available space environment measurements and modeling products compels the need for a single access point to such information. The Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) System provides this single point access along with the capability to collect and catalog a vast range of sources including both observational and model data. NASA Goddard Space Weather Research Center heavily utilizes the iSWA System daily for research, space weather model validation, and forecasting for NASA missions. iSWA provides the capabilities to view and analyze near real-time space weather data from any where in the world. This presentation will describe the technology behind the iSWA system and describe how to use the system for space weather research, forecasting, training, education, and sharing.

  5. Materials science tetrahedron--a useful tool for pharmaceutical research and development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2009-05-01

    The concept of materials science tetrahedron (MST) concisely depicts the inter-dependent relationship among the structure, properties, performance, and processing of a drug. Similar to its role in traditional materials science, MST encompasses the development in the emerging field of pharmaceutical materials science and forms a scientific foundation to the design and development of new drug products. Examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of MST to both pharmaceutical research and product development. It is proposed that a systematic implementation of MST can expedite the transformation of pharmaceutical product development from an art to a science. By following the principle of MST, integration of research among different laboratories can be attained. The pharmaceutical science community as a whole can conduct more efficient, collaborative, and coherent research.

  6. A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. PMID:24101888

  7. Assessing the impact of user-centered research on a clinical trial eHealth tool via counterbalanced research design

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Holly A; Mylks, Christy; McCormack, Lauren A; Kish-Doto, Julia; Hesse, Bradford W; Wang, Min Qi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Informatics applications have the potential to improve participation in clinical trials, but their design must be based on user-centered research. This research used a fully counterbalanced experimental design to investigate the effect of changes made to the original version of a website, http://BreastCancerTrials.org/, and confirm that the revised version addressed and reinforced patients' needs and expectations. Design Participants included women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis within the last 5 years (N=77). They were randomized into two groups: one group used and reviewed the original version first followed by the redesigned version, and the other group used and reviewed them in reverse order. Measurements The study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. During use, participants' click paths and general reactions were observed. After use, participants were asked to answer survey items and open-ended questions to indicate their reactions and which version they preferred and met their needs and expectations better. Results Overall, the revised version of the site was preferred and perceived to be clearer, easier to navigate, more trustworthy and credible, and more private and safe overall. However, users who viewed the original version last had similar attitudes toward both versions. Conclusion By applying research findings to the redesign of a website for clinical trial searching, it was possible to re-engineer the interface to better support patients' decisions to participate in clinical trials. The mechanisms of action in this case appeared to revolve around creating an environment that supported a sense of personal control and decisional autonomy. PMID:21169619

  8. California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

    2006-11-28

    The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

  9. Research of Lakhtin's school on advanced processes of surface hardening of machine parts and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Ya. D.

    2010-11-01

    This paper is written by Yakov Davidovich Kogan, a known metal scientist, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, disciple and co-worker of Yu. M. Lakhtin. Ya. D. Kogan has worked for over 30 years at the department of physical metallurgy and heat treatment of the MADI and was in fact Lakhtin's deputy for science. Analysis of research works of the school of Y. M. Lakhtin in the field of surface hardening at the dawn of the 20th and 21st centuries is presented. The processes of thermochemical treatment and modern equipment created on the basis of Lakhtin's researches are described.

  10. Meta-analysis as a tool for understanding existing research literature.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M; Rumrill, Phillip D

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and methods used in conducting meta-analyses in rehabilitation research. Advantages and disadvantages of meta-analysis, vis a vis the narrative and quantitative literature reviews described in previous articles, are discussed. Hypothetical and actual examples from the rehabilitation and related health sciences fields are used to illustrate points throughout the text.

  11. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points."…

  12. Image Processing for Teaching: Transforming a Scientific Research Tool into an Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Image Processing for Teaching (IPT) project which provides digital image processing to excite students about science and mathematics as they use research-quality software on microcomputers. Provides information on IPT whose components of this dissemination project have been widespread teacher education, curriculum-based materials…

  13. Youth Participatory Action Research and Educational Transformation: The Potential of Intertextuality as a Methodological Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Melanie Bertrand explores the potential of using the concept of intertextuality--which captures the way snippets of written or spoken text from one source become incorporated into other sources--in the study and practice of youth participatory action research (YPAR). Though this collective and youth-centered form of research…

  14. Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management

    EPA Science Inventory

    River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

  15. Present Research on the Flipped Classroom and Potential Tools for the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehring, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom can support the implementation of a communicative, student-centered learning environment in the English as a foreign language classroom. Unfortunately, there is little research which supports the incorporation of flipped learning in the English as a foreign language classroom. Numerous studies have focused on flipped learning…

  16. Handbook of Research on Hybrid Learning Models: Advanced Tools, Technologies, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fu Lee, Ed.; Fong, Joseph, Ed.; Kwan, Reggie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid learning is now the single-greatest trend in education today due to the numerous educational advantages when both traditional classroom learning and e-learning are implemented collectively. This handbook collects emerging research and pedagogies related to the convergence of teaching and learning methods. This significant "Handbook of…

  17. Action Research as a Professional Development Tool for Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Christine; Tovar, Deanna

    2006-01-01

    Many teachers and administrators would acknowledge there are areas of concern in their classrooms and schools. Whether termed "problems," "issues," "challenges," or, as Nunan (1994) put it "puzzles," they provide committed professionals with an opportunity to improve the status quo. Action research is one…

  18. Researching and Doing Professional Development Using a Shared Discursive Resource and an Analytic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Linked research and development forms the central pillar of the 5-year Wits Maths Connect Secondary Project in South Africa. Our empirical data emphasised the need for teaching that mediates towards mathematics viewed as a network of scientific concepts, and the development of the notion of 'mathematical discourse in instruction' (MDI), as an…

  19. Levels of Reflection in Action Research: An Overview and an Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Dib, Mervat Abou Baker

    2007-01-01

    This is a preliminary study that examines prospective teachers' reflective thinking as it is exhibited in their action research during the teaching practice experience. Different systems of analyzing reflective thinking are reviewed and criticized for their suitability for analyzing written journals rather than other forms of expressing and…

  20. Using Research Based Assessment Tools in Professional Development in Current Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ji; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wiegers, John F.; McMahon, Ann P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a practical way of adapting and using four research-based assessments for different purposes in an electricity and magnetism course for K-8 science teachers. The course is designed to accomplish conceptual change toward accepted scientific conceptions as well as introducing teachers to materials and activities appropriate for their…

  1. The Plant Protoplast: A Useful Tool for Plant Research and Student Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, George J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A plant protoplast is basically a plant cell that lacks a cell wall. This article outlines some of the ways in which protoplasts may be used to advance understanding of plant cell biology in research and student instruction. Topics include high efficiency experimental virus infection, organelle isolation, and osmotic effects. (Author/MA)

  2. World Wide Web as a Research Tool for Self Motivated Learning of Ozone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Student use of computers and the internet has increased rapidly in recent years. Teachers ask what types of learning experiences can be facilitated by using the internet in their classrooms (NSBF, 2007). Various surveys of U.S. teachers on internet usage report that having students use the internet for research and information gathering purposes…

  3. Pathways to Participatory Research in Developing a Tool to Measure Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Michelle; Davies, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    People with a learning disability, the experts of their own experience are increasingly involved in research. We will be discussing in this paper their centrality in the development of a psychological therapy outcome measure for people with learning disabilities. Their involvement needs to go beyond giving their views to being included in the…

  4. Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL): A Research-Based Tool. CIERA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, David K.; McCabe, Allyssa; Sprague, Kim

    The Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL) is an instrument that measures skills identified as critical in the New Standards for Speaking and Listening. In 5 to 10 minutes and without prior training, teachers can assess an individual child's current standing with respect to skills that research has identified as critical for literary…

  5. Developing a Research Tool to Enable Children to Voice Their Experiences and Learning through Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halocha, John

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing media coverage of the dangers of fieldwork and guidance from some teacher unions is placing fieldwork under threat in many English primary schools. Most teachers believe that fieldwork experiences are a valuable part of geographical learning, but how do children actually articulate the understanding arising from this? The research took…

  6. Agent-Based Learning Environments as a Research Tool for Investigating Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses intelligent learning environments for computer-based learning, such as agent-based learning environments, and their advantages over human-based instruction. Considers the effects of multiple agents; agents and research design; the use of Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) for instructional design for…

  7. Assessing Customer Satisfaction at the NIST Research Library: Essential Tool for Future Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Rosa; Allmang, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a campus-wide customer satisfaction survey undertaken by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Research Library in 2007. The methodology, survey instrument, data analysis, results, and actions taken in response to the survey are described. The outcome and recommendations will guide the library both…

  8. Citation Analysis as a Tool to Measure the Impact of Individual Research Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinsfelder, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine the degree to which individual research consultations with a librarian can improve the work of undergraduate students. Citation analysis was used to evaluate the quality of sources selected on draft papers before meeting with a librarian and on final papers after meeting with a librarian. The rating scale presented…

  9. “Underground Safari” and other outreach tools for dissemination of root and soil science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.; Riffel, H.; D'Odorico, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Kalahari Transect encompasses the sandy savanna biome of southern Africa and provides a compelling setting for studying the influence of climate change on soil and plant dynamics in a water stressed environment. NSF funding for the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program made it possible for a high school science teacher to visit field sites in Botswana, interact with Botswana high school teachers and students, and collaborate with scientists to develop web-based science teacher education modules on the topic of roots and belowground carbon storage. The “Underground Safari” website for K-12 teachers and students was constructed to infuse middle and high school level standards-based soil science curricula with outdoor activities, international field research videos, lab demos, printable handouts, and stimulating real-world applications. This presentation highlights the “Underground Safari” website design, the wiki page used by the RET teacher to communicate with her students on-line and take them on science adventures during the international field research, and other educational outreach activities resulting from this international research experience. Figure 1. Wiki page used by RET teacher to communicate with her students while in the field in Botswana, Africa.

  10. Integrating Critical Thinking and Memorandum Writing into Course Curriculum Using the Internet as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, De Vee E.

    2008-01-01

    Employers seek job candidates with critically thinking abilities, great written and oral communication skills, and honesty, among other characteristics. Research supports the need to develop those qualities and business faculty are charged with the task of developing and improving them. As a result faculty are continually searching for new and…

  11. A New Catalog of Microbiological Tools for Women's Infectious Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary infections pose serious health risks. But, little is known about how genitourinary bacteria attach, maintain colonization, compete for resources, and cause pathology. In this issue, we introduce a new set of 62 genitourinary reference strains of bacteria and their genomes to spur experimental research on infectious diseases that impact women. PMID:27688331

  12. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  13. Directing the evolution of Rubisco and Rubisco activase: first impressions of a new tool for photosynthesis research.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Whitney, Spencer M

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade the practice of laboratory-directed protein evolution has become firmly established as a versatile tool in biochemical research by enabling molecular evolution toward desirable phenotypes or detection of novel structure-function interactions. Applications of this technique in the field of photosynthesis research are still in their infancy, but recently first steps have been reported in the directed evolution of the CO(2)-fixing enzyme Rubisco and its helper protein Rubisco activase. Here we summarize directed protein evolution strategies and review the progressive advances that have been made to develop and apply suitable selection systems for screening mutant forms of these enzymes that improve the fitness of the host organism. The goal of increasing photosynthetic efficiency of plants by improving the kinetics of Rubisco has been a long-term goal scoring modest successes. We discuss how directed evolution methodologies may one day be able to circumvent the problems encountered during this venture.

  14. Finding research information on the web: how to make the most of Google and other free search tools.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web has had a major impact on the accessibility of research information. The move towards open access and development of institutional repositories has resulted in increasing amounts of information being made available free of charge. Many of these resources are not included in conventional subscription databases and Google is not always the best way to ensure that one is picking up all relevant material on a topic. This article will look at how Google's search engine works, how to use Google more effectively for identifying research information, alternatives to Google and will review some of the specialist tools that have evolved to cope with the diverse forms of information that now exist in electronic form.

  15. iSRAP – a one-touch research tool for rapid profiling of small RNA-seq data

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Camelia; Jung, Chol-hee; Bellingham, Shayne A.; Lonie, Andrew; Hill, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs have been significantly recognized as the key modulators in many biological processes, and are emerging as promising biomarkers for several diseases. These RNA species are transcribed in cells and can be packaged in extracellular vesicles, which are small vesicles released from many biotypes, and are involved in intercellular communication. Currently, the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for high-throughput profiling has further advanced the biological insights of non-coding RNA on a genome-wide scale and has become the preferred approach for the discovery and quantification of non-coding RNA species. Despite the routine practice of NGS, the processing of large data sets poses difficulty for analysis before conducting downstream experiments. Often, the current analysis tools are designed for specific RNA species, such as microRNA, and are limited in flexibility for modifying parameters for optimization. An analysis tool that allows for maximum control of different software is essential for drawing concrete conclusions for differentially expressed transcripts. Here, we developed a one-touch integrated small RNA analysis pipeline (iSRAP) research tool that is composed of widely used tools for rapid profiling of small RNAs. The performance test of iSRAP using publicly and in-house available data sets shows its ability of comprehensive profiling of small RNAs of various classes, and analysis of differentially expressed small RNAs. iSRAP offers comprehensive analysis of small RNA sequencing data that leverage informed decisions on the downstream analyses of small RNA studies, including extracellular vesicles such as exosomes. PMID:26561006

  16. The advanced light source — a new tool for research in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.

    1991-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, California, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Undulators will generate high-brightness, partially coherent, plane polarized, soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 10 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will generate high fluxes of x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will have an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms.

  17. The advanced light source: A new tool for research in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.

    1990-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, California, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Undulators will generate high-brightness, partially coherent, plane polarized, soft-x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 10 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will generate high fluxes of x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will have an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms.

  18. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students’ perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  19. ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The project was an attempt to integrate ERTS-1 data into teaching introductory, specialized, and graduate courses in the Department of Geology, University of Alaska. This data was to be utilized principally through a specially selected, high quality collection of black and white, and color 9.5 mosaics of the State of Alaska. In completing these tasks, the data accumulated has proved highly useful in a variety of ways including: (1) discussions of the uses and availability of ERTS imagery; (2) as a medium for talking about and showing various areas of Alaska; (3) in discussing geology in general; and (4) as an aid in doing research and as possible research topics themselves. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in geology proved highly successful and its use is now an integral part of many courses.

  20. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes.