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Sample records for main shock rupture

  1. Rupture process of a multiple main shock sequence: analysis of teleseismic, local and field observations of the Tennant Creek, Australia, earthquakes of January 22, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Bowman, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    On January 22, 1988, three large intraplate earthquakes (with MS 6.3, 6.4 and 6.7) occurred within a 12-hour period near Tennant Creek, Australia. Broadband displacement and velocity records of body waves from teleseismically recorded data are analyzed to determine source mechanisms, depths, and complexity of rupture of each of the three main shocks. Hypocenters of an additional 150 foreshocks and aftershocks constrained by local arrival time data and field observations of surface rupture are used to complement the source characteristics of the main shocks. The interpretation of the combined data sets suggests that the overall rupture process involved unusually complicated stress release. Rupture characteristics suggest that substantial slow slip occurred on each of the three fault interfaces that was not accompanied by major energy release. Variation of focal depth and the strong increase of moment and radiated energy with each main shock imply that lateral variations of strength were more important than vertical gradients of shear stress in controlling the progression of rupture. -from Authors

  2. Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

  3. Shakemaps of the L'Aquila main shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faenza, L.; Lauciani, V.; Michelini, A.

    2009-12-01

    This work addresses the determination of the shakemap of the l’Aquila, M6.3 April 6, 2009, main shock. Since 2006 and as part of national projects funded by the Italian Civil Protection and by the EU SAFER project, INGV has been determining shakemaps for M3.0+ using the USGS-ShakeMap software package and a fully automatic procedure, based on manually revised location and magnitude. This work summarizes how the shakemaps of the main shocks have been obtained. Focus of the presentation is on the importance that the data and the extent of the finite fault have in the determination of faithful ground motion maps. For the L'Aquila main shock, we have found that the data alone are not sufficient to replicate the observed ground motion in parts of the strongly affected areas. In particular, since the station coverage toward the SE where the earthquake rupture propagated is scantier, prompt availability of a rupture fault model would have been important to better describe the level of strong ground motion throughout the affected area. We present an overview of the performance of the INGV real time system during the L’Aquila main shock - the first time that INGV provides real time information to Civil Protetion during a seismic crisis. Finally, we show a comparison between the intensities determined from the strong ground motion and those obtained from the macroseismic survey.

  4. Ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock: Case report.

    PubMed

    Corbacioglu, Kerem Seref; Aksel, Gokhan; Yildiz, Altan

    2016-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA) is very rare and the most common causes are blunt or penetrating pelvic traumas. Although pseudoaneurysm can be asymptomatic at the time of initial trauma, it can be symptomatic weeks, months, even years after initial trauma. We present a case of a ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock twenty days after a bomb injury in the Syria civil war. In addition, we review the anatomy of the SGA, clinical presentation and pitfalls of pseudoaneurysm, and imaging and treatment options. PMID:27239635

  5. Up-dip directivity in near-source during the 2009 L'Aquila main shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Elisa; Scognamiglio, Laura; Cirella, Antonella; Cocco, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the directivity associated with the initial up-dip rupture propagation during the 2009 April 6 (Mw 6.1) L'Aquila normal-faulting earthquake. The objective is the understanding of how the peculiar initial behaviour of rupture history during the main shock has affected the near-source recorded ground motions in the L'Aquila town and surrounding areas. We have modelled the observed ground velocities at the closest near-source recording sites by computing synthetic seismograms using a discrete wavenumbers and finite difference approach in the low frequency bandwidth (0.02-0.4 Hz) to avoid site effects contaminations. We use both the rupture model retrieved by inverting ground motion waveforms and continuous high sampling-rate GPS time-series as well as uniform-slip constant-rupture speed models. Our results demonstrate that the initial up-dip rupture propagation, characterizing the first 3 s of the rupture history during the L'Aquila main shock and releasing only ˜25 per cent of total seismic moment, controls the observed ground motions in the near-source. This initial stage of the rupture is characterized by the generation of ground velocity pulses, which we interpret as a forward directivity effect. Our modelling results confirm a heterogeneous distribution of rupture velocity during the initial up-dip rupture propagation, since uniform rupture speed models overestimate up-dip directivity effects in the footwall of the causative fault. The up-dip directivity observed in the near field during the 2009 L'Aquila main shock is that expected for a normal faulting earthquake, but it differs from that inferred from far-field observations that conversely provide evidence of along-strike directivity. This calls for a careful analysis as well as for the realistic inclusion of rupture directivity to predict ground motions in the near source.

  6. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  7. Rupture directivity of the major shocks in the 1997 Umbria-Marche (central Italy) sequence from regional broadband waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandro Pino, Nicola; Mazza, Salvatore; Boschi, Enzo

    1999-07-01

    We derive the relative moment rate function for the main shocks in the Fall 1997 Central Italy seismic sequence (Mw=5.7; 6.0; 5.6) by applying an empirical Green function method. By using three conveniently placed broad-band MedNet stations we obtain clear source time functions indicating directivity effects for all of the three earthquakes, with southeastward rupture propagation for the two southernmost events and an opposite direction for the other and largest one. Taking a simple source model, forward modeling is utilized for determining fault parameters such as length, rupture propagation velocity and direction and slip distribution.

  8. Ruptured spinal arteriovenous malformation: Presenting as stunned myocardium and neurogenic shock

    PubMed Central

    Mehesry, Tasneem H.; Shaikh, Nissar; Malmstrom, Mohammad F.; Marcus, Marco A. E.; Khan, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical syndrome usually defined as an acute pulmonary edema occurring shortly after a central neurologic insult. NPE was identified 100 years ago, but it is still underappreciated in the clinical setup. NPE usually appears within minutes to hours after the injury. It has a high mortality rate if not recognized early and treated appropriately. Similarly, neurogenic shock is a known complication of spinal cord injury reported incidence is more than 20% in isolated upper cervical spinal injury. But NPE is rare to occur, and stunned myocardium (SM) is not reported in spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture. SM is a reversible cardiomyopathy resulting in transient left ventricular dysfunction which has been described to occur in the setting of catecholamine release during situations of physiologic stress. We report a case of high spinal AVM rupture presenting as SM, NPE, and neurogenic shock. Case Description: A 32-year-old male who presented with sudden onset of pain and weakness in upper limbs. Imaging studies showed AVM rupture by imaging techniques. Initially, the patient had severe hypertension, respiratory distress requiring intubation and ventilation, then he developed hypotension, bradycardia, and asystole, which required immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation and atropine. He remained with quadriplegia and suffered from frequent episodes of bradycardia and asystole. Conclusions: Spinal AVM rupture can present as neurogenic shock, stunned myocardium, and pulmonary edema. Early recognition of AVM rupture and prompt surgical intervention, as well as aggressive treatment of shock, may enhance recovery and decrease the long-term morbidity. PMID:26539315

  9. Spontaneous rupture and hemorrhage of adrenal pseudocyst presenting with acute abdomen and shock.

    PubMed

    Mahmodlou, Rahim; Valizadeh, Neda

    2011-12-01

    Adrenal gland pseudocysts are not common conditions, and most of them are nonfunctional and asymptomatic. However, large pseudocysts may causes abdominal discomfort and have compressive effects on adjacent organs. They may rupture spontaneously or after trauma, and lead to retroperitoneal hemorrhage and surgical emergency. Herein, we report a case of 21-year-old female who presented with acute abdomen and hemorrhagic shock due to spontaneous rupture of adrenal pseudocyst. She was treated successfully by open surgery, removal of adrenal pseudocyst and unilateral adrenalectomy.

  10. Relative frequencies of seismic main shocks after strong shocks in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Paolo; Lolli, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed a catalog of Italian earthquakes, covering 55 years of data from 1960 to 2014 with magnitudes homogeneously converted to Mw, to compute the time-dependent relative frequencies with which strong seismic shocks (4.0≤Mw<5.0), widely felt by the population, have been followed by main shocks (Mw≥5.0) that threatened the health and the properties of the persons living in the epicentral area. Assuming the stationarity of the seismic release properties, such frequencies are estimates of the probabilities of potentially destructive shocks after the occurrence of future strong shocks. We compared them with the time-independent relative frequencies of random occurrence in terms of the frequency gain that is the ratio between the time-dependent and time-independent relative frequencies. The time-dependent relative frequencies vary from less than 1% to about 20%, depending on the magnitudes of the shocks and the time windows considered (ranging from minutes to years). They remain almost constant for a few hours after the strong shock and then decrease with time logarithmically. Strong earthquakes (with Mw≥6.0) mainly occurred within two or three months of the strong shock. The frequency gains vary from about 10000 for very short time intervals to less than 10 for a time interval of two years. Only about one-third of main shocks were preceded by at least a strong shock in the previous day and about one-half in the previous month.

  11. Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock.

    PubMed

    Omi, Takahiro; Ogata, Yosihiko; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting the aftershock probability has been performed by the authorities to mitigate hazards in the disaster area after a main shock. However, despite the fact that most of large aftershocks occur within a day from the main shock, the operational forecasting has been very difficult during this time-period due to incomplete recording of early aftershocks. Here we propose a real-time method for efficiently forecasting the occurrence rates of potential aftershocks using systematically incomplete observations that are available in a few hours after the main shocks. We demonstrate the method's utility by retrospective early forecasting of the aftershock activity of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake of M9.0 in Japan. Furthermore, we compare the results by the real-time data with the compiled preliminary data to examine robustness of the present method for the aftershocks of a recent inland earthquake in Japan.

  12. Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Takahiro; Ogata, Yosihiko; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting the aftershock probability has been performed by the authorities to mitigate hazards in the disaster area after a main shock. However, despite the fact that most of large aftershocks occur within a day from the main shock, the operational forecasting has been very difficult during this time-period due to incomplete recording of early aftershocks. Here we propose a real-time method for efficiently forecasting the occurrence rates of potential aftershocks using systematically incomplete observations that are available in a few hours after the main shocks. We demonstrate the method's utility by retrospective early forecasting of the aftershock activity of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake of M9.0 in Japan. Furthermore, we compare the results by the real-time data with the compiled preliminary data to examine robustness of the present method for the aftershocks of a recent inland earthquake in Japan. PMID:23860594

  13. Seismic moment ratio of aftershocks with respect to main shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, O.; Hainzl, S.; Bach, C.

    2013-11-01

    The empirical Båth's law indicates that the earthquake process is self-similar and provides an opportunity to estimate the magnitude of the largest aftershock subsequent to a main shock. However, the analysis of this relation is limited to a small magnitude range and also depends on the aftershock selection rules. As an alternative, we analyze, in this paper, the cumulative seismic moment of aftershocks relative to the main shock moment, because (i) it is a physical quantity that does not only take the largest aftershock into account; (ii) background activity can be considered and as a result estimations are less affected by selection rules; and (iii) the effects of the catalog cut-off magnitude can be corrected, what leads to larger magnitude range for the analysis. We analyze the global preliminary determination of epicenters U.S. Geological Society catalog (combined with centroid moment tensor focal mechanisms) and find that the seismic moment release of aftershocks is on average approximately 5% of the main shock seismic moment. We show that the results can be well fitted by simulations of the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model. In particular, we test whether simulations constrained by predictions of the static stress-triggering model, proposing a break of self-similarity due to the finite seismogenic width, are in agreement with observations. Our analysis shows that the observed dependency on the main shock magnitude as well as systematic variations with the main shock fault plane solution can be both explained by the constraints based on the static stress triggering.

  14. Relative frequencies of seismic main shocks after strong shocks in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Paolo; Lolli, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco

    2016-10-01

    We analysed a catalogue of Italian earthquakes, covering 55 yr of data from 1960 to 2014 with magnitudes homogeneously converted to Mw, to compute the time-dependent relative frequencies with which strong seismic shocks (4.0 ≤ Mw < 5.0), widely felt by the population, have been followed by main shocks (Mw ≥ 5.0) that threatened the health and the properties of the persons living in the epicentral area. Assuming the stationarity of the seismic release properties, such frequencies are estimates of the probabilities of potentially destructive shocks after the occurrence of future strong shocks. We compared them with the time-independent relative frequencies of random occurrence in terms of the frequency gain that is the ratio between the time-dependent and time-independent relative frequencies. The time-dependent relative frequencies vary from less than 1 per cent to about 20 per cent, depending on the magnitudes of the shocks and the time windows considered (ranging from minutes to years). They remain almost constant for a few hours after the strong shock and then decrease with time logarithmically. Strong earthquakes (with Mw ≥ 6.0) mainly occurred within two or three months of the strong shock. The frequency gains vary from about 10 000 for very short time intervals to less than 10 for a time interval of 2 yr. Only about 1/3 of main shocks were preceded by at least a strong shock in the previous day and about 1/2 in the previous month.

  15. [Isolated rupture of the left main-stem bronchus during intubation with a Carlens tube].

    PubMed

    Ortolo, B; Sainte-Rose, G; Brémant, S; Lecoeur, J; Rouge, M

    1988-01-01

    A case is reported of bronchial rupture due to a Carlens double-lumen tube. A 73 year old male patient was to undergo a double right lower and middle lobectomy for carcinoma. All went well and as expected until 20 min after the start of left-sided unilateral ventilation by way of the double-lumen tube. A sudden increase in the inspiratory pressures led to the discovery, first, of a leak around the cuff, and then, air bubbles in the mediastinum. Surgical exploration showed up the 4 cm long rupture in the pars membrana of the left main bronchus through which the cuff was herniating. The patient was reintubated and the rupture surgically repaired. The right upper lobe had not been ventilated for 45 min and there were signs of micro-atelectasia. The immediate postoperative course was rather stormy, with severe cardiac failure, recurring right upper lobe atelectasia and bilateral pulmonary infection. The patient was only definitely weaned from the respirator 40 days after the surgical incident. Although such complications with double-lumen tubes are rare, they must be recognized and surgically repaired very rapidly. A few simple rules to prevent these complications are discussed. PMID:3207231

  16. Stress drop variations among small earthquakes before the 2011 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake and implications for the main shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchide, Takahiko; Shearer, Peter M.; Imanishi, Kazutoshi

    2014-09-01

    It is important to assess the likely rupture characteristics of future megathrust earthquakes. One approach is to study the spatiotemporal variation of geophysical properties in active subduction zones. We explore this idea by examining stress drops of 1563 small earthquakes (Mw 3.0-4.5) shallower than 80 km in the Tohoku-oki region before the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Although individual stress drop estimates exhibit considerable scatter, we find a strong increase in stress drop with depth between 30 km and 60 km, whereas stress drops for shallower and deeper events, respectively, are nearly constant. We also identify lateral variations in stress drop along strike. Higher-than-average stress drops are found in East Aomori-oki and Miyagi-oki, whereas Sanriku-oki is a moderate stress drop area. The high stress drop zone in Miyagi-oki is located just south of the large slip area of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, and possibly acted as a barrier to further rupture propagation during the event. In addition, the frequency dependence of the seismic radiation observed during the main shock, with proportionally higher frequencies coming from the deeper parts of the fault, mimics the depth dependence we see in small earthquakes in the same region. These results imply that smaller pre-main shock earthquakes can provide insight into the fault properties and consequent rupture processes of future megathrust earthquakes.

  17. Adaptive forecasting of aftershock activity after the main shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omi, Takahiro; Ogata, Yosihiko; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Forecasting aftershock activity is useful to reduce seismic risks in the affected area after the main shock. The difficulties to forecast aftershocks are (i) a forecasting model should be tailored to each aftershock sequence because the statistical property varies greatly according to an individual aftershock sequence and (ii) the forecasting model has to be estimated from highly deficient data where a significant fraction of early small aftershocks are missing from seismic records. To overcome this difficulty, we have been developing a statistical model to deal with incompletely detected aftershocks, in which the detection rate of aftershocks is sequentially estimated in a state-space modeling approach. Our method enables us to robustly estimate the forecasting model of underlying aftershocks including not only observed aftershocks but also missing ones from the incomplete catalog. We show that the Omori-Utsu formula can be well estimated only from a few hours of the data, and then it can be revised by the epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model to adaptively forecast an aftershock sequence with the individual cascading feature as the data size increases in real-time. We demonstrate that how these estimated models can effectively forecast the aftershock activity. We also discuss how these models can be implemented in an operational system for earthquake forecasting. References: T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata, and K. Aihiara, "Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock", Scientific Reports, 3, 2218 (2013). T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata, and K. Aihiara, "Estimating the ETAS model from an early aftershock sequence", (In submission).

  18. Acute cyst rupture, hemorrhage and septic shock after a shockwave lithotripsy in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Gon; Bae, Sang Rak; Lho, Yong Soo; Park, Hyoung Keun; Paick, Sung Hyun

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of urinary calculi in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) ranges from 10 to 36 %. Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) for urinary calculi in ADPKD was reported to be a safe and effective treatment option. However, there is a potential risk of cyst rupture and traumatic hemorrhage because of shockwaves. A 39-year-old female with polycystic kidneys and upper ureter stone was treated with SWL and developed life-threatening complications of cyst rupture, traumatic hemorrhage and septic shock. She was initially treated with supportive care in the intensive care unit, but in the end nephrectomy was performed.

  19. Improvements in the simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Sergio; Querol, Andrea; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2014-06-01

    The result of simultaneous Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) and a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system because both systems are connected through the SGTR. The OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduces these simultaneous breaks in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). A simulation of this Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Some discrepancies found, such as an underestimation of SG-A secondary pressure during the depressurization and overestimation of the primary pressure drop after the first Power Operated Relief Valve (PORV) opening can be improved increasing the nodalization of the Upper Head in the pressure vessel and meeting the actual fluid conditions of Upper Head during the transient.

  20. [Blunt chest trauma with total rupture of the right main stem bronchus--a case report].

    PubMed

    Moerer, O; Heuer, J; Benken, I; Roessler, M; Klockgether-Radke, A

    2004-01-01

    Tracheo-bronchial lesions in blunt chest trauma are rare--the incidence is about 1%--but potentially life-threatening events. Indirect signs such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema or an insufficient expansion of the lungs after drainage of a pneumothorax are ominous. The fastest and most reliable method to assess the definite diagnosis of tracheo-bronchial lesion is fibre-optic tracheobronchoscopy. Early surgical treatment is mandatory to prevent major pulmonary resection. This case shows that computer tomography might fail to provide the right diagnosis. Independent lung ventilation is an option to protect the bronchial anastomosis during the early postoperative period. Reported here is the case of a young man who sustained a total traumatic rupture of the right main stem bronchus after being thrown from the passenger seat through the windshield of a motor vehicle. When the emergency doctor arrived on the scene, he found the patient with dyspnoea and massive thoracic subcutaneous emphysema. Reduced breath sounds on the left and no breath sounds on the right side led to an immediate placement of two chest tubes and controlled mechanical ventilation. After primary care in a district hospital, the patient was transferred to our university hospital for further treatment of his head injury. On admission, the patient was making breath sounds on both sides and a CT scan showed no clear sign of a tracheo-bronchial lesion. After neurosurgical intervention, the diagnosis of a rupture of the right main stem bronchus was made with delay by fibre-optic bronchoscopy. The patient was intubated with a left-sided double lumen endotracheal tube followed by surgical end-to-end anastomosis of the lesion. The initial postoperative ventilator support consisted of BIPAP-mode ventilation of the left lung, while the right lung was kept open with positive airway pressure. Forty-eight hours later, synchronised independent lung ventilation with two ventilators was

  1. Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

  2. The 1997 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence: A first look at the main shocks and aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Azzara, R.; Chiarabba, C.; Cimini, G. B.; Cocco, M.; Di Bona, M.; Margheriti, L.; Mazza, S.; Mele, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Basili, A.; Boschi, E.; Courboulex, F.; Deschamps, A.; Gaffet, S.; Bittarelli, G.; Chiaraluce, L.; Piccinini, D.; Ripepe, M.

    A long sequence of earthquakes, six with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck Central Italy starting on September 26, 1997, causing severe damages and loss of human lives. The seismogenic structure consists of a NW-SE elongated fault zone extending for about 40 km. The focal mechanisms of the largest shocks reveal normal faulting with NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines, consistently with the Quaternary tectonic setting of the internal sector of the belt and with previous earthquakes in adjacent regions. Preliminary data on the main shocks and aftershocks show that extension in this region of the Apennines is accomplished by normal faults dipping at low angle (∼40°) to the southwest, and confined in the upper ∼8 km of the crust. These normal faults might have reactivated thrust planes of the Pliocene compressional tectonics. The aftershock distribution and the damage patterns also suggest that the three main shocks ruptured distinct 5 to 15 km-long fault segments, adjacent and slightly offset from one another.

  3. Experimental studies on the deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pengwan; Liu, Han; Zhang, Shaolong; Liu, Haibo; Chen, Ang; Guo, Baoqiao

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC). An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.

  4. Acute abdomen and hemorrhagic shock caused by spontaneous rupture of renal cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yaman, İsmail; Sağlam, İsmet; Kurt, Kamile

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is an important cause of end stage renal failure. Rarely, these patients may present with hemorrhagic shock caused by rupture of the renal cyst. The aim of this study was to report a rare case of a patient who arrived at the emergency department with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with acute abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock. A 58-year-old male with chronic renal failure was admitted to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock. The patient was admitted to the Department of Surgery with diagnosis of acute abdomen and perirenal hematoma. Although the patient was on conservative treatment, his symptoms did not improve and the patient was operated emergently. During exploration, there was bleeding from the right polycystic kidney, which was 30×20 cm in dimension. The patient underwent nephrectomy and drainage of the hematoma, and was discharged on the fifth postoperative day without any problems. Bleeding due to rupture of a cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease occurs rarely but it may be life threatening. Although conservative methods are often preferable in treatment, surgery can be life saving for patients in whom the clinical situation does not improve.

  5. Correlating Aftershock Hypocenters With On-fault Main Shock Properties: Introducing Non-standard Statistical Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Wiemer, S.; Mai, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    Quantitatively correlating properties of finite-fault source models with hypocenters of aftershocks may provide new insight in the relationship between either slip or static stress change distributions and aftershock occurrence. We present advanced non-standard statistical test approaches to evaluate the test hypotheses (1) if aftershocks are preferentially located in areas of low slip and (2) if aftershocks are located in increased shear stress against the null hypothesis: aftershocks are located randomly on the fault plane. By using multiple test approaches, we investigate possible pitfalls and the information content of statistical testing. To perform the tests, we use earthquakes for which multiple finite-fault source models and earthquake catalogs of varying accuracy exist. The aftershock hypocenters are projected onto the main-shock rupture plane and uncertainties are accounted for by simulating hypocenter locations in the given error bounds. For the statistical tests, we retain the spatial clustering of earthquakes as the most important observed features of seismicity and synthesize random slip distributions with different approaches: first, using standard statistical methods that randomize the obtained finite-fault source model values and second, using a random spatial field model. We then determine the number of aftershocks in low-slip or increased shear-stress regions for simulated slip distributions, and compare those to the measurements obtained for finite-source slip inversions. We apply the tests to prominent earthquakes in California and Japan and find statistical significant evidence that aftershocks are preferentially located in low-slip regions. The tests, however, show a lower significance for the correlation with the shear-stress distribution, but are in general agreement with the expectations of the asperity model. Tests using the hypocenters of relocated catalogs show higher significances.

  6. Holocene slip rate and evidences of surface ruptures along the Main Frontal Thrust in Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritz, Jean-François; Berthet, Théo; Pelgay, Phuntsho; Ferry, Mathieu; Drukpa, Dowchu; Cattin, Rodolphe; Chophel, Jamyang; Thinley, Kinzang

    2013-04-01

    On the long term, the Himalayas absorb about 20 mm/yr of the convergence between the India and Eurasia plates. Morphotectonics studies East of Bhutan yielded an Holocene slip rate of 23 ± 6.2 mm/yr consistent with the 21 ± 1.5 mm/yr estimated in Nepal. In the past 1000 years, most of this crustal shortening is accommodated along the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) by major M≥8 earthquakes. Recent paleoseismic investigations between the meizoseismal areas of the 1934 Bihar-Nepal and 1950 Assam earthquakes west and east of the Bhutan suggest that a great earthquake may have ruptured a 700 to 800 km long section of the MFT during a single event around AD 1100. However, between 89°E and 92°E where the MFT runs along the southern border of the Kingdom of Bhutan, no major earthquakes has been recorded so far. In December 2012, we carried out a morphotectonic and paleosismologic study within two sites along the MFT in central Bhutan. We identified several sequences of abandoned fluvial terraces that have been uplifted along the fault. From a kinematic GPS survey, we estimated that the oldest terrace sequence (T2) displays a cumulative offset of ~60 m. A younger sequence (T1) showed an offset of ~4 m on the lower terrace (T1a) and ~9 m on the upper one (T1b). We interpret this 4 m uplift as the vertical component of the last seismic event while the 9 m may be the cumulative offset of the two last earthquakes. These preliminary observations may suggest that the latest seismic event as well as the penultimate event correspond to two major M>8 events. Samples for 14C, OSL and 10Be dating (charcoals, fine sands and quartz rich cobbles, respectively) have been collected in excavations within the different uplifted alluvial surfaces in order to determine the ages of these two last seismic events as well as the Holocene uplift and shortening rates. Compiled with the morphotectonic and paleoseismological data published in the literature, these new results will allow discussing the

  7. Kinematic rupture process of the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake and its main aftershocks from teleseismic and strong-motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrat, S.; Madariaga, R.; Buforn, E.; Campos, J.; Asch, G.; Vilotte, J. P.

    2010-09-01

    We study a large Mw = 7.6 earthquake that occurred on 2007 November 14 in the Northern Chile seismic gap near the city of Tocopilla. Using a variety of seismic data we show that this earthquake ruptured only the lower part of the interplate seismic zone and generated a series of plate interface aftershocks. Two large aftershocks on 2007 November 15 ruptured the interplate zone oceanwards of the Mejillones Peninsula, a major geographical feature in the Antofagasta region. On 2007 December 16, a large Mw = 6.8 aftershock, that occurred near the southern bottom of the fault plane of the main event, is shown to be a slab-push earthquake located inside the subducted Nazca Plate and triggered by along slab compression. Aftershocks of this event demonstrate that it occurred on an almost vertical fault. The Tocopilla earthquake took place just after the installation of a new seismological network by Chilean, German and French researchers. The accelerometric data combined with far field seismic data provide a quite complete and consistent view of the rupture process. The earthquake broke a long (130 km) and narrow (about 30-50 km) zone of the plate interface just above the transition zone. Using a non-linear kinematic inversion method, we determined that rupture occurred on two well-defined patches of roughly elliptical shape. We discuss the consequences of this event for models of gap filling earthquakes in Chile proposed in the 1970s.

  8. Multi-surface Earthquake Rupture Recorded in Pseudotachylyte Vein Geometries, Norumbega Shear Zone, southern Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C.; Rowe, C. D.; Pollock, S. G.; Swanson, M.; Tarling, M.; Backeberg, N. R.; Coulson, S.; Barshi, N.; Bate, C.; Dascher-Cousineau, K.; Scibek, J.; Harrichhausen, N.; Timofeev, A.; Rakoczy, P.; Nisbet, H.; Castro, A.; Smith, H.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake rupture surfaces are typically treated as single rupture planes. However, the observation of four linked, non-parallel to sub-parallel slip surfaces on a mining induced earthquake in 2004 shows that rupture geometries may be more complicated (Heesakkers et al., 2011). Multiple pseudotachylyte-bearing fault surfaces are exposed within a 1.1 km wide mylonite zone of the Paleozoic Norumbega fault system. The pseudotachylytes are present in two juxtaposed mylonite zones: the Ray Corner mylonite and a mylonite derived from Scarboro Formation metavolcanics. The Ray Corner mylonite crosscuts pelitic schists of the Cape Elizabeth Formation, at upper greenschist-facies conditions (quartz + feldspar + chlorite + muscovite ± titanite ± pyrite). The pseudotachylyte veins formed late in the deformational history, during a period of predominantly brittle dextral offset. The pseudotachylytes are cryptocrystalline and have rounded porphyroclasts of quartz and feldspar. Microstructural observations show evidence for static and dynamic recrystallization overprinting the primary quench textures, suggesting that previous generations of rupture surfaces have been recycled into the mylonitic fabric (Price et al., 2012). Many of the pseudotachylyte veins have a sharp boundary on one side and are poorly defined on the other, providing insight to the propagation direction. This confirms that the paleo-earthquake ruptures occurred at conditions where quartz and feldspar were able to deform plastically, near the base of the seismogenic zone. Using differential GPS, we mapped the geometry of pseudotachylyte fault veins, injection veins, and slip surface intersections. At Ray Corner, there are 7 layer-parallel pseudotachylytes in a 4 m wide zone with linking and subsequent oblique pseudotachylytes. Some intersections between pseudotachylytes are dilational, depending on the intersection angle and relative displacement on the two faults. At these sites, pseudotachylyte melt sourced

  9. Surface ruptures of large Himalayan earthquakes in Western Nepal: Evidence along a reactivated strand of the Main Boundary Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossler, T.; Bollinger, L.; Sapkota, S. N.; Lavé, J.; Gupta, R. M.; Kandel, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    The chronology of the seismic ruptures along the active faults of Western Nepal remains almost unconstrained despite their high seismogenic potential. We present here a slip history of one of these structures, a 120 km-long reactivated segment of the Main Boundary Thrust named the Surkhet-Gorahi fault. This slip history is based on geomorphologic and neotectonic mapping of active faults deduced from the analysis of a high resolution total station digital elevation model and 15 detrital charcoals radiocarbon ages constraining the age of deposition or abandonment of 4 alluvial terraces of the Bheri river in Botechaur. Our results show that the last two earthquakes occurred on this fault after 1860 and 640 BP, respectively, and accommodated slip greater than 8 m each, a value corresponding to the incremental vertical offset of the terraces. Such events released a significant part of the slip deficit accumulated on the Main Himalayan thrust fault. However, given the geometry of this fault system as well as the date of occurrence of the last events, the ruptures could be associated with major earthquakes also rupturing the Main Frontal Thrust, such as the great 1505 earthquake.

  10. Spontaneous rupture of uterine varicose veins: a rare cause for obstetric shock.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pei Shan; Ng, Soon Pheng; Shafiee, Mohammad Nasir; Kampan, Nirmala; Jamil, Muhammad Abdul

    2014-06-01

    Spontaneous rupture of uterine surface varicose veins is rare but may result in serious complication of pregnancy, as it is associated with high perinatal and maternal mortality. We report a 24-year-old primigravida who presented with this rare condition mimicking placenta abruption, which was successfully managed. A review of reported cases was performed.

  11. Imaging the high-frequency energy radiation process of a main shock and its early aftershock sequence: The case of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawazaki, Kaoru; Enescu, Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    To understand the energy release process that operates at the end of the main shock rupture and start of the aftershock activity, we propose an inversion method that uses continuous high-frequency seismogram envelopes of the main shock and early aftershocks (i.e., events that occur at short times after the main shock). In our approach, the aftershock sequence is regarded as a continuous energy release process, rather than a discrete time series of events. To correct for the contribution of coda wave energy excited by multiple scattering, we use the theoretical envelope synthesized on the basis of the radiative transfer theory as a Green's function. The site amplification factors are corrected considering the conservation of energy flux and using the coda normalization method. The inverted temporal energy release rate for the 2008 MW 6.9 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, Japan, decays following t-1.1, at the lapse time t of 40-900 s after the main shock origin time. This exponent of the decay rate is similar to the p value of the modified Omori law. The amount of estimated energy release is consistent with that calculated from the magnitude listed in the aftershock catalog. Although the uncertainty is large, the location of large energy release at the lapse times of 40-900 s approximately overlaps to that of the aftershocks, which surrounds the large energy release area during the main shock faulting. The maxima of the energy release rate normalized by the average decay rate distributes following a power law, similar to the Gutenberg-Richter law.

  12. Stress rotations due to the M6.5 foreshock and M7.3 main shock in the 2016 Kumamoto, SW Japan, earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Asano, Youichi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Sawazaki, Kaoru; Urata, Yumi; Fukuyama, Eiichi

    2016-10-01

    A shallow M7.3 event with a M6.5 foreshock occurred along the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone in Kyushu, SW Japan. We investigated the spatiotemporal variation of the stress orientations in and around the source area of this 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence by inverting 1218 focal mechanisms. The results show that the σ3 axis in the vicinity of the fault plane significantly rotated counterclockwise after the M6.5 foreshock and rotated clockwise after the M7.3 main shock in the Hinagu fault segment. This observation indicates that a significant portion of the shear stress was released both by the M6.5 foreshock and M7.3 main shock. It is estimated that the stress release by the M6.5 foreshock occurred in the shallower part of the Hinagu fault segment, which brought the stress concentration in its deeper part. This might have caused the M7.3 main shock rupture mainly along the deeper part of the Hinagu fault segment after 28 h.

  13. Spatial correlation of aftershock locations and on-fault main shock properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Wiemer, S.; Mai, P. M.

    2006-08-01

    We quantify the correlation between spatial patterns of aftershock hypocenter locations and the distribution of coseismic slip and stress drop on a main shock fault plane using two nonstandard statistical tests. Test T1 evaluates if aftershock hypocenters are located in low-slip regions (hypothesis H1), test T2 evaluates if aftershock hypocenters occur in regions of increased shear stress (hypothesis H2). In the tests, we seek to reject the null hypotheses H0: Aftershock hypocenters are not correlated with (1) low-slip regions or (2) regions of increased shear stress, respectively. We tested the hypotheses on four strike-slip events for which multiple earthquake catalogs and multiple finite fault source models of varying accuracy exist. Because we want to retain earthquake clustering as the fundamental feature of aftershock seismicity, we generate slip distributions using a random spatial field model and derive the stress drop distributions instead of generating seismicity catalogs. We account for uncertainties in the aftershock locations by simulating them within their location error bounds. Our findings imply that aftershocks are preferentially located in regions of low-slip (u ≤ ?umax) and of increased shear stress (Δσ < 0). In particular, the correlation is more significant for relocated than for general network aftershock catalogs. However, the results show that stress drop patterns provide less information content on aftershock locations. This implies that static shear stress change of the main shock may not be the governing process for aftershock genesis.

  14. Shock

    MedlinePlus

    ... several kinds of shock. Hypovolemic shock happens when you lose a lot of blood or fluids. Causes include internal or external bleeding, dehydration, burns, and severe vomiting and/or diarrhea. Septic shock is caused by ...

  15. Earthquake source parameters for the 2010 January Haiti main shock and aftershock sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, Meredith; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

    2010-10-01

    Previous analyses of geological and geodetic data suggest that the obliquely compressive relative motion across the Caribbean-North America plate boundary in Hispaniola is accommodated through strain partitioning between near-vertical transcurrent faults on land and low-angle thrust faults offshore. In the Dominican Republic, earthquake focal-mechanism geometries generally support this interpretation. Little information has been available about patterns of seismic strain release in Haiti, however, due to the small numbers of moderate-to-large earthquakes occurring in western Hispaniola during the modern instrumental era. Here, we analyse the damaging MW = 7.0 earthquake that occurred near Port au Prince on 2010 January 12 and aftershocks occurring in the four months following this event, to obtain centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) solutions for 50 earthquakes with magnitudes as small as MW = 4.0. While the 2010 January main shock exhibited primarily strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping nodal plane (strike=250°, dip=71° and rake=22°), we find that nearly all of the aftershocks show reverse-faulting motion, typically on high-angle (30°-45°) nodal planes. Two small aftershocks (MW 4.5 and 4.6), located very close to the main shock epicentre, show strike-slip faulting with geometries similar to the main shock. One aftershock located off the south coast of Haiti shows low-angle thrust faulting. We also examine earthquakes occurring in this region from 1977-2009 successful analysis of four such events provides evidence for both strike-slip and reverse faulting. The pattern of seismic strain release in southern Haiti thus indicates that partitioning of plate motion between transcurrent and reverse structures extends far west within Hispaniola. While we see limited evidence for low-angle underthrusting offshore, most reverse motion appears to occur on high-angle fault structures adjacent to the Enriquillo fault. Our results highlight the need to incorporate seismogenic

  16. Slip rate, magnitudes and ages of surface-rupturing events along the Main Frontal Thrust in Bhutan (Himalaya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritz, J.; Berthet, T.; Ferry, M. A.; Pelgay, P.; Cattin, R.; Drukpa, D.; Braucher, R.; Chophel, J.; Thinley, K.; Hetényi, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayas absorb about 20 mm.yr-1 of the convergence between India and Eurasia plate. Morphotectonics studies East of Bhutan yielded a Holocene shortening rate of 23 × 6.2 mm/yr consistent with the 21 × 1.5 mm/yr estimated in Nepal. Most of this crustal shortening is accommodated along the Main Frontal Thrust by major earthquakes (M≥8) that occurred in the past 1000 years. Between 89°E and 92°E, the MFT runs along the southern border of the Kingdom of Bhutan where no reliable historical record of major earthquakes exists (one strong historical earthquake would have occurred in 1713 after a Tibetan eyewitness reports). However, recent paleoseismic investigations in Nepal and on both side of Bhutan border suggest that a great earthquake may have ruptured a 700 to 800 km long section of the MFT during a single event around AD 1100. In December 2012, we carried out a first morphotectonic and paleosismologic study within two sites (Sarpang, Gelephu) along the MFT in central Bhutan. We identified several sequences of abandoned fluvial terraces that have been uplifted along the fault. From a kinematic GPS survey, we estimated that the oldest terrace sequence (T2) has a cumulative offset of 53.6 × 2.3 m. A younger sequence (T1) shows offsets of 4.5 × 0.5 m on the lower terrace (T1a) and 7.9 × 0.5 m on the upper one (T1b). The uplift on T1b may cumulate the vertical components of the two last seismic events that would have produced each a vertical offset of several meters. These preliminary observations suggest that the latest seismic event as well as the penultimate event correspond to two major seismic events with magnitudes greater than M8. After 14C dating (charcoals in sands on top of T1 terraces sequence), these two last seismic events occurred after 1000 AD. The youngest event may correspond to the historical event reported in 1713 AD, while the penultimate event could correspond the great medieval earthquake observed in trenches East and West of Bhutan

  17. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Main Shock Characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spudich, Paul

    1996-01-01

    The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (0004:15.2 G.m.t. October 18; lat 37.036? N., long 121.883? W.; 19-km depth) had a local magnitude (ML) of about 6.7, a surface-wave magnitude (MS) of 7.1, a seismic moment of 2.2x1019 N-m to 3.5x1019 N-m, a source duration of 6 to 15 s, and an average stress drop of at least 50 bars. Slip occurred on a dipping fault surface about 35 km long and was largely confined to a depth of about 7 to 20 km. The slip vector had a large vertical component, and slip was distributed in two main regions situated northwest and southeast of the hypocenter. This slip distribution caused about half of the earthquake's energy to be focused toward the urbanized San Francisco Bay region, while the other half was focused toward the southeast. Had the rupture initiated at the southeast end of the aftershock zone, shaking in the bay region would have been both longer and stronger. These source parameters suggest that the earthquake was not a typical shallow San Andreas-type event but a deeper event on a different fault with a recurrence interval of many hundreds of years. Therefore, the potential for a damaging shallow event on the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains may still exist.

  18. Main shock and aftershock records of the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Akkar, Sinan; Gulerce, U.; Sanli, A.; Bundock, H.; Salkin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The August 17, 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=7.4) will be remembered as one of the largest earthquakes of recent times that affected a large urban environment (U.S. Geological Survey, 1999). This significant event was followed by many significant aftershocks and another main event (Mw=7.2) that occurred on November 12, 1999 near Duzce (Turkey). The shaking that caused the widespread damage and destruction was recorded by a handful of accelerographs (~30) in the earthquake area operated by different networks. The characteristics of these records show that the recorded peak accelerations, shown in Figure 1, even those from near field stations, are smaller than expected (Çelebi, 1999, 2000). Following this main event, several organizations from Turkey, Japan, France and the USA deployed temporary accelerographs and other aftershock recording hardware. Thus, the number of recording stations in the earthquake affected area was quadrupled (~130). As a result, as seen in Figure 2, smaller magnitude aftershocks yielded larger peak accelerations, indicating that because of the sparse networks, recording of larger motions during the main shock of August 17, 1999 were possibly missed.

  19. Comparison of main-shock and aftershock fragility curves developed for New Zealand and US buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uma, S.R.; Ryu, H.; Luco, N.; Liel, A.B.; Raghunandan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic risk assessment involves the development of fragility functions to express the relationship between ground motion intensity and damage potential. In evaluating the risk associated with the building inventory in a region, it is essential to capture 'actual' characteristics of the buildings and group them so that 'generic building types' can be generated for further analysis of their damage potential. Variations in building characteristics across regions/countries largely influence the resulting fragility functions, such that building models are unsuitable to be adopted for risk assessment in any other region where a different set of building is present. In this paper, for a given building type (represented in terms of height and structural system), typical New Zealand and US building models are considered to illustrate the differences in structural model parameters and their effects on resulting fragility functions for a set of main-shocks and aftershocks. From this study, the general conclusion is that the methodology and assumptions used to derive basic capacity curve parameters have a considerable influence on fragility curves.

  20. The M w6.7 12 October 2013 western Hellenic Arc main shock and its aftershock sequence: implications for the slab properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Karakostas, Vassilis; Mesimeri, Maria; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2016-01-01

    The 12 October 2013 M w6.7 earthquake offshore Crete Island is one of the few strong earthquakes to have occurred in the last few decades in the southwestern part of the Hellenic subduction zone (HSZ), providing the opportunity to evaluate characteristics of the descending slab. The HSZ has experienced several strong (M ≥ 7.0) earthquakes in historical times with the largest one being the 365 AD, M w = 8.4 earthquake, the largest known ever occurred in the Mediterranean region. The 2013 main shock occurred in close proximity with the 365 event, on an interplate thrust fault at a depth of 26 km, onto the coupled part of the overriding and descending plates. GCMT solution shows a slightly oblique (rake = 130°) thrust faulting with downdip compression on a nearly horizontal (dip = 3°) northeast-dipping fault plane with strike (340°) parallel to the subduction front, with the compression axis being oriented in the direction of plate convergence. The subduction interface can be more clearly resolved with the integration of aftershock locations and CMT solution. For this scope, the aftershocks were relocated after obtaining a v p/v s ratio equal to 1.76, a one-dimensional velocity model and time delays that approximate the velocity structure of the study area, and the employment of double-difference technique for both phase pick data and cross-correlation differential times. The first-day relocated seismicity, alike aftershocks in the first 2 months, shows activation of an area at the upper part of the descending slab, with most activity being concentrated between 13 and 27 km, where the main shock is also encompassed. Aftershocks are rare near to the main shock, implying homogeneous slip on a large patch of the rupture plane. Based on the aftershock distribution, the size of the activated area estimated is about 24 km long and 17 km wide. Coulomb stress changes resolved for transpressive motion reveal negligible off-fault aftershock triggering, evidencing a

  1. The M w6.7 12 October 2013 western Hellenic Arc main shock and its aftershock sequence: implications for the slab properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Karakostas, Vassilis; Mesimeri, Maria; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2016-10-01

    The 12 October 2013 M w6.7 earthquake offshore Crete Island is one of the few strong earthquakes to have occurred in the last few decades in the southwestern part of the Hellenic subduction zone (HSZ), providing the opportunity to evaluate characteristics of the descending slab. The HSZ has experienced several strong ( M ≥ 7.0) earthquakes in historical times with the largest one being the 365 AD, M w = 8.4 earthquake, the largest known ever occurred in the Mediterranean region. The 2013 main shock occurred in close proximity with the 365 event, on an interplate thrust fault at a depth of 26 km, onto the coupled part of the overriding and descending plates. GCMT solution shows a slightly oblique (rake = 130°) thrust faulting with downdip compression on a nearly horizontal (dip = 3°) northeast-dipping fault plane with strike (340°) parallel to the subduction front, with the compression axis being oriented in the direction of plate convergence. The subduction interface can be more clearly resolved with the integration of aftershock locations and CMT solution. For this scope, the aftershocks were relocated after obtaining a v p/ v s ratio equal to 1.76, a one-dimensional velocity model and time delays that approximate the velocity structure of the study area, and the employment of double-difference technique for both phase pick data and cross-correlation differential times. The first-day relocated seismicity, alike aftershocks in the first 2 months, shows activation of an area at the upper part of the descending slab, with most activity being concentrated between 13 and 27 km, where the main shock is also encompassed. Aftershocks are rare near to the main shock, implying homogeneous slip on a large patch of the rupture plane. Based on the aftershock distribution, the size of the activated area estimated is about 24 km long and 17 km wide. Coulomb stress changes resolved for transpressive motion reveal negligible off-fault aftershock triggering, evidencing a

  2. The Great Maule earthquake: seismicity prior to and after the main shock from amphibious seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieser, K.; Arroyo, I. G.; Grevemeyer, I.; Flueh, E. R.; Lange, D.; Tilmann, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean subduction zone is among the seismically most active plate boundaries in the world and its coastal ranges suffer from a magnitude 8 or larger megathrust earthquake every 10-20 years. The Constitución-Concepción or Maule segment in central Chile between ~35.5°S and 37°S was considered to be a mature seismic gap, rupturing last in 1835 and being seismically quiet without any magnitude 4.5 or larger earthquakes reported in global catalogues. It is located to the north of the nucleation area of the 1960 magnitude 9.5 Valdivia earthquake and to the south of the 1928 magnitude 8 Talca earthquake. On 27 February 2010 this segment ruptured in a Mw=8.8 earthquake, nucleating near 36°S and affecting a 500-600 km long segment of the margin between 34°S and 38.5°S. Aftershocks occurred along a roughly 600 km long portion of the central Chilean margin, most of them offshore. Therefore, a network of 30 ocean-bottom-seismometers was deployed in the northern portion of the rupture area for a three month period, recording local offshore aftershocks between 20 September 2010 and 25 December 2010. In addition, data of a network consisting of 33 landstations of the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam were included into the network, providing an ideal coverage of both the rupture plane and areas affected by post-seismic slip as deduced from geodetic data. Aftershock locations are based on automatically detected P wave onsets and a 2.5D velocity model of the combined on- and offshore network. Aftershock seismicity analysis in the northern part of the survey area reveals a well resolved seismically active splay fault in the accretionary prism of the Chilean forearc. Our findings imply that in the northernmost part of the rupture zone, co-seismic slip most likely propagated along the splay fault and not the subduction thrust fault. In addition, the updip limit of aftershocks along the plate interface can be verified to about 40 km landwards from the deformation front. Prior to

  3. Evaluation of a main steam line break with induced, multiple tube ruptures: A comparison of NUREG 1477 (Draft) and transient methodologies Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the approach taken to analyze the radiological consequences of a postulated main steam line break event, with one or more tube ruptures, for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The analysis was required to support the restart of PVNGS Unit 2 following the steam generator tube rupture event on March 14, 1993 and to justify continued operation of Units 1 and 3. During the post-event evaluation, the NRC expressed concern that Unit 2 could have been operating with degraded tubes and that similar conditions could exist in Units 1 and 3. The NRC therefore directed that a safety assessment be performed to evaluate a worst case scenario in which a non-isolable main steam line break occurs inducing one or more tube failures in the faulted steam generator. This assessment was to use the generic approach described in NUREG 1477, Voltage-Based Interim Plugging Criteria for Steam Generator Tubes - Task Group Report. An analysis based on the NUREG approach was performed but produced unacceptable results for off-site and control room thyroid doses. The NUREG methodology, however, does not account for plant thermal-hydraulic transient effects, system performance, or operator actions which could be credited to mitigate dose consequences. To deal with these issues, a more detailed analysis methodology was developed using a modified version of the Combustion Engineering Plant Analysis Code, which examines the dose consequences for a main steam line break transient with induced tube failures for a spectrum equivalent to 1 to 4 double ended guillotine U-tube breaks. By incorporating transient plant system responses and operator actions, the analysis demonstrates that the off-site and control room does consequences for a MSLBGTR can be reduced to acceptable limits. This analysis, in combination with other corrective and recovery actions, provided sufficient justification for continued operation of PVNGS Units 1 and 3, and for the subsequent restart of Unit 2.

  4. The great 1933 Sanriku-oki earthquake: reappraisal of the main shock and its aftershocks and implications for its tsunami using regional tsunami and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Naoki; Kirby, Stephen H.; Umino, Norihito; Hino, Ryota; Kazakami, Tomoe

    2016-09-01

    The aftershock distribution of the 1933 Sanriku-oki outer trench earthquake is estimated by using modern relocation methods and a newly developed velocity structure to examine the spatial extent of the source-fault and the possibility of a triggered interplate seismicity. In this study, we first examined the regional data quality of the 1933 earthquake based on smoked-paper records and then relocated the earthquakes by using the 3-D velocity structure and double-difference method. The improvements of hypocentre locations using these methods were confirmed by the examination of recent earthquakes that are accurately located based on ocean bottom seismometer data. The results show that the 1933 aftershocks occurred under both the outer- and inner-trench-slope regions. In the outer-trench-slope region, aftershocks are distributed in a ˜280-km-long area and their depths are shallower than 50 km. Although we could not constrain the fault geometry from the hypocentre distribution, the depth distribution suggests the whole lithosphere is probably not under deviatoric tension at the time of the 1933 earthquake. The occurrence of aftershocks under the inner trench slope was also confirmed by an investigation of waveform frequency difference between outer and inner trench earthquakes as recorded at Mizusawa. The earthquakes under the inner trench slope were shallow (depth ≦30 km) and the waveforms show a low-frequency character similar to the waveforms of recent, precisely located earthquakes in the same area. They are also located where recent activity of interplate thrust earthquakes is high. These suggest that the 1933 outer-trench-slope main shock triggered interplate earthquakes, which is an unusual case in the order of occurrence in contrast with the more common pairing of a large initial interplate shock with subsequent outer-slope earthquakes. The off-trench earthquakes are distributed about 80 km width in the trench perpendicular direction. This wide width cannot

  5. Perinephric Hematoma and Hemorrhagic Shock as a Rare Presentation for an Acutely Obstructive Ureteral Stone with Forniceal Rupture: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zynger, Debra L.; Box, Geoffrey N.; Shah, Ketul K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Spontaneous perinephric hematoma (SPH) secondary to a forniceal rupture as the first presenting sign for an obstructive ureteral stone in a patient without history of urolithiasis has not been described previously. Case presentation: We report a 70-year-old Caucasian male patient who presented to our emergency room with fever, altered mental status, and left flank pain. He had a temperature of 103.3°F, tachycardia, but stable blood pressure. He had left flank tenderness. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen/pelvis with intravenous contrast revealed an intracapsular hematoma (13.3 × 10.0 × 6.4 cm) with an active bleeding and a 1.1 cm left proximal ureteral stone. The patient became quickly hemodynamically unstable and was taken for emergent exploratory laparotomy and left nephrectomy. An active bleeding was encountered secondary to a (2.4 × 2.0 cm) lateral capsular defect in the kidney. Conclusion: Hemorrhagic/septic shock as a presenting sign for an obstructive ureteral stone may require an emergent nephrectomy in a hemodynamically unstable patient. PMID:27579423

  6. Delayed aortic rupture resulting from postoperative superficial sternal wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Wan; Chang, Jee Won

    2016-01-01

    While deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after cardiac surgery is a significant contributor to patient morbidity and mortality, superficial sternal wound infection (SSWI) mostly has a benign course. We report a mortality case of aortic rupture resulting from SSWI after cardiac surgery. A 50-year-old male underwent an aortic valve replacement (AVR). Three months after the valve operation, he presented with severe dyspnea, which had never before been observed, and chest computed tomography revealed an ascending aortic rupture with large hematoma compressing the main pulmonary artery. We performed an emergent operation for aortic rupture that possibly originated from the SSWI. Postoperatively, the patient died of hypovolemic shock due to recurrent aortic rupture despite efforts to resuscitate him. PMID:27499988

  7. Vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Lightweight External Tank (LWT), and Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The vibration, acoustics, and shock design and test criteria for components and subassemblies on the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB), lightweight tank (LWT), and main engines (SSME) are presented. Specifications for transportation, handling, and acceptance testing are also provided.

  8. Using the locations of M ≥ 4 earthquakes to delineate the extents of the ruptures of past major earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, John E.; Chambers, Daniel W.

    2016-11-01

    Some modern seismicity in the magnitude range of M 4 and M 6 in California and eastern North America preferentially occurs at the edges of past large ruptures. Once a large earthquake rupture has occurred, stress is concentrated at the edges of the rupture, and apparently this stress concentration can trigger earthquakes at or near the rupture edges many decades or even longer after a main shock. Furthermore, the modern M ≥ 4 earthquakes in the vicinity of a past main shock usually have the same focal mechanism as the earlier main shock. There are a number of examples of this in California and Nevada, where there is a statistically significant correlation of the locations of M ≥ 4 earthquakes and the edges of 19th and 20th century fault ruptures in Mw ≥ 6.5 earthquakes. In contrast, the M ≥ 4 earthquakes near the epicentres of future ruptures in California are randomly scattered around the fault with no concentration near the ends of the future fault rupture. The concentration of earthquakes near the ends of earlier large ruptures in California becomes progressively less pronounced as the smallest magnitude in the data set is reduced from M 4.0 to M 3.0. These observations also appear to be true for intraplate regions where aftershock sequences can last millennia. The identification of modern rupture-edge M ≥ 4 aftershocks can be used to help discover where and when past strong earthquakes took place, even if there is no historical record of the main shock. This is of great importance for seismic hazard studies.

  9. Arabidopsis HsfA1 transcription factors function as the main positive regulators in heat shock-responsive gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takumi; Ohama, Naohiko; Nakajima, Jun; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Mizoi, Junya; Nakashima, Kazuo; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Kim, Jong-Myong; Seki, Motoaki; Todaka, Daisuke; Osakabe, Yuriko; Sakuma, Yoh; Schöffl, Friedrich; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2011-12-01

    Arabidopsis DREB2A is a key transcription factor of heat- and drought-responsive gene expression, and DREB2A expression is induced by these stresses. We analyzed the DREB2A promoter and found a heat shock element that functions as a cis-acting element in the heat shock (HS)-responsive expression of DREB2A. Among the 21 Arabidopsis heat shock factors, we chose 4 HsfA1-type proteins as candidate transcriptional activators (HsfA1a, HsfA1b, HsfA1d, and HsfA1e) based on transactivation activity and expression patterns. We generated multiple mutants and found that the HS-responsive expression of DREB2A disappeared in hsfa1a/b/d triple and hsfa1a/b/d/e quadruple mutants. Moreover, HS-responsive gene expression, including that of molecular chaperones and transcription factors, was globally and drastically impaired in the hsfa1a/b/d triple mutant, which exhibited greatly reduced tolerance to HS stress. HsfA1 protein accumulation in the nucleus was negatively regulated by their interactions with HSP90, and other factors potentially strongly activate the HsfA1 proteins under HS stress. The hsfa1a/b/d/e quadruple mutant showed severe growth retardation, and many genes were downregulated in this mutant even under non-stress conditions. Our study indicates that HsfA1a, HsfA1b, and HsfA1d function as main positive regulators in HS-responsive gene expression and four HsfA1-type proteins are important in gene expression for normal plant growth.

  10. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B.

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

  11. Changes in repeating earthquake slip behavior following the 2004 Parkfield main shock from waveform empirical Green's functions finite-source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ahyi; Dreger, Douglas S.; Taira, Taka'aki; Nadeau, Robert M.

    2016-03-01

    Finite-source inversions are performed using small earthquake waveforms as empirical Green's functions (eGf) to investigate the rupture process of repeating earthquakes along the San Andreas Fault in Parkfield, California. The eGf waveform inversion method is applied to a repeating Mw 2.1 Parkfield earthquake sequence using three-component velocity waveforms recorded by an array of borehole seismometers. The obtained models show a circular slip distribution with a ~20 m radius, a 3.0-4.2 cm average slip of the main asperity, and peak displacement of 10.6-13.5 cm. The static stress drop distribution shows that the main asperity has a peak stress drop of 69.5-94.7 MPa. The inversion results support an earlier finding by Dreger et al. (2007) that high-strength asperities exist in the rupture areas of the Mw 2.1 events at Parkfield. In addition, notable temporal peak slip and stress drop reduction was observed after the 2004 Parkfield event while the average value remains constant (~12 MPa) over time. These events may represent mechanically strong sections of the fault, surrounded by regions that are undergoing continuous deformation (creep), Given repeated loading of the strong asperities, it would be expected that these similar repeating earthquakes should also have very similar slip distributions since surrounding regions are deforming aseismically. There are small differences in the waveforms of these repeating earthquakes, and this could be because of rupture nucleation points not being in exactly the same location within the region of the fault that is capable of stick-slip behavior. Our result indicates that waveform slip inversion is needed to reveal spatial and temporal variations of the stress drop within the rupture area to improve understanding of fault healing and rupture mechanics.

  12. Rupture disc

    DOEpatents

    Newton, Robert G.

    1977-01-01

    The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a rupturable member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut in the rupturable member. According to the preferred embodiment of the invention the rupturable member includes a solid head seated in the end of the drain line having a rim extending peripherally therearound, the rim being clamped against the end of the drain line by a clamp ring having an interior shearing edge, the bottom of the rupturable member being convex and extending into the drain line. Means are provided to draw the rupturable member away from the drain line against the shearing edge to clear the drain line for outflow of sodium therethrough.

  13. Awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as bridge to recovery after left main coronary artery occlusion: a promising concept of haemodynamic support in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Alozie, Anthony; Kische, Stephan; Birken, Thomas; Kaminski, Alexander; Westphal, Bernd; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Ince, Hüseyin; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction is associated with high mortality rate. Different management concepts including fluid management, inotropic support, intra aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) mainly in mechanically ventilated patients have been used as cornerstones of management. However, success rates have been disappointing. Few reports suggested that ECMO when performed under circumvention of mechanical ventilation, may offer some survival benefits. We herein present our experience with the use of veno-arterial ECMO as bridge to recovery in an awake and spontaneously breathing patient after left main coronary artery occlusion complicated by cardiogenic shock.

  14. Can We Forecast 1-Month Span Aftershock Activity from the First Day Data after the Main Shock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Hirata, Y.; Aihara, K.

    2014-12-01

    A large earthquake triggers persistent aftershock activity in and near the focal region. Thus, intermediate term forecasting of aftershocks at its earlier stage is important for mitigating seismic risks. A main difficulty for the early forecasting is the substantial incompleteness of early aftershock data. To deal with such incomplete data, we have developed a statistical model of the incomplete data, enabling us to obtain the immediate estimate of the forecasting models from incomplete data [1, 2]. Another difficulty for the intermediate term forecasting is that we have to determine the parameter values of the forecasting models with high accuracy, because even a small bias in the parameter values can lead to a significant bias of the forecasting in intermediate term. However such accurate estimation is quite difficult at the early stage, especially using the early and incomplete data. Here we present a Bayesian forecasting method by using the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model. The Bayesian forecasting considers not only the best parameter values such as the maximum likelihood estimates or maximum a posteriori estimates but also the estimation uncertainty of the parameter values. By analyzing aftershock sequences in Japan, we show the forecasting performances of the intermediate-term aftershocks can be significantly improved by considering the estimation uncertainty of the ETAS model [3]. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of the modeling of the magnitude frequency distribution of detected aftershocks within a day span on the forecasting of large aftershocks. [1] T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata and K. Aihara, "Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock", Scientific Reports 3, 2218 (2013). [2] T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata and K. Aihara, "Estimating the ETAS model from an early aftershock sequence", Geophysical Research Letters 41, 850 (2014). [3] T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata and K. Aihara, "Intermediate-term forecasting of aftershocks

  15. Blood vessel rupture by cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics were examined by imaging bubble extravasation and dye leakage. The high-speed images show that bubble expansion can cause vessel distention, and bubble collapse can lead to vessel invagination. Liquid jets were also observed to form. Our results suggest that all three mechanisms, vessel distention, invagination and liquid jets, can contribute to vessel rupture. PMID:20680255

  16. Rupture distribution of the 1977 western Argentina earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, C.J.; Hartzell, S.

    1996-01-01

    Teleseismic P and SH body waves are used in a finite-fault, waveform inversion for the rupture history of the 23 November 1977 western Argentina earthquake. This double event consists of a smaller foreshock (M0 = 5.3 ?? 1026 dyn-cm) followed about 20 s later by a larger main shock (M0 = 1.5 ?? 1027 dyn-cm). Our analysis indicates that these two events occurred on different fault segments: with the foreshock having a strike, dip, and average rake of 345??, 45??E, and 50??, and the main shock 10??, 45??E, and 80??, respectively. The foreshock initiated at a depth of 17 km and propagated updip and to the north. The main shock initiated at the southern end of the foreshock zone at a depth of 25 to 30 km, and propagated updip and unilaterally to the south. The north-south separation of the centroids of the moment release for the foreshock and main shock is about 60 km. The apparent triggering of the main shock by the foreshock is similar to other earthquakes that have involved the failure of multiple fault segments, such as the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake. Such occurrences argue against the use of individual, mapped, surface fault or fault-segment lengths in the determination of the size and frequency of future earthquakes.

  17. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. Εach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures ( R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  18. Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for cardiogenic shock due to left main coronary artery obstruction caused by Kawasaki disease in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Wataru; Tsuda, Etsuko; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Shiono, Junko

    2014-04-01

    We describe the case of a 4-year-old boy whose clinical course after Kawasaki disease resulted in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causing cardiogenic shock. He had developed an ischemic cardiomyopathy due to severe localized stenosis of the left main coronary artery (LCA) and went into cardiogenic shock due to AMI on the day before a scheduled operation. He underwent successful emergency CABG within 4 h of MI. Postoperatively his neurological status was intact. This is the first report of a successful emergency CABG in a small child with cardiogenic shock due to LCA occlusion. CABG should be undertaken in small patients when appropriate indications exist, if bodyweight is >10 kg.

  19. DGAEE, a newly synthesized derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid, potently attenuates mouse septic shock via its main metabolite DGA in an IL-10-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinque; Liu, Mei; Wu, Xin; Dou, Yannong; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhifeng

    2015-12-01

    Endotoxin can stimulate inflammatory cytokine release from monocytes/macrophages and result in septic shock. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the main bioactive component of licorice, possesses substantial anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we explored effect of 11-deoxy-18α-glycyrrhetinic acid-30-ethyl ester (DGAEE), a newly synthesized derivative of GA, on septic shock. DGAEE and its main metabolite 11-deoxy-18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (DGA) significantly alleviated septic shock as evidenced by improvements of survival rates, lung histopathological changes and wet/dry ratio in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine-stimulated mice, and decreased blood pressure in LPS/D-galactosamine-stimulated rats. The two compounds decreased serum levels of NO, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and increased the level of IL-10 more potently in mice. In LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, DGA but not DGAEE showed marked regulation of NO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels, suggesting that DGAEE display anti-shock effect by DGA rather than itself. Moreover, the neutralizing antibody against IL-10 markedly prohibited the inhibitory effect of DGA on the production of cytokines from RAW 264.7 cells, and AS101 (an inhibitor of IL-10 biosynthesis) almost completely reversed the anti-shock effect of DGA in mice. In addition, DGA did not affect activation of NF-κB-p65 and p38 MAPK as well as IκBα degradation, but moderately reduced activation of ERK and JNK, and markedly increased phosphorylation of GSK3β in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. LY294002 (an inhibitor of GSK3β phosphorylation) and LiCl (an inhibitor of GSK3β activity) diminished and potentiated increase of IL-10 levels by DGA, respectively. In conclusion, DGAEE alleviates septic shock through DGA in an IL-10-dependent manner, and the mechanism is related to inactivation of GSK3β. PMID:26456500

  20. Early second trimester uterine scar rupture.

    PubMed

    Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; Shyamala, G

    2013-12-10

    Spontaneous uterine scar rupture can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar rupture in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19 weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar rupture, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine rupture should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine rupture in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with rupture uterus.

  1. Fine structure of the landers fault zone: Segmentation and the rupture process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.-G.; Vidale, J.E.; Aki, K.; Marone, C.J.; Lee, W.H.K.

    1994-01-01

    Observations and modeling of 3- to 6-hertz seismic shear waves trapped within the fault zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake series allow the fine structure and continuity of the zone to be evaluated. The fault, to a depth of at least 12 kilometers, is marked by a zone 100 to 200 meters wide where shear velocity is reduced by 30 to 50 percent. This zone forms a seismic waveguide that extends along the southern 30 kilometers of the Landers rupture surface and ends at the fault bend about 18 kilometers north of the main shock epicenter. Another fault plane waveguide, disconnected from the first, exists along the northern rupture surface. These observations, in conjunction with surface slip, detailed seismicity patterns, and the progression of rupture along the fault, suggest that several simple rupture planes were involved in the Landers earthquake and that the inferred rupture front hesitated or slowed at the location where the rupture jumped from one to the next plane. Reduction in rupture velocity can tentatively be attributed to fault plane complexity, and variations in moment release can be attributed to variations in available energy.

  2. Fine structure of the landers fault zone: segmentation and the rupture process.

    PubMed

    Li, Y G; Aki, K; Vidale, J E; Lee, W H; Marone, C J

    1994-07-15

    Observations and modeling of 3- to 6-hertz seismic shear waves trapped within the fault zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake series allow the fine structure and continuity of the zone to be evaluated. The fault, to a depth of at least 12 kilometers, is marked by a zone 100 to 200 meters wide where shear velocity is reduced by 30 to 50 percent. This zone forms a seismic waveguide that extends along the southern 30 kilometers of the Landers rupture surface and ends at the fault bend about 18 kilometers north of the main shock epicenter. Another fault plane waveguide, disconnected from the first, exists along the northern rupture surface. These observations, in conjunction with surface slip, detailed seismicity patterns, and the progression of rupture along the fault, suggest that several simple rupture planes were involved in the Landers earthquake and that the inferred rupture front hesitated or slowed at the location where the rupture jumped from one to the next plane. Reduction in rupture velocity can tentatively be attributed to fault plane complexity, and variations in moment release can be attributed to variations in available energy.

  3. Mapping the rupture process of moderate earthquakes by inverting accelerograms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hellweg, M.; Boatwright, J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a waveform inversion method that uses recordings of small events as Green's functions to map the rupture growth of moderate earthquakes. The method fits P and S waveforms from many stations simultaneously in an iterative procedure to estimate the subevent rupture time and amplitude relative to the Green's function event. We invert the accelerograms written by two moderate Parkfield earthquakes using smaller events as Green's functions. The first earthquake (M = 4.6) occurred on November 14, 1993, at a depth of 11 km under Middle Mountain, in the assumed preparation zone for the next Parkfield main shock. The second earthquake (M = 4.7) occurred on December 20, 1994, some 6 km to the southeast, at a depth of 9 km on a section of the San Andreas fault with no previous microseismicity and little inferred coseismic slip in the 1966 Parkfield earthquake. The inversion results are strikingly different for the two events. The average stress release in the 1993 event was 50 bars, distributed over a geometrically complex area of 0.9 km2. The average stress release in the 1994 event was only 6 bars, distributed over a roughly elliptical area of 20 km2. The ruptures of both events appear to grow spasmodically into relatively complex shapes: the inversion only constrains the ruptures to grow more slowly than the S wave velocity but does not use smoothness constraints. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. A non-cold-inducible cold shock protein homolog mainly contributes to translational control under optimal growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Mega, Ryosuke; Kim, Kwang; Shinkai, Akeo; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Nakagawa, Noriko

    2012-03-01

    Cold shock proteins (Csps) include both cold-induced and non-cold-induced proteins, contrary to their name. Cold-induced Csps are well studied; they function in cold acclimation by controlling transcription and translation. Some Csps have been reported to contribute to other cellular processes. However, the functions of non-cold-induced Csps under optimal growth conditions remain unknown. To elucidate these functions, we used transcriptome and proteome analyses as comprehensive approaches and have compared the outputs of wild-type and non-cold-induced Csp-deletion mutant cells. As a model organism, we selected Thermus thermophilus HB8 because it has only two csp genes (ttcsp1 and ttcsp2); ttCsp1 is the only non-cold-induced Csp. Surprisingly, the amount of transcripts and proteins upon deletion of the ttcsp1 gene was quite different. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the deletion of ttcsp1 did not affect the amount of transcripts, although the ttcsp1 gene was constantly expressed in the wild-type cell. Nonetheless, proteomic analysis revealed that the expression levels of many proteins were significantly altered when ttcsp1 was deleted. These results suggest that ttCsp1 functions in translation independent of transcription. Furthermore, ttCsp1 is involved in both the stimulation and inhibition of translation of specific proteins. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of ttCsp1 at 1.65 Å. This is the first report to present the structure of a non-cold-inducible cold shock protein. We also report the nucleotide binding affinity of ttCsp1. Finally, we discuss the functions of non-cold-induced Csps and propose how they modulate the levels of specific proteins to suit the prevailing environmental conditions.

  5. [A successful case of hybrid therapy for the left main trunk and triple coronary vessel lesions with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Ohkado, A; Nakano, K; Nakatani, H; Gomi, A; Sugiyama, N; Itoh, A; Ohnishi, S; Itai, T; Namiki, S; Hayashi, H; Nirei, T; Hirata, N

    2000-02-01

    A 86-year-patient who had acute myocardial infarction and critical cardiogenic shock was diagnosed to have the left main trunk (LMT) and triple vessel disease. Emergent coronary artery bypass grafting to the left anterior descending artery was performed using saphenous vein graft without cardiopulmonary bypass through median sternotomy. On the 41st postoperative day, catheter intervention was performed to the remaining lesions by stenting of LMT and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty to the right coronary artery lesions. Tl scintigraphy showed remarkable reduction of myocardial ischemia. Hybrid therapy is the effective new strategy for critical cases which cannot be successfully and securely treated by medical or surgical approach alone.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of a liver hemangioma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Guillén-Paredes, María Pilar; Martínez Fernández, Josefa; Morales González, Álvaro; Pardo-García, José Luis

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a liver hemangioma is a very uncommon disease, but extremely seriousness because it is associated to a 75% of mortality caused by hipovolemic shock. A case of an spontaneous rupture of liver hemangioma, which was previously unknow, is presented. PMID:27659104

  7. Rupture and frequency-dependent seismic radiation of the 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra strike-slip earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiuxun; Yao, Huajian

    2016-06-01

    On 2012 April 11, a great strike-slip earthquake (moment magnitude of Mw 8.6) occurred off the west coast of northern Sumatra area followed by an Mw 8.2 aftershock 2 hr later. Different geophysical data and methods have been used to investigate the mechanism, faulting, seismic radiation and slip propagation of this event, but frequency-dependent features of its rupture process have not been discussed much. In this study, we use a compressive sensing method based on sparsity inversion in the frequency domain to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation and rupture process of this event. Our results indicate a very complex rupture process concerning at least three different rupture stages on multiple subfaults with nearly conjugate geometries. The main shock has triggered seismicity on a series of ridge-perpendicular or ridge-parallel conjugate strike-slip faults around the Nighty East Ridge. Obvious frequency-dependent rupture process has been presented and discussed. Combining results from slip inversion based on the finite-fault model, we observe that in the beginning stage of the rupture lower frequency radiation appears to originate from the areas with large slip, while the high-frequency radiation is located at the boundary of large-slip region or rupture front. Some radiation probably originates from the repeating slip on the main faults or triggered events on some nearby faults in the rupture area. The complex frequency-dependent seismic radiation patterns observed in this study provide important information for future investigation of rupture physics of this complex strike-slip event.

  8. Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self

  9. Do buried-rupture earthquakes trigger less landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes for reverse faults?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chong

    2014-07-01

    Gorum et al. (2013, Geomorphology 184, 127-138) carried out a study on inventory compilation and statistical analyses of landslides triggered by the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. They revealed that spatial distribution patterns of these landslides were mainly controlled by complex rupture mechanism and topography. They also suggested that blind-rupture earthquakes trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on thrust reverse faults. Although a few lines of evidence indicate that buried-rupture earthquakes might trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on reverse faults, more careful comparisons and analyses indicate that it is not always true. Instead, some cases show that a buried-rupture earthquake can trigger a larger quantity of landslides that are distributed in a larger area, whereas surface-rupture earthquakes can trigger larger but a fewer landslides distributed in a smaller area.

  10. Kinematic Seismic Rupture Parameters from a Doppler Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José F.

    2010-05-01

    The radiation emitted from extended seismic sources, mainly when the rupture spreads in preferred directions, presents spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. This aspect, unobserved to point sources, and named as directivity, are manifested by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of seismic waves when the rupture occurs in the direction of the seismic station and a decrease in the frequency and amplitude if it occurs in the opposite direction. The model of directivity that supports the method is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of rupture and wave propagation through a structural medium with spherical symmetry [1]. A unilateral rupture can be viewed as a sequence of shocks produced along certain paths on the fault. According this model, the seismic record at any point on the Earth's surface contains a signature of the rupture process that originated the recorded waveform. Calculating the rupture direction and velocity by a general Doppler equation, - the goal of this work - using a dataset of common time-delays read from waveforms recorded at different distances around the epicenter, requires the normalization of measures to a standard value of slowness. This normalization involves a non-linear inversion that we solve numerically using an iterative least-squares approach. The evaluation of the performance of this technique was done through a set of synthetic and real applications. We present the application of the method at four real case studies, the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (Mw = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (Mw = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri-Boumerdes, Algeria (Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (Mw = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data. [1] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining

  11. Counter-driver shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamba, T.; Nguyen, T. M.; Takeya, K.; Harasaki, T.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2015-11-01

    A "counter-driver" shock tube was developed. In this device, two counter drivers are actuated with an appropriate delay time to generate the interaction between a shock wave and a flow in the opposite direction which is induced by another shock wave. The conditions for the counter drivers can be set independently. Each driver is activated by a separate electrically controlled diaphragm rupture device, in which a pneumatic piston drives a rupture needle with a temporal jitter of better than 1.1 ms. Operation demonstrations were conducted to evaluate the practical performance.

  12. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Tabraze; Leung, Edmund; McArdle, Kirsten; Pathak, Rajiv; Dalmia, Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Splenic rupture is a life-threatening condition characterized by internal hemorrhage, often difficult to diagnose. Colonoscopy is a gold standard routine diagnostic test to investigate patients with gastrointestinal symptoms as well as to those on the screening program for colorectal cancer. Splenic injury is seldomly discussed during consent for colonoscopy, as opposed to colonic perforation, as its prevalence accounts for less than 0.1%. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with no history of collagen disorder was electively admitted for routine colonoscopy for surveillance of adenoma. She was admitted following the procedure for re-dosing of warfarin, which was stopped prior to the colonoscopy. The patient was found collapsed on the ward the following day with clinical shock and anemia. Computed tomography demonstrated grade 4 splenic rupture. Immediate blood transfusion and splenectomy was required. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy is extremely rare. Awareness of it on this occasion saved the patient's life. Despite it being a rare association, the seriousness warrants inclusion in all information leaflets concerning colonoscopy and during its consent.

  13. Glass rupture disk

    DOEpatents

    Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.

    2002-01-01

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  14. Along-strike rupture directivity of earthquakes of the 2009 L'Aquila, central Italy, seismic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderoni, G.; Rovelli, A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Di Giovambattista, R.

    2015-10-01

    We perform a systematic investigation of along-strike rupture directivity of 70 earthquakes (3.0 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.1) of the 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence by analysing azimuthal variations of broad-band seismograms recorded in the distance range 60 km < R < 230 km. We use reference spectra of events with little directivity (similar to the empirical Green's function method) to deconvolve propagation-site effects and focus on source properties. A directivity index (0 ≤ IDIR ≤ 1) calculated for each earthquake quantifies the spectral separation above the corner frequency of the target event at opposite along-strike directions. A large number (73 per cent) of events including the Mw 6.1 main shock show high (>0.7) IDIR values indicating predominantly unilateral rupture propagation. The preferred rupture propagation direction is generally to the southeast with no dependence on the earthquake magnitude or occurrence time. Events on two main faults (L'Aquila and Campotosto) show somewhat different behaviour. Almost all earthquakes on the L'Aquila fault have strong unilateral directivity to the southeast, whereas earthquakes on the Campotosto fault show more diverse behaviour. However, there is a predominance of unilateral ruptures (14 out of 22) also on the Campotosto fault, and the few (five) earthquakes with ruptures to the northwest are limited to the most northwestern segment of the fault. The spectral results are consistent with time-domain analysis when the latter samples adequately the frequency band above corner frequency. The preferred rupture direction may be produced at least in part by a velocity contrast across the fault. The results provide important input for estimates of seismic motion and physics of earthquake ruptures.

  15. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    PubMed

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    Despite advances in perinatal medicine in the past decade, the diagnosis and treatment of premature rupture of membranes remain controversial. Premature rupture occurs in 2.7-7.0% of pregnancies and most cases occur spontaneously without apparent cause. The disparity in reported rates of premature rupture is due to differences in the definition and diagnostic criteria for premature rupture and lack of comparability in the populations studied. Mexico's National Institute of Perinatology has adopted the definition of the American COllege of Gynecology and Obstetrics which views premature rupture as that occurring before regular uterine contractions that produce cervical dilation. 8.8% of its patients have premature rupture according to this definition. 20% of cases occur before the 36th week of pregnancy. Treatment of rupture occurring before 37 weeks must balance the threat of amniotic infection with the dangers of premature birth. Infections appear more common in low income patient populations. Chorioamnionitis is a serious complication of pregnancy and is the main argument against conservative treatment of premature rupture. The rate of maternal infection is directly related to the time elapsing between rupture of the membranes and birth. The rate increases after the 1st 24 hours and is at least 10 times higher after 72 hours. But recent studies suggest that there is no considerable increase in infection if vaginal explorations are avoided and careful techniques are used in treating the patient. Those who advise conservative treatment believe that prenatal outcomes are better because respiratory disease syndrome due to prematurity is avoided. Conservative management requires a white cell count at least every 24 hours and measurement of pulse, maternal temperature, and fetal heart rate ideally every 4 hours. Perinatal mortality rates due to premature rupture of membranes range from 2.5-50%. The principal causes are respiratory disease syndrome, infection, asphyxia

  16. High-frequency spectral falloff of earthquakes, fractal dimension of complex rupture, b value, and the scaling of strength on faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The high-frequency falloff ??-y of earthquake displacement spectra and the b value of aftershock sequences are attributed to the character of spatially varying strength along fault zones. I assume that the high frequency energy of a main shock is produced by a self-similar distribution of subevents, where the number of subevents with radii greater than R is proportional to R-D, D being the fractal dimension. In the model, an earthquake is composed of a hierarchical set of smaller earthquakes. The static stress drop is parameterized to be proportional to R??, and strength is assumed to be proportional to static stress drop. I find that a distribution of subevents with D = 2 and stress drop independent of seismic moment (?? = 0) produces a main shock with an ??-2 falloff, if the subevent areas fill the rupture area of the main shock. By equating subevents to "islands' of high stress of a random, self-similar stress field on a fault, I relate D to the scaling of strength on a fault, such that D = 2 - ??. Thus D = 2 corresponds to constant stress drop scaling (?? = 0) and scale-invariant fault strength. A self-similar model of aftershock rupture zones on a fault is used to determine the relationship between the b value, the size distribution of aftershock rupture zones, and the scaling of strength on a fault. -from Author

  17. The Constantine (northeast Algeria) earthquake of October 27, 1985: surface ruptures and aftershock study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounif, A.; Haessler, H.; Meghraoui, M.

    1987-10-01

    An earthquake of magnitude Ms = 6.0 (CSEM, Strasbourg) occurred at Constantine (Algeria) on 27 October 1985. This seismic event is the strongest felt in the Tellian Atlas since the El Asnam seismic crisis of October 10, 1980. A team from the Centre de Recherche d'Astronomie, d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique (CRAAG, Algeria), utilising 8 portable stations, registered the activity a few days after the main shock. The aftershocks follow a N045° direction, and show the existence of three ruptured segments. Cross sections display a remarkable vertical fault plane and suggest asperities in the rupture process. Surface breaks were found affecting Quaternary deposits. The principal segment is about 3.8 km long showing “enéchelon” cracks with left-lateral displacement while the main direction of the rupture is N055°. Although the vertical motion is small, the northwestern block shows a normal component of the main surface faulting, while the left-lateral displacement is about 10 cm. The strike-slip focal mechanism solution determined from the global seismic network and field observations are in good agreement.

  18. [Quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures].

    PubMed

    Grim, C; Lorbach, O; Engelhardt, M

    2010-12-01

    Ruptures of the quadriceps or patellar tendon are uncommon but extremely relevant injuries. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment with a stable suture construction are mandatory for a good postoperative clinical outcome. The standard methods of repair for quadriceps and patellar tendon injuries include the placement of suture loops through transpatellar tunnels. Reinforcement with either a wire cerclage or a PDS cord is used in patellar tendon repair. The PDS cord can also be applied as augmentation in quadriceps tendon repair. In secondary patellar tendon repair an autologous semitendinosus graft can be used. For chronic quadriceps tendon defects a V-shaped tendon flap with a distal footing is recommended. The different methods of repair should lead to early functional postoperative treatment. The clinical outcome after surgical treatment of patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures is mainly good.

  19. Improved results of surgical management of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture.

    PubMed Central

    Daggett, W M; Buckley, M J; Akins, C W; Leinbach, R C; Gold, H K; Block, P C; Austen, W G

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-five patients had surgical repair of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture in Massachusetts General Hospital from 1968 through 1981. In patients operated more than three weeks after infarction, hospital survival has been 93% (14/15). Before 1975 in patients operated less than three weeks after infarction, hospital survival was 41% (7/17). In this same era patents operated for septal rupture with cardiogenic shock present before operation had a hospital survival rate of only 27% (3/11). Before 1975 patients with cardiogenic shock were supported with intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) and vasopressors, and operation deferred pending hemodynamic stabilization. Before 1975 patients with anterior septal rupture had a hospital survival rate of 64% (9/14), while patients with posterior septal rupture had a hospital survival rate of only 38% (5/13). This difference in survival according to the location of septal rupture occurred despite comparable numbers of patients in each group requiring early operation, as well as incidence of cardiogenic shock. Since January 1, 1975 patients operated less than three weeks after infarction have had an overall hospital survival rate of 70% (16/23). Of the 10 most recent patients operated early, nine are survivors. In patients with anterior defects 85% (11/13) survived, while in patients with posterior defects 67% survived (10/15). In patients operated with cardiogenic shock present before operation, survival has been 67% (10/15). Changes in management leading to improved results include (1) immediate operation for patients with cardiogenic shock, (2) cold cardioplegic protection of the myocardium, and (3) prosthetic replacement of posterior left ventricular free wall defect, after infarctectomy and septal repair, in patients with posterior septal rupture. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:7114934

  20. LOX Tank Rupture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The bright luminous glow at the top is attributed to the rupture of the liquid oxygen tank just above the SRB/ET attachment. At this point, Challenger is completely engulfed in a firey flow of escaping liquid propellant.

  1. Achilles tendon rupture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Heel cord tear; Calcaneal tendon rupture ... MRI scan to see what type of Achilles tendon tear you have. An MRI is a type ... partial tear means at least some of the tendon is still OK. A full tear means your ...

  2. [Bilateral uterine rupture of an unscarred gravid uterus before labor].

    PubMed

    Leroux, M; Coatleven, F; Faure, M; Horovitz, J

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of bilateral spontaneous uterine rupture of an unscarred uterus occured in a primigravida at 32 weeks to take care in our department after in utero transfert. Uterine rupture occurs mainly on scarred uterus during labor. This is an unfrequent but serious complication involving fetal-maternal prognosis in the absence of immediate care. We are conducting a review about spontaneous uterine rupture of unscarred uterus, before and during labor.

  3. Fault kinematics in the 1989 Loma Prieta rupture area during 20 years before that event

    SciTech Connect

    Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G. )

    1990-08-01

    The Loma Prieta (LP) compressional bend of the San Andreas fault zone (SAF) appears to be multi-stranded and vertically segmented; thus, faults in this segment other than the one that ruptured in 1989 may: (1) be the source of prior large events associated with this portion of the SAF and (2) be highly stressed after the 1989 LP event. The fault that ruptured in 1989 was remarkably aseismic during the preceding 20 years; seismicity occurred on some of the neighboring faults of the system, but others remained aseismic. The Lake Elsman burst of seismicity within 1.6 years of the main shock is on a set of secondary faults within the foot-wall of the rupture. The shallow ({le}5 km) portion of the SAF, morphologically and structurally characterized as steep and predominantly strike-slip, and the imbricate thrust zone to the northeast were also quiescent. These upper crustal faults may partition oblique motion accomplished by LP-like ruptures in the lower crust into fault-parallel (transcurrence) and fault-normal motion (convergence), respectively. While the overall level of seismicity in the region around LP increased over the 20 years before 1989, the level of seismicity (number of events) on the creeping portion of the SAF next to the LP segment decreased. Moreover, the level of background seismicity on this and other fault segments varied dramatically, both up and down, in conjunction with major regional earthquakes on other segments. Thus, improved models for precursory patterns of seismicity should account for mechanistically more realistic changes than simple seismicity increase or decrease everywhere around an impending rupture.

  4. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Surface Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize near-field deformation associated with the surface rupture of the M6.0 South Napa earthquake from repeat mobile laser scanning (MLS) surveys. Starting the day after the main shock, we operated, sometime simultaneously, short (~75 m range) and medium (~400m range) range laser scanners on a truck or backpack. We scanned most of the length of the principal and secondary surface ruptures at speeds less than 10 km/hr. Scanning occurred primarily in either suburban subdivisions or cultivated vineyards of varying varietals with differing leaf patterns and stages of maturity. Spot-spacing is dense enough (100s of points/m^2) to permit creation of 10-25cm digital elevation models of much of the surface rupture. Scanned features of the right-lateral rupture include classic mole tracks through a variety of soil types, en echelon cracks, offset vine rows, and myriad types of pavement-related deformation. We estimate coseismic surface displacements ranging from 5 to 45 cm by examining offset cultural features and vine rows and by comparing the MLS data with preexisting airborne laser scans from 2003 using point-cloud and solid-modeling methodologies. Additionally, we conducted repeat MLS scans to measure the magnitude and spatial variation of fault afterslip, exceeding 20 cm in some places, particularly in the southern portion of the rupture zone. We anticipate these data sets, in conjunction with independently collected ground-based alinement arrays and space-based geodetic data will contribute significant insight into topics of current debate including assessing the most appropriate material models for shallow fault zones and how shallow and deeper fault slip relate to one another.

  5. Complicated malaria and a covert ruptured spleen: a case report.

    PubMed

    Waweru, Peter; Macleod, Jana; Gikonyo, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture in complicated malaria is an uncommon cause of hemoperitoneum in the tropics. The exact incidence of splenic rupture is unknown, largely due to under-reporting, but has been estimated at ∼2%. Its pathophysiology is linked to the formation of a subcapsular hematoma. Upon rupture, patients present with features of shock and peritonitis and in most cases (95%), computed tomography (CT) scan detects the splenic injury. Patients should be managed conservatively with splenectomy reserved for patients with shock and hemoperitoneum due to risk of post-splenectomy sepsis. We report the case of a 38-year-old man with severe malaria who presented with fever, chills and abdominal pains. A CT scan abdomen failed to reveal splenic parenchymal injury or any splenic extravasation of contrast. Conservative management was unsuccessful. Exploratory laparatomy confirmed the spleen as the site of bleeding necessitating a splenectomy. PMID:25395608

  6. Complicated malaria and a covert ruptured spleen: a case report.

    PubMed

    Waweru, Peter; Macleod, Jana; Gikonyo, Anthony

    2014-11-13

    Spontaneous splenic rupture in complicated malaria is an uncommon cause of hemoperitoneum in the tropics. The exact incidence of splenic rupture is unknown, largely due to under-reporting, but has been estimated at ∼2%. Its pathophysiology is linked to the formation of a subcapsular hematoma. Upon rupture, patients present with features of shock and peritonitis and in most cases (95%), computed tomography (CT) scan detects the splenic injury. Patients should be managed conservatively with splenectomy reserved for patients with shock and hemoperitoneum due to risk of post-splenectomy sepsis. We report the case of a 38-year-old man with severe malaria who presented with fever, chills and abdominal pains. A CT scan abdomen failed to reveal splenic parenchymal injury or any splenic extravasation of contrast. Conservative management was unsuccessful. Exploratory laparatomy confirmed the spleen as the site of bleeding necessitating a splenectomy.

  7. Biomechanical Rupture Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a local event in the aneurysm wall that naturally demands tools to assess the risk for local wall rupture. Consequently, global parameters like the maximum diameter and its expansion over time can only give very rough risk indications; therefore, they frequently fail to predict individual risk for AAA rupture. In contrast, the Biomechanical Rupture Risk Assessment (BRRA) method investigates the wall’s risk for local rupture by quantitatively integrating many known AAA rupture risk factors like female sex, large relative expansion, intraluminal thrombus-related wall weakening, and high blood pressure. The BRRA method is almost 20 years old and has progressed considerably in recent years, it can now potentially enrich the diameter indication for AAA repair. The present paper reviews the current state of the BRRA method by summarizing its key underlying concepts (i.e., geometry modeling, biomechanical simulation, and result interpretation). Specifically, the validity of the underlying model assumptions is critically disused in relation to the intended simulation objective (i.e., a clinical AAA rupture risk assessment). Next, reported clinical BRRA validation studies are summarized, and their clinical relevance is reviewed. The BRRA method is a generic, biomechanics-based approach that provides several interfaces to incorporate information from different research disciplines. As an example, the final section of this review suggests integrating growth aspects to (potentially) further improve BRRA sensitivity and specificity. Despite the fact that no prospective validation studies are reported, a significant and still growing body of validation evidence suggests integrating the BRRA method into the clinical decision-making process (i.e., enriching diameter-based decision-making in AAA patient treatment).

  8. Intracranial Aneurysms: Wall Motion Analysis for Prediction of Rupture.

    PubMed

    Vanrossomme, A E; Eker, O F; Thiran, J-P; Courbebaisse, G P; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K

    2015-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are a common pathologic condition with a potential severe complication: rupture. Effective treatment options exist, neurosurgical clipping and endovascular techniques, but guidelines for treatment are unclear and focus mainly on patient age, aneurysm size, and localization. New criteria to define the risk of rupture are needed to refine these guidelines. One potential candidate is aneurysm wall motion, known to be associated with rupture but difficult to detect and quantify. We review what is known about the association between aneurysm wall motion and rupture, which structural changes may explain wall motion patterns, and available imaging techniques able to analyze wall motion. PMID:25929878

  9. Splenic rupture as a presenting feature of endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Winearls, James Roger; McGloughlin, Steven; Fraser, John F

    2009-04-01

    We describe the first case of infective endocarditis presenting with spontaneous splenic rupture. Our patient, a known intravenous drug user presented with hypovolaemic shock secondary to splenic rupture. The patient was resuscitated and underwent an emergency splenectomy. Subsequent clinical examination revealed a systolic murmur and a diagnosis of mitral valve infective endocarditis was made after echocardiography. Splenic tissue, blood cultures and mitral valve tissue all cultured Enterococcus faecalis. The patient had a successful mitral valve replacement and was discharged home after 44 days. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of enterococcal endocarditis presenting with splenic rupture. This case highlights the need to consider endocarditis in spontaneous splenic rupture particularly in those patients in a high risk group, such as IV drug users, especially if they lack a clear history of trauma. PMID:19217796

  10. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Jess; Galli, Melissa; Borchers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in athletes is increasing in incidence and accounts for one of the most devastating sports injuries because of the threat to alter or end a career. Despite the magnitude of this injury, reliable risk assessment has not been clearly defined, and prevention strategies have been limited. The purpose of this review is to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes stated in the current literature. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search was conducted on AT rupture, or “injury” and “risk factors” and “athletes” from 1980 to 2011. Emphasis was placed on epidemiology, etiology, and review articles focusing on the risk for lower extremity injury in runners and gymnasts. Thirty articles were reviewed, and 22 were included in this assessment. Results: Aerial and ground athletes share many intrinsic risk factors for AT rupture, including overuse and degeneration of the tendon as well as anatomical variations that mechanically put an athlete at risk. Older athletes, athletes atypical in size for their sport, high tensile loads, leg dominance, and fatigue also may increase risk. Aerial athletes tend to have more extrinsic factors that play a role in this injury due to the varying landing surfaces from heights and technical maneuvers performed at various skill levels. Conclusion: Risk assessment for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes is multivariable and difficult in terms of developing prevention strategies. Quantitative measures of individual risk factors may help identify major contributors to injury. PMID:24427410

  11. The 2015 Gorkha earthquake: A large event illuminating the Main Himalayan Thrust fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duputel, Zacharie; Vergne, Jérôme; Rivera, Luis; Wittlinger, Gérard; Farra, Véronique; Hetényi, György

    2016-03-01

    The 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence provides an outstanding opportunity to better characterize the geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). To overcome limitations due to unaccounted lateral heterogeneities, we perform Centroid Moment Tensor inversions in a 3-D Earth model for the main shock and largest aftershocks. In parallel, we recompute S-to-P and P-to-S receiver functions from the Hi-CLIMB data set. Inverted centroid locations fall within a low-velocity zone at 10-15 km depth and corresponding to the subhorizontal portion of the MHT that ruptured during the Gorkha earthquake. North of the main shock hypocenter, receiver functions indicate a north dipping feature that likely corresponds to the midcrustal ramp connecting the flat portion to the deep part of the MHT. Our analysis of the main shock indicates that long-period energy emanated updip of high-frequency radiation sources previously inferred. This frequency-dependent rupture process might be explained by different factors such as fault geometry and the presence of fluids.

  12. Earthquake rupture stalled by a subducting fracture zone.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D P; Das, S; Watts, A B

    2006-05-26

    We showed that the rupture produced by the great Peru earthquake (moment magnitude 8.4) on 23 June 2001 propagated for approximately 70 kilometers before encountering a 6000-square-kilometer area of fault that acted as a barrier. The rupture continued around this barrier, which remained unbroken for approximately 30 seconds and then began to break when the main rupture front was approximately 200 kilometers from the epicenter. The barrier had relatively low rupture speed, slip, and aftershock density as compared to its surroundings, and the time of the main energy release in the earthquake coincided with the barrier's rupture. We associate this barrier with a fracture zone feature on the subducting oceanic plate.

  13. Cardiogenic shock

    MedlinePlus

    Shock - cardiogenic ... electrical system of the heart (heart block) Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart is unable to pump ... orthostatic hypotension) Weak (thready) pulse To diagnose cardiogenic shock, a catheter (tube) may be placed in the ...

  14. Premature rupture of membranes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the 37th week of pregnancy, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The earlier your water breaks, the more ... babies born early). If there is not a preterm unit where you deliver, you and your baby will be moved to a hospital that has one.

  15. [Stomach rupture while diving].

    PubMed

    Russi, E; Gäumann, N; Geroulanos, S; Bühlmann, A A

    1985-06-01

    A case of stomach rupture in a 47-year-old scuba diver is reported. Symptoms of gastrointestinal expansion during ascent are quite common and are caused by decompression of swallowed air. Gastric perforation is however rare, and needs to be promptly recognized and surgically repaired.

  16. Labyrinthine window rupture.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J G; Harborow, P C

    1975-01-01

    Some cases of sensorineural deafness are due to labyrinthine window rupture. Three cases have been presented to illustrate different aspects of diagnosis and managment of this condition. The indications for surgical intervention have been discussed. The importance of making the diagnosis is that operation can relieve vertigo and restore the hearing.

  17. Physics of collisionless shocks: theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockem Novo, A.; Bret, A.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks occur in various fields of physics. In the context of space and astrophysics they have been investigated for many decades. However, a thorough understanding of shock formation and particle acceleration is still missing. Collisionless shocks can be distinguished into electromagnetic and electrostatic shocks. Electromagnetic shocks are of importance mainly in astrophysical environments and they are mediated by the Weibel or filamentation instability. In such shocks, charged particles gain energy by diffusive shock acceleration. Electrostatic shocks are characterized by a strong electrostatic field, which leads to electron trapping. Ions are accelerated by reflection from the electrostatic potential. Shock formation and particle acceleration will be discussed in theory and simulations.

  18. [Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A rare form of presentation].

    PubMed

    Rettedal, E A; Vennesland, O

    1993-05-10

    In most cases a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurism is dramatic, with rapid deterioration of the clinical condition of the patient. With abdominal and back pain, pulsatile tumour, and development of bleeding shock the diagnosis is obvious. In some cases the symptoms are not clear and the condition can be misinterpreted. The authors describe a case to illustrate this. A 74 year-old male was admitted to hospital with vague abdominal pain and left inguinal hernia. It later turned out that a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurism was the reason for his symptoms and signs. 14 similar cases are reported in the literature. PMID:8332976

  19. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  20. Structure in Radiating Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Forrest

    2010-11-01

    The basic radiative shock experiment is a shock launched into a gas of high-atomic-number material at high velocities, which fulfills the conditions for radiative losses to collapse the post-shock material to over 20 times the initial gas density. This has been accomplished using the OMEGA Laser Facility by illuminating a Be ablator for 1 ns with a total of 4 kJ, launching the requisite shock, faster than 100 km/sec, into a polyimide shock tube filled with Xe. The experiments have lateral dimensions of 600 μm and axial dimensions of 2-3 mm, and are diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. Repeatable structure beyond the one-dimensional picture of a shock as a planar discontinuity was discovered in the experimental data. One form this took was that of radial boundary effects near the tube walls, extended approximately seventy microns into the system. The cause of this effect - low density wall material which is heated by radiation transport ahead of the shock, launching a new converging shock ahead of the main shock - is apparently unique to high-energy-density experiments. Another form of structure is the appearance of small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces and creating regions of enhanced and diminished aerial density within the layer. The authors have applied an instability theory, a variation of the Vishniac instability of decelerating shocks, to describe the growth of these perturbations. We have also applied Bayesian statistical methods to better understand the uncertainties associated with measuring shocked layer thickness in the presence of tilt. Collaborators: R. P. Drake, H. F. Robey, C. C. Kuranz, C. M. Huntington, M. J. Grosskopf, D. C. Marion.

  1. Electron Acceleration in Shock-Shock Interaction: Simulations and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, M.; Matsukiyo, S.; Mazelle, C. X.; Hada, T.

    2015-12-01

    Collisionless shock waves play a crucial role in producing high energy particles (cosmic rays) in space. While most of the past studies about particle acceleration assume the presence of a single shock, in space two shocks frequently come close to or even collide with each other. Hietala et al. [2011] observed the collision of an interplanetary shock and the earth's bow shock and the associated acceleration of energetic ions. The kinetic natures of a shock-shock collision has not been well understood. Only the work done by using hybrid simulation was reported by Cargill et al. [1986], in which they focus on a collision of two supercritical shocks and the resultant ion acceleration. We expect similarly that electron acceleration can also occur in shock-shock collision. To investigate the electron acceleration process in a shock-shock collision, we perform one-dimensional full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In the simulation energetic electrons are observed between the two approaching shocks before colliding. These energetic electrons are efficiently accelerated through multiple reflections at the two shocks (Fermi acceleration). The reflected electrons create a temperature anisotropy and excite large amplitude waves upstream via the electron fire hose instability. The large amplitude waves can scatter the energetic electrons in pitch angle so that some of them gain large pitch angles and are easily reflected when they encounter the shocks subsequently. The reflected electrons can sustain, or probably even strengthen, them. We further discuss observational results of an interaction of interplanetary shocks and the earth's bow shock by examining mainly Cluster data. We focus on whether or not electrons are accelerated in the shock-shock interaction.

  2. Premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Poma, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    The management of patients with premature rupture of membranes has changed markedly in the past several years. The basis for this is a combination of a better understanding of newborn physiology, improved neonatal care, refinements in antibiotic therapy, and the widespread use of maternal and fetal monitoring. The best outcome for both mother and infant undoubtedly reflects data based on a combination of factors, among which are gestational age survival, evidence of fetal distress, presence or absence of labor and sepsis, and of course, the cervical condition as it is related to labor-readiness. An important recent advance is the recognition that an active observation management program is associated with less morbidity and mortality than the classic management course of delivery within 12 hours of membrane rupture. The fact that preterm premature rupture of membranes tends to recur in subsequent pregnancies offers an opportunity for prevention. Moreover, advances in perinatal and neonatal care will continue to improve the outcomes of these women and their children. PMID:8583489

  3. Rupture of bicornuate uterus

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, Sheela; Muralidhar, Lakshmidevi; G, Sampathkumar; Sexsena, Rajivkumar

    2011-01-01

    A primigravida aged 20 years was referred to Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences with diagnosis of 30 weeks of period of gestation with eclampsia and failure to respond to induction with misoprostol and she was on Pritchard regimen for the treatment of eclampsia and there was no response to induction of labour and emergency ultrasound was taken and it showed an extrauterine gestation of 30 weeks gestation with fetal demise and free fluid in peritoneum. A tentative diagnosis of secondary abdominal pregnancy with eclampsia was made and she was taken for emergency laprotomy. Intra operative findings showed haemoperitoneum, fetus with placenta and membranes in the peritoneal cavity, there was bicornuate uterus and right horn was ruptured from the fundus to about 8 cm down in the posterior aspect and ruptured part was sutured in two layers. After securing perfect haemostasis, abdomen was closed. This paper illustrates a case report of uterine anomaly with 30 weeks period of gestation and eclampsia and rupture following induction with prostaglandins. PMID:22675095

  4. Rupture of bicornuate uterus.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, Sheela; Muralidhar, Lakshmidevi; Sampathkumar, G; Sexsena, Rajivkumar

    2011-01-01

    A primigravida aged 20 years was referred to Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences with diagnosis of 30 weeks of period of gestation with eclampsia and failure to respond to induction with misoprostol and she was on Pritchard regimen for the treatment of eclampsia and there was no response to induction of labour and emergency ultrasound was taken and it showed an extrauterine gestation of 30 weeks gestation with fetal demise and free fluid in peritoneum. A tentative diagnosis of secondary abdominal pregnancy with eclampsia was made and she was taken for emergency laprotomy. Intra operative findings showed haemoperitoneum, fetus with placenta and membranes in the peritoneal cavity, there was bicornuate uterus and right horn was ruptured from the fundus to about 8 cm down in the posterior aspect and ruptured part was sutured in two layers. After securing perfect haemostasis, abdomen was closed. This paper illustrates a case report of uterine anomaly with 30 weeks period of gestation and eclampsia and rupture following induction with prostaglandins. PMID:22675095

  5. Rupture of bicornuate uterus.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, Sheela; Muralidhar, Lakshmidevi; Sampathkumar, G; Sexsena, Rajivkumar

    2011-10-28

    A primigravida aged 20 years was referred to Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences with diagnosis of 30 weeks of period of gestation with eclampsia and failure to respond to induction with misoprostol and she was on Pritchard regimen for the treatment of eclampsia and there was no response to induction of labour and emergency ultrasound was taken and it showed an extrauterine gestation of 30 weeks gestation with fetal demise and free fluid in peritoneum. A tentative diagnosis of secondary abdominal pregnancy with eclampsia was made and she was taken for emergency laprotomy. Intra operative findings showed haemoperitoneum, fetus with placenta and membranes in the peritoneal cavity, there was bicornuate uterus and right horn was ruptured from the fundus to about 8 cm down in the posterior aspect and ruptured part was sutured in two layers. After securing perfect haemostasis, abdomen was closed. This paper illustrates a case report of uterine anomaly with 30 weeks period of gestation and eclampsia and rupture following induction with prostaglandins.

  6. A Case of Post Myocardial Infarction Papillary Muscle Rupture.

    PubMed

    Anuwatworn, Amornpol; Milnes, Christopher; Kumar, Vishesh; Raizada, Amol; Nykamp, Verlyn; Stys, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Papillary muscle rupture is a rare, life-threatening post myocardial infarction mechanical complication. Without surgical intervention, prognosis is very poor. Clinicians need to recognize this complication early, as prompt therapy is crucial. We present a case of inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction complicated by posteromedial papillary muscle rupture resulting in severe acute mitral regurgitation (flail anterior mitral leaflet), acute pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock. In our patient, a new mitral regurgitation murmur suggested this mechanical complication. Complete disruption of papillary muscle was visualized by transesophageal echocardiography. This case illustrates the importance of good physical examination for early diagnosis of papillary muscle rupture, so that life-saving treatment can be administered without delay. PMID:27443107

  7. Persistency of rupture directivity in moderate-magnitude earthquakes in Italy: Implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, A.; Calderoni, G.

    2012-12-01

    A simple method based on the EGF deconvolution in the frequency domain is applied to detect the occurrence of unilateral ruptures in recent damaging earthquakes in Italy. The spectral ratio between event pairs with different magnitudes at individual stations shows large azimuthal variations above corner frequency when the target event is affected by source directivity and the EGF is not or vice versa. The analysis is applied to seismograms and accelerograms recorded during the seismic sequence following the 20 May 2012, Mw 5.6 main shock in Emilia, northern Italy, the 6 April 2009, Mw 6.1 earthquake of L'Aquila, central Italy, and the 26 September 1997, Mw 5.7 and 6.0 shocks in Umbria-Marche, central Italy. Events of each seismic sequence are selected as having consistent focal mechanisms, and the station selection obeys to the constraint of a similar source-to-receiver path for the event pairs. The analyzed data set of L'Aquila consists of 962 broad-band seismograms relative to 69 normal-faulting earthquakes (3.3 ≤ MW ≤ 6.1, according to Herrmann et al., 2011), stations are selected in the distance range 100 to 250 km to minimize differences in propagation paths. The seismogram analysis reveals that a strong along-strike (toward SE) source directivity characterized all of the three Mw > 5.0 shocks. Source directivity was also persistent up to the smallest magnitudes: 65% of earthquakes under study showed evidence of directivity toward SE whereas only one (Mw 3.7) event showed directivity in the opposite direction. Also the Mw 5.6 main shock of the 20 May 2012 in Emilia result in large azimuthal spectral variations indicating unilateral rupture propagation toward SE. According to the reconstructed geometry of the trust-fault plane, the inferred directivity direction suggests top-down rupture propagation. The analysis over the Emilia aftershock sequence is in progress. The third seismic sequence, dated 1997-1998, occurred in the northern Apennines and, similarly

  8. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  9. Acoustic-Friction Networks and the Evolution of Precursor Rupture Fronts in Laboratory Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, H. O.; Young, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of shear rupture fronts in laboratory earthquakes is analysed with the corresponding functional networks, constructed over acoustic emission friction-patterns. We show that the mesoscopic characteristics of functional networks carry the characteristic time for each phase of the rupture evolution. The classified rupture fronts in network states–obtained from a saw-cut fault and natural faulted Westerly granite - show a clear separation into three main groups, indicating different states of rupture fronts. With respect to the scaling of local ruptures' durations with the networks' parameters, we show that the gap in the classified fronts could be related to the possibility of a separation between slow and regular fronts.

  10. Detailed source process of the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake and its main aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrat, S.; Madariaga, R.; Buforn, E.; Meneses, G.; Campos, J.; Favreau, P.; Bernard, P.; Vilotte, J.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the detail rupture process of the Tocopilla earthquake (Mw 7.7) of the 14 November 2007 and of the main aftershocks that occurred in the southern part of the North Chile seismic gap using teleseismic broadband and strong motion data. The earthquake happen in the middle of the permanent broad band and strong motion network IPOC newly installed by GFZ and IPGP-CNRS, and of a digital strong- motion network operated by the University of Chile. The Tocopilla earthquake is the last large thrust subduction earthquake since the major Iquique 1877 earthquake which produced a destructive tsunami. The Arequipa (2001) and Antofagasta (1995) earthquakes already ruptured the northern and southern parts of the gap, and the intraplate intermediate depth Tarapaca earthquake (2005) may have changed the tectonic loading of this part of the Peru-Chile subduction zone. The Tocopilla earthquake raises some disturbing questions: why this earthquake didn't extent further north ; what has been the role of the Mejillones peninsula in the south which seems to act as a barrier? We studied the detailed source process using the strong motion data available. The strong-motion data show clearly two S-waves arrivals, allowing the localization of two sources. The main shock started north of the segment close to Tocopilla. The rupture propagated southward. The second source was identified to start about 20 seconds later and located 50 km south from the hypocenter. The earthquake ruptured the interplate seismic zone over more than 150 km and generated several large aftershocks, mainly located south of the rupture area with the same focal mechanism, except for the largest one that took place on the 16 December. This event is a down-dip compressional event (slab push) placed down dip of the main interplate coupling zone at the southern end of the main event rupture zone. Finally in order to understand whether the northern gap has actually been reduced or not by the occurrence of the

  11. Progression of spontaneous in-plane shear faults from sub-Rayleigh to compressional wave rupture speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Bizzarri, Andrea; Das, Shamita

    2014-11-01

    We investigate numerically the passage of spontaneous, dynamic in-plane shear ruptures from initiation to their final rupture speed, using very fine grids. By carrying out more than 120 simulations, we identify two different mechanisms controlling supershear transition. For relatively weaker faults, the rupture speed always passes smoothly and continuously through the range of speeds between the Rayleigh and shear wave speeds (the formerly considered forbidden zone of rupture speeds). This, however, occurs in a very short time, before the ruptures reach the compressional wave speed. The very short time spent in this range of speeds may explain why a jump over these speeds was seen in some earlier numerical and experimental studies and confirms that this speed range is an unstable range, as predicted analytically for steady state, singular cracks. On the other hand, for relatively stronger faults, we find that a daughter rupture is initiated by the main (mother) rupture, ahead of it. The mother rupture continues to propagate at sub-Rayleigh speed and eventually merges with the daughter rupture, whose speed jumps over the Rayleigh to shear wave speed range. We find that this daughter rupture is essentially a "pseudorupture," in that the two sides of the fault are already separated, but the rupture has negligible slip and slip velocity. After the mother rupture merges with it, the slip, the slip velocity, and the rupture speed become dominated by those of the mother rupture. The results are independent of grid sizes and of methods used to nucleate the initial rupture.

  12. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yakasai, I A; Adamu, N; Galadanchi, H S

    2012-01-01

    Molar pregnancies in most instances develop within the uterine cavity, but may occur at any site. Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare event. The objective of this study was to present a case of ruptured tubal molar gestation, discuss its clinical features and ways to improve diagnostic accuracy. A 35-year-old woman presented with features suggestive of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. There was neither any evidence at the time of presentation to suspect a molar gestation, nor β human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) hormone estimation was done, but only a clearview pregnancy test was carried out. She had total left salpingectomy and histological evaluation of the specimen revealed complete hydatidiform mole. The hCG level normalized within 3 weeks of follow-up. Clinical features of ectopic molar pregnancy may be indistinguishable from non-molar ectopic pregnancy. We recommend βhCG estimation as well as histological examination of the surgical specimen for all patients coming with features suggestive of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:23238205

  13. Post myocardial infarction cardiogenic shock: a review of current therapies.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ramford; Yeghiazarians, Yerem

    2013-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock is often a devastating consequence of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and portends to significant mortality and morbidity. Despite improvements in expediting the time to treatment and enhancements in available medical therapy and reperfusion techniques, cardiogenic shock remains the most common cause of mortality following MI. Post-MI cardiogenic shock most commonly occurs as a consequence of severe left ventricular dysfunction. Right ventricular (RV) MI must also be considered. Mechanical complications including acute mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal rupture, and ventricular free-wall rupture can also lead to cardiogenic shock. Rapid diagnosis of cardiogenic shock and its underlying cause is pivotal to delivering definitive therapy. Intravenous vasoactive agents and mechanical support devices may temporize the patient's hemodynamic status until definitive therapy by percutaneous or surgical intervention can be performed. Despite prompt management, post-MI cardiogenic shock mortality remains high.

  14. RBMK pressure tube rupture assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, B.E.; Tsiklauri, G.V.

    1994-08-01

    The Russian RBMK reactor core design consists of multiple parallel pressure tube channels that contain Zr clad, UO{sub 2} fuel pin bundles. These parallel channels are contained within graphite moderator blocks which are, in turn, contained within a sealed core cavity. Current safety evaluation efforts of the RBMK reactors have been concentrating in the area of tube ruptures within the core cavity and, in particular, multiple tube ruptures that could threaten the reactor core integrity. Tube rupture events result in a pressurization of the reactor core cavity. The original design overpressure for the cavity region was based on a single tube rupture, resulting in considerable margin to the top plate lift pressure. The top plate lift pressure is 3.1 bar, and a single tube rupture would result in approximately 1.4 bar. RBMK plant specific cavity pressure relief designs provide for between three and in simultaneous tube ruptures before exceeding the top plate lift pressure. Thus, current safety evaluations have begun to examine the potential for multiple tube ruptures that could exceed the current cavity pressure relief designs. One such scenario being examined is a partial rupture in a group distribution header that results in stagnated (low) flow to up to 40 pressure tubes. The subsequent fuel heatup in these reduced flow tubes could result in multiple tube ruptures beyond the design relief capacity of the core cavity. This paper examines several key issues in evaluating this transient, including: (1) the effects of low flow, (2) the effects of axial peaking, and (3) the effects of radial peaking, all relative to the time to tube rupture. These issues each play a significant role in attempting to evaluate the likelihood and severity of multiple tube ruptures for a partial group distribution header break.

  15. Life-threatening spontaneous kidney rupture in a rare case with systemic lupus erythematosus: Prompt diagnosis with computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ufuk, Furkan; Herek, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    Nontraumatic, spontaneous parenchymal kidney rupture is a rare clinical entity that may cause extensive hemorrhage, hypovolemic shock, and death. Spontaneous nontraumatic kidney rupture is extremely rare in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Because of the high morbidity and mortality rates, an immediate establishment of the diagnosis and treatment are necessary. We present the case of a 30-year-old female with spontaneous parenchymal rupture of the right kidney who had renal failure due to SLE and presented with atraumatic sudden right flank pain during hemodialysis treatment. To our knowledge, this case is the second report of SLE manifesting as spontaneous kidney rupture in the literature.

  16. The spontaneous prelabour rupture of anunscarred uterus at 34 weeks of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Misra, Malabika; Roychowdhury, Ronita; Sarkar, Nayan Chandra; Koley, Murary Mohan

    2013-03-01

    Uterine rupture is an obstetric emergency needs immediate surgery and is associated with poor fetal & maternal outcome. Usually uterine rupture occurs at the lower segment (weakest part) if there is no history of uterine surgery. We hereby are reporting a case of spontaneous uterine rupture at fundus, at 34 weeks of gestation in a patient who has never had uterine surgery. Only uterine curettage was done once for missed abortion. In this case, diagnosis was delayed until the patient went into massive hemorrhagic shock; because, there was no history of previous uterine surgery. However, clinical picture of the ruptured uterus at the fundus suggests there was some weakness at the fundus. Thereafter, D & C operation was taken into account. Subtotal hysterectomy was done as the rupture was irreparable damage to the fundus. Her one month follow up was uneventful.

  17. Intrapartum uterine rupture with coincidental uterine adenomyosis in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Newell-Fugate, Annie; Lane, Emily

    2009-12-01

    A 7-yr-old African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) multiparous bitch experienced severe dystocia and death one day after the onset of parturition. Necropsy revealed three placental attachments in the right uterine horn and one in the left. A full-thickness rupture of the right horn at the middle placental attachment and an autolysed fetus free in the abdomen were present. Death was attributed to hypovolemic and endotoxemic shock after uterine rupture. Myometrium adjacent to the rupture and in the left uterine horn was subdivided into irregular pseudolobules by fibrous connective tissue tracts containing small endometrial glandular acini suggestive of adenomyosis, which may have facilitated uterine rupture. This is the first reported case of dystocia-induced uterine rupture and of adenomyosis in a wild dog.

  18. Effects of Pre-Stress State and Rupture Velocity on Dynamic Fault Branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kame, N.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2002-12-01

    We consider a mode II rupture which propagates along a planar main fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault that makes an angle with the main fault. Within a formulation that allows the failure path to be dynamically self-chosen, we study the following questions: Does the rupture start along the branch? Does it continue? Which side is most favored for branching, the extensional or compressional? Does rupture continue on the main fault too? What path is finally self-chosen? Failure in the modeling is described by a slip-weakening law for which the peak and residual strength, and strength at any particular amount of slip, is proportional to normal stress. We use the elastodynamic boundary integral equation method to allow simulations of rupture along the branched fault system. Our results show that dynamic stresses around the rupturing fault tip, which increase with rupture velocity at locations off the main fault plane, relative to those on it, could initiate rupture on a branching fault. As suggested by prior work [Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice, 2002, http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/PDR.pdf], whether a branching rupture, once begun, can be continued to a larger scale depends on principal stress directions in the pre-stress state and on rupture velocity. The most favored side for rupture transferring on a branching fault switches from the extensional side to the compressive side as we consider progressively shallower angles of the direction of maximum pre-compression with the main fault. Simultaneous rupturing on both faults is usually difficult for a narrow branching angle due to strong stress interaction between faults, which discourages rupture continuation on the other side. However, it can be activated by enhanced dynamic stressing when the rupture velocity is very near the limiting velocity (Rayleigh wave velocity for mode II). It can also be activated when the branching angle is wide because of decreasing stress interaction between faults

  19. Hemoperitoneum in a Cirrhotic Patient Due to Rupture of Retroperitoneal Varix

    PubMed Central

    Sincos, Igor Rafael; Mulatti, Grace; Mulatti, Sheila; Sincos, Ilana Cristina; Belczak, Sergio Q.; Zamboni, Valdir

    2009-01-01

    The rupture of retroperitoneal varices is a rare and catastrophic complication of portal hypertension. We describe a case of this nature, the first in Brazilian medical literature, and also reviewing all previous 34 cases. We systematically analyzed all therapeutic approach and propose a management algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of this lethal condition. The majority of the patients presented with abdominal pain, distention and hypotension, and developed hemorrhagic shock. Rupture of retroperitoneal varices can be properly managed if an early diagnosis is made and surgery is performed promptly, which is the only effective treatment. Arteriography should be used when the suspicion is of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:19404409

  20. Mycotic Aneurysm of the Celiac Trunk: From Early CT Sign to Rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Serafino, Gianpiero Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Boks, Simone; Harst, Erwin van der

    2005-06-15

    We present a case of the rapid development and rupture of a mycotic celiac trunk aneurysm. Initiallyon multislice computed tomography (ms-CT) there was a normal celiac trunk with minimal haziness of the surrounding fat. Only 2 weeks later the patient went into hypovolemic shock due to a ruptured celiac aneurysm. Although aneurysms of the visceral arteries are rare, they are of major clinical importance as they carry a life-threatening risk of rupture. This case illustrates the use of ms-CT in detecting and evaluating visceral aneurysms, in order to prevent emergency operation.

  1. Spontaneous rupture on irregular faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2014-12-01

    It is now know (e.g. Robinson et al., 2006) that when ruptures propagate around bends, the rupture velocity decrease. In the extreme case, a large bend in the fault can stop the rupture. We develop a 2-D finite difference method to simulate spontaneous dynamic rupture on irregular faults. This method is based on a second order leap-frog finite difference scheme on a uniform mesh of triangles. A relaxation method is used to generate an irregular fault geometry-conforming mesh from the uniform mesh. Through this numerical coordinate mapping, the elastic wave equations are transformed and solved in a curvilinear coordinate system. Extensive numerical experiments using the linear slip-weakening law will be shown to demonstrate the effect of fault geometry on rupture properties. A long term goal is to simulate the strong ground motion near the vicinity of bends, jogs, etc.

  2. Spontaneous Iliac Vein Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Hyung Sub; Lee, Taeseung

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous iliac vein rupture (SIVR) is a rare entity, which usually occurs without a precipitating factor, but can be a life-threatening emergency often requiring an emergency operation. This is a case report of SIVR in a 62-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with left leg swelling. Workup with contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a left leg deep vein thrombosis with May-Thurner syndrome and a hematoma in the pelvic cavity without definite evidence of arterial bleeding. She was managed conservatively without surgical intervention, and also underwent inferior vena cava filter insertion and subsequent anticoagulation therapy for pulmonary thromboembolism. This case shows that SIVR can be successfully managed with close monitoring and conservative management, and anticoagulation may be safely applied despite the patient presenting with venous bleeding. PMID:26217647

  3. Short-lived Supershear Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, E.; Xu, S.; Yamashita, F.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.

    2015-12-01

    Fukuyama and Olsen (2002) computed the supershear rupture initiation, propagation and termination process due to a passage of high stress drop area (called asperity) using a boundary integral equation method. They found that supershear rupture continued to propagate after the passage through high stress drop area but it died after a certain propagation distance, which depends on the elastic energy released at the high stress drop area. Here, we could reproduce a similar phenomenon in the laboratory. We conducted large-scale biaxial friction experiments using a pair of meter-scaled metagabbro rock specimens (VP=6.9km/s, VS=3.6km/s) at the National Research institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). We observed several stick slip rupture events that initiated close to an asperity and immediately became supershear ruptures. But after propagating certain distance they died out and co-existing subshear ruptures became prominent. If we look into details, during the supershear rupture, we could see a sequence of rupture acceleration, its short rest and re-acceleration. This feature reminds us of a sequential breakage of small high stress patches as predicted by Fukuyama and Madariaga (2000). These observations might be interpreted under a concept of energy balance where the energy transmission from strain energy released by the asperity to fracture energy consumed at the crack tip was not instantaneously balanced in space. This could be related to the fact that earthquake rupture velocity is rather smooth reported from the finite fault analysis of large earthquakes with seismic waveforms. References Fukuyama, E. and R. Madariaga (2000) Dynamic propagation and interaction of a rupture front on a planar fault, PAGEOPH, 257, 1959-1979. Fukuyama, E. and K.B. Olsen (2002) A condition for super-shear rupture propagation in a heterogeneous stress field, PAGEOPH, 159, 2047-2056.

  4. Seismic velocity variations along the rupture zone of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G.; Thurber, C. H.

    2012-09-01

    We revisit the rupture zone of the 1989 Mw6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, central California, by developing high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D)Vp and Vp/Vs models. We apply the simul2000 inversion method and algorithm to a set of "composite" events, which have greater number of picks per event and reduced random picking errors compared with traditional master events. Our final P-wave velocity model generally agrees with previous studies, showing a high velocity body of above 6.7 km/s in the southeast rupture zone of the main shock. The 3-DVp/Vs model, however, has different features, with low Vp/Vs in the upper crust and high Vp/Vs anomalies in deeper layers of the rupture zone. We interpret the low Vp/Vs at shallow depths to be granitic rocks, whereas at greater depths the areas of higher Vp/Vs(around 1.725-1.75) presumably are mafic rocks. The resulting 3-D velocity model was used to improve absolute locations for all local events between 1984 and 2010 in our study area. We then applied a similar event cluster analysis, waveform cross-correlation, and differential time relocation methods to improve relative event location accuracy. Over 88% of the seismicity falls into similar event clusters. A dramatic sharpening of seismicity patterns is obtained after using these methods. The medians of the relative location uncertainties calculated by using the bootstrap approach are 5 m for horizontal and 8 m for vertical. Differential times from cross-correlation are used to estimatein situnear-sourceVp/Vsratio within each event cluster. The high-resolutionVp/Vs method confirms the trend of the velocity variations from the tomographic results, although absolute values are slightly different.

  5. [Cardiogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Houegnifioh, Komlanvi Kafui; Gfeller, Etienne; Garcia, Wenceslao; Ribordy, Vincent

    2014-08-13

    Cardiogenic shock, especially when it complicates a myocardial infarction, is still associated with high mortality rate. Emergency department or first care physicians are often the first providers to assess the cardiogenic shock patient, and plays thereby a key role in achieving a timely diagnosis and treatment. This review will detail the actual physiopathology understanding of the cardiogenic shock, its diagnosis and management focusing on the care within the emergency department.

  6. Physics of Bacteria During Osmotic Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jordan; Klug, William

    Bacteria combat hypoosmotic shocks by opening mechanosensitive ion channels located within the inner membrane. These channels are believed to act as ``emergency release valves,'' reducing transient pressure during the shock by regulating solute and water flux. Recent experiments have shown that cell survivability depends strongly on channel populations and the rate of osmotic shock. However, the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind osmotic protection remains unclear. We investigate how channel deletions, variations in shock rate, and cell envelope mechanics affect survivability by constructing theoretical elasticity and transport models. We find that reducing the number of channels and applying faster shocks significantly increases the time-dependent stress of the cell membrane and wall. This result provides insight into physical mechanisms that govern cell failure, including membrane rupture and wall fracture.

  7. Interrogation of the Megathrust Zone in the Tohoku-Oki Seismic Region by Waveform Complexity: Intraslab Earthquake Rupture and Reactivation of Subducted Normal Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Semechah K. Y.; Helmberger, Don; Wei, Shengji; Huang, Yihe; Graves, Robert W.

    2015-12-01

    Results from the 2011 Mw 9.1 Tohoku-Oki megathrust earthquake display a complex rupture pattern, with most of the high-frequency energy radiated from the downdip edge of the seismogenic zone and very little from the large shallow rupture. Current seismic results of smaller earthquakes in this region are confusing due to disagreements among event catalogs on both the event locations (>30 km horizontally) and mechanisms. Here we present an in-depth study of a series of intraslab earthquakes that occurred in a localized region near the downdip edge of the main shock. We explore the validity of 1D velocity model and refine earthquake source parameters for selected key events by performing broadband waveform modeling combining regional networks. These refined source parameters are then used to calibrate paths and further simulate secondary source properties, such as rupture directivity and fault dimension. Calculation of stress changes caused by the main event indicate that the region where these intraslab events occurred are prone to thrust events. This group of intraslab earthquakes suggest the reactivation of a subducted normal fault, and are potentially useful in enhancing our understanding on the downdip shear zone and large outer-rise events.

  8. Achilles tendon rupture rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, R. S.; Parsons, N.; Underwood, M.; Costa, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The evidence base to inform the management of Achilles tendon rupture is sparse. The objectives of this research were to establish what current practice is in the United Kingdom and explore clinicians’ views on proposed further research in this area. This study was registered with the ISRCTN (ISRCTN68273773) as part of a larger programme of research. Methods We report an online survey of current practice in the United Kingdom, approved by the British Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and completed by 181 of its members. A total of ten of these respondents were invited for a subsequent one-to-one interview to explore clinician views on proposed further research in this area. Results The survey showed wide variations in practice, with patients being managed in plaster cast alone (13%), plaster cast followed by orthoses management (68%), and orthoses alone (19%). Within these categories, further variation existed regarding the individual rehabilitation facets, such as the length of time worn, the foot position within them and weight-bearing status. The subsequent interviews reflected this clinical uncertainty and the pressing need for definitive research. Conclusions The gap in evidence in this area has resulted in practice in the United Kingdom becoming varied and based on individual opinion. Future high-quality randomised trials on this subject are supported by the clinical community. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:65–9 PMID:25868938

  9. Echocardiography in shock management.

    PubMed

    McLean, Anthony S

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis and management of the shocked patient. Important characteristics in the setting of shock are that it is non-invasive and can be rapidly applied.In the acute situation a basic study often yields immediate results allowing for the initiation of therapy, while a follow-up advanced study brings the advantage of further refining the diagnosis and providing an in-depth hemodynamic assessment. Competency in basic critical care echocardiography is now regarded as a mandatory part of critical care training with clear guidelines available. The majority of pathologies found in shocked patients are readily identified using basic level 2D and M-mode echocardiography. A more comprehensive diagnosis can be achieved with advanced levels of competency, for which practice guidelines are also now available. Hemodynamic evaluation and ongoing monitoring are possible with advanced levels of competency, which includes the use of colour Doppler, spectral Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging and occasionally the use of more recent technological advances such as 3D or speckled tracking.The four core types of shock-cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, and vasoplegic-can readily be identified by echocardiography. Even within each of the main headings contained in the shock classification, a variety of pathologies may be the cause and echocardiography will differentiate which of these is responsible. Increasingly, as a result of more complex and elderly patients, the shock may be multifactorial, such as a combination of cardiogenic and septic shock or hypovolemia and ventricular outflow obstruction.The diagnostic benefit of echocardiography in the shocked patient is obvious. The increasing prevalence of critical care physicians experienced in advanced techniques means echocardiography often supplants the need for more invasive hemodynamic assessment and monitoring in shock. PMID:27543137

  10. Posttraumatic Haematuria with Pseudorenal Failure: A Diagnostic Lead for Intraperitoneal Bladder Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Vagholkar, Suvarna

    2016-01-01

    Bladder rupture is a very morbid injury following blunt or penetrating lower abdominal trauma. Prompt diagnosis is crucial to initiate optimal treatment. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture is associated with haematuria and biochemical features of renal failure. Cystogram is diagnostic. Immediate open surgical repair is the main stay of treatment. A case of intraperitoneal rupture diagnosed preoperatively by the presence of haematuria and pseudorenal failure is presented to highlight the association of posttraumatic haematuria and pseudorenal failure in such injuries. PMID:27547477

  11. The ruptured PIP breast implant.

    PubMed

    Helyar, V; Burke, C; McWilliams, S

    2013-08-01

    Public concern erupted about the safety of Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) breast implants when it was revealed in 2011 that they contained an inferior, unlicensed industrial-grade silicone associated with a high rate of rupture. There followed national guidance for UK clinicians, which led to a considerable increase in referrals of asymptomatic women for breast implant assessment. In this review we discuss possible approaches to screening the PIP cohort and the salient characteristics of a ruptured implant. PMID:23622796

  12. The rupture process of the Manjil, Iran earthquake of 20 june 1990 and implications for intraplate strike-slip earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Zednik, J.

    1997-01-01

    In terms of seismically radiated energy or moment release, the earthquake of 20 January 1990 in the Manjil Basin-Alborz Mountain region of Iran is the second largest strike-slip earthquake to have occurred in an intracontinental setting in the past decade. It caused enormous loss of life and the virtual destruction of several cities. Despite a very large meizoseismal area, the identification of the causative faults has been hampered by the lack of reliable earthquake locations and conflicting field reports of surface displacement. Using broadband data from global networks of digitally recording seismographs, we analyse broadband seismic waveforms to derive characteristics of the rupture process. Complexities in waveforms generated by the earthquake indicate that the main shock consisted of a tiny precursory subevent followed in the next 20 seconds by a series of four major subevents with depths ranging from 10 to 15 km. The focal mechanisms of the major subevents, which are predominantly strike-slip, have a common nodal plane striking about 285??-295??. Based on the coincidence of this strike with the dominant tectonic fabric of the region we presume that the EW striking planes are the fault planes. The first major subevent nucleated slightly south of the initial precursor. The second subevent occurred northwest of the initial precursor. The last two subevents moved progressively southeastward of the first subevent in a direction collinear with the predominant strike of the fault planes. The offsets in the relative locations and the temporal delays of the rupture subevents indicate heterogeneous distribution of fracture strength and the involvement of multiple faults. The spatial distribution of teleseismic aftershocks, which at first appears uncorrelated with meizoseismal contours, can be decomposed into stages. The initial activity, being within and on the periphery of the rupture zone, correlates in shape and length with meizoseismal lines. In the second stage

  13. Ruptured Aneurysm of Intercostal Arteriovenous Malformation Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Seon, Hyun Ju Choi, Song; Jang, Nam Kyu

    2011-02-15

    Intercostal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare, with most being secondary to trauma or iatrogenic therapeutic procedures. Only one case of presumably congenital AVM has been reported. Here we report the first case of a ruptured aneurysm of intercostal AVM associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 32-year-old woman who experienced hypovolemic shock caused by massive hemothorax.

  14. Progression of Spontaneous in-Plane Shear Faults from Sub-Rayleigh up to Compressional Wave Rupture Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Liu, C.; Bizzarri, A.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate numerically the passage of spontaneous, dynamic in-plane shear ruptures from initiation to their final rupture speed, using very fine grids, by carrying out more than 120 simulations. We identify two different mechanisms controlling supershear transition. For weaker faults, the rupture speed always passes continuously through the range of speeds between the Rayleigh and shear wave speeds (forbidden zone of rupture speeds for steady-state ruptures). This, however, occurs in a very short time, before the ruptures reach the compressional wave speed. The very short time spent in this range of speeds may explain why a jump over these speeds was seen in some earlier numerical and experimental studies, and confirms that this speed range is an unstable range, as predicted analytically for steady-state singular cracks and numerically for steady-state non-singular cracks. On the other hand, for stronger faults, we find that a daughter rupture is initiated by the main (mother) rupture, ahead of it. The mother rupture continues to propagate at sub-Rayleigh speed and eventually merges with the daughter rupture, but its speed jumps over the Rayleigh to shear wave speed range. We find that this daughter rupture is essentially a "pseudo-rupture", in that the two sides of the fault are already separated, but the rupture has negligible slip and slip velocity. After the mother rupture merges with it, the slip, the slip velocity and the rupture speed become dominated by those of the mother rupture. The results are independent of grid sizes and of methods used to nucleate the initial rupture.

  15. Superdiffusive shock acceleration and short acceleration times at interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Silvia; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of time profiles of particles accelerated at interplanetary shock waves has shown evidence for superdiffusive transport in the upstream region. Superdiffusive transport is characterized by a mean square displacement that grows faster than linearly in time and by non Gaussian statistics for the distribution of the particle jump lengths. In the superdiffusive framework it has been shown that particle time profiles upstream of a planar shock decay as power laws, at variance with exponential particle time profiles predicted in the case of diffusive transport. A large number of interplanetary shocks, including coronal mass ejection driven shocks, exhibit energetic particle time profiles that decay as power laws far upstream. In order to take this evidence into account, we have extended the standard theory of diffusive shock acceleration to the case of particle superdiffusive transport (superdiffusive shock acceleration). This has allowed us to derive both hard energy spectral indices and short acceleration times. This new theory has been tested for a number of interplanetary shock waves, observed by the Ulysses and the ACE spacecraft, and for the termination shock. The superdiffusive shock acceleration leads to a strong reduction of the acceleration times (even of about one order of magnitude) with respect to the diffusive shock acceleration. Thus, this new framework provides a substantial advancement in the understanding of the processes of particle acceleration and particle transport, which are among the main objectives of the new Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter space missions.

  16. Bladder rupture associated with uterine rupture at delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo

    2011-05-01

    This paper seeks to study the clinical presentation and emergency treatment of bladder rupture associated with uterine rupture at delivery. From June to December 2009, three cases of rupture of the uterus involving maternal bladder during labor at Revolutionary Hospital at Hodeidah, Yemen were reviewed. Intraoperatively, it appeared that the posterior wall of the bladder and the anterior wall of the uterus had ruptured; the laceration of the posterior bladder wall was closed in two layers. Of the patients who underwent the operations, one patient developed vesicovaginal fistula, which was repaired vaginally after 6 months, and the patient had a successful outcome. The others got uneventful recovery and there was no vesicovaginal fistula or hydronephrosis during follow-up. Uterine rupture and associated injury to the maternal bladder was rarely reported. It would be life threatening or would lead to long-term complications. Both urologists and obstetrician should keep bladder injuries in mind, as serious outcomes might occur during labor. Surgical treatment could be the preferred approach for this situation.

  17. [Secondary peritonitis due to rupture of pyometra in cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Zeferino Toquero, Moisé; Bañuelos Flores, Joel

    2005-11-01

    Only 8 cases of spontaneous uterine rupture in untreated cervical cancer have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 52-year-old female, who was admitted to the emergency room due to hypovolemic shock and signs of peritonitis. A 6x4x4 cm cervical tumor was detected at physical exam. At laparotomy 2000 mL of purulent material were found and a 1-cm perforation in the posterior portion of the uterine segment was identified. A subtotal hysterectomy was performed. The patient received antibiotic and support at Intensive Care Unit. Finally, the patient presented ascendant flaccid paralysis and died due to bronchoaspiration. Spontaneous pyometra rupture in untreated cervical cancer is a rare condition and must be considered in postmenopausal women with cervical tumors and peritonitis signs.

  18. [Uterine rupture superficial externum--a case report].

    PubMed

    Sikora-Szcześniak, Dobrosława

    2012-05-01

    The article presents a case of external superficial rupture of the uterus--along the left lateral margin--with ruptured posterior lamina of the broad uterine ligament. The complication developed in a 29-year-old patient--following delivery from breech fetal presentation with footling, in 41 hbd, 4th delivery. The patient had no history of any uterine operations, reported no injury to the uterus or inflammations of her sex organs. The symptoms of bleeding into the abdominal cavity and hypovolemic shock developed during early postpartum period. The operation was performed on an emergency basis: postpartum hysterectomy without adnexa was performed. Postoperative course was complicated, the patient developed superficial thrombophlebitis in the left leg. The patient and her healthy baby were released home on 24th day following the delivery and operation.

  19. Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

  20. Efficient fluid-structure interaction simulation of viscoplastic and fracturing thin-shells subjected to underwater shock loading

    SciTech Connect

    Deiterding, Ralf; Cirak, Fehmi; Mauch, Sean P.

    2009-01-01

    The fluid-structure interaction simulation of shock-loaded thin-walled structures requires numerical methods that can cope with large deformations as well as local topology changes. We present a robust level-set-based approach that integrates a Lagrangian thin-shell finite element solver with fracture and fragmentation capabilities into an Eulerian Cartesian fluid solver with embedded boundary and mesh adaptation capability. As main computational applications, we consider the plastic deformation and rupture of thin plates subjected to explosion and piston-induced pressure waves in water.

  1. Maternal death after uterine rupture in an unscarred uterus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dane, Banu; Dane, Cem

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous uterine rupture is a life-threatening obstetrical emergency encountered infrequently in the Emergency Department. Emergency Physicians must consider this diagnosis when presented with a pregnant patient in shock with abdominal pain. We present the case of a multigravid woman who had a spontaneous uterine rupture after induction with oxytocin, followed by a discussion of uterine rupture with special emphasis on the unscarred uterus. After the delivery, the patient was treated with fundal pressure and oxytocin due to severe vaginal hemorrhage. Despite the lack of vaginal hemorrhage after 1 h, the condition of the patient worsened. Laparotomy and a hysterectomy were performed. A parametrial hematoma about 20 cm was detected. The patient died 30 min after the operation. The treatment for intrapartum uterine rupture includes fluid resuscitation and emergency laparotomy.

  2. Cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Shah, Palak; Cowger, Jennifer A

    2014-07-01

    Cardiogenic shock is the most common cause of in-hospital mortality for patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction. Mortality exceeds 50% and management is focused on a rapid diagnosis of cardiogenic shock, restoration of coronary blood flow through early revascularization, complication management, and maintenance of end-organ homeostasis. Besides revascularization, inotropes and vasodilators are potent medical therapies to assist the failing heart. Pulmonary arterial catheters are an important adjunctive tool to assess patient hemodynamics, but their use should be limited to select patients in cardiogenic shock.

  3. Investigation on the key parameters of slip weakening law in dynamic rupture simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Chen, X.

    2008-12-01

    How the crack propagates on the fault plane when an earthquake happens is a fundamental problem in earthquake studies. To understand the dynamics of a spontaneously propagating crack various constitutive laws for friction, e.g., slip weakening, slip rate weakening, effective temperature and rate-and-state laws, which define the relationship between the instantaneous stress and slip (or slip rate) on the fault have been widely used in various rupture simulations. One crucial aspect of the variety of rupture models is to to quantify how the main parameters characterizing a certain law affect the rupture process. We chose the slip weakening law and then massively computed a large suite of dynamic rupture simulations on a rectangular fault embedded in 3-D isotropic homogeneous medium. The simulations included hundreds of different sets of parameters varying Dc, the critical slip weakening distance and Te the initial stress. All are spatially constant except in a rectangular asperity, where the rupture is triggered. With the same parameter set we used several different discretizations to avoid the numerical effects. Computationally we use the boundary integral method. We have also given definitions of rupture status: non-growth rupture, growth rupture, subshear rupture and supershear rupture. With all of the simulations we construct a phase-diagram on which different rupture states locate in different parameter-set zones (phase boundary lines with errors less than 0.1%) We find that (1) In the areas with smaller Dc, phase boundary lines seems to fit the ones Madariaga (1998) predicted using non- dimensionalized parameter κ, but not for the whole phase line. (2) When Dc reaches a particular size, none of the ruptures will propagate regardless of the value of the initial stress on the fault. (3) Some transitional states may occur where a rupture propagates only 2-4 times the initial asperity size and then stops spontaneously.

  4. Quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Ramseier, L E; Werner, C M L; Heinzelmann, M

    2006-06-01

    Ruptures of the patellar and/or quadriceps tendon are rare injuries that require immediate repair to re-establish knee extensor continuity and to allow early motion. We evaluated 36 consecutive patients with quadriceps or patellar tendon rupture between 1993 and 2000. There were 37 primary ruptures, 3 reruptures, 21 quadriceps and 19 patellar tendon ruptures. Follow up examination (>24 months postoperatively) included the patient's history, assessment of risk factors, clinical examination of both knees, isometric muscle strength measurements and three specific knee scores, Hospital for Special Surgery Score, Knee Society Score and Turba Score, and a short form SF-36. We evaluated 29 patients (26 men) with 33 ruptures (16 patellar tendon, 17 quadriceps tendon). Seven patients were lost to follow up. We found no difference between the range of motion and muscle strength when the injured leg was compared to the non-injured leg. Risk factors did not influence the four scores, patient satisfaction, pain, muscle strength or range of motion. Multiple injured patients had a significant reduction in muscle strength and circumference, however patient satisfaction did not differ to the non-multiple injured patient group.

  5. Management of Traumatic Aortic and Splenic Rupture in a Patient With Ascending Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Ahmet Can; Ciloglu, Ufuk; Bolukcu, Ahmet; Dagsali, Sabri

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic aortic rupture is rupture of all or part of the aortic wall, mostly resulting from blunt trauma to the chest. The most common site of rupture is the aortic isthmus. Traumatic rupture of the ascending aorta is rare. A 62-year-old man with a family history of ascending aortic aneurysm was referred to our hospital after a motor vehicle accident. He had symptoms of cardiogenic shock. A contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed rupture of the proximal ascending aorta and an ascending aortic aneurysm with a diameter of 55 mm at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva. Transthoracic echocardiography at the bedside revealed severe aortic valvular insufficiency. We performed a successful Bentall procedure. During postoperative recovery, the patient experienced a cerebrovascular accident. Transesophageal echocardiography did not reveal thrombosis of the mechanical prosthesis. The patient's symptoms resolved in time, and he was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 47 without any sequelae. He has been symptom free during a 6-month follow-up period. We suggest that individuals who have experienced blunt trauma to the chest and have symptoms of traumatic aortic rupture and a known medical history of ascending aortic aneurysm should be evaluated for a rupture at the ascending aorta and the aortic isthmus. PMID:27449463

  6. Spontaneous rupture of the ureter.

    PubMed

    Eken, Alper; Akbas, Tugana; Arpaci, Taner

    2015-02-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the ureter is a very rare condition and usually results from ureteral obstruction by a calculus. Only theoretical mechanisms have been proposed and no possible explanation has yet been reported in the literature. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the most informative study with high sensitivity. Treatment should be individualised, and depends on the state of the patient. Minimally invasive endourological procedures with double-J catheter placement and percutaneous drainage offer excellent results. Conservative management with analgesics and antibiotic coverage may be an alternative to surgery. Herein, we present a case of spontaneous rupture of the proximal ureter with no evidence of an underlying pathological condition.

  7. Enzymatically triggered rupture of polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo-Sik; Park, Seung Chul; Reed, Ellen H; Dooley, Kevin P; Wheeler, Samuel F; Lee, Daeyeon; Hammer, Daniel A

    2016-01-28

    Polymersomes are robust vesicles made from amphiphilic block co-polymers. Large populations of uniform giant polymersomes with defined, entrapped species can be made by templating of double-emulsions using microfluidics. In the present study, a series of two enzymatic reactions, one inside and the other outside of the polymersome, were designed to induce rupture of polymersomes. We measured how the kinetics of rupture were affected by altering enzyme concentration. These results suggest that protocells with entrapped enzymes can be engineered to secrete contents on cue.

  8. Ruptured Liver Abscess in Neonates: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Niyaz Ahmed; Choudhury, SR; Jhanwar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hepatic abscess is a rare disease seen mainly in preterm following umbilical catheterisation. Liver abscess in term neonates without any predisposing factor is still rarer and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Here we report two cases of liver abscess in term neonates presenting with abdominal mass due to rupture. PMID:27433449

  9. Spectral Element simulation of rupture dynamics on curvilinear faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilotte, J.; Festa, G.

    2004-12-01

    Numerical simulation of fault rupturing process requires today the resolution of several time and space scales, to capture the nucleation, the rupture front propagation, and the short wave radiation associated with heterogeneous fault systems of complexgeometries. Two classes of methods are usually used in seismology: finite differences and boundary integral equations. Classical mixed formulation of finite differences suffers from smoothing and smearing of the rupture front due to the inherent interpolation of staggered schemes. Although if extensions to curved faults have recently been proposed (Cruz-Atienza and Virieux, 2004), using Saenger's stencils, up to now applications of FD methods have been mostly restricted to planar faults. On the other hand, boundary integral equations (Andrews, 1976; Fukuyama and Madariaga, 2000) have been shown to accurately model 3D curvilinear fault segments but are is restricted to homogeneous or layered elastic media. A important issue, still be correctly resolved is the physics of the rupture propagation when reaching the surface. In this framework, Spectral Element method, combining both the geometrical flexibility of finite elements and convergence rate of high-order spectral methods is an attractive tool for numerical simulation of earthquake dynamic rupturing on realistic fault segments in complex geological media. We present numerical simulations of 2D inplane dynamic faulting using the SE method. The results are discussed paying a special attention to the sub- to super-shear transition for both planar and non planar faults, to the influence of different frictional laws on the rupture propagation and to the influence of layered geolgical media both on the dynamics of the rupture process and the short wave radiation. On going work on two main extensions will be discussed : interactions as the faulting process reach the surface and 3D geometries of faults.

  10. Spontaneous rupture of spleen in falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, C; Basu, Arup; Kulkarni, A R; Choudhury, R K

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of spleen is an extremely rare complication of falciparum malaria. We report a 3 1/2-year-old girl with splenic rupture who was managed successfully with splenectomy and antimalarials.

  11. Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Vigneswaran, N; Lee, K; Yegappan, M

    2007-11-01

    Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 30-year-old man with end-stage renal failure, who sustained this injury, and subsequently had surgical repair of both tendons on separate occasions. He has since regained full range of movement of both knees.

  12. Prehistoric ruptures of the Gurvan Bulag fault, Gobi Altay, Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Kendrick, K.; Berryman, K.; Bayasgalan, A.; Ritz, J.F.; Spencer, J.Q.

    2002-01-01

    The 1957 Gobi Altay M8.3 earthquake in southern Mongolia was associated with the simultaneous rupture of several faults, including the Gurvan Bulag reverse fault, which is located about 25 km south of the main strike-slip Bogd fault. Our study of paleoseismic excavations across the Gurvan Bulag fault suggests that the penultimate surface rupture occurred after 6.0 ka, most likely between 2.6 and 4.4 ka, and a possible earlier rupture occurred after 7.3 ka. Our interpretation of the stratigraphic relations in one of the exposures suggests that at least five earthquakes have generated surface rupture of the Gurvan Bulag fault since the abandonment of an ancient alluvial fan surface. Luminescence dating of sediment associated with this surface indicates that it formed either 26.6 ?? 2.1 ka or 16.1 ?? 2.0 ka. These data imply that the recurrence intervals for surface faulting on the Gurvan Bulag and Bogd faults are similar, on the order of several thousands of years, but that the penultimate surface ruptures of the two faults did not occur during the same earthquake.

  13. Impact of cardiac magnet resonance imaging on management of ventricular septal rupture after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Gassenmaier, Tobias; Gorski, Armin; Aleksic, Ivan; Deubner, Nikolas; Weidemann, Frank; Beer, Meinrad

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old man was admitted to the cardiac catheterization laboratory with acute myocardial infarction. After successful angioplasty and stent implantation into the right coronary artery, he developed cardiogenic shock the following day. Echocardiography showed ventricular septal rupture. Cardiac magnet resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on the critically ill patient and provided detailed information on size and localization of the ruptured septum by the use of fast MRI sequences. Moreover, the MRI revealed that the ventricular septal rupture was within the myocardial infarction area, which was substantially larger than the rupture. As the patient’s condition worsened, he was intubated and had intra-aortic balloon pump implanted, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated. During the following days, the patient’s situation improved, and surgical correction of the ventricular septal defect could successfully be performed. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first description of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture by the use of cardiac MRI in an intensive care patient with cardiogenic shock and subsequent successful surgical repair. PMID:23710303

  14. Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

  15. Centrally-Rupturing Squib-Closure Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1986-01-01

    Rupture-disk design makes squib action more predictable. In new design, center of rupture disk contains cruciform indentation in which thickness reduced to about 0.5 mil (0.013 mm). Reduces strength of center of rupture disk in same manner as that of pull tabs on beverage cans; therefore, disk will fail predictably in center.

  16. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  17. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  18. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  19. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  20. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  1. [Obstructive shock].

    PubMed

    Pich, H; Heller, A R

    2015-05-01

    An acute obstruction of blood flow in central vessels of the systemic or pulmonary circulation causes the clinical symptoms of shock accompanied by disturbances of consciousness, centralization, oliguria, hypotension and tachycardia. In the case of an acute pulmonary embolism an intravascular occlusion results in an acute increase of the right ventricular afterload. In the case of a tension pneumothorax, an obstruction of the blood vessels supplying the heart is caused by an increase in extravascular pressure. From a hemodynamic viewpoint circulatory shock caused by obstruction is closely followed by cardiac deterioration; however, etiological and therapeutic options necessitate demarcation of cardiac from non-cardiac obstructive causes. The high dynamics of this potentially life-threatening condition is a hallmark of all types of obstructive shock. This requires an expeditious and purposeful diagnosis and a rapid and well-aimed therapy. PMID:25994928

  2. Finite Mach number spherical shock wave, application to shock ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2013-08-01

    A converging and diverging spherical shock wave with a finite initial Mach number Ms0 is described by using a perturbative approach over a small parameter Ms-2. The zeroth order solution is the Guderley's self-similar solution. The first order correction to this solution accounts for the effects of the shock strength. Whereas it was constant in the Guderley's asymptotic solution, the amplification factor of the finite amplitude shock Λ(t)∝dUs/dRs now varies in time. The coefficients present in its series form are iteratively calculated so that the solution does not undergo any singular behavior apart from the position of the shock. The analytical form of the corrected solution in the vicinity of singular points provides a better physical understanding of the finite shock Mach number effects. The correction affects mainly the flow density and the pressure after the shock rebound. In application to the shock ignition scheme, it is shown that the ignition criterion is modified by more than 20% if the fuel pressure prior to the final shock is taken into account. A good agreement is obtained with hydrodynamic simulations using a Lagrangian code.

  3. Finite Mach number spherical shock wave, application to shock ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Vallet, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2013-08-15

    A converging and diverging spherical shock wave with a finite initial Mach number M{sub s0} is described by using a perturbative approach over a small parameter M{sub s}{sup −2}. The zeroth order solution is the Guderley's self-similar solution. The first order correction to this solution accounts for the effects of the shock strength. Whereas it was constant in the Guderley's asymptotic solution, the amplification factor of the finite amplitude shock Λ(t)∝dU{sub s}/dR{sub s} now varies in time. The coefficients present in its series form are iteratively calculated so that the solution does not undergo any singular behavior apart from the position of the shock. The analytical form of the corrected solution in the vicinity of singular points provides a better physical understanding of the finite shock Mach number effects. The correction affects mainly the flow density and the pressure after the shock rebound. In application to the shock ignition scheme, it is shown that the ignition criterion is modified by more than 20% if the fuel pressure prior to the final shock is taken into account. A good agreement is obtained with hydrodynamic simulations using a Lagrangian code.

  4. Identifying risk factors for uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer G; Mertz, Heather L; Merrill, David C

    2008-03-01

    Uterine rupture, whether in the setting of a prior uterine incision or in an unscarred uterus, is an obstetric emergency with potentially catastrophic consequences for both mother and child. Numerous studies have been published regarding various risk factors associated with uterine rupture. Despite the mounting data regarding both antepartum and intrapartum factors, it currently is impossible to predict in whom a uterine rupture will occur. This article reviews the data regarding these antepartum and intrapartum predictors for uterine rupture. The author hopes that the information presented in this article will help clinicians assess an individual's risk for uterine rupture.

  5. Cardiogenic Shock.

    PubMed

    Moskovitz, Joshua B; Levy, Zachary D; Slesinger, Todd L

    2015-08-01

    Cardiogenic shock is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome. Although early reperfusion strategies are essential to the management of these critically ill patients, additional treatment plans are often needed to stabilize and treat the patient before reperfusion may be possible. This article discusses pharmacologic and surgical interventions, their indications and contraindications, management strategies, and treatment algorithms.

  6. CULTURE SHOCK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEINSTEIN, GERALD; AND OTHERS

    IN A PANEL, GEORGE BRAGLE AND NATHAN GOULD STRESS TEACHER PREPARATION TO COPE WITH THE THREATENING IMPACT OF CULTURE OR REALITY SHOCK. THEY RECOMMEND MODIFYING THE ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS BY ALTERING THEIR PERCEPTIONS, PROVIDING THEM WITH DIRECT EXPERIENCE WITH THE SOCIOCULTURAL MILIEU OF GHETTO SCHOOLS, AND REQUIRING THEM TO TAKE COURSES IN THE…

  7. Numerical study of shock tube flows with homogeneous and heterogeneous condensations in rarefaction wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Junji; Matsuo, Shigeru; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2010-08-01

    Shock tubes are devices in which the state of a gas is changed suddenly from one uniform state to another by the passage of shock and expansion waves. In the theory of ideal shock tube flow, it is customarily assumed that the unsteady expansion and shock waves generated by diaphragm rupture are a perfectly centered plane wave. However, such waves are generally not centered, or may not even by plane in practice. In the present research, the time-dependent behavior of homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation of moist air in the shock tube is investigated by using a computational fluid dynamics work. Further, the numerical and experimental studies were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the diaphragm rupture process on the flow characteristics of expansion and shock waves generated near the diaphragm.

  8. Slip compensation at fault damage zones along earthquake surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Surface ruptures associated with earthquake faulting commonly comprise a number of segments, and the discontinuities form tip and linking damage zones, which are deformed regions consisting of secondary features. Stress transferring or releasing, when seismic waves pass through the discontinuities, could produce different slip features depending on rupture propagation or termination. Thus, slip patterns at fault damage zones can be one of the key factors to understand fault kinematics, fault evolution and, hence, earthquake hazard. In some previous studies (e.g. Peacock and Sanderson, 1991; Kim and Sanderson, 2005), slip distribution along faults to understand the connectivity or maturity of segmented faults system have commonly been analyzed based on only the main slip components (dip-slip or strike-slip). Secondary slip components, however, are sometimes dominant at fault damage zones, such as linkage and tip zones. In this study, therefore, we examine slip changes between both main and secondary slip components along unilaterally propagated coseismic strike-slip ruptures. Horizontal and vertical components of slip and the slip compensation patterns at tip and linking damage zones are various from slip deficit (decrease in both slip components) through slip compensation (increase of vertical slip with horizontal slip decrease) to slip neutral. Front and back tip zones, which are classified depending on main propagation direction of earthquake ruptures, show different slip patterns; slip compensation is observed at the frontal tip whilst slip deficit occurs at the back tip zone. Average values of the two slip components and their compensative patterns at linking damage zones are closely related with the ratio of length to width (L/W) of linkage geometry; the horizontal slip is proportional to the ratio of L/W, whilst the vertical slip shows little dependence on the value L/W. When the L/W is greater than ~2, average values of two slip components are almost similar

  9. [Two cases of testicular rupture].

    PubMed

    Tsujino, S; Hirata, T; Shimizu, H; Ito, T; Shiozawa, H; Koshiba, K

    1989-06-01

    Two cases of testicular rupture are presented and 119 cases in Japanese literature are reviewed. A 29-year-old man and a 32-year-old man were admitted to our hospital with the complaint of gradually increasing pains and swelling on the right testicle. Four days and three days before admission they experienced trauma during athletic activities. The diagnosis was established preoperatively by means of ultrasonography in the first one, but not in the other. The necrotic tissue of 1/3-1/2 of testis was removed and tunica albuginea was repaired in both cases. Of 119 cases of testicular rupture in Japanese literature a peak occurs in the 2nd decade and during contact sports. The ultrasonography is an effective diagnostic modality. The rate of orchiectomy has been decreasing. The function of the affected testis is hard to evaluate.

  10. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, G. P.; Briggs, R. W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-11-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquake-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zone-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergence-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of California-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record.

  11. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing magnitude probability distribution through physics-based rupture scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hok, Sébastien; Durand, Virginie; Bernard, Pascal; Scotti, Oona

    2016-04-01

    When faced with complex network of faults in a seismic hazard assessment study, the first question raised is to what extent the fault network is connected and what is the probability that an earthquake ruptures simultaneously a series of neighboring segments. Physics-based dynamic rupture models can provide useful insight as to which rupture scenario is most probable, provided that an exhaustive exploration of the variability of the input parameters necessary for the dynamic rupture modeling is accounted for. Given the random nature of some parameters (e.g. hypocenter location) and the limitation of our knowledge, we used a logic-tree approach in order to build the different scenarios and to be able to associate them with a probability. The methodology is applied to the three main faults located along the southern coast of the West Corinth rift. Our logic tree takes into account different hypothesis for: fault geometry, location of hypocenter, seismic cycle position, and fracture energy on the fault plane. The variability of these parameters is discussed, and the different values tested are weighted accordingly. 64 scenarios resulting from 64 parameter combinations were included. Sensitivity studies were done to illustrate which parameters control the variability of the results. Given the weight of the input parameters, we evaluated the probability to obtain a full network break to be 15 %, while single segment rupture represents 50 % of the scenarios. These rupture scenario probability distribution along the three faults of the West Corinth rift fault network can then be used as input to a seismic hazard calculation.

  13. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  14. Molecular dynamics of interface rupture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1993-01-01

    Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

  15. Effects of Thermal Environments on the Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiguo; Fang, Daining

    In the present study, the temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance parameter of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) was measured based on the current evaluation theories of thermal shock resistance parameters, since the material parameters of UHTCs are very sensitive to the changes of temperature. The influence of some important thermal environment parameters on the thermal shock resistance and critical temperature difference of rupture of UHTCs were studied. By establishing the relation between the temperature and the thermal or mechanical properties of the UHTCs, we found that thermal shock behavior of UHTCs is strongly affected by the surface heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer condition and initial temperature of the thermal shock.

  16. Unsteady turbulent shear flow in shock tube discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. A., III; Ramaiah, R.; Lin, I.

    1981-01-01

    A pressure-ruptured shock tube and an arc driven shock tube, have been used to study the evolution of turbulent fluctuations at contact surfaces with N2O4-2NO2 mixtures and at ionizing shock fronts in argon. The study has focused on point density diagnostics derived from crossed light beam correlations and electric probes. Turbulent bursts are found for which dynamical and spectral analyses suggest a particle-like evolution of fluctuation segments with a unique and characteristic frequency, independent of flow history and overall flow conditions.

  17. Geological structures control on earthquake ruptures: The Mw7.7, 2013, Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallage, A.; Klinger, Y.; Lacassin, R.; Delorme, A.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.

    2016-10-01

    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, ruptured the Hoshab fault. Left-lateral motion dominated the deformation pattern, although significant vertical motion is found along the southern part of the rupture. Correlation of high-resolution (2.5 m) optical satellite images provided horizontal displacement along the entire rupture. In parallel, we mapped the ground rupture geometry at 1:500 scale. We show that the azimuth of the ground rupture distributes mainly between two directions, N216° and N259°. The direction N216° matches the direction of preexisting geologic structures resulting from penetrative deformation caused by the nearby Makran subduction. Hence, during a significant part of its rupture, the 2013 Balochistan rupture kept switching between a long-term fault front and secondary branches, in which existence and direction are related to the compressional context. It shows unambiguous direct interactions between different preexisting geologic structures, regional stress, and dynamic-rupture stress, which controlled earthquake propagation path.

  18. Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Decrease Enhances the Cytocidal Effect of Hypotonic Shock in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kudou, Michihiro; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ikoma, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakahari, Takashi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Background : Hypotonic shock induces cytocidal effects through cell rupture, and cancer therapy based on this mechanism has been clinically administered to hepatocellular carcinoma patients. We herein investigated the effectiveness of hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease as cancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods : Morphological changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were observed under a differential interference contrast microscope connected to a high-speed digital video camera. Cell volume changes under hypotonic shock with or without chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers were observed using a high-resolution flow cytometer. In order to investigate cytocidal effects, the number of surviving cells was compared after exposure to hypotonic solution with and without each channel blocker (re-incubation experiment). Results : Video recordings showed that cells exposed to distilled water rapidly swelled and then ruptured. Cell volume measurements revealed regulatory volume decrease under mild hypotonic shock, whereas severe hypotonic shock increased the number of broken fragments as a result of cell rupture. Moreover, regulatory volume decrease was inhibited in cells treated with each channel blocker. Re-incubation experiments showed the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in cells exposed to hypotonic solution, and additional treatments with each channel blocker enhanced these effects. Conclusion : The inhibition of regulatory volume decrease with chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers may enhance the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease was a more effective therapy than hypotonic shock alone. PMID:27471568

  19. Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Decrease Enhances the Cytocidal Effect of Hypotonic Shock in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kudou, Michihiro; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ikoma, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakahari, Takashi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypotonic shock induces cytocidal effects through cell rupture, and cancer therapy based on this mechanism has been clinically administered to hepatocellular carcinoma patients. We herein investigated the effectiveness of hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease as cancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Morphological changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were observed under a differential interference contrast microscope connected to a high-speed digital video camera. Cell volume changes under hypotonic shock with or without chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers were observed using a high-resolution flow cytometer. In order to investigate cytocidal effects, the number of surviving cells was compared after exposure to hypotonic solution with and without each channel blocker (re-incubation experiment). Results: Video recordings showed that cells exposed to distilled water rapidly swelled and then ruptured. Cell volume measurements revealed regulatory volume decrease under mild hypotonic shock, whereas severe hypotonic shock increased the number of broken fragments as a result of cell rupture. Moreover, regulatory volume decrease was inhibited in cells treated with each channel blocker. Re-incubation experiments showed the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in cells exposed to hypotonic solution, and additional treatments with each channel blocker enhanced these effects. Conclusion: The inhibition of regulatory volume decrease with chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers may enhance the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease was a more effective therapy than hypotonic shock alone. PMID:27471568

  20. Ground motion hazard from supershear rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    An idealized rupture, propagating smoothly near a terminal rupture velocity, radiates energy that is focused into a beam. For rupture velocity less than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in a beam of intense fault-normal velocity near the projection of the rupture trace. Although confined to a narrow range of azimuths, this beam diverges and attenuates. For rupture velocity greater than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in Mach waves forming a pair of beams propagating obliquely away from the fault. These beams do not attenuate until diffraction becomes effective at large distance. Events with supershear and sub-Rayleigh rupture velocity are compared in 2D plane-strain calculations with equal stress drop, fracture energy, and rupture length; only static friction is changed to determine the rupture velocity. Peak velocity in the sub-Rayleigh case near the termination of rupture is larger than peak velocity in the Mach wave in the supershear case. The occurrence of supershear rupture propagation reduces the most intense peak ground velocity near the fault, but it increases peak velocity within a beam at greater distances. ?? 2010.

  1. Alliance ruptures and rupture resolution in cognitive-behavior therapy: a preliminary task analysis.

    PubMed

    Aspland, Helen; Llewelyn, Susan; Hardy, Gillian E; Barkham, Michael; Stiles, William

    2008-11-01

    An initial ideal, rational model of alliance rupture and rupture resolution provided by cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) experts was assessed and compared with empirical observations of ruptures and their resolution in two cases of successful CBT. The initial rational model emphasized nondefensive acknowledgment and exploration of the rupture. Results indicated differences between what therapists think they should do to resolve ruptures and what they actually do and suggested that the rational model should be expanded to emphasize client validation and empowerment. Therapists' ability to attend to ruptures emerged as an important clinical skill.

  2. Traumatic rupture of the coronary sinus following blunt chest trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Wan; Lee, Kyo Seon; Na, Kook Joo; Oh, Sang Gi; Jung, Yong Hun; Jeong, In Seok

    2014-11-20

    Cardiac rupture is rare but potentially life-threatening complication after chest trauma. We present the case of a 57-year-old male who developed cardiac arrest because of extensive pericardial tamponade after a falling injury. We decided to perform an exploratory sternotomy in the operating room (OR). The patient was transported to the OR on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. We found a rupture of the coronary sinus after evacuation of an extensive hematoma in the pericardium and primarily repaired the injured site. After 2 days, the patient died due to refractory cardiogenic shock. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rupture of the coronary sinus after blunt chest trauma.

  3. Rupture propagation speed during earthquake faulting reproduced by large-scale biaxial friction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, K.; Fukuyama, E.; Yamashita, F.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes are generated by unstable frictional slip along pre-existing faults. Both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have shown that the rupture process involves an initial quasi-static phase, a subsequent accelerating phase and a main dynamic rupture phase. During the main phase, the rupture front propagates at either subshear or supershear velocity, which affects the seismic wave radiation pattern. An examination on what controls the speed is crucial for improvement of earthquake hazard mitigation. Thus We conducted stick-slip experiments on meter-scale Indian gabbro rocks to observe the rupture process of the unstable periodic slip events and to measure the rupture speed along the fault. The simulated fault plane is 1.5m in length and 0.1m in width and ground by #200-300. The fault is applied at a constant normal stress of 6.7MPa and sheared parallel to the longitudinal direction of the fault at a slip rate of 0.1mm/s and up to a displacement of 40cm. The long, narrow fault geometry leads to in-plane shear rupture (mode II). in which the rupture front propagates in the direction of slip, which mimics large strike-slip earthquake faulting. Compressional-(Vp) and shear-(Vs) wave velocities of the rock sample are calculated to be 6.92km/s and 3.62km/s, respectively, based on the elastic properties (Young's modulus, 103GPa; Poisson's ratio, 0.331; Shear modulus, 38GPa). 32 biaxial strain gauges for shear strain and 16 single-axis strain gauges for normal strain were attached along the longitudinal direction of the fault at intervals of 5cm and 10cm, respectively. The local strain data were recorded at a sampling rate of 1MHz within 16 bit resolution. Load calls attached outside the fault plane measured the whole normal and shear forces applied on the fault plane, which was recorded by the same recording system. We have confirmed that the rupture process of unstable slip events consistsing of 1) an initial quasi-static phase where the slipped area

  4. Multiple linear regression models to fit magnitude using rupture length, rupture width, rupture area, and surface displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, A.; Zhuang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wells and Coppersmith (1994) have used fault data to fit simple linear regression (SLR) models to explain linear relations between moment magnitude and logarithms of fault measurements such as rupture length, rupture width, rupture area and surface displacement. Our work extends their analyses to multiple linear regression (MLR) models by considering two or more predictors with updated data. Treating the quantitative variables (rupture length, rupture width, rupture area and surface displacement) as predictors to fit linear regression models on magnitude, we have discovered that the two-predictor model using rupture area and maximum displacement fits the best. The next best alternative predictors are surface length and rupture area. Neither slip type nor slip direction is a significant predictor by fitting of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models. Corrected Akaike information criterion (Burnham and Anderson, 2002) is used as a model assessment criterion. Comparisons between simple linear regression models of Wells and Coppersmith (1994) and our multiple linear regression models are presented. Our work is done using fault data from Wells and Coppersmith (1994) and new data from Ellswort (2000), Hanks and Bakun (2002, 2008), Shaw (2013), and Finite-Source Rupture Model Database (http://equake-rc.info/SRCMOD/, 2015).

  5. Histologic analysis of ruptured quadriceps tendons.

    PubMed

    Trobisch, Per David; Bauman, Matthias; Weise, Kuno; Stuby, Fabian; Hak, David J

    2010-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries. Degenerative changes in the tendon are felt to be an important precondition for rupture. We retrospectively reviewed 45 quadriceps tendon ruptures in 42 patients. Quadriceps tendon ruptures occurred most often in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Men were affected six times as often as women. A tissue sample from the rupture-zone was obtained in 22 cases and histologic analysis was performed. Degenerative changes were present in only 14 (64%) of the 22 samples. We observed an increasing ratio of degenerative to nondegenerative tendons with increasing patient age. Our data suggests that quadriceps tendon rupture, especially in younger patients, can occur in the absence of pathologic tendon degeneration.

  6. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  7. Rupture sinus of Valsalva in a patient with dextrocardia. Case report.

    PubMed

    Grosz, Csongor; Pais, Raluca; Poanta, Laura

    2011-12-01

    Ruptured sinus of Valsalva (RSOV) is a rare disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic murmur to cardiogenic shock and death. We present the case of a young woman known with dextrocardia and pulmonary agenesia; she was diagnosed with RSOV and during follow-up, with endocarditis. Her evolution was good despite the association of severe heart conditions and the refusal of surgical intervention.

  8. Impact of spontaneous tumor rupture on prognosis of patients with T4 hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wen‐Hui; Hung, Chien‐Fu; Pan, Kuang‐Tse; Lui, Kar‐Wai; Huang, Yu‐Ting; Lin, Shen‐Yen; Lin, Yang‐Yu; Wu, Tsung‐Han

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Compare the outcomes of three groups of patients with T4 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): tumor rupture with shock (RS group), tumor rupture without shock (R group), and no tumor rupture (NR group). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 221 patients with T4 HCC from 2010 to 2012. The clinical background and prognosis were analyzed. Results Overall in‐hospital mortality rate was 18.1%; overall median survival time was 4 months. The NR group were more likely to have multiple and infiltrative tumors (P < 0.001). Relative to the NR group, the R + RS group had better survival rates at 6 months (49.2% vs. 32.2%), 1 year (35.3% vs. 21.0%), 3 years (22.5% vs. 11.0%), and 5 years (17.7% vs. 5.5%) (P = 0.010). Patients in the RS group had a higher in‐hospital mortality rate, but significantly better long‐term survival than the NR and R group (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that Child‐Pugh class B or C, presence of portal venous thrombosis, and absence of shock were significantly associated with poor survival. Conclusion Patients with tumor rupture and shock had worse in‐hospital survival. However, patients without decompensated liver cirrhosis and portal venous thrombosis, and eligible for curative treatment had favorable long‐term outcome. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:789–795. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Surgical Oncology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27062288

  9. Multiple esophageal variceal ruptures with massive ascites due to myelofibrosis-induced portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tokai, Koichi; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio; Yamada, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    A 75-year old man had been diagnosed at 42 years of age as having polycythemia vera and had been monitored at another hospital. Progression of anemia had been recognized at about age 70, and the patient was thus referred to our center in 2008 where secondary myelofibrosis was diagnosed based on bone marrow biopsy findings. Hematemesis due to rupture of esophageal varices occurred in January and February of 2011. The bleeding was stopped by endoscopic variceal ligation. Furthermore, in March of the same year, hematemesis recurred and the patient was transported to our center. He was in irreversible hemorrhagic shock and died. The autopsy showed severe bone marrow fibrosis with mainly argyrophilic fibers, an observation consistent with myelofibrosis. The liver weighed 1856 g the spleen 1572 g, indicating marked hepatosplenomegaly. The liver and spleen both showed extramedullary hemopoiesis. Myelofibrosis is often complicated by portal hypertension and is occasionally associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to esophageal varices. A patient diagnosed as having myelofibrosis needs to be screened for esophageal/gastric varices. Myelofibrosis has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully decide the therapeutic strategy in consideration of the patient’s concomitant conditions, treatment invasiveness and quality of life. PMID:22851873

  10. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  11. The 58th Shock and Vibration Symposium, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Walter D. (Compiler); Pilkey, Barbara F. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of the 58th Shock and Vibration Symposium, held in Huntsville, Alabama, October 13 to 15, 1987 are given. Mechanical shock, dynamic analysis, space shuttle main engine vibration, isolation and damping, and analytical methods are discussed.

  12. Source rupture process of the 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince (Haiti, Mw7.0) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Santos, Rúben

    2010-05-01

    The Haiti earthquake occurred on tuesday, January 12, 2010 at 21:53:10 UTC. Its epicenter was at 18.46 degrees North, 72.53 degrees West, about 25 km WSW of Haiti's capital, Port-au-Prince. The earthquake was relatively shallow (H=13 km, U.S. Geological Survey) and thus had greater intensity and destructiveness. The earthquake occurred along the tectonic boundary between Caribbean and North America plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression with 2 cm/year of slip velocity eastward with respect to the North America plate. The moment magnitude was measured to be 7.0 (U.S. Geological Survey) and 7.1 (Harvard Centroid-Moment-Tensor (CMT). More than 10 aftershocks ranging from 5.0 to 5.9 in magnitude (none of magnitude larger than 6.0) struck the area in hours following the main shock. Most of these aftershocks have occurred to the West of the mainshock in the Mirogoane Lakes region and its distribution suggests that the length of the rupture was around 70 km. The Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) mechanism solution indicates lefth-lateral strike slip movement with a fault plane trending toward (strike = 251o ; dip = 70o; rake = 28o). In order to obtain the spatiotemporal slip distribution of a finite rupture model we have used teleseismic body wave and the Kikuchi and Kanamori's method [1]. Rupture velocity was constrained by using the directivity effect determined from a set of waveforms well recorded at regional and teleseismic distances [2]. Finally, we compared a map of aftershocks with the Coulomb stress changes caused by the event in the region [3]. [1]- Kikuchi, M., and Kanamori, H., 1982, Inversion of complex body waves: Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., v. 72, p. 491-506. [2] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x (http://www.springerlink.com/content/xp524g2225628773/) [3] -King, G. C. P

  13. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video.

    PubMed

    Ordas Bayon, Alejandro; Sandoval, Enrique; Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  14. Spontaneous rupture of uterine leiomyoma during labour.

    PubMed

    Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf

    2014-09-08

    Uterine rupture in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of rupture is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine rupture secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery.

  15. Rupture dynamics in model polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Borah, Rupam; Debnath, Pallavi

    2016-05-11

    In this paper we explore the rupture dynamics of a model polymer system to capture the microscopic mechanism during relative motion of surfaces at the single polymer level. Our model is similar to the model for friction introduced by Filippov, Klafter, and Urbakh [Filippov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2004, 92, 135503]; but with an important generalization to a flexible transducer (modelled as a bead spring polymer) which is attached to a fixed rigid planar substrate by interconnecting bonds (modelled as harmonic springs), and pulled by a constant force FT. Bonds are allowed to rupture stochastically. The model is simulated, and the results for a certain set of parameters exhibit a sequential rupture mechanism resulting in rupture fronts. A mean field formalism is developed to study these rupture fronts and the possible propagating solutions for the coupled bead and bond dynamics, where the coupling excludes an exact analytical treatment. Numerical solutions to mean field equations are obtained by standard numerical techniques, and they agree well with the simulation results which show sequential rupture. Within a travelling wave formalism based on the Tanh method, we show that the velocity of the rupture front can be obtained in closed form. The derived expression for the rupture front velocity gives good agreement with the stochastic and mean field results, when the rupture is sequential, while propagating solutions for bead and bond dynamics are shown to agree under certain conditions. PMID:27087684

  16. Spontaneous rupture of uterine leiomyoma during labour

    PubMed Central

    Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Uterine rupture in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of rupture is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine rupture secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery. PMID:25199188

  17. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  18. [Definition of shock types].

    PubMed

    Adams, H A; Baumann, G; Gänsslen, A; Janssens, U; Knoefel, W; Koch, T; Marx, G; Müller-Werdan, U; Pape, H C; Prange, W; Roesner, D; Standl, T; Teske, W; Werner, G; Zander, R

    2001-11-01

    Definitions of shock types. Hypovolaemic shock is a state of insufficient perfusion of vital organs with consecutive imbalance of oxygen supply and demand due to an intravascular volume deficiency with critically impaired cardiac preload. Subtypes are haemorrhagic shock, hypovolaemic shock in the narrow sense, traumatic-haemorrhagic shock and traumatic-hypovolaemic shock. Cardiac shock is caused by a primary critical cardiac pump failure with consecutive inadequate oxygen supply of the organism. Anaphylactic shock is an acute failure of blood volume distribution (distributive shock) and caused by IgE-dependent, type-I-allergic, classical hypersensibility, or a physically, chemically, or osmotically induced IgE-independent anaphylactoid hypersensibility. The septic shock is a sepsis-induced distribution failure of the circulating blood volume in the sense of a distributive shock. The neurogenic shock is a distributive shock induced by generalized and extensive vasodilatation with consecutive hypovolaemia due to an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of vascular smooth muscles. PMID:11753724

  19. Curved shock theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2016-07-01

    Curved shock theory (CST) is introduced, developed and applied to relate pressure gradients, streamline curvatures, vorticity and shock curvatures in flows with planar or axial symmetry. Explicit expressions are given, in an influence coefficient format, that relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. The effect of pre-shock flow divergence/convergence, on vorticity generation, is related to the transverse shock curvature. A novel derivation for the post-shock vorticity is presented that includes the effects of pre-shock flow non-uniformities. CST applicability to unsteady flows is discussed.

  20. Localized shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Daniel A.; Stanford, Douglas; Susskind, Leonard

    2015-03-01

    We study products of precursors of spatially local operators, , where W x ( t) = e - iHt W x e iHt . Using chaotic spin-chain numerics and gauge/gravity duality, we show that a single precursor fills a spatial region that grows linearly in t. In a lattice system, products of such operators can be represented using tensor networks. In gauge/gravity duality, they are related to Einstein-Rosen bridges supported by localized shock waves. We find a geometrical correspondence between these two descriptions, generalizing earlier work in the spatially homogeneous case.

  1. Quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dennis; Stinner, Daniel; Mir, Hassan

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures requires a high index of suspicion and thorough history-taking to assess for medical comorbidities that may predispose patients to tendon degeneration. Radiographic assessment with plain films supplemented by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging when the work-up is equivocal further aids diagnosis; however, advanced imaging is often unnecessary in patients with functional extensor mechanism deficits. Acute repair is preferred, and transpatellar bone tunnels serve as the primary form of fixation when the tendon rupture occurs at the patellar insertion, with or without augmentation depending on surgeon preference. Chronic tears and disruptions following total knee arthroplasty are special cases requiring reconstructions with allograft, synthetic mesh, or autograft. Rehabilitation protocols generally allow immediate weight-bearing with the knee locked in extension and crutch support. Limited arc motion is started early with active flexion and passive extension and then advanced progressively, followed by full active range of motion and strengthening. Complications are few but include quadriceps atrophy, knee stiffness, and rerupture. Outcomes are excellent if repair is done acutely, with poorer outcomes associated with delayed repair.

  2. Maine Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

  3. Modelling and Experimental Verification of Pressure Wave Following Gaseous Helium Storage Tank Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Grabowski, M.; Jędrusyna, A.; Wach, J.

    Helium inventory in high energy accelerators, tokamaks and free electron lasers may exceed tens of tons. The gaseous helium is stored in steel tanks under a pressure of about 20 bar and at environment temperature. Accidental rupture of any of the tanks filled with the gaseous helium will create a rapid energy release in form of physical blast. An estimation of pressure wave distribution following the tank rupture and potential consequences to the adjacent research infrastructure and buildings is a very important task, critical in the safety aspect of the whole cryogenic system. According to the present regulations the TNT equivalent approach is to be applied to evaluate the pressure wave following a potential gas storage tank rupture. A special test stand was designed and built in order to verify experimentally the blast effects in controlled conditions. In order to obtain such a shock wave a pressurized plastic tank was used. The tank was ruptured and the resulting pressure wave was recorded using a spatially-distributed array of pressure sensors connected to a high-speed data acquisition device. The results of the experiments and the comparison with theoretical values obtained from thermodynamic model of the blast are presented. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data was obtained. Recommendations regarding the applicability of thermodynamic model of physical blast versus TNT approach, to estimate consequences of gas storage tank rupture are formulated. The laboratory scale experimental results have been scaled to ITER pressurized helium storage tanks.

  4. Shock Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  5. Corotating shock structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of observed interplanetary shocks leads to the conclusion that a corotating forward shock has not been unambiguously identified at 1 AU. A reverse shock identified in September 1967 is a likely candidate for a corotating structure.

  6. What Is Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiogenic Shock? Cardiogenic (kar-dee-oh-JE-nik) shock is ... treated right away. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle from a ...

  7. Role of laparoscopy as a minimally invasive procedure in treatment of ruptured uterine scar during second-trimester induction of abortion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanmei; Jiang, Qiaoying; Lv, Ya-Er; Liu, Feng; Yang, Liwei

    2016-04-01

    Uterine rupture is an uncommon complication following termination of pregnancy and is usually accompanied by severe lower abdominal pain and shock caused by intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Laparotomy should be carried out promptly in order to repair the uterus or even to resect the uterus. Here we present a case of uterine rupture of a scarred uterus, which occurred during a second-trimester induced abortion. The patient was successfully treated by laparoscopy with the help of laparoscopic ultrasound. This case suggests an alternative, effective approach to the diagnosis and treatment of uterine rupture. PMID:26695381

  8. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    PubMed

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin.

  9. Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe

    2010-11-01

    Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.

  10. Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe

    2010-11-01

    Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.

  11. Flexor digitorum superficialis rupture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Culver, J E

    1976-04-01

    A rupture of the musculotendinous junction of the flexor digitorum superficialis to the index finger in a baseball pitcher is described. No underlying abnormality could be detected. Because of loss of strength and dexterity, repair of the rupture was accomplished with an improved result.

  12. Hemobilia from ruptured hepatic artery aneurysm in polyarteritis nodosa.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Soon; Kim, Byeong Uk; Han, Hye Suk; Goo, Ja Chung; Han, Joung Ho; Bae, Il Hun; Park, Seon Mee

    2006-03-01

    Hemobilia, in patients with the diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa, is rare at clinical presentation and has a grave prognosis. We describe a case of massive hemobilia, due to aneurysmal rupture, in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa. A 39-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with upper abdominal pain. The patient had a history of partial small bowel resection, for intestinal infarction, about 5 years prior to this presentation. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated multiple high attenuation areas in the bile duct and gallbladder. Hemobilia with blood seepage was visualized on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; this bleeding stopped spontaneously. The following day, the patient developed a massive gastrointestinal bleed with resultant hypovolemic shock. Emergent hepatic angiogram revealed multiple microaneurysms; a communication was identified between a branch of the left hepatic artery and the bile duct. Hepatic arterial embolization was successfully performed. The underlying disease, polyarteritis nodosa, was managed with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide.

  13. Rupture of a hepatic artery aneurysm caused by Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, M A; Tangkau, P L; Steffens, T W; Tjiam, S L; van der Loo, E M

    1997-01-01

    Among vasculitis syndromes Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is characterized by involvement of the upper and lower airways and kidneys. The associated vasculitis involves small and medium sized arteries and veins. Aneurysm formation and a segmental pattern of involvement of larger arteries is not typically seen in WG--a presentation more in keeping with polyarteritis nodosa. We report on a patient hospitalized with classical manifestations of WG who died suddenly of hypovolemic shock caused by intraperitoneal hemorrhage resulting from rupture of a hepatic artery aneurysm. The aneurysm was caused by involvement of the hepatic artery in the disease process. To our knowledge aneurysmatic dilatation of the hepatic artery due to WG has not been previously described. This case illustrates an unusual disease course in WG and the overlap which exists in classical vasculitis syndromes.

  14. The effects of barriers on supershear rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiankuan; Zhang, Zhenguo; Chen, Xiaofei

    2016-07-01

    A barrier may induce a supershear rupture transition in some cases, whereas it may prevent the further propagation of a supershear rupture in other cases. We investigate the effects of a barrier on the supershear rupture propagation on a planar fault in a 3-D half-space. Our results show that the effect of a barrier on supershear is strongly dependent on its size, strength, and location. For larger sizes, shallower buried depths, and relatively higher strengths, the barrier tends to prevent supershear propagation more strongly. When the barrier is located on the free surface and near the critical distance, it prevents the further propagation of supershear rupture. If a barrier is located far from the critical distance, the first supershear daughter crack is slowed down and a new supershear daughter crack is generated after the rupture front passes through the barrier. This mechanism greatly lengthens the supershear transition distance.

  15. Rupture of sigmoid colon caused by compressed air.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wan-Bin; Hu, Ji-Lin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Xian-Xiang; Zhang, Mao-Shen; Liu, Guang-Wei; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Lu, Yun

    2016-03-14

    Compressed air has been generally used since the beginning of the 20(th) century for various applications. However, rupture of the colon caused by compressed air is uncommon. We report a case of pneumatic rupture of the sigmoid colon. The patient was admitted to the emergency room complaining of abdominal pain and distention. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle against his anus as a practical joke 2 h previously. On arrival, his pulse rate was 126 beats/min, respiratory rate was 42 breaths/min and blood pressure was 86/54 mmHg. Physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and the abdomen was markedly distended. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a large volume of air in the abdominal cavity. Peritoneocentesis was performed to relieve the tension pneumoperitoneum. Emergency laparotomy was done after controlling shock. Laparotomy revealed a 2-cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. The perforation was sutured and temporary ileostomy was performed as well as thorough drainage and irrigation of the abdominopelvic cavity. Reversal of ileostomy was performed successfully after 3 mo. Follow-up was uneventful. We also present a brief literature review. PMID:26973403

  16. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  17. Breaking of a single asperity: Rupture process and seismic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Kostrov, B. V.

    1983-05-01

    The problem of spontaneous shear rupture of a single circular asperity on an infinite fault plane is studied. Initially, the fault plane is broken everywhere except at a circular asperity. An applied displacement at infinity results in a stress concentration along the bounding edge of the asperity. The frictional stress on the broken part of the fault plane is taken to be a constant. Once a point on the asperity breaks, the stress there drops to the same value as on the `main' fault surface. The rupture is started by relaxing the shear stress at a point on the asperity edge and is then allowed to propagate spontaneously, using a critical stress level fracture criterion. The rupture process is calculated numerically. It is found that for asperities of constant strength, the rupture first propagates around the edge of the asperity and then inward, a phenomenon best described by the well-known term of classic military maneuver: `the double encircling pincer movement.' In the appendix, the expressions for the far-field seismic radiation due to the rupture of such an asperity are derived. It is shown that the nth Cartesian component of the far-field displacement at (x, t) for P, SV, and SH waves, using the notation of Aki and Richards (1980), is given by un(x, t) = (Dni/4πρc2R)∫∫s0τi3{ξ, t - [(R - ξ · γ)/c]} dS(ξ). Thus the far-field pulses can be directly found from the stress drops on the fault plane. This formula is also true for `crack' or `dislocation' problems. The directivity function Dni for displacement for the asperity problem is found to be that for the double couple, modified by some factor. In particular, the fault plane is a nodal plane for SV waves. For the rupturing of asperities on a finite fault, these directivity functions are applicable only to the initial part of observed pulses at a receiver, provided the receiver is not located on the fault plane outside the broken part of the main crack edge, in which case it is inapplicable for all

  18. Shock-induced phase transformation in tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Luke L.

    2010-09-01

    A TEM study of pure tantalum and tantalum-tungsten alloys explosively shocked at a peak pressure of 30 GPa is presented. While no omega phase was found in shock-recovered pure Ta and Ta-5W which mainly contain a cellular dislocation structure, a shock-induced omega phase was found in Ta-10W which contains evenly distributed dislocations with a density higher than 1 × 1012 cm - 2. The shock-induced \\alpha ~\\mathrm {(bcc)}\\rightarrow \\omega (hexagonal) transition occurs when the dynamic recovery of dislocations becomes largely suppressed in Ta-10W shocked under dynamic-pressure conditions. A dislocation-based mechanism is proposed for the shock-induced phase transformation.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen operated in gynecological unit mistaken for ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst: total splenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Eko, Filbert Eko; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; de Paul, Elanga Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture is always neglected when consulting acute abdominal pains in gynecological emergencies. It constitutes about 1% of all splenic ruptures and can be managed by abstention, surgery or embolization. We present the case of a young lady who was diagnosed of spontaneous rupture during surgery that was mistaken for ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst and finally treated by total splenectomy. The pre-operative work up was absolute for a rupturred hemorrhagic cyst and secondariy for a ruptured ectopic gestation. PMID:25918564

  20. Rupture process of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in relation to the thermal structure around Aso volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Yuji; Okuwaki, Ryo; Enescu, Bogdan; Kasahara, Amato; Miyakawa, Ayumu; Otsubo, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    We constructed the rupture process model for the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake from broadband teleseismic body waveforms (P-waves) by using a novel waveform inversion method that takes into account the uncertainty of Green's function. The estimated source parameters are: seismic moment = 5.1 × 1019 Nm (Mw = 7.1), fault length = 40 km, and fault width = 15 km. The mainshock rupture mainly propagated northeastward from the epicenter, for about 30 km, along an active strike-slip fault. The rupture propagation of the mainshock decelerated and terminated near the southwest side of the Aso volcano; the aftershock activity was low around the northeastern edge of the major slip area. Our results suggest that the rupture process of the mainshock and the distribution of aftershocks were influenced by the high-temperature area around the magma chamber of Mt. Aso.

  1. Twin ruptures grew to build up the giant 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Maercklin, Nils; Festa, Gaetano; Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake had an unexpected size for the region. To image the earthquake rupture in detail, we applied a novel backprojection technique to waveforms from local accelerometer networks. The earthquake began as a small-size twin rupture, slowly propagating mainly updip and triggering the break of a larger-size asperity at shallower depths, resulting in up to 50 m slip and causing high-amplitude tsunami waves. For a long time the rupture remained in a 100–150 km wide slab segment delimited by oceanic fractures, before propagating further to the southwest. The occurrence of large slip at shallow depths likely favored the propagation across contiguous slab segments and contributed to build up a giant earthquake. The lateral variations in the slab geometry may act as geometrical or mechanical barriers finally controlling the earthquake rupture nucleation, evolution and arrest. PMID:23050093

  2. Magnetic field overshoots in the Venus blow shock

    SciTech Connect

    Tatrallyay, M.; Luhmann, J.G.; Russell, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    An examination of Pioneer Venus Orbiter fluxgate magnetometer data has shown that magnetic field overshoots occur not only behind quasi-perpendicular bow shocks but also behind quasi-parallel shocks. Overshoots are assocciated only with supercritical shocks. Their amplitudes increase with increasing fast Mach number. Solar wind beta has a lesser effect. The thickness of the overshoot increases with decreasing Theta-BN. The thickness of apparent overshoots detected behind 4 strong fast interplanetary shocks (M greater than M/crit) is about 3 orders of magnitude larger. Multiple crossings of the Venus bow shock were observed mainly at turbulent shocks. Their occurence is not influenced by Theta-BN. 15 references.

  3. Spontaneous ruptured dissection of the right common iliac artery in a patient with classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Rick; Tinkle, Brad T; Halandras, Pegge M; Al-Nouri, Omar; Crisostomo, Paul; Cho, Jae S

    2015-04-01

    Unlike vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), classic EDS is rarely associated with vascular manifestation. We report the case of a 39-year-old man who presented with acute abdominal pain. At the time of presentation, the patient was in hypovolemic shock, and computed tomography angiogram demonstrated common iliac artery dissection with rupture. He underwent an attempted endovascular repair that was converted to an open repair of a ruptured right common iliac artery dissection. Subsequent genetic testing revealed a substitution of arginine for cysteine in type I collagen, COL1A1 exon 14 c.934C>T mutation, consistent with a rare variant of classic EDS. PMID:25597651

  4. Spontaneous ruptured dissection of the right common iliac artery in a patient with classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Rick; Tinkle, Brad T; Halandras, Pegge M; Al-Nouri, Omar; Crisostomo, Paul; Cho, Jae S

    2015-04-01

    Unlike vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), classic EDS is rarely associated with vascular manifestation. We report the case of a 39-year-old man who presented with acute abdominal pain. At the time of presentation, the patient was in hypovolemic shock, and computed tomography angiogram demonstrated common iliac artery dissection with rupture. He underwent an attempted endovascular repair that was converted to an open repair of a ruptured right common iliac artery dissection. Subsequent genetic testing revealed a substitution of arginine for cysteine in type I collagen, COL1A1 exon 14 c.934C>T mutation, consistent with a rare variant of classic EDS.

  5. Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake rupture simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic rupture simulation. A dynamic rupture simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near‐fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake rupture simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (Ⓔ see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic rupture simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic rupture computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic rupture codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake rupture computer simulation codes.

  6. Observation of laser driven supercritical radiative shock precursors.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, S; Stéhlé, C; Koenig, M; Chièze, J-P; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Batani, D; Leygnac, S; Fleury, X; Merdji, H; Michaut, C; Thais, F; Grandjouan, N; Hall, T; Henry, E; Malka, V; Lafon, J-P J

    2004-06-01

    We present a supercritical radiative shock experiment performed with the LULI nanosecond laser facility. Using targets filled with xenon gas at low pressure, the propagation of a strong shock with a radiative precursor is evidenced. The main measured shock quantities (electronic density and propagation velocity) are shown to be in good agreement with theory and numerical simulations. PMID:15245230

  7. Age at intracranial aneurysm rupture among generations

    PubMed Central

    Woo, D; Hornung, R; Sauerbeck, L; Brown, R; Meissner, I; Huston, J; Foroud, T; Broderick, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported intracranial aneurysm (IA) occurring at young ages in subsequent generations. These studies did not correct for duration of follow-up. Second-generation members who would have their ruptured IA late in life may not be detected due to shorter follow-up time than the first generation. We examined families in which ruptured IA occurred in two consecutive generations for the hypothesis that the second generation (F1) was more likely to have a rupture at a younger age than the older generation (F0). Methods: The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) Study is a multicenter, international study recruiting families of ruptured and unruptured IA. All available family members are interviewed. Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to examine differences by generation. Results: Although we found that the F1 generation was more likely to have an aneurysm rupture at a younger age than the F0 generation, we found that this was largely because of a lack of follow-up time in the F1 generation. The F1 generation had 50% the rupture rate of the prior generation. When analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves, we found a tendency to have a slightly later rupture rate in the F1 generation once time to follow-up was included in the analysis model. Conclusions: Families of ruptured intracranial aneurysm (IA) do not appear to demonstrate “anticipation.” Our finding suggests that genetic epidemiology of ruptured IA should examine all types of variations such as single base-pair changes, deletions, insertions, and other variations that do not demonstrate anticipation. GLOSSARY FIA = familial intracranial aneurysm; IA = intracranial aneurysm; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:19237697

  8. Particle Acceleration in Shock-Shock Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, Masaru; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Hada, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    Collisionless shock waves play a crucial role in producing high energy particles. One of the most plausible acceleration mechanisms is the first order Fermi acceleration in which non-thermal particles statistically gain energy while scattered by MHD turbulence both upstream and downstream of a shock. Indeed, X-ray emission from energetic particles accelerated at supernova remnant shocks is often observed [e.g., Uchiyama et al., 2007]. Most of the previous studies on shock acceleration assume the presence of a single shock. In space, however, two shocks frequently come close to or even collide with each other. For instance, it is observed that a CME (coronal mass ejection) driven shock collides with the earth's bow shock [Hietala et al., 2011], or interplanetary shocks pass through the heliospheric termination shock [Lu et al., 1999]. Colliding shocks are observed also in high power laser experiments [Morita et al., 2013]. It is expected that shock-shock interactions efficiently produce high energy particles. A previous work using hybrid simulation [Cargill et al., 1986] reports efficient ion acceleration when supercritical two shocks collide. In the hybrid simulation, however, the electron dynamics cannot be resolved so that electron acceleration cannot be discussed in principle. Here, we perform one-dimensional full Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to examine colliding two symmetric oblique shocks and the associated electron acceleration. In particular, the following three points are discussed in detail. 1. Energetic electrons are observed upstream of the two shocks before their collision. These energetic electrons are efficiently accelerated through multiple reflections at the two shocks (Fermi acceleration). 2. The reflected electrons excite large amplitude upstream waves. Electron beam cyclotron instability [Hasegawa, 1975] and electron fire hose instability [Li et al., 2000] appear to occur. 3. The large amplitude waves can scatters energetic electrons in

  9. Extracellular matrix content of ruptured anterior cruciate ligament tissue.

    PubMed

    Young, Kate; Samiric, Tom; Feller, Julian; Cook, Jill

    2011-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs) can rupture with simple movements, suggesting that structural changes in the ligament may reduce the loading capacity of the ligament. We aimed to investigate if proteoglycan and collagen levels were different between ruptured and non-ruptured ACLs. We also compared changes in ruptured tissue over time. During arthroscopic knee reconstruction surgery 24 ruptured ACLs were collected from participants (10 females; 14 males; mean age 24 years). Four non-ruptured ACLs were obtained from participants undergoing total knee replacement surgery (one female, three males; mean age 66 years). Western blot analysis was used to characterise core proteins of aggrecan, versican, decorin and biglycan and glycosaminoglycan assays were also conducted. Collagen levels were measured by hydroxyproline (OHPr) assays. Significantly lower levels of collagen, were found in ruptured ACL compared to non-ruptured ACL (p=0.004). Lower levels of both small and large proteoglycans were found in ruptured than non-ruptured ACLs. No correlation was found between time since rupture and proteoglycan or collagen levels. Ruptured ACLs had less collagen and proteoglycans than non-ruptured ACLs. These changes indicate either extracellular matrix protein levels were reduced prior to rupture or levels decreased immediately after rupture. It is possible that the composition and structure of ACLs that rupture are different to normal ACLs, potentially reducing the tissue's ability to withstand loading. An enhanced understanding of the aetiology of ACL injury could help identify individuals who may be predisposed to rupture.

  10. Misdiagnosed Chest Pain: Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Inci, Sinan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gungor, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Eroglu, Atila

    2013-01-01

    Chest pain is one of themost common complaints expressed by patients presenting to the emergency department, and any initial evaluation should always consider life-threatening causes. Esophageal rupture is a serious condition with a highmortality rate. If diagnosed, successful therapy depends on the size of the rupture and the time elapsed between rupture and diagnosis.We report on a 41-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of left-sided chest pain for two hours. PMID:27122690

  11. Extensor tendon ruptures after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, M; Lustig, S; Huten, D

    2016-02-01

    Extensor tendon rupture is a rare but serious complication after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that impairs active knee extension, thereby severely affecting knee function. Surgery is usually required. Surgical options range from simple suturing to allograft reconstruction of the entire extensor mechanism and include intermediate methods such as reconstruction using neighbouring tendons or muscles, synthetic ligament implantation, and partial allograft repair. Simple suturing carries a high failure rate and should therefore be routinely combined with tissue augmentation using a neighbouring tendon or a synthetic ligament. After allograft reconstruction, outcomes are variable and long-term complications common. Salvage procedures for managing the most severe cases after allograft failure involve reconstruction using gastrocnemius or vastus flaps. Regardless of the technique used, suturing must be performed under tension, with the knee fully extended, and rehabilitation must be conducted with great caution. Weaknesses of available case-series studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity, and inadequate follow-up duration. All treatment options are associated with substantial failure rates. The patient should be informed of this fact and plans made for a salvage option. Here, the main techniques and their outcomes are discussed, and a therapeutic strategy is suggested.

  12. Role of geometric complexities and off-fault damage in dynamic rupture propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Harsha Suresh

    2007-12-01

    To analyze the effect of fault branches on dynamic rupture propagation we numerically simulated the observed dynamic slip transfer from the Denali to Totschunda faults during the Mw 7.9, November 3, 2002, Denali fault earthquake, Alaska and show that the theory and methodology of Poliakov et al. [2002] and Kame et al. [2003] is valid for the 2002 Denali fault event. To understand the effect of fault branch length on dynamic rupture propagation we analyze earthquake ruptures propagating along a straight "main" fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. We show finite branches have the tendency of stopping or re-nucleating rupture on the main fault depending on their length in addition to the parameters singled out by Kame et al. [2003]. We also illustrate branch-related complexities in rupture velocity and slip evolution. We illustrate the effect of backward branches (branches at obtuse angle to the main fault with the same sense of slip as the main fault) and propose a mechanism of backward branching. As a field example we simulate numerically, using a two-dimensional elastodynamic boundary integral equation formulation incorporating slip-weakening rupture, the backward branching phenomenon observed during the Landers 1992 earthquake. To characterize the effect of supershear ruptures on off-fault materials we extend a model of a two-dimensional self-healing slip pulse, propagating dynamically in steady-state with slip-weakening failure criterion, to the supershear regime and show that there exists a non-attenuating stress field behind the Mach front which radiates high stresses arbitrarily far from the fault (practically this would be limited to distances comparable to the depth of the seismogenic zone). We apply this model to study damage features induced during the 2001 Kokoxili (Kunlun) event in Tibet. We also study the 3D effects of supershear ruptures by simulating bilateral ruptures on a finite-width vertical strike-slip fault breaking the surface

  13. Rupture Synchronicity in Complex Fault Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, K. R.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    While most investigators would agree that the timing of large earthquakes within a fault system depends on stress-mediated interactions among its elements, much of the debate relevant to time-dependent forecasting has been centered on single-fault concepts, such as characteristic earthquake behavior. We propose to broaden this discussion by quantifying the multi-fault concept of rupture synchronicity. We consider a finite set of small, fault-spanning volumes {Vk} within a fault system of arbitrary (fractal) complexity. We let Ck be the catalog of length tmax comprising Nk discrete times {ti(k)} that mark when the kth volume participates in a rupture of magnitude > M. The main object of our analysis is the complete set of event time differences {τij(kk') = ti(k) - tj(k')}, which we take to be a random process with an expected density function ρkk'(t). When k = k', we call this function the auto-catalog density function (ACDF); when k ≠ k', we call it the cross-catalog density function (CCDF). The roles of the ACDF and CCDF in synchronicity theory are similar to those of autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions in time-series analysis. For a renewal process, the ACDF can be written in terms of convolutions of the interevent-time distribution, and many of its properties (e.g., large-t asymptote) can be derived analytically. The interesting information in the CCDF, like that in the ACDF, is concentrated near t = 0. If two catalogs are completely asynchronous, the CCDF collapses to an asymptote given by the harmonic mean of the ACDF asymptotes. Synchronicity can therefore be characterized by the variability of the CCDF about this asymptote. The brevity of instrumental catalogs makes the identification of synchronicity at large M difficult, but we will illustrate potentially interesting behaviors through the analysis of a million-year California catalog generated by the earthquake simulator, RSQSim (Deiterich & Richards-Dinger, 2010), which we sampled at a

  14. Material Parameters for Creep Rupture of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.

    2014-08-01

    Creep rupture properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 °C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with rupture lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher rupture ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids mainly occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.

  15. Spontaneous rupture of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Fatal spontaneous rupture of the lower abdominal aorta in a previously healthy 61-year-old woman is reported; the possibility that she had the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:870895

  16. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  17. Pregnancy-related rupture of arterial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J M; Van Hooydonk, J E; Boehm, F H

    1982-09-01

    Over 50 per cent of ruptured arterial aneurysms in women under the age of 40 are pregnancy-related. The hemodynamic and endocrine changes of pregnancy appear to be the cause of arterial alterations which may lead to new aneurysm formation and/or weakening of preexisting aneurysms. The most commonly reported arteries to have aneurysms rupture during pregnancy are the aorta, cerebral arteries, splenic artery, renal artery, coronary artery, and ovarian artery. In many instances, the rupture of an arterial aneurysm will initially simulate other less serious disease processes, thus delaying the correct diagnosis until a catastrophic event occurs. Early diagnosis and treatment of a ruptured arterial aneurysm are imperative in order to give optimal chances of survival to the mother and fetus.

  18. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  19. Cognitive frames in psychology: demarcations and ruptures.

    PubMed

    Yurevich, Andrey V

    2009-06-01

    As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.

  20. Effect of Post-thermal shock on Prolonged Sea Water aged GFRP Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Biswal, B. B.

    2016-02-01

    The present investigation is an attempt of evaluating the suitability of glass fibre reinforced polymer composites to thermal shock treatments of various lengths of time subject to pre-immersion in sea water for 1 year. Mechanical properties like inter laminar shear strength (ILSS), stress at rupture, strain at rupture and modulus values are recorded by adopting 3-point bend test method. Mechanical properties show a general decreasing trend at higher durations of up and down-thermal shock exposure irrespective of showing initial nonequilibrium zig-zag trend. Glass Transition temperature (Tg) with respect to optimum durations of thermal shock treatment show considerable variation for the sample with minimum sea water immersion period. SEM fractographs of the thermally shocked specimens revealed the mode of failures like fibre pull out, fibre/matrix debonding, cusp formation indicating polymer crazing, matrix cracking, fibre breaking etc.

  1. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    PubMed

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-01

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. PMID:26631334

  2. Quadriceps tendon rupture through a superolateral bipartite patella.

    PubMed

    Woods, G William; O'Connor, Daniel P; Elkousy, Hussein A

    2007-10-01

    We report a case of a quadriceps tendon rupture through a bipartite patella. Although quadriceps tendon ruptures and patella fractures are common, rupture through a bipartite patella fragment is rare. This case was managed similar to a quadriceps rupture with an excellent result.

  3. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  4. [Spontaneous uterine rupture due to uterine leiomyosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Boussouni, Khouloud; Benoulaid, Meryem; Dafiri, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare cancers characterized by clinical and histological polymorphism. They are malignant tumors of poor prognosis. Inaugural manifestation of acute abdomen with hemo-pneumoperitoneum and spontaneous uterine rupture remains exceptional. The authors report the case of a uterine leiomyosarcoma manifesting itself as an inaugural generalized acute peritonitis in a 43 year old woman. Uterine rupture due to malignant tumor was suspected during urgent preoperative imaging (ultrasound and CT scan) and confirmed histologically. PMID:27642425

  5. Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xiaolin

    2012-12-13

    In this report, we present the research efforts made by our group at UCLA in the SciDAC project Simulations of turbulent flows with strong shocks and density variations. We use shock-fitting methodologies as an alternative to shock-capturing schemes for the problems where a well defined shock is present. In past five years, we have focused on development of high-order shock-fitting Navier-Stokes solvers for perfect gas flow and thermochemical non-equilibrium flow and simulation of shock-turbulence interaction physics for very strong shocks. Such simulation has not been possible before because the limitation of conventional shock capturing methods. The limitation of shock Mach number is removed by using our high-order shock-fitting scheme. With the help of DOE and TeraGrid/XSEDE super computing resources, we have obtained new results which show new trends of turbulence statistics behind the shock which were not known before. Moreover, we are also developing tools to consider multi-species non-equilibrium flows. The main results are in three areas: (1) development of high-order shock-fitting scheme for perfect gas flow, (2) Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of interaction of realistic turbulence with moderate to very strong shocks using super computing resources, and (3) development and implementation of models for computation of mutli-species non-quilibrium flows with shock-fitting codes.

  6. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  7. UTERINE RUPTURE FOLLOWING MYOMECTOMY IN THIRD TRIMESTER.

    PubMed

    Djaković, Ivka; Rudman, Senka Sabolović; Kosec, Vesna

    2015-12-01

    Rupture of gravid uterus is surgical emergency causing maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The risk of uterine rupture is associated with uterine scars caused by previous cesarean section, myomectomy, hysteroscopic procedures, and curettage. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman in 31st week of gestation with spontaneous uterine rupture. It was her third pregnancy. She had two healthy children from previous pregnancies. Her symptoms were abdominal pain, vomiting and pain in the right shoulder lasting for 12 hours prior to admission. Ultrasound examination at admission revealed a dead fetus in the abdomen and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. She had previously undergone laparoscopic myomectomy. After myomectomy, she had one successful vaginal delivery. Every abdominal pain in pregnant woman with uterine scar should be carefully and promptly examined to exclude uterine rupture before further diagnostic procedures. This early time frame is essential for survival of the fetus and sometimes even of the mother. Uterine rupture represents indication for immediate cesarean section and it should be performed within 25 minutes of the first signs of uterine rupture. As shown in the case presented, one successful vaginal delivery after myomectomy is no guarantee for future pregnancies.

  8. Fatigue and plaque rupture in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Versluis, Antheunis; Bank, Alan J; Douglas, William H

    2006-01-01

    Plaque rupture plays a role in the majority of acute coronary syndromes. Rupture has been associated with stress concentrations, which are affected by tissue properties and anatomy. In this study rupture was not approached as an acute syndrome, but rather as the culmination of a chronic injury or fatigue process. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of anatomy, tissue properties, and blood pressure on a fatigue mechanism. Incremental crack propagation was dynamically simulated based on evolving stress distributions. Stresses were resolved by a finite element solver, using vessel stiffness properties derived from in vivo data. Plaque fatigue crack growth per pressure pulse was estimated using an adapted Paris-relation. It was demonstrated that cracks begin at the lumen wall at areas of stress concentration, depending on the shape of the lumen, thickness of the fibrous cap and stiffness of the plaque components. Mean or pulse pressure did not affect initiation location. Cracks extended radially and grew at a rate that was highly dependent on both mean and pulse pressure and on lipid stiffness. Rupture rate depended on blood pressure and lipid stiffness. It was concluded that a fatigue mechanism in a pulsatile cardiovascular pressure environment reconciles clinical evidence of acute plaque rupture at seemingly low stress levels, and it could provide a framework for developing strategies to create a biomechanically benign environment which is least conducive to plaque rupture.

  9. Yield Stress Effects on Mucus Plug Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yingying; Bian, Shiyao; Grotberg, John C.; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James B.

    2012-11-01

    Mucus plugs can obstruct airways, resulting in lost gas exchange and inflammation. Yield stress, one of the significant rheological properties of mucus, plays a significant role in plug rupture. We use carbopol 940 gels as mucus simulants to study dynamics of mucus plug rupture in experiments. Yield stress increases with gel concentration increasing (0.1% ~0.3%). The yield stress of the 0.2% gel is about 530 dyn/cm2, which can simulate normal mucus. A 2D PDMS channel is used to simulate a collapsed airway of the 12th generation in a human lung. Plug rupture is driven by a pressure drop of 1.6 ×104 ~ 2.0 ×104 dyn/cm2. Initial plug length varies from half to two times the half channel width. A micro-PIV technique is used to acquire velocity fields during rupture, from which wall shear stress is derived. Plug shortening velocity increases with the pressure drop, but decreases with yield stress or the initial plug length. Wall shear stress increases with yield stress, which indicates more potential damage may occur to epithelial cells when pathologic mucus has a high yield stress. Near the rupture moment, a wall shear stress peak appears at the front of the film deposited by the plug during rupture. This work is supported by NIH: HL84370 and HL85156.

  10. Radiative Shock Waves In Emerging Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.

    2011-05-01

    In laboratory experiments we produce radiative shock waves having dense, thin shells. These shocks are similar to shocks emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick shocked layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include shocks breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse shock during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these shocks by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The shocked Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the shock wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating shocks and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.

  11. Mechanism of lens capsular rupture following blunt trauma: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lizhen; Du, Chengfei; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo

    2015-01-01

    Blunt impact on the eye could results in lens capsular rupture that allows foreign substances to enter into the lens and leads to cataract formation. This paper aimed to investigate the mechanism of lens capsular rupture using finite element (FE) method. A FE model of the human eye was developed to simulate dynamic response of the lens capsule to a BB (a standard 4.5-mm-diameter pellet) impact. Sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of the parameters on capsular rupture, including the impact velocity, the elastic modulus of the lens, the thickness and the elastic modulus of the lens capsule. The results indicated that the lens was subjected to anterior compression and posterior intension when the eye was stricken by a BB pellet. The strain on the posterior capsule (0.392) was almost twice as much as that on the anterior capsule (0.207) at an impact velocity of 20 m/s. The strain on the capsule was proportional to the impact velocity, while the capsular strain showed no significant change when the lens modulus elastic varied with age. The findings confirmed that blunt traumatic capsular rupture is the result of shockwave propagation throughout the eye. The posterior capsule is subjected to greater tension in blunt trauma, which is the main cause that ruptures are more commonly found on the posterior capsule than the anterior capsule. Also, thinner thickness and lower elastic modulus would contribute to the posterior capsular rupture.

  12. Rupture characterization of the 2014 Napa Valley earthquake from 3 different perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedric, T.; Adams, M.; Ji, C.; Archuleta, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The extensive strong-ground motion data of the August 24 Mw 6.1 Napa Valley earthquake exhibits an interesting pattern of the strong ground motion. Although the slip models based on seismic and geodetic data revealed mainly north-north-west rupture propagation, the largest ground acceleration of 0.94g was observed at a station south of the hypocenter, presumably associated with the initiation stage of this earthquake. Here, the kinematic and dynamic rupture process of this earthquake is studied using the strong-ground motion data in the vicinity (< 40 km) of the epicentre of the Napa Valley earthquake. Three inversion algorithms are applied. First, a conventional non-linear finite fault inversion is conducted to constrain the overall slip history using relatively long period (> 1 s) seismic data. Second, a dynamic finite fault inversion, which approximates the rupture as multiple elliptical cracks, is carried out to understand what are the stress and strength conditions on the fault that produces a rupture history that is compatible with the observed data. Finally, an iterative Landweber back-projection algorithm is used to constrain the finer spatio-temporal rupture history associating with the high frequency radiation. The efforts particularly focus on the initiation stage of the fault rupture.

  13. Shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.L.; Brower, K.R.

    1997-11-01

    The authors present evidence that the shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis.GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a shock wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and o-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, o-toluidine and o-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentandiene. In isotopic labeling experiments o-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond rupture is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of o-toluidine from o-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples shocked and quenched by adiabatic expansion shows that the initial chemical reactions in shocked solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path.

  14. “Don Juan-Fracture” as a Hint to Aortic Isthmus Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Suksompong, Sirilak; von Bormann, Benno

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called “Don-Juan fracture,” and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed. PMID:25478249

  15. Earth's bow shock: Power aspects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedykh, Pavel

    2012-07-01

    The process of energy transfer from the solar wind into the magnetosphere, or rather, to convecting magnetospheric plasma, appears to be rather complicated. The bow shock front is the main converter of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy [Ponomarev, Sedykh, J. of Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys. V. 68. 2006; Ponomarev, Sedykh et al., Geomagn. and Aeron., 2009]. Solar wind undergoes significant changes in its parameters during its passing through the bow shock front. Indeed, at the bow point, when crossing the front, the magnetic field tangential component and magnetic energy density increase by factors of almost 4 and approximately 15, respectively. In describing the bow shock, we followed [Whang, 1987; Ponomarev et al., 2006]. A jump of the magnetic field tangential component when crossing the bow shock front means that the front carries an electric current. It is possible to show that electric current is diverging in this layer, that is the front is the generator of the current. Since plasma with magnetic field passes through the bow shock front, electric field arises in the front reference system. Thus, the bow shock front is a source of electric power. The direction of electric current behind the bow shock front depends on the sign of the IMF Bz-component. It is this current which sets convection in motion. Energetically, this external current is necessary for maintaining convection of plasma in the inhomogeneous system (geomagnetosphere). The generator at the bow shock front can be a sufficient source of power for supplying energy to substorm processes [Sedykh, Sun and Geosphere, 2011]. The sign of power does not depend on the IMF sign, and energy flux is always directed into the magnetosphere. The magnitude of the power is different and is realized in different regions of the magnetosphere depending on the IMF direction. When the Bz-component is negative, the electric convection field is larger, with the anticonvection field being smaller, than for

  16. Surgical Strategies for Acutely Ruptured Arteriovenous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jaime L; Macdonald, R Loch

    2015-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are focal neurovascular lesions consisting of abnormal fistulous connections between the arterial and venous systems with no interposed capillaries. This arrangement creates a high-flow circulatory shunt with hemorrhagic risk and hemodynamic abnormalities. While most AVMs are asymptomatic, they may cause severe neurological complications and death. Each AVM carries an annual rupture risk of 2-4%. Intracranial hemorrhage due to AVM rupture is the most common initial manifestation (up to 70% of presentations), and it carries significant morbidity and mortality. This complication is particularly important in the young and otherwise healthy population, in whom AVMs cause up to one-third of all hemorrhagic strokes. A previous rupture is the single most important independent predictor of future hemorrhage. Current treatment modalities for AVM are microsurgery, endovascular embolization, and radiosurgery. In acutely ruptured AVMs, early microsurgical excision is usually avoided. The standard is to wait at least 4 weeks to allow for patient recovery, hematoma liquefaction, and inflammatory reactions to subside. Exceptions to this rule are small, superficial, low-grade AVMs with elucidated angioarchitecture, for which early simultaneous hematoma evacuation and AVM excision is feasible. Emergent hematoma evacuation with delayed AVM excision (unless, as mentioned, the AVM is low grade) is recommended in patients with a decreased level of consciousness due to intracranial hemorrhage, posterior fossa or temporal lobe hematoma of >30 ml, or hemispheric hematoma of >60 ml. The applicability of endovascular techniques for acutely ruptured AVMs is not clear, but feasible options, until a definitive treatment is determined, include occluding intranidal and distal flow-related aneurysms and 'sealing' any rupture site or focal angioarchitectural weakness when one can be clearly identified and safely accessed. Radiosurgery is not performed in

  17. Pulverization of quartz single crystal and natural quartzite induced by possible super-shear rupture during stick -slips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, O.; Muto, J.; Otsuki, K.

    2011-12-01

    , the axial stress abruptly decreased as large as 700 MPa and the slip distance attained up to 2 mm during the main shock of the stick-slip. The pulverized fragments show polygonal column, and the fractographic textures suggest them to be a tensile fracture origin. Similar fracturing texture developed in natural quartzite, but less intense than single crystal case even at Pc of 180MPa. The mechanical data and the mode of intense pulverization of synthetic quartz imply that super shear ruptures radiated supersonic waves during the stick-slip s by anomalously high strain rates and peak stresses. Synthetic single crystals of quartz are very brittle and the stress drops in our experiments are much larger than actual earthquakes, but mosaic textures of pulverized rocks with lack of distinct shear deformation are reproduced in the experiment on natural quartzite and often observable in natural faults. Therefore, it is likely that the pulverization by super-shear would be a mechanism to widen the damaged zones of seismic faults, and change of the site response with passage of seismic wave.

  18. Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.

    PubMed

    Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."

  19. Shock & Anaphylactic Shock. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on shock and anaphylactic shock is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  20. Understanding the Shock in "Culture Shock."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Jim

    "Culture shock" is the expression generally associated with the frustrations that occur when persons have difficulty functioning in a different culture or when persons are exposed to individuals from another culture. Culture shock typically occurs in a 4-stage process that can unfold over varying lengths of time: the honeymoon, crisis, resolution,…

  1. Role and Effectiveness of Percutaneous Arterial Embolization in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients with Ruptured Splanchnic Artery Pseudoaneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Dohan, Anthony; Eveno, Clarisse; Dautry, Raphael Guerrache, Youcef; Camus, Marine; Boudiaf, Mourad; Gayat, Etienne; Dref, Olivier Le Sirol, Marc Soyer, Philippe

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the role and effectiveness of percutaneous arterial embolization (TAE) in patients with hemodynamic instability due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured splanchnic artery pseudoaneurysms (SAPA).Materials and MethodsSeventeen patients (11 men, 6 women; mean age, 53 years) with hemodynamic instability (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured SAPA were treated by TAE. Clinical files, multidetector row computed tomography angiography, and angiographic examinations along with procedure details were reviewed.ResultsSeventeen SAPAs were present, predominantly located on gastroduodenal or pancreatic arteries (9/17; 53 %). Angiography showed extravasation of contrast medium from SAPA in 15/17 patients (88 %). Technical success rate of TAE was 100 %. TAE was performed using metallic coils in all patients (100 %), in association with gelatin sponge in 5/17 patients (29 %). TAE allowed controlling the bleeding and returning to normal hemodynamic status in 16/17 patients (94 %). In 1/17 patient (6 %), surgery was needed to definitively control the bleeding. The mortality and morbidity rate of TAE at 30 days were 0 and 12 %, respectively. Morbidity consisted in coil migration in 1/17 patient (6 %) and transient serum liver enzyme elevation in 1/17 patient (6 %).ConclusionTAE is an effective and safe treatment option for ruptured SAPA in hemodynamically unstable patients, with a success rate of 94 %. Our results suggest that TAE should be the favored option in patients with hemodynamic instability due to ruptured SAPA.

  2. Neptune inbound bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam; Lepping, Ronald P.

    1995-01-01

    Voyager 2 crossed the inbound or upstream Neptunian bow shock at 1430 spacecraft event time on August 24 in 1989 (Belcher et al., 1989). The plasma and magnetic field measurements allow us to study the solar wind interaction with the outermost gas giant. To fully utilize all of the spacecraft observations, an improved nonlinear least squares, 'Rankine-Hugoniot' magnetohydrodynamic shock-fitting technique has been developed (Szabo, 1994). This technique is applied to the Neptunian data set. We find that the upstream bow shock normal points nearly exactly toward the Sun consistent with any reasonable large-scale model of the bow shock for a near subsolar crossing. The shock was moving outward with a speed of 14 +/- 12 km/s. The shock can be characterized as a low beta, high Mach number, strong quasi-perpendicular shock. Finally, the shock microstructure features are resolved and found to scale well with theoretical expectations.

  3. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of toxic shock syndrome involved women who used tampons during their periods (menstruation). However, today less than half of cases are linked to tampon use. Toxic shock syndrome can also occur with ...

  4. The effects that changes in the diaphragm aperture have on the resulting shock tube flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houas, L.; Biamino, L.; Mariani, C.; Igra, O.; Jourdan, G.; Massol, A.

    2012-07-01

    In a conventional shock tube, the driver and the driven sections have similar (if not identical) cross-sectional area and the diaphragm opened area, upon rupturing, is practically equal to the tube cross-sectional area. Such geometry results in generating a well-formed shock wave in the tube's driven section. The present experimental work checks the effects that changes in the diaphragm ruptured area have on the generated shock and rarefaction waves. Experiments were conducted in an 80 mm by 80 mm cross section shock tube generating incident shock waves having Mach numbers within the range from 1.06 to 1.25. In each run, pressure histories were recorded along the driven and the driver sections of the shock tube. The recorded pressures reveal that progressive reduction in the diaphragm open space resulted in a weaker shock and both longer time and distance until the compression waves generated close to the diaphragm coalesces into a shock wave. In addition, reducing the open space of the diaphragm resulted in a significant slow down in the high pressure reduction prevailing in the driver section.

  5. Spontaneous rupture of unscarred uterus in a primigravida with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Wael Sayed; Bersano, Debbra J; Greenspan, Peter B; Harper, Diane Medved

    2015-06-08

    Intrapartum uterine rupture is a true obstetrical emergency. Uterine rupture is associated with severe maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It is rare in the unscarred uterus of a primigravida. A 23-year-old primigravida with an unscarred uterus was admitted with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes at 36(+4) weeks of gestation. Abnormal fetal heart monitoring, associated with acute onset of severe abdominopelvic pain, developed on admission. Rupture occurred prior to onset of regular uterine contractions and in the absence of any interventional oxytocin. The neonate had evidence of severe acidosis despite emergency caesarean delivery. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for uterine rupture, even in the unlikely setting of a primigravida with an unscarred uterus.

  6. Kinematic Rupture Process Of Karakocan-Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekler, F. N.; Ozel, N. M.; Tanircan, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    An earthquake (Mw=5.9) hit Elazig in the eastern part of Turkey on March 8, 2010 at 02:32 (GMT). It is located midway between the provincial capital of Elazığ and Bingöl with coordinates reported as 38o48.42N and 40o5.99E by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). Source characterization and slip history were estimated the main and four moderate size earthquake almost at the same location. The earthquake occurred at one of the tectonically very active East Anatolian Fault zone starts at the Karlıova triple junction, where it meets the North Anatolian fault to the NE. Multi time-window linear waveform inversion technique (MTWIT) was applied to strong ground motion (SGM) data. Theoretical Green's functions between subfaults and stations were calculated by a Discrete Wave Number Method (DWNM) using 1-D velocity structure. Inversion technique used in this study yields a non unique solution. Therefore various rupture models have been tried until both observed and synthetic data were matched. Results show simple patterns in slip distributions. Maximum slip is 0.78 and seismic moment is 1.435E+25 dyne.cm from the kinematic rupture process of the strike slip faulting. In this study, we searched a stable 1-D crustal velocity model with low RMS misfit to construct the theoretical Green's function between each sub-fault and each station among the 4 different models. These are Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM; Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981), International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASP91) (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) earthquake location model, explosion model (Gurbuz, 2004). We have collected previous studies Rebollar et al., (2001), Ichinose et al., (1997), Abdel-Fattah (2002), Somerville et al., (1999), Wells and Coppersmith (1994) on source information of moderate size earthquakes occurred worldwide and compared with

  7. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  8. Fault-rock magnetism from the earth surface trench closed to the Wenchuan Earthquake Surface Rupture Zone imply the different slip dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Li, H.; Lee, T. Q.; Sun, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake had induced two major earthquake surface rupture zones, including the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault (Y-B F.) and Guanxian-Anxian earthquake fault (G-A F.) earthquake surface rupture zones. This giant earthquake had caused great human and financial loss. After main shock, the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) was co-organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources and China Bureau of Seismology, and this project focused on earthquake fault mechanics, earthquake slip process, fault physical and chemical characteristics, mechanical behavior, fluid behavior, fracture energy, and so on. In this study, the fault-rocks in the two trenches close to the two Wenchuan Earthquake surface rupture zone were used to discuss the earthquake slip dynamics, including the Bajiaomiao and Jiulong trenches along the Y-B F. and G-A F. earthquake surface rupture zones, respectively. This study also combined with the recent fault-rock magnetism from the earth surface and WFSD-1. The rock magnetism, from the Bajiaomiao trench and other previous researches, shows that the high susceptibility of the fault gouge along the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault zone was caused by the new-formed ferrimagnetic minerals, such as magnetite and hematite, so the Y-B F. had experienced high temperature and rapid speed thermal pressurization earthquake slip mechanism. The rock magnetism from the Jiulong trench implied that the slightly low average susceptibility of fault gouge was caused by high content of Fe-sulfides than that of fault breccia and Jurassic sandstones, which was possibly induced by earthquake process or earth surface process after the fault rocks exposed to the surface. If the high content of Fe-sulfides was induced by earthquake process, the G-A F. had experienced the low temperature and slow speed machanical lubrication earthquake slip mechanism. The different earthquake slip mechanism was

  9. Dynamic rupture processes inferred from laboratory microearthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passelègue, François. X.; Schubnel, Alexandre; Nielsen, Stefan; Bhat, Harsha S.; Deldicque, Damien; Madariaga, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    We report macroscopic stick-slip events in saw-cut Westerly granite samples deformed under controlled upper crustal stress conditions in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted under triaxial loading (σ1>σ2=σ3) at confining pressures (σ3) ranging from 10 to 100 MPa. A high-frequency acoustic monitoring array recorded particle acceleration during macroscopic stick-slip events allowing us to estimate rupture speed. In addition, we record the stress drop dynamically and we show that the dynamic stress drop measured locally close to the fault plane is almost total in the breakdown zone (for normal stress >75 MPa), while the friction f recovers to values of f > 0.4 within only a few hundred microseconds. Enhanced dynamic weakening is observed to be linked to the melting of asperities which can be well explained by flash heating theory in agreement with our postmortem microstructural analysis. Relationships between initial state of stress, rupture velocities, stress drop, and energy budget suggest that at high normal stress (leading to supershear rupture velocities), the rupture processes are more dissipative. Our observations question the current dichotomy between the fracture energy and the frictional energy in terms of rupture processes. A power law scaling of the fracture energy with final slip is observed over 8 orders of magnitude in slip, from a few microns to tens of meters.

  10. Rupture of the round window membrane.

    PubMed

    Freeman, P

    1975-01-01

    Considerable interest has been displayed in sudden sensori-neural deafness in recent years, and especially since Blair Simmons postulated that this could be caused by mechanical disruption of the membranes in the inner ear. The literature concerning such reports is reviewed briefly and two cases of rupture of the round window membrane resulting from inner ear barotrauma are reported in detail. Both these cases were experienced divers who had had little difficulty in auto-inflation whilst diving. The first case had progressive sensori-neural deafness with mild vertigo, and tympanotomy revealed rupture of the round window membrane in both ears. These ruptures were repaired with plugs of fat, following which his hearing was restored. The second case developed marked vertigo following a dive and was thought to be suffering from decompression sickness. When the appropriate treatment did not help him, tympanotomy was performed and a rupture of the round membrane was found. This was plugged with fat with a most satisfactory result. Both of these cases had difficulty with autoinflation, and had been aware of such difficulties for some time. Nasal problems were responsible for this, and it is strongly recommended that all divers should have normal nasal function and that they should be educated in the technique of autoinflation, and, in particular, in the importance of avoiding forceful autoinflation at all times. A third case of rupture of the round membrane following an injury to the head is also reported.

  11. Management of severe bleeding in a ruptured extrauterine pregnancy: a theragnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Grassetto, Alberto; Fullin, Giorgio; Cerri, Gianluca; Simioni, Paolo; Spiezia, Luca; Maggiolo, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Haemoperitoneum due to ruptured extrauterine pregnancy is a complication that may occur in the first trimester of pregnancy, but massive haemorrhage with severe shock is rare. When severe bleeding does occur, timely diagnosis and rapid haemostatic treatment are vital. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with severe bleeding and shock due to ruptured extrauterine pregnancy.Management of the patient consisted of emergency laparotomy, red blood cell transfusion and targeted haemostatic therapy guided by rotational thromboelastometry using the fibrin-based clotting (FIBTEM) assay, (activation with tissue factor with addition of the platelet inhibitor cytochalasin D). As severe hypofibrinogenaemia was apparent, indicated by a FIBTEM maximum clot firmness (MCF) that was not measurable (i.e. < 2 mm) and a plasma fibrinogen level of 0.17 g/l, the patient was treated with 4 g fibrinogen concentrate. Tranexamic acid (1 g) was also administered.Rapid restoration of haemostasis was indicated by the improvement of thromboelastometric parameters (FIBTEM MCF 16 mm) and, later, laboratory coagulation tests (plasma fibrinogen 2.75 g/l), along with cessation of bleeding. No fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was administered. Surgery was successfully completed, and the patient was subsequently discharged 5 days after admission with no further complications. Haemorrhage in extrauterine pregnancy is commonly managed using autologous blood transfusion (via cell salvage) and homologous plasma transfusion. In this case of severe bleeding and shock due to ruptured extrauterine pregnancy, thromboelastometry-guided administration of fibrinogen concentrate enabled rapid restoration of haemostasis, complete avoidance of FFP transfusion and resulted in a successful outcome.

  12. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock? Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can't pump ... to the body. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle from a ...

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, C.; Vinci, T.; Boireau, L.; Koenig, M.; Bouquet, S.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Osaki, N.; Herpe, G.; Falize, E.; Loupias, B.; Atzeni, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the radiative shock from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It is based on the whole experimental results obtained at Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI, École Polytechnique). Radiative shocks are high-Mach number shocks with a strong coupling between radiation and hydrodynamics which leads to a structure governed by a radiative precursor. These shocks are involved in various astrophysical systems: stellar accretion shocks, pulsating stars, interaction between supernovae and the interstellar medium. In laboratory, these radiative shocks are generated using high power lasers. New diagnostics have been implemented to study the geometrical shape of the shock and the front shock density. Data were obtained varying initial conditions for different laser intensities and temperature. The modeling of these phenomena is mainly performed through numerical simulations (1D and 2D) and analytical studies. We exhibit results obtained from several radiative hydrodynamics codes. As a result, it is possible to discuss about the influence of the geometry and physical parameters introduced in the 1D and 2D models.

  14. May-Thurner syndrome presenting as spontaneous left iliac vein rupture.

    PubMed

    Hosn, Maen Aboul; Katragunta, Neelima; Kresowik, Timothy; Sharp, William John

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous iliac vein rupture resulting in a retroperitoneal hematoma is extremely rare and can present as a life-threatening emergency. There is often a delay in diagnosis with no established treatment recommendations. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with hypovolemic shock, a large left retroperitoneal hematoma, and left lower extremity phlegmasia in the setting of a previously asymptomatic May-Thurner syndrome. She was successfully treated with a combined open and endovascular approach. We also reviewed the literature on the evolution of diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition and present our recommendations for management. PMID:27639003

  15. May-Thurner syndrome presenting as spontaneous left iliac vein rupture.

    PubMed

    Hosn, Maen Aboul; Katragunta, Neelima; Kresowik, Timothy; Sharp, William John

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous iliac vein rupture resulting in a retroperitoneal hematoma is extremely rare and can present as a life-threatening emergency. There is often a delay in diagnosis with no established treatment recommendations. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with hypovolemic shock, a large left retroperitoneal hematoma, and left lower extremity phlegmasia in the setting of a previously asymptomatic May-Thurner syndrome. She was successfully treated with a combined open and endovascular approach. We also reviewed the literature on the evolution of diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition and present our recommendations for management.

  16. [Peritonitis caused by spontaneous rupture of pyonephrosis in pregnancy. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Rais, H; Sarf, I; Joual, A; Aboutaieb, R; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S; Hamoudi, D; Idali, B; Harti, A; Barrou, L

    1999-01-01

    Peritonitis after spontaneous rupture of pyonephrosis into the peritoneal cavity is a rare complication, usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a case of a woman presenting with left lumbar pain and fever during pregnancy. On admission, ultrasonography showed a pregnancy with fetal activity for 16 weeks, and pyonephrosis in the left kidney, but on a normal right kidney. After antibiotic therapy and upper urinary, tract stenting renal drainage revealed purulent urine, fever persisted with acute abdomen. Clinical and radiological assessment showed features of acute peritonitis with pyonephrosis. Treatment consisted of laparotomy with nephrectomy and abdominal lavage and drainage. The postoperative complication was septic shock requiring resuscitation and artificial ventilation and prolonged convalescence.

  17. [Renal angiomyolipoma rupture as a cause of lumbar pain: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Melissa; Calleja, Félix; Hola, José; Daviú, Antonio; Jara, Danilo; Vallejos, Humberto

    2008-08-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign tumor formed by smooth muscle, adipose tissue and blood vessels. It is commonly found incidentally and its clinical manifestations are pain and abdominal mass or spontaneous tumor rupture with retroperitoneal bleeding. The clinical presentation of a hemorrhagic shock secondary to a retroperitoneal hematoma is uncommon. We report a 40 year-old male who presented to the emergency room with lumbar pain and deterioration of hemodynamic parameters. The CT scan showed a left renal injury associated to an expansive retroperitoneal process. The abdominal exploration, vascular control of the renal pedicle and nephrectomy allowed a successful outcome.

  18. PRV sizing for exchanger tube rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.Y. )

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports on heat exchanger tube ruptures which is one of the common over-pressure scenarios of pressure relief valve (PRV) design. ASME Code VIII-1 indicates that heat exchangers shall be protected with a relieving device of sufficient capacity to avoid over-pressure in case of an internal failure. But it does not provide any guidance on how to size a PRV and how to define the required relief load. API RP 520 Part I and API RP 521 do offer some guidelines for heat exchanger tube rupture in PRV design, but they are too general to be used to perform a detailed calculation or to do a relief system analysis. Furthermore, API 520's two-phase flow calculation concepts contradict its own assumptions, which makes its design approach infeasible. A detailed PRV design procedure for heat exchanger tube rupture will be discussed.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of the common bile duct.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S; Bayer, I; Chaimoff, C

    1986-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the common bile duct in adults is very rare. The authors report only the 14th case in the Western literature. A 25-year-old woman had signs of peritonitis suggestive of a perforated appendix, but at operation the appendix appeared normal and a large amount of bile was found in the peritoneal cavity. A 2-mm tear was found on the anterior wall of the common bile duct. The patient recovered without complications after T-tube drainage and cholecystectomy. In this patient none of the factors thought to cause spontaneous rupture of the common bile duct were present, so the authors conclude that the case may be classified as idiopathic spontaneous rupture of the common bile duct. PMID:3940592

  20. Postmyomectomic Uterine Rupture Despite Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Kacperczyk, Joanna; Bartnik, Paweł; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Dobrowolska-Redo, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. Fibroids can develop anywhere within the muscular wall. Leiomyomas may be associated with infertility. Laparoscopic myomectomy is often used to remove symptomatic intramural or subserosal fibroids. Advantages of the procedure include short recovery time and minimal perioperative morbidity. At the same time, the multilayer suture technique is more complicated during laparoscopy. A rare but serious complication of laparoscopic myomectomies is uterine rupture. A brief review of the literature and a clinical example of a 33-year-old woman with history of infertility, laparoscopic myomectomies and uterine rupture followed by peripartum hemorrhage is presented. The treatment of leiomyomas is a challenge not only because of possible recurrence but also due to long-term consequences following successful myomectomy. Management of patients with uterine scars should include careful planning of the route of delivery, as the risk of rupture may be increased. PMID:26976991

  1. Augmented repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Zell, R A; Santoro, V M

    2000-06-01

    Twenty-five patients who had an acute Achilles tendon rupture were managed with an augmented repair using the gastrocnemius-soleus fascia. All patients healed their repair and there were no re-ruptures. There was one infection. Augmented repair allowed early functional recovery as evidenced by full ankle motion by four to eight weeks, full unassisted weight bearing by three weeks, cessation of braces by four weeks, and return to work by one to six weeks post-operatively. Augmentation adds a sufficient amount of collagen to allow early range of motion and weight bearing without re-rupture. Disadvantages included a long incision, soft tissue prominence, one infection, and sural nerve injury.

  2. Delayed Failure in a Shock Loaded Alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G. A.; Millett, J. C. F.; Bourne, N. K.; Dandekar, D. P.

    2006-07-28

    Manganin stress gauges have been used to measure the lateral stress in a shock-loaded alumina. In combination with known longitudinal stresses, these have been used to determine the shear strength of this material, behind the shock front. The two-step nature of the lateral stress traces shows a slow moving front behind the main shock, behind which shear strength undergoes a significant decrease. Results also show that this front decreases markedly in velocity as the HEL is crossed, suggesting that limited plasticity occurs during inelastic deformation. Finally, comparison of measured shear strengths with other aluminas shows a high degree of agreement.

  3. Splay fault surface rupture triggered by the 2010 Chile earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, D.; Moreno, M.; Motagh, M.; Cisternas, M.

    2010-12-01

    Faults that splay from megathrusts have been imaged at several active plate boundaries and observed on exposed fossil sections. Due to their steep dip, slip along such structures triggered by a megathrust earthquake may enhance near-field tsunami waves and shorten arrival times. However, motion of splay faults and their role on seismotectonic segmentation has remained elusive due to their predominant offshore location and few historical accounts. Though splay fault slip has been inferred during the 2004 Sumatra and other events, surface ruptures triggered by the 1964 M9.2 Alaska earthquake have been the only documented so far. Here we use field, geodetic and InSAR data to document surface fault rupture and coastal tilting at Isla Santa Maria (ISM; 37S) during the M8.8 earthquake of February 27, 2010. We integrate the observed deformation with previous knowledge of the regional structure to propose triggering of a splay fault. ISM is 75 km inland from the trench, at the intersection of the Arauco Bay and Santa María fault systems (SMFS), both consisting of blind reverse faults that propagate folds. The SMFS is associated to a cluster of microseismicity extending from the plate interface at 15 km to 2 km depth. An offshore seismic reflection profile across this cluster images a main reverse fault with a flat-ramp-flat structure shortcutting to the footwall. The 2010 surface breaks extend across the entire northern part of the island for 900 m, divided in two domains of ENE-WSW oriented structures separated by an E-W striking transfer zone. Each domain consists of faults and fractures with en echelon patterns, with a maximum normal vertical displacement of 80 cm. The geometry of surface ruptures is consistent with dextral transtensional kinematics. We associate the surface breaks to transpressional growth of the fault-cored anticline northeast of ISM; transtension at the surface relates to fold bending. Surface rupture was accompanied by 1.6-2.2 m of coastal uplift

  4. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria

    PubMed Central

    Alajoulin, Omar A.; Alsbou, Mohammed S.; Ja’afreh, Somayya O.; Kalbouneh, Heba M.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis), early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations. PMID:26620992

  5. Thoracic outlet syndrome following breast implant rupture.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Raakhi; Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  6. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  7. Tendon ruptures: mallet, flexor digitorum profundus.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Peter C; Shin, Steven S

    2012-08-01

    Mallet injuries are the most common closed tendon injury in the athlete. Flexor digitorum profundus ruptures are rare in baseball, but are common injuries in contact sports. The diagnosis for each condition is based on clinical examination, although radiographs should be evaluated for a possible bony component. Treatment for mallet injury depends on the athlete's goals of competition and understanding of the consequences of any treatment chosen. Gripping, throwing, and catching would be restricted or impossible with the injured finger immobilized. Treatment of FDP ruptures is almost always surgical and requires reattachment of the torn tendon to the distal phalanx.

  8. Patellar tendon rupture: an ultrasound case report.

    PubMed

    Berg, Kenneth; Peck, Jeff; Boulger, Creagh; Bahner, David P

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a case in which ultrasound was the primary modality for diagnosis of traumatic patellar tendon rupture. Traditionally, this diagnosis has been made using MRI. This case highlights the growing need for emergency medicine physicians to become facile with bedside ultrasound and its indications as a supplement to traditional musculoskeletal examination. Normal and pathological patellar tendon examinations with ultrasound are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the advantages of ultrasound over the more traditional imaging modalities of x-ray and MRI in cases where tendon rupture is suspected are discussed.

  9. Shock formation within sonoluminescence bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Vuong, V.Q.; Szeri, A.J.; Young, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    A strong case has been made by several authors that sharp, spherically symmetric shocks converging on the center of a spherical bubble driven by a strong acoustic field give rise to rapid compression and heating that produces the brief flash of light known as sonoluminescence. The formation of such shocks is considered. It is found that, although at the main collapse the bubble wall does indeed launch an inwardly-traveling compression wave, and although the subsequent reflection of the wave at the bubble center produces a very rapid temperature peak, the wave is prevented from steepening into a sharp shock by an adverse gradient in the sound speed caused by heat transfer. It is shown that the mathematical characteristics of the flow can be prevented from accumulating into a shock front by this adverse sound speed gradient. A range of results is presented for a variety of bubble ambient radii and sound field amplitudes suggested by experiments. The time scale of the peak temperature in the bubble is set by the dynamics of the compression wave: this is typically in the range 100{endash}300 ps (FWHM) in concert with recent measurements of the sonoluminescence pulse width. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Off-fault tensile cracks: A link between geological fault observations, experiments and earthquake rupture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, D.; Huang, Y.; Rosakis, A.; Griffith, W. A.; Pollard, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Motivated by the occurrence of high-angle pseudotachylite injection veins along exhumed faults, we use optical experiments and high-speed photography to interpret the origins of tensile fractures that form during dynamic shear rupture in laboratory experiments. Sub-Rayleigh (slower than the Rayleigh wave speed) shear ruptures in Homalite-100 produce damage zones consisting of a periodic array of tensile cracks. These cracks nucleate and grow within cohesive zones behind the tips of shear ruptures that propagate dynamically along interfaces with frictional and cohesive strength. The tensile cracks are produced only along one side of the interface where transient, fault-parallel, tensile stress perturbations are associated with the growing shear rupture tip. We use an analytical, linear velocity weakening, rupture model to examine the local nature of the dynamic stress field in the vicinity of the tip of the main shear rupture which grows along a weak plane (fault) with sub-Rayleigh speed. It is this stress field which is responsible for driving the off-fault mode-I microcracks that grow during the experiments. We show that (1) the orientation of the cracks can be explained by this analytical model; and (2) the cracks can be used to simultaneously constrain the constitutive behavior of the shear rupture tip. In addition, we propose an extension of this model to explain damage structures observed along exhumed faults. Results of this study represent an important bridge between geological observations of structures preserved along exhumed faults, laboratory experiments and theoretical models of earthquake propagation, potentially leading to diagnostic criteria for interpreting velocity, directivity, and static pre-stress state associated with past earthquakes on exhumed faults.

  11. Patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures--jumper's knee.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D W; Carter, V S; Jobe, F W; Kerlan, R K

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed 13 patients with end stage jumper's knee, 10 with patellar tendon ruptures, and 3 with ruptures of the quadriceps tendon to evaluate our long-term results in treating these tendon ruptures in an athletic population. The focus was on the natural history, the time until return, and the level of return, to athletic activity. Jumper's knee affected all patients to a varying degree prior to rupture. Basketball was the most common sport involved. At followup, averaging 4 1/2 years, patients underwent functional and clinical, as well as Cybex and roentgenographic, evaluations. Results indicated patellar tendon ruptures, where the ruptures are complete, have a more favorable prognosis than those of the quadriceps tendon which are incomplete. All of the latter patients continued to have quadriceps tendinitis following repair. In both groups, the poor results were obtained in patients with chondromalacia and/or patella alta. Cybex testing yielded results of greater than 100% strength in three patients with patellar tendon ruptures, but no patient with quadriceps rupture had comparable test results. There was no apparent relationship between ruptures and cortisone injections. Patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures from indirect injury in athletes represent the end stage of jumper's knee and result from repetitive microtrauma. Excellent function usually follows repair of patellar tendon ruptures when surgery is performed early and care is taken to restore normal patellar tendon length. Results of quadriceps ruptures are less satisfactory since these ruptures are usually incomplete and all degenerative tissue may not be involved in the healing response.

  12. Analytic Study of Three-Dimensional Rupture Propagation in Strike-Slip Faulting with Analogue Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Pei-Chen; Chu, Sheng-Shin; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2014-05-01

    Strike-slip faults are high angle (or nearly vertical) fractures where the blocks have moved along strike way (nearly horizontal). Overburden soil profiles across main faults of Strike-slip faults have revealed the palm and tulip structure characteristics. McCalpin (2005) has trace rupture propagation on overburden soil surface. In this study, we used different offset of slip sandbox model profiles to study the evolution of three-dimensional rupture propagation by strike -slip faulting. In strike-slip faults model, type of rupture propagation and width of shear zone (W) are primary affecting by depth of overburden layer (H), distances of fault slip (Sy). There are few research to trace of three-dimensional rupture behavior and propagation. Therefore, in this simplified sandbox model, investigate rupture propagation and shear zone with profiles across main faults when formation are affecting by depth of overburden layer and distances of fault slip. The investigators at the model included width of shear zone, length of rupture (L), angle of rupture (θ) and space of rupture. The surface results was follow the literature that the evolution sequence of failure envelope was R-faults, P-faults and Y-faults which are parallel to the basement fault. Comparison surface and profiles structure which were curved faces and cross each other to define 3-D rupture and width of shear zone. We found that an increase in fault slip could result in a greater width of shear zone, and proposed a W/H versus Sy/H relationship. Deformation of shear zone showed a similar trend as in the literature that the increase of fault slip resulted in the increase of W, however, the increasing trend became opposite after a peak (when Sy/H was 1) value of W was reached (small than 1.5). The results showed that the W width is limited at a constant value in 3-D models by strike-slip faulting. In conclusion, this study helps evaluate the extensions of the shear zone influenced regions for strike

  13. Whistler Waves Associated with Weak Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velez, J. C. Ramirez; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Kajdic, P.; Jian,, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the properties of 98 weak interplanetary shocks measured by the dual STEREO spacecraft over approximately 3 years during the past solar minimum. We study the occurrence of whistler waves associated with these shocks, which on average are high beta shocks (0.2 < Beta < 10). We have compared the waves properties upstream and downstream of the shocks. In the upstream region the waves are mainly circularly polarized, and in most of the cases (approx. 75%) they propagate almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field (<30 deg.). In contrast, the propagation angle with respect to the shock normal varies in a broad range of values (20 deg. to 90 deg.), suggesting that they are not phase standing. We find that the whistler waves can extend up to 100,000 km in the upstream region but in most cases (88%) are contained in a distance within 30,000 km from the shock. This corresponds to a larger region with upstream whistlers associated with IP shocks than previously reported in the literature. The maximum amplitudes of the waves are observed next to the shock interface, and they decrease as the distance to the shock increases. In most cases the wave propagation direction becomes more aligned with the magnetic field as the distance to the shock increases. These two facts suggest that most of the waves in the upstream region are Landau damping as they move away from the shock. From the analysis we also conclude that it is likely that the generation mechanism of the upstream whistler waves is taking place at the shock interface. In the downstream region, the waves are irregularly polarized, and the fluctuations are very compressive; that is, the compressive component of the wave clearly dominates over the transverse one. The majority of waves in the downstream region (95%) propagate at oblique angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field (>60 deg.). The wave propagation with respect to the shock-normal direction has no preferred direction and varies similarly to

  14. Imaging of Large Earthquake Rupture Processes Using Multiple Teleseismic Arrays: Application to the Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohrnberger, M.; Krüger, F.

    2005-12-01

    The spatial extent of large earthquake ruptures is usually indirectly inferred from aftershock distributions or by waveform inversion techniques. In this work we present a method which allows the direct estimation of the spatio-temporal characteristics of large earthquake rupture processes. The technique exploits the high-quality records from the stations of the global broadband network using a simple, yet efficient, migration technique. In particular, we combine coherency and beam-power measures which are obtained from curved wavefront stacking of the direct P wave at multiple large aperture arrays surrounding the source region at tele-seismic distances. Applying this method to the Mw=9.3 Sumatra earthquake from 26/12/2004 and the subsequent Nias earthquake from 28/03/2005 (Mw=8.7), we show that it is possible to track the focus of the most coherent/largest energy release in space and time. For the Sumatra event, we confirm the overall extent of the rupture length being in the order of 1150 km. The rupture front propagated during a time span of at least 480-500 s following the trench geometry from the northern tip of Sumatra to the Andaman Islands region. A visualization of the coherent energy accumulation over time suggests the existence of slow after-slip in the northern part of the rupture after the main rupture front has passed. However, due to the interference of large later phases it is not possible to determine whether this afterslipping event persists much longer then the overall duration of the rupture. The final areal estimate of cumulative energy release is in full agreement with the aftershock distribution observed in the months following this earthquake. Including a number of additional seismic phases (e.g. pP, sP) into the migration scheme, it seems for this event feasible to constrain the depth extent of the rupture. For the Nias earthquake we observe unilateral propagation of the rupture in south-eastern direction starting from an area south

  15. Finite Time Shock Acceleration at Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channok, C.; Ruffolo, D.; Desai, M. I.; Mason, G. M.

    2004-05-01

    Observations of energetic ion acceleration at interplanetary shocks sometimes indicate a spectral rollover at ˜ 0.1 to 1 MeV nucl-1. This rollover is not well explained by finite shock width or thickness effects. At the same time, a typical timescale of diffusive shock acceleration is several days, implying that the process of shock acceleration at an interplanetary shock near Earth usually gives only a mild increase in energy to an existing seed particle population. This is consistent with a recent analysis of ACE observations that argues for a seed population at substantially higher energies than the solar wind. Therefore an explanation of typical spectra of interplanetary shock-accelerated ions requires a theory of finite-time shock acceleration, which for long times (or an unusually fast acceleration timescale) tends to the steady-state result of a power-law spectrum. We present analytic and numerical models of finite-time shock acceleration. For a given injection momentum p0, after a very short time there is only a small boost in momentum, at intermediate times the spectrum is a power law with a hump and steep cutoff at a critical momentum, and at longer times the critical momentum increases and the spectrum approaches the steady-state power law. The composition dependence of the critical momentum is different from that obtained for other cutoff mechanisms. The results are compared with observed spectra. Work in Thailand was supported by the Commission for Higher Education, the Rachadapisek Sompoj Fund of Chulalongkorn University, and the Thailand Research Fund. Work at the University of Maryland was supported by NASA contract NAS5-30927 and NASA grant PC 251428.

  16. Primary gastric rupture in 47 horses (1995–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Winfield, Laramie S.; Dechant, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to identify factors associated with primary gastric rupture and to investigate if there were differences between etiologies of primary gastric rupture. Compared to the general colic population, Quarter horses were under-represented and Friesians and draft breeds were over-represented in 47 cases of primary gastric ruptures. Horses with primary gastric rupture typically presented with severe clinical and clinicopathological derangements. There were 24 idiopathic gastric ruptures, 20 gastric impaction associated ruptures, and 3 perforating gastric ulcers. Thoroughbred horses were over-represented in the idiopathic gastric rupture group compared to other breeds and etiologies. This study suggests the presence of important breed predispositions for development of gastric rupture. Further study is necessary to identify if these predispositions are associated with management factors or breed-specific disorders. PMID:26345205

  17. [Popliteal cyst rupture due to unusual physical stress].

    PubMed

    Romem, Ayal; Shimony, Avi; Horowitz, Sharon; Horowitz, Jacob

    2007-09-01

    Popliteal cyst rupture is a known phenomenon following strenuous labor or sport activity. We present a case in which popliteal cyst rupture followed an unusual strenuous physical activity--devoted prayer during the holy month of the Ramadan. PMID:17969298

  18. Bilateral infrapatellar tendon rupture in a patient with jumper's knee.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, J M; Whitaker, J H

    1991-01-01

    This is the fourth case report of bilateral infrapatellar tendon rupture as a result of indirect trauma in a patient without systemic disease. This is the only report we have found of jumper's knee leading to simultaneous infrapatellar tendon ruptures.

  19. [Percutaneous repair of achilles tendon rupture--a technical note].

    PubMed

    Alexa, O; Veliceasa, B; Puha, C; Popia, I

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of the acute ruptures of the achillean tendon remains controversial. For the time being, there is no consent regarding the ideal therapeutic approach. The therapeutical procedure for the recent achilean tendon tears varies between two possible solutions, one conservative and the other surgical. The choice between these is made based on the type of rupture and the experience of the surgeon. The conservative techniques can have good results in selected cases, but they produce a degree of elongation of the tendon, which may lead to improper functional results. The classical surgical treatment (the open technique) has the handicap of a relatively large, longitudinal incision, which is made in an area with relatively poor skin vascular supply. Also, the vascular supply of the tendon itself is based mainly on perforant, subfascial vessels, which are intercepted during the approach. Taking these facts into consideration, some new, minimally invasive (percutaneous) techniques, were imagined. The principles of the standard percutaneous technique consist of: 1) union of the ruptured ends without using a large surgical approach, thus also avoiding the drainage of the local hematoma and rushing the repair; 2) avoiding damaging of the tendon's vascular supply. This techique leads to a rapid transformation of the collagen fibers into elastic fibers, which are mechanically effective. We present in this paper the method which uses the TENOLIG kit. This kit consists of two wires with anchors at one end and needles at the other end; two washers and two poliethylene disks for securing the distal end of the wire. We obtained good morphological (proven by MRI scan) and functional results with this technique. The postoperative protocol includes immobilization with the foot initially in equinous, then in normal position, with isometric muscle contractions and non-weight-bearing, then removal of the cast and wires at 45 days postoperatively and continuing the recovery by

  20. An Uncommon Presentation of Breast Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Watson, David I.; Dean, Nicola R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Late periprosthetic seroma has lately been concerning for breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The authors present an uncommon presentation of breast implant rupture with a seroma and skin rash forming 2 years after insertion of the implant. PMID:27579243

  1. Gastric rupture secondary to successful Heimlich manoeuvre.

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, A.; Sedman, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    A fatal case of gastric rupture following the Heimlich manoeuvre is reported. This life-threatening complication has only been reported previously in seven patients with a high mortality rate. All patients should be assessed immediately following this manoeuvre for any potentially life-threatening complications. Images Figure PMID:10211358

  2. [Splenic rupture--a skateboard accident].

    PubMed

    Kruse, P

    1990-03-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with persisting abdominal pain after a skateboard accident. Primary clinical and laboratory findings disclosed no signs of intra abdominal bleeding. Ultrasound scanning indicated rupture of the spleen which was confirmed by acute exploratory laparotomy.

  3. Star polymers rupture induced by constant forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, N. A.; Febbo, M.; Vega, D. A.; Milchev, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the rupture process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of rupture times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the rupture time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the rupture time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks.

  4. D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental Rupture Disc

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-03

    The common relief and rupture disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel rupture disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum rupture value for the second disc must be less than the minimum rupture value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.

  5. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  6. An Uncommon Presentation of Breast Implant Rupture.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eugene; Watson, David I; Dean, Nicola R

    2016-05-01

    Late periprosthetic seroma has lately been concerning for breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The authors present an uncommon presentation of breast implant rupture with a seroma and skin rash forming 2 years after insertion of the implant. PMID:27579243

  7. Pancreatic pseudocyst rupture into the portal vein.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Brian C; Kasa, David; Mazer, Mark A

    2009-07-01

    A patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst rupture into the portal vein with a resultant noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome and subsequent portal vein thrombosis diagnosed by computed tomography and ultrasonography is reported. A review of the existing English literature on this rare complication is also provided. PMID:19561436

  8. Star polymers rupture induced by constant forces.

    PubMed

    García, N A; Febbo, M; Vega, D A; Milchev, A

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the rupture process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of rupture times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the rupture time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the rupture time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks. PMID:25362341

  9. Primary obstructive megaureter with ruptured kidney.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Sun, Hsu-Dong; Yang, Den-Kai; Liao, Chun-Hou

    2009-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented to the emergency department for severe left flank pain and gross hematuria 1 hour after playing basketball without significant collision. Laboratory tests showed normal renal function and massive hematuria. Abdominal computed tomography scan disclosed a primary megaureter with ruptured kidney. We successfully treated him with ureteral stenting followed by endoscopic ureterotomy and ureteroneocystostomy.

  10. Endovascular coiling of a ruptured basilar apex aneurysm with associated pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Yanamadala, Vijay; Lin, Ning; Zarzour, Hekmat; Frerichs, Kai U; Walcott, Brian P; Thomas, Ajith J; Puri, Ajit S

    2014-09-01

    Acute intracranial pseudoaneurysms secondary to aneurysmal rupture are a rare entity with no clear evidence-based guidelines for treatment to our knowledge. There are numerous examples of successful treatment of pseudoaneurysms both surgically and endovascularly, the latter mainly within the anterior circulation. Risk of pseudoaneurysm rupture in the acute state during endovascular procedures with subsequent difficulty in controlling the bleeding without sacrificing the feeder artery has led to some reservation in using endovascular treatments more broadly. We report a rare case of a 52-year-old-woman who presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage and was found to have a ruptured 5 mm × 8 mm bi-lobulated basilar apex aneurysm on CT angiography. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated an associated anterior pseudoaneurysm that was formed secondary to the aneurysm rupture. The true aneurysm was successfully coiled with careful avoidance of the pseudoaneurysmal sac. Pseudoaneurysms are frequently identified for the first time during digital subtraction angiography. Recognizing their presence is essential for treatment planning. Acute pseudoaneurysms associated with true aneurysmal rupture can be safely and successfully treated by endovascular coiling of the true aneurysm. Care must be taken to avoid manipulation of the pseudoaneurysmal sac during the embolization.

  11. [Simultaneous rupture of a patellar tendon and contralateral quadriceps tendon].

    PubMed

    Horas, U; Ernst, S; Meyer, C; Halbsguth, A; Herbst, U

    2006-09-01

    The simultaneous bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare injury; only occasional reports exist about the bilateral simultaneous rupture of the patellar tendon. Degenerative changes of the tendon due to drugs or diseases lead to the rupture. We describe two cases of simultaneous rupture of the patellar and contralateral quadriceps tendons; only one patient had special risks. We report the management of therapy and the functional results using the Lysholm score and Knee Rating Scale.

  12. Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass-wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorum, Tolga; van Westen, Cees J.; Korup, Oliver; van der Meijde, Mark; Fan, Xuanmei; van der Meer, Freek D.

    2013-02-01

    The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while part of the rupture occurred as deep lateral slip on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). The earthquake triggered > 4490 landslides, mainly shallow, disrupted rock falls, debris-soil falls and slides, and a few lateral spreads, over an area of ~ 2150 km2. The regional distribution of these slope failures defies those of most similar earthquake-triggered landslide episodes reported previously. Most of the coseismic landslides did not proliferate in the hanging wall of the main rupture, but clustered instead at the junction of the blind Léogâne and EPGF ruptures, where topographic relief and hillslope steepness are above average. Also, low-relief areas subjected to high coseismic uplift were prone to lesser hanging wall slope instability than previous studies would suggest. We argue that a combined effect of complex rupture dynamics and topography primarily control this previously rarely documented landslide pattern. Compared to recent thrust fault-earthquakes of similar magnitudes elsewhere, we conclude that lower static stress drop, mean fault displacement, and blind ruptures of the 2010 Haiti earthquake resulted in fewer, smaller, and more symmetrically distributed landslides than previous studies would suggest. Our findings caution against overly relying on across-the-board models of slope stability response to seismic ground shaking.

  13. Robustness Tests in Determining the Earthquake Rupture Process: The June 23, 2001 Mw 8.4 Peru Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Robinson, D. P.

    2006-12-01

    The non-uniqueness of the problem of determining the rupture process details from analysis of body-wave seismograms was first discussed by Kostrov in 1974. We discuss how to use robustness tests together with inversion of synthetic data to identify the reliable properties of the rupture process obtained from inversion of broadband body wave data. We apply it to the great 2001 Peru earthquake. Twice in the last 200 years, a great earthquake in this region has been followed by a great earthquake in the immediately adjacent plate boundary to the south within about 10 years, indicating the potential for a major earthquake in this area in the near future. By inverting 19 pure SH-seismograms evenly distributed in azimuth around the fault, we find that the rupture was held up by a barrier and then overcame it, thereby producing the world's third largest earthquake since 1965, and we show that the stalling of the rupture in this earthquake is a robust feature. The rupture propagated for ~70 km, then skirted around a ~6000 km2 area of the fault and continued propagating for another ~200 km, returning to rupture this barrier after a ~30 second delay. The barrier has relatively low rupture speed, slip and aftershock density compared to its surroundings, and the time of the main energy release in the earthquake coincides with its rupture. We identify this barrier as a fracture zone on the subducting oceanic plate. Robinson, D. P., S. Das, A. B. Watts (2006), Earthquake rupture stalled by subducting fracture zone, Science, 312(5777), 1203-1205.

  14. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

  15. 46 CFR 153.1500 - Venting system rupture disks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....1500 Venting system rupture disks. The master shall ensure that a relief valve exposed to a cargo after the failure of a rupture disk or breaking pin is cleaned and operates properly before the next cargo... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting system rupture disks. 153.1500 Section...

  16. 46 CFR 153.1500 - Venting system rupture disks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....1500 Venting system rupture disks. The master shall ensure that a relief valve exposed to a cargo after the failure of a rupture disk or breaking pin is cleaned and operates properly before the next cargo... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Venting system rupture disks. 153.1500 Section...

  17. 46 CFR 153.1500 - Venting system rupture disks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....1500 Venting system rupture disks. The master shall ensure that a relief valve exposed to a cargo after the failure of a rupture disk or breaking pin is cleaned and operates properly before the next cargo... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Venting system rupture disks. 153.1500 Section...

  18. 46 CFR 153.1500 - Venting system rupture disks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....1500 Venting system rupture disks. The master shall ensure that a relief valve exposed to a cargo after the failure of a rupture disk or breaking pin is cleaned and operates properly before the next cargo... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Venting system rupture disks. 153.1500 Section...

  19. 46 CFR 153.1500 - Venting system rupture disks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....1500 Venting system rupture disks. The master shall ensure that a relief valve exposed to a cargo after the failure of a rupture disk or breaking pin is cleaned and operates properly before the next cargo... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Venting system rupture disks. 153.1500 Section...

  20. A non-diaphragm type small shock tube for application to a molecular beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Yuta; Osuka, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2013-07-01

    A non-diaphragm type small shock tube was developed for application to a molecular beam source, which can generate beams in the energy range from 1 to several electron volts and beams containing dissociated species such as atomic oxygen. Since repetitive high-frequency operation is indispensable for rapid signal acquisition in beam scattering experiments, the dimensions of the shock tube were miniaturized to reduce the evacuation time between shots. The designed shock tube is 2-4 mm in diameter and can operate at 0.5 Hz. Moreover, a high shock Mach number at the tube end is required for high-energy molecular beam generation. To reduce the shock attenuation caused by the wall boundary layer, which becomes significant in small-diameter tubes, we developed a high-speed response valve employing the current-loop mechanism. The response time of this mechanism is about 100 μs, which is shorter than the rupture time of conventional diaphragms. We show that the current-loop valve generates shock waves with shorter formation distances (about 200-300 mm) than those of conventional shock tubes. In addition, the converging geometry efficiently accelerates shock wave in the small-diameter tubes. The optimal geometry of the shock tube yields shock Mach number around 7, which indicates that the translation energy of molecular beams can exceed 1 eV even in the presence of the real gas effect.

  1. New radiative shocks experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leygnac, S.; Bouquet, S.; Stehlé, C.; Benuzzi, A.; Boireau, J.-P.; Chièze, J.-P.; Grandjouan, N.; Huser, G.; Koenig, M.; Malka, V.; Merdji, H.; Michaut, C.; Thais, F.; Vinci, T.

    2002-06-01

    An experimental study of shocks with astrophysical relevance is performed with the high energy density laser of the LULI, at the Ecole Polytechnique. The peculiarity of these shocks is the strong coupling between radiation and hydrodynamics which leads to a structure governed by a radiative precursor. A new experiment has been performed this year where we have observed shocks identified as radiative shocks. We study them in various experimental configurations (several speeds and geometries of the medium where the shock propagates, allowing a quasi-planar or a quasi-spherical expansion). From the measurements it is possible to infer several features of the shock such as the speed, the electronic density, the geometrical shape and spectroscopic informations. The results will be studied with numerical simulations.

  2. Rupture and bleeding secondary to renal infarction in a patient with an abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Toshifumi; Mukai, Shogo; Obata, Shogo; Morimoto, Hironobu; Uchida, Hiroaki; Yamane, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    A 57-year-old man had been followed up for severe left ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction with a left ventricular thrombus. He had been treated with anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and shock. He had no prior episode of trauma. The electrocardiogram (ECG) showed no changes compared with the previous ECG. Enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a retroperitoneal hematoma around an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and the right kidney. We suspected rupture of AAA or the right kidney, and we performed AAA replacement with a Y-shaped graft and nephrectomy of the right kidney. Pathological examination revealed hemorrhagic infarction of the lower part of the right kidney, with hemorrhage and rupture at the center of the infarct. In our case, enhanced CT showed extravasation from the lower part of the right kidney. In addition, postoperative echocardiography showed that the left ventricular thrombus had disappeared. We report a case of rupture and bleeding secondary to renal infarction in a patient with an AAA.

  3. Spontaneous Intra-Abdominal Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of Jejunal Artery Aneurysm in Behcet Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-yan; Wei, Jiang-peng; Zhao, Xiu-yuan; Wang, Yue; Wu, Huan-huan; Shi, Tao; Liu, Tong; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rupture of jejunal artery aneurysm is a very rare event resulting in life-threatening hemorrhage in Behcet disease (BD). We report a case of ruptured jejunal artery aneurysm in a 35-year-old patient with BD. The patient had a 1-year history of intermittent abdominal pain caused by superior mesenteric artery aneurysm with thrombosis. Anticoagulation treatment showed a good response. Past surgical history included stenting for aortic pseudoaneurysm. On admission, the patient underwent an urgent operation due to sudden hemorrhagic shock. Resection was performed for jejunal artery aneurysm and partial ischemia of intestine. The patient was diagnosed with BD, based on a history of recurrent oral and skin lesions over the past 6 years. Treatment with anti-inflammatory medications showed a good response during the 8-month follow-up. An increased awareness of BD and its vascular complications is essential. Aneurysms in BD involving jejunal artery are rare, neglected and require proper management to prevent rupture and death. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of jejunal artery aneurysm caused by BD. PMID:26559278

  4. Iatrogenic tracheal rupture in a child: case study and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Paksu, Muhammet Sukru; Kilinc, Ayse Ayzit; Asilioglu, Nazik; Gunaydin, Mithat; Aydin, Turgay; Guzel, Ahmet

    2013-08-01

    Tracheal rupture is rare in childhood, and optimal treatment is not clear. A 14-year-old boy was admitted to a local hospital after sudden loss of consciousness. He underwent endotracheal intubation and was referred to our hospital. The patient's history revealed that he had voluntarily inhaled butane gas. The physical examination was consistent with coma and cardiogenic shock, and the chest radiograph showed pulmonary edema. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit, and diuretic and inotropic therapy was started. In the third hour of monitoring of the patient under mechanical ventilation, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax at the right hemithorax were observed without deterioration of the vital functions. Thoracic computed tomography scan findings were consistent with tracheal rupture. The patient was monitored conservatively without surgery. On the fifth day of hospitalization, his tube was removed, and he was discharged on the 12th day with a positive prognosis. In this study, a tracheal rupture case after endotracheal intubation is presented in which the patient recovered completely with conservative therapy. PMID:23925255

  5. Cloud cavitation induced by shock-bubble interaction in a viscoelastic solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Ryota; Ando, Keita

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally study a shock-bubble interaction problem in a viscoelastic solid, which is relevant to shock wave lithotripsy. A gas bubble is produced by focusing an infrared laser pulse into gelatin. A spherical shock is then created, through rapid expansion of plasma that results from the laser focusing, in the vicinity of the gas bubble. The shock-bubble interaction is recorded by a CCD camera with flash illumination of a nanosecond green laser pulse. The observation captures cavitation inception in the gelatin under tension that results from acoustic impedance mismatching at the bubble wall. Namely, the shock reflects at the bubble interface as a rarefaction wave, which induces the nucleation of cavitation bubbles as a result of rupturing the gelatin.

  6. Strain Measurement Using FBG on COPV in Stress Rupture Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Curtis; Grant, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to perform ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization testing of a Space Transportation System (STS) 40-in. Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV). The 40-in. vessel was of the same design and approximate age as the STS Main Propulsion System (MPS) and Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) vessels. The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) assembled a team of experts and conducted an assessment that involved a review of national Kevlar COPY data. During the review, the STS COPVs were found to be beyond their original certification of ten years. The team observed that the likelihood of STS COPV Stress rupture, a catastrophic burst before leak failure mode, was greater than previously believed. Consequently, a detailed assessment of remaining stress rupture life became necessary. Prior to STS-114, a certification deviation was written for two flights of OV-103 (Discovery) and OV-104 (Atlantis) per rationale that was based on an extensive review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, COPV data, and revisions to the STS COPV stress levels. In order to obtain flight rationale to extend the certification deviation through the end of the Program, the Orbiter Project Office has directed an interagency COPV team to conduct further testing and analysis to investigate conservatism in the stress rupture model and evaluate material age degradation. Additional analysis of stress rupture life requires understanding the fiber stresses including stress that occurs due to thru-wall composite compression in COPV components. Data must be obtained at both zero gauge pressure (pre-stress) and at the component operating pressure so that this phenomenon can be properly evaluated. The zero gauge pressure stresses are predominantly a result of the autofrettage process used during vessel manufacture. Determining these pre-stresses and the constitutive behavior of the overwrap at pressure will provide necessary information

  7. Weak shock reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, John K.; Brio, Moysey

    2000-05-01

    We present numerical solutions of a two-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation which provides an asymptotic description of the Mach reflection of weak shocks. In our numerical solutions, the incident, reflected, and Mach shocks meet at a triple point, and there is a supersonic patch behind the triple point, as proposed by Guderley for steady weak-shock reflection. A theoretical analysis indicates that there is an expansion fan at the triple point, in addition to the three shocks. The supersonic patch is extremely small, and this work is the first time it has been resolved.

  8. Anti-Shock Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ames Research Center developed a prototype pressure suit for hemophiliac children, based on research of astronauts' physiological responses in microgravity. Zoex Corporation picked up the design and patents and developed an anti-shock garment for paramedic use. Marketed by Dyna Med, the suit reverses the effect of shock on the body's blood distribution by applying counterpressure to the legs and abdomen, returning blood to vital organs and stabilizing body pressure until the patient reaches a hospital. The DMAST (Dyna Med Anti-Shock Trousers) employ lower pressure than other shock garments, and are non-inflatable.

  9. When shock waves collide

    DOE PAGES

    Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Foster, J.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; et al

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed tomore » quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.« less

  10. When Shock Waves Collide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartigan, P.; Foster, J.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Martinez, D.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. The experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.

  11. Ion heating and energy redistribution across supercritical perpendicular shocks: Application to planetary and interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Liu, Y. D.; Richardson, J. D.; Parks, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate how the ion dissipative process across supercritical perpendicular shocks depends on the shock front micro-structures. At a collisionless plasma shock, the dissipation and micro-structure of the shock font are dominated by wave-particle interactions. Comparison of the ion thermalization at different kinds of shocks, e.g., planetary and interplanetary shocks, can quantify how much interaction is occurring at the shock boundary. Investigation of this problem for diverse solar wind (SW) conditions will yield important information on the dependences of the ion thermalization and energy redistribution on plasma parameters. With the aid of a successful automatic separation method [Yang et al., 2009], the incident ions at the shock can be divided into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions. Corresponding heating efficiency of each population of ions at the shock can be calculated respectively. Wilkinson & Schwartz [1990] have theorized that the amount of reflected ions at perpendicular shocks depends on plasma parameters. Based on the Rankine-Hugoniot (R-H) conservation laws, they found that the fraction reflected is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the ratio of specific heat capacities γ chosen in the R-H relations. The main goal of this work is to investigate how the plasma parameters, e.g. the particle velocity distribution, the plasma beta value, seed populations, etc. (from a particle dynamic point of view), control the amount of reflected ions by using one-dimensional (1-D) full-particle-cell simulations. The simulation results may help to explain the ion heating efficiency and energy redistribution at shocks observed by Cluster, Wind, Voyager, etc.

  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured anterior spinal artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Karakama, Jun; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Maehara, Taketoshi; Ohno, Kikuo

    2010-01-01

    A 51-year-old man presented with an extremely rare case of intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of an anterior spinal artery aneurysm manifesting as disturbance of consciousness following sudden onset of neck pain and numbness of the extremities. Cranial computed tomography revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage, mainly in the posterior fossa. Cerebral angiography studies on admission and on the 4th day demonstrated no definite abnormality as a bleeding source. A ventricular catheter was inserted to treat the acute hydrocephalus, and conservative management was continued during the acute period. Third angiography on the 18th day demonstrated an anterior spinal artery aneurysm at the C1 level which was considered to be the bleeding site. After conservative treatment, the patient was discharged without neurological deficits. Fourth angiography on the 108 th day disclosed spontaneous disappearance of the aneurysm, which was confirmed by the fifth angiography on the 269 th day. If subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown etiology is encountered, spinal artery aneurysm should be considered as the bleeding source. Despite the controversy concerning the treatment strategy, ruptured spinal artery aneurysms can be treated conservatively because of the possibility of spontaneous regression. Follow-up angiography is required to evaluate the natural course of the lesion.

  13. Sudden death due to traumatic ascending aortic pseudoaneurysms ruptured into the esophagus: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    He, Shixia; Chen, Xiaorui; Zhou, Xiaowei; Hu, Qingqing; Ananda, Sunnassee; Zhu, Shaohua

    2015-04-01

    We present 2 rare cases of patients with uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock induced by traumatic ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm rupture into the esophagus. Two men were presented to the hospital after traffic accidents. Their chest radiograph showed no obvious signs of aortic damage or aortic pseudoaneurysms but only a small amount of high-density shadow in the mediastinum and no specific clinical signs besides chest tightness or chest tenderness. The first case was misdiagnosed as pulmonary contusion and pleural effusion, and the second case was misdiagnosed as mediastinal lesions in the mediastina. They were given symptomatic and supportive treatment. Unfortunately, they died suddenly after >1 month of traumatic accident. At autopsy, ascending aortic pseudoaneurysms that broke into the esophagus and multiple organ hematocele were detected by gross examination. In histopathological examination, inflammatory cells and proliferated fibrous connective tissue were detected in the ascending aortic pseudoaneurysms, and the pathological gastrointestinal bleeding was not seen. The drugs and poisons were not found on toxicological analysis. The 2 patients died as a result of hemorrhagic shock from traumatic ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm rupture into the esophagus. We suggest that thoracic surgeon should be aware of the possibility of aortic injury after chest trauma to reduce misdiagnosis and prevent similar accidents.

  14. Rupture Paths in Kappa-Maps: Quantitative Insights on Heterogeneous Earthquake Ruptures From Energy Arguments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampuero, J.; Ripperger, J.; Mai, M.

    2005-12-01

    Earthquake rupture is a notoriously complex process, at all observable scales. Although heterogeneities of strength and initial stress contribute to this rupture complexity, a systematic approach to quantify their effect has not yet been attempted. For instance, little is known about the relation between the final size of an earthquake and the statistical properties of initial strength excess fields. Canonical cases of dynamic rupture (e.g. uniform initial stress and friction properties), can be characterized by two non-dimensional numbers: the S-parameter (ratio of strength excess to stress drop) and the Kappa-parameter (ratio of static energy release rate to fracture energy, Madariaga and Olsen, 2000). The latter was introduced as a global parameter, involving the fault depth or asperity size as the fundamental scale. However, because faults contain heterogeneities at all scales it is not clear how a single scale-length may be relevant to define Kappa. We define here a scale-dependent Kappa-map, based on classical energy concepts in fracture mechanics. In 2D these maps can be defined exactly, and their efficient computation is implemented as a series of FFT-convolutions, by scaled analytical filters related to stress intensity factor weight functions. For given heterogeneous stress drop and fracture energy, such Kappa-maps are useful to predict nucleation properties and final moment, as we illustrate through increasingly complex examples complemented by dynamic rupture simulations. Other properties that can be derived from the 2D Kappa-maps, with additional assumptions, include radiated energy and rupture directivity. In 3D, the shape of the rupture front is unknown a priori and the energy release rate G might be non-uniform along the front. We therefore propose an approximate definition of Kappa in which G is estimated on circular patches. Comparisons with 3D dynamic rupture simulations on highly heterogeneous initial stress fields show that the final moment can

  15. Isolated Total Rupture of Extraocular Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Shen, Tao; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Total rupture of extraocular muscles is an infrequent clinical finding. Here we conducted this retrospective study to evaluate their causes of injury, clinical features, imaging, surgical management, and final outcomes in cases of isolated extraocular muscle rupture at a tertiary center in China. Thirty-six patients were identified (24 men and 12 women). Mean age was 34 years (range 2–60). The right eye was involved in 21 patients and the left 1 in 15. A sharp object or metal hook was the cause of this lesion in 16 patients, sinus surgery in 14 patients, traffic accident in 3 patients, orbital surgery in 2 patients, and conjunctive tumor surgery in 1 patient. The most commonly involved muscles were medial (18 patients) and inferior rectus muscles (13 patients). The function of the ruptured muscles revealed a scale of −3 to −4 defect of ocular motility and the amount of deviation in primary position varied from 10 to 140 PD (prism diopter). Computerized tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of ruptured muscles. An end-to-end muscle anastomosis was performed and 3 to 5 mm of muscle was resected in 23 patients. When the posterior border of the injured muscle could not be identified (13 patients), a partial tendon transposition was performed, together with recession of the antagonist in most patients, whereas a recession of the antagonist muscle plus a resection of the involved muscle with or without nasal periosteal fixation was performed in the remaining patients. After an average of 16.42 months of follow-up an excellent result was achieved in 23 patients and results of 13 patients were considered as a failure. In most patients, the posterior border of the ruptured muscle can be identified and an early surgery can be performed to restore function. Alternatively, a partial tendon transposition should be performed. When muscular rupture is suspected, an early orbital CT is required to confirm this possibility, which can then verify the necessity for

  16. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new expansion tube facility has been built, and is in the process of being commissioned. It has a bore of 90 mm, and has been designed for peak rupture pressures of 100 Mpa. It is configured with multiple sections and diaphragm location stations to give optimized performance over a range of sub and superorbital conditions. It has a compound piston arrangement for a two stage compression, designed to maximize the length of shock expansion tube which can be driven within a fixed total facility length. Experiments have been successfully performed with a dummy first stage piston, and a rubber energy absorbing brake. The results agree well with a one-dimensional stress wave model of the piston impacting on the rubber, and codes for piston motion. Strain of the rubber is restricted to approximately 20 percent at which level no damage is to be expected in the buffer material, and none has been observed, indicating that the mechanism will be fully reuseable.

  17. Earthquake ruptures modulated by waves in damaged fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yihe; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Helmberger, Don V.

    2014-04-01

    Faults are usually surrounded by damaged zones of lower elastic moduli and seismic wave velocities than their host rocks. If the interface between the damaged rocks and host rocks is sharp enough, earthquakes happening inside the fault zone generate reflected waves and head waves, which can interact with earthquake ruptures and modulate rupture properties such as rupture speed, slip rate, and rise time. We find through 2-D dynamic rupture simulations the following: (1) Reflected waves can induce multiple slip pulses. The rise time of the primary pulse is controlled by fault zone properties, rather than by frictional properties. (2) Head waves can cause oscillations of rupture speed and, in a certain range of fault zone widths, a permanent transition to supershear rupture with speeds that would be unstable in homogeneous media. (3) Large attenuation smears the slip rate function and delays the initial acceleration of rupture speed but does not affect significantly the rise time or the period of rupture speed oscillations. (4) Fault zones cause a rotation of the background stress field and can induce plastic deformations on both extensional and compressional sides of the fault. The plastic deformations are accumulated both inside and outside the fault zone, which indicates a correlation between fault zone development and repeating ruptures. Spatially periodic patterns of plastic deformations are formed due to oscillating rupture speed, which may leave a permanent signature in the geological record. Our results indicate that damaged fault zones with sharp boundaries promote multiple slip pulses and supershear ruptures.

  18. Rupture Process During the 2015 Illapel, Chile Earthquake: Zigzag-Along-Dip Rupture Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuwaki, Ryo; Yagi, Yuji; Aránguiz, Rafael; González, Juan; González, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    We constructed a seismic source model for the 2015 M W 8.3 Illapel, Chile earthquake, which was carried out with the kinematic waveform inversion method adopting a novel inversion formulation that takes into account the uncertainty in the Green's function, together with the hybrid backprojection method enabling us to track the spatiotemporal distribution of high-frequency (0.3-2.0 Hz) sources at high resolution by using globally observed teleseismic P-waveforms. A maximum slip amounted to 10.4 m in the shallow part of the seismic source region centered 72 km northwest of the epicenter and generated a following tsunami inundated along the coast. In a gross sense, the rupture front propagated almost unilaterally to northward from the hypocenter at <2 km/s, however, in detail the spatiotemporal slip distribution also showed a complex rupture propagation pattern: two up-dip rupture propagation episodes, and a secondary rupture episode may have been triggered by the strong high-frequency radiation event at the down-dip edge of the seismic source region. High-frequency sources tends to be distributed at deeper parts of the slip area, a pattern also documented in other subduction zone megathrust earthquakes that may reflect the heterogeneous distribution of fracture energy or stress drop along the fault. The weak excitation of high-frequency radiation at the termination of rupture may represent the gradual deceleration of rupture velocity at the transition zone of frictional property or stress state between the megathrust rupture zone and the swarm area.

  19. Brittle dynamic damage due to earthquake rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Harsha; Thomas, Marion

    2016-04-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990, and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over wide range of strain rates. We then implement this constitutive response to understand the role of dynamic brittle off-fault damage on earthquake ruptures. We show that off-fault damage plays an important role in asymmetry of rupture propagation and is a source of high-frequency ground motion in the near source region.

  20. An unusual diagnosis of splenic rupture

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Matthew; Maloku, Fatmir; Abdel-Aziz, Tarek Ezzat

    2014-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of worsening epigastric pain, non-productive cough and vomiting. On examination she was pale and had abdominal tenderness predominant in the right upper quadrant. Abdominal ultrasound excluded the presence of gall stones, but was unable to rule out free fluid in the abdomen. CT demonstrated extensive high-density ascites; however, no source of bleeding could be demonstrated. Clinically the patient's condition deteriorated, and an exploratory laparotomy was performed. In theatre the splenic capsule was found to have detached from the splenic body and emergency splenectomy was performed. Virology serology later demonstrated acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, although tissue microscopy and CMV staining were negative. No other cause of rupture was found. The interesting aspects of this case include the poor correlation between initial presenting symptoms and subsequent diagnosis, the difficulty encountered in making a firm diagnosis and the atypical cause of rupture. PMID:25293683

  1. [Postmortem gastrointestinal ruptures in burn cadavers].

    PubMed

    Schneider, V; Pietrzak, T; Klöppel, I

    1986-01-01

    The report informs on ruptures within the area of the gastro-intestinal tract of two siblings (2 and 3 years of age) that were fatally burned in their apartment. The ruptures are obviously pointing to an "explosive-like" evaporation of the watery part of the gastro-intestinal contents under the influence of the heat, at impeded pressure balance through shrinking of the esophagus caused by the heat in the upper area and the closure of the pylorus. Of significance here is surely also the shrinking of the gastro-intestinal wall caused by the heat and the thin abdominal walls which were not likely to have acted as "heat insulators". These findings are a supplement to the burn hematoma of the stomach as described by Berg and Schumann (1985). PMID:3963991

  2. Computational model of retinal photocoagulation and rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Palanker, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    In patterned scanning laser photocoagulation, shorter duration (< 20 ms) pulses help reduce thermal damage beyond the photoreceptor layer, decrease treatment time and minimize pain. However, safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of rupture threshold power to that of light coagulation) decreases for shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of thermal damage in the retina, and maximize the therapeutic window, we developed a computational model of retinal photocoagulation and rupture. Model parameters were adjusted to match measured thresholds of vaporization, coagulation, and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) damage. Computed lesion width agreed with histological measurements in a wide range of pulse durations and power. Application of ring-shaped beam profile was predicted to double the therapeutic window width for exposures in the range of 1 - 10 ms.

  3. Creep rupture behavior of Stirling engine materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-rupture strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-rupture to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.

  4. Rupture of the round window membrane.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P H; Bicknell, P G

    1976-01-01

    A case of sudden deafness due to rupture of the round window membrane is presented. Nineteen similar cases have previously been reported in the literature. In a review of these twenty patients, it is noted that a history of concurrent physical effort or barotrauma was present in eighteen. This supports the view that the injury is produced by pressure changes acting either along the cochlear aqueduct (the explosive route) or, directly on the middle ear structures (the implosive route). At operation, the rupture may be difficult to see, and a separate leak from the oval window may be present. The timing of any surgical intervention is important. The authors recommend that this should be deferred for one week after the onset of symptoms, as the fistula may heal spontaneously. If no definite improvement has occurred at the end of this time, then tympanotomy should be undertaken during the next week.

  5. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  6. Surgical treatment of gastrocnemius muscle ruptures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Hui-lin; Sun, Zhi-yong; Ni, Li; Zhang, Hong-tao

    2012-11-01

    Rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, known as "tennis leg", typically occurs when the muscle has been overstretched by dorsiflexion of the ankle with full knee extension. The classic clinical presentation is a middle-aged person who complains of sports-related acute pain in the mid portion of the calf, associated with a snapping sensation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound is often required to evaluate patients with this condition. This injury is usually managed non-operatively, surgical treatment rarely being indicated according to published reports. One case of longstanding and one of recent rupture of the musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius that were successfully treated by surgical repair are presented here and the MRI characteristics and indications for surgery are discussed.

  7. How Is Cardiogenic Shock Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Cardiogenic Shock Treated? Cardiogenic shock is life threatening and requires emergency medical treatment. ... arrive. The first goal of emergency treatment for cardiogenic shock is to improve the flow of blood and ...

  8. [Prediction of maternofetal infection in preterm premature rupture of membranes: serum maternal markers].

    PubMed

    Popowski, T; Goffinet, F; Batteux, F; Maillard, F; Kayem, G

    2011-05-01

    Premature rupture of membranes is a common situation in obstetrics that links the amniotic cavity and the bacterial cervicovaginal flora. The main risk in case of preterm premature rupture of membranes is the occurrence of an amniochorial infection, which increases neonatal morbidity and mortality. One main purpose in cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes is to identify infection early to adapt the clinical care. Among the marker used in practice, CRP has a sensitivity between 56% and 86% and specificity between 55% and 82% for predicting clinical chorioamnionitis. These values are respectively 21% to 56% and 76% to 95% for the prediction of early neonatal infection. The white blood cell count, also used in routine, has a poor predictive value of clinical chorioamnionitis although a high specificity when the threshold is of 16 giga/l. Among the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 has been the most studied. Its predictive value for chorioamnionitis or neonatal infection is higher but its clinical usefulness is limited by the various threshold used in the studies and the lack of routine measure. Procalcitonin appears to have low predictive values for detecting amniochorial infection but has finally been little studied. Ways to improve prediction of infection in cases of premature rupture of membranes are either looking for new markers or the analysis of local markers (vaginal secretions and amniotic fluid).

  9. The multi-parameter borehole system and high resolution seismic studies in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of MARSITE Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Yalcinkaya, Esref

    2016-04-01

    obvious from the studies on the nucleation process of the 1999 earthquake that tens of minutes before the major rupture initiate noteworthy microearthquake activity happened. The starting point of the 1999 rupture was a site of swarm activity noticed a few decades prior the main shock. Nowadays, analogous case is probable in western Marmara Sea region, prone to a major event in near future where the seismic activity is prevailing along the impending rupture zone. Deploying a borehole system eastern end of the Ganos fault zone may yield invaluable data to closely inspect and monitor the last stages of the preparation stage of major rupture.

  10. Rupture directivity of moderate earthquakes in northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seekins, Linda C.; Boatwright, John

    2010-01-01

    We invert peak ground velocity and acceleration (PGV and PGA) to estimate rupture direction and rupture velocity for 47 moderate earthquakes (3.5≥M≥5.4) in northern California. We correct sets of PGAs and PGVs recorded at stations less than 55–125 km, depending on source depth, for site amplification and source–receiver distance, then fit the residual peak motions to the unilateral directivity function of Ben-Menahem (1961). We independently invert PGA and PGV. The rupture direction can be determined using as few as seven peak motions if the station distribution is sufficient. The rupture velocity is unstable, however, if there are no takeoff angles within 30° of the rupture direction. Rupture velocities are generally subsonic (0.5β–0.9β); for stability, we limit the rupture velocity at v=0.92β, the Rayleigh wave speed. For 73 of 94 inversions, the rupture direction clearly identifies one of the nodal planes as the fault plane. The 35 strike-slip earthquakes have rupture directions that range from nearly horizontal (6 events) to directly updip (5 events); the other 24 rupture partly along strike and partly updip. Two strike-slip earthquakes rupture updip in one inversion and downdip in the other. All but 1 of the 11 thrust earthquakes rupture predominantly updip. We compare the rupture directions for 10 M≥4.0 earthquakes to the relative location of the mainshock and the first two weeks of aftershocks. Spatial distributions of 8 of 10 aftershock sequences agree well with the rupture directivity calculated for the mainshock.

  11. Fan-structure waves in shear ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new slabs), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the correspondingly low transient strength of the lithosphere, which favours generation of new earthquake faults in the intact rock mass adjoining pre-existing faults in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along these faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created, while further dynamic propagation of the new fault (earthquake) occurs at low field stresses even below the frictional strength.

  12. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  13. An unusual presentation of bronchial rupture.

    PubMed

    Goktalay, Tugba; Yaldiz, Sadik; Ozgen Alpaydin, Aylin; Goktan, Cihan; Celik, Pinar

    2011-06-01

    Persistent hydropneumothorax was diagnosed in a 62-year-old female with a history of blunt trauma, although she was treated with chest tube and closed underwater seal drainage. Computed tomography and fiberoptic bronchoscopy findings were consistent with "fallen lung" syndrome. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy also found a cavitary lesion at the right tracheobronchial angle. Forceps biopsy of the cavitary lesion indicated bronchogenic carcinoma. Our final diagnosis was tracheobronchial complete rupture and fallen lung syndrome secondary to malignancy. PMID:21333086

  14. [Bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon].

    PubMed

    Modrego, Francisco J; Molina, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous, bilateral, and spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a very rare injury. Individuals with this injury are usually predisposed by chronic renal disease with secondary hyperparathyroidism, gout, diabetes, and lupus erythematosus. Often, primary diagnostic confusion can lead to a delay in treatment. Two cases of a bilateral lesion of the quadriceps tendon, that were treated surgically using the technique of Scuderi, followed by an intense rehabilitation programme, are presented. Surgical treatment yields satisfactory results.

  15. Rupture process of the 2015 Mw7.9 Nepal earthquake from the joint inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, J.; Wang, W.; Zhou, Y.; Yao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The 25 April 2015 earthquake (Mw7.9) struck Nepal near the middle segment of Himalaya. Large earthquakes occurred around this region frequently in history. The rupture process could help us to investigate the characters of the disaster earthquakes. For this event many kinds of observation data could be used to constrain the rupture process. Data of some 1Hz GPS stations of the China Crustal Movement Observation Network were processed by the software GAMIT and we obtained the waveforms of this earthquake. The waveforms of several 5Hz GPS stations near the epicenter were provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (http://aria-share.jpl.nasa.gov/events/20150425-Nepal_EQ/GPS/). The ALOS-2 satellite, operated by the Japanese Space Agency, collected a useful of L-band InSAR data and Lindsey et al. determined the coseismic displacement of the line-of-sight (http://topex.ucsd.edu/nepal/). We resampled the coseismic displacement of Lindsey et al. to constrain the rupture process. In addition teleseismic broadband body waves, long period surface waves, waveforms of one regional broadband station and one local strong motion station were combined in the joint inversion. The epicenter of United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the mechanism of Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) were applied. The Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured a thrust fault orienting 293o and dipping 7o to the NE, locating near the middle segment of Himalaya. This earthquake was a unilateral event and the rupture of asperity mainly propagates to the southeast, spanning a depth range from 8 km to 18 km. The inverted slip distribution is dominated by a rectangle shape slip patch with the length of ~120km. The weighted rupture velocity is about 2.1 km/s and the total seismic moment is about 8.6x1020 Nm. The imaged fault slip correlates well with the aftershock distribution.

  16. Rupture models with dynamically determined breakdown displacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The critical breakdown displacement, Dc, in which friction drops to its sliding value, can be made dependent on event size by specifying friction to be a function of variables other than slip. Two such friction laws are examined here. The first is designed to achieve accuracy and smoothness in discrete numerical calculations. Consistent resolution throughout an evolving rupture is achieved by specifying friction as a function of elapsed time after peak stress is reached. Such a time-weakening model produces Dc and fracture energy proportional to the square root of distance rupture has propagated in the case of uniform stress drop. The second friction law is more physically motivated. Energy loss in a damage zone outside the slip zone has the effect of increasing Dc and limiting peak slip velocity (Andrews, 1976). This article demonstrates a converse effect, that artificially limiting slip velocity on a fault in an elastic medium has a toughening effect, increasing fracture energy and Dc proportionally to rupture propagation distance in the case of uniform stress drop. Both the time-weakening and the velocity-toughening models can be used in calculations with heterogeneous stress drop.

  17. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2014-05-01

    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment.

  18. Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Brown, Jefferson; Palanker, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    In laser retinal photocoagulation, short (<20 ms) pulses have been found to reduce thermal damage to the inner retina, decrease treatment time, and minimize pain. However, the safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of power for producing a rupture to that of mild coagulation) decreases with shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of retinal heating and maximize the therapeutic window, a computational model of millisecond retinal photocoagulation and rupture was developed. Optical attenuation of 532-nm laser light in ocular tissues was measured, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) pigmentation and cell-size variability. Threshold powers for vaporization and RPE damage were measured with pulse durations ranging from 1 to 200 ms. A finite element model of retinal heating inferred that vaporization (rupture) takes place at 180-190°C. RPE damage was accurately described by the Arrhenius model with activation energy of 340 kJ/mol. Computed photocoagulation lesion width increased logarithmically with pulse duration, in agreement with histological findings. The model will allow for the optimization of beam parameters to increase the width of the therapeutic window for short exposures.

  19. [Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta].

    PubMed

    Glock, Y; Roux, D; Soula, P; Cerene, A; Fournial, G

    1996-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 50 postraumatic aortic rupture (1968-1996, 39 males, mean age: 34.5). Group A is composed of 35 patients with an acute aortic rupture and a prompt diagnosis. Group B includes 13 patients with a chronic rupture. All patients from group A had a severe politraumatism with abdominal, cranial, extremities or hip fractures. Mediastinal thickening with or without hemothorax indicated an angiography or a transesophageal echocardiography lately. In group A, 36 patients have been operated on urgently (12-24 hours); cardiopulmonary bypass was performed on 20 patients; an aorto-aortical bypass was done in 27 cases and a direct suture in the remaining 9. In group B, cardiopulmonary bypass was performed on 9 patients; a aorto-aortical bypass was done in 11 cases and a direct suture in 2. Overall hospital mortality was 16%; 19% in group A and 7.6% in group B. Ischemic paraplejia appeared in 5 patients (10%), all from group A. No false aneurysm developed after 4.5 years of follow-up (3-135 months) in the 38 survivors. The usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography, the importance of medular protection and the utility of several interventionist radiologic techniques are discussed. PMID:9053930

  20. Isolated medial head of triceps rupture

    PubMed Central

    Marappa Ganeshan, Raghavendra; Keerthi, Naveen

    2014-01-01

    Triceps ruptures are less common injuries presenting to the orthopaedic or emergency department setting compared with other musculoskeletal injuries. This to some extent reduces the level of index of suspicion or chances of considering the triceps rupture as one of the differential diagnosis while examining a patient following upper limb injury. The literature search shows that a significant proportion of patient diagnosis has been missed during initial presentation, leading to a delay in diagnosis and in providing definitive treatment, ranging from 6 to 18 months. The triceps are the primary extensor of the elbow and are supplied with the radial nerve. Any injury to the triceps can adversely affect the functioning of the limb and influence the ability to work and return to employment. We share our experience of treating a patient with a triceps rupture, in whom the diagnosis was made 6 months after injury; the patient was able to return to manual work 3 months after surgical repair. PMID:25362186

  1. Single Event Gate Rupture in EMCCD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evagora, A. M.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Burt, D.

    2012-12-01

    The high electric fields (typically 3 MV/cm2 interpoly field) utilised in Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) reveal a potential vulnerability from Single Event Phenomena (SEP), in particular Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR). SEGR is where a conduction path between two conductive areas of the CCD is produced, causing device failure. If EMCCDs are to be used for space applications the susceptibility to these events needs to be explored. A positive result from such an investigation can increase the technology readiness level of the device moving it another step closer to being used in space. Testing undertaken at the CYClotron of LOuvain la NEuve (CYCLONE), using the Heavy Ion Facility (HIF), conclusively showed EMCCD technology to have resilience to heavy ions that surpassed initial expectations. The simulations undertaken prior to experiment suggested gate rupture would occur at 20-40 MeV cm2/mg, however Linear Energy Transfers (LETs) greater than 100 MeV cm2/mg proved to not cause a rupture event. Within the radiation belts heavy ions with an LET greater than 60 MeV cm2/mg are not very common when compared to the fluxes used at the HIF. Possible reasons for this result are discussed in this work, leading to a conclusion that EMCCD technology is a secure choice for space flight.

  2. Carotid artery rupture and cervicofacial actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Anne; Lhermitte, Benoît; Ödman, Micaela; Grabherr, Silke; Mangin, Patrice; Palmiere, Cristian

    2012-11-01

    Cervicofacial actinomycosis is an uncommon, progressive infection caused by bacilli of the Actinomyces genus. Actinomyces are common commensal saprophytes in the oral cavity which may have medical importance as facultative pathogens. Subsequent to local injuries to the oral mucosa, they may penetrate the deep tissues and be responsible for suppurative or granulomatous infections. We herein report a case of a 65-year-old man who underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy for a tonsillar carcinoma. An ulcerous lesion in the base of the tongue developed and spread to the carotid artery wall. The man died of a massive hemorrhage due to left carotid artery rupture. Postmortem computed tomography angiography performed prior to autopsy allowed the precise localization of the source of bleeding to be detected. Postmortem biochemical investigations confirmed the presence of inflammation associated with local bacterial infection. Histological investigations revealed the rupture of the left carotid artery surrounded by numerous colonies of Actinomyces. Acute and chronic inflammation with tissue necrosis as well as post-actinic, fibrotic changes were also found in the tissues surrounding the ruptured artery wall. PMID:22819527

  3. Shock Demagnetization of Pyrrhotite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louzada, K. L.; Stewart, S. T.; Weiss, b. P.

    2005-01-01

    Maps of the remanent magnetic field of Mars show demagnetized zones within and around giant impact basins. It is likely that vast regions of the Martian crust were demagnetized due to a shock-induced phase change or magnetic transition of magnetic minerals in the crust. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that around the Hellas and Argyre basins, the edges of the unmagnetized zones roughly correspond with peak shock pressure contour lines of a few GPa. Although pyrrhotite is not a major carrier of magnetization in the Earth s crust, it is a common phase in Martian meteorites and may be an important carrier in the Martian crust. Understanding the effects of shock waves on magnetic minerals is critical for determining the origin of the demagnetized zones in impact basins and possibly for identifying the major magnetic carrier phases. Here we present the results of the first controlled shock demagnetization measurements on pyrrhotite. Previous experiments: Shock demagnetization

  4. Simultaneous reconstruction of quadriceps tendon rupture after TKA and neglected Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Cho, Jae Ho; Han, Seung Hwan; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Oh, Kyung Soo

    2010-05-12

    We report a case of simultaneous reconstruction of a quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and neglected Achilles tendon rupture, which occurred before TKA with an ipsilateral hamstring autograft. A 64-year-old woman presented with persistent right knee pain. She also had right heel pain and had received multiple steroid injections at the knee joint and heel. On examination, she showed osteoarthritis in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee joint and an Achilles tendon rupture in the ipsilateral limb. There was skin dimpling and the proximal portion of tendon was migrated. We performed TKA, and the postoperative course was satisfactory. She returned 3 months postoperatively, however, with skin dimpling around the suprapatellar area and weakness of knee extension. Her ankle symptoms were also aggravated because she could not use the knee joint freely. We performed simultaneous reconstruction of the quadriceps tendon and the Achilles tendon using an ipsilateral hamstring autograft.Hamstring autograft offers a good alternative treatment option for rupture repair, particularly with concommitant ruptures of multiple sites when primary repair is not possible or the viability of repaired tissue is poor.

  5. Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic Rupture and Lung Hydatid Cyst Ruptured into Bronchi and Pleural Space

    SciTech Connect

    Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri Dingil, Guerbuez; Koeroglu, Mert; Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of ruptured lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had ruptured transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had ruptured both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic rupture. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with ruptured liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.

  6. Rupture and recoil of bent-core liquid crystal filaments.

    PubMed

    Salili, S M; Ostapenko, T; Kress, O; Bailey, C; Weissflog, W; Harth, K; Eremin, A; Stannarius, R; Jákli, A

    2016-05-25

    The recoil process of free-standing liquid crystal filaments is investigated experimentally and theoretically. We focus on two aspects, the contraction speed of the filament and a spontaneously formed undulation instability. At the moment of rupture, the filaments buckle similarly to the classical Euler buckling of elastic rods. The tip velocity decays with decreasing filament length. The wavelength of buckling affinely decreases with the retracting filament tip. The energy gain related to the decrease of the total length and surface area of the filaments is mainly dissipated by layer rearrangements during thickening of the fibre. A flow back into the meniscus is relevant only in the final stage of the recoil process. We introduce a model for the quantitative description of the filament retraction speed. The dynamics of this recoil behaviour may find relevance as a model for biology-related filaments. PMID:27140824

  7. Rupture directivity and local site effects: the M7.3 Honduras earthquake of May 23, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulman, D.; Mooney, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    On May 28, 2009, at 2:24 AM local time, a M 7.3 earthquake struck off the coast of Honduras on the Motagua-Swan Fault System (MSFS), part of the boundary between the North America and Caribbean plates. This plate boundary has an average slip rate of 20 mm/year. This left-lateral earthquake had an average slip of 1.5 m on a 100-km-long near-vertical fault plane (Hayes and Ji, 2009). The hypocenter depth is estimated at 10 km. The main shock caused 130 structures, including homes and office buildings, to collapse or suffer significant damage in northern Honduras. Seven deaths were reported. Due to a lack of recordings in the area, the available documentation of the local effects of this earthquake are the USGS "Did you feel it?" responses and the data collected during our field seismic intensity investigation. We conducted a field investigation in Honduras between May 30 and June 6, 2009, focused on areas with local reports of damage, including the cities of La Ceiba, El Progresso, San Pedro Sula, Puerto Cortes in northern Honduras and the island of Roatan in the Caribbean Sea. The damage ascertained at these five sites shows that the severity of damage did not decrease with distance from the epicenter as predicted by standard attenuation relations. Instead, a concentration of damage was observed in El Progresso, approximately 75 km directly south from the SW end of the rupture and 160 km from the epicenter. The island of Roatan, just 30 km from the epicenter, was graded as VI on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale while, El Progresso was graded as VIII (one unit higher than “Did you feel it?”). These intensity anomalies can be explained by two factors: (1) SW-directed rupture propagation and proximity to a localized 3.0m slip pulse (asperity) that occurred near the SW end of the fault (Hayes and Ji, 2009) that focused energy toward the city of El Progress on the mainland and; (2) local site effects, particularly the Precambrian schists and gneisses on the

  8. Spontaneous rupture of a giant renal angiomyolipoma—Wunderlich’s syndrome: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Chronopoulos, Panagiotis Nikolaos; Kaisidis, Georgios Nikolaos; Vaiopoulos, Christos Konstantinos; Perits, Dragana Milosav; Varvarousis, Michail Nikolaos; Malioris, Apostolos Vasilios; Pazarli, Elissabeth; Skandalos, Ioannis Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Herein we present a rare case of pontaneous rupture of a giant renal angiomyolipoma (AML), with symptoms of hypovolemic shock (Wunderlich’s syndrome), which was managed by urgent total nephrectomy. Presentation of case A 53 year old female was transferred to the emergency room with progressive acute painful swelling of the left lateral abdominal area, duration of 5 h. An emergent ultrasonic examination, revealed a heterogeneous—solid mass with maximum diameter of 23 cm, with probable origin from the left kidney. Due to worsening of the clinical status (hypovolemic shock), loss of consciousness and acute drop of haematocrit level to 17.8%, the patient was urgently intubated in the emergency room and transferred to the operating theater. A giant haemorrhagic mass was found originating from the left kidney, which removed en-block with the left kidney. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Her recovery was uneventful. The histopathologic examination revealed a giant renal angiomyolipoma (25 × 18 × 8 cm) with extensive bleeding. Discussion Enlarged renal AMLs can rupture. This can be sudden and painful with manifestations of hypovolemic shock. The management of AMLs has been correlated with symptoms. Patients with life-threatening retroperitoneal haemorrhage, require urgent exploration as retroperitoneal bleeding can lead to severe complications, increasing morbidity. Conclusion In case of giant angiomyolipoma with intratumoral haemorrhage, and symptoms of Wunderlich’s syndrome, partial or total nephrectomy is a good treatment option in order to save the patient’s life. PMID:26764888

  9. Shock Metamorphism of the Dhofar 378 Basaltic Shergottite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.

    2006-01-01

    Shock metamorphism is one of the most fundamental processes in the history of Martian meteorites, especially shergottites, which affect their mineralogy and chronology. The formation of "maskelynite" from plagioclase and shock melts is such major mineralogical effects. Dhofar 378 is one of the recently found desert shergottites that is mainly composed of plagioclase and pyroxene. This shergottite is important because of its highly shocked nature and unique plagioclase texture, and thus has a great potential for assessing a "shock" age of shergottites. We have been working on a combined study of mineralogy and chronology of the same rock chip of Dhofar 378. This abstract reports its mineralogical part.

  10. Note: An improved solenoid driver valve for miniature shock tubes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, P T

    2016-05-01

    A solenoid driver valve has been built to improve the operating performance of diaphragmless shock tubes, which are used for high pressure, high temperature chemical kinetics, and fluid mechanics studies. For shock tube driver application, the most important characteristics are those of sealing, strength, and quality of the generated shock waves and repeatability of opening characteristics and therefore subsequent post-shock conditions. The main features of the new driver valve are a face o-ring sealing design of the valve, the large internal volume, and through inserts near the solenoid core: adjustable opening characteristics of the valve. PMID:27250485

  11. Shock Wave Application to Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Mathes, Wolfgang; Grimm, Michael; Paulus, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Shock waves nowadays are well known for their regenerative effects. Basic research findings showed that shock waves do cause a biological stimulus to target cells or tissue without any subsequent damage. Therefore, in vitro experiments are of increasing interest. Various methods of applying shock waves onto cell cultures have been described. In general, all existing models focus on how to best apply shock waves onto cells. However, this question remains: What happens to the waves after passing the cell culture? The difference of the acoustic impedance of the cell culture medium and the ambient air is that high, that more than 99% of shock waves get reflected! We therefore developed a model that mainly consists of a Plexiglas built container that allows the waves to propagate in water after passing the cell culture. This avoids cavitation effects as well as reflection of the waves that would otherwise disturb upcoming ones. With this model we are able to mimic in vivo conditions and thereby gain more and more knowledge about how the physical stimulus of shock waves gets translated into a biological cell signal (“mechanotransduction"). PMID:24747842

  12. Coupling geodynamic earthquake cycles and dynamic ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zelst, Iris; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Heuret, Arnauld

    2016-04-01

    Studying the seismicity in a subduction zone and its effects on tsunamis requires diverse modelling methods that span spatial and temporal scales. Hundreds of years are necessary to build the stresses and strengths on a fault, while consequent earthquake rupture propagation is determined by both these initial fault conditions and the feedback of seismic waves over periods of seconds up to minutes. This dynamic rupture displaces the sea floor, thereby causing tsunamis. The aim of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulations of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project is to study all these aspects and their interactions. Here, we present preliminary results of the first aspects in this modelling chain: the coupling of a seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) code to the dynamic rupture model SeisSol. STM models of earthquake cycles have the advantage of solving multiple earthquake events in a self-consistent manner concerning stress, strength and geometry. However, the drawback of these models is that they often lack in spatial or temporal resolution and do not include wave propagation. In contrast, dynamic rupture models solve for frictional failure coupled to seismic wave propagation. We use the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org) based on an ADER-DG discretization allowing high-order accuracy in space and time as well as flexible tetrahedral meshing. However, such simulations require assumptions on the initial fault stresses and strengths and its geometry, which are hard to constrain due to the lack of near-field observations and the complexity of coseismic conditions. By adapting the geometry as well as the stress and strength properties of the self-consistently developing non-finite fault zones from the geodynamic models as initial conditions for the dynamic rupture models, the advantages of both methods are exploited and modelling results may be compared. Our results show that a dynamic rupture can be triggered spontaneously and that the propagating rupture is

  13. The susitna glacier thrust fault: Characteristics of surface ruptures on the fault that initiated the 2002 denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; Personius, S.F.; Craw, P.A.; Haeussler, P.J.; Staft, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake sequence initiated on the newly discovered Susitna Glacier thrust fault and caused 48 km of surface rupture. Rupture of the Susitna Glacier fault generated scarps on ice of the Susitna and West Fork glaciers and on tundra and surficial deposits along the southern front of the central Alaska Range. Based on detailed mapping, 27 topographic profiles, and field observations, we document the characteristics and slip distribution of the 2002 ruptures and describe evidence of pre-2002 ruptures on the fault. The 2002 surface faulting produced structures that range from simple folds on a single trace to complex thrust-fault ruptures and pressure ridges on multiple, sinuous strands. The deformation zone is locally more than 1 km wide. We measured a maximum vertical displacement of 5.4 m on the south-directed main thrust. North-directed backthrusts have more than 4 m of surface offset. We measured a well-constrained near-surface fault dip of about 19?? at one site, which is considerably less than seismologically determined values of 35??-48??. Surface-rupture data yield an estimated magnitude of Mw 7.3 for the fault, which is similar to the seismological value of Mw 7.2. Comparison of field and seismological data suggest that the Susitna Glacier fault is part of a large positive flower structure associated with northwest-directed transpressive deformation on the Denali fault. Prehistoric scarps are evidence of previous rupture of the Sustina Glacier fault, but additional work is needed to determine if past failures of the Susitna Glacier fault have consistently induced rupture of the Denali fault.

  14. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a primigravid woman in the early third trimester attributed to adenomyosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Marinos; Kourea, Helen P; Antonopoulos, Kostas; Geronatsiou, Katerina; Adonakis, George; Decavalas, George

    2013-03-01

    We report a rare case of spontaneous uterine rupture of an unscarred uterus caused by adenomyosis in the early third trimester. A 33-year-old primigravid woman was referred to our department because of severe acute abdominal pain and signs and symptoms of hemorrhagic shock. Ultrasound exanimation performed at admission revealed a living, intrauterine fetus of 28 weeks gestational age with reduced amniotic fluid and presence of free peritoneal fluid. The fetal heart rate was non-reassuring with variable decelerations and severe fetal bradycardia. Emergency cesarean section revealed massive hemoperitoneum and complete rupture in the uterine fundus. Subtotal peripartum hysterectomy with conservation of adnexae was performed. Histological examination revealed adenomyosis at the site of uterine rupture.

  15. Imploding conical shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton, R. T.; Skews, B. W.; Rubidge, S.; Snow, J.

    2013-07-01

    The behaviour of conical shock waves imploding axisymmetrically was first studied numerically by Hornung (J Fluid Mech 409:1-12, 2000) and this prompted a limited experimental investigation into these complex flow patterns by Skews et al. (Shock Waves 11:323-326, 2002). Modification of the simulation boundary conditions, resulting in the loss of self-similarity, was necessary to image the flow experimentally. The current tests examine the temporal evolution of these flows utilising a converging conical gap of fixed width fed by a shock wave impinging at its entrance, supported by CFD simulations. The effects of gap thickness, angle and incident shock strength were investigated. The wave initially diffracts around the outer lip of the gap shedding a vortex which, for strong incident shock cases, can contain embedded shocks. The converging shock at exit reflects on the axis of symmetry with the reflected wave propagating outwards resulting in a triple point developing on the incident wave together with the associated shear layer. This axisymmetric shear layer rolls up into a mushroom-shaped toroidal vortex ring and forward-facing jet. For strong shocks, this deforms the Mach disk to the extent of forming a second triple point with the primary shock exhibiting a double bulge. Separate features resembling the Richtmeyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were noted in some tests. Aside from the incident wave curvature, the reflection patterns demonstrated correspond well with the V- and DV-types identified by Hornung although type S was not clearly seen, possibly due to the occlusion of the reflection region by the outer diffraction vortex at these early times. Some additional computational work explicitly exploring the limits of the parameter space for such systems has demonstrated the existence of a possible further reflection type, called vN-type, which is similar to the von Neumann reflection for plane waves. It is recommended that the parameter space be

  16. Shocks near Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  17. Anthrax-associated shock.

    PubMed

    Goldman, David L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Recent events have brought attention to the potential of Bacillus anthracis as an agent of bioterrorism. The shock like state of anthrax is invariably associated with high mortality, despite anti-microbial and supportive therapy. Multi-system dysfunction is typical, including: enhanced vascular permeability, hemorrhage and inflammation. Important questions concerning the pathophysiology of anthrax-associated shock remain unanswered, including the effects of B. anthracis infection on cardiac function. This review discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of anthrax-associated shock. PMID:18508494

  18. Successful endovascular treatment of a ruptured gigantic pseudoaneurysm of the common iliac artery secondarily complicated by infection.

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Nikolopoulos, Evagelos S; Karanikas, Michael A; Mantatzis, Michalis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-06-01

    We report our experience with a case of emergent endovascular treatment of a large ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the common iliac artery. A 65-year-old male was admitted to the surgical department in hypovolemic shock, due to active retroperitoneal bleeding. A computerized tomography scan with intravenous contrast revealed a ruptured gigantic pseudoaneurysm of the right common iliac artery, with a maximal diameter of 7 cm and retroperitoneal hematoma. An intraoperative angiogram revealed active extravasation through the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, which was successfully sealed with the placement of a stent graft (Medtronic Endurant(®))limb component. Infection of the pseudoaneurysm sac after one month was successfully treated with catheter drainage. No shortterm relapse occurred. Endovascular management should be part of the basic surgical armamentarium on emergent basis, since it provides a fast and safe solution, especially when a patient's co-morbitities preclude open management and hemodynamic and anatomical status allows endovascular treatment. PMID:22983544

  19. Bilateral patellar tendon rupture associated with statin use

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Marie C.; Singh, Vinay K.

    2016-01-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is an uncommon clinical presentation, which generally affects the under 40s who are active in sport. Bilateral rupture of both tendons is much rarer. It occurs most frequently in patients with predisposing factors such as corticosteroid use or systemic diseases. The authors present the case of a 56-year-old male on long-term statin therapy who sustained this injury following a fall on ice. He had no known risk factors for tendon rupture. Surgical treatment involved tendon repair using Krakow suture via bony tunnels in the patella. Statins have previously been associated with tendon ruptures at other sites but there have been no published cases of bilateral patellar tendon rupture linked to statin use. We review the literature regarding the association between statins and tendon rupture. PMID:27165749

  20. Evaluation of the shock index in dogs presenting as emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Adam E.; Rozanski, Elizabeth A.; Sharp, Claire R.; Dixon, Kursten L.; Lyn Price, Lori; Shaw, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To 1) determine the normal range for Shock Index (SI) [defined as heart rate (HR)/systolic blood pressure (SBP)], in healthy dogs, and 2) compare SI in healthy dogs with dogs presenting to the emergency room (ER) deemed to be in or not in a state of shock. Design Prospective study. Animals 68 clinically normal dogs,,18 dogs that were presented to the ER deemed to be in shock and 19 dogs presenting to the ER not deemed to be in shock. Setting University teaching hospital. Interventions Peripheral or central venous blood sampling. Measurements and Main Results Heart rate and SBP were recorded on simulated presentation (healthy dogs), and emergency presentations for both dogs deemed to be in shock and dogs not deemed in shock. Dogs in shock had a median SI of 1.37 (0.87–3.13), which was significantly higher than both other groups; dogs not deemed in shock had median SI 0.73 (0.56–1.20), P<0.0001 and healthy dogs had median SI 0.78 (0.37–1.30) P<0.0001), respectively. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis suggested a SI cut-off of 1.0, yielding an area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) of 0.89 (Specificity (Sp) 89, Sensitivity (Sn) 90) when comparing dogs deemed in shock with healthy dogs, and 0.92 (Sp 95, Sn 89) when comparing dogs in shock with to dogs not deemed in shock. Conclusions The SI is an easy and non-invasive patient parameter that is higher in dogs that are deemed to be in shock than both healthy dogs and dogs presented as emergencies but not deemed to be in a state of shock. The measurement of SI may have some benefit in clinical assessment of emergency patients. PMID:23855723

  1. Fault-rupture hazards, the Alquist-Priolo Fault Hazard Act, and siting decisions in California

    SciTech Connect

    Slosson, J.E. ); Keaton, J.R. ); Johnson, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Alquist-Priolo Act was enacted in 1971 and became operational in 1972 as an aftermath of the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake. State Senator Alfred E. Alquist and Assemblyman Paul V. Priolo are to be commended for moving rapidly toward improved earthquake loss reduction. Unfortunately, those who were worried about the concept that too much knowledge will adversely impact the economy of California were more influential and politically astute than those who support the concept that proper use of science and technology can reduce the loss of life as well as the astronomically high dollar losses associated with earthquakes. The estimated dollar loss of over $5.9 billion for the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (McNutt and Sydnor, 1990) clearly indicates that the Alquist-Priolo Act may be of little value, even along a strike-slip plate boundary, as none of the damage or losses resulted from surface fault rupture. Similar notable absence of fault rupture damage is reported for the 1987 Whittier earthquake (over $100 million loss; Shakal, 1987) and the 1983 Coalinga earthquake ($31 million loss; Tierney, 1985). The damage, property loss and loss of life from these earthquakes resulted from factors which are not addressed by the Alquist-Priolo Act. Even though considerable fault-rupture damage occurred during the 1992 Landers earthquake, most of the problems were associated with rupture of lifelines, such as water mains, and not collapse of structures for human occupancy.

  2. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH URETERAL RUPTURES].

    PubMed

    Komjakov, B K; Guliev, B G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the causes of ureteral ruptures and the types surgical procedures used for their management. Over the period from 2006 to 2014, 7 patients with ureteral ruptures underwent surgical treatment in the Mechnikov N-WSMU clinic. All of them were males aged 50 to 71 years. In all cases, the ureter was injured during ureteroscopy and contact lithotripsy. In two patients the right ureter was cut off at the border of the upper and middle third, in four--at 3-4 cm below pyeloureteral segment, one patient diagnosed with a complete separation of the ureter from the kidney pelvis. Patients, who have suffered a detachment of the ureter in other hospitals, previously underwent surgical exploration of the retroperitoneal space, drainage of the kidney by pyelonephrostomy (5) and ureterocutaneostomy (1). In a case of a patient with an injury that occurred in our clinic, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous renal transplantation was carried out. Five patients with extended ureter defects underwent ileo-ureteroplasty. The patient with left ureterocutaneostomy underwent nephrovesical bypass. Patency of the upper urinary tract and kidney function were restored in all patients, all of them were relieved from external drains. The duration of the intestinal plastic averaged 160 minutes, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous transplantation--210 min and nephrovesical bypass--110 min. Blood transfusion was required only in autologous graft patient. The ureteral rupture is a serious complication of ureteral endourological procedures in upper urinary tract. It requires such complicated reconstructive operations as autologous transplantation of the kidney or intestinal ureteroplasty. PMID:26390553

  3. Treatment of Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Osamu; Ikawa, Fusao; Hidaka, Toshikazu; Kurokawa, Yasuharu; Yonezawa, Ushio

    2014-01-01

    Summary We evaluated the outcomes of endovascular or surgical treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs), and investigated the relations between treatment complications and the development and location of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We treated 14 patients (12 men, two women; mean age, 56.2 years) with ruptured VADAs between March 1999 and June 2012 at our hospital. Six and eight patients had Hunt and Hess grades 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. Twelve patients underwent internal endovascular trapping, one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion alone, and one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion in the acute stage and occipital artery (OA)-PICA anastomosis and surgical trapping in the chronic stage. The types of VADA based on their location relative to the ipsilateral PICA were distal, PICA-involved, and non-PICA in nine, two, and three patients, respectively. The types of PICA based on their development and location were bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)-PICA, ipsilateral AICA-PICA, extradural, and intradural type in one, two, two, and nine patients, respectively. Two patients with high anatomical risk developed medullary infarction, but their midterm outcomes were better than in previous reports. The modified Rankin scale indicated grades 0-2, 3-5, and 6 in eight, three, and three patients, respectively. A good outcome is often obtained in the treatment of ruptured VADA using internal endovascular trapping, except in the PICA-involved type, even with high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of the PICA-involved type is controversial. The anatomical location and development of PICA may be predicted by complications with postoperative medullary infarction. PMID:24976093

  4. Dynamic stress changes during earthquake rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, S.M.; Yu, G.; Wald, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    We assess two competing dynamic interpretations that have been proposed for the short slip durations characteristic of kinematic earthquake models derived by inversion of earthquake waveform and geodetic data. The first interpretation would require a fault constitutive relationship in which rapid dynamic restrengthening of the fault surface occurs after passage of the rupture front, a hypothesized mechanical behavior that has been referred to as "self-healing." The second interpretation would require sufficient spatial heterogeneity of stress drop to permit rapid equilibration of elastic stresses with the residual dynamic friction level, a condition we refer to as "geometrical constraint." These interpretations imply contrasting predictions for the time dependence of the fault-plane shear stresses. We compare these predictions with dynamic shear stress changes for the 1992 Landers (M 7.3), 1994 Northridge (M 6.7), and 1995 Kobe (M 6.9) earthquakes. Stress changes are computed from kinematic slip models of these earthquakes, using a finite-difference method. For each event, static stress drop is highly variable spatially, with high stress-drop patches embedded in a background of low, and largely negative, stress drop. The time histories of stress change show predominantly monotonic stress change after passage of the rupture front, settling to a residual level, without significant evidence for dynamic restrengthening. The stress change at the rupture front is usually gradual rather than abrupt, probably reflecting the limited resolution inherent in the underlying kinematic inversions. On the basis of this analysis, as well as recent similar results obtained independently for the Kobe and Morgan Hill earthquakes, we conclude that, at the present time, the self-healing hypothesis is unnecessary to explain earthquake kinematics.

  5. Testing bow shock models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrefay, Thamer; Meziane, Karim; Hamza, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Space plasmas studies of bow shock dynamics, given the fundamental transport role and impact natural transition boundaries, have continued to attract much interest. With the overwhelming availability of data collected by various space science missions, several empirical models have been put forward to account for the location of the Earth's bow shock. Various solar wind and IMF measured parameters are used to constrain the proposed models published in the literature. For each of these empirical models, the bow shock nose velocity, at the standoff distance, is computed; each of these velocities is then compared with the observed shock speed as determined from a multipoint measurement provided by the Cluster quartet. The present study reveals to what extent the model parameters used are significant and determinant, and suggests that some empirical models are more accurate than others are.

  6. Counseling For Future Shock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the author looks at some of the searing prophecies made by Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock and relates them to the world of the professional counselor and the clientele the counselor attempts to serve. (Author)

  7. Collisionless parallel shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khabibrakhmanov, I. KH.; Galeev, A. A.; Galinskii, V. L.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to a collisionless parallel shock based on solitary-type solutions of the modified derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation (MDNLS) for parallel Alfven waves. The standard derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation is generalized in order to include the possible anisotropy of the plasma distribution and higher-order Korteweg-de Vies-type dispersion. Stationary solutions of MDNLS are discussed. The anisotropic nature of 'adiabatic' reflections leads to the asymmetric particle distribution in the upstream as well as in the downstream regions of the shock. As a result, nonzero heat flux appears near the front of the shock. It is shown that this causes the stochastic behavior of the nonlinear waves, which can significantly contribute to the shock thermalization.

  8. Studies on laser-plasma interaction physics for shock ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheut, Y.; Batani, D.; Nicolai, Ph.; Antonelli, L.; Krousky, E.

    2015-04-01

    We realized a series of experiments to study the physics of laser-plasma interaction in an intensity regime of interest for the novel "Shock Ignition" approach to Inertial Fusion. Experiments were performed at the Prague Asterix Laser System laser in Prague using two laser beams: an "auxiliary" beam, for pre-plasma creation, with intensity around 7 × 1013 W/cm2 (250 ps, 1ω, λ = 1315 nm) and the "main" beam, up to 1016 W/cm (250 ps, 3ω, λ = 438 nm), to launch a shock. The main goal of these experiments is to study the process of the formation of a very strong shock and the influence of hot electrons in the generation of very high pressures. The shock produced by the ablation of the plastic layer is studied by shock breakout chronometry. The generation of hot electrons is analyzed by imaging Kα emission.

  9. Surgical repair of a rupture of the pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Alberto De Castro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-02-25

    Muscle rupture is rarely treated surgically. Few reports of good outcomes after muscular suture have been published. Usually, muscular lesions or partial ruptures heal with few side effects or result in total recovery. We report a case of an athlete who was treated surgically to repair a total muscular rupture in the pectoralis major muscle. After 6 months, the athlete returned to competitive practice. After a 2-year follow-up, the athlete still competes in skateboard championships.

  10. Uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy in a scarred uterus.

    PubMed

    Bika, O; Huned, D; Jha, S; Selby, K

    2014-02-01

    We present a series of two cases complicated by uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the 1st and 2nd trimesters using misoprostol in women with caesarean section scar. Current literature and practise have also been reviewed on ruptured uterus in women with caesarean section scar undergoing TOP using misoprostol; the diagnosis of adherent placenta in the 1st and 2nd trimesters in women with previous caesarean uterine scar; and likely implications of a ruptured uterus.

  11. [Spontaneous rupture of the unscarred uterus during labor. Case report].

    PubMed

    Leung, F; Courtois, L; Aouar, Z; Bourtembourg, A; Eckman, A; Terzibachian, J J; Maillet, R; Riethmuller, D

    2009-04-01

    We report a case of spontaneous uterine rupture in a 19 year-old patient Gravida 1 para 2 with no past history of uterine surgery. The diagnosis of uterine rupture, evoked in the early post-partum in the presence of acute abdominal pain, collapsus and haemoperitoneum on ultrasonography, was confirmed by laparotomy. Treatment consisted in hysterorrhaphy. The etiopathogenesis, clinical and therapeutical aspects of spontaneous unscarred uterine ruptures are discussed throughout a literature review.

  12. Embolisation of recently ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, J V; Molyneux, A J; Brennan, R P; Renowden, S A

    1995-01-01

    Patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage due to the rupture of aneurysms unsuitable for craniotomy and clipping have been treated by coil embolisation within three weeks. Sixty nine of 75 consecutive patients were successfully treated. Procedure related complications occurred in 10 patients, resulting in permanent neurological deficits in three and one death (4.8%). The Glasgow outcome scores at six weeks were 53 grade 1, seven grade 2, four grade 3, and five grade 5. These results are comparable with surgical series despite a high proportion of aneurysms in the posterior cerebral circulation. Images PMID:7500100

  13. Anisotropy in rupture lines of paper sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes-Sobrinho, I. L.; Couto, M. S.; Ribeiro, I. R. B.

    2005-06-01

    We have experimentally investigated the fracture process in paper samples submitted to a uniaxial force. Five types of paper sheets (newsprint, towel, sulfite, silk, and couche papers) were fractured along two orthogonal orientations. In order to characterize the rupture lines of the paper sheets we utilized the Hurst exponent. Our results indicate a dependence of the Hurst exponent on the orientation of the paper sheets for samples of newsprint and, probably, towel and silk papers. For the other types of paper the Hurst exponent does not depend on the direction of crack propagation.

  14. Anisotropy in rupture lines of paper sheets.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Sobrinho, I L; Couto, M S; Ribeiro, I R B

    2005-06-01

    We have experimentally investigated the fracture process in paper samples submitted to a uniaxial force. Five types of paper sheets (newsprint, towel, sulfite, silk, and couche papers) were fractured along two orthogonal orientations. In order to characterize the rupture lines of the paper sheets we utilized the Hurst exponent. Our results indicate a dependence of the Hurst exponent on the orientation of the paper sheets for samples of newsprint and, probably, towel and silk papers. For the other types of paper the Hurst exponent does not depend on the direction of crack propagation. PMID:16089834

  15. Complex earthquake rupture and local tsunamis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to far-field tsunami amplitudes that are fairly well predicted by the seismic moment of subduction zone earthquakes, there exists significant variation in the scaling of local tsunami amplitude with respect to seismic moment. From a global catalog of tsunami runup observations this variability is greatest for the most frequently occuring tsunamigenic subduction zone earthquakes in the magnitude range of 7 < Mw < 8.5. Variability in local tsunami runup scaling can be ascribed to tsunami source parameters that are independent of seismic moment: variations in the water depth in the source region, the combination of higher slip and lower shear modulus at shallow depth, and rupture complexity in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution patterns. The focus of this study is on the effect that rupture complexity has on the local tsunami wave field. A wide range of slip distribution patterns are generated using a stochastic, self-affine source model that is consistent with the falloff of far-field seismic displacement spectra at high frequencies. The synthetic slip distributions generated by the stochastic source model are discretized and the vertical displacement fields from point source elastic dislocation expressions are superimposed to compute the coseismic vertical displacement field. For shallow subduction zone earthquakes it is demonstrated that self-affine irregularities of the slip distribution result in significant variations in local tsunami amplitude. The effects of rupture complexity are less pronounced for earthquakes at greater depth or along faults with steep dip angles. For a test region along the Pacific coast of central Mexico, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude is calculated for a large number (N = 100) of synthetic slip distribution patterns, all with identical seismic moment (Mw = 8.1). Analysis of the results indicates that for earthquakes of a fixed location, geometry, and seismic moment, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude can vary by a

  16. A combustion driven shock tunnel to complement the free piston shock tunnel T5 at GALCIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belanger, Jacques; Hornung, Hans G.

    1992-01-01

    A combustion driven shock tunnel was designed and built at GALCIT to supply the hypersonic facility T5 with 'hot' hydrogen for mixing and combustion experiments. This system was chosen over other options for better flexibility and for safety reasons. The shock tunnel is described and the overall efficiency of the system is discussed. The biggest challenge in the design was to synchronize the combustion driven shock tunnel with T5. To do so, the main diaphragm of the combustion driven shock tunnel is locally melted by an electrical discharge. This local melting is rapidly followed by the complete collapse of the diaphragm in a very repeatable way. A first set of experiments on supersonic hydrogen transverse jets over a flat plate have just been completed with the system and some of the preliminary results are presented.

  17. Attosecond shock waves.

    PubMed

    Zhokhov, P A; Zheltikov, A M

    2013-05-01

    Shock-wave formation is a generic scenario of wave dynamics known in nonlinear acoustics, fluid dynamics, astrophysics, seismology, and detonation physics. Here, we show that, in nonlinear optics, remarkably short, attosecond shock transients can be generated through a strongly coupled spatial and temporal dynamics of ultrashort light pulses, suggesting a pulse self-compression scenario whereby multigigawatt attosecond optical waveforms can be synthesized. PMID:23683197

  18. Experimental design for research on shock-turbulence interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radcliffe, S. W.

    1969-01-01

    Report investigates the production of acoustic waves in the interaction of a supersonic shock and a turbulence environment. The five stages of the investigation are apparatus design, development of instrumentation, preliminary experiment, turbulence generator selection, and main experiments.

  19. Stress rupture resistance. [of Co and Ni superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Principles underlying the design of metallic systems for stress rupture resistance are outlined by considering the specific case studies of cobalt- and nickel-base superalloys. Ways in which superalloys can be designed for high stress rupture resistance are discussed. In describing the alloying procedures, the strengthening mechanisms involved and methods of avoiding phases detrimental to stress rupture resistance are identified. New processing techniques such as controlled solidification, prealloyed powder processing, and autoclave heat treatments are described as further means of achieving increased stress rupture resistance in superalloy and other systems.

  20. The Supernova Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethe, Hans A.

    1995-08-01

    Vigorous convection is the key to the supernova mechanism. An analytic theory is presented which parallels the computations of Herant et al. Energy is delivered by neutrinos to the convecting medium. The most important quantity is p1r3, where P1 is the density outside the shock. This can be obtained from the computations of Wilson et al., since it is not affected by the convection behind the shock. It is closely related to Mdot, the rate at which matter falls in toward the center. The outgoing shock is dominated by the Hugoniot equation; the shock cannot move out until its energy is of the order of 1 foe (= 1051 ergs). Once it moves, its velocity and energy are calculated as functions of its radius. Nucleosynthesis gives an appreciable contribution to the energy. A substantial fraction of the energy is initially stored as nuclear dissociation energy, and then released as the shock moves out. This energy cannot at present be calculated from first principles, but it can be deduced from the observed energy of SN 1987A of 1.4±0.4 foe. From the result it is shown that about one-half of the infalling material goes into the shock and one-half accretes to the neutron star.

  1. AOTV bow shock location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desautel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Hypersonic bow-shock location and geometry are of central importance to the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs), but they are difficult to predict for a given vehicle configuration. This paper reports experimental measurements of shock standoff distance for the 70 deg cone AOTV configuration in shock-tunnel-test flows at Mach numbers of 3.8 to 7.9 and for angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. The controlling parameter for hypersonic bow-shock standoff distance (for a given forebody shape) is the mean normal-shock density ratio. Values for this parameter in the tests reported are in the same range as those of the drag-brake AOTV perigee regime. Results for standoff distance are compared with those previously reported in the literature for this AOTV configuration. It is concluded that the AOTV shock standoff distance for the conical configuration, based on frustrum (base) radius, is equivalent to that of a sphere with a radius about 35 percent greater than that of the cone; the distance is, therefore, much less than reported in previous studies. Some reasons for the discrepancies between the present and previous are advanced. The smaller standoff distance determined here implies there will be less radiative heat transfer than was previously expected.

  2. Entropy generation at multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic shocks with emphasis to the solar wind termination shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, H.-J.; Siewert, M.

    2015-04-01

    In a series of earlier papers, we developed expressions for ion and electron velocity distribution functions and their velocity moments at the passage over the solar wind termination shock. As we have shown there, with the introduction of appropriate particle invariants and the use of Liouville's theorem one can get explicit solutions for the resulting total downstream pressure by adding up from partial pressure contributions of solar wind protons, solar wind electrons and pick-up protons. These expressions are the first step toward delivering the main contributions to the total plasma pressure in the downstream plasma flow and consistently determine the shock compression ratio. Here we start from these individual fluid pressures downstream of the shock and thereafter evaluate for the first time the shock-induced entropy production of the different fluids, when they are passing over the shock to the downstream side. As shown here, the resulting ion entropy production substantially deviates from earlier calculations using a pseudo-polytropic reaction of the ions to the shock compression, with polytropies selected to describe fluid-specific reactions at the shock passage similar to those seen by the Voyagers. From these latter models, ion entropy jumps are derived that depend on the pick-up ion abundance, while our calculations deliver an abundance-independent ion entropy production that only depends on the shock compression ratio and the tilt angle between the upstream magnetic field and the normal to the shock surface. We also show here that the thermodynamically permitted upper limit in the entropy production is only reached when strongly heated electrons are included in the entropy balance.

  3. Rupture of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S

    2014-01-01

    A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1 week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm rupture (linear whole wall rupture). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to rupture in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or rupture the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm rupture in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm rupture. PMID:25355741

  4. Rupture of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S

    2015-11-01

    A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1 week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm rupture (linear whole wall rupture). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to rupture in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or rupture the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm rupture in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm rupture. PMID:25361560

  5. The repetition of large-earthquake ruptures.

    PubMed Central

    Sieh, K

    1996-01-01

    This survey of well-documented repeated fault rupture confirms that some faults have exhibited a "characteristic" behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault lengths contrast markedly for two consecutive ruptures, but the amount of offset at individual sites was similar. Adjacent individual patches, 10 km or more in length, failed singly during one event and in tandem during the other. More complex cases of repetition may also represent the failure of several distinct patches. The faults of the 1992 Landers earthquake provide an instructive example of such complexity. Together, these examples suggest that large earthquakes commonly result from the failure of one or more patches, each characterized by a slip function that is roughly invariant through consecutive earthquake cycles. The persistence of these slip-patches through two or more large earthquakes indicates that some quasi-invariant physical property controls the pattern and magnitude of slip. These data seem incompatible with theoretical models that produce slip distributions that are highly variable in consecutive large events. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 PMID:11607662

  6. Probability of rupture of multiple fault segments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, D.J.; Schwerer, E.

    2000-01-01

    Fault segments identified from geologic and historic evidence have sometimes been adopted as features limiting the likely extends of earthquake ruptures. There is no doubt that individual segments can sometimes join together to produce larger earthquakes. This work is a trial of an objective method to determine the probability of multisegment ruptures. The frequency of occurrence of events on all conjectured combinations of adjacent segments in northern California is found by fitting to both geologic slip rates and to an assumed distribution of event sizes for the region as a whole. Uncertainty in the shape of the distribution near the maximum magnitude has a large effect on the solution. Frequencies of individual events cannot be determined, but it is possible to find a set of frequencies to fit a model closely. A robust conclusion for the San Francisco Bay region is that large multisegment events occur on the San Andreas and San Gregorio faults, but single-segment events predominate on the extended Hayward and Calaveras strands of segments.

  7. The Road Less Traveled: Why the 2002 Denali Rupture Took the Totschunda Exit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, D. P.; Haeussler, P. J.; Seitz, G. G.; Dawson, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    A particularly interesting aspect of the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake was the propagation of the rupture from the central Denali fault (CDF) onto the Totschunda fault (TF). New LiDAR data and paleoseismic data provide the basis to more clearly map the structure of the intersection and evaluate controls of fault branching. LiDAR data reveal the CDF-TF intersection is structurally simple. At km 225.7 east of the 2002 epicenter the CDF rupture (trending 125°) bends slightly (5°) south and an unruptured fault trace extends eastward from it. Both faults parallel each other for 1.5 km through a 170 m-wide right bend, with the surface traces 40-90 m apart. At km 227.2 the two faults are 65 m apart. Here, the 2002 rupture, which is now the TF, diverges southeast (138°); the unruptured fault, which is the eastern Denali fault (EDF), continues eastward with a trend of 121°. There is no step or jump; one fault simply becomes two. 2D analyses and numerical simulations (Kame et al, 2003) suggest three key parameters influence branching: orientation of the principal maximum stress with regard to the main fault, rupture velocity near the branch point, and orientation of the branch relative to the main fault. Varying these, Bhat et al (2004) find that for most simulations the CDF rupture continues on the TF. Oglesby et al (2004) performed inverse kinematic and 3D forward dynamic modeling and conclude that a combination of a more favorable orientation to the local stress field and dynamic changes in shear and normal stress favored rupture onto the TF. In contrast, we use paleoseismic data to propose that the state of stress at the intersection, as defined by the accumulated strain on each fault (estimated from slip rate and elapsed time since the most recent event), is the primary control of the branching direction and whether propagation beyond the branch point occurs at all. The EDF slip rate is 8.4 (± 2.0) mm/yr; the TF slip rate is 6 (±1.1) mm/yr (Matmon et al, 2006

  8. [Late complication of surgical repair of aortic coarctation: ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the aorta treated by thoracic endovascular aortic repair].

    PubMed

    Varejka, P; Lubanda, J C; Prochazka, P; Heller, S; Beran, S; Dostal, O; Charvat, F; Horejs, J; Semrad, M; Linhart, A

    2010-06-01

    Aortic coarctation is a frequent congenital defect requiring early surgical treatment. Late complications of these surgical procedures can be fatal as in the case of a ruptured anastomotic pseudoaneurysm. We present a case of a 49-year-old man presenting with hemorrhagic shock due to this complication who was successfully treated by endovascular techniques with implantation of two stent grafts. This case illustrates the fact that endovascular aortic repair is feasible, certainly less invasive and very efficient for this type of complication when used in an experienced center.

  9. Shock/shock interference on a transpiration cooled hemispherical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Robert J.; Wieting, Allan R.; Holden, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which show the effectiveness of transpiration cooling in reducing the peak heat flux caused by an impinging shock on a bow shock of a hemispherical model. The 12-inch diameter hemispherical transpiration model with helium coolant was tested in the Calspan 48-inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at nominal Mach 12.1 and freestream unit Reynolds number of 0.33 x 10 to the 6th/ft. An incident shock wave, generated by a blunt flat-plate shock generator inclined at 10 deg to the freestream, intersected the bow shock of the model to produce shock/shock interference. The stagnation heat flux without coolant or shock/shock interference was about 1.6 times a smooth surface laminar prediction due to effective roughness of the coolant ejection slots. A coolant mass flux 31 percent of the freestream mass flux reduced the stagnation heat flux to zero without shock/shock interference. However, for the same coolant mass flux and with shock/shock interference the peak heat flux was only reduced 8.3 percent, even though the total integrated heat load was reduced.

  10. Uniform shock waves in disordered granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The confining pressure P is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates continuously decreases as the confining pressure decreases, completely vanishing at the jamming-unjamming transition. This anomalous behavior suggests that the transport of energy at low pressures should not be dominated by phonons. In this work we use simulations and theory to show how the response of granular systems becomes increasingly nonlinear as pressure decreases. In the low-pressure regime the elastic energy is found to be mainly transported through nonlinear waves and shocks. We numerically characterize the propagation speed, shape, and stability of these shocks and model the dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a simple analytical approach.

  11. Thymosin-β4 prevents cardiac rupture and improves cardiac function in mice with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hongmei; Xu, Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Dai, Xiangguo; Peterson, Edward L; Carretero, Oscar A; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine

    2014-09-01

    Thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) promotes cell survival, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration and reduces inflammation. Cardiac rupture after myocardial infarction (MI) is mainly the consequence of excessive regional inflammation, whereas cardiac dysfunction after MI results from a massive cardiomyocyte loss and cardiac fibrosis. It is possible that Tβ4 reduces the incidence of cardiac rupture post-MI via anti-inflammatory actions and that it decreases adverse cardiac remodeling and improves cardiac function by promoting cardiac cell survival and cardiac repair. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to MI and treated with either vehicle or Tβ4 (1.6 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ip via osmotic minipump) for 7 days or 5 wk. Mice were assessed for 1) cardiac remodeling and function by echocardiography; 2) inflammatory cell infiltration, capillary density, myocyte apoptosis, and interstitial collagen fraction histopathologically; 3) gelatinolytic activity by in situ zymography; and 4) expression of ICAM-1 and p53 by immunoblot analysis. Tβ4 reduced cardiac rupture that was associated with a decrease in the numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells and apoptotic myocytes, a decrease in gelatinolytic activity and ICAM-1 and p53 expression, and an increase in the numbers of CD31-positive cells. Five-week treatment with Tβ4 ameliorated left ventricular dilation, improved cardiac function, markedly reduced interstitial collagen fraction, and increased capillary density. In a murine model of acute MI, Tβ4 not only decreased mortality rate as a result of cardiac rupture but also significantly improved cardiac function after MI. Thus, the use of Tβ4 could be explored as an alternative therapy in preventing cardiac rupture and restoring cardiac function in patients with MI.

  12. The Rurrand Fault, Germany: A Holocene surface rupture and new slip rate estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützner, Christoph; Fischer, Peter; Reicherter, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Very low deformation rates in continental interiors are a challenge for research on active tectonics and seismic hazard. Faults tend to have very long earthquake recurrence intervals and morphological evidence of surface faulting is often obliterated by erosion and sedimentation. The Lower Rhine Graben in Central Europe is characterized by slow active faults with individual slip rates of well less than 0.1 mm/a. As a consequence, most geodetic techniques fail to record tectonic motions and the morphological expression of the faults is subtle. Although damaging events are known from this region, e.g. the 1755/56 Düren earthquakes series, there is no account for surface rupturing events in instrumental and historical records. Owing to the short temporal coverage with respect to the fault recurrence intervals, these records probably fail to depict the maximum possible magnitudes. In this study we used morphological evidence from a 1 m airborne LiDAR survey, near surface geophysics, and paleoseismological trenching to identify surface rupturing earthquakes at the Rurrand Fault between Cologne and Aachen in W Germany. LiDAR data allowed identifying a young fault strand parallel to the already known main fault with the subtle morphological expression of recent surface faulting. In the paleoseismological trenches we found evidence for two surface rupturing earthquakes. The most recent event occurred in the Holocene, and a previous earthquake probably happened in the last 150 ka. Geophysical data allowed us to estimate a minimum slip rate of 0.03 mm/a from an offset gravel horizon. We estimate paleomagnitudes of MW5.9-6.8 based on the observed offsets in the trench (<0.5 m per event) and fault scaling relationships. Our data imply that the Rurrand Fault did not creep during the last 150 ka, but rather failed in large earthquakes. These events were much stronger than those known from historical sources. We are able to show that the Rurrand Fault did not rupture the surface

  13. Shock wave treatment in medicine.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, S K; Kailash

    2005-03-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in orthopedics and traumatology is still a young therapy method. Since the last few years the development of shock wave therapy has progressed rapidly. Shock waves have changed the treatment of urolithiasis substantially. Today shock waves are the first choice to treat kidney and urethral stones. Urology has long been the only medical field for shock waves in medicine. Meanwhile shock waves have been used in orthopedics and traumatology to treat insertion tendinitis, avascular necrosis of the head of femur and other necrotic bone alterations. Another field of shock wave application is the treatment of tendons, ligaments and bones on horses in veterinary medicine. In the present paper we discuss the basic theory and application of shock waves and its history in medicine. The idea behind using shock wave therapy for orthopedic diseases is the stimulation of healing in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. PMID:15933416

  14. Imaging of the Rupture Zone of the Magnitude 6.2 Karonga Earthquake of 2009 using Electrical Resistivity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clappe, B.; Hull, C. D.; Dawson, S.; Johnson, T.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Nyalugwe, V.; Atekwana, E. A.; Salima, J.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 Karonga earthquakes occurred in an area where active faults had not previously been known to exist. Over 5000 buildings were destroyed in the area and at least 4 people lost their lives as a direct result of the 19th of December magnitude 6.2 earthquake. The earthquake swarms occurred in the hanging wall of the main Livingstone border fault along segmented, west dipping faults that are synthetic to the Livingstone fault. The faults have a general trend of 290-350 degrees. Electrical resistivity surveys were conducted to investigate the nature of known rupture and seismogenic zones that resulted from the 2009 earthquakes in the Karonga, Malawi area. The goal of this study was to produce high-resolution images below the epicenter and nearby areas of liquefaction to determine changes in conductivity/resistivity signatures in the subsurface. An Iris Syscal Pro was utilized to conduct dipole-dipole resistivity measurements below the surface of soil at farmlands at 6 locations. Each transect was 710 meters long and had an electrode spacing of 10 meters. RES2DINV software was used to create 2-D inversion images of the rupture and seismogenic zones. We were able to observe three distinct geoelectrical layers to the north of the rupture zone and two south of the rupture zone with the discontinuity between the two marked by the location of the surface rupture. The rupture zone is characterized by ~80-meter wide area of enhanced conductivity, 5 m thick underlain by a more resistive layer dipping west. We interpret this to be the result of fine grain sands and silts brought up from depth to near surface as a result of shearing along the fault rupture or liquefaction. Electrical resistivity surveys are valuable, yet under-utilized tools for imaging near-surface effects of earthquakes.

  15. Shocks in fragile matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  16. Spontaneous rupture of the liver presenting as scrotal bruising.

    PubMed

    Vachharajani, A; Paes, B

    2001-05-01

    We describe a case of spontaneous rupture of the liver in a neonate, presenting with features consistent with testicular torsion. Ruptured liver has been well described in neonates following birth trauma, coagulation defects, and Group B Streptococcal infection. The etiology in our case remains undefined. PMID:11414525

  17. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes. PMID:27386585

  18. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-01-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes. PMID:27386585

  19. Ruptured renal artery aneurysm: coil packing with GDCs.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Misako; Nakata, Manabu; Kawai, Akira; Suzuki, Kazumi; Morita, Tatsuo; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2012-06-01

    Renal artery aneurysm (RAA) is a relatively uncommon occurrence, but it can be life-threatening when rupture (although rare) occurs. We present the successful endovascular treatment of a ruptured RAA, which was achieved by packing the aneurysm using Guglielmi and interlocking detachable coils.

  20. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes.

  1. Antibiotics after preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Katherine; Mercer, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes remains a common cause of preterm deliveries and neonatal morbidities. The goal of this study is to review the evidence with regard to the antibiotic treatment after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, long-term outcomes related to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications with treatment. Future research goals are also discussed.

  2. The Resolution of Ruptures in the Therapeutic Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Jeremy D.; Muran, J. Christopher

    1996-01-01

    A rupture in the therapeutic alliance is a deterioration in the quality of the relationship between patient and therapist; it is an interpersonal marker that indicates an opportunity for exploring and understanding the processes that maintain a maladaptive interpersonal schema. Outlines features of a research program on ruptures in the therapeutic…

  3. Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus after wrist arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fortems, Y; Mawhinney, I; Lawrence, T; Trial, I A; Stanley, J K

    1995-06-01

    The first cases of impending rupture of the extensor pollicis longus after wrist arthroscopy are reported and the etiology is compared with extensor pollicis longus ruptures after nondisplaced or minimally displaced Colles fractures. Both cases were treated with extensor indices proprius to extensor pollicis longus transfer with good clinical results. PMID:7632309

  4. Repair of quadriceps tendon ruptures using suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Richards, David P; Barber, F Alan

    2002-01-01

    The repair of ruptured quadriceps tendon is commonly performed by weaving sutures through the ruptured tendon and then attaching the tendon to the bone by passing these sutures through tunnels in the superior patella. This technical note is the first report we are aware of in the English language literature of a technique that uses suture anchors to attach the tendon to bone.

  5. Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture while playing basketball.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Jooma, N

    2002-04-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury in healthy people and only a few cases have been reported in athletes. This is the first report of a patient with simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture incurred while playing basketball. The injury was surgically repaired and the patient had a good functional outcome.

  6. A Case of Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Causing Mitral Valve Papillary Muscle Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Tamse, Tiffany; Rampersad, Avind; Jordan-Villegas, Alejandro; Ireland, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (IHES) is a rare disease that can be difficult to diagnose as the differential is broad. This disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Our patient is a 17-year-old adolescent female who presented with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal pain and malaise. She was incidentally found to have hypereosinophilia of 16,000 on complete blood count and nonspecific colitis and pulmonary edema on computed tomography. She went into cardiogenic shock due to papillary rupture of her mitral valve requiring extreme life support measures including intubation and extracorporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as well as mitral valve replacement. Pathology of the valve showed eosinophilic infiltration as the underlying etiology. The patient was diagnosed with IHES after the exclusion of infectious, rheumatologic, and oncologic causes. She was treated with steroids with improvement of her symptoms and scheduled for close follow-up. In general patients with IHES that have cardiac involvement have poorer prognoses. PMID:26640733

  7. Automatic Imaging the Rupture Process of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake by Iterative Deconvolution and Stacking the Strong-motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake was well recorded by a densely distributed strong-motion network. By using the automatic iterative deconvolution and stacking (IDS) method, we invert data of strong-motion networks with different apertures and station spacings for rupture processes, in order to examine the influences of networks on the rupture models. By performing a series of inversions, we have found that networks, with apertures more than 60 km and station spacings less than 10 km, are sufficient to imaging the rupture process of the South Napa earthquake. The automatically estimated rupture models of different networks are consistent with each other; all of them suggest that the ruptures mainly propagated to the north and to shallow depths, and formed a unilateral rupture event. The peak slip of this earthquake is about 0.5-0.7 m, located near the ground surface and about 5 km to the north of the epicenter. This work suggests that, with the IDS method, it is feasible in principle to automatically estimate the earthquake rupture process after the earthquake occurrence. This would be beneficial to the earthquake emergency responses, such as earthquake relief and disaster mitigations.

  8. Rupture processes of the 2015 Mw 7.9 Gorkha earthquake and its Mw 7.3 aftershock and their implications on the seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Shan, Bin; Xie, Zujun; Xiong, Xiong; Ge, Can

    2016-07-01

    The rupture processes of the 2015 April 25 Gorkha earthquake and its strongest aftershock occurred on May 12 in Nepal are investigated by joint inversion of seismological and geodetic data. Synthetic test shows that the sedimentary layers in the source region play an important role in the rupture process inversion. Our optimized model of the mainshock shows that the rupture has a unilateral propagation pattern. The dominant mechanism is pure thrust with maximum slip of 5.8 m, the rupture scale extends ~ 60 km along dip and ~ 150 km along strike, and the largest static stress change is ~ 7.6 MPa. The total seismic moment is 7.87 × 1020 N m, equivalent to Mw 7.9. Most seismic moment was released within 80 s and the majority seismic moment was released at the first 40 s. The rupture propagated in main slip asperity with a velocity of ~ 3.0 km/s. The strong aftershock magnitude is about Mw 7.3, and the peak slip is about 5.0 m, close to the peak slip of the mainshock. Moreover, the slips of the mainshock and the aftershocks are in good complementary, suggesting a triggering relationship between them. Considering the strain accumulation, the Gorkha earthquake ruptured only part of the seismic gap alone, thus still poses high earthquake risk, especially in the west side of the mainshock rupture zone.

  9. Surface Ruptures and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.

    2005-01-01

    We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface ruptures related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The main strike-slip fault rupture south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.

  10. Brocho-biliary fistula: A rare complication after ruptured liver abscess in a 3½ year old child.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prawin; Mehta, Poonam; Ismail, Javed; Agarwala, Sandeep; Jana, Manisha; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, Sushil K

    2015-01-01

    Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare condition, defined by the presence of abnormal communication between biliary tract and bronchial tree. We describe a 3½-year-old child who developed BBF after rupture of liver abscess. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and peritoneal wash for ruptured liver abscess. Seven months later she presented with fever and cough with yellow-colored expectoration (bilioptysis). An abnormal communication between right branch of the hepatic duct and a branch of right main bronchus was identified. Child underwent right lateral thoracotomy and right lower lobectomy with surgical excision of sinus tract. On follow-up child was asymptomatic and doing well. PMID:26628766

  11. A Three Year Clinicopathological Study of Cases of Rupture Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu; Swain, Sujata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rupture uterus is a life threatening obstetric complication with serious maternal and fetal side-effects. We report a 3 year (2010-2013) retrospective clinical study of pregnancy with rupture uterus cases attending a tertiary care hospital. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of rupture uterus, incidence as per age, parity, clinical presentations, risk factors, complications and management. Materials and Methods Retrospective data of 74 cases of rupture uterus in SCB Medical college, Cuttack was collected from case records of 26,547 deliveries during a 3 year span (2010-2013). Parameters like cause of rupture, type, site of rupture and outcome were recorded. The collected data was analysed by SPSS software v19. Results Out of 26,547 deliveries during the three year period, there were 74 cases of rupture uterus with an incidence of rupture 1 in 359 (0.28%). The mean age of rupture uterus was 27.4 years. 95.8% were multigravida and majority were referred cases from low socioeconomic status. Only 40.5% had the required minimum of four antenatal visits as recommended by WHO (World Health Organisation). A total of 48.6% of cases with rupture uterus had history of previous Caesarean section. Prolonged labour was present in 75.6% of the cases. Only 12.2% of the cases had history of oxytocin use whereas 9.5% had undergone an operative vaginal delivery. Obstructed labour was the cause in 24.3% of cases, 85.1% had complete rupture. Majority had a rupture in the anterior wall (69%) and 81.1% had rupture in lower segment of uterus. Only 17.6% had broad ligament haematoma, 10.8% colporrhexis and 6.8% had associated bladder injury. Repair was possible in only 39.2% of cases, whereas majority landed up in hysterectomy. Internal iliac ligation was done in 2.7% of cases. Perinatal mortality was 90.5% whereas maternal death was seen in 13.5% cases. One patient developed VVF (vesicovaginal fistula). Duration of hospital stay was upto 14 days in 81

  12. Earthquake rupture dynamics frozen in exhumed ancient faults.

    PubMed

    Di Toro, Giulio; Nielsen, Stefan; Pennacchioni, Giorgio

    2005-08-18

    Most of our knowledge about co-seismic rupture propagation is derived from inversion and interpretation of strong-ground-motion seismograms, laboratory experiments on rock and rock-analogue material, or inferred from theoretical and numerical elastodynamic models. However, additional information on dynamic rupture processes can be provided by direct observation of faults exhumed at the Earth's surface. Pseudotachylytes (solidified friction-induced melts) are the most certain fault-rock indicator of seismicity on ancient faults. Here we show how the asymmetry in distribution and the orientation of pseudotachylyte-filled secondary fractures around an exhumed fault can be used to reconstruct the earthquake rupture directivity, rupture velocity and fracture energy, by comparison with the theoretical dynamic stress field computed around propagating fractures. In particular, the studied natural network of pseudotachylytes is consistent with a dominant propagation direction during repeated seismic events and subsonic rupture propagation close to the Rayleigh wave velocity.

  13. Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation direction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Day, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Earthquakes often occur on faults that juxtapose different rocks. The result is rupture behavior that differs from that of an earthquake occurring on a fault in a homogeneous material. Previous 2D numerical simulations have studied simple cases of earthquake rupture propagation where there is a material contrast across a fault and have come to two different conclusions: 1) earthquake rupture propagation direction can be predicted from the material contrast, and 2) earthquake rupture propagation direction cannot be predicted from the material contrast. In this paper we provide observational evidence from 70 years of earthquakes at Parkfield, CA, and new 3D numerical simulations. Both the observations and the numerical simulations demonstrate that earthquake rupture propagation direction is unlikely to be predictable on the basis of a material contrast. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Interaction between dynamic ruptures and off-fault yielding characterized by different rheologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiqing

    This dissertation mainly investigates mode-II in-plane dynamic ruptures along a frictional interface with off-fault yielding characterized by different rheology models. The goal is to provide improved understanding of off-fault yielding during earthquake ruptures and its contribution to earthquake physics. A detailed parameter-space study is performed to examine properties of the off-fault plasticity-type yielding under various conditions. The simulation results and theoretical analyses show the following features: (1) the off-fault yielding occurs primarily on the compressional and extensional side when the angle Psi to the fault of the regional maximum compressive stress is low and high, respectively, regardless of the rupture mode; (2) the yielding zone thickness and the associated inelastic energy dissipation rate linearly increase with propagation distance for cracks while they approach constants for pulses in quasi-steady state; (3) the intensity of smoothly distributed plastic strain decays with fault normal distance, while for localized plastic strain in narrow bands the average geometric density of the bands decays with fault normal distance; (5) the local angle to the fault of inferred microcracks (aligned parallel to the mode-I type) is shallower and steeper than Psi on the compressional and extensional sides, respectively, and increases with rupture speed (in the subshear regime) on the extensional side; (5) the average intensity of plastic strain increases while the yielding zone thickness decreases at greater depth; (6) off-fault yielding contributes to determining rupture directivity along a bimaterial fault, leading to reversed and preserved preferred direction when Psi is low and high, respectively; (7) during relatively smooth ruptures along typical strike-slip faults, the dominant large-scale secondary shear fractures (on the extensional side) are of the synthetic type, while the minor antithetic set can become prominent with sudden rupture

  15. Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Iliac Aneurysm Previously Treated by Endovascular Means

    SciTech Connect

    Dalainas, Ilias Nano, Giovanni; Stegher, Silvia; Bianchi, Paolo; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G.

    2008-03-15

    A patient with a ruptured iliac aneurysm was admitted to the Emergency Department in hypovolemic shock. He had previously undergone surgical treatment for an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, which was managed with a terminal-terminal Dacron tube graft. Subsequently, he developed two iliac aneurysms, which were treated endovascularly with two wall-grafts in the right and one wall-graft in the left iliac arteries. He suffered chronic renal failure and arterial hypertension. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed rupture of the right iliac aneurysm and dislocation of the two wall-grafts. He was treated in an emergency situation with the implantation of an iliac endograft that bridged the two wall-grafts, which resulted in hemostasis and stabilization of his condition. Five days later, in an elective surgical situation, he was treated with the implantation of an aorto-uni-iliac endograft combined with a femoral-femoral bypass. He was discharged 5 days later in good condition. At the 4 year follow-up visit, the endoprosthesis remained in place with no evidence of an endoleak. In conclusion, overlapping of endografts should be avoided, if possible. Strict surveillance of the endovascularly treated patient remains mandatory.

  16. Percutaneous Treatment of Sac Rupture in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Previously Excluded with Endovascular Repair (EVAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Lagana, Domenico Mangini, Monica Fontana, Federico; Nicotera, Paolo; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) previously treated by EVAR. In the last year, two male patients with AAAs, treated 8 and 23 months ago with bifurcated stent-graft, were observed because of lumbar pain and hemorragic shock. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) showed a retroperitoneal hematoma; in both cases a type III endoleak was detected, in one case associated with a type II endoleak from the iliolumbar artery. The procedures were performed in the theater, in emergency. Type II endoleak was treated with transcatheter superselective glue injection; type III endoleaks were excluded by a stent-graft extension. The procedures were successful in both patients, with immediate hemodynamic stabilization. MDCT after the procedure showed complete exclusion of the aneurysms. In conclusion, endovascular treatment is a safe and feasible option for the treatment of ruptured AAAs previously treated by EVAR; this approach allows avoidance of surgical conversion, which is technical very challenging, with a high morbidity and mortality rate.

  17. TIMING OF SHOCK WAVES

    DOEpatents

    Tuck, J.L.

    1955-03-01

    This patent relates to means for ascertaining the instant of arrival of a shock wave in an exploslve charge and apparatus utilizing this means to coordinate the timing of two operations involving a short lnterval of time. A pair of spaced electrodes are inserted along the line of an explosive train with a voltage applied there-across which is insufficient to cause discharge. When it is desired to initiate operation of a device at the time the explosive shock wave reaches a particular point on the explosive line, the device having an inherent time delay, the electrodes are located ahead of the point such that the ionization of the area between the electrodes caused by the traveling explosive shock wave sends a signal to initiate operation of the device to cause it to operate at the proper time. The operated device may be photographic equipment consisting of an x-ray illuminating tube.

  18. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  19. [Tracheal rupture: delayed diagnosis with endobronchial intubation].

    PubMed

    Besmer, I; Schüpfer, G; Stulz, P; Jöhr, M

    2001-03-01

    Tracheobroncheal rupture is a rare complication of intubation techniques using a stylet. In this case report the patient was intubated by an emergency physician in a preclinical setting after a motor vehicle accident. Iatrogenic tracheal laceration was masked by inappropriate position of the endobronchial tube. By chance ventilation was maintained to both lungs by flow through the Murphy's eye of the tube and the lumen of the tube. In correcting the deep tube position after a chest x-ray laceration of the trachea was unmasked and ventilation problems occurred immediately. The tube was replaced under fiberoptical control and the patient was managed for surgical repair using a jet ventilation technique. In this case two complications of endobronchial intubation occurred, but the deep tube placement opposed the effects of the tracheal laceration. This was probably life saving for the patient during emergency transfer by helicopter after the accident. The anaesthesiological management during tracheal repair is discussed.

  20. Essentials of anterior cruciate ligament rupture management.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Stephen A; Sawyer, Gregory A; Hulstyn, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common knee injury and an understanding of current medical knowledge regarding its management is essential. Accurate and prompt diagnosis requires an awareness of injury mechanisms and risk factors, common symptoms and physical/radiologic findings. Early mobilization and physical therapy improves outcomes regardless of treatment modality. Many older patients regain sufficient stability and function after non-operative rehabilitation. Early ACL reconstruction is appropriate for younger patients and those who engage in activities requiring frequent pivoting and rapid direction changes. ACL surgery involves reconstruction of the torn ligament tissue with various replacement graft options, each with advantages and disadvantages. The guidance of a knowledgeable and experienced therapist is required throughout an intensive and prolonged rehabilitation course. Generally excellent outcomes and low complication rates are expected, but treatment does not prevent late osteoarthritis.

  1. Can Severe Kyphoscoliosis Lead to Aorta Rupture?

    PubMed

    Kotopoulos, Constantinos; Karakasi, Maria Valeria; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Pavlidis, Pavlos

    2016-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a polysystemic disease presenting with a multifaceted clinical picture. Clinical manifestations may present in the skin, as well as in the skeletal and cardiovascular system. The present study aims to describe and examine the case of a 46-year-old woman, who suffered from neurofibromatosis type 1 and died abruptly in the emergency room. The forensic examination attributed her death to traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta resulting from an acute angulation that her vertebral column formed in the thoracic region (severe kyphosis). Outspread cutaneous neurofibromas, severe scoliosis, and osteoporosis (brittle bones) were observed during the autopsy. No atherosclerotic lesions were detected in the aortic lumen. To the authors' knowledge, no similar case has been reported throughout relevant literature. PMID:27323279

  2. [The results of treatment of the patients with the rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms in multifield hospital].

    PubMed

    Mosiagin, V B; Ryl'kov, V F; Moiseev, A A; Karpatskiĭ, I V

    2013-01-01

    The rupture of infrarenal segment of aorta is the severe pathology in spite of modem diagnostics and the operation. This case is accompanied by negative results of treatment (lethality consists of 56,3%). The article presents the experience of treatment of 157 patients with the rupture of infrarenal segment of aorta in conditions of multifield hospital (Municipal hospital No 26). The authors highlighted the postoperative complications, their influence on negative outcome. It was shown, that the main reasons of negative outcome of such patients with abdominal aortic aneurism, complicated by the rupture, were an advanced age of patients, who had the complex of concomitant diseases and postoperative complications such as nosocomial pneumonia, cardiac problems and multiple organ failure due to massive acute hemorrhage. PMID:24640754

  3. [Tendinosis and ruptures of the Achilles tendon].

    PubMed

    Amlang, M H; Zwipp, H

    2012-02-01

    Tendinosis of the Achilles tendon is a degenerative-reparative structural change of the tendon with microdefects, increases in cross-section due to cicatricial tendon regeneration, neoangiogenesis and reduction of elasticity. The previously used term tendinitis is only rarely used for the chronic form since signs of inflammation such as redness and hyperthermia or elevated levels of inflammatory parameters on laboratory testing are generally absent. Duplex sonography with visualization of the neovascularization has become a valuable supplement not only for diagnostics but also for therapy planning. The classic, conservative therapy for painful tendinosis consists of oral anti-inflammatory drugs, pain-adapted load reduction, raising the heel, stretching the calf musculature, and various physiotherapeutic interventions. When conservative treatment over a period of 4 - 6 months fails to produce any or non-adequate pain relief, an indication for surgical treatment should be considered. In the therapy for fresh ruptures of the Achilles tendon further developments in minimally invasive techniques have led to a worldwide paradigm change over the past 10 years. The decisive advantage of minimally invasive surgical techniques is the lower risk of wound infection as compared to the sutures of the open technique. When compared with conservative functional therapy the minimally invasive repair has the advantage of being less dependent on the compliance of the patient since, in the early phase of tendon healing the suture prevents a separation of the tendon ends upon controlled movements. However, not every patient with a ruptured Achilles tendon should be treated with a minimally invasive repair. Open tendon reconstruction and functional conservative therapy are still justified when the correct indication is given. PMID:22344862

  4. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  5. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  6. Ion-acoustic shocks with reflected ions: modelling and particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liseykina, T. V.; Dudnikova, G. I.; Vshivkov, V. A.; Malkov, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    > Non-relativistic collisionless shock waves are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas and are known as efficient particle accelerators. However, our understanding of collisionless shocks, including their structure and the mechanisms whereby they accelerate particles, remains incomplete. We present here the results of numerical modelling of an ion-acoustic collisionless shock based on the one-dimensional kinetic approximation for both electrons and ions with a real mass ratio. Special emphasis is paid to the shock-reflected ions as the main driver of shock dissipation. The reflection efficiency, the velocity distribution of reflected particles and the shock electrostatic structure are studied in terms of the shock parameters. Applications to particle acceleration in geophysical and astrophysical shocks are discussed.

  7. Development of Final A-Fault Rupture Models for WGCEP/ NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward H.; Weldon, Ray J.; Parsons, Thomas; Wills, Chris J.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Stein, Ross S.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This appendix discusses how we compute the magnitude and rate of earthquake ruptures for the seven Type-A faults (Elsinore, Garlock, San Jacinto, S. San Andreas, N. San Andreas, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, and Calaveras) in the WGCEP/NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2 (referred to as ERM 2. hereafter). By definition, Type-A faults are those that have relatively abundant paleoseismic information (e.g., mean recurrence-interval estimates). The first section below discusses segmentation-based models, where ruptures are assumed be confined to one or more identifiable segments. The second section discusses an un-segmented-model option, the third section discusses results and implications, and we end with a discussion of possible future improvements. General background information can be found in the main report.

  8. Impact-shocked zircons: Discovery of shock-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of shock metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, B. F.; Betterton, W. J.; Krogh, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Textural effects specifically characteristic of shock metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to shock metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows scanning electron microscope (SEM) visualization of PDF and other probable shock-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact shock environments. These textural features in shocked zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of shock that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the U-Pb isotopic system.

  9. Impact-shocked zircons: discovery of shock-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of shock metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.; Betterton, W.J.; Krogh, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Textural effects specifically characteristic of shock metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to shock metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows SEM visualization of PDF and other probable shock-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact shock environments. These textural features in shocked zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of shock that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the UPb isotopic system. ?? 1993.

  10. Analysis and Development of a Quick Acting Diaphragm-less Shock Tube Driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portaro, Rocco; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2011-11-01

    This work discusses the construction and performance characteristics of a diaphragmless shock tube driver. Shock waves play integral roles in many industrial, medical and scientific environments, consequently it is important to observe the behaviour of these waves and how they interact with their surroundings. The diaphragmless shock tube provides a quick and effective means of producing shock waves in gases. The major advantages compared to conventional diaphragms include, minimal downtime between repeated experiments, opening times comparable to those of conventional diaphragms and infinitely adjustable opening pressure without the use of various diaphragm thicknesses. Moreover, the diaphragmless design also eliminates fragments that are carried downstream of the shock tube once the conventional diaphragm is ruptured. The design utilized in this work is built on that of Downey et al. [M.S. Downey, T.J. Cloete, A.D.B.Yates, Shock Waves 21(4): 315-319, 2011] and is improved in order to obtain faster opening times leading to stronger shock formation. Furthermore in depth numerical analysis using the commercial CFD package Fluent is carried out to validate experimental data for driven pressures and opening times as a function of driver pressure. Supported by Fonds de recherche du Quebec - Nature et technologies.

  11. Shock waves data for minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    Shock compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of shock wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. Shock wave equation of state, shock-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and shock temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the shock velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the shock velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the shock wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.

  12. Maskelynite: Formation by Explosive Shock.

    PubMed

    Milton, D J; de Carli, P S

    1963-05-10

    When high pressure (250 to 300 kilobars) was applied suddenly (shock-loading) to gabbro, the plagioclase was transformed to a noncrystalline phase (maskelynite) by a solid-state reaction at a low temperature, while the proxene remained crystalline. The shock-loaded gabbro resembles meteorites of the shergottite class; this suggests that the latter formed as a result of shock. The shock-loading of gabbro at 600 to 800 kilobars raised the temperature above the melting range of the plagioclase.

  13. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  14. A Shocking New Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hydro Dynamics, Inc. received a technical helping hand from NASA that made their Hydrosonic Pump (HPump) a reality. Marshall engineers resolved a bearing problem in the rotor of the pump and recommended new bearings, housings and mounting hardware as a solution. The resulting HPump is able to heat liquids with greater energy efficiency using shock waves to generate heat.

  15. Update: Toxic Shock Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.

    1981-01-01

    School health professionals can help reduce the incidence of Toxic Shock Syndrome by suggesting that women not use tampons continuously during menses and that tampons should not be left in place for long periods of time. Tampons should be changed every few hours and used intermittently with pads. (JN)

  16. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  17. A case of a ruptured submucosal aneurysm of the small intestine identified using double-balloon enteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hirofumi; Endo, Katsuya; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Naitoh, Takeshi; Kuroha, Masatake; Kimura, Tomoya; Shiga, Hisashi; Kakuta, Yoichi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-04-01

    A 47-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital urgently with sudden-onset hematochezia. She was temporarily in a state of hemorrhagic shock. As we strongly suspected bleeding from the small intestine, peroral double-balloon enteroscopy was performed, and indicated a 2.0-cm diameter hemispheric elevated lesion in the jejunum. Moreover, a blood clot was observed at the top of the protrusion. The site was marked by injecting India ink, without taking a biopsy specimen, to avoid further hemorrhaging. Subsequently, laparoscopic partial small bowel resection was performed. On histopathological examination, the lesion was found to be a sac-like submucosal arterial aneurysm, with a diameter of 3.5 mm, comprising several small abnormal arteries. The final diagnosis was a ruptured submucosal aneurysm of the small intestine. Ruptured submucosal aneurysms are very rarely observed in the small intestine. Only a few reports have described their endoscopic findings. Our experience indicates that small bowel enteroscopy may be useful for managing ruptured submucosal aneurysms of the small intestine.

  18. Interplanetary shocks and foreshocks observed by STEREO during 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2016-02-01

    Interplanetary shocks in the heliosphere modify the solar wind through which they pass. In particular, shocks play an important role in particle acceleration. During the extended solar minimum (2007-2010) STEREO observed 65 forward shocks driven by stream interactions (SI), with magnetosonic Mach numbers Mms ≈ 1.1-4.0 and shock normal angles θBN ~ 20-87°. We analyze the waves associated with these shocks and find that the region upstream can be permeated by whistler waves (f ~ 1 Hz) and/or ultra low frequency (ULF) waves (f ~ 10-2-10-1 Hz). While whistlers appear to be generated at the shock, the origin of ULF waves is most probably associated with local kinetic ion instabilities. We find that when the Mach number (Mms) is low and the shock is quasi-perpendicular (θBN > 45°) whistler waves remain close to the shock. As Mms increases, the shock profile changes and can develop a foot and overshoot associated with ion reflection and gyration. Whistler precursors can be superposed on the foot region, so that some quasi-perpendicular shocks have characteristics of both subcritical and supercritical shocks. When the shock is quasi-parallel (θBN < 45°) a large foreshock with suprathermal ions and waves can form. Upstream, there are whistler trains at higher frequencies whose characteristics can be slightly modified probably by reflected and/or leaked ions and by almost circularly polarized waves at lower frequencies that may be locally generated by ion instabilities. In contrast with planetary bow shocks, most of the upstream waves studied here are mainly transverse and no steepening occurs. Some quasi-perpendicular shocks (45° < θBN < 60°) are preceded by ULF waves and ion foreshocks. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves in the sheath of quasi-perpendicular shocks. We compare SI-driven shock properties with those of shocks generated by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). During the same years

  19. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdic, P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  20. Factors Controlling Stress Rupture of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, J. A.; Yun, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    The successful application of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) depends strongly on maximizing material rupture life over a wide range of temperatures and applied stresses. The objective of this paper is to examine the various intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control the high-temperature stress rupture of CMC for stresses below and above those required for cracking of the 0 C plies (Regions I and II, respectively). Using creep-rupture results for a variety of ceramic fibers and rupture data for CMC reinforced by these fibers, it is shown that in those cases where the matrix carries little structural load, CMC rupture conditions can be predicted very well from the fiber behavior measured under the appropriate test environment. As such, one can then examine the intrinsic characteristics of the fibers in order to develop design guidelines for selecting fibers and fiber microstructures in order to maximize CMC rupture life. For those cases where the fiber interfacial coatings are unstable in the test environment, CMC lives are generally worse than those predicted by fiber behavior alone. For those cases where the matrix can support structural load, CMC life can even be greater provided matrix creep behavior is properly controlled. Thus the achievement of long CMC rupture life requires understanding and optimizing the behavior of all constituents in the proper manner.

  1. Daughter bubble cascades produced by folding of ruptured thin films.

    PubMed

    Bird, James C; de Ruiter, Riëlle; Courbin, Laurent; Stone, Howard A

    2010-06-10

    Thin liquid films, such as soap bubbles, have been studied extensively for over a century because they are easily formed and mediate a wide range of transport processes in physics, chemistry and engineering. When a bubble on a liquid-gas or solid-gas interface (referred to herein as an interfacial bubble) ruptures, the general expectation is that the bubble vanishes. More precisely, the ruptured thin film is expected to retract rapidly until it becomes part of the interface, an event that typically occurs within milliseconds. The assumption that ruptured bubbles vanish is central to theories on foam evolution and relevant to health and climate because bubble rupture is a source for aerosol droplets. Here we show that for a large range of fluid parameters, interfacial bubbles can create numerous small bubbles when they rupture, rather than vanishing. We demonstrate, both experimentally and numerically, that the curved film of the ruptured bubble can fold and entrap air as it retracts. The resulting toroidal geometry of the trapped air is unstable, leading to the creation of a ring of smaller bubbles. The higher pressure associated with the higher curvature of the smaller bubbles increases the absorption of gas into the liquid, and increases the efficiency of rupture-induced aerosol dispersal.

  2. Effect of Time-dependent Rupture on Tsunami Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcas, D.; Kanoglu, U.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Differential GPS data from the recent Chile 2009 and Japan 2011 seismic events have unveiled complex time-dependent ground motion dynamics during seismic rupture. Current tsunami modeling techniques usually ignore this time-dependent behavior in tsunami sources by assuming an instantaneous initial deformation field. Initial attempts to include time-dependent rupture behavior have motivated scientists to simulate this phenomenon as a series of instantaneous changes in the sea-floor. The present study investigates the effect of dynamic ground motion rupture on tsunami generation by including the time-dependent initial conditions in the derivation of the linear shallow-water wave equations. We then study the sensitivity of initial water surface deformation to time-dependent seafloor rupture by performing a parametric study of varying speed and rupture direction, while assuming a monotonic deformation from an initial pre-rupture state to a post-rupture final state. Numerical results for some selected scenarios are validated by comparing with analytical solutions of the non-homogeneous linear shallow-water equations.

  3. Daughter bubble cascades produced by folding of ruptured thin films.

    PubMed

    Bird, James C; de Ruiter, Riëlle; Courbin, Laurent; Stone, Howard A

    2010-06-10

    Thin liquid films, such as soap bubbles, have been studied extensively for over a century because they are easily formed and mediate a wide range of transport processes in physics, chemistry and engineering. When a bubble on a liquid-gas or solid-gas interface (referred to herein as an interfacial bubble) ruptures, the general expectation is that the bubble vanishes. More precisely, the ruptured thin film is expected to retract rapidly until it becomes part of the interface, an event that typically occurs within milliseconds. The assumption that ruptured bubbles vanish is central to theories on foam evolution and relevant to health and climate because bubble rupture is a source for aerosol droplets. Here we show that for a large range of fluid parameters, interfacial bubbles can create numerous small bubbles when they rupture, rather than vanishing. We demonstrate, both experimentally and numerically, that the curved film of the ruptured bubble can fold and entrap air as it retracts. The resulting toroidal geometry of the trapped air is unstable, leading to the creation of a ring of smaller bubbles. The higher pressure associated with the higher curvature of the smaller bubbles increases the absorption of gas into the liquid, and increases the efficiency of rupture-induced aerosol dispersal. PMID:20535206

  4. Patient specific stress and rupture analysis of ascending thoracic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Olfa; Davis, Frances M; Rodriguez-Matas, Jose F; Duprey, Ambroise; Avril, Stéphane

    2015-07-16

    An ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) is a serious medical condition which, more often than not, requires surgery. Aneurysm diameter is the primary clinical criterion for determining when surgical intervention is necessary but, biomechanical studies have suggested that the diameter criterion is insufficient. This manuscript presents a method for obtaining the patient specific wall stress distribution of the ATAA and the retrospective rupture risk for each patient. Five human ATAAs and the preoperative dynamic CT scans were obtained during elective surgeries to replace each patient's aneurysm with a synthetic graft. The material properties and rupture stress for each tissue sample were identified using bulge inflation tests. The dynamic CT scans were used to generate patient specific geometries for a finite element (FE) model of each patient's aneurysm. The material properties from the bulge inflation tests were implemented in the FE model and the wall stress distribution at four different pressures was estimated. Three different rupture risk assessments were compared: the maximum diameter, the rupture risk index, and the overpressure index. The peak wall stress values for the patients ranged from 28% to 94% of the ATAA's failure stress. The rupture risk and overpressure indices were both only weakly correlated with diameter (ρ=-0.29, both cases). In the future, we plan to conduct a large experimental and computational study that includes asymptomatic patients under surveillance, patients undergoing elective surgery, and patients who have experienced rupture or dissection to determine if the rupture risk index or maximum diameter can meaningfully differentiate between the groups. PMID:25979384

  5. Rupture of the uterus in Malawi and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Armon, P J

    1977-09-01

    This paper describes the presenting features and possible etiology of 115 cases of rupture of the uterus occurring in Malawi and Tanzania. The series included 62 spontaneous ruptures, 24 traumatic ruptures, and 29 scar ruptures. The rupture was complete in 100 cases but the peritoneum was intact in 15. 72 cases involved obstructed labor and 29 occurred in women with previous cesarean sections. Only 22% of subjects were grand multiparae (7 or more pregnancies), and the average parity was 4.5. Classical symptoms and signs either did not occur or were late in appearing in most cases, and none of the women complained of a tearing or bursting sensation. 23 of the cases died during treatment. Sterilization is recommended in cases where the initial rupture extends into or is primarily situated in the upper segment of the uterus due to the probability of recurrence. Delays in reaching medical care and a lack of medical facilities contribute to the incidence of uterine rupture in developing countries. Careful screening for at-riskmothers and use of partograms to diagnose cephalopelvic disproportion during labor would diminish the occurrence of this complication, however. Also recommended is avoidance of unnecessary cesarean section procedures and extreme caution in the management of patients with uterine scars. The limitation of family size and improvements in maternal haalth education are further important preventive measures.

  6. Cosmological shock waves: clues to the formation history of haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planelles, Susana; Quilis, Vicent

    2013-01-01

    prove that this behaviour is produced by haloes reaching low average Mach numbers as they evolve towards a virialized state. The analysis of the propagation speed and size of the shock waves developed around haloes could give some hints on the formation time and main features of the haloes. The possible future detection of all sort of cosmic shocks by the forthcoming telescopes, such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), could open a new window to indirectly unravel some of the main features of haloes and, therefore, the formation process of the cosmic structures.

  7. A new shock wave assisted sandalwood oil extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, A. N.; Srinivasa, Y. B.; Ravikumar, G.; Shankaranarayana, K. H.; Rao, K. S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    A new shock wave assisted oil extraction technique from sandalwood has been developed in the Shock Waves Lab, IISc, Bangalore. The fragrant oil extracted from sandalwood finds variety of applications in medicine and perfumery industries. In the present method sandal wood specimens (2.5mm diameter and 25mm in length)are subjected to shock wave loading (over pressure 15 bar)in a constant area shock tube, before extracting the sandal oil using non-destructive oil extraction technique. The results from the study indicates that both the rate of extraction as well as the quantity of oil obtained from sandal wood samples exposed to shock waves are higher (15-40 percent) compared to non-destructive oil extraction technique. The compressive squeezing of the interior oil pockets in the sandalwood specimen due to shock wave loading appears to be the main reason for enhancement in the oil extraction rate. This is confirmed by the presence of warty structures in the cross-section and micro-fissures in the radial direction of the wood samples exposed to shock waves in the scanning electron microscopic investigation. In addition the gas chromatographic studies do not show any change in the q uality of sandal oil extracted from samples exposed to shock waves.

  8. Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage from a ruptured hypernephroma.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, R; Levy, M; Ibrahim, I; Bonacarti, A

    1979-01-01

    The clinical presentation and roentgenographic findings of renal cell carcinoma have been consistently variable. These patients can appear with flank pain mimicking ureteral colic, flank tumors, or symptomatic metastasis [1]. Systemic cardiac manifestations including cardiomegaly with congestive heart failure due to arteriovenous fistula formation have been reported [2] Roentgenographic findings may show the tumor to be either vascular or avascular. It may present as a spontaneous perforation of the pelvic ureteral system which is demonstrated by intravenous pyelography (3). In this article, we describe a case of hypernephroma in a cyst wall causing severe spontaneous hemorrhage in the retroperitoneal space resulting in a state of hypovolemic shock.

  9. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  10. Interaction of dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin

    2014-05-01

    Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic rupture process. Ad-hoc kinematic rupture characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic rupture modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic rupture propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic rupture with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in rupture velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic rupture is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these rupture variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.

  11. Ruptured ileocolic artery aneurysm: an unusual cause of hemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Zakaur R; Yousif, Omer F; Halliday, Mark W; Hubaishah, Nasser A; Adam, Khalid A

    2012-01-01

    Ruptured aneurysm of a branch of ileocolic artery is a rare finding and is an unusual cause of haemoperitoneum. Rapid diagnosis, and surgical or endovascular intervention are necessary to avoid devastating consequences and high mortality rates following an emergency operation after rupture. Resection is a good choice for surgical intervention for some aneurysms that are not suitable for endovascular repair. This report describes the case of a middle-aged man with a ruptured superior mesenteric artery branch aneurysm and his subsequent surgical management. PMID:23006464

  12. Ruptured Ileocolic Artery Aneurysm: An Unusual Cause of Hemoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Zakaur R.; Yousif, Omer F.; Halliday, Mark W.; Hubaishah, Nasser A.; Adam, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    Ruptured aneurysm of a branch of ileocolic artery is a rare finding and is an unusual cause of haemoperitoneum. Rapid diagnosis, and surgical or endovascular intervention are necessary to avoid devastating consequences and high mortality rates following an emergency operation after rupture. Resection is a good choice for surgical intervention for some aneurysms that are not suitable for endovascular repair. This report describes the case of a middle-aged man with a ruptured superior mesenteric artery branch aneurysm and his subsequent surgical management. PMID:23006464

  13. MRI diagnosis of spontaneous uterine rupture of an unscarred uterus.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Karim M; Coughlin, Bret F; Coggins, Allahna A; Wiczyk, Halina P

    2006-05-01

    Spontaneous uterine rupture is a rare, potentially catastrophic complication of pregnancy, and its prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential in limiting morbidity and mortality. Clinical diagnosis is difficult and relies heavily on diagnostic imaging. Radiological diagnosis is also often difficult with most documented cases involving the use of ultrasound and computed tomography. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used more frequently to assess patients, there are few reports illustrating the utility of MRI and its advantages over other imaging modalities in the diagnosis of uterine rupture. This report documents a case of spontaneous uterine rupture diagnosed by MRI in a postpartum patient with an unscarred uterus.

  14. Spontaneous Uterine Rupture of an Unscarred Uterus before Labour.

    PubMed

    Guèye, Mamour; Mbaye, Magatte; Ndiaye-Guèye, Mame Diarra; Kane-Guèye, Serigne Modou; Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Niang, Mouhamadou Mansour; Diaw, Hannegret; Moreau, Jean Charles

    2012-01-01

    Uterine rupture is a public health problem in developing countries. When it is spontaneous, it occurs most often during labor in a context of scarred uterus. Uterine rupture during pregnancy is a rare situation. The diagnosis is not always obvious and morbidity and maternal and fetal mortality is still high. We report a case of spontaneous uterine rupture during pregnancy at 35 weeks of an unscarred uterus before labour. This is an exceptional case that we observe for the first time in our unit.

  15. Uterine rupture at 10 weeks of gestation after laparoscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Junichi; Mimura, Takashi; Arakaki, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Yuka; Oba, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Matsuoka, Ryu; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    The patient had a previous history of laparoscopic myomectomy. At 10 weeks of gestation, she visited our emergency center due to sudden abdominal pain. An ultrasound examination and MRI showed complete rupture of the uterine myometrium in the fundal wall and a floating gestation sac in Douglas' fossa with fluid. Emergency abdominal laparotomy was immediately performed due to the diagnosis of uterine rupture. During surgery, a small defect of the myometrium was found in the posterior fundal wall of the uterus. Two-layer suturing was performed at the perforation hole. The occasional occurrence of uterine rupture after surgery of the uterus even in the first trimester should be considered.

  16. Minimum Energy Path to Membrane Pore Formation and Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Christina L.; Appelö, Daniel; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2011-04-01

    We combine dynamic self-consistent field theory with the string method to calculate the minimum energy path to membrane pore formation and rupture. In the regime where nucleation can occur on experimentally relevant time scales, the structure of the critical nucleus is between a solvophilic stalk and a locally thinned membrane. Classical nucleation theory fails to capture these molecular details and significantly overestimates the free energy barrier. Our results suggest that thermally nucleated rupture may be an important factor for the low rupture strains observed in lipid membranes.

  17. [Current concepts on hemodynamic support and therapy in septic shock].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Pereira, Adriano José; de Assunção, Murillo Santucci Cesar; Silva, Eliézer

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock represent a major healthcare challenge. Much of the improvement in mortality associated with septic shock is related to early recognition combined with timely fluid resuscitation and adequate antibiotics administration. The main goals of septic shock resuscitation include intravascular replenishment, maintenance of adequate perfusion pressure and oxygen delivery to tissues. To achieve those goals, fluid responsiveness evaluation and complementary interventions - i.e. vasopressors, inotropes and blood transfusion - may be necessary. This article is a literature review of the available evidence on the initial hemodynamic support of the septic shock patients presenting to the emergency room or to the intensive care unit and the main interventions available to reach those targets, focusing on fluid and vasopressor therapy, blood transfusion and inotrope administration.

  18. Current concepts on hemodynamic support and therapy in septic shock.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Pereira, Adriano José; de Assunção, Murillo Santucci Cesar; Silva, Eliézer

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock represent a major healthcare challenge. Much of the improvement in mortality associated with septic shock is related to early recognition combined with timely fluid resuscitation and adequate antibiotics administration. The main goals of septic shock resuscitation include intravascular replenishment, maintenance of adequate perfusion pressure and oxygen delivery to tissues. To achieve those goals, fluid responsiveness evaluation and complementary interventions - i.e. vasopressors, inotropes and blood transfusion - may be necessary. This article is a literature review of the available evidence on the initial hemodynamic support of the septic shock patients presenting to the emergency room or to the intensive care unit and the main interventions available to reach those targets, focusing on fluid and vasopressor therapy, blood transfusion and inotrope administration.

  19. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    2 surface rupturing events in the latest Quaternary and a shortening rate of 0.3 to 1.3 mm/yr. The active structures described above can account for 15 to 50% of India-Asia convergence, with up to ~20% of the shortening occurring on structures within the orogenic belt. Seismicity in the NW Himalaya is also broadly distributed but tends to concentrate in several places (e.g., the Indus-Kohistan and Hazara Lower seismic zones). Like in the central Himalaya, the zones of seismicity in the NW Himalaya may locate regions where interseismic strain accumulates, possibly in the middle crust along thrust ramps, and is released during large (>Mw 7.5) events. These relatively infrequent earthquakes likely activate portions (all?) of the plate boundary detachment fault and/or the within-plate fault systems. It may be possible for the region to generate earthquakes as large as >Mw 8.5, taking into account a reasonable average slip value and maximum possible rupture area. Recognition of internal surface-rupturing reverse faults indicates probabilistic models for seismic hazards in the NW Himalaya ought to account for great earthquakes on the Main Himalayan thrust (the basal detachment), moderate earthquakes on upper plate faults, and potentially events in the down-going Indian plate.

  20. Surface Rupture of the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan, Earthquake and its Active Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, H.; Nakata, T.; Tsutsumi, H.; Kondo, H.; Sugito, N.; Awata, Y.; Akhtar, S. S.; Majid, A.; Khattak, W.; Awan, A. A.; Yeats, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    The 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of Mw 7.6 struck the westernmost area of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, resulting in the worst earthquake disaster ever recorded along the frontal Himalaya. Although none of the historical Himalayan earthquakes is reported to have produced primary surface rupture, our field mapping reveals that the 2005 earthquake accompanied a NW-trending ~70-km-long distinctive surface rupture with maximum and mean vertical separations of ~7 m and ~3 m, respectively. Typical surface expression of faulting is a NE-side-up fault scarp or warp with surface shortening features at its base and tension cracks on its crest. Bulging and back-tilting are also observed on the upthrown side at many places. The surface rupture is subdivided into three geometrical segments separated by small steps. Location of the hypocenter suggests that the rupture was initiated at a deep portion of the northern-central segment boundary and bilaterally propagated to eventually break three segments. Mapped surface rupture trace clearly shows that neither the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) nor the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) is responsible for the earthquake, but a geomorphologically-evident active fault within the Sub-Himalaya, the Balakot-Garhi fault, is a causative fault, although a part of the Balakot-Garhi fault appears to coincide with the surface trace of the MBT. Cumulative vertical separation of the most extensively recognized fluvial terrace surface is 7-8 times larger than the 2005 separation, implying occurrence of 7-8 similar earthquakes after the surface abandonment. If this deeply-incised fill surface is related to sediment yield increase due to the last major glaciation around 20 ka, the rupture interval and vertical slip rate of the Balakot-Garhi fault are estimated to be on the order of ~3000 years and ~1 mm/yr, respectively. By using the seismologically determined fault dip of ~30 degrees, horizontal shortening rate across the fault is then

  1. Higher levels of collagen and facilitated healing protect against ventricular rupture following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lu; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Samuel, Chrishan S; Su, Yidan; Lim, Yean Leng; Dart, Anthony M; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2008-08-01

    The mechanism of cardiac rupture after MI (myocardial infarction) is not fully understood. Rupture has not been reported in most laboratory species, including the rat, but does occur in mice. We have reported previously that beta2-TG mice (transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of beta2-adrenergic receptors) had a lower incidence of rupture compared with NTG (non-transgenic) littermates. We hypothesized that the difference in the incidence of rupture between rodents and specific mouse strains is due to the difference in collagen content following MI. In the present study, we compared the difference in matrix remodelling post-MI between beta2-TG and NTG mice and between mice and rats. MI was induced by ligation of the left main coronary artery. Following MI, tensile strength, insoluble and soluble collagen content and gelatinase expression were determined in the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium. Better preserved tensile strength measured as TTR [tension-to-rupture; 88+/-14 and 58+/-3% of the respective sham group values for beta2-TG compared with NTG mice (P<0.05); 108+/-7 and 32+/-4% of the respective sham group values for rats compared with 129sv mice (P<0.01)] and less severe acute infarct expansion after MI were found in rats compared with mice or in beta2-TG compared with NTG mice. These differences were associated with a higher content of pre-existing fibril collagen in the normal myocardium of beta2-TG compared with NTG mice (1.6-fold) or rats compared with 129sv mice (2-fold) and an accelerated fibrotic healing in the infarcted myocardium. Additionally, a less pronounced increase in MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) activity was observed in the infarcted myocardium of rats compared with 129sv mice. We conclude that a higher collagen level is associated with facilitated fibrotic healing of an infarct and preserves the tensile strength of infarcted myocardium, thereby preventing cardiac rupture and acute ventricular remodelling.

  2. Implementing the effect of the rupture directivity on PSHA maps: Application to the Marmara Region (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Andre; Spagnuolo, Elena; Akinci, Aybige; Pucci, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In the present study we attempted to improve the seismic hazard assessment taking into account possible sources of epistemic uncertainty and the azimuthal variability of the ground motions which, at a particular site, is significantly influenced by the rupture mechanism and the rupture direction relative to the site. As a study area we selected Marmara Region (Turkey), especially the city of Istanbul which is characterized by one of the highest levels of seismic risk in Europe and the Mediterranean region. The seismic hazard in the city is mainly associated with two active fault segments which are located at about 20-30 km south of Istanbul. In this perspective first we proposed a methodology to incorporate this new information such as nucleation point in a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) framework. Secondly we introduced information about those fault segments by focusing on the fault rupture characteristics which affect the azimuthal variations of the ground motion spatial distribution i.e. source directivity effect and its influence on the probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). An analytical model developed by Spudich and Chiou (2008) is used as a corrective factor that modifies the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA, Power et al. 2008) ground motion predictive equations (GMPEs) introducing rupture related parameters that generally lump together into the term directivity effect. We used the GMPEs as derived by the Abrahamson and Silva (2008) and the Boore and Atkinson (2008); our results are given in terms of 10% probability of exceedance of PSHA (at several periods from 0.5 s to 10 s) in 50 years on rock site condition; the correction for directivity introduces a significant contribution to the percentage ratio between the seismic hazards computed using the directivity model respect to the seismic hazard standard practice. In particular, we benefited the dynamic simulation from a previous study (Aochi & Utrich, 2015) aimed at evaluating the

  3. Implications of rupture complexity for hazard assessment and forecasting of local and regional tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming; Ristau, John

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally hazard assessment for tsunami does not take rupture complexity, i.e. the heterogeneity of the slip distribution across the earthquake rupture interface, into account. The authors have demonstrated that the potential extent of inundation will be significantly underestimated if rupture complexity is ignored. For local tsunami it has also been shown that for a target site a strict proportionality between earthquake moment magnitude and inundation extent does not exist. The main difficulty in including the effects of rupture complexity in Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for local and regional tsunami lies in the fact that calculations to full inundation need to solve non-linear wave equations. These calculations are so computationally expensive that simulating a statistically significant number of scenarios becomes impractical. The hazard assessment process thus requires a de-aggregation procedure that can rely on simulations based on the linear wave equations alone, to identify scenarios significant enough to be considered for full inundation modelling. We correlate properties of the offshore wave field derived from linear simulations with the extent of inundation derived from non-linear tsunami simulations, allowing us to reduce non-linear calculations in our hazard assessment to a practical number. The effect of rupture complexity on the tsunami wave field is routinely considered in tsunami forecasting for distant and regional sources. Source models are inverted from DART buoy readings as soon as this information becomes available. However, depending on the location of the earthquake causing the tsunami, DART buoy information will not be provided immediately after the event, which poses a challenge to tsunami forecasting for local and regional sources. We propose a concept of tsunami forecasting for regional tsunami, which also provides probabilistic hazard assessment for the event in question. This approach considers rupture complexity

  4. Weak-shock reflection factors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-09-07

    The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

  5. Violent Reactions from Non-Shock Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, Harold

    2007-06-01

    Most reactions are thermally initiated, whether from direct heating or dissipation of energy from mechanical, shock, or electrical stimuli. For other than prompt shock initiation, the reaction must be able to spread through porosity or over large surface area to become more violent than just rupturing any confinement. While burning rates are important, high-strain mechanical properties are nearly so, either by reducing existing porosity or generating additional surface area through fracture. The first example is deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in porous beds. During the early stages, weak compressive waves ahead of the convective ignition front will reduce porosity, thereby restricting the spread of combustion and the pressure buildup. If, however, pressure increases faster than can be relieved by loss of confinement, coalescing compressive waves can initiate reaction at hot spots from rapid pore collapse. This compressive reaction can drive a shockwave that transits to detonation, the most violent reaction in any scenario. It has been shown that reaction violence is reduced in DDT experiments if the binder is softened, either by raising the initial temperature or adding a solvent. An example of the role of mechanical properties in enhancing reaction violence through fracturing occurs when cavities in projectile fills collapse during acceleration in the gun barrel, which is referred to as setback. Explosives with soft rubber binders will deform and undergo mild reaction from shear heating within the explosive and adiabatic compression of any gas in the cavity. Stiff explosives are similarly ignited, but also fracture and generate additional surface area for a violent event. The last example to be considered is slow cook-off, where thermal damage can increase burning rate as well as provide porosity to enhance the pressure buildup. As reaction spreads from the zone of thermal run-away, an explosive binder that resists breakup will limit the violence.

  6. Multipoint study of interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Kajdic, Primoz; Russell, Christopher T.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Jian, Lan K.; Luhmann, Janet G.

    2016-04-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks are driven in the heliosphere by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs). These shocks perturb the solar wind plasma, and play an active role in the acceleration of ions to suprathermal energies. Shock fronts evolve as they move from the Sun. Their surfaces can be far from uniform and be modulated by changes in the ambient solar wind (magnetic field orientation, flow velocity), shocks rippling, and perturbations upstream and downstream from the shocks, i.e., electromagnetic waves. In this work we use multipoint observations from STEREO, WIND, and MESSENGER missions to study shock characteristics at different helio-longitudes and determine the properties of the waves near them. We also determine shock longitudinal extensions and foreshock sizes. The variations of geometry along the shock surface can result in different extensions of the wave and ion foreshocks ahead of the shocks, and in different wave modes upstream and downtream of the shocks. We find that the ion foreshock can extend up to 0.2 AU ahead of the shock, and that the upstream region with modified solar wind/waves can be very asymmetric.

  7. Shock metamorphism of deformed quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on deformed synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously deformed and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during release. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during release, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock deformation in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.

  8. Rupture Limit of Thin Moving Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrino, Juan C.; Joseph, Daniel D.; Kim, Hyungjun

    2010-11-01

    The rupture of a thin film in another fluid is studied including the effects of disjoining pressure. The study considers the linear stability of a moving viscous film in a motionless inviscid fluid and of a stagnant viscous film in a motionless viscous fluid. These are analyzed by means of the Navier--Stokes equations and the dissipation approximation based on potential flow. Results reveal that the dissipation method provides a good approximation for the case of a moving film, whereas its predictions are off the mark for the stagnant film case. The thickness of the gap at the trough of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves locates the formation of holes. The wavelength at final collapse is determined by the length of waves at the trough of the corrugated film. The disjoining pressure effects cause very fast break-up for very thin films. These effects influence the cutoff wavenumber. In the limit of small gaps on this corrugated film, the Reynolds and Weber numbers tend to zero with the gap size, the Ohnesorge number increases like the reciprocal of the square root and the Hamaker number like the reciprocal of the square of the gap. The motion of the film does not enter at the point of formation of holes. Moreover, for the most unstable wave, the ratio of the wavelength to film thickness is found to decrease with decreasing film thickness.

  9. Spontaneous ureteral rupture diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pampana, E; Altobelli, S; Morini, M; Ricci, A; D'Onofrio, S; Simonetti, G

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of the urinary collecting system associated with perinephric or retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition and it is commonly associated with renal obstructing disease. Perforation could occur at any level from the calix to the bladder but it is usually seen at the fornices and upper ureter. It may lead to several serious consequences including urinoma, abscess formation, urosepsis, infection, and subsequent irreversible renal impairment. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented at the emergency department of our institution with severe abdominal pain. Due to symptomatology worsening, complete laboratory evaluation was performed and the patient underwent abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) evaluation which showed contrast agent extravasation outside the excretory system without any evidence of renal calculi at basal acquisition. It was decided to perform a double-J stent placement which was followed by complete healing of the ureter and its removal was performed 8 weeks later. Diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:24455381

  10. Extracellular Matrix Dynamics and Fetal Membrane Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Strauss,, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in determining cell and organ function: (1) it is an organizing substrate that provides tissue tensile strength; (2) it anchors cells and influences cell morphology and function via interaction with cell surface receptors; and (3) it is a reservoir for growth factors. Alterations in the content and the composition of the ECM determine its physical and biological properties, including strength and susceptibility to degradation. The ECM components themselves also harbor cryptic matrikines, which when exposed by conformational change or proteolysis have potent effects on cell function, including stimulating the production of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Collectively, these properties of the ECM reflect a dynamic tissue component that influences both tissue form and function. This review illustrates how defects in ECM synthesis and metabolism and the physiological process of ECM turnover contribute to changes in the fetal membranes that precede normal parturition and contribute to the pathological events leading to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). PMID:22267536

  11. Stress-rupture strength of alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.L.; Cao, W.D.; Thomas, W.M.

    1996-03-01

    Alloy 718 is the most widely used of the nickel-base superalloys in aerospace applications such as compressor and turbine disks, cases, compressor blades and fasteners in aircraft gas-turbine engines. Since the development of the superalloy by Inco Alloys International over 30 years ago, researchers have made many slight modifications in chemical composition, and have refined process techniques to achieve further improvements in performance. Relatively little information on the effects of phosphorus has been published, and the available information is contradictory. However, phosphorus in superalloys is generally considered detrimental, and by specification is controlled to a low maximum value (0.015% max, for example, in AMS5662 E). This lack of data is the basis of a study by Teledyne Allvac to determine the effects of the interaction of phosphorus, boron, and carbon on the mechanical properties, processing characteristics, and microstructure of Allvac 718. Results show that a significant improvement in stress-rupture properties over those of a commercial Alloy 718 material is possible by optimizing phosphorus, boron, and carbon additions.

  12. Patellar tendon rupture in a basketball player.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sean D; Kulig, Kornelia

    2009-11-01

    The patient was a 21-year-old male who was referred to physical therapy with a 1-week history of right knee pain and stiffness following an injury of traumatic onset. While attempting to jump off of both legs to dunk a basketball during a game, the patient heard and felt a pop in his right knee that was associated with an immediate onset of pain and swelling. He was unable to bear weight following the injury and, therefore, immediately went to the emergency department, where radiographs were completed and interpreted as negative for a fracture. However, the patella for the right knee was superiorly displaced. The patient was issued crutches and referred to physical therapy. At the time of the initial physical therapy examination, the patient was still not able to bear full weight on the right lower extremity or actively fully extend his right knee. Due to concern over possible meniscal, medial collateral ligament, or patellar tendon involvement, the patient's physician was contacted and magnetic resonance imaging was ordered. Five days later, the patient presented with decreased knee effusion and the special tests for the medial collateral ligament and meniscus were negative. However, the patient was still not able to actively extend his knee, suggesting a possible rupture of the patellar tendon, which was later confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical repair of the patellar tendon was performed 2 weeks later.

  13. Soft, Brown Rupture: Clinical Signs and Symptoms Associated with Ruptured PIP Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Robert T.; Feig, Christine; Reintals, Michelle; Hill, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative signs and symptoms of patients with Poly Implant Prothese (PIP) implants could be predictive of device failure. Based on clinical observation and intraoperative findings 4 hypotheses were raised: (1) Preoperative clinical signs including acquired asymmetry, breast enlargement, fullness of the lower pole, decreased mound projection, and change in breast consistency could be indicative of implant rupture. (2) Device failure correlates with a low preoperative Baker grade of capsule. (3) Brown-stained implants are more prone to implant failure. (4) The brown gel could be indicative of iodine ingression through a substandard elastomer shell. Methods: Preoperative clinical signs were compared with intraoperative findings for 27 patients undergoing PIP implant explantation. Results: Acquired asymmetry (P = 0.0003), breast enlargement (P = 0.0002), fuller lower pole (P < 0.0001), and loss of lateral projection (P < 0.0001) were all significantly predictive of device failure. Capsule Baker grade was lower preoperatively for ruptured implants. The lack of palpable and visible preoperative capsular contracture could be secondary to the elastic nature of the capsular tissue found. Brown implants failed significantly more often than white implants. Analysis of brown gel revealed the presence of iodine, suggesting povidone iodine ingression at implantation. Conclusions: Preoperative signs can be predictive of PIP implant failure. Brown-stained implants are more prone to rupture. The presence of iodine in the gel suggests unacceptable permeability of the shell early in the implant’s life span. A noninvasive screening test to detect brown implants in situ could help identify implants at risk of failure in those who elect to keep their implants. PMID:25506532

  14. Is it ever possible to treat left ventricular free wall rupture conservatively?

    PubMed

    Nasir, Abdul; Gouda, Mohammad; Khan, Amir; Bose, Amal

    2014-09-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether conservative or surgical management would result in better outcomes in patients presenting with left ventricular free wall rupture (LVFWR) following acute myocardial infarction. Surgical techniques involved were infarctectomy + patch repair, suturing of an overlay patch to the defect, patch-and-glue repair and so on, on or off cardiopulmonary bypass. A total of 210 papers were found using the reported searches, of which 10 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results were tabulated. The studies found analysed the outcome related to conservative and surgical approaches plus the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass circuit and systemic heparinization on bleeding around the peri-infarct myocardial tissue in the surgical group. Most of the data available were either case reports or retrospective analysis of the cohort using the 2 techniques and showed that ruptures present in different sites and sizes. Patients with a milder form of LVFWR can be managed conservatively, but the irony is that it is difficult to identify these patients, because a small oozing-type rupture can increase in size and lead to large defect with sudden arrest of the patient and most probably death. More recently with patch-and-glue techniques, avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass, short- and mid-term survival rates have improved to 60-80% in studies of consecutive patients' series, which illustrates real-life experiences.

  15. Neonatal outcome after prolonged rupture of the membranes starting in the second trimester.

    PubMed Central

    Blott, M; Greenough, A

    1988-01-01

    The neonatal outcomes of 30 pregnancies that were complicated by premature and prolonged rupture of the membranes that had started in the second trimester of pregnancy, were reviewed. The neonatal mortality was 11 (36%), the main cause of death being pulmonary hypoplasia. Two infants died of sepsis, but these were the only proved episodes of maternal or fetal infection. Of the survivors, 27% developed compressive limb abnormalities, all of which responded to passive physiotherapy. Pulmonary hypoplasia was significantly associated with earlier onset of rupture of the membranes, and the absence of fetal breathing movements. Compressive limb abnormalities were significantly associated with longer periods of oligohydramnios. We conclude that premature rupture of the membranes, even with onset in the second trimester, may be associated with a favourable outcome and this may be predicted by the persistence of fetal breathing movements. We therefore, recommend expectant management of such pregnancies, but suggest elective delivery at 34 weeks to limit fetal exposure to uterine compression and minimise the risks of prematurity. PMID:3196069

  16. The source rupture process of the Great Banda Sea earthquake of November 4, 1963

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welc, Joan L.; Thorne, Lay

    1987-04-01

    The Banda Sea earthquake of November 4, 1963 is one of the largest ( Mw = 8.3) intraplate events. It involved oblique thrusting at an intermediate depth within the subducted lithosphere near the abrupt bend in the southeastern Banda arc (6.86° S, 129.58° E). To better understand the tectonic significance of this earthquake, the detailed source process of the Banda Sea event was determined by body wave analysis. The rupture history was established by deconvolving source time functions from long-period P wave seismograms, using both individual station and multi-station time-domain deconvolution methods. The seismic moment release occurred within the first 50 s of rupture, initiating at a depth near 120 km and expanding laterally and downdip over a vertical extent of about 50 km. Slip and moment release were concentrated in one main region near the hypocenter, at depths between 110 and 130 km. The along-strike rupture length was only about 100 km, so it is difficult to resolve any horizontal directivity. The compressional stress orientation inferred from the focal mechanism parallels the strike of the slab, and reflects the importance of contortion of the lithosphere in this region. The Banda Sea event may be part of a major detachment at the leading edge of the subducted Australian continental shelf.

  17. Shear rupture of a directionally solidified eutectic gamma/gamma prime - alpha (Mo) alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1978-01-01

    Directionally solidified Mo alloys are evaluated to determine the shear rupture strength and to possibly improve it by microstructural and heat treatment variations. Bars of the alloy containing nominally 5.7% Al and 33.5% Mo by weight with balance Ni were directionally solidified at rates between 10 and 100 mm per hour in furnaces with thermal gradients at the liquid-solid interface of 250 or 100 C per cm. A limited number of longitudinal shear rupture tests were conducted at 760 C and 207 MPa in the as - solidified and in several heat treated conditions. It is shown that shear rupture failures are partly transgranular and that resistance to failure is prompted by good fiber alignment and a matrix structure consisting mainly of gamma prime. Well aligned as - solidified specimens sustained the shear stress for an average of 81 hours. A simulated coating heat treatment appeared to increase the transformation of gamma to gamma prime and raised the average shear life of aligned specimens to 111 hours. However, heat treatments at 1245 C and especially at 1190 C appeared to be detrimental by causing partial solutioning of the gamma prime, and reducing lives to 47 and 10 hours, respectively.

  18. Raman Study of Shock Effects in Plagioclase Feldspar from the Mistastin Lake Impact Structure, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, T. X.; Shieh, S. R. S.; Osinski, G. R. O.

    2016-08-01

    This study mainly uses Raman spectroscopy with a 514 nm laser to study anorthosite from Mistastin Lake Impact Crater, Canada, which mainly contains plagioclase with composition of An 28–55, to better understand shock processes in plagioclase feldspar.

  19. Raman Study of Shock Effects in Plagioclase Feldspar from the Mistastin Lake Impact Structure, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, T. X.; Shieh, S. R. S.; Osinski, G. R. O.

    2016-08-01

    This study mainly uses Raman spectroscopy with a 514 nm laser to study anorthosite from Mistastin Lake Impact Crater, Canada, which mainly contains plagioclase with composition of An 28-55, to better understand shock processes in plagioclase feldspar.

  20. Calculation of earthquake rupture histories using a hybrid global search algorithm: Application to the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Liu, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented for the simultaneous calculation of slip amplitudes and rupture times for a finite fault using a hybrid global search algorithm. The method we use combines simulated annealing with the downhill simplex method to produce a more efficient search algorithm then either of the two constituent parts. This formulation has advantages over traditional iterative or linearized approaches to the problem because it is able to escape local minima in its search through model space for the global optimum. We apply this global search method to the calculation of the rupture history for the Landers, California, earthquake. The rupture is modeled using three separate finite-fault planes to represent the three main fault segments that failed during this earthquake. Both the slip amplitude and the time of slip are calculated for a grid work of subfaults. The data used consist of digital, teleseismic P and SH body waves. Long-period, broadband, and short-period records are utilized to obtain a wideband characterization of the source. The results of the global search inversion are compared with a more traditional linear-least-squares inversion for only slip amplitudes. We use a multi-time-window linear analysis to relax the constraints on rupture time and rise time in the least-squares inversion. Both inversions produce similar slip distributions, although the linear-least-squares solution has a 10% larger moment (7.3 ?? 1026 dyne-cm compared with 6.6 ?? 1026 dyne-cm). Both inversions fit the data equally well and point out the importance of (1) using a parameterization with sufficient spatial and temporal flexibility to encompass likely complexities in the rupture process, (2) including suitable physically based constraints on the inversion to reduce instabilities in the solution, and (3) focusing on those robust rupture characteristics that rise above the details of the parameterization and data set.