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Sample records for main shock rupture

  1. Rupture process of a multiple main shock sequence: analysis of teleseismic, local and field observations of the Tennant Creek, Australia, earthquakes of January 22, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Bowman, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    On January 22, 1988, three large intraplate earthquakes (with MS 6.3, 6.4 and 6.7) occurred within a 12-hour period near Tennant Creek, Australia. Broadband displacement and velocity records of body waves from teleseismically recorded data are analyzed to determine source mechanisms, depths, and complexity of rupture of each of the three main shocks. Hypocenters of an additional 150 foreshocks and aftershocks constrained by local arrival time data and field observations of surface rupture are used to complement the source characteristics of the main shocks. The interpretation of the combined data sets suggests that the overall rupture process involved unusually complicated stress release. Rupture characteristics suggest that substantial slow slip occurred on each of the three fault interfaces that was not accompanied by major energy release. Variation of focal depth and the strong increase of moment and radiated energy with each main shock imply that lateral variations of strength were more important than vertical gradients of shear stress in controlling the progression of rupture. -from Authors

  2. Rupture process of the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with special reference to damaging ground motions: waveform inversion with empirical Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozu, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the rupture process of the main shock of the Kumamoto earthquake, particularly the generation of strong ground motions in the frequency range relevant to structural damage, was investigated based on the inversion of strong ground motions. Strong-motion records in the near-source region were mainly utilized because the authors were interested in the generation mechanism of damaging ground motions in the near-source region. Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) were applied to avoid uncertainty in the subsurface structure model. Four cases of inversions with different combinations of small events were used to investigate the dependence of the inversion results on the selection of the small events. It was found that the dependence of the final slip distribution and peak slip velocity distribution on the selection of the EGF events is small. The results clearly indicate that a region of significantly large slip and slip velocity existed approximately 15 km northeast of the hypocenter. However, no "asperity" was observed between the hypocenter and Mashiki. Thus, it is not appropriate to conclude that the large-amplitude pulse-like ground motion in Mashiki was generated by the forward-directivity effect associated with the rupture of an asperity. As far as the source effect is concerned, the ground motion in Mashiki cannot be interpreted as the worst case scenario. On the other hand, the rupture of the "asperity" 15 km northeast of the hypocenter should have caused significantly large ground motions in regions close to the asperity. The significant damage of highway bridges in the region can potentially be attributed to the rupture of the asperity. The result of this study was compared with an inversion result obtained from numerical Green's functions for a layered half-space. The two results share the main features in spite of the difference of the Green's functions and stations used. Therefore, it can be concluded that these two source models capture the

  3. Shakemaps of the L'Aquila main shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faenza, L.; Lauciani, V.; Michelini, A.

    2009-12-01

    This work addresses the determination of the shakemap of the l’Aquila, M6.3 April 6, 2009, main shock. Since 2006 and as part of national projects funded by the Italian Civil Protection and by the EU SAFER project, INGV has been determining shakemaps for M3.0+ using the USGS-ShakeMap software package and a fully automatic procedure, based on manually revised location and magnitude. This work summarizes how the shakemaps of the main shocks have been obtained. Focus of the presentation is on the importance that the data and the extent of the finite fault have in the determination of faithful ground motion maps. For the L'Aquila main shock, we have found that the data alone are not sufficient to replicate the observed ground motion in parts of the strongly affected areas. In particular, since the station coverage toward the SE where the earthquake rupture propagated is scantier, prompt availability of a rupture fault model would have been important to better describe the level of strong ground motion throughout the affected area. We present an overview of the performance of the INGV real time system during the L’Aquila main shock - the first time that INGV provides real time information to Civil Protetion during a seismic crisis. Finally, we show a comparison between the intensities determined from the strong ground motion and those obtained from the macroseismic survey.

  4. Choriocarcinoma with Uterine Rupture and Shock: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Manika; Pyrbot, Jupirika; Singh, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm and a malignant form of gestational trophoblastic disease. Choriocarcinoma is frequently preceded by a complete mole, ectopic pregnancy, nonmolar intrauterine abortion, and uncommonly by a partial mole. It is treated medically with chemotherapeutic drugs usually. However, we managed to save a life with appropriate and timely surgical intervention in a case of choriocarcinoma who presented with uterine rupture, haemoperitoneum, anaemia and hypovolemic shock. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and hysterectomy followed by systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26557535

  5. Rupture-disk-less shock-tube with compression tube driven by free piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Ogura, E.; Sato, S.; Funabiki, K.

    A new technique is proposed for a shock tube driven by a freely moving piston. In a conventional free-piston-driven shock tube, a rupture disk is employed between the compression tube and the shock generation tube. In the present method, however, the conventional rupture disk is replaced by a newly developed fast action valve which is activated by the compressed gas generated in the compression tube. The present method enables us to generate high Mach number shock waves of arbitrary strength with good reproducibility. The performance of the new method is demonstrated experimentally. This also enables us to be carefree to scattering of fragments of the rupture disk.

  6. Shock induced by spontaneous rupture of a giant thymoma.

    PubMed

    Santoprete, Stefano; Ragusa, Mark; Urbani, Moira; Puma, Francesco

    2007-04-01

    Spontaneous bleeding of thymoma is a very rare event. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital for acute onset of chest pain followed by shock. Chest computed tomographic scanning showed a huge mediastinal tumor with abundant left pleural effusion and contralateral shift of the mediastinum. Emergency surgical treatment was carried out through a clamshell incision. At the opening of the left pleura 1,600 mL of fresh blood was found, originating from a rupture of the tumor's capsular veins. The lesion was completely resected, en-bloc with a wide pericardial excision. The postoperative course was uneventful. The pathology report classified the lesion as thymoma AB.

  7. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  8. Spontaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma rupture complicated by intraperitoneal hemorrhage and shock

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    MEN2A is a hereditary syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma. Classically patients with a pheochromocytoma initially present with the triad of paroxysmal headaches, palpitations, and diaphoresis accompanied by marked hypertension. However, although reported as a rare presentation, spontaneous hemorrhage within a pheochromocytoma can present as an abdominal catastrophe. Unrecognized, this transformation can rapidly result in death. We report the only documented case of a thirty eight year old gentleman with MEN2A who presented to a community hospital with hemorrhagic shock and peritonitis secondary to an unrecognized hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma. The clinical course is notable for an inability to localize the source of hemorrhage during an initial damage control laparotomy that stabilized the patient sufficiently to allow emergent transfer to our facility, re-exploration for continued hemorrhage and abdominal compartment syndrome, and ultimately angiographic embolization of the left adrenal artery for control of the bleeding. Following recovery from his critical illness and appropriate medical management for pheochromocytoma, he returned for interval bilateral adrenal gland resection, from which his recovery was unremarkable. Our review of the literature highlights the high mortality associated with the undertaking of an operative intervention in the face of an unrecognized functional pheochromocytoma. This reinforces the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for pheochromocytoma in similar cases. Our case also demonstrates the need for a mutimodal treatment approach that will often be required in these cases. PMID:21843357

  9. Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Takahiro; Ogata, Yosihiko; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting the aftershock probability has been performed by the authorities to mitigate hazards in the disaster area after a main shock. However, despite the fact that most of large aftershocks occur within a day from the main shock, the operational forecasting has been very difficult during this time-period due to incomplete recording of early aftershocks. Here we propose a real-time method for efficiently forecasting the occurrence rates of potential aftershocks using systematically incomplete observations that are available in a few hours after the main shocks. We demonstrate the method's utility by retrospective early forecasting of the aftershock activity of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake of M9.0 in Japan. Furthermore, we compare the results by the real-time data with the compiled preliminary data to examine robustness of the present method for the aftershocks of a recent inland earthquake in Japan. PMID:23860594

  10. Relative frequencies of seismic main shocks after strong shocks in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Paolo; Lolli, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco

    2016-10-01

    We analysed a catalogue of Italian earthquakes, covering 55 yr of data from 1960 to 2014 with magnitudes homogeneously converted to Mw, to compute the time-dependent relative frequencies with which strong seismic shocks (4.0 ≤ Mw < 5.0), widely felt by the population, have been followed by main shocks (Mw ≥ 5.0) that threatened the health and the properties of the persons living in the epicentral area. Assuming the stationarity of the seismic release properties, such frequencies are estimates of the probabilities of potentially destructive shocks after the occurrence of future strong shocks. We compared them with the time-independent relative frequencies of random occurrence in terms of the frequency gain that is the ratio between the time-dependent and time-independent relative frequencies. The time-dependent relative frequencies vary from less than 1 per cent to about 20 per cent, depending on the magnitudes of the shocks and the time windows considered (ranging from minutes to years). They remain almost constant for a few hours after the strong shock and then decrease with time logarithmically. Strong earthquakes (with Mw ≥ 6.0) mainly occurred within two or three months of the strong shock. The frequency gains vary from about 10 000 for very short time intervals to less than 10 for a time interval of 2 yr. Only about 1/3 of main shocks were preceded by at least a strong shock in the previous day and about 1/2 in the previous month.

  11. Dependence of the aftershock flow on the main shock magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A. V.; Zavyalov, A. D.; Zotov, O. D.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we predicted and then observed in practice the property of aftershocks which consists in the statistically regular clustering of events in time during the first hours after the main shock. The characteristic quasi-period of clustering is three hours. This property is associated with the cumulative action of the surface waves converging to the epicenter, whereas the quasi-period is mainly determined by the time delay of the round-the-world seismic echo. The quasi-period varies from case to case. In the attempt to find the cause of this variability, we have statistically explored the probable dependence of quasi-period on the magnitude of the main shock. In this paper, we present the corresponding result of analyzing global seismicity from the USGS/NEIC earthquake catalog. We succeeded in finding a significant reduction in the quasiperiod of the strong earthquakes clustering with growth in the magnitude of the main shock. We suggest the interpretation of this regularity from the standpoint of the phenomenological theory of explosive instability. It is noted that the phenomenon of explosive instability is fairly common in the geophysical media. The examples of explosive instability in the radiation belt and magnetospheric tail are presented. The search for the parallels in the evolution of explosive instability in the lithosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth will enrich both the physics of the earthquakes and physics of the magnetospheric pulsations.

  12. The 2009 L'Aquila (central Italy) MW6.3 earthquake: Main shock and aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarabba, C.; Amato, A.; Anselmi, M.; Baccheschi, P.; Bianchi, I.; Cattaneo, M.; Cecere, G.; Chiaraluce, L.; Ciaccio, M. G.; De Gori, P.; De Luca, G.; Di Bona, M.; Di Stefano, R.; Faenza, L.; Govoni, A.; Improta, L.; Lucente, F. P.; Marchetti, A.; Margheriti, L.; Mele, F.; Michelini, A.; Monachesi, G.; Moretti, M.; Pastori, M.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Piccinini, D.; Roselli, P.; Seccia, D.; Valoroso, L.

    2009-09-01

    A MW 6.3 earthquake struck on April 6, 2009 the Abruzzi region (central Italy) producing vast damage in the L'Aquila town and surroundings. In this paper we present the location and geometry of the fault system as obtained by the analysis of main shock and aftershocks recorded by permanent and temporary networks. The distribution of aftershocks, 712 selected events with ML ≥ 2.3 and 20 with ML ≥ 4.0, defines a complex, 40 km long, NW trending extensional structure. The main shock fault segment extends for 15-18 km and dips at 45° to the SW, between 10 and 2 km depth. The extent of aftershocks coincides with the surface trace of the Paganica fault, a poorly known normal fault that, after the event, has been quoted to accommodate the extension of the area. We observe a migration of seismicity to the north on an echelon fault that can rupture in future large earthquakes.

  13. Adaptive forecasting of aftershock activity after the main shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omi, Takahiro; Ogata, Yosihiko; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Forecasting aftershock activity is useful to reduce seismic risks in the affected area after the main shock. The difficulties to forecast aftershocks are (i) a forecasting model should be tailored to each aftershock sequence because the statistical property varies greatly according to an individual aftershock sequence and (ii) the forecasting model has to be estimated from highly deficient data where a significant fraction of early small aftershocks are missing from seismic records. To overcome this difficulty, we have been developing a statistical model to deal with incompletely detected aftershocks, in which the detection rate of aftershocks is sequentially estimated in a state-space modeling approach. Our method enables us to robustly estimate the forecasting model of underlying aftershocks including not only observed aftershocks but also missing ones from the incomplete catalog. We show that the Omori-Utsu formula can be well estimated only from a few hours of the data, and then it can be revised by the epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model to adaptively forecast an aftershock sequence with the individual cascading feature as the data size increases in real-time. We demonstrate that how these estimated models can effectively forecast the aftershock activity. We also discuss how these models can be implemented in an operational system for earthquake forecasting. References: T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata, and K. Aihiara, "Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock", Scientific Reports, 3, 2218 (2013). T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata, and K. Aihiara, "Estimating the ETAS model from an early aftershock sequence", (In submission).

  14. Difficulties with endograft sizing in a patient with traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: the possible influence of hypovolemic shock.

    PubMed

    van Prehn, Joffrey; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Muhs, Bart E; Arnofsky, Adam; Moll, Frans L; Verhagen, Hence J M

    2008-06-01

    A patient with traumatic thoracic injury and hypovolemic shock is presented to stress important differences in preoperative and postoperative aortic diameters. The patient had a blood pressure of 80/40 mm Hg. A diagnostic computed tomography angiography revealed a rupture of the thoracic aorta, and a thoracic endograft was sized based on these data. However, the postoperative computed tomography angiography (Riva-Rocci, 164/70 mm Hg) showed an increase in aortic diameters of about 30% at multiple levels. In this patient, with rupture of the thoracic aorta and hypovolemia, the aortic diameter was significantly decreased. This indicates that adequate preoperative sizing for endovascular repair of vascular pathology in patients in shock is complicated.

  15. Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

  16. Shock

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many organs can be damaged as a result. Shock requires immediate treatment and can get worse very rapidly. As many 1 in 5 people who suffer shock will die from it. Considerations The main types ...

  17. Experimental studies on the deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pengwan; Liu, Han; Zhang, Shaolong; Liu, Haibo; Chen, Ang; Guo, Baoqiao

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC). An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.

  18. [Spontaneous rupture of giant subcapsular hemangioma of the liver with hemoperitoneum and hemorrhagic shock: a case report].

    PubMed

    Griffa, Baldovino; Basilico, Valerio; Bellotti, Raffaele; Griffa, Andrea; Senatore, Sergio; Capriata, Giulio

    2005-01-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is the most common benign tumour of the liver and is found quite commonly during abdominal ultrasonography performed for other diseases. It is often asymptomatic and undergoes enlargement in fewer than 10% of cases. Spontaneous rupture of a giant hepatic hemangioma (diameter > 4 cm) with hemoperitoneum occurs very rarely. Only 32 cases have been reported in a recent review of the medical literature, with an operative mortality of more than 35%. We describe a new case of a giant subcapsular hemangioma localised in hepatic segments II and III in an 84-year-old woman, which ruptured spontaneously into the abdominal cavity and presented with hemoperitoneum and hypovolaemic shock. The hemangioma was diagnosed preoperatively by spiral CAT and treated successfully with emergency hepatic bisegmentectomy.

  19. Multi-surface Earthquake Rupture Recorded in Pseudotachylyte Vein Geometries, Norumbega Shear Zone, southern Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C.; Rowe, C. D.; Pollock, S. G.; Swanson, M.; Tarling, M.; Backeberg, N. R.; Coulson, S.; Barshi, N.; Bate, C.; Dascher-Cousineau, K.; Scibek, J.; Harrichhausen, N.; Timofeev, A.; Rakoczy, P.; Nisbet, H.; Castro, A.; Smith, H.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake rupture surfaces are typically treated as single rupture planes. However, the observation of four linked, non-parallel to sub-parallel slip surfaces on a mining induced earthquake in 2004 shows that rupture geometries may be more complicated (Heesakkers et al., 2011). Multiple pseudotachylyte-bearing fault surfaces are exposed within a 1.1 km wide mylonite zone of the Paleozoic Norumbega fault system. The pseudotachylytes are present in two juxtaposed mylonite zones: the Ray Corner mylonite and a mylonite derived from Scarboro Formation metavolcanics. The Ray Corner mylonite crosscuts pelitic schists of the Cape Elizabeth Formation, at upper greenschist-facies conditions (quartz + feldspar + chlorite + muscovite ± titanite ± pyrite). The pseudotachylyte veins formed late in the deformational history, during a period of predominantly brittle dextral offset. The pseudotachylytes are cryptocrystalline and have rounded porphyroclasts of quartz and feldspar. Microstructural observations show evidence for static and dynamic recrystallization overprinting the primary quench textures, suggesting that previous generations of rupture surfaces have been recycled into the mylonitic fabric (Price et al., 2012). Many of the pseudotachylyte veins have a sharp boundary on one side and are poorly defined on the other, providing insight to the propagation direction. This confirms that the paleo-earthquake ruptures occurred at conditions where quartz and feldspar were able to deform plastically, near the base of the seismogenic zone. Using differential GPS, we mapped the geometry of pseudotachylyte fault veins, injection veins, and slip surface intersections. At Ray Corner, there are 7 layer-parallel pseudotachylytes in a 4 m wide zone with linking and subsequent oblique pseudotachylytes. Some intersections between pseudotachylytes are dilational, depending on the intersection angle and relative displacement on the two faults. At these sites, pseudotachylyte melt sourced

  20. Surface ruptures of large Himalayan earthquakes in Western Nepal: Evidence along a reactivated strand of the Main Boundary Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossler, T.; Bollinger, L.; Sapkota, S. N.; Lavé, J.; Gupta, R. M.; Kandel, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    The chronology of the seismic ruptures along the active faults of Western Nepal remains almost unconstrained despite their high seismogenic potential. We present here a slip history of one of these structures, a 120 km-long reactivated segment of the Main Boundary Thrust named the Surkhet-Gorahi fault. This slip history is based on geomorphologic and neotectonic mapping of active faults deduced from the analysis of a high resolution total station digital elevation model and 15 detrital charcoals radiocarbon ages constraining the age of deposition or abandonment of 4 alluvial terraces of the Bheri river in Botechaur. Our results show that the last two earthquakes occurred on this fault after 1860 and 640 BP, respectively, and accommodated slip greater than 8 m each, a value corresponding to the incremental vertical offset of the terraces. Such events released a significant part of the slip deficit accumulated on the Main Himalayan thrust fault. However, given the geometry of this fault system as well as the date of occurrence of the last events, the ruptures could be associated with major earthquakes also rupturing the Main Frontal Thrust, such as the great 1505 earthquake.

  1. Septic shock with tension fecothorax as a delayed presentation of a gunshot diaphragmatic rupture

    PubMed Central

    Papachristos, Ioannis C.; Daliakopoulos, Stavros I.; Chatzoulis, Kostas; Lampridis, Savvas; Svarnas, Grigorios; Katsiadramis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Diaphragmatic rupture (DR) after thoracoabdominal trauma has a reported rate of 0.8% to 5% and up to 30% of diaphragmatic hernias are accompanied with delayed diagnosis. The DR occurs after high-energy blunt or penetrating (stab or gunshot wounds) trauma. The purpose of this article is to analyze the DR, its clinical presentation, complications and possible causes of the delay in diagnosis, whilst recording a rare interesting case. A 44-year old moribund male with a fifteen years history of paraplegia, came to the emergency department with a clinical presentation of extremely severe respiratory distress. Chest X-ray showed the colon present in the left hemithorax. The onset of symptoms was 48 hours before, resulting in hemodynamic instability and severe sepsis condition. Emergency left thoracotomy and laparotomy were carried out. A rupture of the left hemidiaphragm was found as well as intrathoracic presence of colon, incarcerated and perforated, feces and omentum, also incarcerated and necrotic. There were dense adhesions between the ectopic viscera and the thoracic structures. The necrotic parts of the colon and the omentum were mobilized, and then resected. The viable parts of the colon were laboriously reintroduced into the intraperitoneal cavity. We conclude that early diagnosis is crucial to the morbidity and mortality after DR. The course and the kinetic energy of bullets determine the extent of the wound and the size of the DR. The diagnosis of rupture of the diaphragm after penetrating trauma is sometimes difficult and delay can lead to life threatening complications. PMID:24255791

  2. Spontaneous Rupture of the Main Pancreatic Duct Synchronous With a Multi-Focal Microscopic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Katerina; Kessel, Boris; Gal, Oren; Zeina, Abdel Rauf

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of malignant tumours, commonly diagnosed at an advanced stage. The only curative treatment for this fatal disease is surgery and early diagnosis is the key to a better outcome and prognosis. In this case report we present a 57-year-old woman presenting to the emergency room with abdominal pain and weight loss. Computer Tomography (CT) imaging showed a rupture of the main pancreatic duct and a peri-pancreatic fluid collection with no evidence of a pancreatic mass. An Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) guided Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) did not show any malignant cells and Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 markers were in the normal range. The patient then underwent pancreatectomy that revealed multiple microscopic foci of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with evidence of massive perineural and vascular invasion. PMID:28208932

  3. Traumatic lumbar artery rupture after lumbar spinal fracture dislocation causing hypovolemic shock: An endovascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Eun, Jong-Pil; Oh, Young-Min

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we observed a case of lumbar artery injury after trauma, which was treated by endovascular embolization. A 67-year-old woman who was injured in a traffic accident was brought to the emergency room. She was conscious and her hemodynamic condition was stable, but she had paraplegia below L1 dermatome. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis revealed fracture dislocation of L3/4 along with retroperitoneal hematomas. However, there was no evidence of traumatic injury in both thoracic and abdominal cavity. At that time, her blood pressure suddenly decreased to 60/40 mmHg and her mental status deteriorated. Also, her hemoglobin level was 5.4 g/dl. While her hemodynamic condition stabilized with massive fluid resuscitation including blood transfusion, an angiography was immediately performed to look for and embolize site of retroperitoneal hemorrhage. On the angiographic images, there was an active extravasation from ruptured left 3rd lumbar artery, and we performed complete embolization with GELFOAM and coil. Lumbar artery injury after trauma is rare and endovascular treatment is useful in case of hemodynamic instability.

  4. Spatial correlation of aftershock locations and on-fault main shock properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Wiemer, S.; Mai, P. M.

    2006-08-01

    We quantify the correlation between spatial patterns of aftershock hypocenter locations and the distribution of coseismic slip and stress drop on a main shock fault plane using two nonstandard statistical tests. Test T1 evaluates if aftershock hypocenters are located in low-slip regions (hypothesis H1), test T2 evaluates if aftershock hypocenters occur in regions of increased shear stress (hypothesis H2). In the tests, we seek to reject the null hypotheses H0: Aftershock hypocenters are not correlated with (1) low-slip regions or (2) regions of increased shear stress, respectively. We tested the hypotheses on four strike-slip events for which multiple earthquake catalogs and multiple finite fault source models of varying accuracy exist. Because we want to retain earthquake clustering as the fundamental feature of aftershock seismicity, we generate slip distributions using a random spatial field model and derive the stress drop distributions instead of generating seismicity catalogs. We account for uncertainties in the aftershock locations by simulating them within their location error bounds. Our findings imply that aftershocks are preferentially located in regions of low-slip (u ≤ ?umax) and of increased shear stress (Δσ < 0). In particular, the correlation is more significant for relocated than for general network aftershock catalogs. However, the results show that stress drop patterns provide less information content on aftershock locations. This implies that static shear stress change of the main shock may not be the governing process for aftershock genesis.

  5. [Rupture of left main bronchus due to a left double-lumen tube in patient with a history of radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bilbao Ares, A; Romero Menchaca, O; Ramírez Gil, E; Castañeda Pascual, M; Guelbenzu Zazpe, J; Salvador Bravo, M

    2015-04-01

    Airway injury caused by double-lumen tubes is a rare but potentially serious complication. We describe the case of a patient who had a bronchial rupture during one-lung ventilation with left double-lumen tube, complicated with a secondary cardiac arrest. She had a full recovery without sequelae. Underlying causes of the patient were a history of radiotherapy, and a possible overinflation of bronchial cuff, that it could contribute to the development of this complication. The possible airway injury should be considered by all practitioners who employ double-lumen tubes for the care of their patients.

  6. Comparison of main-shock and aftershock fragility curves developed for New Zealand and US buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uma, S.R.; Ryu, H.; Luco, N.; Liel, A.B.; Raghunandan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic risk assessment involves the development of fragility functions to express the relationship between ground motion intensity and damage potential. In evaluating the risk associated with the building inventory in a region, it is essential to capture 'actual' characteristics of the buildings and group them so that 'generic building types' can be generated for further analysis of their damage potential. Variations in building characteristics across regions/countries largely influence the resulting fragility functions, such that building models are unsuitable to be adopted for risk assessment in any other region where a different set of building is present. In this paper, for a given building type (represented in terms of height and structural system), typical New Zealand and US building models are considered to illustrate the differences in structural model parameters and their effects on resulting fragility functions for a set of main-shocks and aftershocks. From this study, the general conclusion is that the methodology and assumptions used to derive basic capacity curve parameters have a considerable influence on fragility curves.

  7. Sepsis and septic shock-is a microcirculation a main player?

    PubMed

    Lipinska-Gediga, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Shock, defined at a cellular level, is a condition in which oxygen delivery to the cells is not sufficient to sustain cellular activity and support organ function. The central role of microcirculation in providing oxygen to the cells makes it of prime importance in determining organ function. In sepsis and septic shock, macrocirculatory alterations and microcirculatory dysfunction participate concurrently in the pathophysiology of organ failure. Haemodynamic coherence in shock is a condition in which normalization of systemic haemodynamic variables results in simultaneous amelioration in the perfusion of the microcirculation and restoration of tissue oxygenation as a final result. Septic shock is most frequently characterized by a lack of microcirculatory recruitment despite of macrocirculatory successful resuscitation. The lack of haemodynamic coherence between macrocirculation and microcirculation in septic patients results in treatment failure and increased mortality. The monitoring of microcirculation and the effects of its changes are an important area of future clinical research and treatment modification.

  8. The M w6.7 12 October 2013 western Hellenic Arc main shock and its aftershock sequence: implications for the slab properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Karakostas, Vassilis; Mesimeri, Maria; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2016-10-01

    The 12 October 2013 M w6.7 earthquake offshore Crete Island is one of the few strong earthquakes to have occurred in the last few decades in the southwestern part of the Hellenic subduction zone (HSZ), providing the opportunity to evaluate characteristics of the descending slab. The HSZ has experienced several strong ( M ≥ 7.0) earthquakes in historical times with the largest one being the 365 AD, M w = 8.4 earthquake, the largest known ever occurred in the Mediterranean region. The 2013 main shock occurred in close proximity with the 365 event, on an interplate thrust fault at a depth of 26 km, onto the coupled part of the overriding and descending plates. GCMT solution shows a slightly oblique (rake = 130°) thrust faulting with downdip compression on a nearly horizontal (dip = 3°) northeast-dipping fault plane with strike (340°) parallel to the subduction front, with the compression axis being oriented in the direction of plate convergence. The subduction interface can be more clearly resolved with the integration of aftershock locations and CMT solution. For this scope, the aftershocks were relocated after obtaining a v p/ v s ratio equal to 1.76, a one-dimensional velocity model and time delays that approximate the velocity structure of the study area, and the employment of double-difference technique for both phase pick data and cross-correlation differential times. The first-day relocated seismicity, alike aftershocks in the first 2 months, shows activation of an area at the upper part of the descending slab, with most activity being concentrated between 13 and 27 km, where the main shock is also encompassed. Aftershocks are rare near to the main shock, implying homogeneous slip on a large patch of the rupture plane. Based on the aftershock distribution, the size of the activated area estimated is about 24 km long and 17 km wide. Coulomb stress changes resolved for transpressive motion reveal negligible off-fault aftershock triggering, evidencing a

  9. Evaluation of a main steam line break with induced, multiple tube ruptures: A comparison of NUREG 1477 (Draft) and transient methodologies Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the approach taken to analyze the radiological consequences of a postulated main steam line break event, with one or more tube ruptures, for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The analysis was required to support the restart of PVNGS Unit 2 following the steam generator tube rupture event on March 14, 1993 and to justify continued operation of Units 1 and 3. During the post-event evaluation, the NRC expressed concern that Unit 2 could have been operating with degraded tubes and that similar conditions could exist in Units 1 and 3. The NRC therefore directed that a safety assessment be performed to evaluate a worst case scenario in which a non-isolable main steam line break occurs inducing one or more tube failures in the faulted steam generator. This assessment was to use the generic approach described in NUREG 1477, Voltage-Based Interim Plugging Criteria for Steam Generator Tubes - Task Group Report. An analysis based on the NUREG approach was performed but produced unacceptable results for off-site and control room thyroid doses. The NUREG methodology, however, does not account for plant thermal-hydraulic transient effects, system performance, or operator actions which could be credited to mitigate dose consequences. To deal with these issues, a more detailed analysis methodology was developed using a modified version of the Combustion Engineering Plant Analysis Code, which examines the dose consequences for a main steam line break transient with induced tube failures for a spectrum equivalent to 1 to 4 double ended guillotine U-tube breaks. By incorporating transient plant system responses and operator actions, the analysis demonstrates that the off-site and control room does consequences for a MSLBGTR can be reduced to acceptable limits. This analysis, in combination with other corrective and recovery actions, provided sufficient justification for continued operation of PVNGS Units 1 and 3, and for the subsequent restart of Unit 2.

  10. The Great Maule earthquake: seismicity prior to and after the main shock from amphibious seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieser, K.; Arroyo, I. G.; Grevemeyer, I.; Flueh, E. R.; Lange, D.; Tilmann, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean subduction zone is among the seismically most active plate boundaries in the world and its coastal ranges suffer from a magnitude 8 or larger megathrust earthquake every 10-20 years. The Constitución-Concepción or Maule segment in central Chile between ~35.5°S and 37°S was considered to be a mature seismic gap, rupturing last in 1835 and being seismically quiet without any magnitude 4.5 or larger earthquakes reported in global catalogues. It is located to the north of the nucleation area of the 1960 magnitude 9.5 Valdivia earthquake and to the south of the 1928 magnitude 8 Talca earthquake. On 27 February 2010 this segment ruptured in a Mw=8.8 earthquake, nucleating near 36°S and affecting a 500-600 km long segment of the margin between 34°S and 38.5°S. Aftershocks occurred along a roughly 600 km long portion of the central Chilean margin, most of them offshore. Therefore, a network of 30 ocean-bottom-seismometers was deployed in the northern portion of the rupture area for a three month period, recording local offshore aftershocks between 20 September 2010 and 25 December 2010. In addition, data of a network consisting of 33 landstations of the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam were included into the network, providing an ideal coverage of both the rupture plane and areas affected by post-seismic slip as deduced from geodetic data. Aftershock locations are based on automatically detected P wave onsets and a 2.5D velocity model of the combined on- and offshore network. Aftershock seismicity analysis in the northern part of the survey area reveals a well resolved seismically active splay fault in the accretionary prism of the Chilean forearc. Our findings imply that in the northernmost part of the rupture zone, co-seismic slip most likely propagated along the splay fault and not the subduction thrust fault. In addition, the updip limit of aftershocks along the plate interface can be verified to about 40 km landwards from the deformation front. Prior to

  11. The great 1933 Sanriku-oki earthquake: reappraisal of the main shock and its aftershocks and implications for its tsunami using regional tsunami and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Naoki; Kirby, Stephen H.; Umino, Norihito; Hino, Ryota; Kazakami, Tomoe

    2016-09-01

    The aftershock distribution of the 1933 Sanriku-oki outer trench earthquake is estimated by using modern relocation methods and a newly developed velocity structure to examine the spatial extent of the source-fault and the possibility of a triggered interplate seismicity. In this study, we first examined the regional data quality of the 1933 earthquake based on smoked-paper records and then relocated the earthquakes by using the 3-D velocity structure and double-difference method. The improvements of hypocentre locations using these methods were confirmed by the examination of recent earthquakes that are accurately located based on ocean bottom seismometer data. The results show that the 1933 aftershocks occurred under both the outer- and inner-trench-slope regions. In the outer-trench-slope region, aftershocks are distributed in a ˜280-km-long area and their depths are shallower than 50 km. Although we could not constrain the fault geometry from the hypocentre distribution, the depth distribution suggests the whole lithosphere is probably not under deviatoric tension at the time of the 1933 earthquake. The occurrence of aftershocks under the inner trench slope was also confirmed by an investigation of waveform frequency difference between outer and inner trench earthquakes as recorded at Mizusawa. The earthquakes under the inner trench slope were shallow (depth ≦30 km) and the waveforms show a low-frequency character similar to the waveforms of recent, precisely located earthquakes in the same area. They are also located where recent activity of interplate thrust earthquakes is high. These suggest that the 1933 outer-trench-slope main shock triggered interplate earthquakes, which is an unusual case in the order of occurrence in contrast with the more common pairing of a large initial interplate shock with subsequent outer-slope earthquakes. The off-trench earthquakes are distributed about 80 km width in the trench perpendicular direction. This wide width cannot

  12. Total revascularization for an epsilon right coronary artery and severe left main disease combined with profound cardiogenic shock

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hsiu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Chieh; Wu, Chiung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Severe left main disease combined with right coronary artery occlusion was rarely encountered in our daily practice. Percutaneous coronary intervention in these patients was most challenging due to high probability of hemodynamic changes. Patient Concerns: Here, we report a 67-year-old man with Non–ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) and profound cardiogenic shock and we attempted coronary intervention with total revisualization for severe left main (LM) disease and angulated epsilon right coronary artery total occlusion. He was treated successfully under intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Diagnoses: NSTEMI and profound cardiogenic shock. Interventions: Coronary intervention with total revisualization was performed for severe LM disease and angulated epsilon right coronary artery total occlusion under IABP and ECMO support. Outcomes: IABP and ECMO were removed until cardiac contractile function improved to left ventricular ejection fraction over 40 percentage 1 week later. The patient was discharged after 2 months and had survival for 5 years. Lessons: Coronary intervention could be performed safely in this cardiogenic shock patient with severe LM and triple vessel disease who was supported by IABP and ECMO. Stent deployment for extremely angulated coronary artery was required multiple combination techniques to facilitate the final success. PMID:27977615

  13. Bifurcation balloon for left main shock syndrome: facilitating the simultaneous percutaneous reperfusion of the LAD and circumflex.

    PubMed

    de Man, Karen; Patterson, Mark; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand

    2006-11-01

    Acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery frequently causes cardiogenic shock and, when this occurs with an initial TIMI 0 flow, has an extremely poor prognosis. The use of a bifurcation system has not been described previously in this situation but has advantages that may result in a simpler and quicker solution then other strategies. This case describes a distal LMCA occlusion, 2 weeks post-stenting of the proximal LAD and proximal Cx, where this strategy was successfully used as a bridge to surgery. Such a strategy may be crucially beneficial in this commonly fatal condition.

  14. Soil gas distribution in the main coseismic surface rupture zone of the 1980, Ms = 6.9, Irpinia earthquake (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Bigi, Sabina; Tartarello, Chiara; Sacco, Pietro; Lombardi, Salvatore; Ascione, Alessandra; Mazzoli, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Soil gas measurements of different gas species with different geochemical behaviors were performed in the area of the Pecore Plain, a 200 m × 300 m sized, fault-bounded extensional basin located in the northern Mount Marzano massif, in the axial belt of the southern Apennine chain. The Pecore Plain area was affected by coseismic surface faulting during the Ms = 6.9, 1980 Irpinia earthquake, the strongest and most destructive seismic event of the last 30 years in southern Italy. The collected data and their geostatistical analysis provide new insights into the control exerted by active fault segments on deep-seated gas migration toward the surface. The results define anomalies that are aligned with the NW-SE trending coseismic rupture of the 1980 earthquake along the western border of the plain, as well as along the southern border of the plain where a hidden, E-W striking fault is inferred. Geospatial analysis highlights an anisotropic spatial behavior of 222Rn along the main NW-SE trend and of CO2 along the E-W trend. This feature suggests a correlation between the shape and orientation of the anomalies and the barrier/conduit behavior of fault zones in the area. Furthermore, our results show that gas migration through brittle deformation zones occurs by advective processes, as suggested by the relatively high migration rate needed to obtain anomalies of short-lived 222Rn in the soil pores.

  15. Using the locations of M ≥ 4 earthquakes to delineate the extents of the ruptures of past major earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, John E.; Chambers, Daniel W.

    2016-11-01

    Some modern seismicity in the magnitude range of M 4 and M 6 in California and eastern North America preferentially occurs at the edges of past large ruptures. Once a large earthquake rupture has occurred, stress is concentrated at the edges of the rupture, and apparently this stress concentration can trigger earthquakes at or near the rupture edges many decades or even longer after a main shock. Furthermore, the modern M ≥ 4 earthquakes in the vicinity of a past main shock usually have the same focal mechanism as the earlier main shock. There are a number of examples of this in California and Nevada, where there is a statistically significant correlation of the locations of M ≥ 4 earthquakes and the edges of 19th and 20th century fault ruptures in Mw ≥ 6.5 earthquakes. In contrast, the M ≥ 4 earthquakes near the epicentres of future ruptures in California are randomly scattered around the fault with no concentration near the ends of the future fault rupture. The concentration of earthquakes near the ends of earlier large ruptures in California becomes progressively less pronounced as the smallest magnitude in the data set is reduced from M 4.0 to M 3.0. These observations also appear to be true for intraplate regions where aftershock sequences can last millennia. The identification of modern rupture-edge M ≥ 4 aftershocks can be used to help discover where and when past strong earthquakes took place, even if there is no historical record of the main shock. This is of great importance for seismic hazard studies.

  16. Shock.

    PubMed

    Wacker, David A; Winters, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Critically ill patients with undifferentiated shock are complex and challenging cases in the ED. A systematic approach to assessment and management is essential to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The simplified, systematic approach described in this article focuses on determining the presence of problems with cardiac function (the pump), intravascular volume (the tank), or systemic vascular resistance (the pipes). With this approach, the emergency physician can detect life-threatening conditions and implement time-sensitive therapy.

  17. Vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Lightweight External Tank (LWT), and Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The vibration, acoustics, and shock design and test criteria for components and subassemblies on the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB), lightweight tank (LWT), and main engines (SSME) are presented. Specifications for transportation, handling, and acceptance testing are also provided.

  18. Ruptured jejunal artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sílvia; Costa, Alexandre; Pereira, Tiago; Maciel, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs), unlike aortic aneurysms, are very rare, but are also a potentially lethal vascular disease. Jejunal artery aneurysms only account for less than 3% of VAAs, but have a 30% risk of rupture, with 20% death rate, presenting with only few and vague symptoms. We report the case of a 76-year-old man presenting at the emergency department (ED) with a crampy epigastric pain and vomiting. An ultrasound performed diagnosed free abdominal fluid and immediate CT scan diagnosed jejunal artery aneurysm spontaneously rupturing, followed by hypovolaemic shock. Emergent surgery was undertaken, and aneurysmectomy, followed by partial enterectomy with primary anastomosis were performed, because of segmentary jejunal ischaemia. The patient's recovery was unremarkable. High level of suspicion, rapid diagnosis capability and prompt surgical or endovascular intervention, as well as an effective teamwork in the ED are critical to avoid the devastating consequences of ruptured VAAs. PMID:23771962

  19. Rupture disc

    DOEpatents

    Newton, Robert G.

    1977-01-01

    The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a rupturable member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut in the rupturable member. According to the preferred embodiment of the invention the rupturable member includes a solid head seated in the end of the drain line having a rim extending peripherally therearound, the rim being clamped against the end of the drain line by a clamp ring having an interior shearing edge, the bottom of the rupturable member being convex and extending into the drain line. Means are provided to draw the rupturable member away from the drain line against the shearing edge to clear the drain line for outflow of sodium therethrough.

  20. Awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as bridge to recovery after left main coronary artery occlusion: a promising concept of haemodynamic support in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Alozie, Anthony; Kische, Stephan; Birken, Thomas; Kaminski, Alexander; Westphal, Bernd; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Ince, Hüseyin; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction is associated with high mortality rate. Different management concepts including fluid management, inotropic support, intra aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) mainly in mechanically ventilated patients have been used as cornerstones of management. However, success rates have been disappointing. Few reports suggested that ECMO when performed under circumvention of mechanical ventilation, may offer some survival benefits. We herein present our experience with the use of veno-arterial ECMO as bridge to recovery in an awake and spontaneously breathing patient after left main coronary artery occlusion complicated by cardiogenic shock.

  1. Can We Forecast 1-Month Span Aftershock Activity from the First Day Data after the Main Shock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Hirata, Y.; Aihara, K.

    2014-12-01

    A large earthquake triggers persistent aftershock activity in and near the focal region. Thus, intermediate term forecasting of aftershocks at its earlier stage is important for mitigating seismic risks. A main difficulty for the early forecasting is the substantial incompleteness of early aftershock data. To deal with such incomplete data, we have developed a statistical model of the incomplete data, enabling us to obtain the immediate estimate of the forecasting models from incomplete data [1, 2]. Another difficulty for the intermediate term forecasting is that we have to determine the parameter values of the forecasting models with high accuracy, because even a small bias in the parameter values can lead to a significant bias of the forecasting in intermediate term. However such accurate estimation is quite difficult at the early stage, especially using the early and incomplete data. Here we present a Bayesian forecasting method by using the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model. The Bayesian forecasting considers not only the best parameter values such as the maximum likelihood estimates or maximum a posteriori estimates but also the estimation uncertainty of the parameter values. By analyzing aftershock sequences in Japan, we show the forecasting performances of the intermediate-term aftershocks can be significantly improved by considering the estimation uncertainty of the ETAS model [3]. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of the modeling of the magnitude frequency distribution of detected aftershocks within a day span on the forecasting of large aftershocks. [1] T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata and K. Aihara, "Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock", Scientific Reports 3, 2218 (2013). [2] T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata and K. Aihara, "Estimating the ETAS model from an early aftershock sequence", Geophysical Research Letters 41, 850 (2014). [3] T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata and K. Aihara, "Intermediate-term forecasting of aftershocks

  2. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. Εach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures ( R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  3. Ruptured eardrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoid swimming or putting your head underneath the water. Your provider may prescribe antibiotics (oral or ear drops) to prevent or treat an infection. Repair of the eardrum might be needed for larger holes or ruptures or if the eardrum does not ...

  4. Fine structure of the landers fault zone: Segmentation and the rupture process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.-G.; Vidale, J.E.; Aki, K.; Marone, C.J.; Lee, W.H.K.

    1994-01-01

    Observations and modeling of 3- to 6-hertz seismic shear waves trapped within the fault zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake series allow the fine structure and continuity of the zone to be evaluated. The fault, to a depth of at least 12 kilometers, is marked by a zone 100 to 200 meters wide where shear velocity is reduced by 30 to 50 percent. This zone forms a seismic waveguide that extends along the southern 30 kilometers of the Landers rupture surface and ends at the fault bend about 18 kilometers north of the main shock epicenter. Another fault plane waveguide, disconnected from the first, exists along the northern rupture surface. These observations, in conjunction with surface slip, detailed seismicity patterns, and the progression of rupture along the fault, suggest that several simple rupture planes were involved in the Landers earthquake and that the inferred rupture front hesitated or slowed at the location where the rupture jumped from one to the next plane. Reduction in rupture velocity can tentatively be attributed to fault plane complexity, and variations in moment release can be attributed to variations in available energy.

  5. The 2015 April 25 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake and its aftershocks: implications for lateral heterogeneity on the Main Himalayan Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Shashwat K.; Mitra, S.; Priestley, K. F.; Dayal, Shankar

    2017-02-01

    The 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Mw 7.8) occurred by thrust faulting on a ˜150 km long and ˜70 km wide, locked downdip segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), causing the Himalaya to slip SSW over the Indian Plate, and was followed by major-to-moderate aftershocks. Back projection of teleseismic P-wave and inversion of teleseismic body waves provide constraints on the geometry and kinematics of the main-shock rupture and source mechanism of aftershocks. The main-shock initiated ˜80 km west of Katmandu, close to the locking line on the MHT and propagated eastwards along ˜117° azimuth for a duration of ˜70 s, with varying rupture velocity on a heterogeneous fault surface. The main-shock has been modelled using four subevents, propagating from west-to-east. The first subevent (0-20 s) ruptured at a velocity of ˜3.5 km s- 1 on a ˜6°N dipping flat segment of the MHT with thrust motion. The second subevent (20-35 s) ruptured a ˜18° W dipping lateral ramp on the MHT in oblique thrust motion. The rupture velocity dropped from 3.5 km s- 1 to 2.5 km s- 1, as a result of updip propagation of the rupture. The third subevent (35-50 s) ruptured a ˜7°N dipping, eastward flat segment of the MHT with thrust motion and resulted in the largest amplitude arrivals at teleseismic distances. The fourth subevent (50-70 s) occurred by left-lateral strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping transverse fault, at high angle to the MHT and arrested the eastward propagation of the main-shock rupture. Eastward stress build-up following the main-shock resulted in the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3), which occurred on the MHT, immediately east of the main-shock rupture. Source mechanisms of moderate aftershocks reveal stress adjustment at the edges of the main-shock fault, flexural faulting on top of the downgoing Indian Plate and extensional faulting in the hanging wall of the MHT.

  6. Assessment of pH shock as a method for controlling sulfide and methane formation in pressure main sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Oriol; Sudarjanto, Gatut; Ren, Guo; Ganigué, Ramon; Jiang, Guangming; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Caustic dosing to raise pH above 10.0 for short periods (hours) is often used by water utilities for controlling sulfide formation in sewers. However the effectiveness of this strategy is rarely reported and the impact of pH level and exposure time on the effectiveness is largely unknown. The effectiveness of this strategy under various pH levels (10.5-12.5) and exposure time (0.5-6.0 h) in controlling sulfide and methane production was evaluated in laboratory scale anaerobic sewer reactors and then in a real sewer system. Laboratory studies showed that the sulfide production rate of the laboratory sewer biofilm was reduced by 70-90% upon the completion of the pH shock, while the methane production rate decreased by 95-100%. It took approximately one week for the sulfate-reducing activity to recover to normal levels. In comparison, the methanogenic activities recovered to only about 10% in 4 weeks. The slow recovery is explained by the substantially loss of cell viability upon pH shocks, which recovered slowly after the shocks. Laboratory studies further revealed that a pH level of 10.5 for 1-2 h represent cost-effective conditions for the pH shock treatment. However, field trials showed a higher pH (11.5) and larger dosing times are needed due to the pH decreases along the sewer line and at the two ends of the caustic-receiving wastewater slugs due to dilution. To have effective sulfide and methane control, it is important to ensure effective conditions (pH > 10.5 and duration >1-2 h) for the entire sewer line.

  7. An improved space-time ETAS model for inverting the rupture geometry from seismicity triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yicun; Zhuang, Jiancang; Zhou, Shiyong

    2015-05-01

    This study incorporates the rupture geometry of big earthquakes in the formulation of the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model, which is a point process model widely applied in the study of spatiotemporal seismicity, rather than regarding every earthquake occurring at a point in space and time. We apply the new model to the catalog from Sichuan province, China, between 1990 and 2013, during which the Wenchuan Mw7.9 earthquake occurred in May 2008. Our results show that the modified model has better performance in both data fitting and aftershock simulation, confirming that the elliptic aftershock zone is caused by the superposition of the isotropic triggering effect from each patch of the rupture zone. Moreover, using the technique of stochastic reconstruction, we inverted the fault geometry and verified that direct aftershocks of the main shock more likely occur in the transitive parts from high-slip parts to low/median slip parts of the main shock fault area.

  8. An improved space-time ETAS model for inverting the rupture geometry from seismicity triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Zhuang, J.; Zhou, S.; Gao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study incorporates the rupture geometry of big earthquakes in the formulation of theEpidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model, which is a point process model widely applied in thestudy of spatiotemporal seismicity, rather than regarding every earthquake occurring at a point in space andtime. We apply the new model to the catalog from Sichuan province, China, between 1990 and 2013, duringwhich the Wenchuan Mw7.9 earthquake occurred in May 2008. Our results show that the modified modelhas better performance in both data fitting and aftershock simulation, confirming that the elliptic aftershockzone is caused by the superposition of the isotropic triggering effect from each patch of the rupture zone.Moreover, using the technique of stochastic reconstruction, we inverted the fault geometry and verifiedthat direct aftershocks of the main shock more likely occur in the transitive parts from high-slip parts tolow/median slip parts of the main shock fault area.

  9. Isolation and characterization of the main small heat shock proteins induced in tomato pericarp by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Polenta, Gustavo A; Calvete, Juan J; González, Claudia B

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, heat treatment has been used to prevent the development of chilling injury in fruits and vegetables. The acquired tolerance to chilling seen in treated fruit is related to the accumulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs). The positive effect of heat treatment has generally been verified for only a narrow range of treatment intensities and more reliable methods of determining optimal conditions are therefore needed. In this regard, quantitation of HSPs would seem to be an interesting tool for monitoring purposes. As a step toward the development of analytical methodology, the objective of this study was the isolation and characterization of relevant HSPs from plant tissues. Tomato fruits were exposed to a temperature of 38 degrees C for 0, 3, 20 and 27 h, and protein extracts from pericarp were analysed using SDS/PAGE. Analysis revealed the appearance of an intense 21 kDa protein band in treated samples. IEF of this band showed the presence of four major proteins (HSPC1, HSPC2, HSPC3 and HSPC4) with similar pI values. A monospecific polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against purified HSPC1 protein, which cross-reacted with other small heat shock proteins. The major proteins were characterized by MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides, all having blocked N-termini. The antiserum obtained proved suitable for detecting increased amounts of small heat shock proteins in tomatoes and grapefruits subjected to heat treatment for 24 and 48 h; these treatments were successful in preventing the development of chilling injury symptoms during cold storage. Our data are valuable for the future development of analytical methods to evaluate the optimal protection induced by heat treatment in different fruits.

  10. Mapping the rupture process of moderate earthquakes by inverting accelerograms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hellweg, M.; Boatwright, J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a waveform inversion method that uses recordings of small events as Green's functions to map the rupture growth of moderate earthquakes. The method fits P and S waveforms from many stations simultaneously in an iterative procedure to estimate the subevent rupture time and amplitude relative to the Green's function event. We invert the accelerograms written by two moderate Parkfield earthquakes using smaller events as Green's functions. The first earthquake (M = 4.6) occurred on November 14, 1993, at a depth of 11 km under Middle Mountain, in the assumed preparation zone for the next Parkfield main shock. The second earthquake (M = 4.7) occurred on December 20, 1994, some 6 km to the southeast, at a depth of 9 km on a section of the San Andreas fault with no previous microseismicity and little inferred coseismic slip in the 1966 Parkfield earthquake. The inversion results are strikingly different for the two events. The average stress release in the 1993 event was 50 bars, distributed over a geometrically complex area of 0.9 km2. The average stress release in the 1994 event was only 6 bars, distributed over a roughly elliptical area of 20 km2. The ruptures of both events appear to grow spasmodically into relatively complex shapes: the inversion only constrains the ruptures to grow more slowly than the S wave velocity but does not use smoothness constraints. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Mapping the rupture process of moderate earthquakes by inverting accelerograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Margaret; Boatwright, John

    1999-04-01

    We present a waveform inversion method that uses recordings of small events as Green's functions to map the rupture growth of moderate earthquakes. The method fits P and S waveforms from many stations simultaneously in an iterative procedure to estimate the subevent rupture time and amplitude relative to the Green's function event. We invert the accelerograms written by two moderate Parkfield earthquakes using smaller events as Green's functions. The first earthquake (M = 4.6) occurred on November 14, 1993, at a depth of 11 km under Middle Mountain, in the assumed preparation zone for the next Parkfield main shock. The second earthquake (M = 4.7) occurred on December 20, 1994, some 6 km to the southeast, at a depth of 9 km on a section of the San Andreas fault with no previous microseismicity and little inferred coseismic slip in the 1966 Parkfield earthquake. The inversion results are strikingly different for the two events. The average stress release in the 1993 event was 50 bars, distributed over a geometrically complex area of 0.9 km2. The average stress release in the 1994 event was only 6 bars, distributed over a roughly elliptical area of 20 km2. The ruptures of both events appear to grow spasmodically into relatively complex shapes: the inversion only constrains the ruptures to grow more slowly than the S wave velocity but does not use smoothness constraints.

  12. [Shock in obstetrics. Institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Ahued Ahued, R; García-Benítez, C Q; Bolaños Ancona, R; Callejos, T; Juárez García, L

    1997-04-01

    Shock is one of the most difficult problems an obstetrician can face. Hemorrhage is the main reason of shock. A descriptive and retrospective research was conducted at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, from January 1992 to May 1996, including all patients admitted to the intensive care unit with diagnosis of shock. There were found 90 cases with diagnosis of shock, 82 were hipovolemic, and 8 cases had the septic kind of shock. The average of age was 32.2 years, with a gestational age between 6.2 to 41.4 weeks . There were 71 healthy patients, hypertension was associated to pregnancy in 9 cases, infertility in two, myomatosis in 2, and diabetes in 2 more patients. Other 5 cases reported different pathologies. The most frequent cause for hipovolemic shock resulted to be placenta acreta (40 cases), followed by uterine tone alterations in 37 patients, ectopic pregnancy in 7, uterine rupture or perforation in 4, and vaginal or cervical lacerations in 2. The estimated blood loss varied from 2200 cc to 6500 cc, and the minimal arterial pressure registered during shock was between 40/20 mmHg to 90/60 mmHg. Medical initial assistance consisted in volume reposition with crystalloids, globular packages, and plasma expansors in 73 patients (81.1%). The rest of the patients received in addition coloids, platelets and cryoprecipitates. A total of 76 patients required surgical intervention consisting in total abdominal hysterectomy. In 5 cases the previous surgical procedure was done and ligation of hypogastric vessels was needed. Salpingectomy was performed in 5 patients, and rupture or perforation repair in 3. The average surgery time was 2 hours and 33 minutes. The observed complications were 7 cases with abscess of the cupula, consumption coagulopathy in 2, 1 vesical quirurgical injury, 1 intestinal occlusion, and 11 vesico-vaginal fistula. The average days of hospitalization resulted to be 5. The most frequent kind of shock seen by obstetricians is the hipovolemic type

  13. Fault branching and rupture directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliss, Sonia; Bhat, Harsha S.; Dmowska, Renata; Rice, James R.

    2005-06-01

    Could the directivity of a complex earthquake be inferred from the ruptured fault branches it created? Typically, branches develop in forward orientation, making acute angles relative to the propagation direction. Direct backward branching of the same style as the main rupture (e.g., both right lateral) is disallowed by the stress field at the rupture front. Here we propose another mechanism of backward branching. In that mechanism, rupture stops along one fault strand, radiates stress to a neighboring strand, nucleates there, and develops bilaterally, generating a backward branch. Such makes diagnosing directivity of a past earthquake difficult without detailed knowledge of the branching process. As a field example, in the Landers 1992 earthquake, rupture stopped at the northern end of the Kickapoo fault, jumped onto the Homestead Valley fault, and developed bilaterally there, NNW to continue the main rupture but also SSE for 4 km forming a backward branch. We develop theoretical principles underlying such rupture transitions, partly from elastostatic stress analysis, and then simulate the Landers example numerically using a two-dimensional elastodynamic boundary integral equation formulation incorporating slip-weakening rupture. This reproduces the proposed backward branching mechanism based on realistic if simplified fault geometries, prestress orientation corresponding to the region, standard lab friction values for peak strength, and fracture energies characteristic of the Landers event. We also show that the seismic S ratio controls the jumpable distance and that curving of a fault toward its compressional side, like locally along the southeastern Homestead Valley fault, induces near-tip increase of compressive normal stress that slows rupture propagation.

  14. Earthquake Rupture Complexity Evidence from Field Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Fletcher, J. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Teran, O.; Akciz, S. O.

    2010-12-01

    this same reach of fault, the Laguna Salada fault was re-activated with minor west side down slip. Along the Paso Inferior accommodation zone, splays trending NNW to N had strong east-down slip, with right-lateral oblique motion. It was along this portion of the rupture that an eyewitness observed the rupture propagating from N to S, instead of in the expected S to N direction. Back-rupture may have resulted from triggered slip having raced ahead of the slower main rupture front, or may indicate a place where contiguous deep rupture ran out in front of shallow slip, or may result from the involvement here of the detachment fault system. Finally, in the northwestern portion of the rupture, from Paso Superior to the northwest of Cerro Centinela, a pattern of NE - SW oriented “cross faults” and N-S faults broke at the surface, in a manner similar to rupture that occurred in the Elmore Ranch Fault Zone during the Superstition Hills earthquake sequence of 1987. Unlike the Elmore Ranch event, however, there was no known main shock sub-event or any large aftershock that can be readily associated with the extensive cross-faulting that is observed in this case.

  15. A non-cold-inducible cold shock protein homolog mainly contributes to translational control under optimal growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Mega, Ryosuke; Kim, Kwang; Shinkai, Akeo; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Nakagawa, Noriko

    2012-03-01

    Cold shock proteins (Csps) include both cold-induced and non-cold-induced proteins, contrary to their name. Cold-induced Csps are well studied; they function in cold acclimation by controlling transcription and translation. Some Csps have been reported to contribute to other cellular processes. However, the functions of non-cold-induced Csps under optimal growth conditions remain unknown. To elucidate these functions, we used transcriptome and proteome analyses as comprehensive approaches and have compared the outputs of wild-type and non-cold-induced Csp-deletion mutant cells. As a model organism, we selected Thermus thermophilus HB8 because it has only two csp genes (ttcsp1 and ttcsp2); ttCsp1 is the only non-cold-induced Csp. Surprisingly, the amount of transcripts and proteins upon deletion of the ttcsp1 gene was quite different. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the deletion of ttcsp1 did not affect the amount of transcripts, although the ttcsp1 gene was constantly expressed in the wild-type cell. Nonetheless, proteomic analysis revealed that the expression levels of many proteins were significantly altered when ttcsp1 was deleted. These results suggest that ttCsp1 functions in translation independent of transcription. Furthermore, ttCsp1 is involved in both the stimulation and inhibition of translation of specific proteins. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of ttCsp1 at 1.65 Å. This is the first report to present the structure of a non-cold-inducible cold shock protein. We also report the nucleotide binding affinity of ttCsp1. Finally, we discuss the functions of non-cold-induced Csps and propose how they modulate the levels of specific proteins to suit the prevailing environmental conditions.

  16. Spontaneous gastroduodenal artery aneurysm rupture in acute surgery.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica; Hsee, Li

    2012-06-29

    Among the rarest of the visceral aneurysms, gastroduodenal artery (GDA) aneurysms often present with spontaneous rupture and are associated with a high mortality rate. Their aetiology is poorly understood. This report describes a case of haemorrhagic shock due to sudden GDA aneurysm rupture in a patient with a significant autoimmune history.

  17. Spontaneous rupture of a liver hemangioma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Guillén-Paredes, María Pilar; Martínez Fernández, Josefa; Morales González, Álvaro; Pardo-García, José Luis

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a liver hemangioma is a very uncommon disease, but extremely seriousness because it is associated to a 75% of mortality caused by hipovolemic shock. A case of an spontaneous rupture of liver hemangioma, which was previously unknow, is presented.

  18. Rupture and frequency-dependent seismic radiation of the 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra strike-slip earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiuxun; Yao, Huajian

    2016-06-01

    On 2012 April 11, a great strike-slip earthquake (moment magnitude of Mw 8.6) occurred off the west coast of northern Sumatra area followed by an Mw 8.2 aftershock 2 hr later. Different geophysical data and methods have been used to investigate the mechanism, faulting, seismic radiation and slip propagation of this event, but frequency-dependent features of its rupture process have not been discussed much. In this study, we use a compressive sensing method based on sparsity inversion in the frequency domain to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation and rupture process of this event. Our results indicate a very complex rupture process concerning at least three different rupture stages on multiple subfaults with nearly conjugate geometries. The main shock has triggered seismicity on a series of ridge-perpendicular or ridge-parallel conjugate strike-slip faults around the Nighty East Ridge. Obvious frequency-dependent rupture process has been presented and discussed. Combining results from slip inversion based on the finite-fault model, we observe that in the beginning stage of the rupture lower frequency radiation appears to originate from the areas with large slip, while the high-frequency radiation is located at the boundary of large-slip region or rupture front. Some radiation probably originates from the repeating slip on the main faults or triggered events on some nearby faults in the rupture area. The complex frequency-dependent seismic radiation patterns observed in this study provide important information for future investigation of rupture physics of this complex strike-slip event.

  19. Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self

  20. [Spontaneous splenic rupture in the second quarter of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Brocas, E; Tenaillon, A

    2002-03-01

    We report the case of a 33 year-old woman at the second quarter of pregnancy, with known brain aneurysm admitted in intensive care unit for sudden coma. The coma was not related to a rupture of the brain aneurysm but to a serious haemorrhagic shock caused by a spontaneous splenic rupture. This case report illustrates the difficulty of this unrecognized diagnosis and reminds us to suspect a spontaneous splenic rupture in front of any pregnant woman with atypic abdominal pain and haemorrhagic shock.

  1. Do buried-rupture earthquakes trigger less landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes for reverse faults?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chong

    2014-07-01

    Gorum et al. (2013, Geomorphology 184, 127-138) carried out a study on inventory compilation and statistical analyses of landslides triggered by the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. They revealed that spatial distribution patterns of these landslides were mainly controlled by complex rupture mechanism and topography. They also suggested that blind-rupture earthquakes trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on thrust reverse faults. Although a few lines of evidence indicate that buried-rupture earthquakes might trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on reverse faults, more careful comparisons and analyses indicate that it is not always true. Instead, some cases show that a buried-rupture earthquake can trigger a larger quantity of landslides that are distributed in a larger area, whereas surface-rupture earthquakes can trigger larger but a fewer landslides distributed in a smaller area.

  2. Study of instabilities in geoelectric time series measured during the preparation process of a main shock occurred in Mexico by means of the multifractal analysis and Tsallis statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Rojas, Alejandro; Flores-Márquez, Elsa Leticia

    2016-04-01

    In [1] has been shown that the q-value that appears in Tsallis statistics is related to the extremes αmax and αmin of the multifractal spectrum f(α). This relationship has been used in order to study the underlying statistics describing properly the fully developed turbulence. One of the features for those systems indicates that the underlying statistics is not extensive. In this work we study the fluctuations, like a Seismo Electrical Signals, observed in geoelectric time series measured prior a main shock in México with M = 6. 6, occurred on 24 October 1993. For this time series we obtain the multifractal spectrum and then we can calculate the q-values of the Tsalliśstatistics. Our findings indicate a possible measure of the correlation between the preparation processes and the instability of the system. [1] Lyra M L and Tsallis C 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 53

  3. Intersonic shear cracks and fault ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosakis, Ares J.

    2002-06-01

    Recent experimental observations of intersonic shear rupture events that occur in a variety of material systems have rekindled interest in the intersonic failure phenomenon. Since the early 1990s, engineers and scientists working in all length scales, from the atomistic, the structural, all the way up to the scale of the earth's deformation processes, have undertaken joint efforts to study this unexplored area of fracture mechanics. The analysis in the present article emphasizes the cooperative and complementary manner in which experimental observations and analytical and numerical developments have proceeded. The article first reviews early contributions to the theoretical literature of dynamic subsonic and intersonic fracture and highlights the significant differences between tensile and shear cracks. The article then uses direct laboratory observations as a framework for discussing the physics of intersonic shear rupture occurring in constitutively homogeneous (isotropic and anisotropic) as well as in inhomogeneous systems, all containing preferable crack paths or faults. Experiments, models, and field evidence at a variety of length scales (from the atomistic, the continuum, and up to the scale of geological ruptures) are used to discuss processes such as (1) shock wave formation, (2) large-scale frictional contact and sliding at the rupture faces, and (3) maximum attainable rupture speeds and rupture speed stability. Particular emphasis is given to geophysical field evidence and to the exploration of the possibility of intersonic fault rupture during shallow crustal earthquake events.

  4. Kinematic Seismic Rupture Parameters from a Doppler Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José F.

    2010-05-01

    The radiation emitted from extended seismic sources, mainly when the rupture spreads in preferred directions, presents spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. This aspect, unobserved to point sources, and named as directivity, are manifested by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of seismic waves when the rupture occurs in the direction of the seismic station and a decrease in the frequency and amplitude if it occurs in the opposite direction. The model of directivity that supports the method is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of rupture and wave propagation through a structural medium with spherical symmetry [1]. A unilateral rupture can be viewed as a sequence of shocks produced along certain paths on the fault. According this model, the seismic record at any point on the Earth's surface contains a signature of the rupture process that originated the recorded waveform. Calculating the rupture direction and velocity by a general Doppler equation, - the goal of this work - using a dataset of common time-delays read from waveforms recorded at different distances around the epicenter, requires the normalization of measures to a standard value of slowness. This normalization involves a non-linear inversion that we solve numerically using an iterative least-squares approach. The evaluation of the performance of this technique was done through a set of synthetic and real applications. We present the application of the method at four real case studies, the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (Mw = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (Mw = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri-Boumerdes, Algeria (Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (Mw = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data. [1] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining

  5. Spontaneous Rupture of Splenic Hemangioma in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Leo, Bruno; Vidal-Medina, Jorge; Cervantes-Ledezma, Jesús; Díaz De León-Rivera, Arid; Díaz-Velasco, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Spleen vascular tumors such as hemangiomas, albeit rare, can present during neonatal period with unexplained circulatory shock. We present a case of a newborn with refractory hypovolemic shock and acute abdomen that underwent emergency splenectomy due to spontaneous rupture of a splenic hemangioma. PMID:27433454

  6. Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.

    2002-12-01

    also on the main fault), or rather involved arrest by a barrier on the original fault and jumping [Harris and Day, JGR, 1993] to a neighboring fault on which rupture propagated bilaterally to form what appears as a backward-branched structure. Our studies [Poliakov et al., JGR in press, 2002; Kame et al, EOS, 2002] of stress fields around a dynamically moving mode II crack tip show a clear tendency to branch from the straight path at high rupture speeds, but the stress fields never allow the rupture path to directly turn through highly obtuse angles, and hence that mechanism is unlikely. In contrast, study of fault maps in the vicinity of the Kp to HV fault transition [Sowers et al., 1994], discussed as case (1) above, strongly suggest that the large-angle branching occurred as a jump, which we propose as the likely general mechanism. Implications for the Nakata et al. [1998] aim of inferring rupture directivity from branch geometry is that this will be possible only when rather detailed characterization (by surface geology, seismic relocation, trapped waves) of fault connectivity can be carried out in the vicinity of the branching junction, to ascertain whether direct turning of the rupture path through an angle, or jumping and then propagating bilaterally, were involved in prior events. They have opposite implications for how we would associate past directivity with a (nominally) branched fault geometry.

  7. Three-dimensional tomography of the 1992 southern California earthquake sequence: Constraints on dynamic earthquake rupture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, Jonathan M.; Nicholson, Craig

    1993-05-01

    Tomographic inversion of P-wave arrival times from aftershocks of 1992 southern California earthquakes is used to produce three dimensional images of subsurface velocity. The preliminary 1992 data set, augmented by the 1986 M 5.9 North Palm Springs sequence, consists of 6458 high-quality events recorded by the permanent regional network—providing 76306 raypaths for inversion. The target area consisted of a 104 x 104 x 32 km3 volume divided into 52 x 52 x 10 rectilinear blocks. Significant velocity perturbations appear to correlate with rupture properties of recent major earthquakes. Preliminary results indicate that a low-velocity anomaly separates the dynamic rupture of the M 6.5 Big Bear event from the M 7.4 Landers main shock; a similar low-velocity region separates the M 6.1 Joshua Tree sequence from the Landers rupture.High-velocity anomalies occur at or near nucleation sites of all four recent main shocks (North Palm Springs-Joshua Tree-LandersBig Bear). A high-velocity anomaly is present along the San Andreas fault between 5 and 12 km depth through San Gorgonio Pass; this high-velocity area may define an asperity where stress is concentrated and where future large earthquakes may begin.

  8. Glass rupture disk

    DOEpatents

    Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.

    2002-01-01

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  9. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  10. A Tuboovarian Abscess Associated with a Ruptured Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jennifer S.; Sheele, Johnathan Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of a tuboovarian abscess complicated by a ruptured spleen. Our patient was a 27-year-old female with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who presented to the emergency department (ED) with complaints of urinary symptoms and diarrhea. After being diagnosed with a tuboovarian abscess (TOA), she received antibiotics and was admitted to the gynecology service. Shortly thereafter she developed hemorrhagic shock, necessitating a splenectomy and salpingooophorectomy from a ruptured spleen. PMID:26904315

  11. High-frequency spectral falloff of earthquakes, fractal dimension of complex rupture, b value, and the scaling of strength on faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The high-frequency falloff ??-y of earthquake displacement spectra and the b value of aftershock sequences are attributed to the character of spatially varying strength along fault zones. I assume that the high frequency energy of a main shock is produced by a self-similar distribution of subevents, where the number of subevents with radii greater than R is proportional to R-D, D being the fractal dimension. In the model, an earthquake is composed of a hierarchical set of smaller earthquakes. The static stress drop is parameterized to be proportional to R??, and strength is assumed to be proportional to static stress drop. I find that a distribution of subevents with D = 2 and stress drop independent of seismic moment (?? = 0) produces a main shock with an ??-2 falloff, if the subevent areas fill the rupture area of the main shock. By equating subevents to "islands' of high stress of a random, self-similar stress field on a fault, I relate D to the scaling of strength on a fault, such that D = 2 - ??. Thus D = 2 corresponds to constant stress drop scaling (?? = 0) and scale-invariant fault strength. A self-similar model of aftershock rupture zones on a fault is used to determine the relationship between the b value, the size distribution of aftershock rupture zones, and the scaling of strength on a fault. -from Author

  12. Fault zone properties affecting the rupture evolution of the 2009 (Mw 6.1) L'Aquila earthquake (central Italy): Insights from seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Chiarabba, C.; Chiaraluce, L.; Cocco, M.; De Gori, P.; Piccinini, D.; Valoroso, L.

    2011-05-01

    We have inverted P- and S-wave travel times from seismograms recorded by a dense local network to infer the velocity structure in the crustal volume where the April 6th 2009 main shock nucleated. The goal is to image local variations of P-wave velocity and Poisson ratio along the main shock fault zone for interpreting the complexity of the rupture history. The initial stages of the mainshock rupture are characterized by an emergent phase (EP) followed by an impulsive phase (IP) 0.87 s later. The EP phase is located in a very high VP and relatively low Poisson ratio (ν) region. The IP phase marks the beginning of the large moment release and is located outside the low ν volume. The comparison between the spatial variations of VP and Poisson ratio within the main shock nucleation volume inferred in this study with the rupture history imaged by inverting geophysical data allows us to interpret the delayed along-strike propagation in terms of heterogeneity of lithology and material properties.

  13. Bilateral Patellar Tendon Rupture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    within the tendon or systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus , diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, rheumatologic disease, and local or...factors for patellar tendon rupture include obesity, male gender, age 30-40, activities that increase patellar stress, systemic lupus erythematosus ...patellar tendon rupture is a rare occurrence usually associated with chronic degeneration of tendon fibers, use of steroids, or systemic illness. Our

  14. Extraneural rupture of intraneural ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Kameron R; Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of simple (extraneural) cysts such as popliteal cysts (Baker's cysts) is a well-known occurrence. The purpose of this report is to introduce the similar occurrence of extraneural rupture of peroneal and tibial intraneural cysts in the knee region, describe the associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and identify risk factors. There was MRI evidence of rupture in 20 of 38 intraneural cases reviewed, mainly in the region of the fibular head and popliteal fossa. Ruptured intraneural cysts and simple cysts share these MRI findings: T2 hyperintense fluid within surrounding intermuscular fascial planes and enhancement with intravenous contrast consistent with inflammation. The mean maximal diameter of the ruptured intraneural cysts was statistically significantly smaller than that of the unruptured cysts. The authors believe that extraneural rupture of an intraneural cyst is due to increased intraarticular pressures transmitted within the cyst and/or elevated extrinsic pressure delivered to the cyst, such as by trauma, akin to the etiology of rupture of extraneural ganglion cysts.

  15. Physiopathology of shock

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Shock syndromes are of three types: cardiogenic, hemorrhagic and inflammatory. Hemorrhagic shock has its initial deranged macro-hemodynamic variables in the blood volume and venous return. In cardiogenic shock there is a primary pump failure that has cardiac output/mean arterial pressure as initial deranged variables. In Inflammatory Shock it is the microcirculation that is mainly affected, while the initial deranged macrocirculation variable is the total peripheral resistance hit by systemic inflammatory response. PMID:21769210

  16. Rupture features of the 2016 Mw 6.2 Norcia earthquake and its possible relationship with strong seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Xie, Zujun; Xiong, Xiong

    2017-02-01

    For analyzing possible reasons for the heavy damage and seismogenic features of the 24 August 2016 Norcia earthquake, we constructed and analyzed its rupture process by incorporating data sets of near-field strong-motion, teleseismic and static GPS displacements. The optimized model revealed a relatively compact slip pattern with mainly normal fault components. The maximum slip was around 0.9 m, while the rupture areas extended 11 km and 20 km along dip and strike, respectively. The total seismic moment was 2.3 × 1018 Nm, equivalent to Mw 6.2. Most seismic moments were released within 10 s, radiating 3.5 × 1013 J of seismic energy. The rupture history showed asymmetric propagation and is characterized by a relatively high rupture velocity within the first 6 s with a maximum of 3.2 km/s. The main shock slip pattern correlated well with the aftershocks distribution, and most of the accumulated strain was released in the east of seismic gap between the nearby 1997 and 2009 earthquake sequences.

  17. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma in a patient with Von Recklinghausen's disease

    PubMed Central

    Azhough, Ramin; Barband, Ali Reza; Motayagheni, Negar; Niafar, Mitra; Pourfathi, Hojjat

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an adrenal pheochromocytoma is extremely rare and can be lethal because of dramatic changes in the circulation. We describe a 35-year-old Iranian female with previously diagnosed von Recklinghausen's disease who suffered spontaneous rupture of an adrenal pheochromocytoma, misdiagnosed as renal colic followed by an extensive retroperitoneal hematoma, irreversible hemodynamic shock, and death. PMID:19881191

  18. Interaction of the main cold shock protein CS7.4 (CspA) of Escherichia coli with the promoter region of hns.

    PubMed

    Brandi, A; Pon, C L; Gualerzi, C O

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli protein CS7.4 (CspA), homologous to the class of eukaryotic Y-box DNA-binding proteins, is a cold shock transcriptional activator of at least two genes, hns and gyrA. It was demonstrated that all or nearly all the elements necessary for the stimulation of hns transcription by CS7.4 protein are located in the proximal 110 bp DNA fragment of this gene with no additional elements being present in a longer fragment (660 bp) extending further upstream from the hns promoter. Protein CS7.4 bound strongly to the 110 bp segment of the hns promoter in crude extracts of cold shocked cells, but the purified protein displayed a weak interaction with the same DNA fragment. Purified CS7.4 protein also caused increased or decreased accessibility to DNase I at different sites of the 110 bp fragment of hns but the majority of these effects was seen only in the presence of RNA polymerase. Since gel shift experiments showed that protein CS7.4 stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter of hns and since it is known that there are similarities between CS7.4 and ssDNA-binding proteins, we suggest that formation of the open complex by the RNA polymerase or protein-protein contacts between CS7.4 and the RNA polymerase are prerequisites for and/or the effects of the interaction of CS7.4 with its DNA target. The presence of a conserved CCAAT element in the hns promoter region, on the other hand, was found not to be stringently required for cold shock activation since expression of E coli of an hns-cat fusion containing the Proteus vulgaris hns promoter lacking a CCAAT box increased over four-fold after cold shock.

  19. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Surface Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize near-field deformation associated with the surface rupture of the M6.0 South Napa earthquake from repeat mobile laser scanning (MLS) surveys. Starting the day after the main shock, we operated, sometime simultaneously, short (~75 m range) and medium (~400m range) range laser scanners on a truck or backpack. We scanned most of the length of the principal and secondary surface ruptures at speeds less than 10 km/hr. Scanning occurred primarily in either suburban subdivisions or cultivated vineyards of varying varietals with differing leaf patterns and stages of maturity. Spot-spacing is dense enough (100s of points/m^2) to permit creation of 10-25cm digital elevation models of much of the surface rupture. Scanned features of the right-lateral rupture include classic mole tracks through a variety of soil types, en echelon cracks, offset vine rows, and myriad types of pavement-related deformation. We estimate coseismic surface displacements ranging from 5 to 45 cm by examining offset cultural features and vine rows and by comparing the MLS data with preexisting airborne laser scans from 2003 using point-cloud and solid-modeling methodologies. Additionally, we conducted repeat MLS scans to measure the magnitude and spatial variation of fault afterslip, exceeding 20 cm in some places, particularly in the southern portion of the rupture zone. We anticipate these data sets, in conjunction with independently collected ground-based alinement arrays and space-based geodetic data will contribute significant insight into topics of current debate including assessing the most appropriate material models for shallow fault zones and how shallow and deeper fault slip relate to one another.

  20. Spontaneous ruptured splenic artery aneurysm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms are rare. We discuss a case of a 58-year-old gentleman presenting with collapse and shock secondary to spontaneous splenic artery aneurysm rupture. Patient underwent laparotomy and splenectomy then discharged home within a week of presentation. PMID:20181191

  1. Blunt Cardiac Rupture: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineet; Dharap, Satish Balkrishna

    2016-01-01

    Blunt Cardiac Rupture (BCR) is a life threatening injury. Majority of patients do not reach the hospital and in those who reach the emergency department, timely diagnosis and treatment is a challenge. The case is about a patient with multiple blunt injuries who presented in shock. Cardiac tamponade was suspected on clinical grounds and on evidence of mediastinal widening on radiograph. In the absence of songography, the diagnosis was confirmed by subxiphoid pericardial window. Emergency thoracotomy revealed a right atrial appendage rupture which was surgically corrected. The patient also underwent splenectomy for grade IV splenic injury. Liver injury, pubic diastasis and tibial spine avulsion fracture was managed conservatively. He recovered well. Systematic observance of trauma resuscitation guidelines can help salvage patients with life threatening complex injuries even in the absence of specialized imaging investigations. PMID:28050441

  2. Coseismic Fault Slip Rupture from the Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, Local Strong-Motion and CGPS Related to the 2010 Jia-Shian Earthquake in Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Chuan; Delouis, Bertrand; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Mozziconacci, Laetitia; Bethoux, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    The Jia-Shian earthquake (Mw=6.3) occurred on 04th March 2010 in the southwestern Taiwan. We used the waveforms of teleseismics to identify the strike, dip and rake of focal mechanism are 311/33/37. Furthermore, we explored the strike, dip and rake are 316/40/44 on the first pulse of the teleseismic P wave. We also took account of the Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) data for the coseismic offset. The maximum horizontal and vertical (uplift) of coseismic offsets at the surface are 29.8mm± 1.0mm and 30.6mm± 5.1mm, respectively at station GS51. Moreover, the space and time distribution of slip during the coseismic rupture was modeled by the joint inversion, which includes the CGPS coseismic offset, the teleseismic, and near field seismic records. We identified the faults geometry and reconstructed the rupture process of coseismic faults slip. The initial rupture was generated on the northwest - southeast trending fault and propagated to the northeast - southwest trending structure after 5 s of main shock. Their strike, dip and rake are 311/33/37 and 020/25/108, respectively. The average slip of rupture was 20.1 cm, with the maximum slip of 50.4 cm. The rupture of the seismic moment was 4.0 × 10 ^ 25 dyne-cm in 30 s of duration time.The slip rupture constrained the synthetic data quite well, especially for the CGPS coseismic offset. We inferred the Jia-Shian earthquake took place on blind fault and the northeast - southwest trending structure was activated following the rupture on main northwest - southeast trending fault.

  3. Ten Years of Shock Tube Research at Marseille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houas, L.

    The invention of the shock tube is attributed to Paul Vieille [1] in the late 19th century. The first simplest shock tube was composed of two chambers separated by a diaphragm.With the pressure increase in the first chamber causing the diaphragm rupture, a shock wave was generated and propagated with a supersonic velocity in the second chamber.

  4. Biomechanical Rupture Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a local event in the aneurysm wall that naturally demands tools to assess the risk for local wall rupture. Consequently, global parameters like the maximum diameter and its expansion over time can only give very rough risk indications; therefore, they frequently fail to predict individual risk for AAA rupture. In contrast, the Biomechanical Rupture Risk Assessment (BRRA) method investigates the wall’s risk for local rupture by quantitatively integrating many known AAA rupture risk factors like female sex, large relative expansion, intraluminal thrombus-related wall weakening, and high blood pressure. The BRRA method is almost 20 years old and has progressed considerably in recent years, it can now potentially enrich the diameter indication for AAA repair. The present paper reviews the current state of the BRRA method by summarizing its key underlying concepts (i.e., geometry modeling, biomechanical simulation, and result interpretation). Specifically, the validity of the underlying model assumptions is critically disused in relation to the intended simulation objective (i.e., a clinical AAA rupture risk assessment). Next, reported clinical BRRA validation studies are summarized, and their clinical relevance is reviewed. The BRRA method is a generic, biomechanics-based approach that provides several interfaces to incorporate information from different research disciplines. As an example, the final section of this review suggests integrating growth aspects to (potentially) further improve BRRA sensitivity and specificity. Despite the fact that no prospective validation studies are reported, a significant and still growing body of validation evidence suggests integrating the BRRA method into the clinical decision-making process (i.e., enriching diameter-based decision-making in AAA patient treatment). PMID:27757402

  5. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Jess; Galli, Melissa; Borchers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in athletes is increasing in incidence and accounts for one of the most devastating sports injuries because of the threat to alter or end a career. Despite the magnitude of this injury, reliable risk assessment has not been clearly defined, and prevention strategies have been limited. The purpose of this review is to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes stated in the current literature. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search was conducted on AT rupture, or “injury” and “risk factors” and “athletes” from 1980 to 2011. Emphasis was placed on epidemiology, etiology, and review articles focusing on the risk for lower extremity injury in runners and gymnasts. Thirty articles were reviewed, and 22 were included in this assessment. Results: Aerial and ground athletes share many intrinsic risk factors for AT rupture, including overuse and degeneration of the tendon as well as anatomical variations that mechanically put an athlete at risk. Older athletes, athletes atypical in size for their sport, high tensile loads, leg dominance, and fatigue also may increase risk. Aerial athletes tend to have more extrinsic factors that play a role in this injury due to the varying landing surfaces from heights and technical maneuvers performed at various skill levels. Conclusion: Risk assessment for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes is multivariable and difficult in terms of developing prevention strategies. Quantitative measures of individual risk factors may help identify major contributors to injury. PMID:24427410

  6. The 2015 Gorkha earthquake: A large event illuminating the Main Himalayan Thrust fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duputel, Zacharie; Vergne, Jérôme; Rivera, Luis; Wittlinger, Gérard; Farra, Véronique; Hetényi, György

    2016-03-01

    The 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence provides an outstanding opportunity to better characterize the geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). To overcome limitations due to unaccounted lateral heterogeneities, we perform Centroid Moment Tensor inversions in a 3-D Earth model for the main shock and largest aftershocks. In parallel, we recompute S-to-P and P-to-S receiver functions from the Hi-CLIMB data set. Inverted centroid locations fall within a low-velocity zone at 10-15 km depth and corresponding to the subhorizontal portion of the MHT that ruptured during the Gorkha earthquake. North of the main shock hypocenter, receiver functions indicate a north dipping feature that likely corresponds to the midcrustal ramp connecting the flat portion to the deep part of the MHT. Our analysis of the main shock indicates that long-period energy emanated updip of high-frequency radiation sources previously inferred. This frequency-dependent rupture process might be explained by different factors such as fault geometry and the presence of fluids.

  7. Arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture.

    PubMed

    Marques, Inês Brás; Vieira Barbosa, José

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital cerebrospinal fluid collections, usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally in children or adolescents. They may become symptomatic after enlargement or complications, frequently presenting with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. We report an unusual case of progressive refractory headache in an adult patient due to an arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture. Although clinical improvement occurred with conservative treatment, the subdural hygroma progressively enlarged and surgical treatment was ultimately needed. Spontaneous rupture is a very rare complication of arachnoid cysts. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space causes sustained intracranial hypertension that may be life-threatening and frequently requires surgical treatment. Patients with arachnoid cysts must be informed on their small vulnerability to cyst rupture and be aware that a sudden and severe headache, especially if starting after minor trauma or a Valsalva manoeuvre, always requires medical evaluation.

  8. The Energy Budget of Earthquake Rupture: a View From Spontaneous Rupture Modeling and Finite-Source Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, P.; Guatteri, M.

    2003-12-01

    It is a common and frustrating experience of many dynamic modelers to initiate spontaneous rupture calculations that subsequently abort before rupturing to the desired earthquake size [Nielsen and Olsen, 2000; Oglesby and Day, 2002]. Source parameters in such dynamic source models are strongly correlated, but stress drop is the main factor affecting the distribution of the other dynamic rupture parameters. Additionally, the position of the hypocenter exerts a strong influence on the dynamic properties of the earthquake, and certain hypocenter positions are not plausible as those would not lead to spontaneous rupture propagation. To further investigate this last statement, we analyze the energy budget during earthquake rupture using spontaneous dynamic rupture calculations and finite-source rupture models. In describing the energy budget during earthquake rupture, we follow Favreau and Archuleta [2003]. Each point on the fault contributes to the radiated seismic energy Ers = Eel - Efr - Erx, where Eel denotes the elasto-static energy and Efr the fracture energy. In this study we neglect for simplicity the relaxation work Erx spent during the stopping of the earthquake. A rupture can be characterized by locally negative seismic energy density values, but its integral over the fault plane must be positive. The fundamental condition for rupture growth is therefore that the integral of Ers on the rupture area remains always positive during rupture propagation. Based on a simple energy budget calculation, we focus on identifying those target slip/stress distribution in dynamic rupture modeling that for a given hypocenter location fail to rupture spontaneously. Additionally, we study the energy budget of finite-source rupture models by analyzing the integrated seismic energy for the inferred slip maps using also hypocenter positions other than the network location. These results indicate how rupture was promoted for the true hypocenter while randomized hypocenters may not

  9. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Oursin, C; Wetzel, S G; Lyrer, P; Bächli, H; Stock, K W

    1999-09-01

    Intradural dermoids are rare congenital tumors representing approximately 0.05% of all intracranial lesions. These benign tumors have a typical appearance on CT and MR due to their lipid components. The complication caused by rupture are the spillage of the fatty material into the cerebrospinal fluid. We report a case of a ruptured dermoid cyst showing fat/fluid levels in both side ventricles and fatty material in the subarachnoid space on CT and MR-imaging and the follow-up over four years after incomplete resection of the tumor.

  10. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  11. Rupture, waves and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  12. Complete Achilles tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Landvater, S J; Renström, P A

    1992-10-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures can be treated nonsurgically in the nonathletic or low-end recreational athletic patient, particularly those more than 50 years of age, provided the treating physician does not delay in the diagnosis and treatment (preferably less than 48 hrs and possibly less than 1 week). The patient should be advised of the higher incidence of re-rupture of the tendon when treated nonsurgically. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients who are young and athletic. This is particularly true because the major criticism of surgical treatment has been the complication rate, which has decreased to a low level and to a mild degree, usually not significantly affecting the repair over time. Surgical treatment in these individuals seems to be superior not only in regard to re-rupture but also in assuring the correct apposition of the tendon ends and in placing the necessary tension on the tendon to secure appropriate orientation of the collagen fibers. This in turn allows them to regain full strength, power, endurance, and an early return to sports. Surgery is also recommended for late diagnosed ruptures where there is significant lengthening of the tendon. Surgical technique should involve a medial incision to avoid the sural nerve, absorbable suture, and augmentation with fascia or tendon where there is a gap or late rupture. Postoperatively, the immobilization should be 7 to 10 days in a splint. A walking boot with early motion in plantar flexion or a short leg cast with the tendon under slight tension should thereafter be used for 4 to 5 weeks. An early and well-supervised rehabilitation program should be initiated to restore the patient to the preinjury activity level.

  13. Rupture of the plantar fascia.

    PubMed

    Pai, V S

    1996-01-01

    Rupture of the plantar fascia in athletes engaged in sports that require running and jumping has been reported. However, spontaneous degenerative rupture of the plantar fascia is not well documented in the literature. This paper reports a patient with degenerative rupture of the plantar fascia.

  14. [Splenic artery rupture in pancreatic pseudocyst].

    PubMed

    Ungania, S; Panocchia, N

    2000-01-01

    Hemorrhage is one of the most threatening complication of pancreatic pseudocyst. It results from erosion of adjacent vessels. Splenic, gastroduodenal, pancreaticoduodenal and middle colic vessels are predominantly involved. Hemorrhage may present different feature: intra and/or extraperitoneal collection, gastrointestinal bleeding. The authors report the rupture of splenic artery into pseudocyst, with the formation of pulsating pseudoaneurysm, increasing progressively until the final rupture. For the diagnosis the authors utilized: ultrasounds (US) which showed the cyst but not its nature and content; the CT scan which disclosed haematic contents; finally the US Color Doppler which proved the dynamic feature of hemorrhage. This technique allows to identify the arterious or venous source of bleeding and the possible presence of arteriovenous fistula. Arteriography was not performed due to circumstances, although it would permit bleeding vessel embolization and the control of hemorrhage. This procedure is not ever achievable, and doesn't exclude the possibility of rebleeding. On surgery, since the intraoperative rupture of the pseudoaneurysm occurred with severe hypovolemic shock, only a timely posterior mesogastric mobilization and the medially displacement of spleen-body-tail pancreatic complex, allowed to clamp the mass and the hemostasis. When such lesion are approached, it is mandatory to be prepared to carry on this maneuver: the severity of bleeding cannot allow intracystic ligature of bleeding vessel.

  15. Physics of collisionless shocks: theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockem Novo, A.; Bret, A.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks occur in various fields of physics. In the context of space and astrophysics they have been investigated for many decades. However, a thorough understanding of shock formation and particle acceleration is still missing. Collisionless shocks can be distinguished into electromagnetic and electrostatic shocks. Electromagnetic shocks are of importance mainly in astrophysical environments and they are mediated by the Weibel or filamentation instability. In such shocks, charged particles gain energy by diffusive shock acceleration. Electrostatic shocks are characterized by a strong electrostatic field, which leads to electron trapping. Ions are accelerated by reflection from the electrostatic potential. Shock formation and particle acceleration will be discussed in theory and simulations.

  16. Repaired left ventricular free wall rupture after acute myocardial infarction by percutaneous intrapericardial fibrin-glue injection therapy.

    PubMed

    Okonogi, Taichi; Otsuka, Yoritaka; Saito, Taro

    2013-09-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture is a rare, but occasionally lethal, complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This case report describes a patient who presented with cardiogenic shock due to oozing-type rupture secondary to AMI and successfully underwent percutaneous intrapericardial fibrin-glue injection therapy. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the thin layer of fibrin that covered the ruptured infarct myocardium immediately after fibrin-glue injection and its disappearance without any complications at 6 months.

  17. Source Complexity of the 2009 L'Aquila, Italy, earthquake retrieved from the joint inversion of strong motion, GPS and DInSAR data - Evidence for a Reological Control on Rupture Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirella, Antonella; Piatanesi, Alessio; Tinti, Elisa; Chini, Marco; Cocco, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) occurred in the Central Apennines (Italy) on April 6th at the 01:32 UTC and caused nearly 300 casualties and heavy damages in the L'Aquila town and in several villages nearby. The main shock ruptured a normal fault striking along the Apennine axis and dipping at nearly 50° to the SW. The identification of the fault geometry of the L'Aquila main shock relies on the aftershock pattern, the interferometric data, the GPS displacements as well as the induced surface breakages. The earthquake provided an unprecedented data set of seismograms and geodetic data for a moderate-magnitude normal faulting event. In this study, we investigate the source process of the L'Aquila main shock by using a nonlinear joint inversion of strong motion, GPS and DInSAR data. The imaged rupture history is heterogeneous and characterized by rupture acceleration and directivity effects, which are stable features of the inverted models. The inferred slip distribution is characterized by two main asperities; a small shallow slip patch located up-dip the hypocenter and a large and deeper patch located southeastward. The rupture velocity is larger in the up-dip than in the along-strike direction. This difference can be partially accounted by the local crustal structure, which is characterized by a high body-wave velocity layer above the hypocenter (9.46 km) and lower velocities below. The latter velocity seems to have affected the along strike propagation, since the largest slip patch is located at depths between 9 and 14 km. The imaged slip distribution correlates well with the on-fault aftershock pattern as well as with mapped surface breakages. The rupture history is also consistent with the large PGA values recorded at L'Aquila that is located right above the hypocenter. Our results show that the L'Aquila earthquake featured a very complex rupture history, with strong spatial and temporal heterogeneities suggesting a strong reological control of the

  18. Premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Poma, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    The management of patients with premature rupture of membranes has changed markedly in the past several years. The basis for this is a combination of a better understanding of newborn physiology, improved neonatal care, refinements in antibiotic therapy, and the widespread use of maternal and fetal monitoring. The best outcome for both mother and infant undoubtedly reflects data based on a combination of factors, among which are gestational age survival, evidence of fetal distress, presence or absence of labor and sepsis, and of course, the cervical condition as it is related to labor-readiness. An important recent advance is the recognition that an active observation management program is associated with less morbidity and mortality than the classic management course of delivery within 12 hours of membrane rupture. The fact that preterm premature rupture of membranes tends to recur in subsequent pregnancies offers an opportunity for prevention. Moreover, advances in perinatal and neonatal care will continue to improve the outcomes of these women and their children. PMID:8583489

  19. Supershear Rupture of 2013 Jan 05, Mw 7.5, Craig, Alaska earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, H.; Lay, T.; Freymueller, J. T.; Ding, K.; Rivera, L. A.; Ruppert, N. A.; Koper, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    Supershear rupture, in which a fracture's crack tip expansion velocity exceeds the elastic shear velocity, has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Supershear rupture speeds have been inferred for six intraplate strike-slip earthquakes. In this work, we show evidence of supershear rupture expansion of an interplate earthquake, the 5 January 2013, Mw = 7.5, Craig, Alaska earthquake, which is a bilateral strike-slip event on the Queen Charlotte Fault, offshore of southeastern Alaska. We present direct observations of shear shock-waves in regional seismic stations using an empirical Green's function technique, which is most probably produced by a supershear rupture process. Several inversion and modeling techniques were processed to investigate the rupture ve.ocity using regional seismic and geodetic observations. Both theoretical and empirical Green's functions were used in inversion and modeling, with both indicate a consistent supear-shear rupture velocity of 5.5 to 6 km/s, higher than the crustal and upper-mantle S-wave velocity and approaching the P-wave velocity. Supershear rupture occurred along ~100 km of the northern rupture zone, but not along the shorter southern rupture extension. The direction of supershear rupture may be related to the strong material contrast across the continental-oceanic plate boundary, as predicted theoretically and experimentally.

  20. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  1. Laser measurements of bacterial endospore destruction from shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappas, Petros P.; McCartt, A. Daniel; Gates, Sean D.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of shock waves on bioaerosols containing endospores were measured by combined laser absorption and scattering. Experiments were conducted in the Stanford aerosol shock tube for post-shock temperatures ranging from 400 K to 1100 K. Laser intensity measurements through the test section of the shock tube at wavelengths of 266 and 665 nm provided real-time monitoring of the morphological changes (includes changes in shape, structure and optical properties) in the endospores. Scatter of the visible light measured the integrity of endospore structure, while absorption of the UV light provided a measure of biochemicals released when endospores ruptured. For post-shock temperatures above 750 K the structural breakdown of Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) endospores was observed. A simple theoretical model using laser extinction is presented for determining the fraction of endospores that are ruptured by the shock waves. In addition, mechanisms of endospore mortality preceding their disintegration due to shock waves are discussed.

  2. Structure in Radiating Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Forrest

    2010-11-01

    The basic radiative shock experiment is a shock launched into a gas of high-atomic-number material at high velocities, which fulfills the conditions for radiative losses to collapse the post-shock material to over 20 times the initial gas density. This has been accomplished using the OMEGA Laser Facility by illuminating a Be ablator for 1 ns with a total of 4 kJ, launching the requisite shock, faster than 100 km/sec, into a polyimide shock tube filled with Xe. The experiments have lateral dimensions of 600 μm and axial dimensions of 2-3 mm, and are diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. Repeatable structure beyond the one-dimensional picture of a shock as a planar discontinuity was discovered in the experimental data. One form this took was that of radial boundary effects near the tube walls, extended approximately seventy microns into the system. The cause of this effect - low density wall material which is heated by radiation transport ahead of the shock, launching a new converging shock ahead of the main shock - is apparently unique to high-energy-density experiments. Another form of structure is the appearance of small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces and creating regions of enhanced and diminished aerial density within the layer. The authors have applied an instability theory, a variation of the Vishniac instability of decelerating shocks, to describe the growth of these perturbations. We have also applied Bayesian statistical methods to better understand the uncertainties associated with measuring shocked layer thickness in the presence of tilt. Collaborators: R. P. Drake, H. F. Robey, C. C. Kuranz, C. M. Huntington, M. J. Grosskopf, D. C. Marion.

  3. Electron Acceleration in Shock-Shock Interaction: Simulations and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, M.; Matsukiyo, S.; Mazelle, C. X.; Hada, T.

    2015-12-01

    Collisionless shock waves play a crucial role in producing high energy particles (cosmic rays) in space. While most of the past studies about particle acceleration assume the presence of a single shock, in space two shocks frequently come close to or even collide with each other. Hietala et al. [2011] observed the collision of an interplanetary shock and the earth's bow shock and the associated acceleration of energetic ions. The kinetic natures of a shock-shock collision has not been well understood. Only the work done by using hybrid simulation was reported by Cargill et al. [1986], in which they focus on a collision of two supercritical shocks and the resultant ion acceleration. We expect similarly that electron acceleration can also occur in shock-shock collision. To investigate the electron acceleration process in a shock-shock collision, we perform one-dimensional full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In the simulation energetic electrons are observed between the two approaching shocks before colliding. These energetic electrons are efficiently accelerated through multiple reflections at the two shocks (Fermi acceleration). The reflected electrons create a temperature anisotropy and excite large amplitude waves upstream via the electron fire hose instability. The large amplitude waves can scatter the energetic electrons in pitch angle so that some of them gain large pitch angles and are easily reflected when they encounter the shocks subsequently. The reflected electrons can sustain, or probably even strengthen, them. We further discuss observational results of an interaction of interplanetary shocks and the earth's bow shock by examining mainly Cluster data. We focus on whether or not electrons are accelerated in the shock-shock interaction.

  4. The Constantine (Algeria) seismic sequence of 27 October 1985: a new rupture model from aftershock relocation, focal mechanisms, and stress tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousadou, F.; Dorbath, L.; Dorbath, C.; Bounif, M. A.; Benhallou, H.

    2013-04-01

    The October 27, 1985 Constantine earthquake of magnitude MS 5.9 (NEIC) although moderate is the strongest earthquake recorded in the eastern Tellian Atlas (northeast Algeria) since the beginning of instrumental seismology. The main shock locations given by different institutions are scattered and up to 10 km away northwest from the NE-SW 30 km long elongated aftershocks cloud localized by a dedicated temporary portable network. The focal mechanism indicates left-lateral strike-slip on an almost vertical fault with a small reverse component on the northwest dipping plane. This paper presents relocations of the main shock and aftershocks using TomoDD. One hundred thirty-eight individual focal mechanisms have been built allowing the determination of the stress tensor at different scales. A rupture model has been suggested, which explains the different observations of aftershock distribution and stress tensor rotation.

  5. Bond-rupture immunosensors--a review.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Evan R; Yuan, Yong J; Xu, W L; Bronlund, J E

    2008-07-15

    It has long been the goal of researchers to develop fast and reliable point-of-care alternatives to existing lab-based tests. A viable point-of-care biosensor is fast, reliable, simple, cost-effective, and detects low concentrations of the target analyte. The target of biosensors is biological such as bacteria or virus and as such, the antibody-antigen bond derived from the real immune response is used. Biosensor applications include lab-based tests for the purposes of diagnostics, drug discovery, and research. Additional applications include environmental, food, and agricultural monitoring. The main merits of the bond-rupture method are quick, simple, and capable of discriminating between specific and non-specific interactions. The separation of specific and non-specific bonds is important for working in real-life complex serums such as blood. The bond-rupture technique can provide both qualitative results, the detection of a target, and quantitative results, the concentration of target. Bond-rupture achieves this by a label-free method requiring no pre-processing of the analyte. A piezoelectric transducer such as the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) shakes the bound particles free from the surface. Other transducers such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) are also considered. The rupture of the bonds is detected as electronic noise. This review article links diverse research areas to build a picture of a field still in development.

  6. Persistency of rupture directivity in moderate-magnitude earthquakes in Italy: Implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, A.; Calderoni, G.

    2012-12-01

    A simple method based on the EGF deconvolution in the frequency domain is applied to detect the occurrence of unilateral ruptures in recent damaging earthquakes in Italy. The spectral ratio between event pairs with different magnitudes at individual stations shows large azimuthal variations above corner frequency when the target event is affected by source directivity and the EGF is not or vice versa. The analysis is applied to seismograms and accelerograms recorded during the seismic sequence following the 20 May 2012, Mw 5.6 main shock in Emilia, northern Italy, the 6 April 2009, Mw 6.1 earthquake of L'Aquila, central Italy, and the 26 September 1997, Mw 5.7 and 6.0 shocks in Umbria-Marche, central Italy. Events of each seismic sequence are selected as having consistent focal mechanisms, and the station selection obeys to the constraint of a similar source-to-receiver path for the event pairs. The analyzed data set of L'Aquila consists of 962 broad-band seismograms relative to 69 normal-faulting earthquakes (3.3 ≤ MW ≤ 6.1, according to Herrmann et al., 2011), stations are selected in the distance range 100 to 250 km to minimize differences in propagation paths. The seismogram analysis reveals that a strong along-strike (toward SE) source directivity characterized all of the three Mw > 5.0 shocks. Source directivity was also persistent up to the smallest magnitudes: 65% of earthquakes under study showed evidence of directivity toward SE whereas only one (Mw 3.7) event showed directivity in the opposite direction. Also the Mw 5.6 main shock of the 20 May 2012 in Emilia result in large azimuthal spectral variations indicating unilateral rupture propagation toward SE. According to the reconstructed geometry of the trust-fault plane, the inferred directivity direction suggests top-down rupture propagation. The analysis over the Emilia aftershock sequence is in progress. The third seismic sequence, dated 1997-1998, occurred in the northern Apennines and, similarly

  7. [Premonitory sign of myocardial rupture].

    PubMed

    Lauten, A; Dittrich, P

    1975-10-01

    It is reported on 14 cases in which a rupture of the myocardium occurred following a myocardial infarction. The moment of the appearance as well as anamnestic and clinical peculiarities are examined. As the only usable symptom of the rupture the symptomatology of the electromechanic dissociation must be taken into consideration. Finally it is referred to the on principle possible operative consequences of the rupture of the myocardium (oversewing or infarctetomy).

  8. Detailed source process of the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake and its main aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrat, S.; Madariaga, R.; Buforn, E.; Meneses, G.; Campos, J.; Favreau, P.; Bernard, P.; Vilotte, J.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the detail rupture process of the Tocopilla earthquake (Mw 7.7) of the 14 November 2007 and of the main aftershocks that occurred in the southern part of the North Chile seismic gap using teleseismic broadband and strong motion data. The earthquake happen in the middle of the permanent broad band and strong motion network IPOC newly installed by GFZ and IPGP-CNRS, and of a digital strong- motion network operated by the University of Chile. The Tocopilla earthquake is the last large thrust subduction earthquake since the major Iquique 1877 earthquake which produced a destructive tsunami. The Arequipa (2001) and Antofagasta (1995) earthquakes already ruptured the northern and southern parts of the gap, and the intraplate intermediate depth Tarapaca earthquake (2005) may have changed the tectonic loading of this part of the Peru-Chile subduction zone. The Tocopilla earthquake raises some disturbing questions: why this earthquake didn't extent further north ; what has been the role of the Mejillones peninsula in the south which seems to act as a barrier? We studied the detailed source process using the strong motion data available. The strong-motion data show clearly two S-waves arrivals, allowing the localization of two sources. The main shock started north of the segment close to Tocopilla. The rupture propagated southward. The second source was identified to start about 20 seconds later and located 50 km south from the hypocenter. The earthquake ruptured the interplate seismic zone over more than 150 km and generated several large aftershocks, mainly located south of the rupture area with the same focal mechanism, except for the largest one that took place on the 16 December. This event is a down-dip compressional event (slab push) placed down dip of the main interplate coupling zone at the southern end of the main event rupture zone. Finally in order to understand whether the northern gap has actually been reduced or not by the occurrence of the

  9. Slow rupture of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliakhandler, Igor

    2004-11-01

    Bursting of soap film is a fast and fascinating process. It turns out that certain polymer films rupture in a somewhat similar fashion, but much slower. The slowness of the process allows one to study the rupture of polymer films with details. The rupture process in Hele-Shaw-like fashion shows remarkable properties, and is a very simple system. It turns out that propagation speed of the rupture is a function of the film thickness, and rheologic properties of the polymer. Experimental results will be compared with theory, together with demonstration of the experiment.

  10. Acoustic-Friction Networks and the Evolution of Precursor Rupture Fronts in Laboratory Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, H. O.; Young, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of shear rupture fronts in laboratory earthquakes is analysed with the corresponding functional networks, constructed over acoustic emission friction-patterns. We show that the mesoscopic characteristics of functional networks carry the characteristic time for each phase of the rupture evolution. The classified rupture fronts in network states–obtained from a saw-cut fault and natural faulted Westerly granite - show a clear separation into three main groups, indicating different states of rupture fronts. With respect to the scaling of local ruptures' durations with the networks' parameters, we show that the gap in the classified fronts could be related to the possibility of a separation between slow and regular fronts.

  11. Ruptured Intracranial Dermoid Cyst Associated with Rupture of Cerebral Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Hong

    2011-01-01

    Many tumors have been reported to coexist with cerebral aneurysm. However, intracranial dermoid cysts associated with cerebral aneurysm are very rare. We report a case in which rupture of a cerebral aneurysm resulted in a ruptured dermoid cyst. We present this interesting case and review current literature about the relationship between tumors and aneurysm formation. PMID:22259693

  12. Mycotic Aneurysm of the Celiac Trunk: From Early CT Sign to Rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Serafino, Gianpiero Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Boks, Simone; Harst, Erwin van der

    2005-06-15

    We present a case of the rapid development and rupture of a mycotic celiac trunk aneurysm. Initiallyon multislice computed tomography (ms-CT) there was a normal celiac trunk with minimal haziness of the surrounding fat. Only 2 weeks later the patient went into hypovolemic shock due to a ruptured celiac aneurysm. Although aneurysms of the visceral arteries are rare, they are of major clinical importance as they carry a life-threatening risk of rupture. This case illustrates the use of ms-CT in detecting and evaluating visceral aneurysms, in order to prevent emergency operation.

  13. Spontaneous rupture on irregular faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2014-12-01

    It is now know (e.g. Robinson et al., 2006) that when ruptures propagate around bends, the rupture velocity decrease. In the extreme case, a large bend in the fault can stop the rupture. We develop a 2-D finite difference method to simulate spontaneous dynamic rupture on irregular faults. This method is based on a second order leap-frog finite difference scheme on a uniform mesh of triangles. A relaxation method is used to generate an irregular fault geometry-conforming mesh from the uniform mesh. Through this numerical coordinate mapping, the elastic wave equations are transformed and solved in a curvilinear coordinate system. Extensive numerical experiments using the linear slip-weakening law will be shown to demonstrate the effect of fault geometry on rupture properties. A long term goal is to simulate the strong ground motion near the vicinity of bends, jogs, etc.

  14. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Mallah, Fatemeh; Eftekhar, Tahere; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra. PMID:24024054

  15. Rupture mechanism and seismotectonics of the Ms6.5 Ludian earthquake inferred from three-dimensional magnetotelluric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Juntao; Chen, Xiaobin; Xu, Xiwei; Tang, Ji; Wang, Lifeng; Guo, Chunling; Han, Bing; Dong, Zeyi

    2017-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity model around the 2014 Ms6.5 Ludian earthquake was obtained. The model shows that the aftershocks were mainly distributed in a shallow inverse L-shaped conductive angular region surrounded by resistive structures. The presences of this shallow conductive zone may be the key factor leading to the severe damage and surface rupture of the Ludian earthquake. A northwest trending local resistive belt along the Baogunao-Xiaohe fault interrupts the northeast trending conductive zone at the Zhaotong-Lianfeng fault zone in the middle crust, which may be the seismogenic structure of the main shock. Based on the 3-D electrical model, combining with GPS, thermal structure, and seismic survey results, a geodynamic model is proposed to interpret the seismotectonics, deep seismogenic background, and deformation characterized by a sinistral strike slip with a tensile component of the Ludian earthquake.

  16. Investigating Different Aspects of Supershear Rupture Speed to Constraint Earthquake Source Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalguer, L. A.; Gabriel, A. A.; Mena Carbrera, B.; Baumann, C. F.

    2011-12-01

    Since the paper of Andrews (1976) in which the physical conditions to the occurrence of supershear rupture speed has been described in in-plane (mode II) rupture, several earthquakes, mainly large strike-slip faults, show evidence of this phenomenon. Now it is widely accepted this possibility, and several studies describing this phenomenon has been reported in the specialized literature. Those studies of supershear rupture are mainly described into the framework of classical cracks governed by slip-weakening friction. Numerical simulations of dynamic rupture in a heterogeneous field, as expected it is in nature, suggest that localized super-shear rupture speed in strike-slip fault exist at events of all sizes (Mena et al, BSSA 2011, submitted), as well as in dip-slip faults (see Baumann and Dalguer, AGU2011 this session). Inspired by the pioneer study on supershear cracks of Andrews (1976), we have developed in-plane dynamic rupture models governed by strong velocity weakening, to investigate the development of supershear rupture speed in a diversity of rupture styles: crack-like, pulse-like and combination of both. In addition to the classical supershear crack, we have identified four styles of supershear rupture patterns (Gabriel et al, JGR2011, submitted): 1) Supershear pulse triggered by a primary pulse; 2) supershear crack triggered by a primary pulse; 3) Initially steady state pulse, then very shortly become growing pulse to soon nucleates a bilateral asymmetric rupture crack, that later trigger a supershear rupture at the two new rupture fronts. The two supershear rupture fronts propagating toward the hypocenter suffer a collision at the hypocenter; 4) Growing main rupture pulse followed by a reactivation of a shear crack at the hypocenter, that subsequently triggers a supershear crack. The supershear transition mechanism described by Andrews (1976) operates also for all the listed supershear styles. We aim to characterize all these aspects of supershear

  17. Cardiovascular failure and cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ankitkumar K; Hollenberg, Steven M

    2011-10-01

    Cardiovascular system failure is commonly faced by the intensivist. Heart failure can occur due to a host of predisposing cardiac disorders or as secondary effects of systemic illness. When the heart is unable to provide an adequate cardiac output to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, cardiogenic shock ensues. Without prompt diagnosis and appropriate management, these patients have significant morbidity and mortality, with in-hospital mortality approaching 60% for all age groups. Accurate and rapid identification of cardiogenic shock as a medical emergency, with expeditious implementation of appropriate therapy, can lead to improved clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss optimal strategies for diagnosis and monitoring of cardiogenic shock. We discuss the diverse therapeutic strategies employed for cardiogenic shock, including pharmacological (e.g., vasoactive agents, fibrinolytic agents), mechanical (e.g., intraaortic balloon pumps, left ventricular assist devices, percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]), and surgical approaches such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), valvular repair or replacement (e.g., for acute mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal rupture, or free wall rupture).

  18. Outcome of ruptured uterus at University Teaching Hospital Aleppo, Syria.

    PubMed

    Bakour, S; Nassif, B; Nwosu, E C

    1998-09-01

    A 10-year review of ruptured gravid uterus at the University Teaching Hospital, Aleppo, Syria showed an incidence of one ruptured uterus in 565 deliveries. This is an average figure compared with published studies but is still high compared with developed countries. Sixty-four per cent of the cases of ruptured uterus had no antenatal care. It is no surprise therefore that maternal and fetal mortality was highest amongst the unbooked labouring women. In survivors the morbidity was also higher. Ruptured uterus is therefore a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in Syria. The overall hospital maternal and perinatal mortalities for the period under review were 4.3% and 2.6% respectively. The main risk factor identified is scarring from previous caesarean sections. Other risk factors are discussed.

  19. Rheumatoid flexor tenosynovitis and rupture.

    PubMed

    Ferlic, D C

    1996-08-01

    Rheumatoid flexor tenosynovitis at the wrist can cause locking, limitation of motion, nerve compression, and rupture of tendons. To prevent and treat these conditions, a flexor tenosynovectomy, combined with nerve decompression and tendon reconstruction as indicated, is necessary. If tendons are ruptured, the flexor pollicis longus and profundus to the index finger are most commonly affected. On the fingers flexor tenosynovitis can also cause locking, decrease in range of motion and rupture tendons. Flexor tenosynovitis of the fingers should be treated with decompression of the tendons health with preservation of the pulley system.

  20. Elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures: epicondylitis, biceps and triceps ruptures.

    PubMed

    Rineer, Craig A; Ruch, David S

    2009-03-01

    Lateral and medial epicondylitis are common causes of elbow pain in the general population, with the lateral variety being more common than the medial by a ratio reportedly ranging from 4:1 to 7:1. Initially thought to be an inflammatory condition, epicondylitis has ultimately been shown to result from tendinous microtearing followed by an incomplete reparative response. Numerous nonoperative and operative treatment options have been employed in the treatment of epicondylitis, without the emergence of a single, consistent, universally accepted treatment protocol. Tendon ruptures about the elbow are much less frequent, but result in more significant disability and loss of function. Distal biceps tendon ruptures typically occur in middle-aged males as a result of an event that causes a sudden, eccentric contraction of the biceps. Triceps tendon ruptures are exceedingly rare but usually have a similar etiology with a forceful eccentric contraction of the triceps that causes avulsion of the tendon from the olecranon. The diagnosis of these injuries is not always readily made. Complete ruptures of the biceps or triceps tendons have traditionally been treated surgically with good results. With regard to biceps ruptures, there continues to be debate about the best surgical approach, as well as the best method of fixation of tendon to bone. This article is not meant to be an exhaustive review of the broad topics of elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures, but rather is a review of recently published information on the topics that will assist the clinician in diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  1. Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method.

  2. Interrogation of the Megathrust Zone in the Tohoku-Oki Seismic Region by Waveform Complexity: Intraslab Earthquake Rupture and Reactivation of Subducted Normal Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Semechah K. Y.; Helmberger, Don; Wei, Shengji; Huang, Yihe; Graves, Robert W.

    2015-12-01

    Results from the 2011 Mw 9.1 Tohoku-Oki megathrust earthquake display a complex rupture pattern, with most of the high-frequency energy radiated from the downdip edge of the seismogenic zone and very little from the large shallow rupture. Current seismic results of smaller earthquakes in this region are confusing due to disagreements among event catalogs on both the event locations (>30 km horizontally) and mechanisms. Here we present an in-depth study of a series of intraslab earthquakes that occurred in a localized region near the downdip edge of the main shock. We explore the validity of 1D velocity model and refine earthquake source parameters for selected key events by performing broadband waveform modeling combining regional networks. These refined source parameters are then used to calibrate paths and further simulate secondary source properties, such as rupture directivity and fault dimension. Calculation of stress changes caused by the main event indicate that the region where these intraslab events occurred are prone to thrust events. This group of intraslab earthquakes suggest the reactivation of a subducted normal fault, and are potentially useful in enhancing our understanding on the downdip shear zone and large outer-rise events.

  3. Ruptured aneurysms of sinuses of Valsalva

    PubMed Central

    Jugdutt, B. I.; Fraser, R. S.; Rossall, R. E.; Lee, S. J. K.

    1974-01-01

    At least one additional cardiac lesion was present in 18 consecutive patients with ruptured aneurysms of the sinuses of Valsalva who were investigated between 1956 and 1973 at the University of Alberta Hospital. Clinical diagnosis was made in 78% (14/18) of the patients. Confirmation at cardiac catheterization, operation or autopsy was obtained in all but one. The main sites of rupture were the right ventricle (seven cases), right atrium (five) and left ventricle (five). Fifty percent (9/18) are alive and well following prompt operative repair, an average of 8.2 years later (range, six months to 15 years). Replacement of the aortic valve was associated with a high mortality (50% early, 13% late, total 63%) which could be explained by the higher operative risk in this group of very ill patients. Eight patients (44.4%) had had bacterial endocarditis prior to presentation and this may have played a significant role in the rupture of the sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4278257

  4. Posttraumatic Haematuria with Pseudorenal Failure: A Diagnostic Lead for Intraperitoneal Bladder Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Vagholkar, Suvarna

    2016-01-01

    Bladder rupture is a very morbid injury following blunt or penetrating lower abdominal trauma. Prompt diagnosis is crucial to initiate optimal treatment. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture is associated with haematuria and biochemical features of renal failure. Cystogram is diagnostic. Immediate open surgical repair is the main stay of treatment. A case of intraperitoneal rupture diagnosed preoperatively by the presence of haematuria and pseudorenal failure is presented to highlight the association of posttraumatic haematuria and pseudorenal failure in such injuries. PMID:27547477

  5. Temporal and spatial heterogeneity of rupture process application in shakemaps of Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, C.

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that estimates of ground motion parameter from ground motion attenuation relationship often greater than the observed value, mainly because multiple ruptures of the big earthquake reduce the source pulse height of source time function. In the absence of real-time data of the station after the earthquake, this paper attempts to make some constraints from the source, to improve the accuracy of shakemaps. Causative fault of Yushu Ms 7.1 earthquake is vertical approximately (dip 83 °), and source process in time and space was dispersive distinctly. Main shock of Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake can be divided into several sub-events based on source process of this earthquake. Magnitude of each sub-events depended on each area under the curve of source pulse of source time function, and location derived from source process of each sub-event. We use ShakeMap method with considering the site effect to generate shakeMap for each sub-event, respectively. Finally, ShakeMaps of mainshock can be aquired from superposition of shakemaps for all the sub-events in space. Shakemaps based on surface rupture of causative Fault from field survey can also be derived for mainshock with only one magnitude. We compare ShakeMaps of both the above methods with Intensity of investigation. Comparisons show that decomposition method of main shock more accurately reflect the shake of earthquake in near-field, but for far field the shake is controlled by the weakening influence of the source, the estimated Ⅵ area was smaller than the intensity of the actual investigation. Perhaps seismic intensity in far-field may be related to the increasing seismic duration for the two events. In general, decomposition method of main shock based on source process, considering shakemap of each sub-event, is feasible for disaster emergency response, decision-making and rapid Disaster Assessment after the earthquake.

  6. Physics of Bacteria During Osmotic Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jordan; Klug, William

    Bacteria combat hypoosmotic shocks by opening mechanosensitive ion channels located within the inner membrane. These channels are believed to act as ``emergency release valves,'' reducing transient pressure during the shock by regulating solute and water flux. Recent experiments have shown that cell survivability depends strongly on channel populations and the rate of osmotic shock. However, the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind osmotic protection remains unclear. We investigate how channel deletions, variations in shock rate, and cell envelope mechanics affect survivability by constructing theoretical elasticity and transport models. We find that reducing the number of channels and applying faster shocks significantly increases the time-dependent stress of the cell membrane and wall. This result provides insight into physical mechanisms that govern cell failure, including membrane rupture and wall fracture.

  7. The rupture process of the Manjil, Iran earthquake of 20 june 1990 and implications for intraplate strike-slip earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Zednik, J.

    1997-01-01

    In terms of seismically radiated energy or moment release, the earthquake of 20 January 1990 in the Manjil Basin-Alborz Mountain region of Iran is the second largest strike-slip earthquake to have occurred in an intracontinental setting in the past decade. It caused enormous loss of life and the virtual destruction of several cities. Despite a very large meizoseismal area, the identification of the causative faults has been hampered by the lack of reliable earthquake locations and conflicting field reports of surface displacement. Using broadband data from global networks of digitally recording seismographs, we analyse broadband seismic waveforms to derive characteristics of the rupture process. Complexities in waveforms generated by the earthquake indicate that the main shock consisted of a tiny precursory subevent followed in the next 20 seconds by a series of four major subevents with depths ranging from 10 to 15 km. The focal mechanisms of the major subevents, which are predominantly strike-slip, have a common nodal plane striking about 285??-295??. Based on the coincidence of this strike with the dominant tectonic fabric of the region we presume that the EW striking planes are the fault planes. The first major subevent nucleated slightly south of the initial precursor. The second subevent occurred northwest of the initial precursor. The last two subevents moved progressively southeastward of the first subevent in a direction collinear with the predominant strike of the fault planes. The offsets in the relative locations and the temporal delays of the rupture subevents indicate heterogeneous distribution of fracture strength and the involvement of multiple faults. The spatial distribution of teleseismic aftershocks, which at first appears uncorrelated with meizoseismal contours, can be decomposed into stages. The initial activity, being within and on the periphery of the rupture zone, correlates in shape and length with meizoseismal lines. In the second stage

  8. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture Four Days after an Open Appendicectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gravante, G; Elshaer, M; Humayun, N; Ebdewi, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but dangerous event that requires prompt diagnosis and frequently an emergency splenectomy. Previous case reports have described the occurrence in patients with medical conditions, anticoagulant treatments, endoscopic procedures, laparoscopic surgery or no particular predisposing factor. Our report is the first to describe the occurrence of spontaneous spleen rupture following a laparotomy conducted in the lower abdomen. Case History A 62-year-old woman presented with a 10-day history of right iliac fossa pain radiating to the right leg and associated vomiting. Following a routine blood check and computed tomography (CT), she underwent an open appendicectomy through a lower midline laparotomy for an appendicular abscess. Four days later, she experienced haemorrhagic shock and a second CT scan diagnosed a spontaneous splenic rupture that required a prompt splenectomy. Conclusions Our case is the first that describes the spontaneous rupture of the spleen following an open procedure conducted in the lower quadrants. This entity must still be considered as a rare but potential cause for postoperative bleeding when no other obvious sources are identified. PMID:25723677

  9. Dynamic rupture of megathrust earthquakes with branching on splay faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somala, S.; Ampuero, J. P.; Lapusta, N.

    2010-12-01

    The accretionary prism of subduction margins generally contains splay faults that approach the surface at steeper angles than the megathrust interface. Rupture propagating onto splay faults during megathrust earthquakes can increase seafloor uplift significantly and contribute to the potential of tsunami. Another key aspect of tsunamigenic earthquakes is their relatively low radiation efficiency, which could be related to slow rupture at shallow depth due to frictionally stable fault properties. We present here results of numerical simulations of dynamic rupture on megathrust/splay fault systems that address the mechanical plausibility and characteristics of coseismic slip on splay faults. As a case study, we consider a possible earthquake scenario for the Nankai subduction zone. Previous dynamic rupture simulations (Wendt et. al., 2009) considered a splay fault that cuts through the overriding crust and reaches the surface more than 100 km away from the trench. We examine instead a model geometry based on seismic reflection profiling in Nankai, in which a megasplay fault branches off at around 50 km from the trench, cuts through the sedimentary wedge and reaches the seafloor at about 25 km from the trench. We first investigate the 2D dynamics of this splay fault system, governed by slip-weakening friction law. We compare rupture propagation on this faulting model using a finite-element code (PyLith) and a spectral element code (SEM2DPACK). We report on the favorable conditions for splay faults to rupture, the degree of slip partitioning and the effects of arresting rupture at different depths on the plate-boundary. We also show how well our work correlates with previous works on branched fault systems. We then select a small set of 3D simulations that illustrates the main aspects. Finally the effect of velocity-strengthening fault properties at shallow depth is studied in the context of rate-and-state friction, with particular emphasis on the conditions to produce

  10. Ruptured Aneurysm of Intercostal Arteriovenous Malformation Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Seon, Hyun Ju Choi, Song; Jang, Nam Kyu

    2011-02-15

    Intercostal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare, with most being secondary to trauma or iatrogenic therapeutic procedures. Only one case of presumably congenital AVM has been reported. Here we report the first case of a ruptured aneurysm of intercostal AVM associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 32-year-old woman who experienced hypovolemic shock caused by massive hemothorax.

  11. Echocardiography in shock management.

    PubMed

    McLean, Anthony S

    2016-08-20

    Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis and management of the shocked patient. Important characteristics in the setting of shock are that it is non-invasive and can be rapidly applied.In the acute situation a basic study often yields immediate results allowing for the initiation of therapy, while a follow-up advanced study brings the advantage of further refining the diagnosis and providing an in-depth hemodynamic assessment. Competency in basic critical care echocardiography is now regarded as a mandatory part of critical care training with clear guidelines available. The majority of pathologies found in shocked patients are readily identified using basic level 2D and M-mode echocardiography. A more comprehensive diagnosis can be achieved with advanced levels of competency, for which practice guidelines are also now available. Hemodynamic evaluation and ongoing monitoring are possible with advanced levels of competency, which includes the use of colour Doppler, spectral Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging and occasionally the use of more recent technological advances such as 3D or speckled tracking.The four core types of shock-cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, and vasoplegic-can readily be identified by echocardiography. Even within each of the main headings contained in the shock classification, a variety of pathologies may be the cause and echocardiography will differentiate which of these is responsible. Increasingly, as a result of more complex and elderly patients, the shock may be multifactorial, such as a combination of cardiogenic and septic shock or hypovolemia and ventricular outflow obstruction.The diagnostic benefit of echocardiography in the shocked patient is obvious. The increasing prevalence of critical care physicians experienced in advanced techniques means echocardiography often supplants the need for more invasive hemodynamic assessment and monitoring in shock.

  12. Rupture work of pendular bridges.

    PubMed

    de Boer, P C T; de Boer, M P

    2008-01-01

    Capillary bridging can generate substantial forces between solid surfaces. Impacted technologies and sciences include micro- and nanomachining, disk drive interfaces, scanning probe microscopy, biology, and granular mechanics. Existing calculations of the rupture work of capillary bridges do not consider the thermodynamics relating to the evaporation that can occur in the case of volatile liquids. Here, we show that the occurrence of evaporation decreases the rupture work by a factor of about 2. The decrease arises from heat taken from the surroundings that is converted into work. The treatment is based on a thermodynamic control-volume analysis of the pendular bridge geometry. We extend the mathematical formulation of Orr et al., solving the meniscus problem exactly for non-wetting surfaces. The extension provides analytical results for conditions at the rupture point and at a possible inflection point and for the rupture work. A simple equation (eq 32) is shown to fit the rupture work for the two cases over a meniscus curvature range of 3 orders of magnitude. Coefficients for the equation are given in tabular form for different contact angle pairs.

  13. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, José Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  14. [Tracheal rupture as a cause of unanticipated perioperative mortality].

    PubMed

    Kalkman, Cor J; Marsman, Marije; Knape, J T A Hans; van den Tweel, Jan G

    2013-01-01

    Here we report two cases in which healthy young patients died during surgery because ventilation was impossible by a clinical picture of massive subcutaneous emphysema. The probable diagnosis was tracheal rupture. This diagnosis was not confirmed during coroner's autopsy, but there had been no systematic search for a puncture in the trachea or the main bronchial tubes. Immediate recognition of this situation, and implementation of ventilation of one lung by pushing a narrower endobronchial tube beyond the tracheal rupture, is potentially life-saving.

  15. Posterior fossa ruptured dermoid cyst presenting with hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    A. Wani, Abrar; Raswan, Uday S.; Malik, Nayil K.; Ramzan, Altaf U.

    2016-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions of embryological origin that represent 0.1-0.7% of all intracranial tumors. They are mainly located in the supra tentorial space, especially in the parasellar region. Their location in the posterior fossa remains uncommon. Rupture of intracranial dermoid cysts is a rare phenomenon. We present a case of dermoid cyst, which had ruptured into ventricular system. Computed Tomography and MRI revealed fat in the fourth ventricle, prepontine cistern, and cerebellomedullary cistern. Hydrocephalus was noted. We performed right ventriculo-peritoneal shunt on which patient improved and he continues to remain asymptomatic one year after. PMID:27744466

  16. [Neurologic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm rupture].

    PubMed

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J

    2010-12-01

    The high rates of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of an intracranial aneurysm are mainly the result of neurologic complications. Sixty years after cerebral vasospasm was first described, this problem remains unsolved in spite of its highly adverse effect on prognosis after aneurysmatic rupture. Treatment is somewhat empirical, given that uncertainties remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this vascular complication, which involves structural and biochemical changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle of vessels. Vasospasm that is refractory to treatment leads to cerebral infarction. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment of neurologic complications are key elements in the management of vasospasm if neurologic damage, lengthy hospital stays, and increased use of health care resources are to be avoided. New approaches to early treatment of cerebral lesions and cortical ischemia in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture should lead to more effective, specific management.

  17. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Oryan, Ahmad; Davari, Aida; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Daneshbod, Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin) confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic) rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen. PMID:24795827

  18. Prehistoric ruptures of the Gurvan Bulag fault, Gobi Altay, Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Kendrick, K.; Berryman, K.; Bayasgalan, A.; Ritz, J.F.; Spencer, J.Q.

    2002-01-01

    The 1957 Gobi Altay M8.3 earthquake in southern Mongolia was associated with the simultaneous rupture of several faults, including the Gurvan Bulag reverse fault, which is located about 25 km south of the main strike-slip Bogd fault. Our study of paleoseismic excavations across the Gurvan Bulag fault suggests that the penultimate surface rupture occurred after 6.0 ka, most likely between 2.6 and 4.4 ka, and a possible earlier rupture occurred after 7.3 ka. Our interpretation of the stratigraphic relations in one of the exposures suggests that at least five earthquakes have generated surface rupture of the Gurvan Bulag fault since the abandonment of an ancient alluvial fan surface. Luminescence dating of sediment associated with this surface indicates that it formed either 26.6 ?? 2.1 ka or 16.1 ?? 2.0 ka. These data imply that the recurrence intervals for surface faulting on the Gurvan Bulag and Bogd faults are similar, on the order of several thousands of years, but that the penultimate surface ruptures of the two faults did not occur during the same earthquake.

  19. Spontaneous splenic rupture and Anisakis appendicitis presenting as abdominal pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal pain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic rupture and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic rupture of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous rupture of the spleen. PMID:22524971

  20. Mechanics of Multifault Earthquake Ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, J. M.; Oskin, M. E.; Teran, O.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.2 produced the most complex rupture ever documented on the Pacific-North American plate margin, and the network of high- and low-angle faults activated in the event record systematic changes in kinematics with fault orientation. Individual faults have a broad and continuous spectrum of slip sense ranging from endmember dextral strike slip to normal slip, and even faults with thrust sense of dip slip were commonly observed in the aftershock sequence. Patterns of coseismic slip are consistent with three-dimensional constrictional strain and show that integrated transtensional shearing can be accommodated in a single earthquake. Stress inversions of coseismic surface rupture and aftershock focal mechanisms define two coaxial, but permuted stress states. The maximum (σ1) and intermediate (σ2) principal stresses are close in magnitude, but flip orientations due to topography- and density-controlled gradients in lithostatic load along the length of the rupture. Although most large earthquakes throughout the world activate slip on multiple faults, the mechanical conditions of their genesis remain poorly understood. Our work attempts to answer several key questions. 1) Why do complex fault systems exist? They must do something that simple, optimally-oriented fault systems cannot because the two types of faults are commonly located in close proximity. 2) How are faults with diverse orientations and slip senses prepared throughout the interseismic period to fail spontaneously together in a single earthquake? 3) Can a single stress state produce multi-fault failure? 4) Are variations in pore pressure, friction and cohesion required to produce simultaneous rupture? 5) How is the fabric of surface rupture affected by variations in orientation, kinematics, total geologic slip and fault zone architecture?

  1. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  2. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  3. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  4. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  5. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  6. Synthetic Source Inversion Tests with the Full Complexity of Earthquake Source Processes, Including Both Supershear Rupture and Slip Reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seok Goo; Dalguer, Luis A.

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies in dynamic source modeling and kinematic source inversion show that earthquake rupture may contain greater complexity than we previously anticipated, including multiple slipping at a given point on a fault. Finite source inversion methods suffer from the nonuniqueness of solutions, and it may become more serious if we aim to resolve more complex rupture models. In this study, we perform synthetic inversion tests with dynamically generated complex rupture models, including both supershear rupture and slip reactivation, to understand the possibility of resolving complex rupture processes by inverting seismic waveform data. We adopt a linear source inversion method with multiple windows, allowing for slipping from the nucleation of rupture to the termination at all locations along a fault. We regularize the model space effectively in the Bayesian framework and perform multiple inversion tests by considering the effect of inaccurate Green's functions and station distributions. We also perform a spectral stability analysis. Our results show that it may be possible to resolve both a supershear rupture front and reactivated secondary slipping using the linear inversion method if those complex features are well separated from the main rupture and produce a fair amount of seismic energy. It may be desirable to assume the full complexity of an earthquake rupture when we first develop finite source models after a major event occurs and then assume a simple rupture model for stability if the estimated models do not show a clear pattern of complex rupture processes.

  7. [Forensic medical characteristic of hepatic rupture in the car driver resulting from the injury inflicted inside the passenger compartment].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovina, I A; Mosoyan, A S; Bychkov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study morphological changes in the ruptured liver of the car drivers resulting from the injury inflicted inside the passenger compartment. Special attention was given to the number, localization, and shape of the ruptures as well as their size and direction. It was shown that the majority of the local ruptures were located in the anterior and the adjoining parts of the liver. They were rather deep and long, directed longitudinally, and had a linear, sometimes zig-zag or irregular stellar shape. The local additional ruptures were also found in the frontal part of the liver, they were shorter than and not as deep as the major ones. These oblique ruptures had an ark-like, angular, linear or zig-zag shape. Central ruptures of a slit-like shape were most often located close to the adjacent frontal part of the liver. Shock-proof ruptures were located in the posterior part of the liver. They were long, deep, and directed longitudinally, had either linear or zig-zag shape. The peripheral ruptures were located in the middle and posterior parts of the liver. They were long, rather narrow, and shallow; their distinctive features was the oblique direction, besides a curvilinear or zig-zag shape.

  8. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Laboratory simulations of supernova shockwaves: Formation of a second shock ahead of a radiative shock

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.F.; Edwards, M.J.; Froula, D.; Gregori, G.; Edens, A.; Ditmire, T.

    2005-09-28

    Supernovae launch spherical shocks into the circumstellar medium (CSM). These shocks may interact with both the intergalactic magnetic field (IGM) and local mass accumulations (possibly with their own local magnetic fields). The latter interaction may trigger star formation. The shocks have high Mach numbers and may be radiative. We have created similar shocks in the laboratory by focusing laser pulses onto the tip of a solid pin surrounded by ambient gas; ablated material from the pin rapidly expands and launches a shock through the surrounding gas. The shock may then be allowed to interact with (a) mass accumulations, (b) magnetic fields, or (c) allowed to expand freely. We will present examples of each type of experiment, but mainly discuss a new phenomena observed first in (c); at the edge of the radiatively heated gas ahead of the shock, a second shock forms. The two expanding shocks are simultaneously visible for a time, until the original shock stalls from running into the heated gas. The second shock remains visible and continues to expand. A minimum condition for the formation of the second shock is that the original shock is super-critical, i.e., the temperature distribution ahead of the original shock has an inflexion point. In a non-radiative control experiment the second shock does not form.

  10. Laboratory simulations of supernova shockwaves: Formation of a second shock ahead of a radiative shock

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J F; Edwards, M J; Froula, D; Gregori, G; Edens, A; Ditmire, T

    2005-01-28

    Supernovae launch spherical shocks into the circumstellar medium (CSM). These shocks may interact with both the intergalactic magnetic field (IGM) and local mass accumulations (possibly with their own local magnetic fields). The latter interaction may trigger star formation. The shocks have high Mach numbers and may be radiative. We have created similar shocks in the laboratory by focusing laser pulses onto the tip of a solid pin surrounded by ambient gas; ablated material from the pin rapidly expands and launches a shock through the surrounding gas. The shock may then be allowed to interact with (a) mass accumulations, (b) magnetic fields, or (c) allowed to expand freely. We will present examples of each type of experiment, but mainly discuss a new phenomena observed first in (c); at the edge of the radiatively heated gas ahead of the shock, a second shock forms. The two expanding shocks are simultaneously visible for a time, until the original shock stalls from running into the heated gas. The second shock remains visible and continues to expand. A minimum condition for the formation of the second shock is that the original shock is super-critical, i.e., the temperature distribution ahead of the original shock has an inflexion point. In a non-radiative control experiment the second shock does not form.

  11. Molecular dynamics of interface rupture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1993-01-01

    Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

  12. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  13. Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Lansing, Allan M.

    1963-01-01

    Septic shock may be defined as hypotension caused by bacteremia and accompanied by decreased peripheral blood flow, evidenced by oliguria. Clinically, a shaking chill is the warning signal. The immediate cause of hypotension is pooling of blood in the periphery, leading to decreased venous return: later, peripheral resistance falls and cardiac failure may occur. Irreversible shock is comparable to massive reactive hyperemia. Reticuloendothelial failure, histamine release, and toxic hypersensitivity may be factors in the pathogenesis of septic shock. Adrenal failure does not usually occur, but large doses of corticosteroid are employed therapeutically to counteract the effect of histamine release or hypersensitivity to endotoxin. The keys to successful therapy are time, antibiotics, vasopressors, cortisone and correction of acidosis. PMID:14063936

  14. Geological structures control on earthquake ruptures: The Mw7.7, 2013, Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallage, A.; Klinger, Y.; Lacassin, R.; Delorme, A.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.

    2016-10-01

    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, ruptured the Hoshab fault. Left-lateral motion dominated the deformation pattern, although significant vertical motion is found along the southern part of the rupture. Correlation of high-resolution (2.5 m) optical satellite images provided horizontal displacement along the entire rupture. In parallel, we mapped the ground rupture geometry at 1:500 scale. We show that the azimuth of the ground rupture distributes mainly between two directions, N216° and N259°. The direction N216° matches the direction of preexisting geologic structures resulting from penetrative deformation caused by the nearby Makran subduction. Hence, during a significant part of its rupture, the 2013 Balochistan rupture kept switching between a long-term fault front and secondary branches, in which existence and direction are related to the compressional context. It shows unambiguous direct interactions between different preexisting geologic structures, regional stress, and dynamic-rupture stress, which controlled earthquake propagation path.

  15. Ground motion hazard from supershear rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    An idealized rupture, propagating smoothly near a terminal rupture velocity, radiates energy that is focused into a beam. For rupture velocity less than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in a beam of intense fault-normal velocity near the projection of the rupture trace. Although confined to a narrow range of azimuths, this beam diverges and attenuates. For rupture velocity greater than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in Mach waves forming a pair of beams propagating obliquely away from the fault. These beams do not attenuate until diffraction becomes effective at large distance. Events with supershear and sub-Rayleigh rupture velocity are compared in 2D plane-strain calculations with equal stress drop, fracture energy, and rupture length; only static friction is changed to determine the rupture velocity. Peak velocity in the sub-Rayleigh case near the termination of rupture is larger than peak velocity in the Mach wave in the supershear case. The occurrence of supershear rupture propagation reduces the most intense peak ground velocity near the fault, but it increases peak velocity within a beam at greater distances. ?? 2010.

  16. A fatal case of iatrogenic aortic arch rupture occurred during a tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Rosario; Leoncini, Andrea; Molinelli, Andrea; Ventura, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The authors illustrate a rare case of aortic arch rupture in a 60-year-old woman, occurred during a tracheostomy performed using the Griggs method. The autopsy examination showed an aortic arch rupture in an intermediate position situated in the area between the brachiocephalic artery ostium and the left common carotid artery ostium, associated to a hemorrhage filling of the adjacent connective and muscular tissue. The death was therefore determined by cardiac arrest secondary to massive hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock caused by the aortic arch rupture. The lethal iatrogenic lesion was determined by the aortic arch traction caused by the dilatation. The surgeon's incautious use of the Howard-Kelly forceps introduced in the mediastinum was therefore hypothesized.

  17. Ruptured hepatic subcapsular hematoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kentaro; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Mushiake, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masato; Yamakawa, Tatsuo; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki

    2010-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now a standard procedure for cholecystolithiasis because of its minimally invasive nature compared to the conventional method. However, severe complications that have never been seen for open surgery have also been reported. Here, we report the case of a 28-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and then developed a ruptured subcapsular hematoma. On postoperative day 1, she developed shock, and postoperative bleeding was suspected. During re-operation, a ruptured subcapsular hematoma of the whole right lobe of the liver with active bleeding was found, and hemostasis was achieved. In this case, it was assumed that the rupture of the subcapsular hematoma was due to compression of the liver by the clamp for retrieving the spilled gallstones during the first operation and perioperative administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  18. Lateral approach to laparoscopic repair of left diaphragmatic ruptures.

    PubMed

    Goudet, P; Cheynel, N; Ferrand, L; Peschaud, F; Steinmetz, J P; Letourneau, B; Isnardon, J P; Noirot, M T; Poli, L; Freysz, M; Cougard, P

    2001-09-01

    Video-assisted repairs of traumatic diaphragmatic ruptures have been described where thoracoscopy or laparoscopy in the supine position were used. This study aims to validate a new lateral laparoscopic approach for left diaphragmatic repairs. Six consecutive patients were operated on for left diaphragmatic rupture using a lateral approach (Gagner's position). A series of 362 consecutive patients presenting with abdominal or thoracic trauma with or without diaphragmatic rupture over a 2-year period were reviewed retrospectively. Contraindications for immediate or delayed lateral laparoscopic approach were studied. The lateral approach provided complete visibility of the subdiaphragmatic space, easy reduction of herniated organs, easy thoracic inspection and cleaning, the use of low peritoneal pressure, full range of instrumental motion, and rapid diaphragmatic repair. No operative mortality or morbidity was noted. Altogether, 14% to 50% of the patients with diaphragmatic ruptures were candidates for immediate lateral laparoscopic repair. Associated spleen injury in 50% of the cases was the main contraindication. The lateral laparoscopic approach provides better exposure of the diaphragm on the left side and facilitates the diaphragmatic repair especially with a large herniation. Immediate repair is possible in selected cases (14-50%). There is no contraindication in case of delayed diagnosis.

  19. Impact of spontaneous tumor rupture on prognosis of patients with T4 hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wen‐Hui; Hung, Chien‐Fu; Pan, Kuang‐Tse; Lui, Kar‐Wai; Huang, Yu‐Ting; Lin, Shen‐Yen; Lin, Yang‐Yu; Wu, Tsung‐Han

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Compare the outcomes of three groups of patients with T4 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): tumor rupture with shock (RS group), tumor rupture without shock (R group), and no tumor rupture (NR group). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 221 patients with T4 HCC from 2010 to 2012. The clinical background and prognosis were analyzed. Results Overall in‐hospital mortality rate was 18.1%; overall median survival time was 4 months. The NR group were more likely to have multiple and infiltrative tumors (P < 0.001). Relative to the NR group, the R + RS group had better survival rates at 6 months (49.2% vs. 32.2%), 1 year (35.3% vs. 21.0%), 3 years (22.5% vs. 11.0%), and 5 years (17.7% vs. 5.5%) (P = 0.010). Patients in the RS group had a higher in‐hospital mortality rate, but significantly better long‐term survival than the NR and R group (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that Child‐Pugh class B or C, presence of portal venous thrombosis, and absence of shock were significantly associated with poor survival. Conclusion Patients with tumor rupture and shock had worse in‐hospital survival. However, patients without decompensated liver cirrhosis and portal venous thrombosis, and eligible for curative treatment had favorable long‐term outcome. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:789–795. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Surgical Oncology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27062288

  20. Multiple esophageal variceal ruptures with massive ascites due to myelofibrosis-induced portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tokai, Koichi; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio; Yamada, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    A 75-year old man had been diagnosed at 42 years of age as having polycythemia vera and had been monitored at another hospital. Progression of anemia had been recognized at about age 70, and the patient was thus referred to our center in 2008 where secondary myelofibrosis was diagnosed based on bone marrow biopsy findings. Hematemesis due to rupture of esophageal varices occurred in January and February of 2011. The bleeding was stopped by endoscopic variceal ligation. Furthermore, in March of the same year, hematemesis recurred and the patient was transported to our center. He was in irreversible hemorrhagic shock and died. The autopsy showed severe bone marrow fibrosis with mainly argyrophilic fibers, an observation consistent with myelofibrosis. The liver weighed 1856 g the spleen 1572 g, indicating marked hepatosplenomegaly. The liver and spleen both showed extramedullary hemopoiesis. Myelofibrosis is often complicated by portal hypertension and is occasionally associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to esophageal varices. A patient diagnosed as having myelofibrosis needs to be screened for esophageal/gastric varices. Myelofibrosis has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully decide the therapeutic strategy in consideration of the patient’s concomitant conditions, treatment invasiveness and quality of life. PMID:22851873

  1. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  2. Ruptured jejunum following Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Razaboni, R M; Brathwaite, C E; Dwyer, W A

    1986-01-01

    The Heimlich maneuver, over time, has proved to be a useful resuscitative procedure in the management of cases with airway occlusion secondary to foreign body. Medical treatments, however, can have side effects, and this maneuver is no exception. A previously unreported complication is presented, that of jejunal rupture. The proper application of the maneuver minimizes the number of side effects; however, since they do occur, it is suggested that all persons subject to this maneuver be subsequently evaluated by a physician as soon after the incident as is practicable.

  3. Detonation Shock Radius Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, David; Debes, Joshua; Stewart, Scott; Yoo, Sunhee

    2007-06-01

    A previous passover experiment [1] was designed to create a complex detonation transient used in validating a reduced, asymptotically derived description of detonation shock dynamics (DSD). An underlying question remained on determining the location of the initial detonation shock radius to start the DSD simulation with respect to the dynamical response of the initiation system coupling's to the main charge. This paper concentrates on determining the initial shock radius required of such DSD governed problems. `Cut-back' experiments of PBX-9501 were conducted using an initiation system that sought to optimize the transferred detonation to the desired constant radius, hemispherical shape. Streak camera techniques captured the breakout on three of the prism's surfaces for time-of-arrival data. The paper includes comparisons to simulations using constant volume explosion and high pressure hot spots. The results of the experiments and simulation efforts provide fundamental design considerations for actual explosive systems and verify necessary conditions from which the asymptotic theory of DSD may apply. [1] Lambert, D., Stewart, D. Scott and Yoo, S. and Wescott, B., ``Experimental Validation of Detonation Shock Dynamics in Condensed Explosives. J. of Fluid Mechs., Vol. 546, pp.227-253 (2006).

  4. Source rupture process of the 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince (Haiti, Mw7.0) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Santos, Rúben

    2010-05-01

    The Haiti earthquake occurred on tuesday, January 12, 2010 at 21:53:10 UTC. Its epicenter was at 18.46 degrees North, 72.53 degrees West, about 25 km WSW of Haiti's capital, Port-au-Prince. The earthquake was relatively shallow (H=13 km, U.S. Geological Survey) and thus had greater intensity and destructiveness. The earthquake occurred along the tectonic boundary between Caribbean and North America plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression with 2 cm/year of slip velocity eastward with respect to the North America plate. The moment magnitude was measured to be 7.0 (U.S. Geological Survey) and 7.1 (Harvard Centroid-Moment-Tensor (CMT). More than 10 aftershocks ranging from 5.0 to 5.9 in magnitude (none of magnitude larger than 6.0) struck the area in hours following the main shock. Most of these aftershocks have occurred to the West of the mainshock in the Mirogoane Lakes region and its distribution suggests that the length of the rupture was around 70 km. The Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) mechanism solution indicates lefth-lateral strike slip movement with a fault plane trending toward (strike = 251o ; dip = 70o; rake = 28o). In order to obtain the spatiotemporal slip distribution of a finite rupture model we have used teleseismic body wave and the Kikuchi and Kanamori's method [1]. Rupture velocity was constrained by using the directivity effect determined from a set of waveforms well recorded at regional and teleseismic distances [2]. Finally, we compared a map of aftershocks with the Coulomb stress changes caused by the event in the region [3]. [1]- Kikuchi, M., and Kanamori, H., 1982, Inversion of complex body waves: Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., v. 72, p. 491-506. [2] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x (http://www.springerlink.com/content/xp524g2225628773/) [3] -King, G. C. P

  5. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  6. The 58th Shock and Vibration Symposium, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Walter D. (Compiler); Pilkey, Barbara F. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of the 58th Shock and Vibration Symposium, held in Huntsville, Alabama, October 13 to 15, 1987 are given. Mechanical shock, dynamic analysis, space shuttle main engine vibration, isolation and damping, and analytical methods are discussed.

  7. Extraperitoneal hemorrhagic rupture of a simple hepatic cyst. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, Andrea; Masi, Andrea; Vestrini, Gabriele; Tonelli, Francesco

    2016-09-30

    Hemorrhagic rupture is a very rare complication of a simple hepatic cyst. We report the first case of a totally extraperitoneal rupture of a recurrent cyst, occurred in a 73-year-old man who presented with acute right hypochondralgia. Computed tomography revealed the rupture of a large hemorrhagic cyst in the right liver lobe and the formation of a voluminous hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. Despite the absence of hemoperitoneum, the entity of the bleeding led us to perform an urgent and successful surgical intervention. A review of the literature was conducted. To date, 9 cases of hemorrhagic rupture of simple hepatic cyst have been described and our case is the first one characterized by extraperitoneal bleeding. Our clinical management was in accordance with the majority of the other Authors. Different surgical procedures have been proposed and the best approach has not been established yet. However, the laparotomic approach should be preferred for a better control of the bleeding. In conclusion, the hemorrhagic rupture of a liver cyst is a life-threatening complication and a prompt surgery is necessary to prevent the hypovolemic shock.

  8. Modelling and Experimental Verification of Pressure Wave Following Gaseous Helium Storage Tank Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Grabowski, M.; Jędrusyna, A.; Wach, J.

    Helium inventory in high energy accelerators, tokamaks and free electron lasers may exceed tens of tons. The gaseous helium is stored in steel tanks under a pressure of about 20 bar and at environment temperature. Accidental rupture of any of the tanks filled with the gaseous helium will create a rapid energy release in form of physical blast. An estimation of pressure wave distribution following the tank rupture and potential consequences to the adjacent research infrastructure and buildings is a very important task, critical in the safety aspect of the whole cryogenic system. According to the present regulations the TNT equivalent approach is to be applied to evaluate the pressure wave following a potential gas storage tank rupture. A special test stand was designed and built in order to verify experimentally the blast effects in controlled conditions. In order to obtain such a shock wave a pressurized plastic tank was used. The tank was ruptured and the resulting pressure wave was recorded using a spatially-distributed array of pressure sensors connected to a high-speed data acquisition device. The results of the experiments and the comparison with theoretical values obtained from thermodynamic model of the blast are presented. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data was obtained. Recommendations regarding the applicability of thermodynamic model of physical blast versus TNT approach, to estimate consequences of gas storage tank rupture are formulated. The laboratory scale experimental results have been scaled to ITER pressurized helium storage tanks.

  9. Chondrule Destruction in Nebular Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios epsilon >~ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of "sandblasting" by finer dust. A flow with epsilon >~ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (~2 versus 8 km s-1) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  10. Spontaneous diaphragm rupture associated with vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Hamaji, Masatsugu; Burt, Bryan M; Ali, Syed Osman; Cohen, Daniel M

    2013-08-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm associated with vaginal delivery is a rare occurrence, but has high rates of morbidity and mortality. Herein, we present a first uncomplicated case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm associated with vaginal delivery, which was treated successfully with surgery via a thoracotomy.

  11. Uterine rupture. A seat belt hazard.

    PubMed

    van Enk, A; van Zwam, W

    1994-05-01

    A case is described of a uterine rupture resulting from a car accident occurring in a woman who was wearing a seat belt as generally recommended. The rupture was initially not recognised and only became apparent after attempts to induce labor which led to expulsion of the fetus into the abdominal cavity.

  12. Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe

    2010-11-01

    Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.

  13. Urgent arterial embolization of ruptured renal angiomyolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    The most undesired complication of renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is bleeding. Because of tumor rupture, the bleeding can spread to the retroperitoneal field and can be severe enough to be life threatening. We report a case of retroperitoneal hemorrhage caused by a ruptured AML that was successfully treated with transarterial embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate. PMID:28352700

  14. Uterine prolapse with associated rupture in a Podengo bitch.

    PubMed

    Payan-Carreira, R; Albuquerque, C; Abreu, H; Maltez, L

    2012-08-01

    A case of uterine prolapse coexisting with uterine horn rupture in a 3-year-old Portuguese Podengo bitch, which is an uncommon occurrence, is described. The female was presented with a history of recent parturition, with delivery of four healthy puppies that were normally tended and nursed. The situation developed after an uneventfully pregnancy, and no direct causative factor was identified. The duration of the prolapse was unknown, but considered to be recent because of the swollen reddish appearance of the tubular everted mass. No foetus was found in the uterus or the abdominal cavity. The female was presented in good physical condition, without signs of shock or haemorrhage. During surgical treatment, the uterus was replaced to its normal position followed by ovary-hysterectomy at 12 h from admittance.

  15. Rupture model of Mw 7.8 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake: Constraints from GPS measurements of coseismic offsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rajeev Kumar; Roy, P. N. S.; Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Khan, P. K.; Catherine, J. K.; Prajapati, Sanjay K.; Kumar, Amit; Puviarasan, N.; Bhu, Harsh; Devachandra, M.; Malik, Javed; Kundu, Bhaskar; Debbarma, Chandrani; Gahalaut, V. K.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate coseismic offsets at 20 sites in India due to the 25 April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal (Mw 7.8) earthquake. Only four sites in the Indian region, immediately to the south of the rupture, showed discernible coseismic horizontal offsets ranging between 3 and 7 mm toward north. We invert these offsets along with 13 other offsets at GPS sites in Nepal and 33 offsets at sites in China, for the estimation of slip distribution on the causative rupture. We assume that rupture occurred on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). In our estimated slip model, high slip reaching ∼5 m occurred east of the mainshock epicenter, and the slip on rupture terminated close to the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). Thus the rupture for this earthquake remained blind, increasing the potential for future earthquake in the shallow, updip unruptured part of the MHT.

  16. Spontaneous splenic artery aneurysm rupture: mimicking acute myocardial infarct.

    PubMed

    Zeren, Sezgin; Bayhan, Zülfü; Sönmez, Yalcın; Mestan, Metin; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kadıoglu, Emine; Ucar, Bercis Imge; Devir, Cigdem; Ekici, Fatih Mehmet; Sanal, Bekir

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is a rare but a life-threatening condition. Thus, early diagnoses may increase the chance of survival. A 52-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with a pain that starts from the chest and epigastric region and radiates to back and left arm. The patient prediagnosed as having acute myocardial infarct and was under observation when acute abdomen and hemorrhagic shock developed. After further investigation, the patient was diagnosed as having SAA and has undergone a successful surgery. The patient was fully cured and discharged from the hospital on the seventh postoperative day. The patient originally presented with SAA, although she was primarily observed in the emergency department with acute myocardial infarct diagnosis because of similar symptoms and clinical findings to cardiovascular diseases. When changes in the clinical picture occurred, the patient was reevaluated and had undergone an operation because of SAA rupture. Therefore, physicians should take into consideration of aneurysm rupture in the differential diagnosis of the cardiovascular conditions; otherwise, the patient may lose his/her life.

  17. Subject-specific finite element analysis to characterize the influence of geometry and material properties in Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Shim, Vickie B; Fernandez, Justin W; Gamage, Prasad B; Regnery, Camille; Smith, David W; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F

    2014-11-28

    Achilles tendon injuries including rupture are one of the most frequent musculoskeletal injuries, but the mechanisms for these injuries are still not fully understood. Previous in vivo and experimental studies suggest that tendon rupture mainly occurs in the tendon mid-section and predominantly more in men than women due to reasons yet to be identified. Therefore we aimed to investigate possible mechanisms for tendon rupture using finite element (FE) analysis. Specifically, we have developed a framework for generating subject-specific FE models of human Achilles tendon. A total of ten 3D FE models of human Achilles tendon were generated. Subject-specific geometries were obtained using ultrasound images and a mesh morphing technique called Free Form Deformation. Tendon material properties were obtained by performing material optimization that compared and minimized difference in uniaxial tension experimental results with model predictions. Our results showed that both tendon geometry and material properties are highly subject-specific. This subject-specificity was also evident in our rupture predictions as the locations and loads of tendon ruptures were different in all specimens tested. A parametric study was performed to characterize the influence of geometries and material properties on tendon rupture. Our results showed that tendon rupture locations were dependent largely on geometry while rupture loads were more influenced by tendon material properties. Future work will investigate the role of microstructural properties of the tissue on tendon rupture and degeneration by using advanced material descriptions.

  18. Multiple shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas

    2014-12-01

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we explore a class of states of two CFTs with a large degree of entanglement, but with very weak local two-sided correlation. These states are constructed by perturbing the thermofield double state with thermal-scale operators that are local at different times. Acting on the dual black hole geometry, these perturbations create an intersecting network of shock waves, supporting a very long wormhole. Chaotic CFT dynamics and the associated fast scrambling time play an essential role in determining the qualitative features of the resulting geometries.

  19. [Tracheal rupture after orotracheal intubation in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Hayi-Slayman, D; Page, M; Ben Cheikh, A; Christin, F; Ber, C-E; Rimmelé, T

    2007-06-01

    We report a case of an iatrogenic tracheal rupture following an endotracheal intubation. The 78-year-old patient was admitted to the intensive care unit because of an acute respiratory failure related to a severe nosocomial pneumonia occurring 21 days after an abdominal aorta surgery. His main antecedent was a cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immediately after being intubated, a traumatic tracheobronchial rupture was suspected because of the sudden appearance of cervicothoracic subcutaneous emphysema. A thoracic computed tomography with multiplanar reformations confirmed the diagnosis and the evolution was unfortunately rapidly unfavourable. Risk factors, clinical and radiological aspects, and management of this rare but serious complication of endotracheal intubation will be discussed.

  20. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  1. Shock Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  2. Giant renal artery pseudoaneurysm caused by rupture of renal angiomyolipoma following pregnancy: endovascular treatment and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Idilman, Ilkay S; Vesnic, Sanela; Cil, Barbaras; Peynircioglu, Bora

    2014-03-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartomatous, benign tumor composed of blood vessels, fatty tissue and smooth muscle cells, and is often detected incidentally. It can also be associated with the tuberous-sclerosis complex (TSC). Pregnancy and use of oral contraceptives are known to be associated with an increased risk of tumoral rupture and bleeding. Herein, we report a unique case of renal angiomyolipoma associated with TSC who presented with hypovolemic shock as a result of spontaneous rupture of a giant renal pseudoaneurysm, immediately after pregnancy. Emergency endovascular treatment was successful with sparing of most of the affected kidney as demonstrated by follow-up computed tomography imaging.

  3. Adjuvant Role of CT in the Diagnosis of Post-Infarction Left Ventricular Free-Wall Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Brenes, Jorge A; Keifer, Terry; Karim, Rehan M; Shroff, Gautam R

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture is usually a catastrophic mechanical complication of myocardial infarction. Risk factors include advanced age, female gender and absence of prior infarction. The vast majority of patients succumb rapidly due to cardiac tamponade and electromechanical dissociation. Expedited and accurate diagnosis can improve the chances of survival. Echocardiography has been advocated as the gold standard for diagnosis, but other imaging modalities can provide valuable information in these patients. We present the case of a patient who presented with cardiogenic shock, in which the definitive diagnosis of a left ventricular free wall rupture was accomplished by CT scan with intravenous contrast.

  4. Device sizing for transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus of Valsalva as per echocardiography color Doppler turbulent flow jet diameter.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khurshid; Munawar, Muhammad; Chakraborty, Rabin; Hartono, Beny; Yusri, Achmad

    2015-01-01

    Rupture of sinus of Valsalva (SV) is a rare occurrence with a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from an asymptomatic murmur to cardiogenic shock or even sudden cardiac death. We hereby report a case which was successfully closed by transcatheter technique. In this case, ruptured SV was entered from the aorta, an arteriovenous loop was created and device was implanted using a venous approach. The procedure was safe, effective and uncomplicated, obviating the need for surgery. In this case, the authors report for the first time the use of echo color Doppler turbulent flow jet diameter as a reference value for sizing the device.

  5. Spontaneous ruptured dissection of the right common iliac artery in a patient with classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Rick; Tinkle, Brad T; Halandras, Pegge M; Al-Nouri, Omar; Crisostomo, Paul; Cho, Jae S

    2015-04-01

    Unlike vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), classic EDS is rarely associated with vascular manifestation. We report the case of a 39-year-old man who presented with acute abdominal pain. At the time of presentation, the patient was in hypovolemic shock, and computed tomography angiogram demonstrated common iliac artery dissection with rupture. He underwent an attempted endovascular repair that was converted to an open repair of a ruptured right common iliac artery dissection. Subsequent genetic testing revealed a substitution of arginine for cysteine in type I collagen, COL1A1 exon 14 c.934C>T mutation, consistent with a rare variant of classic EDS.

  6. Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake rupture simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic rupture simulation. A dynamic rupture simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near‐fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake rupture simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (Ⓔ see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic rupture simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic rupture computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic rupture codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake rupture computer simulation codes.

  7. Geometrical shock dynamics of fast magnetohydrodynamic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostert, Wouter; Pullin, Dale I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    We extend the theory of geometrical shock dynamics (GSD, Whitham 1958), to two-dimensional fast magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks moving in the presence of nonuniform magnetic fields of general orientation and strength. The resulting generalized area-Mach number rule is adapted to MHD shocks moving in two spatial dimensions. A partially-spectral numerical scheme developed from that of Schwendeman (1993) is described. This is applied to the stability of plane MHD fast shocks moving into a quiescent medium containing a uniform magnetic field whose field lines are inclined to the plane-shock normal. In particular, we consider the time taken for an initially planar shock subject to an initial perturbed magnetosonic Mach number distribution, to first form shock-shocks. Supported by KAUST OCRF Award No. URF/1/2162-01.

  8. Extracellular matrix content of ruptured anterior cruciate ligament tissue.

    PubMed

    Young, Kate; Samiric, Tom; Feller, Julian; Cook, Jill

    2011-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs) can rupture with simple movements, suggesting that structural changes in the ligament may reduce the loading capacity of the ligament. We aimed to investigate if proteoglycan and collagen levels were different between ruptured and non-ruptured ACLs. We also compared changes in ruptured tissue over time. During arthroscopic knee reconstruction surgery 24 ruptured ACLs were collected from participants (10 females; 14 males; mean age 24 years). Four non-ruptured ACLs were obtained from participants undergoing total knee replacement surgery (one female, three males; mean age 66 years). Western blot analysis was used to characterise core proteins of aggrecan, versican, decorin and biglycan and glycosaminoglycan assays were also conducted. Collagen levels were measured by hydroxyproline (OHPr) assays. Significantly lower levels of collagen, were found in ruptured ACL compared to non-ruptured ACL (p=0.004). Lower levels of both small and large proteoglycans were found in ruptured than non-ruptured ACLs. No correlation was found between time since rupture and proteoglycan or collagen levels. Ruptured ACLs had less collagen and proteoglycans than non-ruptured ACLs. These changes indicate either extracellular matrix protein levels were reduced prior to rupture or levels decreased immediately after rupture. It is possible that the composition and structure of ACLs that rupture are different to normal ACLs, potentially reducing the tissue's ability to withstand loading. An enhanced understanding of the aetiology of ACL injury could help identify individuals who may be predisposed to rupture.

  9. Ruptured urinary bladder in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Roussel, A J; Ward, D S

    1985-06-15

    A yearling Holstein heifer was admitted with abdominal pain and bilateral, ventral abdominal distention. Bladder rupture was diagnosed by abdominocentesis and endoscopy. Correction of metabolic derangements was accomplished by volume diuresis, with maintenance of a urethral catheter before surgical repair of the bladder. The cause of the bladder rupture was believed to be related to adhesions resulting from previous surgery for urachal abscessation. Bladder rupture, which usually occurs in bulls or steers secondary to urolithiasis or in cows after dystocia, also should be considered in prepartum heifers with dehydration, abdominal pain, and abdominal distention.

  10. Plantar fascia rupture: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rolf, C; Guntner, P; Ericsäter, J; Turan, I

    1997-01-01

    Two patients with spontaneous medial plantar fascia rupture due to a definite injury with no prior symptoms, were referred to our institution. Clinically, there was a tender lump in the sole, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis. Nonoperative treatment was sufficient in curing the acute total rupture. Endoscopic release was used on the partially ruptured plantar fascia, but it is probably more optimal in the acute phase. The literature provides no comparative data on operative or nonoperative treatment efficacy for this rare condition.

  11. History of surgery for ruptured disk.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, R V; Hadley, M N

    2001-01-01

    The history of surgery for ruptured disk of the human spine began approximately a century ago. Advances in the understanding of symptoms and signs of root or cord compression, their relationship to the pathology, and the refinement in imaging techniques have contributed to the present surgical management of rupture disk disease. Historical findings relevant to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral regions of the spine, with relevant pathophysiology, imaging, and surgical treatment, including the evolution of various surgical approaches are discussed. Surgeons and other contributors in the medical field are cited for their respective contributions to the evolution of the present operative approaches for disk ruptures in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal regions.

  12. Gastric rupture after the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Bintz, M; Cogbill, T H

    1996-01-01

    Since 1975, the Heimlich maneuver has been widely applied to relieve upper airway obstruction caused by aspirated material. Life-threatening complications have been documented following this simple procedure. We report two cases of gastric rupture after use of the Heimlich maneuver. Both patients experienced pulmonary and abdominal symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed in each case by the demonstration of free intraperitoneal air on an upright chest roentgenogram. Full-thickness gastric rupture along the lesser curvature of the stomach was repaired in both patients; one patient died. Abdominal pain or persistent abdominal distention despite nasogastric suction after the Heimlich maneuver should prompt evaluation for possible gastric rupture.

  13. Revisiting Shock Initiation Modeling of Homogeneous Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2013-04-01

    Shock initiation of homogeneous explosives has been a subject of research since the 1960s, with neat and sensitized nitromethane as the main materials for experiments. A shock initiation model of homogeneous explosives was established in the early 1960s. It involves a thermal explosion event at the shock entrance boundary, which develops into a superdetonation that overtakes the initial shock. In recent years, Sheffield and his group, using accurate experimental tools, were able to observe details of buildup of the superdetonation. There are many papers on modeling shock initiation of heterogeneous explosives, but there are only a few papers on modeling shock initiation of homogeneous explosives. In this article, bulk reaction reactive flow equations are used to model homogeneous shock initiation in an attempt to reproduce experimental data of Sheffield and his group. It was possible to reproduce the main features of the shock initiation process, including thermal explosion, superdetonation, input shock overtake, overdriven detonation after overtake, and the beginning of decay toward Chapman-Jouget (CJ) detonation. The time to overtake (TTO) as function of input pressure was also calculated and compared to the experimental TTO.

  14. Extensor tendon ruptures after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, M; Lustig, S; Huten, D

    2016-02-01

    Extensor tendon rupture is a rare but serious complication after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that impairs active knee extension, thereby severely affecting knee function. Surgery is usually required. Surgical options range from simple suturing to allograft reconstruction of the entire extensor mechanism and include intermediate methods such as reconstruction using neighbouring tendons or muscles, synthetic ligament implantation, and partial allograft repair. Simple suturing carries a high failure rate and should therefore be routinely combined with tissue augmentation using a neighbouring tendon or a synthetic ligament. After allograft reconstruction, outcomes are variable and long-term complications common. Salvage procedures for managing the most severe cases after allograft failure involve reconstruction using gastrocnemius or vastus flaps. Regardless of the technique used, suturing must be performed under tension, with the knee fully extended, and rehabilitation must be conducted with great caution. Weaknesses of available case-series studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity, and inadequate follow-up duration. All treatment options are associated with substantial failure rates. The patient should be informed of this fact and plans made for a salvage option. Here, the main techniques and their outcomes are discussed, and a therapeutic strategy is suggested.

  15. Gastric Rupture in Pregnancy: Case Series from a Tertiary Institution in Rwanda and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ntirushwa, David; Rulisa, Stephen; Muhorakeye, Febronie; Bazzett-Matabele, Lisa; Rurangwa, Theogene; Small, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric rupture is a rare, life-threatening condition during pregnancy. Case study We present three cases of gastric perforation during pregnancy and the puerperium. The first patient presented with gastric perforation 4 days following an uncomplicated cesarean delivery for obstetric indications. She initially complained of epigastric pain; however, those symptoms resolved. She later demonstrated worsening abdominal distension, intra-abdominal free fluid, and signs of peritonitis. At laparotomy, an ascariasis-associated gastric rupture was diagnosed. She died from sepsis 4 days following the laparotomy. The second patient presented 19 days following a normal vaginal delivery. She presented with hemodynamic instability and underwent emergent laparotomy due to suspected septic shock peritonitis. Gastric rupture was diagnosed intraoperatively. She improved clinically and was discharged home. The third patient underwent emergency cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status in the setting of preeclampsia. She was initially diagnosed with ascites and pulmonary edema as a result of preeclampsia. Later in her course, she developed features in favor of acute abdomen and signs of sepsis. At the time of emergent laparotomy, a gastric rupture was identified and repaired. She died 2 days later from sepsis. Conclusion We report the management and outcome of three cases of pregnancy-related gastric rupture. To our knowledge, these three cases represent the largest series of pregnancy-related gastric ruptures from a single institution. PMID:28078172

  16. Creep-rupture reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.

  17. Rupture of lenticulostriate artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Heck, Olivier; Anxionnat, René; Lacour, Jean-Christophe; Derelle, Anne-Laure; Ducrocq, Xavier; Richard, Sébastien; Bracard, Serge

    2014-02-01

    The authors report on 3 rare cases of ruptured lenticulostriate artery (LSA) aneurysms that were heralded by deep cerebral hematomas. The hematomas were unilateral in 2 cases and bilateral in 1; in the bilateral case, only a single LSA aneurysm could be identified on the right side of the brain. Because of their small size (≤ 2 mm), fusiform aspect, and deep location within the brain, all of the aneurysms were treated conservatively. There was no hemorrhage recurrence, and follow-up angiography demonstrated spontaneous thrombosis in 2 of the 3 cases. The clinical course was favorable in 2 of the 3 patients. The course in the patient with the bilateral hematoma was marked by an ischemic event after the initial episode, resulting in an aggravation of deficits. The cause of this second event was uncertain. Because our knowledge about the natural history of LSA aneurysms is incomplete, there is no consensus concerning a therapeutic strategy. The authors' experience in 3 reported cases leads them to think that a conservative approach involving close angiographic monitoring may be proposed as first-line treatment. If the monitored aneurysm then persists or grows in size, its occlusion should be considered. Nonetheless, other studies are needed to further strengthen the legitimacy of this strategy.

  18. Plantaris rupture: why is it important?

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas

    2013-01-22

    Plantaris muscle is accessory plantar flexor of calf, a vestigial muscle of triceps surae complex. Its importance lies in the fact that its rupture cans mimic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Sometimes when there is rupture of Achilles tendon, intact plantaris can still cause plantar flexion at ankle presenting a confusing picture. We present one such case of plantaris rupture confused by radiology resident with DVT. A 51-year-old man had a feeling as if kicked in back of calf along with a snapping sound and severe pain while playing tennis. On seeing fluid between muscle plane and a hypoechoic structure radiology resident labelled it DVT. MRI suggested ruptured plantaris as fluid and muscle stump were seen between gastronemius and soleus. Patient was treated conservatively with rest, ice compression and elevated leg and showed significant reduction in pain and swelling.

  19. Acute Iliac Artery Rupture: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V. Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L.

    2007-04-15

    The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery rupture over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the rupture was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the rupture was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery rupture, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.

  20. Cognitive frames in psychology: demarcations and ruptures.

    PubMed

    Yurevich, Andrey V

    2009-06-01

    As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.

  1. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    PubMed

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-06

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach.

  2. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index

    PubMed Central

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T. Christian

    2015-01-01

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. PMID:26631334

  3. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  4. A case of traumatic pericardiophrenic rupture.

    PubMed

    Stefani, A; Brandi, L; Ruggiero, C; Lodi, R

    1998-12-01

    An unusual case of traumatic pericardiophrenic rupture is presented. The defect was limited to the central tendon of the diaphragm, with herniation of the stomach into the pericardial sac. A correct preoperative diagnosis was not made because laparotomy was quickly performed for splenic rupture. Successful operative repair of the tear was performed, with interrupted reabsorbable sutures. The case is discussed and the management of patients with these rare lesions is reviewed.

  5. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  6. Peridynamic Modeling of Ruptures in Biomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Jesorka, Aldo; Bertoldi, Katia

    2016-01-01

    We simulate the formation of spontaneous ruptures in supported phospholipid double bilayer membranes, using peridynamic modeling. Experiments performed on spreading double bilayers typically show two distinct kinds of ruptures, floral and fractal, which form spontaneously in the distal (upper) bilayer at late stages of double bilayer formation on high energy substrates. It is, however, currently unresolved which factors govern the occurrence of either rupture type. Variations in the distance between the two bilayers, and the occurrence of interconnections (“pinning sites”) are suspected of contributing to the process. Our new simulations indicate that the pinned regions which form, presumably due to Ca2+ ions serving as bridging agent between the distal and the proximal bilayer, act as nucleation sites for the ruptures. Moreover, assuming that the pinning sites cause a non-zero shear modulus, our simulations also show that they change the rupture mode from floral to fractal. At zero shear modulus the pores appear to be circular, subsequently evolving into floral pores. With increasing shear modulus the pore edges start to branch, favoring fractal morphologies. We conclude that the pinning sites may indirectly determine the rupture morphology by contributing to shear stress in the distal membrane. PMID:27829001

  7. Violent Reactions from Non-Shock Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, H. W.; Granholm, R. H.

    2007-12-01

    Most reactions are thermally initiated, whether from direct heating or dissipation of energy from mechanical, shock, or electrical stimuli. For other than prompt shock initiation, the reaction must spread through porosity or over large surface area to become more violent than just rupturing any confinement. While burning rates are important, high-strain mechanical properties are nearly so, either by reducing existing porosity or generating additional surface area through fracture. In studies of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT), it has been shown that reaction violence is reduced if the binder is softened, either by raising the initial temperature or adding a solvent. In studies of cavity collapse in explosives, those with soft rubber binders will deform and undergo mild reaction whereas those with stiff binders will fracture and generate additional surface area for a violent event.

  8. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... burn to avoid getting a staph infection. Toxic shock syndrome treatment Because toxic shock syndrome gets worse quickly, you may be seriously ... toxic shock syndrome in a wound? Resources Toxic Shock Syndrome ... treatment, women's health Family Health, Women January 2017 Copyright © ...

  9. Changing views of the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture: a review.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luis; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2014-02-01

    This review examines changing perspectives on the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture over the past 25 years from the first finite element analyses (FEA) showing that the presence of a lipid pool significantly increases the local tissue stress in the atheroma cap to the latest imaging and 3D FEA studies revealing numerous microcalcifications in the cap proper and a new paradigm for cap rupture. The first part of the review summarizes studies describing the role of the fibrous cap thickness, tissue properties, and lesion geometry as main determinants of the risk of rupture. Advantages and limitations of current imaging technologies for assessment of vulnerable plaques are also discussed. However, the basic paradoxes as to why ruptures frequently did not coincide with location of PCS and why caps >65 μm thickness could rupture at tissue stresses significantly below the 300 kPa critical threshold still remained unresolved. The second part of the review describes recent studies in the role of microcalcifications, their origin, shape, and clustering in explaining these unresolved issues including the actual mechanism of rupture due to the explosive growth of tiny voids (cavitation) in local regions of high stress concentration between closely spaced microinclusions oriented along their tensile axis.

  10. Numerical Model for the Effect of Off-Fault Damage on Dynamic Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, H. S.; Sammis, C. G.; Rosakis, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Real earthquake faults are surrounded by fractured zones whose effect on earthquake rupture is investigated using a micro-mechanics based damage constitutive description, for the off-fault material, with friction on the fault governed by coulomb like slip weakening law. The micro-mechanics based damage model is an extension of the Ashby and Sammis (1990) formulation. The model was tested with a series of dynamic photoelasticity experiments of a dynamic shear rupture along a frictional interface bounded on one side by an intact material and on the other side by a damaged material of the same or different undamaged elastic properties. The main effect of off-fault damage is that it introduces an anelastic asymmetry in rupture propagation. On the side of the rupture where damage is in tension the bulk damage effects dominate over the local elastic effects leading to reduction in rupture velocity or in some cases complete termination. On the compressional side damage has little effect on the rupture and the local elastic effect dominates.

  11. Effect of Post-thermal shock on Prolonged Sea Water aged GFRP Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Biswal, B. B.

    2016-02-01

    The present investigation is an attempt of evaluating the suitability of glass fibre reinforced polymer composites to thermal shock treatments of various lengths of time subject to pre-immersion in sea water for 1 year. Mechanical properties like inter laminar shear strength (ILSS), stress at rupture, strain at rupture and modulus values are recorded by adopting 3-point bend test method. Mechanical properties show a general decreasing trend at higher durations of up and down-thermal shock exposure irrespective of showing initial nonequilibrium zig-zag trend. Glass Transition temperature (Tg) with respect to optimum durations of thermal shock treatment show considerable variation for the sample with minimum sea water immersion period. SEM fractographs of the thermally shocked specimens revealed the mode of failures like fibre pull out, fibre/matrix debonding, cusp formation indicating polymer crazing, matrix cracking, fibre breaking etc.

  12. Effects of Tube Rupture Modeling and Parameters on Analysis of MSGTR Event Progression in PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Ji Hwan; Choi, Ki Yong; Chang, Keun Sun; Kweon, Young Chel

    2002-07-01

    A multiple steam generator tube rupture (MSGTR) event in APR1400 has been investigated using the best estimate thermal hydraulic system code, MARS1.4. The effects of parameters such as the number of ruptured tubes, rupture location, affected steam generator on analysis of the MSGTR event in APR1400 is examined. In particular, tube rupture modeling methods, single tube modeling (STM) and double tube modeling (DTM), are compared. When five tubes are ruptured, the STM predicts the operator response time of 2085 seconds before main steam safety valves (MSSVs) are lifted. The effects of rupture location on the MSSV lift time is not significant in case of STM, but the MSSV lift time for tube-top rupture is found to be 25.3% larger than that for rupture at hog-leg side tube sheet in case of DTM. The MSSV lift time for the cases that both steam generators are affected (4C5x, 4C23x) are found to be larger than that of the single steam generator cases (4A5x, 4B5x) due to a bifurcation of the primary leak flow. The discharge coefficient of Cd is found to affect the MSSV lift time only for smaller value of 0.5. It is found that the most dominant parameter governing the MSSV lift time is the leak flow rate. Whether any modeling method is used, it gives the similar MSSV lift time if the leak flow rate is close, except the case of both steam generators are affected. Therefore, the system performance and the MSSV lift time of the APR1400 are strongly dependent on the break flow model used in the best estimate system code. (authors)

  13. Peculiarities of evolution of shock waves generated by boiling coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, M. V.; Vozhakov, I. S.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    Simulation of compression wave generation and evolution at the disk target was performed for the case of explosive-type boiling of coolant; the boiling is initiated by endwall rupture of a high-pressure pipeline. The calculations were performed for shock wave amplitude at different times and modes of pipe rupture. The simulated pressure of a target-reflected shock wave is different from the theoretical value for ideal gas; this discrepancy between simulation and theory becomes lower at higher distances of flow from the nozzle exit. Comparative simulation study was performed for flow of two-phase coolant with account for slip flow effect and for different sizes of droplets. Simulation gave the limiting droplet size when the single-velocity homogeneous flow model is valid, i.e., the slip flow effect is insignificant.

  14. High-resolution surface-rupture map and slip distribution for the 1905 M8 Tsetserleg-Bulnay, Mongolia, earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. H.; Klinger, Y.; Ferry, M. A.; Ritz, J. F.; Kurtz, R.; Rizza, M.; Bollinger, L.; Davaasambuu, B.; Ulzibat, M.; Demberel, S.; Chimed, O.; Tsend-Ayush, N.

    2015-12-01

    The 1905 M8 Tsetserleg-Bulnay earthquake sequence, which occurred 14 days apart in Mongolia, constitutes one of the major continental strike-slip earthquake sequence ever documented. Although the surface ruptures associated with these two events are well-preserved due to dry climate, they had only been mapped in details along short sections. Here, using sub-metric optical satellite images 'Pleiades' with ground resolution of 0.5 m, complemented by field observation, we mapped in details the entire surface ruptures and we extensively measure co-seismic and cumulative offsets to understand earthquake propagation mechanisms and rupture processes for the two events. Preliminary results show that 1) the NE-SW trending Tsetserleg rupture is characterized by an average 2.5 m left-lateral slip on its central segment, and by a number of second-order antithetic and dip-slip ruptures around its main trace, 2) the E-W trending Bulnay rupture shows 4-6 m of left-lateral slip with high complexity in rupture geometry on its western part, where partitioning can be often observed. In contrast, co-seismic slip increases up to 8-10 m along the eastern part with the rupture trace being highly localized. Interestingly, this change in rupture behavior seems to correlate with a major change in the local geology, 3) the NNW-SSE trending Teregtiyn rupture, one of the subsidiary segments of the Bulnay rupture, is characterized by about 4 m of right-lateral slip, 4) another subsidiary branch of the Bulnay rupture, the N-S trending Dungen rupture is composed of a series of en-echelon tension cracks with no visible through going rupture. The geometry of the cracks suggests right-lateral shear. We show that the apparent complexity of the rupture geometry for the Tsetserleg- Bulnay sequence is actually compatible with the regional stress field (NNE-SSW trending compression). Our detail mapping shows that the Tsetserleg rupture, despite its large size, did not connect with the main Bulnay fault

  15. Spontaneous common iliac arteries rupture in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Habib, K.; Memon, M. A.; Reid, D. A.; Fairbrother, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with previously undiagnosed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS IV) presented acutely with clinical features suggestive of hypovolemic shock. Emergency laparotomies in both of them revealed spontaneous rupture of the common iliac arteries. The clinical features, operative findings, surgical approach, outcome and implications are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:11320937

  16. [Spontaneous rupture of common iliac artery: a case of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Bronzino, P; Abbo, L; Bagnasco, F; Barisone, P; Dezzani, C; Genovese, A M; Iannucci, P; Ippoliti, M; Sacchi, M; Aimo, I

    2006-01-01

    Authors report an uncommon case of spontaneous rupture of common iliac artery in a man 43 years old with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The clinical presentation was devious in the beginning and catastrophic after few hours with a haemo-peritoneum and haemorragic shock. The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare affection of the connective tissue with an incidence of 1/5000, representing one of the most common disorders of the connective tissue. This disease is characterized by the fragility of arteries, intestine and uterus. Its presentation is often catastrophic, with rupture of a big artery, rupture of uterus during pregnancy or bowel perforation. The mean age of death in subjects with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is 45 years. This syndrome is inherited in most cases in an autosomal dominant manner; 50% of the cases are due to new mutations. A minority of cases, due to deficit of tenascina X, is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

  17. Second trimester hepatic rupture in a 35 year old nulliparous woman with HELLP syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J; Ryan, DJ; O'Brien, N; Kirwan, WO

    2009-01-01

    The HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver blood tests and low platelets) is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10–20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. Hepatic capsular rupture is a rare yet dramatic complication of HELLP syndrome. The majority of cases occur in multiparous women over the age of 30. Classically it presents with acute onset right upper quadrant pain in the presence of constitutional symptoms such as vomiting and pyrexia. However, symptoms and signs are usually non specific. Spontaneous hepatic rupture can be preceded by signs of hypovolaemic shock; yet the diagnosis is infrequently made prior to emergent laparotomy. We present the case of a 35 year old nulliparous woman with a second trimester gestational hepatic rupture associated with HELLP syndrome. We briefly discuss the aetiology, diagnostic difficulties and treatment options associated with this rare presentation. PMID:19527504

  18. Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xiaolin

    2012-12-13

    In this report, we present the research efforts made by our group at UCLA in the SciDAC project Simulations of turbulent flows with strong shocks and density variations. We use shock-fitting methodologies as an alternative to shock-capturing schemes for the problems where a well defined shock is present. In past five years, we have focused on development of high-order shock-fitting Navier-Stokes solvers for perfect gas flow and thermochemical non-equilibrium flow and simulation of shock-turbulence interaction physics for very strong shocks. Such simulation has not been possible before because the limitation of conventional shock capturing methods. The limitation of shock Mach number is removed by using our high-order shock-fitting scheme. With the help of DOE and TeraGrid/XSEDE super computing resources, we have obtained new results which show new trends of turbulence statistics behind the shock which were not known before. Moreover, we are also developing tools to consider multi-species non-equilibrium flows. The main results are in three areas: (1) development of high-order shock-fitting scheme for perfect gas flow, (2) Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of interaction of realistic turbulence with moderate to very strong shocks using super computing resources, and (3) development and implementation of models for computation of mutli-species non-quilibrium flows with shock-fitting codes.

  19. “Don Juan-Fracture” as a Hint to Aortic Isthmus Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Suksompong, Sirilak; von Bormann, Benno

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called “Don-Juan fracture,” and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed. PMID:25478249

  20. "Don juan-fracture" as a hint to aortic isthmus rupture.

    PubMed

    Suksompong, Sirilak; von Bormann, Benno

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called "Don-Juan fracture," and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed.

  1. A case of abdominal apoplexy because of the rupture of the short gastric vessel

    PubMed Central

    Osunkunle, Olaoluwakitan A.; Al-Shoek, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy or idiopathic spontaneous intraperitoneal haemorrhage is defined as the presence of free blood within the peritoneal cavity. Non-traumatic and non-iatrogenic causes may cause abdominal apoplexy. It has a variable clinical presentation, with abdominal pain being an early and non-specific symptom. We report a rare case of a 23-year-old male with abdominal apoplexy because of rupture of the short gastric artery. He presented to our department with abdominal pain. Later, he developed signs of shock, and was found to have haemoperitoneum on laparotomy. We ligated the short gastric artery, which was the bleeding source, and he had an uneventful postoperative course. We also review the literature on existing cases of short gastric vessel rupture. PMID:25759171

  2. Fault barriers favor activation of backthrusts near segment ends of megathrust ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Fukuyama, E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that backthrusts may become active during or after megathrust ruptures in subduction zones, such as in Chile and Sumatra areas (Melnick et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2011). Previous studies on relevant mechanisms mainly focused on the interaction between forethrusts and the megathrust. Here we aim to investigate through dynamic rupture simulations how backthrusts may be activated by megathrust ruptures in subduction zone environment. Assuming a single backthrust branch, our preliminary results show that the activation of backthrust is difficult if the megathrust rupture can easily pass through the fault junction, owing to a quickly established stress shadow zone in the wake of the megathrust rupture front. In contrast, if the megathrust rupture is arrested or delayed around the junction, a resultant backward stress lobe of the type discussed by Xu and Ben-Zion (2013) can load the backthrust over a considerable amount of time and facilitates rupture activation along the backthrust. A number of candidates can serve to arrest or delay megathrust ruptures, such as the velocity-strengthening frictional behavior and off-fault weak materials in the shallow portion of subduction zones, fault bend or ramp, and subducted seamount. Moreover, these features are also found capable of generating backthrusts during the long-term quasi-static process, which provide pre-existing weakness to be reactivated by later dynamic ruptures. Our results agree, from a different point of view, with the study based on the critical taper theory (Cubas et al., 2013) that an increase of friction towards the trench favors the activation of backthrusts near the up-dip limit of megathrust ruptures. The results highlight the role of fault geometric or strength heterogeneities in controlling the strain partitioning on and off the main fault plane. Accordingly, activated backthrusts may be treated as markers that reflect the limits of seismogenic zones, and thus may be used

  3. Shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.L.; Brower, K.R.

    1997-11-01

    The authors present evidence that the shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis.GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a shock wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and o-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, o-toluidine and o-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentandiene. In isotopic labeling experiments o-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond rupture is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of o-toluidine from o-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples shocked and quenched by adiabatic expansion shows that the initial chemical reactions in shocked solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path.

  4. On the mechanism of explosive eruption of mount erebus volcano: the dynamics of the rupture structure in a cavitating layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bol'shakova, E. S.; Kedrinskiy, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental simulation of rupture development in heavily cavitating magma melt flow in volcanic conduits and its effect on the structure of explosive volcanic eruptions. The dynamics of the state of a layer of distilled water (similar in the density of cavitation nuclei to magma melt) under shock-wave loading was studied. The experiments were performed using electromagnetic hydrodynamic shock tubes (EM HST) with maximum capacitor bank energy of up to 100 J and 5 kJ. It was found that the topology of the rupture formed on the membrane surface did not change during its development. Empirical estimates were obtained for the proportion of the capacitor bank energy expended in the development of the rupture and the characteristic time of its existence. The study revealed a number of fundamentally new physical effects in the cavity dynamics in a cavitating medium: a cavitation “boundary layer” is formed on the surface of the quasi-empty rupture, which is transformed into a cluster of high energy density upon closure of the flow.

  5. Role and Effectiveness of Percutaneous Arterial Embolization in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients with Ruptured Splanchnic Artery Pseudoaneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Dohan, Anthony; Eveno, Clarisse; Dautry, Raphael Guerrache, Youcef; Camus, Marine; Boudiaf, Mourad; Gayat, Etienne; Dref, Olivier Le Sirol, Marc Soyer, Philippe

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the role and effectiveness of percutaneous arterial embolization (TAE) in patients with hemodynamic instability due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured splanchnic artery pseudoaneurysms (SAPA).Materials and MethodsSeventeen patients (11 men, 6 women; mean age, 53 years) with hemodynamic instability (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured SAPA were treated by TAE. Clinical files, multidetector row computed tomography angiography, and angiographic examinations along with procedure details were reviewed.ResultsSeventeen SAPAs were present, predominantly located on gastroduodenal or pancreatic arteries (9/17; 53 %). Angiography showed extravasation of contrast medium from SAPA in 15/17 patients (88 %). Technical success rate of TAE was 100 %. TAE was performed using metallic coils in all patients (100 %), in association with gelatin sponge in 5/17 patients (29 %). TAE allowed controlling the bleeding and returning to normal hemodynamic status in 16/17 patients (94 %). In 1/17 patient (6 %), surgery was needed to definitively control the bleeding. The mortality and morbidity rate of TAE at 30 days were 0 and 12 %, respectively. Morbidity consisted in coil migration in 1/17 patient (6 %) and transient serum liver enzyme elevation in 1/17 patient (6 %).ConclusionTAE is an effective and safe treatment option for ruptured SAPA in hemodynamically unstable patients, with a success rate of 94 %. Our results suggest that TAE should be the favored option in patients with hemodynamic instability due to ruptured SAPA.

  6. Spatial and temporal rupture process of the January 26, 2001, Gujarat, India, M S=7.8 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Sheng; Chen, Yun-Tai; Gao, Meng-Tan

    2002-09-01

    The source parameters, such as moment tensor, focal mechanism, source time function (STF) and temporal-spatial rupture process, were obtained for the January 26, 2001, India, M S=7.8 earthquake by inverting waveform data of 27 GDSN stations with epicentral distances less than 90°. Firstly, combining the moment tensor inversion, the spatial distribution of intensity, disaster and aftershocks and the orientation of the fault where the earthquake lies, the strike, dip and rake of the seismogenic fault were determined to be 92°, 58° and 62°, respectively. That is, this earthquake was a mainly thrust faulting with the strike of near west-east and the dipping direction to south. The seismic moment released was 3.5×1020 Nm, accordingly, the moment magnitude M W was calculated to be 7.6. And then, 27 P-STFs, 22 S-STFs and the averaged STFs of them were determined respectively using the technique of spectra division in frequency domain and the synthetic seismogram as Green’s functions. The analysis of the STFs suggested that the earthquake was a continuous event with the duration time of 19 s, starting rapidly and ending slowly. Finally, the temporal-spatial distribution of the slip on the fault plane was imaged from the obtained P-STFs and S-STFs using an time domain inversion technique. The maximum slip amplitude on the fault plane was about 7 m. The maximum stress drop was 30 MPa, and the average one over the whole rupture area was 7 MPa. The rupture area was about 85 km long in the strike direction and about 60 km wide in the down-dip direction, which, equally, was 51 km deep in the depth direction. The rupture propagated 50 km eastwards and 35 km westwards. The main portion of the rupture area, which has the slip amplitude greater than 0.5 m, was of the shape of an ellipse, its major axis oriented in the slip direction of the fault, which indicated that the rupture propagation direction was in accordance with the fault slip direction. This phenomenon is popular

  7. Kinematic Rupture Process Of Karakocan-Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekler, F. N.; Ozel, N. M.; Tanircan, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    An earthquake (Mw=5.9) hit Elazig in the eastern part of Turkey on March 8, 2010 at 02:32 (GMT). It is located midway between the provincial capital of Elazığ and Bingöl with coordinates reported as 38o48.42N and 40o5.99E by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). Source characterization and slip history were estimated the main and four moderate size earthquake almost at the same location. The earthquake occurred at one of the tectonically very active East Anatolian Fault zone starts at the Karlıova triple junction, where it meets the North Anatolian fault to the NE. Multi time-window linear waveform inversion technique (MTWIT) was applied to strong ground motion (SGM) data. Theoretical Green's functions between subfaults and stations were calculated by a Discrete Wave Number Method (DWNM) using 1-D velocity structure. Inversion technique used in this study yields a non unique solution. Therefore various rupture models have been tried until both observed and synthetic data were matched. Results show simple patterns in slip distributions. Maximum slip is 0.78 and seismic moment is 1.435E+25 dyne.cm from the kinematic rupture process of the strike slip faulting. In this study, we searched a stable 1-D crustal velocity model with low RMS misfit to construct the theoretical Green's function between each sub-fault and each station among the 4 different models. These are Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM; Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981), International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASP91) (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) earthquake location model, explosion model (Gurbuz, 2004). We have collected previous studies Rebollar et al., (2001), Ichinose et al., (1997), Abdel-Fattah (2002), Somerville et al., (1999), Wells and Coppersmith (1994) on source information of moderate size earthquakes occurred worldwide and compared with

  8. Radiative Shock Waves In Emerging Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.

    2011-05-01

    In laboratory experiments we produce radiative shock waves having dense, thin shells. These shocks are similar to shocks emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick shocked layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include shocks breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse shock during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these shocks by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The shocked Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the shock wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating shocks and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.

  9. Fault-rock magnetism from the earth surface trench closed to the Wenchuan Earthquake Surface Rupture Zone imply the different slip dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Li, H.; Lee, T. Q.; Sun, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake had induced two major earthquake surface rupture zones, including the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault (Y-B F.) and Guanxian-Anxian earthquake fault (G-A F.) earthquake surface rupture zones. This giant earthquake had caused great human and financial loss. After main shock, the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) was co-organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources and China Bureau of Seismology, and this project focused on earthquake fault mechanics, earthquake slip process, fault physical and chemical characteristics, mechanical behavior, fluid behavior, fracture energy, and so on. In this study, the fault-rocks in the two trenches close to the two Wenchuan Earthquake surface rupture zone were used to discuss the earthquake slip dynamics, including the Bajiaomiao and Jiulong trenches along the Y-B F. and G-A F. earthquake surface rupture zones, respectively. This study also combined with the recent fault-rock magnetism from the earth surface and WFSD-1. The rock magnetism, from the Bajiaomiao trench and other previous researches, shows that the high susceptibility of the fault gouge along the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault zone was caused by the new-formed ferrimagnetic minerals, such as magnetite and hematite, so the Y-B F. had experienced high temperature and rapid speed thermal pressurization earthquake slip mechanism. The rock magnetism from the Jiulong trench implied that the slightly low average susceptibility of fault gouge was caused by high content of Fe-sulfides than that of fault breccia and Jurassic sandstones, which was possibly induced by earthquake process or earth surface process after the fault rocks exposed to the surface. If the high content of Fe-sulfides was induced by earthquake process, the G-A F. had experienced the low temperature and slow speed machanical lubrication earthquake slip mechanism. The different earthquake slip mechanism was

  10. Along-strike Variation in Fault Structural Maturity Dictates Location of Largest Earthquake Slip and Rupture Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manighetti, I.; Perrin, C.; Ampuero, J. P.; Cappa, F.; Gaudemer, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the slip distributions of ~30 large continental earthquakes for which the long-term propagation of the causative faults is known. The lengthening of faults over their long-term growth induces systematic changes of their structural maturity along their length. We find that, independent of where ruptures nucleated on the faults, largest earthquake slips systematically occurred on the most mature parts of the broken fault sections, whereas coseismic slip systematically tapered linearly over most of the rupture length in the direction of long-term fault propagation, i.e., decreasing maturity. Also, ruptures systematically propagated faster, up to supershear, along the most mature parts of the broken sections. We suggest that earthquake slip asymmetry and rupture acceleration are mainly governed by along-strike changes in fault zone strength, due to evolution of fault segmentation and off-fault damage with increasing maturity. The generic location of largest coseismic slip in the most mature part of a rupture zone is likely a static effect, resulting from the intimate elasto-static relation between stress drop, slip and elastic modulus of the faulted medium; even if stress drop is constant over the rupture, the strong reduction of elastic modulus in the zone of most intense damage off- the most mature fault section leads to significantly larger slip. Additionally, the pinning of fault slip by inter-segments decreases in direction of increasing maturity. The faster rupture speeds along the most mature rupture parts show that earthquake dynamics is also influenced by along-strike changes of fault maturity. The enhancement of rupture speed is likely due to interactions between rupture and trapped waves in the damage zone. Since the direction(s) of long-term fault propagation can generally be determined from geological evidence, it should be possible to anticipate in which direction earthquake slip will increase and accelerate, and possibly become a Big One.

  11. Analysis of shock-wave propagation in aqueous foams using shock tube experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, G.; Mariani, C.; Houas, L.; Chinnayya, A.; Hadjadj, A.; Del Prete, E.; Haas, J.-F.; Rambert, N.; Counilh, D.; Faure, S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports experimental results of planar shock waves interacting with aqueous foams in a horizontal conventional shock tube. Four incident shock wave Mach numbers are considered, ranging from 1.07 to 1.8, with two different foam columns of one meter thickness and expansion ratios of 30 and 80. High-speed flow visualizations are used along with pressure measurements to analyse the main physical mechanisms that govern shock wave mitigation in foams. During the shock/foam interaction, a precursor leading pressure jump was identified as the trace of the liquid film destruction stage in the foam fragmentation process. The corresponding pressure threshold is found to be invariant for a given foam. Regarding the mitigation effect, the results show that the speed of the shock is drastically reduced and that wetter is the foam, slower are the transmitted waves. The presence of the foam barrier attenuates the induced pressure impulse behind the transmitted shock, while the driest foam appears to be more effective, as it limits the pressure induced by the reflected shock off the foam front. Finally, it was found that the pressure histories in the two-phase gas-liquid mixture are different from those previously obtained within a cloud of droplets. The observed behavior is attributed to the process of foam fragmentation and to the modification of the flow topology past the shock. These physical phenomena occurring during the shock/foam interaction should be properly accounted for when elaborating new physical models.

  12. Lateral left ventricular wall rupture following acute myocardial infarction: pathophysiological interpretation by multimodality imaging approach.

    PubMed

    Avegliano, Gustavo; Conde, Diego; González Ruiz, María Isabel; Kuschnir, Paola; Sciancalepore, Agustina; Castro, Florencia; Ronderos, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    Lateral left ventricular wall rupture (LVWR) is a rare complication following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) less than 1%. After cardiogenic shock, LVWR constitutes the most common cause of in-hospital death in AMI patients. Around 40% of all LVWR occurred during the first 24 hours and 85% within the first week. In the present case, 76 hours following the intervention, LVWR was observed likely due to a small infarction at the lateral left ventricular wall possibly due to the marginal lesion. Our patient refused surgery and was followed clinically. Eighteen months later, real time three-dimensional echocardiography showed a pseudoaneurysm.

  13. [Renal angiomyolipoma rupture as a cause of lumbar pain: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Melissa; Calleja, Félix; Hola, José; Daviú, Antonio; Jara, Danilo; Vallejos, Humberto

    2008-08-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign tumor formed by smooth muscle, adipose tissue and blood vessels. It is commonly found incidentally and its clinical manifestations are pain and abdominal mass or spontaneous tumor rupture with retroperitoneal bleeding. The clinical presentation of a hemorrhagic shock secondary to a retroperitoneal hematoma is uncommon. We report a 40 year-old male who presented to the emergency room with lumbar pain and deterioration of hemodynamic parameters. The CT scan showed a left renal injury associated to an expansive retroperitoneal process. The abdominal exploration, vascular control of the renal pedicle and nephrectomy allowed a successful outcome.

  14. [Successful management of a ruptured infected aneurysm of the thoracic aorta: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Gohra, H; Seyama, A; Furukawa, S; Oda, T; Esato, K

    1990-12-01

    A successful removal of the infected thoracic aortic aneurysm ruptured to the lung is reported. A 59-year-old man who had been suffering from high fever showed sudden hemoptysis and shock during antibiotic therapy. Immediately a so-called temporary bypass grafting from ascending aorta to descending aorta was placed with a woven Dacron prosthesis, and then aneurysmectomy with upper lobectomy of the left lung was carried out. Finally the graft was left as a permanent bypass graft. In addition, the left subclavian artery was reconstructed with a EPTFE graft. The patient is now well one year after operation.

  15. Subpatch roughness in earthquake rupture investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, O.; Mai, P. M.

    2016-03-01

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to > km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization, however, introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and subpatch roughness—roughness at spatial scales below fault patch size—is not incorporated. Does negligence of subpatch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that subpatch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship—a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with subpatch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect subpatch roughness.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic Shocks in the Interplanetary Space: a Theoretical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    I discuss in this brief review some properties of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) discontinuities in the interplanetary space. My emphasis is on a special case of MHD discontinuity, namely interplanetary (IP) shocks, and those that are found at 1 AU. I derive the Rankine-Hugoniot (RH) equations to evaluate plasma parameters in the downstream region (shocked plasma) in relation to the upstream region (unshocked plasma). These properties are used to classify IP shocks in terms of their geometry and their direction of propagation in relation to the Sun. The shock geometry is determined in terms of two angles: θ _{Bn}, the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal, and θ _{xn}, the angle between the shock normal and the Sun-Earth line. Sources of IP shocks frequently found in the solar wind at Earth's orbit are presented. Then the RH equations are solved for two categories of IP shocks in a special case: perpendicular shocks, when θ _{Bn} is 90 ∘, and oblique shocks, when that angle is 45 ∘. Finally, I highlight the importance of knowing the shock geometry, mainly the impact angle θ _{xn}, specially whether the shock is frontal or inclined, for space weather-related investigations. IP shocks are known to be more geoeffective if they strike the Earth's magnetosphere frontally, or with impact angle nearly null. These results have been reported both by modeling and experimental studies in the literature.

  17. [Primary management and treatment of paediatric septic shock].

    PubMed

    Kneyber, Martin C J; van Heerde, Marc; Henneveld, Hetty Th

    2010-01-01

    Paediatric shock is common. Hypovolaemic and septic shock are the main forms. Early and rapid results-oriented therapy of paediatric septic shock has a favourable effect on survival. There is an international guideline for the primary management of paediatric shock during the first hour after presentation of the patient. The goal of treatment is to prevent oxygen debt and consequently organ failure. The main symptoms of paediatric shock are tachycardia and reduced consciousness. In a child in shock, the clinical picture should be recognized within 15 minutes and an attempt should be made to reverse the situation by rapid fluid infusion. If the shock persists after 15 minutes, vasoactive medication should be given and the child should be transferred to a local paediatric intensive care unit. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are then also required.

  18. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture.

    PubMed

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Walker, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition.

  19. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Keen, G.; Bradbrook, R. A.; McGinn, F.

    1969-01-01

    Seven patients who had traumatic ruptures of the thoracic aorta are reported. Four of these died within a few hours of admission, allowing no opportunity for diagnosis or treatment. However, three survived long enough for elective surgery to be undertaken. A diagnosis of ruptured aorta was missed in one patient (case 2), and the difficulties of diagnosing this condition, even during thoracotomy, are emphasized. The value of serial chest radiography and forward aortography is discussed. Two of these patients underwent successful aortic repair, using left atrio-femoral bypass. Images PMID:5763507

  20. Rupture of the plantar fascia in athletes.

    PubMed

    Leach, R; Jones, R; Silva, T

    1978-06-01

    Symptoms resembling those of plantar fasciitis were seen in six athletes who were thought to have a partial rupture of the plantar fascia. Treatment, which included the use of crutches, anti-inflammatory agents, strapping of the arch, and ice packs, was successful in all but one patient who had a painful mass in the area of the previous rupture. After surgical excision of the painful mass and release of the fascia, he recovered. Five of the six athletes had been previously treated with repeated local injections of steroid.

  1. Modeling rupture segmentations on the Cascadia megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Liu, Y.; McGuire, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone has produced a series of large to great earthquakes, most recently in 1700 AD. Paleoseismological studies of submarine turbidites suggest a significant difference in recurrence interval between Northern (~500 year) and Southern (~200-300 year) Cascadia. Whether future large ruptures are segmented is very important for estimating hazard in Pacific Northwest, but remains enigmatic from the interpretations of current locking maps. Our approach is to develop rupture scenarios of Cascadia earthquakes by performing numerical simulations using the finite element software, PyLith. Based on the USGS plate interface model of Cascadia, we have constructed a realistic three-dimensional subduction fault model that stretches from Northern California to Central Vancouver Island. We have performed a number of dynamic rupture simulations using a set of artificial friction parameters and uniform stress distributions on the fault governed by a slip-weakening friction law. Preliminary results show that ruptures have initiated from the nucleation zone with higher shear stress than the ambient fault and have propagated on the realistic three-dimensional fault surface. The increase of dip angle with depth has little effect on the rupture propagation because that is governed mostly by the fault strength. The along-strike bend of the fault beneath Washington state and Vancouver Island has not impeded the rupture propagation given the uniform fault strength. To estimate the possible rupture segmentation, we have converted a slip-deficit rate model derived from GPS data into stress change distributions on the fault assuming the entire slip deficit would be released in the next great earthquake. We are also constructing another initial stress map derived from tidal and leveling data, which shows a significant difference in the locking depth beneath Central Oregon. The other important variable, the spatial variation of frictional parameters, however, has to be

  2. Tendon ruptures: mallet, flexor digitorum profundus.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Peter C; Shin, Steven S

    2012-08-01

    Mallet injuries are the most common closed tendon injury in the athlete. Flexor digitorum profundus ruptures are rare in baseball, but are common injuries in contact sports. The diagnosis for each condition is based on clinical examination, although radiographs should be evaluated for a possible bony component. Treatment for mallet injury depends on the athlete's goals of competition and understanding of the consequences of any treatment chosen. Gripping, throwing, and catching would be restricted or impossible with the injured finger immobilized. Treatment of FDP ruptures is almost always surgical and requires reattachment of the torn tendon to the distal phalanx.

  3. Mega-earthquakes rupture flat megathrusts.

    PubMed

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M; Rempel, Alan W; Karlstrom, Leif; Sladen, Anthony; De Barros, Louis

    2016-11-25

    The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquakes highlighted gaps in our understanding of mega-earthquake rupture processes and the factors controlling their global distribution: A fast convergence rate and young buoyant lithosphere are not required to produce mega-earthquakes. We calculated the curvature along the major subduction zones of the world, showing that mega-earthquakes preferentially rupture flat (low-curvature) interfaces. A simplified analytic model demonstrates that heterogeneity in shear strength increases with curvature. Shear strength on flat megathrusts is more homogeneous, and hence more likely to be exceeded simultaneously over large areas, than on highly curved faults.

  4. COMPARISON OF CLADDING CREEP RUPTURE MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Macheret

    2000-06-12

    The objective of this calculation is to compare several creep rupture correlations for use in calculating creep strain accrued by the Zircaloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel when it has been emplaced in the repository. These correlations are used to calculate creep strain values that are then compared to a large set of experimentally measured creep strain data, taken from four different research articles, making it possible to determine the best fitting correlation. The scope of the calculation extends to six different creep rupture correlations.

  5. How Is Cardiogenic Shock Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Cardiogenic Shock Diagnosed? The first step in diagnosing cardiogenic shock ... is cardiogenic shock. Tests and Procedures To Diagnose Shock and Its Underlying Causes Blood Pressure Test Medical ...

  6. Earthquake Stress Drop in Rupture Patches and Rupture Barriers on Gofar Transform Fault, East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, P. A.; Boettcher, M. S.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The largest earthquakes on mid-ocean ridge transform faults (RTFs) exhibit the most systematic behaviors known in seismology. On the fast slipping Gofar transform fault on the East Pacific Rise (EPR), Mw ~6.0 earthquakes occur every ~5 years and repeatedly rupture the same asperities (fault patches), suggesting that the intervening fault segments (rupture barriers) stop the propagation of the largest earthquakes. In 2008, an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployment captured the end of a seismic cycle on Gofar transform fault [McGuire et al., 2012]. We determine stress drop for earthquakes recorded during this experiment to investigate how the source properties of moderate sized earthquakes (3.0 < Mw < 5.5) differ between the rupture patch and rupture barrier fault segments. The OBS experiment on Gofar transform fault recorded an extensive foreshock sequence localized within a 10 km rupture barrier, the Mw 6.0 mainshock and its aftershocks that occurred in a ~10 km rupture patch, and an earthquake swarm that was located in a second rupture barrier adjacent to the ridge-transform intersection. Using waveforms recorded with a sample rate of 50 Hz on the OBS accelerometers, we calculate stress drop using the Madariaga [1976] circular crack model, with the corner frequency derived from an empirical Green's function (EGF) method, and seismic moment obtained by fitting an omega-squared source model to the low frequency amplitude of individual event spectra. Results for ~300 earthquakes in the foreshock, aftershock, and swarm zones have a range of stress drops from 0.2 to 50 MPa. Values for the best constrained 10% of earthquakes show a weighted average stress drop in the aftershock zone that is more than twice the weighted average stress drop in the foreshock zone (3.5 MPa and 1.1 MPa, respectively). These variations in earthquake stress drop reflect systematic differences in along strike fault zone properties between rupture patches and rupture barriers on Gofar

  7. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxic shock syndrome results from toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria, but the condition may also ... a skin or wound infection. Bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus (staph), causes toxic shock syndrome. It can ...

  8. Neptune inbound bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam; Lepping, Ronald P.

    1995-01-01

    Voyager 2 crossed the inbound or upstream Neptunian bow shock at 1430 spacecraft event time on August 24 in 1989 (Belcher et al., 1989). The plasma and magnetic field measurements allow us to study the solar wind interaction with the outermost gas giant. To fully utilize all of the spacecraft observations, an improved nonlinear least squares, 'Rankine-Hugoniot' magnetohydrodynamic shock-fitting technique has been developed (Szabo, 1994). This technique is applied to the Neptunian data set. We find that the upstream bow shock normal points nearly exactly toward the Sun consistent with any reasonable large-scale model of the bow shock for a near subsolar crossing. The shock was moving outward with a speed of 14 +/- 12 km/s. The shock can be characterized as a low beta, high Mach number, strong quasi-perpendicular shock. Finally, the shock microstructure features are resolved and found to scale well with theoretical expectations.

  9. Shock & Anaphylactic Shock. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on shock and anaphylactic shock is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  10. Dust processing and its feedback on interstellar shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, Vincent; Jones, Anthony; Pineau Des Forets, Guillaume

    Shocks in the interstellar medium (ISM) have a fundamental impact on the dust that they encounter. Supernova-generated shocks in the warm intercloud medium are the principal lifetimedetermining agents for dust evolution in the ISM. However, the presence of dust can also have a major influence on the structure of the shocks themselves. In this review we focus on the important role of dust in shocks and present the results of numerical models that simulate dust destruction and processing, and the effect of the dust on, shocks in molecular clouds and in the warm intercloud medium. A proper treatment of grain charging, gyration and coupling to the magnetic field determines the details of the dust dynamics and therefore the nature of the gas-grain and grain-grain interactions. The resultant processing of dust by shocks in the ISM can lead to changes in the dust-to-gas mass ratio through sputtering and vaporisation, and also to an evolution of the dust size distribution through the competition between coagulation and shattering in graingrain collisions. The presence of dust, and its processing, can also alter the shock structure and the gas composition. In high velocity shocks propagating through the warm intercloud medium, dust is the main coolant in the regions where hydrogen is ionized, until it is fully destroyed by sputtering. The reformation of H2 in the cooling gas depends on the level of dust destruction and shattering in the shock. In shocked molecular clouds, the destruction of silicate grains produces shock tracers like SiO. Dust grains and their fragments produced by shattering in the shock also affect the coupling between the magnetic field and the neutral gas in multi-fluid shocks. We emphasize the necessity of a detailed modelling of grain charging and dynamics through the shock in order to determine the impact of shocks on the dust size distribution, and its feedback on the shock structure and the evolution of the shocked gas.

  11. Better Visual Outcome by Intraocular Lens Ejection in Geriatric Patients with Ruptured Ocular Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Tadasu; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Kei; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Kachi, Shu; Ito, Yasuki; Ueno, Shinji; Nonobe, Norie; Kataoka, Keiko; Suzumura, Ayana; Iwase, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Because of the popularity of cataract surgeries, aged individuals with ocular trauma commonly have a surgical wound in their eyes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of cases that were coincident with intraocular lens (IOL) ejection in the eyes with ruptured open-globe ocular injuries. Consecutive patients with open-globe ocular injuries were first reviewed. Patients’ characteristics, corrected distance visual acuities (CDVAs) over 3 years after the trauma, causes of injuries, traumatic wound patterns, and coexistence of retinal detachment were examined. The relationships between poor CDVA and the other factors, including the complications of crystalline lens and IOL ejection, were examined. A total of 105 eyes/patients [43 eyes with rupture, 33 with penetrating, 28 with intraocular foreign body (IOFB), and 1 with perforating injuries] were included. Rupture injuries were common in aged patients and were mostly caused by falls, whereas penetrating and IOFB injuries were common in young male patients. CDVAs of the eyes with rupture injuries were significantly worse than those of the eyes with penetrating or IOFB injuries. CDVA from more than 50% of the ruptured eyes resulted in no light perception or light perception to 20/500. CDVA of the ruptured eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection was significantly worse than that of those complicated by IOL ejection. The wounds of the ruptured eyes complicated by IOL ejection were mainly located at the superior corneoscleral limbus, whereas those of the eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection were located at the posterior sclera. There were significant correlations between poor CDVA and retinal detachment and crystalline lens ejection. These results proposed a new trend in the ocular injuries that commonly occur in aged patients; history of cataract surgery might affect the final visual outcome after open

  12. Biomass shock pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  13. Analytic Study of Three-Dimensional Rupture Propagation in Strike-Slip Faulting with Analogue Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Pei-Chen; Chu, Sheng-Shin; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2014-05-01

    Strike-slip faults are high angle (or nearly vertical) fractures where the blocks have moved along strike way (nearly horizontal). Overburden soil profiles across main faults of Strike-slip faults have revealed the palm and tulip structure characteristics. McCalpin (2005) has trace rupture propagation on overburden soil surface. In this study, we used different offset of slip sandbox model profiles to study the evolution of three-dimensional rupture propagation by strike -slip faulting. In strike-slip faults model, type of rupture propagation and width of shear zone (W) are primary affecting by depth of overburden layer (H), distances of fault slip (Sy). There are few research to trace of three-dimensional rupture behavior and propagation. Therefore, in this simplified sandbox model, investigate rupture propagation and shear zone with profiles across main faults when formation are affecting by depth of overburden layer and distances of fault slip. The investigators at the model included width of shear zone, length of rupture (L), angle of rupture (θ) and space of rupture. The surface results was follow the literature that the evolution sequence of failure envelope was R-faults, P-faults and Y-faults which are parallel to the basement fault. Comparison surface and profiles structure which were curved faces and cross each other to define 3-D rupture and width of shear zone. We found that an increase in fault slip could result in a greater width of shear zone, and proposed a W/H versus Sy/H relationship. Deformation of shear zone showed a similar trend as in the literature that the increase of fault slip resulted in the increase of W, however, the increasing trend became opposite after a peak (when Sy/H was 1) value of W was reached (small than 1.5). The results showed that the W width is limited at a constant value in 3-D models by strike-slip faulting. In conclusion, this study helps evaluate the extensions of the shear zone influenced regions for strike

  14. Star polymers rupture induced by constant forces.

    PubMed

    García, N A; Febbo, M; Vega, D A; Milchev, A

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the rupture process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of rupture times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the rupture time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the rupture time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks.

  15. Plantar fascia rupture associated with corticosteroid injection.

    PubMed

    Sellman, J R

    1994-07-01

    A series of 37 patients, all with a presumptive diagnosis of plantar fascia rupture, is presented. All had had prior heel pain diagnosed as plantar fasciitis, and all had been treated with corticosteroid injection into the calcaneal origin of the fascia. One third described a sudden tearing episode in the heel, while the rest had a gradual change in symptoms. Most of the patients had relief of the original heel pain, which had been replaced by a variety of new foot problems, including dorsal and lateral midfoot pain, swelling, foot weakness, metatarsal pain, and metatarsal fracture. In all 37 patients, there was a palpable diminution in the tension of the plantar fascia on the involved side, and footprints often showed a flattening of the involved arch. Magnetic resonance imaging done on one patient showed attenuation of the plantar fascia. From these observations and data, the author concluded that plantar fascia rupture had occurred. Treatment following rupture included supportive shoes, orthoses, and time. The majority had resolution of their new symptoms, but this often took 6 to 12 months to occur. In the remainder, there were persisting symptoms. Corticosteroid injections, although helpful in the treatment of plantar fasciitis, appear to predispose to plantar fascia rupture.

  16. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  17. Musculotendinous infraspinatus rupture and shoulder weakness.

    PubMed

    Lipford, Melissa C; Bond, Jeffrey R; Steinmann, Scott P; Kumar, Neeraj

    2011-12-01

    We report a patient with bilateral simultaneous onset of weakness of shoulder lateral rotation due to musculotendinous infraspinatus rupture that occurred after shoulder steroid injections. Disruption of the musculotendinous junction of the infraspinatus is a rare recently described entity. Electromyography is normal, and magnetic resonance image findings are characteristic.

  18. Berry splenic artery aneurysm rupture in association with segmental arterial mediolysis and portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Imai, Miwa Akasofu; Kawahara, Ei; Katsuda, Shogo; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2005-05-01

    A rare case of berry splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) rupture associated with segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) and portal hypertension is reported. A 66-year-old woman, diagnosed as having liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension 6 years earlier, suddenly developed a lancinating pain in the upper abdomen and lost consciousness. She recovered consciousness while being transferred to hospital by ambulance. During the investigations, her level of consciousness suddenly deteriorated. Ultrasonography showed a massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage, and she died 5(1/2) h after admission. On gross examination at autopsy it was not possible to find the rupture point of the vessel because the pancreas was embedded in a massive hematoma. However, careful dissection of the pancreatic tail after fixation revealed a berry aneurysm measuring 0.8 cm in diameter in a branch adjacent to the bifurcation in the distal third of the main splenic artery. Microscopic examination detected a rupture of the aneurysm. The histology of the arterial wall proximal to the aneurysm showed typical SAM. In general, berry SAA caused by SAM is rare and unlikely to rupture. The SAA in the present case likely occurred and ruptured due to the combination of SAM and portal hypertension.

  19. Kinematic and dynamic rupture process of the 2015 Nepal Mw 7.8 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Yao, H.; Yang, H.

    2015-12-01

    On April 25 2015 a devastating Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in Nepal and killed about 9000 people. This event is a typical low dip angle thrust event due to the collision and convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plate in the Himalayan arc since the last 1934 Mw 8.1 event. With the help of modern geophysical instrumental observation, such as seismic wave recordings, GPS and InSAR, the rupture process of this event can be well investigated. We use compressive sensing (CS) method to invert the coseismic radiation of this event in different frequency bands. Our CS results indicate an east-southeastward unilateral rupture process with frequency-dependent properties similar to that in oceanic subduction zone. This frequency-dependence and the seimogenic mechanism of this event are derived from the down-dip varied frictional properties in the Main Himalayan thrust (MHT). In the meanwhile, various observations indicate that the rupture of this event does not reach the ground surface and the shallow stick-slip portion of MHT is still locked, this is different from the 2008 Wenchuan event. To investigate why the rupture stops and does not reach the ground surface, we use numerical method to simulate the influence of high ground topography and fault geometry on the propagation of the rupture. Through combining the results from geophysical observation and numerical simulation, we can better understand the regional tectonic and estimate the potential seismic hazard in the active Himalayan arc.

  20. 3D Dynamic Rupture with Slip Reactivation and Ground Motion Simulations of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalguer, Luis; Galvez, Percy

    2013-04-01

    Seismological, geodetic and tsunami observations, including kinematic source inversion and back-projection models of the giant megathrust 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake indicate that the earthquake featured complex rupture patterns, with multiple rupture fronts and rupture styles. The compilation of these studies reveals fundamentally three main feature: 1) spectacular large slip over 50m, 2) the existence of slip reactivation and 3) distinct regions of low and high frequency radiation. In this paper we investigate the possible mechanisms causing the slip reactivation. For this purpose we perform earthquakes dynamic rupture and strong ground motion simulations. We investigate two mechanisms as potential sources of slip reactivation: 1) The additional push to the earthquake rupture (slip reactivation) comes from the rupture front back propagating from the free-surface after rupturing the trench of the fault, a phenomena usually observed in dynamic rupture simulations of dipping faults (e.g. Dalguer et al. 2001). This mechanism produces smooth slip velocity reactivation with low frequency content. 2) Slip reactivation governed by the friction constitutive low (in the form given by Kanamori and Heaton, 2000) in which frictional strength drops initially to certain value, but then at large slips there is a second drop in frictional strength. The slip velocity caused by this mechanism is a sharp pulse capable to radiate stronger ground motion. Our simulations show that the second mechanism produces synthetic ground motion pattern along the Japanese cost of the Tohoku event consistent with the observed ground motion. In addition, the rupture pattern with slip reactivation is also consistent with kinematic source inversion models in which slip reactivation is observed. Therefore we propose that the slip reactivation observed in this earthquake is results of strong frictional strength drop, maybe caused by fault melting, pressurization, lubrication or other thermal weakening

  1. Integrated Multidisciplinary Fault Observation System in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of an EU-FP7 project, titled as MARSITE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Yalcinkaya, Esref; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2015-04-01

    events. It is obvious from the studies on the nucleation process of the 1999 earthquake that tens of minutes before the major rupture initiate noteworthy microearthquake activity happened. The starting point of the 1999 rupture was a site of swarm activity noticed a few decades prior the main shock. Nowadays, analogous case is probable in western Marmara Sea region, prone to a major event in near future where the seismic activity is prevailing along the impending rupture zone. Having deployed a borehole system at the eastern end of the Ganos fault zone will yield invaluable data to closely inspect and monitor the last stages of the preparation stage of major rupture.

  2. Whistler Waves Associated with Weak Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velez, J. C. Ramirez; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Kajdic, P.; Jian,, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the properties of 98 weak interplanetary shocks measured by the dual STEREO spacecraft over approximately 3 years during the past solar minimum. We study the occurrence of whistler waves associated with these shocks, which on average are high beta shocks (0.2 < Beta < 10). We have compared the waves properties upstream and downstream of the shocks. In the upstream region the waves are mainly circularly polarized, and in most of the cases (approx. 75%) they propagate almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field (<30 deg.). In contrast, the propagation angle with respect to the shock normal varies in a broad range of values (20 deg. to 90 deg.), suggesting that they are not phase standing. We find that the whistler waves can extend up to 100,000 km in the upstream region but in most cases (88%) are contained in a distance within 30,000 km from the shock. This corresponds to a larger region with upstream whistlers associated with IP shocks than previously reported in the literature. The maximum amplitudes of the waves are observed next to the shock interface, and they decrease as the distance to the shock increases. In most cases the wave propagation direction becomes more aligned with the magnetic field as the distance to the shock increases. These two facts suggest that most of the waves in the upstream region are Landau damping as they move away from the shock. From the analysis we also conclude that it is likely that the generation mechanism of the upstream whistler waves is taking place at the shock interface. In the downstream region, the waves are irregularly polarized, and the fluctuations are very compressive; that is, the compressive component of the wave clearly dominates over the transverse one. The majority of waves in the downstream region (95%) propagate at oblique angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field (>60 deg.). The wave propagation with respect to the shock-normal direction has no preferred direction and varies similarly to

  3. Geomorphic features of surface ruptures associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in and around the downtown of Kumamoto City, and implications on triggered slip along active faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Hideaki; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Toda, Shinji; Kumahara, Yasuhiro

    2017-02-01

    The 30-km-long surface ruptures associated with the M w 7.0 ( M j 7.3) earthquake at 01:25 JST on April 16 in Kumamoto Prefecture appeared along the previously mapped 100-km-long active fault called the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone (FHFZ). The surface ruptures appeared to have extended further west out of the main FHFZ into the Kumamoto Plain. Although InSAR analysis by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) indicated coseismic surface deformation in and around the downtown of Kumamoto City, the surface ruptures have not been clearly mapped in the central part of the Kumamoto Plain, and whether there are other active faults other than the Futagawa fault in the Kumamoto Plain remained unclear. We produced topographical stereo images (anaglyph) from 5-m-mesh digital elevation model of GSI, which was generated from light detection and ranging data. We interpreted them and identified that several SW-sloping river terraces formed after the deposition of the pyroclastic flow deposits related to the latest large eruption of the Aso caldera (86.8-87.3 ka) are cut and deformed by several NW-trending flexure scarps down to the southwest. These 5.4-km-long scarps that cut across downtown Kumamoto were identified for the first time, and we name them as the Suizenji fault zone. Surface deformation such as continuous cracks, tilts, and monoclinal folding associated with the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was observed in the field along the fault zone. The amount of vertical deformation ( 0.1 m) along this fault associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was quite small compared to the empirically calculated coseismic slip (0.5 m) based on the fault length. We thus suggest that the slip on this fault zone was triggered by the Kumamoto earthquake, but the fault zone has potential to generate an earthquake with larger slip that poses a high seismic risk in downtown Kumamoto area.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. A case report: spontaneous rupture of dissecting aneurysm of the middle colic artery.

    PubMed

    Chino, Osamu; Kijima, Hiroshi; Shibuya, Makoto; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Kashiwagi, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Yasumasa; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2004-12-01

    Aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery branches are rarely reported, even among them colic artery aneurysms are seldom. We report a case of 78-year-old male with ruptured dissecting aneurysm of middle colic artery. The patient complained abdominal pain and nausea during hospital stay for renal stone. The patient suddenly developed severe abdominal pain, leading to shock. He underwent emergency surgery under a preoperative diagnosis of intraperitoneal hemorrhage. At exploratory laparotomy, a large hematoma involving the mesentery root of the transverse colon was associated with a ruptured aneurysm measuring 15 x 10 mm in size, which was located to the mid-portion of middle colic artery. Right-hemicolectomy was carried out because of ischemic changes in the ascending colon. Histological examination demonstrated a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the middle colic artery approximately 5 cm in length, associated with destruction of the tunica interna and media. The aneurysm was thought to result from idiopathic segmental arterial mediolysis, because no definitive evidence of atherosclerosis or arteritis was observed.

  5. Spontaneous Intra-Abdominal Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of Jejunal Artery Aneurysm in Behcet Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-yan; Wei, Jiang-peng; Zhao, Xiu-yuan; Wang, Yue; Wu, Huan-huan; Shi, Tao; Liu, Tong; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rupture of jejunal artery aneurysm is a very rare event resulting in life-threatening hemorrhage in Behcet disease (BD). We report a case of ruptured jejunal artery aneurysm in a 35-year-old patient with BD. The patient had a 1-year history of intermittent abdominal pain caused by superior mesenteric artery aneurysm with thrombosis. Anticoagulation treatment showed a good response. Past surgical history included stenting for aortic pseudoaneurysm. On admission, the patient underwent an urgent operation due to sudden hemorrhagic shock. Resection was performed for jejunal artery aneurysm and partial ischemia of intestine. The patient was diagnosed with BD, based on a history of recurrent oral and skin lesions over the past 6 years. Treatment with anti-inflammatory medications showed a good response during the 8-month follow-up. An increased awareness of BD and its vascular complications is essential. Aneurysms in BD involving jejunal artery are rare, neglected and require proper management to prevent rupture and death. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of jejunal artery aneurysm caused by BD. PMID:26559278

  6. Multiple Pancreatoduodenal Artery Arcade Aneurysms Associated with Celiac Axis Root Segmental Stenosis Presenting as Aneurysm Rupture.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Francesco; Bruni, Antonio; Da Ros, Valerio; Chaves Brait, Cristina Margot; Scevola, Germano; Di Cintio, Vincenzo

    2015-11-01

    A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our unit suffering from hemorrhagic shock and upper abdominal pain. An enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan evidenced a large retroperitoneal hematoma due to visceral arteries aneurysm rupture and a significant celiac axis root segmental stenosis due to median arcuate ligament compression. A selective splanchnic arteries angiography showed 3 saccular pancreaticoduodenal artery arcade aneurysm (PDAAs), 2 in the inferior posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery, and 1 smaller in the superior anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery. The largest aneurysm showed evident rupture signs. Both inferior PDAAs were successfully treated via endovascular coil embolization. The celiac trunk stenosis and small inferior PDAA did not require treatment. A CT scan control at 1-year follow-up did not reveal any new PDAAs. In cases of celiac artery trunk (CAT) steno-occlusive lesions, multiple aneurysms can develop in the pancreaticoduodenal arcade. PDAAs should be treated because of high rupture risk, regardless of diameter. Although endovascular treatment via coil embolization represents the treatment of choice nowadays, a simultaneous treatment of the associated CAT lesions is still debated. However, in cases of aneurysm embolization alone, one cannot exclude that other PDAAs might develop in these patients in the future. Close monitoring and accurate long-term follow-up is highly recommended in these cases.

  7. Rupture and bleeding secondary to renal infarction in a patient with an abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Toshifumi; Mukai, Shogo; Obata, Shogo; Morimoto, Hironobu; Uchida, Hiroaki; Yamane, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    A 57-year-old man had been followed up for severe left ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction with a left ventricular thrombus. He had been treated with anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and shock. He had no prior episode of trauma. The electrocardiogram (ECG) showed no changes compared with the previous ECG. Enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a retroperitoneal hematoma around an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and the right kidney. We suspected rupture of AAA or the right kidney, and we performed AAA replacement with a Y-shaped graft and nephrectomy of the right kidney. Pathological examination revealed hemorrhagic infarction of the lower part of the right kidney, with hemorrhage and rupture at the center of the infarct. In our case, enhanced CT showed extravasation from the lower part of the right kidney. In addition, postoperative echocardiography showed that the left ventricular thrombus had disappeared. We report a case of rupture and bleeding secondary to renal infarction in a patient with an AAA.

  8. Strain Measurement Using FBG on COPV in Stress Rupture Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Curtis; Grant, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to perform ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization testing of a Space Transportation System (STS) 40-in. Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV). The 40-in. vessel was of the same design and approximate age as the STS Main Propulsion System (MPS) and Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) vessels. The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) assembled a team of experts and conducted an assessment that involved a review of national Kevlar COPY data. During the review, the STS COPVs were found to be beyond their original certification of ten years. The team observed that the likelihood of STS COPV Stress rupture, a catastrophic burst before leak failure mode, was greater than previously believed. Consequently, a detailed assessment of remaining stress rupture life became necessary. Prior to STS-114, a certification deviation was written for two flights of OV-103 (Discovery) and OV-104 (Atlantis) per rationale that was based on an extensive review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, COPV data, and revisions to the STS COPV stress levels. In order to obtain flight rationale to extend the certification deviation through the end of the Program, the Orbiter Project Office has directed an interagency COPV team to conduct further testing and analysis to investigate conservatism in the stress rupture model and evaluate material age degradation. Additional analysis of stress rupture life requires understanding the fiber stresses including stress that occurs due to thru-wall composite compression in COPV components. Data must be obtained at both zero gauge pressure (pre-stress) and at the component operating pressure so that this phenomenon can be properly evaluated. The zero gauge pressure stresses are predominantly a result of the autofrettage process used during vessel manufacture. Determining these pre-stresses and the constitutive behavior of the overwrap at pressure will provide necessary information

  9. [Simple technique for autologous transfusion in ruptured ectopic pregnancy: Report of six cases managed at the Yaoundé University Hospital in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Nkwabong, E; Takang, W Ako; Kouam, L

    2016-01-01

    Ruptured ectopic pregnancies are life-threatening emergencies, especially in developing countries, where many patients do not consult until rupture, sometimes with the patient already in hemorrhagic shock. In this situation, immediate blood transfusion is essential. Homologous blood products are not always available. Furthermore, homologous transfusion carries the risk of transmitting viruses such as HIV and hepatitis B and C. Autologous transfusion (intraoperative blood salvage) may thus be helpful. The authors present 6 cases of autologous transfusion performed at the Yaounde University Hospital (Cameroon) and recommend this method in developing countries where good quality blood cannot always be obtained rapidly.

  10. Jet drops from microbubble rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingxian; Bartlett, Casey; Bird, James

    2014-11-01

    When a bubble bursts at an interface, the surface energy creates an upward jet that can break into smaller droplets. Extensive research has demonstrated that the size of the droplets depends on the size of the initial bubbles. Yet this research has almost entirely been conducted for bubbles that are larger than 100 microns. As the bubbles approach 100 microns, the linear relation seems to deviate, although there have not been systematic experiments in this regime - mainly because these smaller bubbles and the even smaller droplets that they create have been difficult to visualize in the past. Here we directly measure the jetting phenomena for bubbles that are smaller than 100 micron using a combination of microfluidics and high-speed photography, and we relate our results to theory. Lab Name: Interfacial Fluidic Dynamics Laboratory Faculty Mentor's Name: James C. Bird.

  11. The characteristics of EEG power spectra changes after ACL rupture

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xin; Huang, Hongshi; Hu, Xiaoqing; Li, Dai; Yu, Yuanyuan; Ao, Yingfang

    2017-01-01

    Background Reestablishing knee stability is the core of the treatment of ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) injury. Some patients still have a feeling of instability of the knee after ACL injury treatment. This unstable feeling may be caused by central nervous system changes after ACL rupture. Methods To identify the central changes after ACL rupture, EEG spectra were recorded to compare ACL patients and healthy controls when they were walking, jogging, and landing. Results There was a significant increase in delta, theta, alpha and beta band power during walking, jogging and landing in ACL patients. We also found an asymmetry phenomenon of EEG only in the ACL patients, mainly in the frontal area and central-parietal area. The asymmetry of beta band power extended to the frontal and the central area during jogging and landing task. Conclusions There were significant differences in EEG power spectra between the ACL patients and healthy people. ACL patients showed high EEG band power activities and an asymmetry phenomenon. EEG power changes were affected by movements, the asymmetry extended when performing more complicated movements. PMID:28182627

  12. A shock absorber model for structure-borne noise analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaziz, Marouane; Nacivet, Samuel; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2015-08-01

    Shock absorbers are often responsible for undesirable structure-borne noise in cars. The early numerical prediction of this noise in the automobile development process can save time and money and yet remains a challenge for industry. In this paper, a new approach to predicting shock absorber structure-borne noise is proposed; it consists in modelling the shock absorber and including the main nonlinear phenomena responsible for discontinuities in the response. The model set forth herein features: compressible fluid behaviour, nonlinear flow rate-pressure relations, valve mechanical equations and rubber mounts. The piston, base valve and complete shock absorber model are compared with experimental results. Sensitivity of the shock absorber response is evaluated and the most important parameters are classified. The response envelope is also computed. This shock absorber model is able to accurately reproduce local nonlinear phenomena and improves our state of knowledge on potential noise sources within the shock absorber.

  13. A non-diaphragm type small shock tube for application to a molecular beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Yuta; Osuka, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2013-07-01

    A non-diaphragm type small shock tube was developed for application to a molecular beam source, which can generate beams in the energy range from 1 to several electron volts and beams containing dissociated species such as atomic oxygen. Since repetitive high-frequency operation is indispensable for rapid signal acquisition in beam scattering experiments, the dimensions of the shock tube were miniaturized to reduce the evacuation time between shots. The designed shock tube is 2-4 mm in diameter and can operate at 0.5 Hz. Moreover, a high shock Mach number at the tube end is required for high-energy molecular beam generation. To reduce the shock attenuation caused by the wall boundary layer, which becomes significant in small-diameter tubes, we developed a high-speed response valve employing the current-loop mechanism. The response time of this mechanism is about 100 μs, which is shorter than the rupture time of conventional diaphragms. We show that the current-loop valve generates shock waves with shorter formation distances (about 200-300 mm) than those of conventional shock tubes. In addition, the converging geometry efficiently accelerates shock wave in the small-diameter tubes. The optimal geometry of the shock tube yields shock Mach number around 7, which indicates that the translation energy of molecular beams can exceed 1 eV even in the presence of the real gas effect.

  14. Fundamentals of collisionless shocks for astrophysical application, 1. Non-relativistic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treumann, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    full-particle simulations it becomes evident that, on ion-inertial scales close to the shock transition, all quasi-parallel collisionless supercritical shocks are locally quasi-perpendicular. This property is of vital importance for the particle dynamics near the quasi-parallel shock front. Considerable interest focusses on particle acceleration and the generation of radiation. Radiation from non-relativistic shocks results mainly in wave-wave interactions among various plasma waves. Non-thermal charged particles can be further accelerated to high energies by a Fermi-like mechanism. The important question is whether the shock can pre-accelerate shock-reflected particles to sufficiently high energies in order to create the seed-population of the non-thermal particles required by the Fermi mechanism. Based on preliminary full-particle numerical simulations, this question is answered affirmatively. Such simulations provide ample evidence that collisionless shocks with high-Mach numbers—even when non-relativistic—could probably by themselves produce the energetic seed-particle population for the Fermi-process.

  15. Shock front nonstationarity of supercritical perpendicular shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Tohru; Oonishi, Makiko; LembèGe, Bertrand; Savoini, Philippe

    2003-06-01

    The shock front nonstationarity of perpendicular shocks in super-critical regime is analyzed by examining the coupling between "incoming" and "reflected" ion populations. For a given set of parameters including the upstream Mach number (MA) and the fraction α of reflected to incoming ions, a self-consistent, time-stationary solution of the coupling between ion streams and the electromagnetic field is sought for. If such a solution is found, the shock is stationary; otherwise, the shock is nonstationary, leading to a self-reforming shock front often observed in full particle simulations of quasi-perpendicular shocks. A parametric study of this numerical model allows us to define a critical αcrit between stationary and nonstationary regimes. The shock can be nonstationary even for relatively low MA(2-5). For a moderate MA(5-10), the critical value αcrit is about 15 to 20%. For very high MA (>10), αcrit saturates around 20%. Moreover, present full simulations show that self-reformation of the shock front occurs for relatively low βi and disappears for high βi, where βi is the ratio of upstream ion plasma to magnetic field pressures. Results issued from the present theoretical model are found to be in good agreement with full particle simulations for low βi case; this agreement holds as long as the motion of reflected ions is coherent enough (narrow ion ring) to be described by a single population in the model. The present model reveals to be "at variance" with full particle simulations results for the high βi case. Present results are also compared with previous hybrid simulations.

  16. Isolated Total Rupture of Extraocular Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Shen, Tao; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Total rupture of extraocular muscles is an infrequent clinical finding. Here we conducted this retrospective study to evaluate their causes of injury, clinical features, imaging, surgical management, and final outcomes in cases of isolated extraocular muscle rupture at a tertiary center in China. Thirty-six patients were identified (24 men and 12 women). Mean age was 34 years (range 2–60). The right eye was involved in 21 patients and the left 1 in 15. A sharp object or metal hook was the cause of this lesion in 16 patients, sinus surgery in 14 patients, traffic accident in 3 patients, orbital surgery in 2 patients, and conjunctive tumor surgery in 1 patient. The most commonly involved muscles were medial (18 patients) and inferior rectus muscles (13 patients). The function of the ruptured muscles revealed a scale of −3 to −4 defect of ocular motility and the amount of deviation in primary position varied from 10 to 140 PD (prism diopter). Computerized tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of ruptured muscles. An end-to-end muscle anastomosis was performed and 3 to 5 mm of muscle was resected in 23 patients. When the posterior border of the injured muscle could not be identified (13 patients), a partial tendon transposition was performed, together with recession of the antagonist in most patients, whereas a recession of the antagonist muscle plus a resection of the involved muscle with or without nasal periosteal fixation was performed in the remaining patients. After an average of 16.42 months of follow-up an excellent result was achieved in 23 patients and results of 13 patients were considered as a failure. In most patients, the posterior border of the ruptured muscle can be identified and an early surgery can be performed to restore function. Alternatively, a partial tendon transposition should be performed. When muscular rupture is suspected, an early orbital CT is required to confirm this possibility, which can then verify the necessity for

  17. Structure of intermediate shocks and slow shocks in a magnetized plasma with heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.L.; Wu, B.H.; Lee, L.C.

    2005-08-15

    The structure of slow shocks and intermediate shocks in the presence of a heat conduction parallel to the local magnetic field is simulated from the set of magnetohydrodynamic equations. This study is an extension of an earlier work [C. L. Tsai, R. H. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1185 (2002)], in which the effects of heat conduction are examined for the case that the tangential magnetic fields on the two side of initial current sheet are exactly antiparallel (B{sub y}=0). For the B{sub y}=0 case, a pair of slow shocks is formed as the result of evolution of the initial current sheet, and each slow shock consists of two parts: the isothermal main shock and the foreshock. In the present paper, cases with B{sub y}{ne}0 are also considered, in which the evolution process leads to the presence of an additional pair of time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDISs). Across the main shock of the slow shock, jumps in plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field are significant, but the temperature is continuous. The plasma density downstream of the main shock decreases with time, while the downstream temperature increases with time, keeping the downstream pressure constant. The foreshock is featured by a smooth temperature variation and is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream region. In contrast to the earlier study, the foreshock is found to reach a steady state with a constant width in the slow shock frame. In cases with B{sub y}{ne}0, the plasma density and pressure increase and the magnetic field decreases across TDIS. The TDIS initially can be embedded in the slow shock's foreshock structure, and then moves out of the foreshock region. With an increasing B{sub y}, the propagation speed of foreshock leading edge tends to decrease and the foreshock reaches its steady state at an earlier time. Both the pressure and temperature downstreams of the main shock decrease with increasing B{sub y}. The results can be applied to the shock heating

  18. Structure of intermediate shocks and slow shocks in a magnetized plasma with heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C. L.; Wu, B. H.; Lee, L. C.

    2005-08-01

    The structure of slow shocks and intermediate shocks in the presence of a heat conduction parallel to the local magnetic field is simulated from the set of magnetohydrodynamic equations. This study is an extension of an earlier work [C. L. Tsai, R. H. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1185 (2002)], in which the effects of heat conduction are examined for the case that the tangential magnetic fields on the two side of initial current sheet are exactly antiparallel (By=0). For the By=0 case, a pair of slow shocks is formed as the result of evolution of the initial current sheet, and each slow shock consists of two parts: the isothermal main shock and the foreshock. In the present paper, cases with By≠0 are also considered, in which the evolution process leads to the presence of an additional pair of time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDISs). Across the main shock of the slow shock, jumps in plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field are significant, but the temperature is continuous. The plasma density downstream of the main shock decreases with time, while the downstream temperature increases with time, keeping the downstream pressure constant. The foreshock is featured by a smooth temperature variation and is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream region. In contrast to the earlier study, the foreshock is found to reach a steady state with a constant width in the slow shock frame. In cases with By≠0, the plasma density and pressure increase and the magnetic field decreases across TDIS. The TDIS initially can be embedded in the slow shock's foreshock structure, and then moves out of the foreshock region. With an increasing By, the propagation speed of foreshock leading edge tends to decrease and the foreshock reaches its steady state at an earlier time. Both the pressure and temperature downstreams of the main shock decrease with increasing By. The results can be applied to the shock heating in the solar corona and solar wind.

  19. Dynamic Rupture Simulations Based on the Characterized Source Model of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Kenichi; Iwase, Satoshi; Uratani, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Sachio; Watanabe, Takahide; Miyakoshi, Jun'ichi; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    The 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake (Tohoku earthquake, M w 9.0) occurred on the Japan Trench and caused a devastating tsunami. Studies of this earthquake have revealed complex features of its rupture process. In particular, the shallow parts of the fault (near the trench) hosted large slip and long period seismic wave radiation, whereas the deep parts of the rupture (near the coast) hosted smaller slip and strong radiation of short period seismic waves. Understanding such depth-dependent feature of the rupture process of the Tohoku earthquake is necessary as it may occur during future mega-thrust earthquakes in this and other regions. In this study, we investigate the "characterized source model" of the Tohoku earthquake through dynamic rupture simulations. This source model divides the fault plane into several parts characterized by different size and frictional strength (main asperity, background area, etc.) and is widely used in Japan for the prediction of strong ground motion and tsunami through kinematic rupture simulations. Our characterized source model of the Tohoku earthquake comprises a large shallow asperity with moderate frictional strength, small deep asperities with high frictional strength, a background area with low frictional strength, and an area with dynamic weakening close to the trench (low dynamic friction coefficient as arising from, e.g., thermal pressurization). The results of our dynamic rupture simulation reproduce the main depth-dependent feature of the rupture process of the Tohoku earthquake. We also find that the width of the area close to the trench (equal to the distance from the trench to the shallow asperity, interpreted as the size of the accretionary prism) and the presence of dynamic weakening in this area have a significant influence on the final slip distribution. These results are useful to construct characterized source models for other subduction zones with different scale of the accretionary prism, such

  20. Rupture Process During the 2015 Illapel, Chile Earthquake: Zigzag-Along-Dip Rupture Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuwaki, Ryo; Yagi, Yuji; Aránguiz, Rafael; González, Juan; González, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    We constructed a seismic source model for the 2015 M W 8.3 Illapel, Chile earthquake, which was carried out with the kinematic waveform inversion method adopting a novel inversion formulation that takes into account the uncertainty in the Green's function, together with the hybrid backprojection method enabling us to track the spatiotemporal distribution of high-frequency (0.3-2.0 Hz) sources at high resolution by using globally observed teleseismic P-waveforms. A maximum slip amounted to 10.4 m in the shallow part of the seismic source region centered 72 km northwest of the epicenter and generated a following tsunami inundated along the coast. In a gross sense, the rupture front propagated almost unilaterally to northward from the hypocenter at <2 km/s, however, in detail the spatiotemporal slip distribution also showed a complex rupture propagation pattern: two up-dip rupture propagation episodes, and a secondary rupture episode may have been triggered by the strong high-frequency radiation event at the down-dip edge of the seismic source region. High-frequency sources tends to be distributed at deeper parts of the slip area, a pattern also documented in other subduction zone megathrust earthquakes that may reflect the heterogeneous distribution of fracture energy or stress drop along the fault. The weak excitation of high-frequency radiation at the termination of rupture may represent the gradual deceleration of rupture velocity at the transition zone of frictional property or stress state between the megathrust rupture zone and the swarm area.

  1. Detection of supershear rupture in 2013 Craig, Alaska, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Seismic ruptures are akin to opening a zipper—a gap in the crust starts in one location and travels along the fault in a particular direction. When a strained fault ruptures in an earthquake, seismic waves also spread out from the epicenter. In some cases, the waves' passage can trigger the initiation of a new rupture ahead of the initial expanding rupture in locked portions of the fault. If the triggered rupture grows successfully, the overall rupture front can then outpace the passage of the shear waves, secondary seismic waves that travel slowly after the earthquake begins and are responsible for the bulk of violent shaking. These earthquakes display what is known as supershear rupture; only seven such earthquakes have previously been recorded.

  2. [Proximal and distal rupture of the m. biceps brachii].

    PubMed

    Lorbach, O; Kieb, M; Grim, C; Engelhardt, M

    2010-12-01

    Ruptures of the biceps tendon account for a high percentage of tendon ruptures. The aetiology of proximal ruptures of the long head of the biceps tendon is often degenerative and they are frequently associated with lesions of the rotator cuff. The clinical findings are often not specific and long lasting. Distal ruptures of the biceps tendon mostly occur during eccentric contraction of the biceps muscle.Clinical tests, the associated haematoma and a distalisation or proximalisation of the muscle belly in combination with ultrasound or MRI to rule out combined diseases lead to the diagnosis. The possible options include conservative and operative treatment. Tenotomy and tenodesis lead to comparable results in the literature. Therefore, conservative treatment is mostly recommended in proximal ruptures. Operative treatment is preferred in distal ruptures of the biceps tendon in order to achieve an anatomical reconstruction of the muscle function. Chronic ruptures of the distal biceps tendon can be successfully treated with free autografts or allografts.

  3. The multi-parameter borehole system and high resolution seismic studies in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of MARSITE Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Yalcinkaya, Esref

    2016-04-01

    obvious from the studies on the nucleation process of the 1999 earthquake that tens of minutes before the major rupture initiate noteworthy microearthquake activity happened. The starting point of the 1999 rupture was a site of swarm activity noticed a few decades prior the main shock. Nowadays, analogous case is probable in western Marmara Sea region, prone to a major event in near future where the seismic activity is prevailing along the impending rupture zone. Deploying a borehole system eastern end of the Ganos fault zone may yield invaluable data to closely inspect and monitor the last stages of the preparation stage of major rupture.

  4. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  5. Creep rupture behavior of Stirling engine materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-rupture strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-rupture to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.

  6. Rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 31 week

    PubMed Central

    Al Qarni, Abdullah A.; Al-Braikan, Nawal; Al-Hanbali, Moh’d M.; Alharmaly, Abdullah H.

    2017-01-01

    Rudimentary horn could be a rare congenital uterine anomalies result from incomplete fusion of the 2 Müllerian ducts throughout embryo-genesis. Pregnancy in an exceedingly rudimentary horn is rare and typically terminates in rupture throughout the late of first or second trimester of pregnancy. We tend to present a rare case of a gravida within the trimester (31 weeks) presented with complain of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomit for 3 days. On presentation, the patient was pale and irritable. Ultrasound scan showed fetus at (30 weeks) with cardiac activity. Cardiotocography reactive. Incision showed horned uterus with pregnancy in rudimentary left horn that was ruptured. Alive fetus was delivered. The rudimentary left horn was excised. The patient was advised to not get pregnant for 3 years. Within one year, the patient came to hospital in active labor at (37 weeks). This case emphasizes the importance of fine antepartum care to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:28133695

  7. Rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 31 week.

    PubMed

    Al Qarni, Abdullah A; Al-Braikan, Nawal; Al-Hanbali, Moh'd M; Alharmaly, Abdullah H

    2017-02-01

    Rudimentary horn could be a rare congenital uterine anomalies result from incomplete fusion of the two Müllerian ducts throughout embryo-genesis. Pregnancy in an exceedingly rudimentary horn is rare and typically terminates in rupture throughout the late of first or second trimester of pregnancy. We tend to present a rare case of a gravida within the trimester (31 weeks) presented with complain of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomit for 3 days. On presentation, the patient was pale and irritable. Ultrasound scan showed fetus at (30 weeks) with cardiac activity. Cardiotocography reactive. Incision showed horned uterus with pregnancy in rudimentary left horn that was ruptured. Alive fetus was delivered. The rudimentary left horn was excised. The patient was advised to not get pregnant for 3 years. Within one year, the patient came to hospital in active labor at (37 weeks). This case emphasizes the importance of fine antepartum care to avoid morbidity and mortality.

  8. Brittle dynamic damage due to earthquake rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Harsha; Thomas, Marion

    2016-04-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990, and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over wide range of strain rates. We then implement this constitutive response to understand the role of dynamic brittle off-fault damage on earthquake ruptures. We show that off-fault damage plays an important role in asymmetry of rupture propagation and is a source of high-frequency ground motion in the near source region.

  9. Ion heating and energy redistribution across supercritical perpendicular shocks: Application to planetary and interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Liu, Y. D.; Richardson, J. D.; Parks, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate how the ion dissipative process across supercritical perpendicular shocks depends on the shock front micro-structures. At a collisionless plasma shock, the dissipation and micro-structure of the shock font are dominated by wave-particle interactions. Comparison of the ion thermalization at different kinds of shocks, e.g., planetary and interplanetary shocks, can quantify how much interaction is occurring at the shock boundary. Investigation of this problem for diverse solar wind (SW) conditions will yield important information on the dependences of the ion thermalization and energy redistribution on plasma parameters. With the aid of a successful automatic separation method [Yang et al., 2009], the incident ions at the shock can be divided into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions. Corresponding heating efficiency of each population of ions at the shock can be calculated respectively. Wilkinson & Schwartz [1990] have theorized that the amount of reflected ions at perpendicular shocks depends on plasma parameters. Based on the Rankine-Hugoniot (R-H) conservation laws, they found that the fraction reflected is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the ratio of specific heat capacities γ chosen in the R-H relations. The main goal of this work is to investigate how the plasma parameters, e.g. the particle velocity distribution, the plasma beta value, seed populations, etc. (from a particle dynamic point of view), control the amount of reflected ions by using one-dimensional (1-D) full-particle-cell simulations. The simulation results may help to explain the ion heating efficiency and energy redistribution at shocks observed by Cluster, Wind, Voyager, etc.

  10. Cluster Observations and Kinetic Simulations of Slow Mode Shocks at the Earth's Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharek, H.; Mouikis, C.; Scholer, M.; Eriksson, S.

    2007-12-01

    Slow shocks in association with reconnection are thought to be the main engine of the plasma heating, acceleration and dynamical changes of the magnetosphere. It is therefore very important to study their structure and the related physical processes. Measurements, from CLUSTER spacecraft show clear evidence for slow- mode shocks associated with magnetic reconnection in the near Earth magnetotail in connection with a substorm onset [S. Eriksson et al., 2004]. Most of the knowledge of slow mode shocks was derived from two-fluid theory together with extensive small-scale hybrid simulations of the shock transition. However, it is difficult to perform numerical simulations under realistic plasma conditions. First, it is important to use realistic proton electron mass ratios to study downstream electron heating. Second, the method to initiate a slow mode shock is Might have an impact of the obtained results. Using the piston method the slow mode shock will run into the downstream region of a preceding fast shock wave. Using switch off shock conditions the slow mode shock will run into a quite plasma environment. However, at the Earth's bow shock turbulence will always be around. Finally, dimensional effects in numerical simulations have effects on the results. For instance in 1D simulations all wave vectors are forced in the simulation direction. Furthermore, full particle simulations predict lower downstream ion temperature than predicted by hybrid simulations. This is attributed to electron kinetic processes. We performed a number of 1D full particle simulations with real proton to electron mass ratio and multi-dimensional hybrid simulations to address the above-mentioned topics. As input for the numerical simulations we used plasma- parameters from the established Cluster database. We investigated the dynamics, the structure, and the evolution of the simulated slow mode shocks using the piston and the "switch-off" method for hybrid and the 1D full particle simulations

  11. Shock absorber control system

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Y.; Ohira, M.; Ushida, M.; Miyagawa, T.; Shimodaira, T.

    1987-01-13

    A shock absorber control system is described for controlling a dampening force of a shock absorber of a vehicle comprising: setting means for setting a desired dampening force changeable within a predetermined range; drive means for driving the shock absorber to change the dampening force of the shock absorber linearly; control means for controlling the drive means in accordance with the desired dampening force when the setting of the desired dampening force has been changed; detecting means for detecting an actual dampening force of the shock absorber; and correcting means for correcting the dampening force of the shock absorber by controlling the drive means in accordance with a difference between the desired dampening force and the detected actual dampening force.

  12. Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Pericallosal Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jun Kyeung; Kim, Hwan Soo; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Lee, Tae Hong; Yun, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms arising from the pericallosal artery (PA) are uncommon and challenging to treat. The aim of this study was to report our experiences of the endovascular treatment of ruptured PA aneurysms. Methods From September 2003 to December 2013, 30 ruptured PA aneurysms in 30 patients were treated at our institution via an endovascular approach. Procedural data, clinical and angiographic results were retrospectively reviewed. Results Regarding immediate angiographic control, complete occlusion was achieved in 21 (70.0%) patients and near-complete occlusion in 9 (30.0%). Eight procedure-related complications occurred, including intraprocedural rupture and early rebleeding in three each, and thromboembolic event in two. At last follow-up, 18 patients were independent with a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2, and the other 12 were either dependent or had expired (mRS score, 3-6). Adjacent hematoma was found to be associated with an increased risk of poor clinical outcome. Seventeen of 23 surviving patients underwent follow-up conventional angiography (mean, 16.5 months). Results showed stable occlusion in 14 (82.4%), minor recanalization in two (11.8%), and major recanalization, which required recoiling, in one (5.9%). Conclusion Our experiences demonstrate that endovascular treatment for a ruptured PA aneurysms is both feasible and effective. However, periprocedural rebleedings were found to occur far more often (20.0%) than is generally suspected and to be associated with preoperative contrast retention. Analysis showed existing adjacent hematoma is predictive of a poor clinical outcome. PMID:26539261

  13. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  14. Spontaneous rupture of the plantar fascia.

    PubMed

    Ahstrom, J P

    1988-01-01

    In this study, rupture of the plantar fascia was seen in five feet, of which four had had plantar fasciitis. At the time of the injury, which is an acceleration type of motion, there is severe pain in the heel followed by the development of ecchymosis in the sole and toward the heel of the foot. With conservative symptomatic care, the acute symptoms as well as the plantar fasciitis symptoms subside, generally allowing full activity in 3 to 4 weeks.

  15. [Intradural rupture of an intervertebral disk].

    PubMed

    Paini, G P; Baldi, P G; Barra, N; Pasetti, S

    1978-01-01

    Since the first description of ruptured lumbar disc, erosion of a fragment of disc through the dura mater has been mentioned only rarely. The authros report two cases occurred among 1,078 herniated discs surgically treated in their department over a period of 8 years, from January 1st., 1970 through March 31st., 1978. Various factors that might contribute to this relatively rare complication of disc disease are mentioned, and literature on the subject is summarized.

  16. Fan-structure waves in shear ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new slabs), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the correspondingly low transient strength of the lithosphere, which favours generation of new earthquake faults in the intact rock mass adjoining pre-existing faults in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along these faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created, while further dynamic propagation of the new fault (earthquake) occurs at low field stresses even below the frictional strength.

  17. Rupture directivity of fluid-induced microseismic events: Observations from an enhanced geothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folesky, Jonas; Kummerow, Jörn; Shapiro, Serge A.; Häring, Markus; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    The rupture process of fluid-induced microseismic events is still poorly understood, mainly due to usually small magnitudes and sparse monitoring geometries. The high-quality recordings of the earthquake sequence 2006-2007 at the enhanced geothermal system at Basel, Switzerland, constitute a rare exception, allowing a systematic directivity study of 195 events using the empirical Green's function method. We observe clear directivity signatures for about half the events which demonstrates that rupture directivity persists down to small magnitudes (ML˜1). The predominant rupture behavior is unilateral. We further find evidence that directivity is magnitude dependent and varies systematically with distance from the injection source. Whereas pore pressure seems to play the dominant role close to the injection source and no preferred rupture direction is observable, directivity aligns parallel to the event distribution with increasing distance (≳100 m) and is preferably oriented away from the injection point. The largest analyzed events (ML˜2) show a distinct behavior: They rupture toward the injection source, suggesting that they nucleate in the vicinity of the pressure front and propagate backward into the perturbed volume. This finding is of particular relevance for seismic hazard assessment of georeservoirs, since it implies that maximum event size is related to dimension of the fluid-perturbed volume. Our study also resolves rupture complexities for a small group of events. This shows that small fault heterogeneities exist down to a scale of a few tens of meters. The observation of directivity and complexity in induced microseismic events suggest that future source studies account for these phenomena.

  18. Rupture process of the 2015 Mw7.9 Nepal earthquake from the joint inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, J.; Wang, W.; Zhou, Y.; Yao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The 25 April 2015 earthquake (Mw7.9) struck Nepal near the middle segment of Himalaya. Large earthquakes occurred around this region frequently in history. The rupture process could help us to investigate the characters of the disaster earthquakes. For this event many kinds of observation data could be used to constrain the rupture process. Data of some 1Hz GPS stations of the China Crustal Movement Observation Network were processed by the software GAMIT and we obtained the waveforms of this earthquake. The waveforms of several 5Hz GPS stations near the epicenter were provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (http://aria-share.jpl.nasa.gov/events/20150425-Nepal_EQ/GPS/). The ALOS-2 satellite, operated by the Japanese Space Agency, collected a useful of L-band InSAR data and Lindsey et al. determined the coseismic displacement of the line-of-sight (http://topex.ucsd.edu/nepal/). We resampled the coseismic displacement of Lindsey et al. to constrain the rupture process. In addition teleseismic broadband body waves, long period surface waves, waveforms of one regional broadband station and one local strong motion station were combined in the joint inversion. The epicenter of United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the mechanism of Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) were applied. The Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured a thrust fault orienting 293o and dipping 7o to the NE, locating near the middle segment of Himalaya. This earthquake was a unilateral event and the rupture of asperity mainly propagates to the southeast, spanning a depth range from 8 km to 18 km. The inverted slip distribution is dominated by a rectangle shape slip patch with the length of ~120km. The weighted rupture velocity is about 2.1 km/s and the total seismic moment is about 8.6x1020 Nm. The imaged fault slip correlates well with the aftershock distribution.

  19. Myocardial Bridge and Acute Plaque Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Leor; Daniels, David; Schwartz, Jonathan; Tanaka, Shige; Yeung, Alan; Tremmel, Jennifer A.; Schnittger, Ingela

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial bridge (MB) is a common anatomic variant, most frequently located in the left anterior descending coronary artery, where a portion of the coronary artery is covered by myocardium. Importantly, MBs are known to result in a proximal atherosclerotic lesion. It has recently been postulated that these lesions predispose patients to acute coronary events, even in cases of otherwise low-risk patients. One such mechanism may involve acute plaque rupture. In this article, we report 2 cases of patients with MBs who presented with acute coronary syndromes despite having low cardiovascular risk. Their presentation was life-risking and both were treated urgently and studied with coronary angiographies and intravascular ultrasound. This latter modality confirmed a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque proximal to the MB as a likely cause of the acute events. These cases, of unexplained acute coronary syndrome in low-risk patients, raise the question of alternative processes leading to the event and the role MB play as an underlying cause of ruptured plaques. In some cases, an active investigation for this entity may be warranted, due to the prognostic implications of the different therapeutic modalities, should an MB be discovered. PMID:28251167

  20. [Premature rupture of fetal membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    PubMed

    Haram, K; Daugaard, H O

    1994-05-10

    The article presents a survey of preterm rupture of the amniotic membranes at term (more than 1 hour prior to uterine contractions) and preterm (< 37 weeks). The diagnosis of rupture can be suspected from the history alone in 90% of the cases, and confirmed by inspection. In doubtful cases the pH in fluid from the posterior fornix of the vagina is determined and microscopy is performed. Amniotic fluid is alkaline. Microscopy of a dried specimen shows "ferning" when amniotic fluid is present (crystallization test). Staining with Nil blue will reveal orange foetal cells in fresh specimens, usually only late in pregnancy (after the 38 week). The crystallization test is useful, however, in all three trimesters. The cause of membrane rupture and of chorioamnionitis may be infection. Chorioamnionitis is a serious clinical condition, but can be subclinical and may occur with intact membranes. It can lead to preterm delivery. It is important that chorioamnionitis be diagnosed (maternal fever, tachycardia, uterine contractions, abdominal pain, foul smelling vaginal discharge and elevated C-reactive protein). The condition is treated with antibiotics and labour must be induced.

  1. Rupture models with dynamically determined breakdown displacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The critical breakdown displacement, Dc, in which friction drops to its sliding value, can be made dependent on event size by specifying friction to be a function of variables other than slip. Two such friction laws are examined here. The first is designed to achieve accuracy and smoothness in discrete numerical calculations. Consistent resolution throughout an evolving rupture is achieved by specifying friction as a function of elapsed time after peak stress is reached. Such a time-weakening model produces Dc and fracture energy proportional to the square root of distance rupture has propagated in the case of uniform stress drop. The second friction law is more physically motivated. Energy loss in a damage zone outside the slip zone has the effect of increasing Dc and limiting peak slip velocity (Andrews, 1976). This article demonstrates a converse effect, that artificially limiting slip velocity on a fault in an elastic medium has a toughening effect, increasing fracture energy and Dc proportionally to rupture propagation distance in the case of uniform stress drop. Both the time-weakening and the velocity-toughening models can be used in calculations with heterogeneous stress drop.

  2. Suppression of large intraluminal bubble expansion in shock wave lithotripsy without compromising stone comminution: Refinement of reflector geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Zhong, Pei

    2003-01-01

    Using the Hamilton model [Hamilton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 1256-1266 (1993)], the effects of reflector geometry on the pulse profile and sequence of the shock waves produced by the original and upgraded reflector of an HM-3 lithotripter were evaluated qualitatively. Guided by this analysis, we have refined the geometry of the upgraded reflector to enhance its suppressive effect on intraluminal bubble expansion without compromising stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy. Using the original HM-3 reflector at 20 kV, rupture of a standard vessel phantom made of cellulose hollow fiber (i.d.=0.2 mm), in which degassed water seeded with ultrasound contrast agents was circulated, was produced at the lithotripter focus after about 30 shocks. In contrast, using the upgraded reflector at 24 kV no rupture of the vessel phantom could be produced within a 20-mm diameter around the lithotripter focus even after 200 shocks. On the other hand, stone comminution was comparable between the two reflector configurations, although slightly larger fragments were produced by the upgraded reflector. After 2000 shocks, stone comminution efficiency produced by the original HM-3 reflector at 20 kV is 97.15+/-1.92% (mean+/-SD), compared to 90.35+/-1.96% produced by the upgraded reflector at 24 kV (p<0.02). All together, it was found that the upgraded reflector could significantly reduce the propensity for vessel rupture in shock wave lithotripsy while maintaining satisfactory stone comminution.

  3. Characteristics of subevents and three-stage rupture processes of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake from multiple-array back projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Weize; Yao, Huajian

    2017-01-01

    On 25 April 2015 an Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in Nepal and caused about 9000 casualties. This earthquake ruptured part of the Main Himalaya Thrust fault, which is due to the convergence of the subducting Indian plate to the overriding Eurasian plate, and showed thrust mechanism with a very small fault dip angle (about 7-10°). We apply teleseismic multiple-array back projection analysis to study the rupture process of this earthquake and find 6 clear high frequency radiation sources (subevents). Our results illustrate a simple unilateral eastward rupture of ∼160 km with relative stable rupture speed of ∼2.8 km/s and a duration of 56 s. The entire rupture processes can be divided into 3 stages. The high frequency radiation appears to be mainly located at the edge of the large slip area, but the subevents have different characteristics in the western and eastern rupture areas. For this 2015 Nepal earthquake, the scales of asperities appear to be mainly controlled by depth, which dominates the overall patterns of slip and high frequency radiation. We finally propose a multiple-scale asperity model with stress and structural heterogeneities along the rupture direction to explain the distribution of high frequency subevents, co-seismic slip, and aftershocks.

  4. Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic Rupture and Lung Hydatid Cyst Ruptured into Bronchi and Pleural Space

    SciTech Connect

    Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri Dingil, Guerbuez; Koeroglu, Mert; Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of ruptured lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had ruptured transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had ruptured both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic rupture. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with ruptured liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.

  5. Effects of Apparent Supersonic Ruptures for Strike-slip Rupture: Should We Consider it in the Seismic Hazard Analysis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, M. B.; Shao, G.; Ji, C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent numerical studies indicated that the supersonic rupture could produce larger off-fault damage at distant sites than the sub-shear rupture, due to the famous "mach cone" effect (Dunham and Archuleta, 2005; Bhat et al, 2007). These results were obtained using the steady-state rupture simulations in a half-space earth. For more realistic layered or 3D earth models, we should also consider the effects of apparent supersonic rupture, i.e., the deep rupture is still in a speed slower than the local shear velocity, but faster than the near surface S or even the P wave velocity. The apparent super-shear rupture could excite the mach effect, but how large it is has not yet been quantitatively addressed. In this study, we explore this possibility by performing numerical simulations for pure strike-slip ruptures on a vertical fault inside various layered earth models.

  6. When shock waves collide

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Foster, J.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.

  7. When shock waves collide

    DOE PAGES

    Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; ...

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed tomore » quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.« less

  8. Shock initiation of nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C.S.; Holmes, N.C.

    1993-12-31

    The shock initiation processes of nitromethane have been examined by using a fast time-resolved emission spectroscopy at a two-stage gas gun. a broad, but strong emission has been observed in a spectral range between 350 and 700 nm from shocked nitromethane above 9 GPa. The temporal profile suggests that shocked nitromethane detonates through three characteristic periods, namely an induction period, a hock initiation period, and a thermal explosion period. This paper discusses temporal and chemical characteristics of these periods and present the temperature of the shock-detonating nitromethane at pressures between 9 and 15 GPa.

  9. Anti-Shock Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ames Research Center developed a prototype pressure suit for hemophiliac children, based on research of astronauts' physiological responses in microgravity. Zoex Corporation picked up the design and patents and developed an anti-shock garment for paramedic use. Marketed by Dyna Med, the suit reverses the effect of shock on the body's blood distribution by applying counterpressure to the legs and abdomen, returning blood to vital organs and stabilizing body pressure until the patient reaches a hospital. The DMAST (Dyna Med Anti-Shock Trousers) employ lower pressure than other shock garments, and are non-inflatable.

  10. Rupture directivity and local site effects: the M7.3 Honduras earthquake of May 23, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulman, D.; Mooney, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    On May 28, 2009, at 2:24 AM local time, a M 7.3 earthquake struck off the coast of Honduras on the Motagua-Swan Fault System (MSFS), part of the boundary between the North America and Caribbean plates. This plate boundary has an average slip rate of 20 mm/year. This left-lateral earthquake had an average slip of 1.5 m on a 100-km-long near-vertical fault plane (Hayes and Ji, 2009). The hypocenter depth is estimated at 10 km. The main shock caused 130 structures, including homes and office buildings, to collapse or suffer significant damage in northern Honduras. Seven deaths were reported. Due to a lack of recordings in the area, the available documentation of the local effects of this earthquake are the USGS "Did you feel it?" responses and the data collected during our field seismic intensity investigation. We conducted a field investigation in Honduras between May 30 and June 6, 2009, focused on areas with local reports of damage, including the cities of La Ceiba, El Progresso, San Pedro Sula, Puerto Cortes in northern Honduras and the island of Roatan in the Caribbean Sea. The damage ascertained at these five sites shows that the severity of damage did not decrease with distance from the epicenter as predicted by standard attenuation relations. Instead, a concentration of damage was observed in El Progresso, approximately 75 km directly south from the SW end of the rupture and 160 km from the epicenter. The island of Roatan, just 30 km from the epicenter, was graded as VI on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale while, El Progresso was graded as VIII (one unit higher than “Did you feel it?”). These intensity anomalies can be explained by two factors: (1) SW-directed rupture propagation and proximity to a localized 3.0m slip pulse (asperity) that occurred near the SW end of the fault (Hayes and Ji, 2009) that focused energy toward the city of El Progress on the mainland and; (2) local site effects, particularly the Precambrian schists and gneisses on the

  11. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new expansion tube facility has been built, and is in the process of being commissioned. It has a bore of 90 mm, and has been designed for peak rupture pressures of 100 Mpa. It is configured with multiple sections and diaphragm location stations to give optimized performance over a range of sub and superorbital conditions. It has a compound piston arrangement for a two stage compression, designed to maximize the length of shock expansion tube which can be driven within a fixed total facility length. Experiments have been successfully performed with a dummy first stage piston, and a rubber energy absorbing brake. The results agree well with a one-dimensional stress wave model of the piston impacting on the rubber, and codes for piston motion. Strain of the rubber is restricted to approximately 20 percent at which level no damage is to be expected in the buffer material, and none has been observed, indicating that the mechanism will be fully reuseable.

  12. Spontaneous rupture of a giant renal angiomyolipoma—Wunderlich’s syndrome: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Chronopoulos, Panagiotis Nikolaos; Kaisidis, Georgios Nikolaos; Vaiopoulos, Christos Konstantinos; Perits, Dragana Milosav; Varvarousis, Michail Nikolaos; Malioris, Apostolos Vasilios; Pazarli, Elissabeth; Skandalos, Ioannis Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Herein we present a rare case of pontaneous rupture of a giant renal angiomyolipoma (AML), with symptoms of hypovolemic shock (Wunderlich’s syndrome), which was managed by urgent total nephrectomy. Presentation of case A 53 year old female was transferred to the emergency room with progressive acute painful swelling of the left lateral abdominal area, duration of 5 h. An emergent ultrasonic examination, revealed a heterogeneous—solid mass with maximum diameter of 23 cm, with probable origin from the left kidney. Due to worsening of the clinical status (hypovolemic shock), loss of consciousness and acute drop of haematocrit level to 17.8%, the patient was urgently intubated in the emergency room and transferred to the operating theater. A giant haemorrhagic mass was found originating from the left kidney, which removed en-block with the left kidney. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Her recovery was uneventful. The histopathologic examination revealed a giant renal angiomyolipoma (25 × 18 × 8 cm) with extensive bleeding. Discussion Enlarged renal AMLs can rupture. This can be sudden and painful with manifestations of hypovolemic shock. The management of AMLs has been correlated with symptoms. Patients with life-threatening retroperitoneal haemorrhage, require urgent exploration as retroperitoneal bleeding can lead to severe complications, increasing morbidity. Conclusion In case of giant angiomyolipoma with intratumoral haemorrhage, and symptoms of Wunderlich’s syndrome, partial or total nephrectomy is a good treatment option in order to save the patient’s life. PMID:26764888

  13. The traumatic rupture of the Achilles’ tendon – an analysis of the modern methods of evaluation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    BARDAŞ, CIPRIAN; BENEA, HOREA; MARTIN, ARTUR; TOMOAIA, GHEORGHE

    2013-01-01

    Aims The main aim of this article is an analysis of both advantages and disadvantages of the modern solutions of treatment – percutaneous surgery, in comparison with the classic methods of treatments described in the surgery of Achilles’ tendon. Patients and method The study was conducted on 23 patients admitted to the Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic of Cluj-Napoca between January 2011–June 2012. Nineteen (19) patients were diagnosed with a complete rupture of the Achilles tendon and 4 patients with a partial rupture. The diagnosis of traumatic Achilles tendon ruptures was usually clinical, the Ultrasound (common or 3D) and the MRI confirmed the lesion and determined its location and extension. We analyzed the diagnostic methods, the elapsed time before surgery, the treatment options depending on lesion’s location, technical difficulties, costs, postoperative care, the average healing time, complications. Results The Ultrasound was performed in 65.2% of the patients (15 patients) for confirming the extension of the lesion and it served for pre-operative planning. In most of the cases, the classical methods of Achilles tendon reconstruction were used (18 cases). The complications rate was about 8%. We diagnosed an iterative Achilles tendon rupture (the patient was initially treated using the percutaneous methods) and a delay in cicatrisation. Conclusions The percutaneous surgical techniques are a viable alternative for the acute ruptures of Achilles tendon, the classic intervention has clear indications in lesions diagnosed late, in the recurrent tendon ruptures. PMID:26527933

  14. Rupture Velocities of Intermediate- and Deep-Focus Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The rupture velocities of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes --- how they vary between subduction zones, how they vary with depth, and what their maximum values are --- may help constrain the mechanism(s) of the earthquakes. As part of a global study of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes, I have used rupture directivity to estimate the rupture vector (speed and orientation) for 422 earthquakes >70 km depth with MW ≥5.7 since 1990. I estimate the rupture velocity relative to the local P-wave velocity (vr/α). Since the same method is used for all earthquakes, the results can be readily compared across study areas. The study areas --- Middle America, South America, Tonga-Kermadec, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, and Japan-Kurils-Kamchatka --- include some of the warmest and coldest subduction zones: subducting plate ages range from 9-150 Myr and descent rates range from 1-13 cm/yr. Across all subduction zones and depth ranges, for the 193 earthquakes with observable directivity and well-constrained rupture vectors, most earthquakes rupture on the more horizontal of the two possible nodal planes. However, the rupture vectors appear to be randomly-oriented relative to the slip vector, so the earthquakes span the continuum from Mode II (i.e., parallel slip and rupture vectors) to Mode III rupture (i.e., perpendicular slip and rupture vectors). For this earthquake population, the mean rupture velocity is 0.43 vr/α ± 0.14 vr/α. The mean earthquake rupture velocities are similar between all subduction zones. Since the local seismic wavespeed is faster in colder subduction zones, absolute rupture velocities are faster in colder subduction zones. Overall, the fastest rupture velocities exceed the local S-wave speed. The supershear ruptures are associated with earthquakes closer to Mode II than Mode III faulting. This is consistent with theoretical calculations, which limit the rupture velocity to the S-wave speed for Mode III rupture but the P-wave speed for Mode II

  15. Coupling geodynamic earthquake cycles and dynamic ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zelst, Iris; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Heuret, Arnauld

    2016-04-01

    Studying the seismicity in a subduction zone and its effects on tsunamis requires diverse modelling methods that span spatial and temporal scales. Hundreds of years are necessary to build the stresses and strengths on a fault, while consequent earthquake rupture propagation is determined by both these initial fault conditions and the feedback of seismic waves over periods of seconds up to minutes. This dynamic rupture displaces the sea floor, thereby causing tsunamis. The aim of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulations of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project is to study all these aspects and their interactions. Here, we present preliminary results of the first aspects in this modelling chain: the coupling of a seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) code to the dynamic rupture model SeisSol. STM models of earthquake cycles have the advantage of solving multiple earthquake events in a self-consistent manner concerning stress, strength and geometry. However, the drawback of these models is that they often lack in spatial or temporal resolution and do not include wave propagation. In contrast, dynamic rupture models solve for frictional failure coupled to seismic wave propagation. We use the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org) based on an ADER-DG discretization allowing high-order accuracy in space and time as well as flexible tetrahedral meshing. However, such simulations require assumptions on the initial fault stresses and strengths and its geometry, which are hard to constrain due to the lack of near-field observations and the complexity of coseismic conditions. By adapting the geometry as well as the stress and strength properties of the self-consistently developing non-finite fault zones from the geodynamic models as initial conditions for the dynamic rupture models, the advantages of both methods are exploited and modelling results may be compared. Our results show that a dynamic rupture can be triggered spontaneously and that the propagating rupture is

  16. The susitna glacier thrust fault: Characteristics of surface ruptures on the fault that initiated the 2002 denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; Personius, S.F.; Craw, P.A.; Haeussler, P.J.; Staft, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake sequence initiated on the newly discovered Susitna Glacier thrust fault and caused 48 km of surface rupture. Rupture of the Susitna Glacier fault generated scarps on ice of the Susitna and West Fork glaciers and on tundra and surficial deposits along the southern front of the central Alaska Range. Based on detailed mapping, 27 topographic profiles, and field observations, we document the characteristics and slip distribution of the 2002 ruptures and describe evidence of pre-2002 ruptures on the fault. The 2002 surface faulting produced structures that range from simple folds on a single trace to complex thrust-fault ruptures and pressure ridges on multiple, sinuous strands. The deformation zone is locally more than 1 km wide. We measured a maximum vertical displacement of 5.4 m on the south-directed main thrust. North-directed backthrusts have more than 4 m of surface offset. We measured a well-constrained near-surface fault dip of about 19?? at one site, which is considerably less than seismologically determined values of 35??-48??. Surface-rupture data yield an estimated magnitude of Mw 7.3 for the fault, which is similar to the seismological value of Mw 7.2. Comparison of field and seismological data suggest that the Susitna Glacier fault is part of a large positive flower structure associated with northwest-directed transpressive deformation on the Denali fault. Prehistoric scarps are evidence of previous rupture of the Sustina Glacier fault, but additional work is needed to determine if past failures of the Susitna Glacier fault have consistently induced rupture of the Denali fault.

  17. Patient with Takayasu arteritis presented as cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Tacoy, Gulten; Akyel, Ahmet; Tavil, Yusuf; Cengel, Atiye

    2010-11-01

    Takayasu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the aorta, its main branches and affects particularly young women. Symptomatic coronary artery disease and cardiogenic shock are rare signs of Takayasu arteritis. We describe a 47-year-old male patient in whom cardiogenic shock was the initial presentation of Takayasu arteritis with coronary, subclavian, celiac and total abdominal aortic occlusion.

  18. Blueberry shock virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry shock disease first observed in Washington state in 1987 and initially confused with blueberry scorch caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). However, shock affected plants produced a second flush of leaves after flowering and the plants appeared normal by late summer except for the lac...

  19. What Is Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... think that you or someone else is in shock, call 9–1–1 right away for emergency treatment. Prompt medical care can save your life and ... half of the people who go into cardiogenic shock survive. This is because of ... improved treatments, such as medicines and devices. These treatments can ...

  20. [Historical vision of shock].

    PubMed

    Dosne Pasqualini, C

    1998-01-01

    The concept of shock and its close relationship with that of stress dates back to the experiments of Hans Selye initiated in 1936 at McGill University in Montreal, with whom I collaborated between 1939 and 1942. It was demonstrated that the General Adaptation Syndrome begins with an Alarm Reaction, which consists of a Stage of Shock and one of Counter-Shock, followed by a Stage of Adaptation and finally a Stage of Exhaustion. My Ph.D. thesis concluded that shock was due to an adrenal insufficiency postulating that active metabolic processes drain the body of certain essential compounds the lack of which causes shock. My interest in the role of the glucose metabolism in shock led me to work with Bernardo Houssay in 1942 at the Institute of Physiology of the University of Buenos Aires and in 1944 with C.N.H. Long at Yale University. There I developed a method for the induction of hemorrhagic shock in the guinea pig with 94% lethality; curiously, the administration of 200 mg of ascorbic acid prevented death. Upon my return to Buenos Aires, these results were confirmed and moreover, it was demonstrated that the administration of cortisone led to 40% survival of the animals while desoxycorticosterone had no effect. At the time, no explanation was available but to-day, half a century later, this Symposium should be able to explain the mechanisms leading to death by hemorrhagic shock.

  1. Normal Shock Vortex Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Figure 9: Breakdown map for normal-shock vortex-interaction. References [1] O. Thomer, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Numerical Simulation of Normal...and Oblique-Shock Vortex Interaction, ZAMM Band 80, Sub. 1, pp. 181-184, 2000. [2] O. Thomer, E. Krause, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Computational

  2. Pathophysiology of shock.

    PubMed

    Houston, M C

    1990-06-01

    Shock is an acute widespread reduction in effective tissue perfusion that invokes an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand, anaerobic metabolism, lactic acidosis, cellular and organ dysfunction, metabolic abnormalities, and, if prolonged, irreversible damage and death. The pathophysiologic events in the various types of shock are different and complex with hemodynamic and oxygenation changes, alterations in the composition of the fluid compartments, and various mediators. Shock results from a change in one or a combination of the following: intravascular volume, myocardial function, systemic vascular resistance, or distribution of blood flow. The clinical types of shock include hypovolemic, cardiogenic, distributive (septic), and obstructive. An understanding of the pathophysiologic changes, rapid diagnosis, appropriate monitoring, and appropriate therapy can reduce the high morbidity and mortality in shock states.

  3. Note: An improved solenoid driver valve for miniature shock tubes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, P T

    2016-05-01

    A solenoid driver valve has been built to improve the operating performance of diaphragmless shock tubes, which are used for high pressure, high temperature chemical kinetics, and fluid mechanics studies. For shock tube driver application, the most important characteristics are those of sealing, strength, and quality of the generated shock waves and repeatability of opening characteristics and therefore subsequent post-shock conditions. The main features of the new driver valve are a face o-ring sealing design of the valve, the large internal volume, and through inserts near the solenoid core: adjustable opening characteristics of the valve.

  4. Shock Metamorphism of the Dhofar 378 Basaltic Shergottite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.

    2006-01-01

    Shock metamorphism is one of the most fundamental processes in the history of Martian meteorites, especially shergottites, which affect their mineralogy and chronology. The formation of "maskelynite" from plagioclase and shock melts is such major mineralogical effects. Dhofar 378 is one of the recently found desert shergottites that is mainly composed of plagioclase and pyroxene. This shergottite is important because of its highly shocked nature and unique plagioclase texture, and thus has a great potential for assessing a "shock" age of shergottites. We have been working on a combined study of mineralogy and chronology of the same rock chip of Dhofar 378. This abstract reports its mineralogical part.

  5. Reflection of curved shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  6. Measuring thermal rupture force distributions from an ensemble of trajectories.

    PubMed

    Swan, J W; Shindel, M M; Furst, E M

    2012-11-09

    Rupture, bond breaking, or extraction from a deep and narrow potential well requires considerable force while producing minimal displacement. In thermally fluctuating systems, there is not a single force required to achieve rupture, but a spectrum, as thermal forces can both augment and inhibit the bond breaking. We demonstrate measurement and interpretation of the distribution of rupture forces between pairs of colloidal particles bonded via the van der Waals attraction. The otherwise irreversible bond is broken by pulling the particles apart with optical tweezers. We show that an ensemble of the particle trajectories before, during and after the rupture event may be used to produce a high fidelity description of the distribution of rupture forces. This analysis is equally suitable for describing rupture forces in molecular and biomolecular contexts with a number of measurement techniques.

  7. Tearing the terroir: Details and implications of surface rupture and deformation from the 24 August 2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Donnellan, Andrea; Ponti, Daniel J.; Rubin, Ron S.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Seitz, Gordon; Schwartz, David P.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Rosa, Carla; Pickering, Alexandra; Parker, Jay W.

    2016-10-01

    The Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake of 24 August 2014 caused slip on several active fault strands within the West Napa Fault Zone (WNFZ). Field mapping identified 12.5 km of surface rupture. These field observations, near-field geodesy and space geodesy, together provide evidence for more than 30 km of surface deformation with a relatively complex distribution across a number of subparallel lineaments. Along a 7 km section north of the epicenter, the surface rupture is confined to a single trace that cuts alluvial deposits, reoccupying a low-slope scarp. The rupture continued northward onto at least four other traces through subparallel ridges and valleys. Postseismic slip exceeded coseismic slip along much of the southern part of the main rupture trace with total slip 1 year postevent approaching 0.5 m at locations where only a few centimeters were measured the day of the earthquake. Analysis of airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar data provides slip distributions along fault traces, indicates connectivity and extent of secondary traces, and confirms that postseismic slip only occurred on the main trace of the fault, perhaps indicating secondary structures ruptured as coseismic triggered slip. Previous mapping identified the WNFZ as a zone of distributed faulting, and this was generally borne out by the complex 2014 rupture pattern. Implications for hazard analysis in similar settings include the need to consider the possibility of complex surface rupture in areas of complex topography, especially where multiple potentially Quaternary-active fault strands can be mapped.

  8. Dynamic stress changes during earthquake rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, S.M.; Yu, G.; Wald, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    We assess two competing dynamic interpretations that have been proposed for the short slip durations characteristic of kinematic earthquake models derived by inversion of earthquake waveform and geodetic data. The first interpretation would require a fault constitutive relationship in which rapid dynamic restrengthening of the fault surface occurs after passage of the rupture front, a hypothesized mechanical behavior that has been referred to as "self-healing." The second interpretation would require sufficient spatial heterogeneity of stress drop to permit rapid equilibration of elastic stresses with the residual dynamic friction level, a condition we refer to as "geometrical constraint." These interpretations imply contrasting predictions for the time dependence of the fault-plane shear stresses. We compare these predictions with dynamic shear stress changes for the 1992 Landers (M 7.3), 1994 Northridge (M 6.7), and 1995 Kobe (M 6.9) earthquakes. Stress changes are computed from kinematic slip models of these earthquakes, using a finite-difference method. For each event, static stress drop is highly variable spatially, with high stress-drop patches embedded in a background of low, and largely negative, stress drop. The time histories of stress change show predominantly monotonic stress change after passage of the rupture front, settling to a residual level, without significant evidence for dynamic restrengthening. The stress change at the rupture front is usually gradual rather than abrupt, probably reflecting the limited resolution inherent in the underlying kinematic inversions. On the basis of this analysis, as well as recent similar results obtained independently for the Kobe and Morgan Hill earthquakes, we conclude that, at the present time, the self-healing hypothesis is unnecessary to explain earthquake kinematics.

  9. Treatment of Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Osamu; Ikawa, Fusao; Hidaka, Toshikazu; Kurokawa, Yasuharu; Yonezawa, Ushio

    2014-01-01

    Summary We evaluated the outcomes of endovascular or surgical treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs), and investigated the relations between treatment complications and the development and location of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We treated 14 patients (12 men, two women; mean age, 56.2 years) with ruptured VADAs between March 1999 and June 2012 at our hospital. Six and eight patients had Hunt and Hess grades 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. Twelve patients underwent internal endovascular trapping, one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion alone, and one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion in the acute stage and occipital artery (OA)-PICA anastomosis and surgical trapping in the chronic stage. The types of VADA based on their location relative to the ipsilateral PICA were distal, PICA-involved, and non-PICA in nine, two, and three patients, respectively. The types of PICA based on their development and location were bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)-PICA, ipsilateral AICA-PICA, extradural, and intradural type in one, two, two, and nine patients, respectively. Two patients with high anatomical risk developed medullary infarction, but their midterm outcomes were better than in previous reports. The modified Rankin scale indicated grades 0-2, 3-5, and 6 in eight, three, and three patients, respectively. A good outcome is often obtained in the treatment of ruptured VADA using internal endovascular trapping, except in the PICA-involved type, even with high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of the PICA-involved type is controversial. The anatomical location and development of PICA may be predicted by complications with postoperative medullary infarction. PMID:24976093

  10. Surgical repair of a rupture of the pectoralis major muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Alberto De Castro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Muscle rupture is rarely treated surgically. Few reports of good outcomes after muscular suture have been published. Usually, muscular lesions or partial ruptures heal with few side effects or result in total recovery. We report a case of an athlete who was treated surgically to repair a total muscular rupture in the pectoralis major muscle. After 6 months, the athlete returned to competitive practice. After a 2-year follow-up, the athlete still competes in skateboard championships. PMID:25716033

  11. Source Rupture Process of the 2005 Tarapaca Intermediate Depth Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrat, S.; Favreau, P.; de Chabalier, J.; Bouin, M.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the details of the rupture process of the large (Mw 7.7) intermediate-depth earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2005 in the Tarapaca region of the Northern Chile seismic gap, using different data sets and different methods. The high quality and variety of seismic and geodetic data available for this event provided an unprecedented opportunity to study its source in detail. This earthquake is a slab-pull event with down dip extensional source mechanism. The aftershock distribution, determined from a post-seismic temporary array, indicates a sub-horizontal fault plane lying between the upper and lower planes of the double seismic zone. This earthquake was also recorded by a permanent digital strong-motion network operated by the University of Chile. These records have absolute time and high dynamic range so that they contain direct information about the rupture process. We used a systematic, fully nonlinear inversion method based on the neighbourhood algorithm to invert for the kinematic slip distribution using the accelerometric data set. This low frequency inversion provides a relatively smooth image of the rupture history. The kinematic inversion shows that the earthquake occurred by the rupture of two asperities. Based on the kinematic inversion result, we propose dynamic rupture models in order to quantify the dynamic rupture process. We simulate the dynamic rupture process and the strong ground motion using a 3D finite-difference method. In our simulation, dynamic rupture grows under the simultaneous control of initial stress and rupture resistance by friction. We constrain dynamic rupture parameters of the Tarapaca earthquake by simple trial and error. Large intraplate earthquakes in subduction zone are quite common although very few have been studied in detail. These earthquakes occurred at depth where the mechanism by which they are triggered remains poorly understood. Consequently, the determination of source rupture for intermediate

  12. Alliance ruptures, impasses, and enactments: a relational perspective.

    PubMed

    Safran, Jeremy D; Kraus, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Alliance ruptures, impasses, and transference-countertransference enactments are inevitable in therapy. A growing body of evidence suggests that repairing ruptures in the alliance is related to positive outcome (Safran, Muran, & Eubanks-Carter, 2011). Our research program has led to the development of training methods to enhance therapists' abilities to detect and work constructively with alliance ruptures and negative therapeutic process (Safran et al., 2014). This article outlines relevant theoretical underpinnings, intervention principles, and empirical findings.

  13. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder in the puerperium.

    PubMed

    Kekre, A N; Kekre, N; Nath, V; Seshadri, L

    1997-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder in the puerperium is extremely rare. The patient usually presents with acute abdominal pain. Awareness on the part of the treating surgeon that bladder rupture is a possibility will lead to an early diagnosis. Immediate exploration, removing urine from the peritoneal cavity or retropubic space, closing the rupture and securing good vesical drainage, results in resumption of vesical function, and thereby decreases the mortality and morbidity.

  14. Shock waves in cosmic space and planetary materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Kato, T.

    1993-08-01

    Shock waves can be produced in the Earth's atmosphere and near vacuum of cosmic space as ``collision (as shock metamorphism)'' and ``collisionless (as plasma)'' shock events, respectively. Collisionless shock forms when the ``solar wind'' hits the ``magnetic fields'' of all the planets and comets which were found by many spacecrafts and Voyager missions as intense Alfven plasma waves. Main causes to generate the collision shock waves are bombardments of the meteorites (or asteroids) against the meteorite itself (including interplanetary dust particles), the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Material evidence of the collision shock has been studied by shock metamorphism. Because of randomly distributed fragments of meteorites and lunar regolith, shock metamorphic study to the planetary materials should require the standard impact materials from artificial and terrestrial impact craters. Collision and collisionless shocks onto the airless lunar surface produce the regolith soils with agglutinates and solar wind components. Shock waves (including space debris) are considered to play a significant role in space environments of the Space Station and the Lunar and Martian Base projects for human (or robot) activities.

  15. Complex earthquake rupture and local tsunamis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to far-field tsunami amplitudes that are fairly well predicted by the seismic moment of subduction zone earthquakes, there exists significant variation in the scaling of local tsunami amplitude with respect to seismic moment. From a global catalog of tsunami runup observations this variability is greatest for the most frequently occuring tsunamigenic subduction zone earthquakes in the magnitude range of 7 < Mw < 8.5. Variability in local tsunami runup scaling can be ascribed to tsunami source parameters that are independent of seismic moment: variations in the water depth in the source region, the combination of higher slip and lower shear modulus at shallow depth, and rupture complexity in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution patterns. The focus of this study is on the effect that rupture complexity has on the local tsunami wave field. A wide range of slip distribution patterns are generated using a stochastic, self-affine source model that is consistent with the falloff of far-field seismic displacement spectra at high frequencies. The synthetic slip distributions generated by the stochastic source model are discretized and the vertical displacement fields from point source elastic dislocation expressions are superimposed to compute the coseismic vertical displacement field. For shallow subduction zone earthquakes it is demonstrated that self-affine irregularities of the slip distribution result in significant variations in local tsunami amplitude. The effects of rupture complexity are less pronounced for earthquakes at greater depth or along faults with steep dip angles. For a test region along the Pacific coast of central Mexico, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude is calculated for a large number (N = 100) of synthetic slip distribution patterns, all with identical seismic moment (Mw = 8.1). Analysis of the results indicates that for earthquakes of a fixed location, geometry, and seismic moment, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude can vary by a

  16. Seismic rupture propagation beneath potential landslide wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Kawamura, K.

    2011-12-01

    During 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0), much larger slip and tsunami occurred than expectation at outer-wedge (toe of the trench landward slope) of Japan trench (eg. Ide et al., 2011). Similarly, outer-wedge deformation was pointed out in northern segment of 1986 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake (Ms 7.2), and it was discussed that earthquake-related landslide induced large tsunami (eg. Kanamori, 1972; Tanioka and Satake, 1996). Many landslides and normal faults, potential tsunami genesis, are developed at outer-wedge of Japan trench (Henry et al., 1989). Some steep normal-faults turn to horizon at deep portion, and land sliding may be prevented by basal friction. If seismic rupture propagates to basal fault of the outer-wedge, triggered gravity collapse will enlarge deformation of the outer-wedge to cause large tsunamis. It was considered that seismogenic fault locks at deep portion under inner-wedge of the plate subduction zone, and outer-wedge was classified into aseismic zone classically. Seismic rupture propagation to outer-wedge is still uncertain. Seismic slip at the outer-wedge was found from the drilled core during IODP Nankai trough seismogenic zone drilling project (NanTroSEIZE) in Nankai trough, southwest Japan. Samples were obtained from the frontal thrust (438 mbsf), which connects the deep plate boundary to the seafloor at the toe of the accretionary wedge, and from a megasplay fault (271 mbsf) that branches from the plate boundary décollement. Higher vitrinite reflectance of 0.57 % and 0.37 % than the host rock of 0.24 % were found at splay and plate boundary faults zones respectively. These correspond with 300-400 °C and > 20°C of host rock. Local high temperature zone less than several cm thick may be caused by frictional shear heat at fault zone (Sakaguchi, et al., 2011). Shear velocity and durations can be estimated from thermal property of the sediment and distribution of the vitrinite anomaly (Hamada et al., 2011). This result shows that seismic

  17. Observations and Simulations of Slow Mode Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharek, H.; Mouikis, C.; Scholer, M.; Eriksson, S.

    2006-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is regarded as the major process of the dynamical change of the magnetosphere, and the slow shocks which are associated with reconnection in the magnetotail are thought to be the main engine of the plasma heating and acceleration. Most recent measurements, from CLUSTER spacecraft show clear evidence for slow-mode shocks associated with magnetic reconnection in the near Earth magnetotail in connection with a substorm onset [Eriksson et al., 2004]. Most of the knowledge of slow mode shocks was derived from two-fluid theory together with extensive small-scale hybrid simulations of the shock transition. However, recent simulation results with kinetic electrons [Brachbill and Wu, 1993], have called into question the validity of the electron fluid approximation. For the slow shock this fully implicit kinetic approach predicts a more equal sharing (between ions and electrons) of the shock induced heating. This results in a significantly lower downstream ion temperature than predicted by hybrid simulations and greater electron energy transport from downstream to upstream. This is attributed to electron kinetic processes but does not offer any specific mechanism. It remains unclear how this electron kinetics process might scale to physical relevant mi/me. In order to investigate the relevant scales of the kinetic processes in these shocks we established a database of slow shocks from CLUSTER observations and performed a number of 1D full particle using electron/protons mass ratios close to the realistic value and hybrid simulations using plasma parameters from CLUSTER spacecraft as input. Results from this study will be presented. Eriksson, S. et al. JGR. 109, A10212, doi:10.1029/2004JA010534, 2004 Brachbill, J. and H. Wu, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20,2015,1993

  18. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated.

  19. Effects of Along-strike Fault Heterogeneity on Rupture Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.; Yang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Fault zone materials have been suggested to be heterogeneous, such as along-strike variations of low velocity zone and stress conditions. How these fault heterogeneities affect earthquake rupture propagation is important to advance our understanding of earthquake physics, and yet remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the effects of along-strike fault heterogeneity on rupture propagation through numerical modeling on a strike-slip planar fault governed by a linear slip-weakening friction law. We first implement along-strike variations of fault zone materials based on field observations, which have shown the velocities of P and S waves of the low velocity zones can be reduced up to 50% compared to intact rocks. The rupture speed is decreased if the rupture propagates into materials with lower shear modulus and keeps at a stable speed quickly. In contrast, the rupture speed is increased if the rupture propagates into materials with higher shear modulus and accelerates into a steady speed more slowly. If this material boundary is very close to the nucleation zone, it may inhibit the nucleation process. In addition, there is always a perturbation on the rupture speed near the boundary due to the reflected energy. We then investigate the effects of a patch with elevated effective normal stress (barrier) on rupture propagation. Except for the distance d between the barrier and the nucleation zone, its width w, and the additional effective normal stress Δσn, all other parameters are kept constant for all the simulated models. Our results confirm that the barrier may slow down or stop coseismic ruptures, but may also induce supershear ruptures. Moreover, there is a sharp boundary between stopping the rupture and making very strong supershear ruptures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the supershear rupture may emerge in a region that is delineated by two approximate linear boundaries for parameters d and w. The duration of supershear ruptures increases as the

  20. Rupture process of the Mw7.9 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Nepal): insights into Himalayan megathrust segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Raphaël; Vallée, Martin; Satriano, Claudio; Lacassin, Robin; Klinger, Yann; Simoes, Martine; Bollinger, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the rupture process of the 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Mw7.9) using a kinematic joint inversion of teleseismic waves, strong-motion data, high-rate GPS, static GPS and SAR data. The rupture is found to be simple in terms of coseismic slip and even more in terms of rupture velocity, as both inversion results and a complementing back projection analysis show that the main slip patch broke unilaterally at a steady velocity of 3.1-3.3km/s. This feature likely contributes to the moderate peak ground acceleration (0.2g) observed in Kathmandu. The ~15km deep rupture occurs along the base of the coupled portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust, and does not break the area ranging from Kathmandu to the front. The limitation in length and width of the rupture cannot be identified in the pre-earthquake interseismic coupling distribution, and is therefore discussed in light of the structural architecture of the megathrust.

  1. Rupture Process of the Mw=7.9 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (Nepal): Insights into Himalayan Megathrust Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satriano, C.; Grandin, R.; Vallee, M.; Lacassin, R.; Klinger, Y.; Simoes, M.; Bollinger, L.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the rupture process of the 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Mw=7.9) using a kinematic joint inversion of teleseismic waves, strong-motion data, high-rate GPS, static GPS and SAR data. The rupture is found to be smooth in terms of coseismic slip and even more in terms of rupture velocity, as both inversion results and a complementing back projection analysis show that the main slip patch broke unilaterally at a steady velocity of 3.1-3.3km/s. This feature likely contributes to the moderate peak ground acceleration (0.2g) observed in Kathmandu. The rupture runs at ≈15km depth along the base of the coupled portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust, and does not break the area ranging from Kathmandu to the front. This limitation of length and width of the rupture is proposed to be of structural origin, as its cause cannot be readily identified in the pre-earthquake interseismic coupling distribution.

  2. Rupture process of the Mw = 7.9 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Nepal): Insights into Himalayan megathrust segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Raphaël.; Vallée, Martin; Satriano, Claudio; Lacassin, Robin; Klinger, Yann; Simoes, Martine; Bollinger, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the rupture process of the 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Mw = 7.9) using a kinematic joint inversion of teleseismic waves, strong motion data, high-rate GPS, static GPS, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The rupture is found to be simple in terms of coseismic slip and even more in terms of rupture velocity, as both inversion results and a complementing back projection analysis show that the main slip patch broke unilaterally at a steady velocity of 3.1-3.3 km/s. This feature likely contributes to the moderate peak ground acceleration (0.2 g) observed in Kathmandu. The ~15 km deep rupture occurs along the base of the coupled portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust and does not break the area ranging from Kathmandu to the front. The limitation in length and width of the rupture cannot be identified in the preearthquake interseismic coupling distribution and is therefore discussed in light of the structural architecture of the megathrust.

  3. Comparison of shock severity measures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to clarify the issues associated with quantifying shock severity, this paper compares the merits of two measures of shock severity. The first measure is the widely used absolute acceleration shock response spectrum (SAA). The second measure of shock severity is relatively new and is known as the shock intensity spectrum (SIS). Overall information content of SAA and SIS spectra are compared and discussed in the context of two shock excitations having known amplitude, duration, and frequency content. The first is a burst of band-limited white noise and the second is a classical haversine pulse. After describing both the SAA and SIS shock measures, numerous examples are described which emphasize the strengths and limitations of each shock characterization method. This discussion reveals how the use of different shock measures may alter an engineer's conclusions about relative shock severity between two shock environments. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  4. [HELLP syndrome and ruptured subcapsular hepatic haematoma. Case report and therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Seren, G; Morel, J; Jospe, R; Mahul, P; Dumont, A; Cuileron, M; Tiffet, O; Auboyer, C

    2006-10-01

    We report a case of spontaneous hepatic rupture secondary to HELLP syndrome. A favourable evolution was observed after massive transfusion and surgical management limited to hepatic packing. Subcapsular hepatic haematoma is a rare complication of preeclampsia occurring mainly in the context of HELLP syndrome. A high maternal and foetal mortality is observed. Different therapeutic options are presented including medical, surgical and radiological interventions. A unique strategy cannot be defined. Multidisciplinary approach seems mandatory. Surgery should remain as less aggressive as possible.

  5. [Delayed iatrogenic tracheal post-intubation rupture. A short review of the aetiopathology and treatment].

    PubMed

    Pinegger, S; Gómez-Ríos, M A; Vizcaíno, L; Carillo, M

    2013-05-01

    Iatrogenic tracheal rupture is a rare complication with a high morbidity and mortality. Tracheal intubation is the main cause and its origin is multifactorial. The diagnosis is based on non-specific but highly suggestive signs and symptoms, such as subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, respiratory distress, or haemoptysis. Confirmation of the diagnosis requires an examination by bronchoscopy. Surgical repair has traditionally been the treatment of choice although the current trend is conservative management.

  6. Shock Bench Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvet, B.; Dilhan, D.; Palladino, M.

    2014-06-01

    In 2008 a contract placed by CNES in partnership with ESA has led MECANO ID to develop a shock bench to qualify spacecraft equipment. A spacecraft shall withstand several shocks without degradation: launcher fairing or stages separation, spacecraft separation, the release of appendage (solar arrays, antenna reflectors, booms) and shocks generated when the pyrovalves of the propulsion system are fired.The Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) requirement, to be applied to the equipment, depends on its mass, its size and its location in the satellite. CNES has performed a survey of the pyroshock qualification requirements on CNES and ESA satellites. The outcome of the activity was the input for the bench development (Fig. 1). The design and sizing of the pyroshock bench started with non linear shock analysis with the help of the Dytran software.A lot of solutions have been compared: mono-plate, bi- plate, Hopkinson bar. The bi-plate was chosen thanks to its very rich frequency content. Also, the shock can be generated on one plate with the equipment mounted on the other, to avoid the direct transmission of the shock to the equipment basis.This study led to a 1000 mm x 650 mm steel bi-plate with a 300 mm aluminum cube fitted on one side. The equipment to test is mounted on the cube (Fig. 2 & 3).

  7. Structure of fast shocks in the presence of heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C. L.; Chen, H. H.; Wu, B. H.; Lee, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    There are three types of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks: the fast shock, intermediate shock, and slow shock. The structure of slow shocks and intermediate shocks in the presence of heat conduction has been studied earlier [C. L. Tsai, R. H. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1185 (2002); C. L. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 12, 82501 (2005)]. Based on one-dimensional MHD numerical simulations with a heat conduction term, the evolution and structure of fast shocks are studied. The fast shock will form a foreshock in the presence of heat conduction. The foreshock is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream and located in the immediate upstream of the main shock. In the steady state, the value of diffusion velocity Vd in the foreshock is found to nearly equal the upstream convection velocity in the fast shock frame. It is found that the density jump across the main shock in high Mach number case can be much larger than 4 in the early simulation time. However the density jump will gradually evolve to a value smaller than 4 at steady state. By using the modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations with heat flux, the density jump across the fast shock is examined for various upstream parameters. The results show that the calculated density jump with heat flux is very close to the simulation value and the density jump can far exceed the maximum value of 4 without heat conduction. The structure of foreshock and main shock is also studied under different plasma parameters, such as the heat conductivity K0, the ratio of upstream plasma pressure to magnetic pressure β1, Alfvén Mach number MA1, and the angle θ1 between shock normal and magnetic field. It is found that as the upstream shock parameters K0, β1, and MA1 increase or θ1 decreases, the width of foreshock Ld increases. The present results can be applied to fast shocks in the solar corona, solar wind, and magnetosphere, in which the heat conduction effects are important.

  8. Structure of fast shocks in the presence of heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C. L.; Chen, H. H.; Wu, B. H.; Lee, L. C.

    2007-12-15

    There are three types of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks: the fast shock, intermediate shock, and slow shock. The structure of slow shocks and intermediate shocks in the presence of heat conduction has been studied earlier [C. L. Tsai, R. H. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1185 (2002); C. L. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 12, 82501 (2005)]. Based on one-dimensional MHD numerical simulations with a heat conduction term, the evolution and structure of fast shocks are studied. The fast shock will form a foreshock in the presence of heat conduction. The foreshock is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream and located in the immediate upstream of the main shock. In the steady state, the value of diffusion velocity V{sub d} in the foreshock is found to nearly equal the upstream convection velocity in the fast shock frame. It is found that the density jump across the main shock in high Mach number case can be much larger than 4 in the early simulation time. However the density jump will gradually evolve to a value smaller than 4 at steady state. By using the modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations with heat flux, the density jump across the fast shock is examined for various upstream parameters. The results show that the calculated density jump with heat flux is very close to the simulation value and the density jump can far exceed the maximum value of 4 without heat conduction. The structure of foreshock and main shock is also studied under different plasma parameters, such as the heat conductivity K{sub 0}, the ratio of upstream plasma pressure to magnetic pressure {beta}{sub 1}, Alfven Mach number M{sub A1}, and the angle {theta}{sub 1} between shock normal and magnetic field. It is found that as the upstream shock parameters K{sub 0}, {beta}{sub 1}, and M{sub A1} increase or {theta}{sub 1} decreases, the width of foreshock L{sub d} increases. The present results can be applied to fast shocks in the solar corona, solar wind

  9. TMI-2 lower head creep rupture analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thinnes, G.L.

    1988-08-01

    The TMI-2 accident resulted in approximately 40% of the reactor's core melting and collecting on the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel. The severity of the accident has raised questions about the margin of safety against rupture of the lower head in this accident since all evidence seems to indicate no major breach of the vessel occurred. Scoping heat transfer analyses of the relocated core debris and lower head have been made based upon assumed core melting scenarios and core material debris formations while in contact with the lower head. This report describes the structural finite element creep rupture analysis of the lower head using a temperature transient judged most likely to challenge the structural capacity of the vessel. This evaluation of vessel response to this transient has provided insight into the creep mechanisms of the vessel wall, a realistic mode of failure, and a means by which margin to failure can be evaluated once examination provides estimated maximum wall temperatures. Suggestions for more extensive research in this area are also provided. 6 refs., 15 figs.

  10. Ruptures of the distal biceps tendon.

    PubMed

    Ward, James P; Shreve, Mark C; Youm, Thomas; Strauss, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Distal biceps ruptures occur most commonly in middle-aged males and result from eccentric contraction of the biceps tendon. The injury typically presents with pain and a tearing sensation in the antecubital fossa with resultant weakness in flexion and supination strength. Physical exam maneuvers and diagnostic imaging aid in determining the diagnosis. Nonoperative management is reserved for elderly, low demand patients, while operative intervention is generally pursued for younger patients and can consist of nonanatomic repair to the brachialis or anatomic repair to the radial tuberosity. Anatomic repair through a one-incision or two-incision approach is commonplace, while the nonanatomic repairs are rarely performed. No clear advantage exists in operative management with a one-incision versus two-incision techniques. Chronic ruptures present a more difficult situation, and allograft augmentation is often necessary. Common complications after repair include transient nerve palsy, which often resolves, and heterotopic ossification. Despite these possible complications, most studies suggest that better patient outcomes are obtained with operative, anatomic reattachment of the distal biceps tendon.

  11. Shock formation of HCO/+/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1983-04-01

    It is shown that shocks propagating in dense molecular regions will lead to a decrease in HCO(+) relative abundance, in agreement with previous results by Iglesias and Silk (1978). The shock enhancement of HCO(+) detected in the supernova remnant IC 443 by Dickinson et al. (1980) is due to enhanced ionization in the shocked material. This is the result of the material penetrating the remnant cavity where it becomes exposed to the trapped cosmic rays. A similar enhancement appears to have been detected by Wootten in W28 and is explained by the same model.

  12. Sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Early recognition of sepsis and septic shock in children relies on obtaining an attentive clinical history, accurate vital signs, and a physical examination focused on mental status, work of breathing, and circulatory status. Laboratory tests may support the diagnosis but are not reliable in isolation. The goal of septic shock management is reversal of tissue hypoperfusion. The therapeutic end point is shock reversal. Mortality is significantly better among children when managed appropriately. Every physician who cares for children must strive to have a high level of suspicion and keen clinical acumen for recognizing the rare but potentially seriously ill child.

  13. Shock effects in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Bischoff, A.; Buchwald, V.; Rubin, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    The impacts that can occur between objects on intersecting solar system orbits can generate shock-induced deformations and transformations, creating new mineral phases or melting old ones. These shock-metamorphic effects affect not only the petrography but the chemical and isotopic properties and the ages of primordial meteoritic materials. A fuller understanding of shock metamorphism and breccia formation in meteorites will be essential not only in the study of early accretion, differentiation, and regolith-evolution processes, but in the characterization of the primordial composition of the accreted material itself.

  14. Shocks near Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  15. Rupture of Right Ventricular Free Wall Following Ventricular Septal Rupture in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy with Right Ventricular Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Sung, June-Min; Chung, In-Hyun; Lee, Hye Young; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Byun, Young Sup; Kim, Byung Ok; Rhee, Kun Joo

    2017-01-01

    Most patients diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathies are expected to almost completely recover, and their prognosis is excellent. However, complications can occur in the acute phase. We present a case of a woman with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with right ventricular involvement who developed a rupture of the right ventricular free wall following ventricular septal rupture, as a consequence of an acute increase in right ventricular afterload by left-to-right shunt. Our case report illustrates that takotsubo cardiomyopathy can be life threatening in the acute phase. Ventricular septal rupture in biventricular takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a harbinger of cardiac tamponade by right ventricular rupture. PMID:27873520

  16. Rupture of Right Ventricular Free Wall Following Ventricular Septal Rupture in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy with Right Ventricular Involvement.

    PubMed

    Sung, June Min; Hong, Sung Jin; Chung, In Hyun; Lee, Hye Young; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Byun, Young Sup; Kim, Byung Ok; Rhee, Kun Joo

    2017-01-01

    Most patients diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathies are expected to almost completely recover, and their prognosis is excellent. However, complications can occur in the acute phase. We present a case of a woman with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with right ventricular involvement who developed a rupture of the right ventricular free wall following ventricular septal rupture, as a consequence of an acute increase in right ventricular afterload by left-to-right shunt. Our case report illustrates that takotsubo cardiomyopathy can be life threatening in the acute phase. Ventricular septal rupture in biventricular takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a harbinger of cardiac tamponade by right ventricular rupture.

  17. Ruptured subcapsular hematoma of the liver due to pre-eclampsia presenting as interstitial pregnancy and the role of intra-abdominal packing.

    PubMed

    Ngene, N C; Amin, N; Moodley, J

    2015-01-01

    Ruptured subcapsular hematoma of the liver (RSHL) can mimic ruptured interstitial pregnancy because each of these conditions occasionally presents at the same gestational period and both do manifest hemodynamic instability. The similarities between the two conditions pose a diagnostic challenge, especially in an un-booked patient. We report a case of an un-booked primigravida, at 21 weeks of gestation, who arrived at a regional hospital with evidence of intra-abdominal bleeding and hypovolemic shock. She was diagnosed as potentially having a ruptured interstitial pregnancy. During the ensuing emergency laparotomy, RSHL was discovered, the area around the ruptured liver capsule was packed with large abdominal swabs, and the patient recovered. This case report illustrates the need to consider RSHL in patients presenting with features of ruptured interstitial pregnancy, as this will assist in the planning of intraoperative care. We also describe abdominal packing and highlight the need for this essential surgical intervention to be taught to doctors practising in low-resource settings.

  18. A combustion driven shock tunnel to complement the free piston shock tunnel T5 at GALCIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belanger, Jacques; Hornung, Hans G.

    1992-01-01

    A combustion driven shock tunnel was designed and built at GALCIT to supply the hypersonic facility T5 with 'hot' hydrogen for mixing and combustion experiments. This system was chosen over other options for better flexibility and for safety reasons. The shock tunnel is described and the overall efficiency of the system is discussed. The biggest challenge in the design was to synchronize the combustion driven shock tunnel with T5. To do so, the main diaphragm of the combustion driven shock tunnel is locally melted by an electrical discharge. This local melting is rapidly followed by the complete collapse of the diaphragm in a very repeatable way. A first set of experiments on supersonic hydrogen transverse jets over a flat plate have just been completed with the system and some of the preliminary results are presented.

  19. Interfacial stability and self-similar rupture of evaporating liquid layers under vapor recoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tao; Duan, Fei

    2016-12-01

    We investigate interfacial stability of an evaporating viscous liquid layer above/below a horizontal heated substrate in the framework of a long-wave model that accounts for surface tension, positive/negative gravity, and evaporation effects of mass loss and vapor recoil. With the time-dependent linear stability analysis, it is found that the interface instability is enhanced by vapor recoil with time using an effective growth rate. The destabilizing mechanism of vapor thrust competes with the stabilizing surface tension, and the effects of the latter are not asymptotically negligible near rupture, reflected by a rescaled effective interfacial pressure. A two-dimensional nonlinear evolution is investigated for the quasi-equilibrium evaporating layers with different evaporative conditions for Rayleigh-Taylor unstable and sessile layers. For weak mass loss and strong vapor recoil, the well-defined capillary ridges emerge around a deepening narrow valley with increasing wavelength under a positive gravity, while, on the basis of initial condition, main and secondary droplets are either coalesced partially or separated by a sharp dry-out point under a negative gravity. The rupture location depends strongly on the characteristics of a given initial condition, except for the random perturbation. For both the cases, an increase in the modified evaporation number tends to reduce the rupture time tr and droplet thickness remarkably. Similarity analysis along with numerical strategy is presented for the final stage of touch-down dynamics, determined by a physical balance between the vapor recoil and capillary force. The evaporation-driven rupture with a significant vapor recoil and negligible mass loss is shown to contain a countably infinite number of similarity solutions whose horizontal and vertical length scales behave as (tr - t)1/2 and (tr - t)1/3. The first similarity solution represents a stable single-point rupture.

  20. Temperature perturbations evolution as a possible mechanism of exothermal reaction kernels formation in shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakon, A. V.; Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.

    2016-11-01

    The basic question raised in the paper concerns the origins of exothermal reaction kernels and the mechanisms of detonation onset behind the reflected shock wave in shock-tube experiments. Using the conventional experimental technique, it is obtained that in the certain diapason of conditions behind the reflected shocks a so-called “mild ignition” arises which is characterized by the detonation formation from the kernel distant from the end-wall. The results of 2-D and 3-D simulations of the flow evolution behind the incident and reflected shocks allow formulation of the following scenario of ignition kernels formation. Initial stage during and after the diaphragm rupture is characterized by a set of non-steady gasdynamical processes. As a result, the flow behind the incident shock occurs to be saturated with temperature perturbations. Further evolution of these perturbations provides generating of the shear stresses in the flow accompanied with intensification of velocity and temperature perturbations. After reflection the shock wave interacts with the formed kernels of higher temperature and more pronounced kernels arise on the background of reactivity profile determined by moving reflected shock. Exothermal reaction starts inside such kernels and propagates into the ambient medium as a spontaneous ignition wave with minimum initial speed equal to the reflected shock wave speed.

  1. The Rurrand Fault, Germany: A Holocene surface rupture and new slip rate estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützner, Christoph; Fischer, Peter; Reicherter, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Very low deformation rates in continental interiors are a challenge for research on active tectonics and seismic hazard. Faults tend to have very long earthquake recurrence intervals and morphological evidence of surface faulting is often obliterated by erosion and sedimentation. The Lower Rhine Graben in Central Europe is characterized by slow active faults with individual slip rates of well less than 0.1 mm/a. As a consequence, most geodetic techniques fail to record tectonic motions and the morphological expression of the faults is subtle. Although damaging events are known from this region, e.g. the 1755/56 Düren earthquakes series, there is no account for surface rupturing events in instrumental and historical records. Owing to the short temporal coverage with respect to the fault recurrence intervals, these records probably fail to depict the maximum possible magnitudes. In this study we used morphological evidence from a 1 m airborne LiDAR survey, near surface geophysics, and paleoseismological trenching to identify surface rupturing earthquakes at the Rurrand Fault between Cologne and Aachen in W Germany. LiDAR data allowed identifying a young fault strand parallel to the already known main fault with the subtle morphological expression of recent surface faulting. In the paleoseismological trenches we found evidence for two surface rupturing earthquakes. The most recent event occurred in the Holocene, and a previous earthquake probably happened in the last 150 ka. Geophysical data allowed us to estimate a minimum slip rate of 0.03 mm/a from an offset gravel horizon. We estimate paleomagnitudes of MW5.9-6.8 based on the observed offsets in the trench (<0.5 m per event) and fault scaling relationships. Our data imply that the Rurrand Fault did not creep during the last 150 ka, but rather failed in large earthquakes. These events were much stronger than those known from historical sources. We are able to show that the Rurrand Fault did not rupture the surface

  2. Entropy generation at multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic shocks with emphasis to the solar wind termination shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, H.-J.; Siewert, M.

    2015-04-01

    In a series of earlier papers, we developed expressions for ion and electron velocity distribution functions and their velocity moments at the passage over the solar wind termination shock. As we have shown there, with the introduction of appropriate particle invariants and the use of Liouville's theorem one can get explicit solutions for the resulting total downstream pressure by adding up from partial pressure contributions of solar wind protons, solar wind electrons and pick-up protons. These expressions are the first step toward delivering the main contributions to the total plasma pressure in the downstream plasma flow and consistently determine the shock compression ratio. Here we start from these individual fluid pressures downstream of the shock and thereafter evaluate for the first time the shock-induced entropy production of the different fluids, when they are passing over the shock to the downstream side. As shown here, the resulting ion entropy production substantially deviates from earlier calculations using a pseudo-polytropic reaction of the ions to the shock compression, with polytropies selected to describe fluid-specific reactions at the shock passage similar to those seen by the Voyagers. From these latter models, ion entropy jumps are derived that depend on the pick-up ion abundance, while our calculations deliver an abundance-independent ion entropy production that only depends on the shock compression ratio and the tilt angle between the upstream magnetic field and the normal to the shock surface. We also show here that the thermodynamically permitted upper limit in the entropy production is only reached when strongly heated electrons are included in the entropy balance.

  3. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock-like ... men. Risk factors include: Recent childbirth Infection with Staphylococcus aureus ( S aureus ), commonly called a Staph infection Foreign ...

  4. Nonlinearly stable compact schemes for shock calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockburn, Bernardo; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    The applications of high-order, compact finite difference methods in shock calculations are discussed. The main concern is to define a local mean which will serve as a reference for introducing a local nonlinear limiting to control spurious numerical oscillations while maintaining the formal accuracy of the scheme. For scalar conservation laws, the resulting schemes can be proven total-variation stable in one space dimension and maximum-norm stable in multiple space dimensions. Numerical examples are shown to verify accuracy and stability of such schemes for problems containing shocks. These ideas can also be applied to other implicit schemes such as the continuous Galerkin finite element methods.

  5. Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

    1991-06-01

    Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Imaging of the Rupture Zone of the Magnitude 6.2 Karonga Earthquake of 2009 using Electrical Resistivity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clappe, B.; Hull, C. D.; Dawson, S.; Johnson, T.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Nyalugwe, V.; Atekwana, E. A.; Salima, J.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 Karonga earthquakes occurred in an area where active faults had not previously been known to exist. Over 5000 buildings were destroyed in the area and at least 4 people lost their lives as a direct result of the 19th of December magnitude 6.2 earthquake. The earthquake swarms occurred in the hanging wall of the main Livingstone border fault along segmented, west dipping faults that are synthetic to the Livingstone fault. The faults have a general trend of 290-350 degrees. Electrical resistivity surveys were conducted to investigate the nature of known rupture and seismogenic zones that resulted from the 2009 earthquakes in the Karonga, Malawi area. The goal of this study was to produce high-resolution images below the epicenter and nearby areas of liquefaction to determine changes in conductivity/resistivity signatures in the subsurface. An Iris Syscal Pro was utilized to conduct dipole-dipole resistivity measurements below the surface of soil at farmlands at 6 locations. Each transect was 710 meters long and had an electrode spacing of 10 meters. RES2DINV software was used to create 2-D inversion images of the rupture and seismogenic zones. We were able to observe three distinct geoelectrical layers to the north of the rupture zone and two south of the rupture zone with the discontinuity between the two marked by the location of the surface rupture. The rupture zone is characterized by ~80-meter wide area of enhanced conductivity, 5 m thick underlain by a more resistive layer dipping west. We interpret this to be the result of fine grain sands and silts brought up from depth to near surface as a result of shearing along the fault rupture or liquefaction. Electrical resistivity surveys are valuable, yet under-utilized tools for imaging near-surface effects of earthquakes.

  7. Early Treatment in Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    jasminoides Ellis). It is com- monly sold in the United States as an herbal supplement . In terms of crocetin’s fundamental mode of action in host... supplementation 15 can be beneficial in ameliorating the tissue damage produced following experimental 16 hemorrhagic shock. In the present investigation...experimental rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Our studies were designed to test two 19 hypotheses. First, L-arginine supplementation during resuscitation will

  8. Shock Properties of Kimberlite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmott, G. R.; Proud, W. G.; Field, J. E.

    2004-07-01

    Plate impact experiments have been performed on the igneous diamond-bearing matrix kimberlite. Longitudinal and lateral stresses were measured in the uniaxial strain regime using manganin stress gauges. The shock Hugoniot of the kimberlite has been characterized at axial stresses between 1 and 9 GPa. The kimberlite has a low impedance response when compared with similar data for other geological materials. The data indicate that the rock behaves inelastically above shock stresses of 1 GPa.

  9. Fluid therapy in shock.

    PubMed

    Mandell, D C; King, L G

    1998-05-01

    The goal of treatment for all types of shock is the improvement of tissue perfusion and oxygenation. The mainstay of therapy for hypovolemic and septic shock is the expansion of the intravascular volume by fluid administration, including crystalloids, colloids, and blood products. Frequent physical examinations and monitoring enable the clinician to determine the adequacy of tissue oxygenation and thus the success of the fluid therapy.

  10. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  11. Early Treatment in Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    1471–2210/2/7. Accessed April 15, 2005. 20. Wang CJ, Lee MJ, Chang MC, Lin JK. Inhibition of tumor promotion in benzo [ a ] pyrene -initiated CD-1 mouse...model. Deliverable: A panel of genes that are reproducibly altered in white blood cells and in liver and muscle by shock and resuscitation. 1. To...Deliverable: Coordinated with objective #1, A panel of genes that are reproducibly altered in white blood cells and in liver and muscle by shock and

  12. Catecholamines in shock.

    PubMed

    Alho, A; Jäättelä, A; Lahdensuu, M; Rokkanen, P; Avikainen, V; Karaharju, E; Tervo, T; Lepistö, P

    1977-06-01

    The role of endogenous catecholamines in various clinical shock and stress states is reviewed; the effects, especially on the peripheral circulation, of catecholamine secretion are the same independent of the cause. Risks of using sympathomimetic agents in the treatment of shock are evaluated. A prolonged noradrenaline activity is to be expected in surgical stress states, e.g. multiple injuries, fat embolism syndrome, burns and infections; therapeutic approaches to minimize the sympathoadrenal activity are outlined.

  13. Delayed rupture of renal artery after renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Puijlaert, C.B.A.J.; Mali, W.P.; Rosenbusch, G.; van Straalen, A.M.; Klinge, J.; Feldberg, M.A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Two cases are reported in which rupture of the renal artery occurred many hours after renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Delayed rupture can be recognized by the angiographic appearance and by the presence of persistent flank pain. The typical angiographic finding is a poorly defined zone of contrast medium at the site of perforation.

  14. The Resolution of Ruptures in the Therapeutic Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Jeremy D.; Muran, J. Christopher

    1996-01-01

    A rupture in the therapeutic alliance is a deterioration in the quality of the relationship between patient and therapist; it is an interpersonal marker that indicates an opportunity for exploring and understanding the processes that maintain a maladaptive interpersonal schema. Outlines features of a research program on ruptures in the therapeutic…

  15. Comparing two methods of identifying alliance rupture events.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Joana; Ribeiro, Eugénia; Sousa, Inês; Safran, Jeremy D

    2014-09-01

    This study compared two methods of detecting ruptures in therapy sessions, a procedure based on a self-report measure, the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and an observational Rupture Resolution Rating System (3RS). We anticipated that the 3RS would detect more ruptures than the WAI. We examined the longitudinal data of 38 patient-therapist dyads in a cognitive-behavioral therapy condition. The sample included cases that did not complete treatment (dropped cases) as well as good-outcome and poor-outcome cases. At the end of each session, patients completed the WAI self-report questionnaire. Six judges were trained to observe and detect the occurrence of ruptures, and then rated 201 videotaped sessions. Longitudinal statistical models were applied to the data retrieved from the WAI questionnaires completed by patients. We found discrepancies in the ability of the two methods to detect rupture events with the observational 3RS detecting more ruptures than the WAI. Thus, the use of observational systems for the detection of alliance ruptures is crucial for effectively assessing the quality of the therapeutic alliance over the course of treatment. Furthermore, observational systems proven to detect ruptures can be used to improve clinical practice and training of new clinicians.

  16. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-01-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes. PMID:27386585

  17. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes.

  18. Tibialis posterior tendon rupture: a cause of rheumatoid flat foot.

    PubMed

    Downey, D J; Simkin, P A; Mack, L A; Richardson, M L; Kilcoyne, R F; Hansen, S T

    1988-03-01

    Flat foot, a major cause of foot pain and disability, may result from rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon. We describe 2 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who developed flat feet secondary to surgically confirmed tendon rupture, and we discuss the anatomy and diagnosis of this condition. In the second patient, we also present the results of tendon imaging with both magnetic resonance and ultrasound.

  19. Tracheal rupture in a cat: diagnosis by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Bhandal, Jitender; Kuzma, Alan

    2008-06-01

    A cat was presented with a history of worsening generalized subcutaneous emphysema following dental prophylaxis. Tentative diagnosis of tracheal rupture was made. The location and extent of the tear was confirmed with the help of computed tomography. This is the 1st computed tomographic description of tracheal rupture in the veterinary literature.

  20. Spontaneous second-trimester ruptured pregnancy of rudimentary horn: a case report in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Messi, John Owoudou; Kamga, Danielle Tiako; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2014-01-01

    Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in Cameroon. We herein report the case of a 22 year old second gravida referred for acute abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation. Physical examination revealed hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock. After resuscitation, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and we found hemoperitoneum of 3,500 milliliters, a bicornuate uterus with a ruptured right rudimentary communicating horn containing a non viable foetus. There were no other abnormalities. We performed an excision of the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and the woman was discharged seven days later. This case emphasizes the importance of good antenatal care to avoid complications. PMID:25400853

  1. Spontaneous second-trimester ruptured pregnancy of rudimentary horn: a case report in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Messi, John Owoudou; Kamga, Danielle Tiako; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2014-01-01

    Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in Cameroon. We herein report the case of a 22 year old second gravida referred for acute abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation. Physical examination revealed hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock. After resuscitation, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and we found hemoperitoneum of 3,500 milliliters, a bicornuate uterus with a ruptured right rudimentary communicating horn containing a non viable foetus. There were no other abnormalities. We performed an excision of the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and the woman was discharged seven days later. This case emphasizes the importance of good antenatal care to avoid complications.

  2. Spontaneous Rupture of a Leiomyoma Causing Life-Threatening Intra-Abdominal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Uterine fibroids are common benign tumors in women. Clinical manifestations are well known. Acute complications necessitating emergent surgical intervention are rare. Case. We report a case of a 53-year-old woman with a history of uterine fibroids presenting with acute-onset severe abdominal pain. Imaging indicated massive free fluid and a large partially solid uterine mass. Vitals were consistent with hypovolemic shock. Examination revealed a surgical abdomen. She underwent an emergent laparotomy and total hysterectomy. Surgery revealed 4.5 L of hemoperitoneum and a 15 cm degenerated uterine fibroid with active bleeding. Pathology was consistent with intraoperative findings. She required transfusion of numerous blood products perioperatively. Her postoperative course was uncomplicated. Conclusion. It is rare for a uterine fibroid to spontaneously rupture. However, prompt recognition of this severe complication is critical for expeditious, life-saving surgical management. PMID:28127487

  3. Ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy with negative serum beta hCG--a case for ongoing vigilance?

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph K-S; Lamaro, Vincent P

    2009-01-23

    A 25-year-old female with a history of recent miscarriage presents with haemodynamic shock and a negative serum beta hCG. She presents to six different healthcare facilities within a single metropolitan area, during which a pelvic ultrasound scan showed an empty uterus with a subnormal rise in serum beta hCG. Suspected ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy was confirmed following laparoscopy and salpingectomy, with histopathological confirmation of chorionic villi in the extirpated fallopian tube. This case report highlights the ongoing clinical diagnostic challenges that are associated with ectopic pregnancy; illustrates the importance of teamwork; and perhaps also draws attention to the need for a robust protocol to facilitate consistent, good-quality early pregnancy care for all women.

  4. Rare Presentation of Chorioadenoma Destruens as Acute Haemoperitoneum Mimicking Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sinha, M; Kaur, R; Gupta, R; Rani, R; Aggarwal, A

    2014-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTN) are proliferative degenerative disorders of placental elements and include complete or partial mole (90%), invasivemole (5-8%), choriocarcinoma (1-2%) and placental site tumor (1-2%). Chorioadenoma destruens is a trophoblastic tumor, characterized by myometrial invasion through direct extension or via venous channels. We present a case of invasive mole eroding uterus and uterine vasculature, causing sudden rupture of uterus with massive haemoperitoneum mimicking ectopic pregnancy. A 20 year old G1P0 at 6 weeks gestation presented in Casualty of Kasturba Hospital complaining of severe acute onset lower abdominal pain for one hour. Clinical examination revealed shock. Sonography suggested ectopic pregnancy and immediate exploratory laparotomy was decided. On laparotomy, 2000cc of haemoperitoneum was noted. Grape like vesicles protruding through fundal perforation with profuse active bleeding was seen. Bleeding persisted despite evacuation. Step wise uterine devascularisation failed to achieve haemostasis. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed as a life saving measure.

  5. AOTV bow shock location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desautel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Hypersonic bow-shock location and geometry are of central importance to the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs), but they are difficult to predict for a given vehicle configuration. This paper reports experimental measurements of shock standoff distance for the 70 deg cone AOTV configuration in shock-tunnel-test flows at Mach numbers of 3.8 to 7.9 and for angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. The controlling parameter for hypersonic bow-shock standoff distance (for a given forebody shape) is the mean normal-shock density ratio. Values for this parameter in the tests reported are in the same range as those of the drag-brake AOTV perigee regime. Results for standoff distance are compared with those previously reported in the literature for this AOTV configuration. It is concluded that the AOTV shock standoff distance for the conical configuration, based on frustrum (base) radius, is equivalent to that of a sphere with a radius about 35 percent greater than that of the cone; the distance is, therefore, much less than reported in previous studies. Some reasons for the discrepancies between the present and previous are advanced. The smaller standoff distance determined here implies there will be less radiative heat transfer than was previously expected.

  6. Rupture processes of the 2015 Mw 7.9 Gorkha earthquake and its Mw 7.3 aftershock and their implications on the seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Shan, Bin; Xie, Zujun; Xiong, Xiong; Ge, Can

    2016-07-01

    The rupture processes of the 2015 April 25 Gorkha earthquake and its strongest aftershock occurred on May 12 in Nepal are investigated by joint inversion of seismological and geodetic data. Synthetic test shows that the sedimentary layers in the source region play an important role in the rupture process inversion. Our optimized model of the mainshock shows that the rupture has a unilateral propagation pattern. The dominant mechanism is pure thrust with maximum slip of 5.8 m, the rupture scale extends 60 km along dip and 150 km along strike, and the largest static stress change is 7.6 MPa. The total seismic moment is 7.87 × 1020 N m, equivalent to Mw 7.9. Most seismic moment was released within 80 s and the majority seismic moment was released at the first 40 s. The rupture propagated in main slip asperity with a velocity of 3.0 km/s. The strong aftershock magnitude is about Mw 7.3, and the peak slip is about 5.0 m, close to the peak slip of the mainshock. Moreover, the slips of the mainshock and the aftershocks are in good complementary, suggesting a triggering relationship between them. Considering the strain accumulation, the Gorkha earthquake ruptured only part of the seismic gap alone, thus still poses high earthquake risk, especially in the west side of the mainshock rupture zone.

  7. Surface Ruptures and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.

    2005-01-01

    We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface ruptures related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The main strike-slip fault rupture south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.

  8. Haemoperitoneurn Secondary to Rupture of Retroperitoneal Variceal

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Perez, M.; Rodriguez-Moreno, F.; Perez-Palma, J.; Santolaria-Fernandez, F.; Essardas-Daryanani, H.; Martinez-Riera, A.

    1997-01-01

    A 45-year-old alcoholic male patient presented with hypovolemic shock and intense anemia (Hemoglobin 04.7 g/dl), and was operated on. A bleeding retroperitoneal varix located near the right colon was responsible for the clinical picture and was sutured. After operation the patient developed haemodynamic instability and pneumonia a situation which was reverted with intensive medical therapy. The patient is now doing well. PMID:9298389

  9. Relaxing Segmentation: Does It Improve Characterization of Fault Rupture Behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Most faults have not ruptured once historically, let alone repeatedly. Estimating future rupture length of an earthquake source has been a challenge since the 1970s when concepts of full and half fault lengths were employed. In the 1980s paleoseismic event timing and observations of slip, coupled with geometric and other physical fault changes, led to concepts of fault segmentation and it's modeling for hazard. The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 3 (UCERF 3, Field et al., 2014) relaxed segmentation, guided by rules in which a separation distance of ≤5km and orientation to Coulomb stress changes at fault junctions are prime factors for allowing fault-to-fault jumps. A set of ~350 fault sections produced ~250K ruptures ranging in length from 15 km-1200 km. An inversion provided the rates of these, which range from 102-108 years. Many of the long ruptures have exceedingly low individual rates within the UCERF 3 geologic model but are sufficient in number to release cumulative moment that brings the long-term (Myr) and historical (since 1850) MFDs for the California region into close agreement. Does UCERF 3 have too many multi-fault ruptures? Since 1850 there have been ~260 surface ruptures worldwide in shallow continental crust. 77% are 0-49km; 6% exceed 150km, and the longest is 1906 San Francisco (435-470 km). In California since 1857 there have been 31 surface ruptures. 77% are shorter than 49 km. The longest are 1906, 1857 Fort Tejon (297km), and 1872 Owens Valley (108 km). Most long historical strike-slip ruptures are continuous and geomorphically well-defined traces with limited geometric changes. In contrast, UCERF3 modeling of the south Hayward, as an example, allows it to participate in ruptures that extend to the south ends of the San Andreas or San Jacinto faults (900 km). These include branching (Hayward-Calaveras, San Andreas-San Jacinto) and jumps (Calaveras-San Andreas) on creeping sections of these faults. 5km is the connectivity

  10. Control of seafloor roughness on earthquake rupture behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, Susan L.; Schwartz, Susan Y.; Deshon, Heather R.

    2003-05-01

    Earthquake rupture complexity is described for three recent large underthrusting earthquakes along the Costa Rican subduction zone, the 1983 Osa, 1990 Nicoya Gulf, and 1999 Quepos events. These earthquakes occurred in regions characterized by distinctly different morphologic features on the subducting plate. The 1990 and 1999 events occurred along linear projections of subducting seamount chains and had fairly simple earthquake rupture histories. Both events are interpreted as failure of the basal contact of closely spaced isolated seamounts acting as asperities. In contrast, the 1983 event occurred along the subducting Cocos Ridge and had a complex rupture history. Comparison of rupture characteristics of these large underthrusting earthquakes with size and location of subducting features provides evidence that seamounts can be subducted to seismogenic depths and that variations in seafloor bathymetry of the subducting plate strongly influence the earthquake rupture process.

  11. Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation direction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Day, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Earthquakes often occur on faults that juxtapose different rocks. The result is rupture behavior that differs from that of an earthquake occurring on a fault in a homogeneous material. Previous 2D numerical simulations have studied simple cases of earthquake rupture propagation where there is a material contrast across a fault and have come to two different conclusions: 1) earthquake rupture propagation direction can be predicted from the material contrast, and 2) earthquake rupture propagation direction cannot be predicted from the material contrast. In this paper we provide observational evidence from 70 years of earthquakes at Parkfield, CA, and new 3D numerical simulations. Both the observations and the numerical simulations demonstrate that earthquake rupture propagation direction is unlikely to be predictable on the basis of a material contrast. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Incidence of plantar fascia ruptures following corticosteroid injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul; Cashdollar, Michael R; Mendicino, Robert W; Catanzariti, Alan R; Fuge, LaDonna

    2010-12-01

    Plantar fasciitis is commonly treated with corticosteroid injections to decrease pain and inflammation. Therapeutic benefits often vary in terms of efficacy and duration. Rupture of the plantar fascia has been reported as a possible complication following corticosteroid injection. A retrospective chart review of 120 patients who received corticosteroid injection for plantar fasciitis was performed at the authors' institution to determine the incidence of plantar fascia rupture. The plantar fascia rupture was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Various factors were analyzed, including the number of injections, interval between injections, body mass index (BMI), and activity level. Four patients (2.4%) consequently experienced plantar fascia rupture following an average of 2.67 injections. The average BMI of these patients was 38.6 kg/m². The authors conclude that corticosteroid injection therapy appears to be a safe and effective form of nonoperative treatment with minimal complications and a relatively low incident of plantar fascia rupture.

  13. Management of Ruptured Occult Left Hydronephrotic Kidney in 7-Year - old Boy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    More, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Pre-existing, occult, congenital renal anomalies are often discovered during evaluation of children for blunt injury of the kidney and abdomen, presenting with or without haematuria. This is a report of 7-year-old boy; who presented with blunt injury abdomen with haematuria following fall from motorcycle. He had pallor, and features of hypovolumic shock and peritonitis. Skiagram of the abdomen showed haziness of the abdomen, without free gas under diaphragm. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed significant hemoperitoneum and gross hydronephrosis of the left kidney, which was undiagnosed previously. Exploratory laparotomy was done for peritonitis and the findings were hemoperitoneum, hematoma at the left mesocolon and left retroperitoneum. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen reported left hydronephrosis due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction with rupture of the renal pelvis. The ruptured hydronephrotic kidney was successfully managed by nephrostomy followed by delayed open dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. His postoperative recovery following pyeloplasty was uneventful and he was doing well at follow-up after a month of pyeloplasty. PMID:25478398

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Iliac Aneurysm Previously Treated by Endovascular Means

    SciTech Connect

    Dalainas, Ilias Nano, Giovanni; Stegher, Silvia; Bianchi, Paolo; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G.

    2008-03-15

    A patient with a ruptured iliac aneurysm was admitted to the Emergency Department in hypovolemic shock. He had previously undergone surgical treatment for an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, which was managed with a terminal-terminal Dacron tube graft. Subsequently, he developed two iliac aneurysms, which were treated endovascularly with two wall-grafts in the right and one wall-graft in the left iliac arteries. He suffered chronic renal failure and arterial hypertension. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed rupture of the right iliac aneurysm and dislocation of the two wall-grafts. He was treated in an emergency situation with the implantation of an iliac endograft that bridged the two wall-grafts, which resulted in hemostasis and stabilization of his condition. Five days later, in an elective surgical situation, he was treated with the implantation of an aorto-uni-iliac endograft combined with a femoral-femoral bypass. He was discharged 5 days later in good condition. At the 4 year follow-up visit, the endoprosthesis remained in place with no evidence of an endoleak. In conclusion, overlapping of endografts should be avoided, if possible. Strict surveillance of the endovascularly treated patient remains mandatory.

  15. Spontaneous rupture of hepatic metastasis from a thymoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Jae; Park, Yong Eun; Ki, Min Seo; Lee, Se Ju; Beom, Seung Hun; Han, Dai Hoon; Park, Young Nyun; Park, Jun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Bleeding resulting from spontaneous rupture of the liver is an infrequent but potentially life threatening complication that may be associated with an underlying liver disease. A hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatic adenoma is frequently reported is such cases. However, hemoperitoneum resulting from a hepatic metastatic thymoma is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of a 62-year-old man with hypovolemic shock induced by ruptured hepatic metastasis from a thymoma. At the first hospital admission, the patient had a 45-mm anterior mediastinal mass that was eventually diagnosed as a type A thymoma. The mass was excised, and the patient was disease-free for 6 years. He experienced sudden-onset right upper quadrant pain and was again admitted to our hospital. We noted large hemoperitoneum with a 10-cm encapsulated mass in S5/8 and a 2.3-cm nodular lesion in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. He was diagnosed with hepatic metastasis from the thymoma, and he underwent chemotherapy and surgical excision. PMID:27956811

  16. Percutaneous Treatment of Sac Rupture in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Previously Excluded with Endovascular Repair (EVAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Lagana, Domenico Mangini, Monica Fontana, Federico; Nicotera, Paolo; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) previously treated by EVAR. In the last year, two male patients with AAAs, treated 8 and 23 months ago with bifurcated stent-graft, were observed because of lumbar pain and hemorragic shock. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) showed a retroperitoneal hematoma; in both cases a type III endoleak was detected, in one case associated with a type II endoleak from the iliolumbar artery. The procedures were performed in the theater, in emergency. Type II endoleak was treated with transcatheter superselective glue injection; type III endoleaks were excluded by a stent-graft extension. The procedures were successful in both patients, with immediate hemodynamic stabilization. MDCT after the procedure showed complete exclusion of the aneurysms. In conclusion, endovascular treatment is a safe and feasible option for the treatment of ruptured AAAs previously treated by EVAR; this approach allows avoidance of surgical conversion, which is technical very challenging, with a high morbidity and mortality rate.

  17. Shock/shock interference on a transpiration cooled hemispherical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Robert J.; Wieting, Allan R.; Holden, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which show the effectiveness of transpiration cooling in reducing the peak heat flux caused by an impinging shock on a bow shock of a hemispherical model. The 12-inch diameter hemispherical transpiration model with helium coolant was tested in the Calspan 48-inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at nominal Mach 12.1 and freestream unit Reynolds number of 0.33 x 10 to the 6th/ft. An incident shock wave, generated by a blunt flat-plate shock generator inclined at 10 deg to the freestream, intersected the bow shock of the model to produce shock/shock interference. The stagnation heat flux without coolant or shock/shock interference was about 1.6 times a smooth surface laminar prediction due to effective roughness of the coolant ejection slots. A coolant mass flux 31 percent of the freestream mass flux reduced the stagnation heat flux to zero without shock/shock interference. However, for the same coolant mass flux and with shock/shock interference the peak heat flux was only reduced 8.3 percent, even though the total integrated heat load was reduced.

  18. Pneumatic Rupture of Rectosigmoid; a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Farhangi, Bahman; Montazeri, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture is usually occurred following the inappropriate fun by direct entering a high volume of the air through the pneumatic device to the anus. Such an event was reported for the first time in 1904 by Stone. Diagnosis and treatment of such injuries are often delayed because of some social limitations and preventing the patient form explaining the event. Colon sigmoid rupture and pneumoperitoneum is one of the most dangerous and life treating complications of entering a high volume of the air to the rectum in a short time. There are only a few reports regarding the similar cases. Here, a case of pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture was reported in a 53 year-old male following an inappropriate fun.

  19. Unresponsive primipara after rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Johanna; Berset, Andreas; Lehmann, Michael A; Lapaire, Olav

    2015-04-16

    Amniotic fluid embolism, also called anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy, is a rare but severe problem in obstetrics. It occurs in 8/100,000 births and the maternal mortality is up to 90%. We report the case of a patient with amniotic fluid embolism who was transferred to our hospital. The initial presentation was an unresponsive patient after spontaneous rupture of the membranes. The massive hypotension and coagulopathy as well as fetal bradycardia of 60 bpm led, after stabilisation of the mother, to an emergency caesarean section. The neonate expired hours later, despite neonatological intensive care. During the operation, we had to deal with massive bleeding due to the coagulopathy. Through interdisciplinary teamwork including Bakri postpartum balloon insertion through the obstetrics team, uterine artery embolism by the interventional radiologists and transfusion of blood products, the maternal life was saved and the patient was discharged 9 days after admission.

  20. Behçet's disease with ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm following ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Atsushi; Kawashima, Masatou; Matsushima, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old Japanese woman with Behçet's disease suffered successive rupture of thoracic aortic and cerebral aneurysms within one year. The patient underwent successful surgical treatment for both aneurysms. Histological examination of the aneurysm walls revealed lymphocyte infiltration into the adventitia with smooth muscle cell hyperplasia in the thickened intima. This is an extremely unusual presentation of Behçet's disease associated with both cerebral and aortic aneurysms.

  1. Shock induced damage and damage threshold of optical K9 glass investigated by laser-driven shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yunfei; Yu, Guoyang; Jiang, Lilin; Zheng, Xianxu; Liu, Yuqiang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2011-04-01

    The shock wave driven by short laser pulse is used to study the damage of brittle material K9 glass. The damage morphology of K9 glass surface indicates that the material has experienced different loading modes, respectively, at the central area and the surrounding area of the shock wave. At the central area of shock wave, the wavefront is plane and has a uniform pressure distribution, the material mainly suffers a longitudinal shock pressure; but on the edge the shock wave, the wavefront is approximately spherical, besides longitudinal pressure, transverse tensile stress will emerge inside the material. In the latter case, the damage threshold of the material is much smaller than that in the case of compressing by longitudinal pressure only. According to the relationship between damage area and shock pressure, an experimental method is proposed to measure the damage threshold of materials under shock loading. The damage threshold of K9 glass under spherical shock wave is measured to be about 1.12 GPa; and the damage threshold under plane shock wave is estimated to be between 1.82 and 1.98 GPa. They are much bigger than the damage threshold under static pressure. This method could also be used to measure the damage threshold of other materials when loaded by dynamic pressure.

  2. Development of Final A-Fault Rupture Models for WGCEP/ NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward H.; Weldon, Ray J.; Parsons, Thomas; Wills, Chris J.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Stein, Ross S.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This appendix discusses how we compute the magnitude and rate of earthquake ruptures for the seven Type-A faults (Elsinore, Garlock, San Jacinto, S. San Andreas, N. San Andreas, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, and Calaveras) in the WGCEP/NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2 (referred to as ERM 2. hereafter). By definition, Type-A faults are those that have relatively abundant paleoseismic information (e.g., mean recurrence-interval estimates). The first section below discusses segmentation-based models, where ruptures are assumed be confined to one or more identifiable segments. The second section discusses an un-segmented-model option, the third section discusses results and implications, and we end with a discussion of possible future improvements. General background information can be found in the main report.

  3. An outbreak of cataract with lens rupture and nuclear extrusion in wolf-fish (Anarhicas spp.).

    PubMed

    Bjerkås, E.; Bjerkås, I.; Moksness, E.

    1998-01-01

    Eight spotted (Anarhicas minor Olafsen) and five common wolf-fish (Anarhicas Lupus L), developed cataracts shortly after an episode of increased water temperature and decreased salinity 5 years prior to examination. On clinical examination, the cataracts were mostly bilateral and complete, and a majority of the lenses were lobulated. Inflammatory reaction was, apart from one eye with severe inflammation, limited to iris atrophy. Of the 14 eyes collected for pathomorphological examination, eight had lens rupture with extrusion of the nucleus to the posterior chamber, two showed partly dislocated nuclei with posterior protrusion and two lenses were morgagnian. A multilayered squamous epithelium with abundant desmosomes had developed on the surface of seven of the extruded nuclei. The main cause of the cataracts was considered to be the rapid decrease in water salinity, causing osmotic changes within the eyes with secondary swelling of lens fibers and rupture of the lens capsules.

  4. Lipid membranes in external electric fields: kinetics of large pore formation causing rupture.

    PubMed

    Winterhalter, Mathias

    2014-06-01

    About 40 years ago, Helfrich introduced an elastic model to explain shapes and shape transitions of cells (Z Naturforsch C, 1973; 28:693). This seminal article stimulated numerous theoretical as well as experimental investigations and created new research fields. In particular, the predictive power of his approach was demonstrated in a large variety of lipid model system. Here in this review, we focus on the development with respect to planar lipid membranes in external electric fields. Stimulated by the early work of Helfrich on electric field forces acting on liposomes, we extended his early approach to understand the kinetics of lipid membrane rupture. First, we revisit the main forces determining the kinetics of membrane rupture followed by an overview on various experiments. Knowledge on the kinetics of defect formation may help to design stable membranes or serve for novel mechanism for controlled release.

  5. Simplified Scheme for the Kinematic Inversion of the Rupture Process: Application to Mexican Earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Artola, O.; Iglesias Mendoza, A.

    2012-04-01

    Aiming to obtain some information about the rupture process of intermediate to great earthquakes, many waveform inversion schemes have been proposed. Usual methods involve several subfaults on the fault plane to obtain a detailed image of the kinematic rupture process. On the other hand, it has been questioned the resolution over obtained paramters on the inversion process. In the literature contradictory results can be found for the same earthquake, using different schemes. For this reason, recently, simplified schemes of the rupture process have been proposed, while not providing details it can recover their main characteristics. In this work we propose a modification of the Cotton & Campillo (1995) inversion scheme, while unlike considering the problem as a "rupture process tomographic inversion", we invert the main characteristics assuming simplified geometries (ellipses). Based on the work quoted, the direct problem is reparameterized including one or two ellipses in which the maximum displacement is distributed. For the first ellipse, the position of the center within the fault plane, the major and minor semi-axis are inverted. For the second one we invert the position with respect to the first ellipse and the two semi-axis. To avoid the linearization of the problem, we use a simulated annealing scheme for inversion. When there is not enough evidence of the proper fault plane, we perform an inversion for the two nodal planes published to solve the ambiguity between the auxiliary plane and the fault plane that a point source inversion schemes involve. We tested our method for the well studied earthquake September 30th 1999 Oaxaca (Mw=7.5) (e.g. Hernandez et al., 2001) which is one of the intraslab earthquakes within the Northamerican Plate of moderate magnitude and well recorded. The scheme is evaluated as well with the data generated by the "Escenario 2011" framework for an hypothetical earthquake in Guerrero, Mexico. Results will give us the opportunity to

  6. Postseismic velocity changes along the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake rupture zone revealed by the variations in S coda of repeating events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le; Niu, Fenglin; Chen, Qi-Fu; Su, Jinrong; He, Jiabin

    2016-12-01

    We investigated postseismic velocity changes within the fault zone of the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake using coda-wave data of repeating small earthquakes. We employed template matching and grid search methods to identify well-defined repeating earthquakes in order to minimize artifacts induced by variations in source location. We identified a total of 12 isolated patches in the fault zone that ruptured more than twice in a one-year period after the M7.9 earthquake. We applied the coda wave interferometry technique to the waveform data of the 34 identified repeating earthquakes to estimate velocity changes between the first and subsequent events in each cluster. We found that major postseismic velocity changes occurred in the southwestern part of the rupture area, where the main rupture was initiated and characterized by thrust motion, while the Beichuan area in the northeastern part of the rupture zone appears to experience very little postseismic velocity changes.

  7. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON SHOCK

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jane A.; Long, C. N. H.; Wilhelmi, Alfred E.

    1944-01-01

    1. With increasing severity of shock following hemorrhage in fasted rats there is an increasing depression in the rate of oxygen uptake, in oxygen, of liver slices from the bled animals. The respiration of kidney tissue is only slightly depressed even in severe states of shock. 2. The rates of oxygen uptake of liver tissue from bled rats are nicely correlated with the increases in blood amino nitrogen that follow severe hemorrhage. 3. A supplement of coenzyme factors, in the form of a hot water extract of normal rat liver, increases the oxygen uptake of liver tissue from rats in mild shock, but is without effect on the respiration of liver slices from rats in moderate or severe shock. 4. The ability of rat liver to oxidize succinate is not impaired even in severe shock, but the extra oxygen uptake does not improve the basal rate of respiration of the tissue. 5. Effects on the rate of oxygen uptake of normal rat liver slices comparable to those seen after hemorrhage could be produced by exposing the tissue to an atmosphere of nitrogen for periods of 15 and 60 minutes. This treatment had more marked effects on the respiration of kidney slices than are found after hemorrhage, but the kidney, unlike the liver, exhibited a marked degree of recovery in the presence of glucose. 6. The significance of these findings is briefly discussed. PMID:19871349

  8. Shocks in fragile matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  9. Rupture of the spleen or splenic vessels (splenic emergency syndrome) in late pregnancy: a report of two autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Di Vella, Giancarlo; Arpaio, Alessandra; Marzullo, Andrea; Colonna, Massimo

    2008-04-07

    Emergencies of splenic origin in pregnancy involving rupture of the splenic artery or hemorrhage are rare events that can present suddenly and unexpectedly. We report two cases of young women, both in the third trimester of gestation, who suffered sudden malaise while at home and were admitted to the ER. On arrival, both were in severe hemorrhagic shock due to gross hemoperitoneum and they died in the operating theatre during emergency surgery. To better clarify the causes and sequence of these mortalities, forensic autopsy was requested in each case. In the first (a 26-year-old primigravida in the 40th week of pregnancy), cadaveric section demonstrated the rupture of an aneurysm of the splenic artery. In the second (a 28-year-old multipara in the 33rd week of pregnancy), the clinical and anatomopathological data suggested splenic hemorrhage. In both cases histology showed a fibrodysplasia of the arterial wall involving the splenic artery in one case and the hilar branches in the other. In agreement with the data in literature, in such cases particular importance must be attributed to examination of the arterial wall. In pregnancy a synergic effect between hemodynamic and endocrine factors can cause degeneration of the arteries resulting in dramatic hemorrhage. From the forensic pathologist's viewpoint, these cases underline the importance of histopathological study of the splenic artery in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of splenic vessel rupture or hemorrhage.

  10. A case of a ruptured submucosal aneurysm of the small intestine identified using double-balloon enteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hirofumi; Endo, Katsuya; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Naitoh, Takeshi; Kuroha, Masatake; Kimura, Tomoya; Shiga, Hisashi; Kakuta, Yoichi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-04-01

    A 47-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital urgently with sudden-onset hematochezia. She was temporarily in a state of hemorrhagic shock. As we strongly suspected bleeding from the small intestine, peroral double-balloon enteroscopy was performed, and indicated a 2.0-cm diameter hemispheric elevated lesion in the jejunum. Moreover, a blood clot was observed at the top of the protrusion. The site was marked by injecting India ink, without taking a biopsy specimen, to avoid further hemorrhaging. Subsequently, laparoscopic partial small bowel resection was performed. On histopathological examination, the lesion was found to be a sac-like submucosal arterial aneurysm, with a diameter of 3.5 mm, comprising several small abnormal arteries. The final diagnosis was a ruptured submucosal aneurysm of the small intestine. Ruptured submucosal aneurysms are very rarely observed in the small intestine. Only a few reports have described their endoscopic findings. Our experience indicates that small bowel enteroscopy may be useful for managing ruptured submucosal aneurysms of the small intestine.

  11. Shock Detector for SURF model

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  12. Shock interactions with magnetized interstellar clouds. 1: Steady shocks hitting nonradiative clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Mckee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Stone, James M.; Norman, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    We study the interaction of a steady, planar shock with a nonradiative, spherical, interstellar cloud threaded by a uniform magnetic field. For strong shocks, the sonic Mach number scales out, so two parameters determine the evolution: the ratio of cloud to intercloud density, and the Alfven Mach number. We focus on the case with initial field parallel to the shock velocity, though we also present one model with field perpendicular to the velocity. Even with 100 zones per cloud radius, we find that the magnetic field structure converges only at early times. However, we can draw three conclusions from our work. First, our results suggest that the inclusion of a field in equipartition with the preshock medium can prevent the complete destruction of the cloud found in the field-free case recently considered by Klein, McKee, & Colella. Second, the interaction of the shock with the cloud can amplify the magnetic field in some regions up to equipartition with the post-shock thermal pressure. In the parallel-field case, the shock preferentially amplifies the parallel component of the field, creating a 'flux rope,' a linear structure of concentrated magnetic field. The flux rope dominates the volume of amplified field, so that laminar, rather than turbulent, amplification is dominant in this case. Third, the presence of the cloud enhances the production of X-ray and synchrotron emission. The X-ray emission peaks early, during the initial passage of the shock over the cloud, while the synchrotron emission peaks later, when the flow sweeps magnetic field onto the axis between the cloud and the main shock.

  13. Uterine rupture in pregnancies following myomectomy: A multicenter case series

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Sun; Oh, Soo-Young; Choi, Suk-Joo; Park, Hyun-Soo; Cho, Geum-Joon; Chung, Jin-Hoon; Seo, Yong-Soo; Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Chae, Su-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series was to retrospectively examine records of cases with uterine rupture in pregnancies following myomectomy and to describe the clinical features and pregnancy outcomes. Methods This study was conducted as a multicenter case series. The patient databases at 7 tertiary hospitals were queried. Records of patients with a diagnosis of uterine rupture in the pregnancy following myomectomy between January 2012 and December 2014 were retrospectively collected. The uterine rupture cases enrolled in this study were defined as follows: through-and-through uterine rupture or tear of the uterine muscle and serosa, occurrence from 24+0 to 41+6 weeks’ gestation, singleton pregnancy, and previous laparoscopic myomectomy (LSM) or laparotomic myomectomy (LTM) status. Results Fourteen pregnant women experienced uterine rupture during their pregnancy after LSM or LTM. Preterm delivery of less than 34 weeks’ gestation occurred in 5 cases, while intrauterine fetal death occurred in 3, and 3 cases had fetal distress. Of the 14 uterine rupture cases, none occurred during labor. All mothers survived and had no sequelae, unlike the perinatal outcomes, although they were receiving blood transfusion or treatment for uterine artery embolization because of uterine atony or massive hemorrhage. Conclusion In women of childbearing age who are scheduled to undergo LTM or LSM, the potential risk of uterine rupture on subsequent pregnancy should be explained before surgery. Pregnancy in women after myomectomy should be carefully observed, and they should be adequately counseled during this period. PMID:27896247

  14. Factors Controlling Stress Rupture of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, J. A.; Yun, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    The successful application of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) depends strongly on maximizing material rupture life over a wide range of temperatures and applied stresses. The objective of this paper is to examine the various intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control the high-temperature stress rupture of CMC for stresses below and above those required for cracking of the 0 C plies (Regions I and II, respectively). Using creep-rupture results for a variety of ceramic fibers and rupture data for CMC reinforced by these fibers, it is shown that in those cases where the matrix carries little structural load, CMC rupture conditions can be predicted very well from the fiber behavior measured under the appropriate test environment. As such, one can then examine the intrinsic characteristics of the fibers in order to develop design guidelines for selecting fibers and fiber microstructures in order to maximize CMC rupture life. For those cases where the fiber interfacial coatings are unstable in the test environment, CMC lives are generally worse than those predicted by fiber behavior alone. For those cases where the matrix can support structural load, CMC life can even be greater provided matrix creep behavior is properly controlled. Thus the achievement of long CMC rupture life requires understanding and optimizing the behavior of all constituents in the proper manner.

  15. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-08

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion.

  16. Stability of a hypersonic shock layer on a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, Anatoly A.; Poplavskaya, Tatiana V.; Smorodsky, Boris V.

    2004-11-01

    Stability of a hypersonic shock layer on a flat plate is examined with allowance for disturbances conditions on the shock wave within the framework of the linear stability theory. The characteristics of the main flow are calculated on the basis of the Full Viscous Shock Layer model. Conditions for velocity, pressure, and temperature perturbations are derived from steady Rankine-Hugoniot relation on the shock wave. These conditions are used as boundary conditions on the shock wave for linear stability equations. The growth rates of disturbances and density fluctuations are compared with experimental data obtained at ITAM by the method of electron-beam fluorescence and with theoretical data of other authors. To cite this article: A.A. Maslov et al., C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

  17. Shock-Induced Effect on Chathodoluminesence of Experimentally Shocked Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.; Kayama, M.; Tajika, E.; Sekine, Y.; Sekine, T.; Nishido, H.; Kobayashi, T.

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a series of shock recovery experiments on single crystals of natural and synthetic quartz. In the presentation, we show the results of the variation of Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectral features with increasing shock pressure.

  18. Principles and application of shock-tubes and shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ried, R. C.; Clauss, H. G., Jr.

    1963-01-01

    The principles, theoretical flow equations, calculation techniques, limitations and practical performance characteristics of basic and high performance shock tubes and shock tunnels are presented. Selected operating curves are included.

  19. Dusty Termination Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, W.H.

    2004-09-15

    In astrophysical settings, termination shocks where strong stellar wind outflows interact with the surrounding environments tend to take place in dusty regions. Just to name a few, star formation regions, planetary nebulae, supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei are all good examples. Dynamics and evolution of the associated dust clouds could have important influences on the acceleration and composition of energetic particles resulting from the diffusive shock acceleration at the termination shocks. In this note we provide a brief review of previous work predating the recent detection of ACR Mg, Na, Si and S ions which might have originated from the Kuiper belt dust. Their compositional abundance might be diagnostic of the collisional history of the Kupier belt objects.

  20. TIMING OF SHOCK WAVES

    DOEpatents

    Tuck, J.L.

    1955-03-01

    This patent relates to means for ascertaining the instant of arrival of a shock wave in an exploslve charge and apparatus utilizing this means to coordinate the timing of two operations involving a short lnterval of time. A pair of spaced electrodes are inserted along the line of an explosive train with a voltage applied there-across which is insufficient to cause discharge. When it is desired to initiate operation of a device at the time the explosive shock wave reaches a particular point on the explosive line, the device having an inherent time delay, the electrodes are located ahead of the point such that the ionization of the area between the electrodes caused by the traveling explosive shock wave sends a signal to initiate operation of the device to cause it to operate at the proper time. The operated device may be photographic equipment consisting of an x-ray illuminating tube.

  1. Shock absorber servicing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepler, Jack L. (Inventor); Hill, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tool to assist in the servicing of a shock absorber wherein the shock absorber is constructed of a pair of aligned gas and liquid filled chambers. Each of the chambers is separated by a movable separator member. Maximum efficiency of the shock absorber is achieved in the locating of a precise volume of gas within the gas chamber and a precise volume of liquid within the liquid chamber. The servicing tool of this invention employs a rod which is to connect with the separator and by observation of the position of the rod with respect to the gauge body, the location of the separator is ascertained even though it is not directly observable.

  2. The Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.

    1992-11-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed.

  3. Minimum Energy Path to Membrane Pore Formation and Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Christina L.; Appelö, Daniel; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2011-04-01

    We combine dynamic self-consistent field theory with the string method to calculate the minimum energy path to membrane pore formation and rupture. In the regime where nucleation can occur on experimentally relevant time scales, the structure of the critical nucleus is between a solvophilic stalk and a locally thinned membrane. Classical nucleation theory fails to capture these molecular details and significantly overestimates the free energy barrier. Our results suggest that thermally nucleated rupture may be an important factor for the low rupture strains observed in lipid membranes.

  4. Rupture of all digital flexors following Colles' fracture.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Srinivasan; Basu, Indraneil; Kaba, Rahim; Pabari, Amit

    2012-10-01

    Flexor tendon rupture following a Colles' fracture is a rare complication with only a handful of cases reported since the initial report in 1932. We present a case in which all digital flexor tendons ruptured within 6 months of a Colles' fracture. Previous reported cases have demonstrated rupture of either the radial or ulnar digital flexors but this case is the first in which all the digital flexors have been involved. This case report highlights the clinical implications of this rare occurrence and stresses the importance of accurate reduction and thorough clinical examination following bony injuries to the wrist.

  5. Surviving Right Atrial Rupture From Blunt Thoracic Trauma After Pericardiectomy.

    PubMed

    Lajevardi, Sepehr Seyed; Galougahi, Keyvan Karimi; Nova, George; Marshman, David

    2016-02-01

    Right atrial rupture secondary to blunt trauma is exceedingly rare. We present a case report of blunt chest trauma and right atrial rupture in a patient with a background of pericardiectomy that were successfully managed surgically. Right atrial rupture must be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with blunt chest trauma. In patients with previous pericardiectomy, this injury may manifest with massive hemothorax, and insertion of a chest drain should be performed with extreme caution. In our experience, urgent exploratory thoracotomy and repair of the defect are the mainstays of acute management.

  6. Acute partial rupture of the common extensor tendon.

    PubMed

    Kachrimanis, G; Papadopoulou, O

    2010-06-01

    Rupture of the common extensor tendon is the most common acute tendon injury of the elbow. The authors describe a case of a patient with a clinical history of tendinopathy caused by functional overload of the common extensor tendon, treated also with infiltrations of steroids, and subsequent partial rupture of the tendon during sport activity. The diagnosis was made clinically and at ultrasound (US) examination; US follow-up after some time showed the healing of the lesion. This case confirms that injections of steroids may be a contributory cause of tendon rupture, and emphasizes the sensitivity and specificity of US in the study of pathologies of the elbow tendons.

  7. Nuclear envelope rupture drives genome instability in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sanghee; Quinton, Ryan J.; Ganem, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear envelope, composed of two lipid bilayers and numerous accessory proteins, has evolved to house the genetic material of all eukaryotic cells. In so doing, the nuclear envelope provides a physical barrier between chromosomes and the cytoplasm. Once believed to be highly stable, recent studies demonstrate that the nuclear envelope is prone to rupture. These rupture events expose chromosomal DNA to the cytoplasmic environment and have the capacity to promote DNA damage. Thus nuclear rupture may be an unappreciated mechanism of mutagenesis. PMID:27799497

  8. Bilateral simultaneous infrapatellar tendon ruptures: a case study.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J T; Lester, M N

    1994-09-01

    This case study reports on a patient with a diagnosis of bilateral patellar tendon ruptures. Bilateral ruptures of the infrapatellar tendons are rare occurrences; approximately 20 cases have been reported in the medical literature. Much of the medical literature concentrates on surgical repair, immediate postoperative follow-up, and final outcome. There is a void in the literature concerning the rehabilitative process of these patients. The subject of this study is a 26-year-old male former collegiate athlete who suffered simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures while jumping. A rehabilitation model is provided that may assist others treating patients with similar conditions.

  9. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    2 surface rupturing events in the latest Quaternary and a shortening rate of 0.3 to 1.3 mm/yr. The active structures described above can account for 15 to 50% of India-Asia convergence, with up to ~20% of the shortening occurring on structures within the orogenic belt. Seismicity in the NW Himalaya is also broadly distributed but tends to concentrate in several places (e.g., the Indus-Kohistan and Hazara Lower seismic zones). Like in the central Himalaya, the zones of seismicity in the NW Himalaya may locate regions where interseismic strain accumulates, possibly in the middle crust along thrust ramps, and is released during large (>Mw 7.5) events. These relatively infrequent earthquakes likely activate portions (all?) of the plate boundary detachment fault and/or the within-plate fault systems. It may be possible for the region to generate earthquakes as large as >Mw 8.5, taking into account a reasonable average slip value and maximum possible rupture area. Recognition of internal surface-rupturing reverse faults indicates probabilistic models for seismic hazards in the NW Himalaya ought to account for great earthquakes on the Main Himalayan thrust (the basal detachment), moderate earthquakes on upper plate faults, and potentially events in the down-going Indian plate.

  10. Surface Rupture of the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan, Earthquake and its Active Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, H.; Nakata, T.; Tsutsumi, H.; Kondo, H.; Sugito, N.; Awata, Y.; Akhtar, S. S.; Majid, A.; Khattak, W.; Awan, A. A.; Yeats, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    The 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of Mw 7.6 struck the westernmost area of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, resulting in the worst earthquake disaster ever recorded along the frontal Himalaya. Although none of the historical Himalayan earthquakes is reported to have produced primary surface rupture, our field mapping reveals that the 2005 earthquake accompanied a NW-trending ~70-km-long distinctive surface rupture with maximum and mean vertical separations of ~7 m and ~3 m, respectively. Typical surface expression of faulting is a NE-side-up fault scarp or warp with surface shortening features at its base and tension cracks on its crest. Bulging and back-tilting are also observed on the upthrown side at many places. The surface rupture is subdivided into three geometrical segments separated by small steps. Location of the hypocenter suggests that the rupture was initiated at a deep portion of the northern-central segment boundary and bilaterally propagated to eventually break three segments. Mapped surface rupture trace clearly shows that neither the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) nor the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) is responsible for the earthquake, but a geomorphologically-evident active fault within the Sub-Himalaya, the Balakot-Garhi fault, is a causative fault, although a part of the Balakot-Garhi fault appears to coincide with the surface trace of the MBT. Cumulative vertical separation of the most extensively recognized fluvial terrace surface is 7-8 times larger than the 2005 separation, implying occurrence of 7-8 similar earthquakes after the surface abandonment. If this deeply-incised fill surface is related to sediment yield increase due to the last major glaciation around 20 ka, the rupture interval and vertical slip rate of the Balakot-Garhi fault are estimated to be on the order of ~3000 years and ~1 mm/yr, respectively. By using the seismologically determined fault dip of ~30 degrees, horizontal shortening rate across the fault is then

  11. Implementing the effect of the rupture directivity on PSHA maps: Application to the Marmara Region (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Andre; Spagnuolo, Elena; Akinci, Aybige; Pucci, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In the present study we attempted to improve the seismic hazard assessment taking into account possible sources of epistemic uncertainty and the azimuthal variability of the ground motions which, at a particular site, is significantly influenced by the rupture mechanism and the rupture direction relative to the site. As a study area we selected Marmara Region (Turkey), especially the city of Istanbul which is characterized by one of the highest levels of seismic risk in Europe and the Mediterranean region. The seismic hazard in the city is mainly associated with two active fault segments which are located at about 20-30 km south of Istanbul. In this perspective first we proposed a methodology to incorporate this new information such as nucleation point in a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) framework. Secondly we introduced information about those fault segments by focusing on the fault rupture characteristics which affect the azimuthal variations of the ground motion spatial distribution i.e. source directivity effect and its influence on the probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). An analytical model developed by Spudich and Chiou (2008) is used as a corrective factor that modifies the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA, Power et al. 2008) ground motion predictive equations (GMPEs) introducing rupture related parameters that generally lump together into the term directivity effect. We used the GMPEs as derived by the Abrahamson and Silva (2008) and the Boore and Atkinson (2008); our results are given in terms of 10% probability of exceedance of PSHA (at several periods from 0.5 s to 10 s) in 50 years on rock site condition; the correction for directivity introduces a significant contribution to the percentage ratio between the seismic hazards computed using the directivity model respect to the seismic hazard standard practice. In particular, we benefited the dynamic simulation from a previous study (Aochi & Utrich, 2015) aimed at evaluating the

  12. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  13. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  14. [Corticosteroids and septic shock].

    PubMed

    Bouletreau, P; Petit, P; Latarjet, J

    1976-01-01

    According to the data in the literature, the authors attempted to sum-up present attitudes on the value of corticoids in the treatment of septic shock. If their cardiovascular effects after a period of enthusiasm, are presently rather controversial, their cellular and sub-cellular actions, on the lysosomal membranes, capillary permeability and perhaps the intimate mechanisms of cellular oxygenation seem to be more real. However, the contra-indications which persist in the results of clinical works have resulted in the fact that the exact place of cortico-steroids in the therapeutic arsenal of septic shock still remains to be specified.

  15. Uncommon cause of life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage in a healthy young hispanic patient: Splenic artery aneurysm rupture

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Jiménez, Luis A.; González-Márquez, Amy Lee; Negrón-García, Luis; Rodríguez-Cruz, Edwin; Cáceres-Perkins, William; Santiago-Casiano, Mónica; Rosas, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms (SAA) are a rare life threatening clinical diagnosis. They may either be due to congenital defects or acquired conditions such as secondary to atherosclerosis formation. SAA are important to recognize and to consider in acute settings. Patients who present with ruptured or symptomatic SAA, are exposed to a life-threatening condition with hemodynamic collapse and high mortality. We present a case of a 19-year-old woman without history of any systemic illness, who was brought to the urgency room complaining of diffuse abdominal pain of 24 hours of evolution. Abdominopelvic CT-scan revealed the presence of a large left retroperitoneal space hematoma causing severe mass effect upon the adjacent celiac trunk, splenic artery and vein, pancreas, spleen and left kidney. An abdominal arteriogram was performed revealing an aneurysm of the middle branch of the splenic artery with active leakage. The defect was embolized with complete resolution of the retroperitoneal bleeding. We would like to draw attention to the importance of early recognition of SAA rupture in women presenting with hypovolemic shock and abdominal pain. Rupture is the most fatal clinical presentation of a SAA. Patients are exposed to a high mortality rate of 70% to 90%. The favored method of treatment at present of this rare entity is embolization. Future directions must continue to focus on risk factors for rapid growth and further delineation of SAA natural history, which could ultimately identify patients who benefit most from early prophylactic intervention. Physicians should be aware of this rare entity, especially when patients present to the emergency department complaining of severe epigastric pain with associated hypovolemic shock more concerning in the female population. PMID:26035985

  16. [Premature rupture of membranes: pathophysiology of neurological impact].

    PubMed

    Baud, O; Fontaine, R H; Olivier, P; Maury, L; El Moussawi, F; Bauvin, I; Arsac, M; Hovhannisyan, S; Farnoux, C; Aujard, Y

    2007-09-01

    The premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is responsible for 30 % of the premature births because of a high risk of associated chorioamnionitis. PROM and the perinatal infection are recognized as 2 of the main risk factors of periventricular leukomalacia and white matter disease in very preterm neonates. Inflammation associated with PROM is likely to induce neuronal or glial cell death at a developmental stage of great vulnerability for the developing brain. Several mechanisms (release of cytokines, accumulation of free radicals, excitotoxicity, apoptosis...) account for this deleterious effect. The decision to actively extract a fetus subjected to a fetal inflammatory response syndrome should take account of the risks of a proved intrauterine infection for both the mother and the fetus and the risks for the neonate related to a very preterm birth per se. A reasonable attitude seems not to maintain a fetus in an undoubtful septic context in utero if a preterm birth in the very short term appears unevitable. Practically, no consensus gives a recommendation between aggressive or conservative management in case of PROM within 30 and 34 weeks'gestation. Expectant management seems to be indicated before 28 weeks'gestation and intentional delivery could be recommended beyond 34 weeks'gestation due to increased maternal risks compared to relatively low incidence of the complications of prematurity at this term.

  17. Impact-shocked zircons: Discovery of shock-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of shock metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, B. F.; Betterton, W. J.; Krogh, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Textural effects specifically characteristic of shock metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to shock metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows scanning electron microscope (SEM) visualization of PDF and other probable shock-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact shock environments. These textural features in shocked zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of shock that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the U-Pb isotopic system.

  18. Interplanetary shocks and foreshocks observed by STEREO during 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2016-02-01

    Interplanetary shocks in the heliosphere modify the solar wind through which they pass. In particular, shocks play an important role in particle acceleration. During the extended solar minimum (2007-2010) STEREO observed 65 forward shocks driven by stream interactions (SI), with magnetosonic Mach numbers Mms ≈ 1.1-4.0 and shock normal angles θBN ~ 20-87°. We analyze the waves associated with these shocks and find that the region upstream can be permeated by whistler waves (f ~ 1 Hz) and/or ultra low frequency (ULF) waves (f ~ 10-2-10-1 Hz). While whistlers appear to be generated at the shock, the origin of ULF waves is most probably associated with local kinetic ion instabilities. We find that when the Mach number (Mms) is low and the shock is quasi-perpendicular (θBN > 45°) whistler waves remain close to the shock. As Mms increases, the shock profile changes and can develop a foot and overshoot associated with ion reflection and gyration. Whistler precursors can be superposed on the foot region, so that some quasi-perpendicular shocks have characteristics of both subcritical and supercritical shocks. When the shock is quasi-parallel (θBN < 45°) a large foreshock with suprathermal ions and waves can form. Upstream, there are whistler trains at higher frequencies whose characteristics can be slightly modified probably by reflected and/or leaked ions and by almost circularly polarized waves at lower frequencies that may be locally generated by ion instabilities. In contrast with planetary bow shocks, most of the upstream waves studied here are mainly transverse and no steepening occurs. Some quasi-perpendicular shocks (45° < θBN < 60°) are preceded by ULF waves and ion foreshocks. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves in the sheath of quasi-perpendicular shocks. We compare SI-driven shock properties with those of shocks generated by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). During the same years

  19. Flow behind concave shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Curved shock theory is introduced and applied to calculate the flow behind concave shock waves. For sonic conditions, three characterizing types of flow are identified, based on the orientation of the sonic line, and it is shown that, depending on the ratio of shock curvatures, a continuously curving shock can exist with Type III flow, where the sonic line intercepts the reflected characteristics from the shock, thus preventing the formation of a reflected shock. The necessary shock curvature ratio for a Type III sonic point does not exist for a hyperbolic shock so that it will revert to Mach reflection for all Mach numbers. A demonstration is provided, by CFD calculations, at Mach 1.2 and 3.

  20. Shock waves data for minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    Shock compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of shock wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. Shock wave equation of state, shock-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and shock temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the shock velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the shock velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the shock wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.

  1. Tandem shock wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loske, Achim M.; Prieto, Fernando E.; Fernández, Francisco; van Cauwelaert, Javier

    2002-11-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater shock waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture mainly due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each shock wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging secondary shock waves and microjets. Bubble collapse can be intensified by sending a second shock wave a few hundred microseconds after the first. A novel method of generating two piezoelectrically generated shock waves with an adjustable time delay between 50 and 950 µs is described and tested. The objective is to enhance cavitation-induced damage to kidney stones during ESWL in order to reduce treatment time. In vitro kidney stone model fragmentation efficiency and pressure measurements were compared with those for a standard ESWL system. Results indicate that fragmentation efficiency was significantly enhanced at a shock wave delay of about 400 and 250 µs using rectangular and spherical stone phantoms, respectively. The system presented here could be installed in clinical devices at relatively low cost, without the need for a second shock wave generator.

  2. Design procedure prevents PE pipe rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Grigory, S.C.

    1995-12-01

    A rupture prevention design procedure for plastic gas distribution pipe is nearing completion at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI). Given the pipe size, polyethylene (PE) resin, and minimum operating temperature, the maximum safe operating pressure can be determined for which rapid crack propagation (RCP) cannot occur. A computer program, called PFRAC, has been developed for this purpose and uses Charpy energy as the measurement of fracture toughness of PE. Present efforts, however, involve replacing Charpy energy with a dynamic toughness measurement obtained from the Small Scale Steady State (S4) test that is required in ISO 4437. The program is being financed by the Gas Research Institute, Chicago. RCP events in PE pipe have been rare primarily because operating pressures are low and pipe diameters are small in most gas distribution systems. However, controlled RCP experiments in the US and other countries clearly demonstrate that as the gas industry moves toward higher line pressures and larger diameters, the likelihood of an RCP event increases. Recognizing this, ISO includes a requirement for RCP in its ISO 4437 standard for pipe greater than 10 inches in diameter or operating pressures greater than 58 psig. The S4 test may be used on all pipe diameters. A full scale test or the S4 test can be used on pipe greater than 10 inches diameter.

  3. Co-existence of a rare dyspnea with pericardial diaphragmatic rupture and pericardial rupture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Öz, Necdet; Kargı, Ahmet Bülent; Zeybek, Arife

    2015-06-01

    Pericardial-diaphragmatic rupture is a rare condition which occurs after blunt trauma and involves the herniation of abdominal organs into the pericardium. A 77-year-old female patient presenting with complaints of palpitation and difficulty in breathing was admitted to the emergency room. Left lateral thoracotomy revealed the herniation of abdominal organs into the thorax. A pericardial-diaphragmatic rupture and a pericardial rupture were found to co-exist. The diaphragm and the pericardium were repaired primarily. The case is presented here because herniation of abdominal organs into the pleural cavity through the pericardium is a rare condition.

  4. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  5. Maskelynite: Formation by Explosive Shock.

    PubMed

    Milton, D J; de Carli, P S

    1963-05-10

    When high pressure (250 to 300 kilobars) was applied suddenly (shock-loading) to gabbro, the plagioclase was transformed to a noncrystalline phase (maskelynite) by a solid-state reaction at a low temperature, while the proxene remained crystalline. The shock-loaded gabbro resembles meteorites of the shergottite class; this suggests that the latter formed as a result of shock. The shock-loading of gabbro at 600 to 800 kilobars raised the temperature above the melting range of the plagioclase.

  6. Maskelynite: Formation by explosive shock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, D.J.; De Carli, P. S.

    1963-01-01

    When high pressure (250 to 300 kilobars) was applied suddenly (shock-loading) to gabbro, the plagioclase was transformed to a noncrystalline phase (maskelynite) by a solid-state reaction at a low temperature, while the proxene remained crystalline. The shock-loaded gabbro resembles meteorites of the shergottite class; this suggests that the latter formed as a result of shock. The shock-loading of gabbro at 600 to 800 kilobars raised the temperature above the melting range of the plagioclase.

  7. The roles of myeloperoxidase in coronary artery disease and its potential implication in plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Teng, Nathaniel; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Talib, Jihan; Rashid, Imran; Lau, Antony K; Stocker, Roland

    2017-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). Acute complications of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction, are caused by the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps. Several lines of evidence mechanistically link the heme peroxidase myeloperoxidase (MPO), inflammation as well as acute and chronic manifestations of atherosclerosis. MPO and MPO-derived oxidants have been shown to contribute to the formation of foam cells, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis, the activation of latent matrix metalloproteinases, and the expression of tissue factor that can promote the development of vulnerable plaque. As such, detection, quantification and imaging of MPO mass and activity have become useful in cardiac risk stratification, both for disease assessment and in the identification of patients at risk of plaque rupture. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of MPO in CAD with a focus on its possible roles in plaque rupture and recent advances to quantify and image MPO in plasma and atherosclerotic plaques.

  8. Modelling ground rupture due to groundwater withdrawal: applications to test cases in China and Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, A.; Teatini, P.; Janna, C.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Ye, S.; Carreón-Freyre, D.

    2015-11-01

    The stress variation induced by aquifer overdraft in sedimentary basins with shallow bedrock may cause rupture in the form of pre-existing fault activation or earth fissure generation. The process is causing major detrimental effects on a many areas in China and Mexico. Ruptures yield discontinuity in both displacement and stress field that classic continuous finite element (FE) models cannot address. Interface finite elements (IE), typically used in contact mechanics, may be of great help and are implemented herein to simulate the fault geomechanical behaviour. Two main approaches, i.e. Penalty and Lagrangian, are developed to enforce the contact condition on the element interface. The incorporation of IE incorporation into a three-dimensional (3-D) FE geomechanical simulator shows that the Lagrangian approach is numerically more robust and stable than the Penalty, thus providing more reliable solutions. Furthermore, the use of a Newton-Raphson scheme to deal with the non-linear elasto-plastic fault behaviour allows for quadratic convergence. The FE - IE model is applied to investigate the likely ground rupture in realistic 3-D geologic settings. The case studies are representative of the City of Wuxi in the Jiangsu Province (China), and of the City of Queretaro, Mexico, where significant land subsidence has been accompanied by the generation of several earth fissures jeopardizing the stability and integrity of the overland structures and infrastructure.

  9. Shear rupture of a directionally solidified eutectic gamma/gamma prime - alpha (Mo) alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1978-01-01

    Directionally solidified Mo alloys are evaluated to determine the shear rupture strength and to possibly improve it by microstructural and heat treatment variations. Bars of the alloy containing nominally 5.7% Al and 33.5% Mo by weight with balance Ni were directionally solidified at rates between 10 and 100 mm per hour in furnaces with thermal gradients at the liquid-solid interface of 250 or 100 C per cm. A limited number of longitudinal shear rupture tests were conducted at 760 C and 207 MPa in the as - solidified and in several heat treated conditions. It is shown that shear rupture failures are partly transgranular and that resistance to failure is prompted by good fiber alignment and a matrix structure consisting mainly of gamma prime. Well aligned as - solidified specimens sustained the shear stress for an average of 81 hours. A simulated coating heat treatment appeared to increase the transformation of gamma to gamma prime and raised the average shear life of aligned specimens to 111 hours. However, heat treatments at 1245 C and especially at 1190 C appeared to be detrimental by causing partial solutioning of the gamma prime, and reducing lives to 47 and 10 hours, respectively.

  10. Neonatal outcome after prolonged rupture of the membranes starting in the second trimester.

    PubMed Central

    Blott, M; Greenough, A

    1988-01-01

    The neonatal outcomes of 30 pregnancies that were complicated by premature and prolonged rupture of the membranes that had started in the second trimester of pregnancy, were reviewed. The neonatal mortality was 11 (36%), the main cause of death being pulmonary hypoplasia. Two infants died of sepsis, but these were the only proved episodes of maternal or fetal infection. Of the survivors, 27% developed compressive limb abnormalities, all of which responded to passive physiotherapy. Pulmonary hypoplasia was significantly associated with earlier onset of rupture of the membranes, and the absence of fetal breathing movements. Compressive limb abnormalities were significantly associated with longer periods of oligohydramnios. We conclude that premature rupture of the membranes, even with onset in the second trimester, may be associated with a favourable outcome and this may be predicted by the persistence of fetal breathing movements. We therefore, recommend expectant management of such pregnancies, but suggest elective delivery at 34 weeks to limit fetal exposure to uterine compression and minimise the risks of prematurity. PMID:3196069

  11. Neonatal outcome after prolonged rupture of the membranes starting in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Blott, M; Greenough, A

    1988-10-01

    The neonatal outcomes of 30 pregnancies that were complicated by premature and prolonged rupture of the membranes that had started in the second trimester of pregnancy, were reviewed. The neonatal mortality was 11 (36%), the main cause of death being pulmonary hypoplasia. Two infants died of sepsis, but these were the only proved episodes of maternal or fetal infection. Of the survivors, 27% developed compressive limb abnormalities, all of which responded to passive physiotherapy. Pulmonary hypoplasia was significantly associated with earlier onset of rupture of the membranes, and the absence of fetal breathing movements. Compressive limb abnormalities were significantly associated with longer periods of oligohydramnios. We conclude that premature rupture of the membranes, even with onset in the second trimester, may be associated with a favourable outcome and this may be predicted by the persistence of fetal breathing movements. We therefore, recommend expectant management of such pregnancies, but suggest elective delivery at 34 weeks to limit fetal exposure to uterine compression and minimise the risks of prematurity.

  12. [The diagnosis of traumatic rupture of the aorta. 36 cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Motin, J; Latarjet, J; Cognet, J B; Clermont, C; Mazoyer, B; Tran, M V; Juillard, F; Neidhardt, J H

    1980-10-18

    Thirty six cases of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta (TRA) were diagnosed during the hours following the accident responsible. Rupture was situated at the aortic isthmus in 32 cases, the ascending aortic in 2 cases, the arch of the aorta in 1 case and the descending sub-isthmic aorta in 1 case. Ten patients had no rib fractures. In 16 patients not undergoing surgery before 20th hour after the trauma, 10 died of secondary rupture. The course of a TRA is thus unpredictable and it is of fundamental importance to make the diagnosis and undertake appropriate surgical treatment immediately. The essential clinical sign is a difference in blood pressure between the upper and lower limbs (6 6%). Radiological signs suggestive of TRA are, in a plain PA chest film : widening of the mediastinum (92 %), poor visibility of the knuckle of the aorta (89 %), left haemothorax (67 %), deviation of the trachea to the right (55 %) and lowering of the left main bronchus (47 %). The slightest suspicion of a TRA should lead to aortic angiography preferably via an arterial approach (humeral or femoral), or intravenously. Surgical treatment should not be delayed.

  13. An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Asymmetric Earthquake Rupture Propagation Caused by Off-Fault Fracture Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, H.; Sammis, C. G.; Rosakis, A.

    2010-12-01

    The interaction between a dynamic mode II fracture on a fault plane and off-fault damage has been studied experimentally using high-speed photography and theoretically using finite element numerical simulations. In the experimental studies, fracture damage was created in photoelastic Homalite plates by thermal shock in liquid nitrogen and rupture velocities were measured by imaging fringes at the tips. Two cases were studied: an interface between damaged and undamaged Homalite plates, and an interface between damaged Homalite and undamaged polycarbonate plates. Propagation on the interface between damaged and undamaged Homalite is asymmetric. A ruptures propagating in the direction for which the compressional lobe of its crack-tip stress field is in the damage (which we term the ‘C’ direction) is unaffected by the damage. In the opposite ‘T’ direction, the rupture velocity is significantly slower than the velocity in undamaged plates at the same load. Specifically, transitions to supershear observed using undamaged plates are not observed in the ‘T’ direction. Propagation on the interface between damaged Homalite and undamaged polycarbonate exhibits the same asymmetry, even though the elastically “favored” ‘+’ direction coincides with the ‘T’ direction in this case indicating that the effect of damage is stronger than the effect of elastic asymmetry. This asymmetric propagation was also simulated numerically by incorporating the micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis (PAGEOPH, 1990) into the ABAQUS dynamic finite element code. The quasi-static Ashby/Sammis formulation has been improved to include modern concepts of dynamic fracture mechanics, which become important at the high loading rates in the process zone of a propagating rupture.

  14. Rupture Propagation of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, Earthquake Affected by Poroelastic Stress Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Wang, W.; Xiao, J.

    2015-12-01

    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake occurred on the curved Hoshab fault. This fault connects with the north-south trending Chaman strike-slip fault to northeast, and with the west-east trending Makran thrust fault system to southwest. Teleseismic waveform inversion, incorporated with coseismic ground surface deformation data, show that the rupture of this earthquake nucleated around northeast segment of the fault, and then propagated southwestward along the northwest dipping Hoshab fault about 200 km, with the maximum coseismic displacement, featured mainly by purely left-lateral strike-slip motion, about 10 meters. In context of the India-Asia collision frame, associating with the fault geometry around this region, the rupture propagation of this earthquake seems to not follow an optimal path along the fault segment, because after nucleation of this event the Hoshab fault on the southwest of hypocenter of this earthquake is clamped by elastic stress change. Here, we build a three-dimensional finite-element model to explore the evolution of both stress and pore-pressure during the rupturing process of this earthquake. In the model, the crustal deformation is treated as undrained poroelastic media as described by Biot's theory, and the instantaneous rupture process is specified with split-node technique. By testing a reasonable range of parameters, including the coefficient of friction, the undrained Poisson's ratio, the permeability of the fault zone and the bulk crust, numerical results have shown that after the nucleation of rupture of this earthquake around the northeast of the Hoshab fault, the positive change of normal stress (clamping the fault) on the fault plane is greatly reduced by the instantaneous increase of pore pressure (unclamping the fault). This process could result in the change of Coulomb failure stress resolved on the Hoshab fault to be hastened, explaining the possible mechanism for southwestward propagation of rupture of the Mw7

  15. Calculation of earthquake rupture histories using a hybrid global search algorithm: Application to the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Liu, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented for the simultaneous calculation of slip amplitudes and rupture times for a finite fault using a hybrid global search algorithm. The method we use combines simulated annealing with the downhill simplex method to produce a more efficient search algorithm then either of the two constituent parts. This formulation has advantages over traditional iterative or linearized approaches to the problem because it is able to escape local minima in its search through model space for the global optimum. We apply this global search method to the calculation of the rupture history for the Landers, California, earthquake. The rupture is modeled using three separate finite-fault planes to represent the three main fault segments that failed during this earthquake. Both the slip amplitude and the time of slip are calculated for a grid work of subfaults. The data used consist of digital, teleseismic P and SH body waves. Long-period, broadband, and short-period records are utilized to obtain a wideband characterization of the source. The results of the global search inversion are compared with a more traditional linear-least-squares inversion for only slip amplitudes. We use a multi-time-window linear analysis to relax the constraints on rupture time and rise time in the least-squares inversion. Both inversions produce similar slip distributions, although the linear-least-squares solution has a 10% larger moment (7.3 ?? 1026 dyne-cm compared with 6.6 ?? 1026 dyne-cm). Both inversions fit the data equally well and point out the importance of (1) using a parameterization with sufficient spatial and temporal flexibility to encompass likely complexities in the rupture process, (2) including suitable physically based constraints on the inversion to reduce instabilities in the solution, and (3) focusing on those robust rupture characteristics that rise above the details of the parameterization and data set.

  16. An unusual case of cardiac tamponade: ruptured subaortic diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Arash; Lee, Ben; Ivascu, Natalia; Webber, Geoffrey; Paul, Subroto

    2010-05-01

    Cardiac diverticula are rare congenital anomalies found as outpouchings from various chambers of the heart. We present a case of a diverticulum arising from the membranous septum with free rupture into the pericardial space and tamponade.

  17. Consequences of a tight squeeze: Nuclear envelope rupture and repair.

    PubMed

    Isermann, Philipp; Lammerding, Jan

    2017-03-13

    Cell migration through tight spaces can induce substantial deformations of the nucleus and cause nuclear envelope (NE) rupture, resulting in uncontrolled exchange of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. These events can cause DNA damage and, in severe cases, nuclear fragmentation, challenging the integrity of the genomic material. Cells overcome NE ruptures during interphase by repairing the NE using components of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Paralleling the molecular mechanism employed during NE reformation in late mitosis, ESCRT-III subunits and the associated AAA-ATPase VPS4B are recruited to NE rupture sites and help restore NE integrity. While these findings are common to many cell types, they are particularly relevant in the context of cancer metastasis, where nuclear deformation and rupture could drive genomic instability in invading cells and further promote cancer progression. At the same time, inhibiting NE repair may offer new therapeutic approaches to specifically target invasive cancer cells.

  18. Uroperitoneum attributable to ruptured urachus in a yearling bull.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G M; Zamos, D T; Mueller, P O

    1992-02-15

    Ruptured urachus was found to result in uroperitoneum in a yearling Beefmaster bull. The uroperitoneum was initially believed to be attributable to ruptured bladder secondary to urolithiasis; however, catheter decompression of the bladder through an ischiatic urethrotomy did not resolve the uroperitoneum. The persistent urachus was diagnosed and removed through caudal right flank laparotomy with the bull standing. The urachus was attached to the umbilicus, communicated with the lumen of the bladder, and had a mucosal lining. Ruptured urachus is an unusual cause of uroperitoneum, but can cause clinical signs identical to those of ruptured bladder. Persistent urachus is a congenital abnormality in many species, but may be hereditary in Beefmaster cattle. In addition, the bull in this report developed hyperkalemia, which is considered an unusual finding in cattle with uroperitoneum.

  19. Cocaine Use and Splenic Rupture: A Rare Yet Serious Association

    PubMed Central

    Karthik, Nishrutha; Gnanapandithan, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is frequent in patients visiting the emergency department. The knowledge of the cardiovascular complications of cocaine is excellent among physicians. However the awareness regarding its abdominal complications, the most important of which include gastroduodenal perforation, bowel ischemia and splenic rupture is less adequate. We report a 58-year-old with cocaine use who presents with upper abdominal pain and a rapidly worsening clinical status. He was found to have atraumatic splenic rupture causing a hemoperitoneum that was managed by intervention radiology guided splenic artery embolization. Splenic hemorrhage and rupture need timely recognition, as they are difficult to diagnose clinically and can be potentially fatal. In the encounter of patients with cocaine use who present with chest or upper abdominal pain, clinicians should consider imaging to look for splenic rupture as it is often masked or overlooked due to the complicated clinical picture. PMID:27777711

  20. Spontaneous rupture of thinning liquid films with Plateau borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Anthony; Brush, Lucien; Davis, Stephen

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous film rupture from van der Waals instability is investigated in 2D. A thin liquid film between adjacent bubbles in a foam has finite length, curved boundaries (Plateau borders), and a drainage flow from capillary suction that causes thinning. A full linear stability analysis of this thinning film shows that rupture occurs once the film has thinned to tens of nanometers. Whereas, in an unbounded, quiescent, flat free film, rupture occurs when the thickness is hundreds of nanometers. Finite length, Plateau borders and flow are all found to contribute to the stabilization. The drainage flow leads to several distinct qualitative features as well. In particular, unstable disturbances are advected by the flow to the edges of the thin film. As a result, the edges of the film close to the Plateau borders are more susceptible to rupture that the center of the film.

  1. Multi-Canister overpack necessity of the rupture disk

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-11-03

    The Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rupture disk precludes the MCO from pressurization above the design limit during transport from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility and prior to connection of the CVD process piping. Removal of the rupture disk from the MCO design would: (a) result in unacceptable dose consequences in the event a thermal runaway accident occurred; (b) increase residual risk; and (c) remove a degree of specificity from the dose calculations. The potential cost savings of removing the rupture disk from the MCO design is offset by the cost of design modifications, changes to hazard analyses and safety analyses, and changes to existing documentation. Retaining the rupture disk mitigates the consequences of MCO overpressurization, and considering the overall economic impacts to the SNF Project, is the most cost effective approach.

  2. Plantar fascia rupture in a professional soccer player.

    PubMed

    Suzue, Naoto; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Kato, Kenji; Takao, Shoichiro; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoshitsugu; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old male professional soccer player who presented with symptoms of plantar fasciitis. His symptoms occurred with no remarkable triggers and gradually worsened despite conservative treatments including taping, use of insoles, and physical therapy. Local corticosteroid injection was given twice as a further intervention, but his plantar fascia partially ruptured 49 days after the second injection. He was treated conservatively with platelet-rich plasma, and magnetic resonance imaging showed regenerative change of the ruptured fascia. Five months after the rupture, he returned to his original level of training. If professional athletes find it difficult to refrain from athletic activity, as in the present case, the risk of rupture due to corticosteroid injection should not be overlooked.

  3. [Subcapsular hematoma and rupture of the liver graft].

    PubMed

    Görög, Dénes; Fehérvári, Imre; Doros, Attila; Nemes, Balázs; Máthé, Zoltán; Kóbori, László; Járay, Jeno

    2008-08-01

    Subcapsular hematoma and/or rupture of the graft is uncommon but serious complication of liver transplantation. It may develop spontaneously or following parenchymal injuries or percutaneous transhepatic invasive procedures. This report describes three cases of subcapsular hematoma and/or rupture of the graft with different courses among 350 liver transplantations. In the first case, the patient died due to graft rupture caused by a pseudoaneurysm after biopsy. In the second case, a small injury of the donor liver resulted in a deep rupture, which required partial resection of the graft. The patient died in sepsis later. The third patient presented with a large subcapsular haematoma during transplantation, which was successfully treated. The authors' strategies developed intraoperatively for the management of hematomas. These involve opening and removing of the haematoma, haemostasis with Argon coagulation, which resulted in an adherent Glisson's capsule to the parenchyma and covering with collagen fleece coated with fibrinogen and thrombin.

  4. Pancreatic rupture in four cats with high-rise syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liehmann, Lea M; Dörner, Judith; Hittmair, Katharina M; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Reifinger, Martin; Dupré, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic trauma and rupture are rare after feline high-rise syndrome; however, should it happen, pancreatic enzymes will leak into the abdominal cavity and may cause pancreatic autodigestion and fatty tissue saponification. If not diagnosed and treated, it can ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and death. In this case series, 700 records of high-rise syndrome cats that presented between April 2001 and May 2006 were analysed, and four cats with pancreatic rupture were identified. Clinical signs, diagnosis using ultrasonography and lipase activity in blood and abdominal effusion, and treatment modalities are reported. Three cats underwent surgical abdominal exploration, one cat was euthanased. Rupture of the left pancreatic limb was confirmed in all cases. Two of the operated cats survived to date. High-rise syndrome can lead to abdominal trauma, including pancreatic rupture. A prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment should be considered.

  5. Spontaneous Posterior Uterine Rupture in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Marcela C.; Waltner-Toews, Rebecca; Goodnight, William

    2015-01-01

    Background The maternal and fetal risks of uterine distension in rapidly progressive twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in the setting of prior uterine scar are poorly characterized. Case We present the case of a 42-year-old woman, G4P1201, at 21 weeks gestation with stage-1 TTTS who developed a spontaneous posterior uterine rupture necessitating emergent laparotomy and delivery of previable fetuses, possibly due to prior uterine scar from a displaced intrauterine device. Conclusion TTTS may be a risk factor for uterine rupture, including uterine rupture in atypical anatomic locations. Prior unrecognized uterine scars, including perforations, may magnify the risk for atypical uterine rupture in the setting of excessive uterine distension. PMID:26929874

  6. A ruptured cerebral mycotic aneurysm caused by Abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Sung; Shang, Shih-Ta; Lin, Jung-Chung; Chiu, Chun-Hsiang; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2010-02-01

    We describe a case of ruptured cerebral mycotic aneurysm caused by Abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis in a previously healthy man. The patient underwent craniotomy with clipping of aneurysm and received antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks and survived.

  7. Rupture history of 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake inferred from near-fault strong motion data and its impact to the practice of ground strong motion prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chen; Archuleta, Ralph J.; Twardzik, Cedric

    2015-04-01

    The spatiotemporal rupture history of the 2014 South Napa earthquake is constrained using near-fault strong motion records. An aggressive source parameterization with 1372 subfaults is adopted to match the signals in the transverse components up to 4 Hz. The result reveals that the rupture of the Napa earthquake initiated at a depth of 9.84 km and propagated mainly to north-northwest (NNW) and updip on a 13 km long fault patch. A gradual increase in average rise time when the rupture propagates to shallower depth is observed. However, it is the rupture of a small (Mw 4.9), isolated, and high stress drop fault patch that excited the largest ground acceleration at stations south of the epicenter. Such fine-scale rupture heterogeneity shall be considered during seismic hazard analysis.

  8. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdic, P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  9. Culture Shock and Anthropological Fieldwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, David Read

    The document reviews literature on the effects of culture shock and suggests reasons that anthropological writings seldom deal with the subject. Definitions of culture shock begin with the writings of anthropologist Kalvero Oberg, who first introduced the term in the mid 1950s. Oberg wrote that culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that…

  10. Shock compression of nitrobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozu, Naoshi; Arai, Mitsuru; Tamura, Masamitsu; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Aoki, Katsutoshi; Yoshida, Masatake; Kondo, Ken-Ichi

    1999-06-01

    The Hugoniot (4 - 30 GPa) and the isotherm (1 - 7 GPa) of nitrobenzene have been investigated by shock and static compression experiments. Nitrobenzene has the most basic structure of nitro aromatic compounds, which are widely used as energetic materials, but nitrobenzene has been considered not to explode in spite of the fact its calculated heat of detonation is similar to TNT, about 1 kcal/g. Explosive plane-wave generators and diamond anvil cell were used for shock and static compression, respectively. The obtained Hugoniot consists of two linear lines, and the kink exists around 10 GPa. The upper line agrees well with the Hugoniot of detonation products calculated by KHT code, so it is expected that nitrobenzene detonates in that area. Nitrobenzene solidifies under 1 GPa of static compression, and the isotherm of solid nitrobenzene was obtained by X-ray diffraction technique. Comparing the Hugoniot and the isotherm, nitrobenzene is in liquid phase under experimented shock condition. From the expected phase diagram, shocked nitrobenzene seems to remain metastable liquid in solid phase region on that diagram.

  11. A Shocking New Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hydro Dynamics, Inc. received a technical helping hand from NASA that made their Hydrosonic Pump (HPump) a reality. Marshall engineers resolved a bearing problem in the rotor of the pump and recommended new bearings, housings and mounting hardware as a solution. The resulting HPump is able to heat liquids with greater energy efficiency using shock waves to generate heat.

  12. Shock Absorbing Helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a description of helmets used by football players that offer three times the shock-absorbing capacity of earlier types. An interior padding for the helmets, composed of Temper Foam, first used by NASA's Ames Research Center in the design of aircraft seats is described.

  13. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  14. Surgical treatment for ruptured dural arteriovenous fistula with large intracranial hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xianwang; Wang, Haifeng; Huang, Yi; Zhou, Shengjun; Gao, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The rupture of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a serious complication endangering the lives of patients. It is difficult to treat such ruptured DAVF with large intracranial hematoma since lacking of early diagnostic methods. Meanwhile, there was no consensus of how to surgically treat these patients in early stage. In this study, we tried to use 4D-CTA to diagnose DAVF and guide surgical treatment. Based on the result of 4D-CTA, we attempted to eliminate DAVF at the same time we removed hematoma. The result was encouraging. 7 patients with ruptured DAVF presented as large spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were included in this research between May, 2010 and August, 2012 in our hospital. 4D-CTA was performed in all cases. All results of 4D-CTA inspections were studied by both neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist. The therapeutic options were evaluated based on the clinical and angiographic results. All fistulas of seven patients were eliminated at the same time the hematoma being evacuated. 4D-CTA was sufficient for detecting and recognizing basic vessel angioarchitecture of DAVF to guide surgical treatment. Main arterial supplies, fistula location and CVDs found during surgery are consistent with the results 4D-CTA. All seven cases achieved completely fistula occlusion in operation without new neurological complication. We favor one stage surgical treatment for ruptured DAVF with large intracranial hemorrhage. 4D-CTA plays an important role in preoperative emergent inspection for its safety, rapidity and accuracy. However, it still needs further and larger investigations to optimize such treatment methods and to find out other potential risks. PMID:25664027

  15. Ruptured cerebral aneurysms: early and late prognosis with surgical treatment. A personal series, 1958-1980.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R H

    1983-07-01

    An account is given of a personal prospective series of 815 patients with the syndrome of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm. It concerns all aneurysm patients at risk, both surgical and nonsurgical cases, referred to the author during two main periods: 606 patients were treated during the earlier period of 15 years, and 209 in the subsequent 7 years. The early mortality rate was determined at 3 months, and all survivors in the first period were followed for a mean of 9 years. Only operation survivors were observed during the second period, for 3 years on average. Patients alive at 3 months were studied in detail with respect to disabilities, work capacity, and later mortality. Of the 815 patients, 613, or 75%, were operated on. Comment is made on the influence of certain factors on early mortality. These include age, hypertension, condition of the patient at admission, and number of hemorrhages. From the results of this series, it is suggested that the preferable time to operate is between the 2nd and the 4th day after a single SAH. In this period, the early mortality rate is in the order of 10%. In this subgroup, a high proportion of the patients were in Botterell Grades 1 and 2, with only a few being in Grade 3. Also evident from the results was the protective value of operation against further aneurysm rupture in the 501 patients surviving at 3 months. However, the propensity of a second aneurysm to rupture in patients with multiple aneurysms has resulted recently in a change of operation policy. The early mortality in the whole series and later mortality in patients surviving 3 months is shown in tabular and histogram form. From these, it is clear the majority of later deaths are from causes unrelated to aneurysm rupture.

  16. Complications of plantar fascia rupture associated with corticosteroid injection.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, J I; Beskin, J L

    1998-02-01

    From 1992 to 1995, 765 patients with a clinical diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were evaluated by one of the authors. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with plantar fascia rupture, and 44 of these ruptures were associated with corticosteroid injection. The authors injected 122 of the 765 patients, resulting in 12 of the 44 plantar fascia ruptures. Subjective and objective evaluations were conducted through chart and radiographic review. Thirty-nine of these patients were evaluated at an average 27-month follow-up. Thirty patients (68%) reported a sudden onset of tearing at the heel, and 14 (32%) had a gradual onset of symptoms. In most cases the original heel pain was relieved by rupture. However, these patients subsequently developed new problems including longitudinal arch strain, lateral and dorsal midfoot strain, lateral plantar nerve dysfunction, stress fracture, hammertoe deformity, swelling, and/or antalgia. All patients exhibited diminished tension of the plantar fascia upon examination by the stretch test. Comparison of calcaneal pitch angles in the affected and uninvolved foot showed a statistically significant difference of 3.7 degrees (P = 0.0001). Treatment included NSAIDs, rest or cross-training, stretching, orthotics, and boot-brace immobilization. At an average 27-month follow-up, 50% had good/excellent scores and 50% had fair/poor scores. Recovery time was varied. Ten feet were asymptomatic by 6 months post rupture, four feet by 12 months post rupture, and 26 feet remained symptomatic 1 year post rupture. Our findings demonstrate that plantar fascia rupture after corticosteroid injection may result in long-term sequelae that are difficult to resolve.

  17. Multiple branching rupture of the 2009 Tonga-Samoa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.; Ji, Chen; Bassett, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Several source models have been proposed to explain the enigmatic 2009 Tonga-Samoa earthquake. The long-period data require a composite source model and can be fit with a normal-faulting subevent followed by one or more reverse-faulting subevents. The short-period data, in contrast, indicate a more compact rupture pattern around the epicenter. The lack of a unified source model reflects the complexity of the event. We analyze the spatiotemporal evolution of this earthquake with P wave back-projection from globally distributed stations in different frequency bands (low frequency: 0.05-0.2 Hz, high frequency: 0.2-2 Hz) and a multiple moment tensor inversion. The rupture propagation revealed by back-projection exhibits frequency-dependent behavior, with two branches of high-frequency-enriched bilateral rupture around the epicenter and a high-frequency-deficient rupture branch at the subduction interface. A composite source model with one Mw 8.0 normal-faulting earthquake east of the trench axis (seaward) followed by one Mw 8.1 reverse-faulting earthquake along the subduction interface west of the trench axis (landward) can explain the very long period data (200˜500 s). Combined with high-resolution swath bathymetry data, the back-projection images show that the azimuth of rupture branches east of the trench axis were controlled by the geometry of bending-related faults on the Pacific plate and that the rupture branch west of the trench axis may correlate with the along-strike fore-arc segmentation. The rupture along the subduction interface was triggered by the seaward rupture and a partially subducted normal fault may have played a key role in facilitating the triggering. The apparent normal-reverse faulting interactions pose a higher seismic risk to this region than their individual strands at the northernmost corner of the Tonga subduction zone.

  18. First report of splenic rupture following deep enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Carlo Maria; Pometta, Roberta; Facciotto, Corinna; Mella, Roberto; Bernasconi, Giordano

    2016-01-01

    Splenic rupture is a rare complication of diagnostic and therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures. Herein, we report for the first time a case of splenic rupture following therapeutic retrograde double-balloon enteroscopy, which occurred in an 85-year-old man who was treated for recurrent mid-intestinal bleeding that resulted from ileal angioectasia. This patient promptly underwent an operation and eventually recovered. PMID:27170840

  19. Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after radio-frequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Shin, J H; Jung, S L; Baek, J H; Kim, J-H

    2011-12-01

    Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after RFA is very rare. We experienced 6 cases in 4 institutions. All patients presented with abrupt neck swelling and pain between 9 and 60 days after RFA. Imaging and clinical findings of the ruptured tumors were anterior subcapsular location, mixed composition, large size, and repeated ablations. Conservative treatment was sufficient in 3 cases, whereas surgical management was required in 3.

  20. Rupture of the stomach following mouth-to-mouth respiration

    PubMed Central

    Solowiejczyk, M.; Wapnick, S.; Koren, E.; Mandelbaum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Successful repair and survival after rupture of the stomach in a patient who received mouth-to-mouth respiration is presented. We were able to find only one report in the literature where rupture of the stomach occurred following this manoeuvre—the patient did not survive. The possible aetiological factors and measures designed to avoid this complication are discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4469046

  1. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  2. Incidence and outcome of rupture of the Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Cretnik, Andrej; Frank, Aleksander

    2004-01-01

    We determined the incidence of complete rupture of the Achilles tendon in the Maribor region (273,609 inhabitants) between 1991 and 1996. During this period, 116 ruptures were treated at Maribor Teaching Hospital. The average incidence was 7 ruptures per 100,000 inhabitants, with a peak incidence of almost 9 per 100,000. Most injuries (65%) occurred during sports activities, with soccer as the major cause of rupture. The average age of patients was 37 years with a male-to-female ratio of 18:1. All patients underwent open surgical repair of the ruptured Achilles tendon, with a minimum follow-up of two years. 19.8% of cases developed complications and in 10.4% of these the complications were major. 1.9% of patients sustained a re-rupture. The mean AOFAS score was 96 points. The patients were subjectively very satisfied with their treatment in 88% of cases. Good functional results with a return to the usual pre-injury activities were achieved in 96% of patients.

  3. Dynamic rupture modeling with laboratory-derived constitutive relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okubo, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-derived state variable friction constitutive relation is used in the numerical simulation of the dynamic growth of an in-plane or mode II shear crack. According to this formulation, originally presented by J.H. Dieterich, frictional resistance varies with the logarithm of the slip rate and with the logarithm of the frictional state variable as identified by A.L. Ruina. Under conditions of steady sliding, the state variable is proportional to (slip rate)-1. Following suddenly introduced increases in slip rate, the rate and state dependencies combine to produce behavior which resembles slip weakening. When rupture nucleation is artificially forced at fixed rupture velocity, rupture models calculated with the state variable friction in a uniformly distributed initial stress field closely resemble earlier rupture models calculated with a slip weakening fault constitutive relation. Model calculations suggest that dynamic rupture following a state variable friction relation is similar to that following a simpler fault slip weakening law. However, when modeling the full cycle of fault motions, rate-dependent frictional responses included in the state variable formulation are important at low slip rates associated with rupture nucleation. -from Author

  4. Stochastic Earthquake Rupture Modeling Using Nonparametric Co-Regionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungbook; Song, Seok Goo

    2016-10-01

    Accurate predictions of the intensity and variability of ground motions are essential in simulation-based seismic hazard assessment. Advanced simulation-based ground motion prediction methods have been proposed to complement the empirical approach, which suffers from the lack of observed ground motion data, especially in the near-source region for large events. It is important to quantify the variability of the earthquake rupture process for future events and to produce a number of rupture scenario models to capture the variability in simulation-based ground motion predictions. In this study, we improved the previously developed stochastic earthquake rupture modeling method by applying the nonparametric co-regionalization, which was proposed in geostatistics, to the correlation models estimated from dynamically derived earthquake rupture models. The nonparametric approach adopted in this study is computationally efficient and, therefore, enables us to simulate numerous rupture scenarios, including large events (M > 7.0). It also gives us an opportunity to check the shape of true input correlation models in stochastic modeling after being deformed for permissibility. We expect that this type of modeling will improve our ability to simulate a wide range of rupture scenario models and thereby predict ground motions and perform seismic hazard assessment more accurately.

  5. A Kinematic Rupture Model Generator Using Irikura's Recipe

    SciTech Connect

    Pitarka, A.

    2016-04-01

    In this project we developed GEN_SRF4 a computer program for generating kinematic rupture models, compatible with the SRF format, using Irikura and Miyake (2011) asperity-­based earthquake rupture model (IM2011, hereafter). IM2011, also known as Irkura’s recipe, has been widely used to model and simulate ground motion from earthquakes in Japan. An essential part of the method is its kinematic rupture generation technique, which is based on a deterministic rupture asperity modeling approach. The source model simplicity and efficiency of IM2011 at reproducing ground motion from earthquakes recorded in Japan makes it attractive to developers and users of the Southern California Earthquake Center Broadband Platform (SCEC BB platform). Besides writing the code the objective of our study was to test the transportability of IM2011 to broadband simulation methods used by the SCEC BB platform. Here we test it using the Graves and Pitarka (2010) method, implemented in the platform. We performed broadband (0.1--10 Hz) ground motion simulations for a M6.7 scenario earthquake using rupture models produced with both GEN_SRF4 and rupture generator of Graves and Pitarka (2016), (GP2016 hereafter). In the simulations we used the same Green’s functions, and same high frequency approach for calculating the low-­frequency and high-­frequency parts of ground motion, respectively.

  6. Fast rupture propagation for large strike-slip earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dun; Mori, Jim; Koketsu, Kazuki

    2016-04-01

    Studying rupture speeds of shallow earthquakes is of broad interest because it has a large effect on the strong near-field shaking that causes damage during earthquakes, and it is an important parameter that reflects stress levels and energy on a slipping fault. However, resolving rupture speed is difficult in standard waveform inversion methods due to limited near-field observations and the tradeoff between rupture speed and fault size for teleseismic observations. Here we applied back-projection methods to estimate the rupture speeds of 15 Mw ≥ 7.8 dip-slip and 8 Mw ≥ 7.5 strike-slip earthquakes for which direct P waves are well recorded in Japan on Hi-net, or in North America on USArray. We found that all strike-slip events had very fast average rupture speeds of 3.0-5.0 km/s, which are near or greater than the local shear wave velocity (supershear). These values are faster than for thrust and normal faulting earthquakes that generally rupture with speeds of 1.0-3.0 km/s.

  7. Seismotectonics and rupture process of the MW 7.1 2011 Van reverse-faulting earthquake, eastern Turkey, and implications for hazard in regions of distributed shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Walker, R. T.; Kurban, Y. C.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Parsons, B.

    2016-07-01

    The 2011 October 23 MW 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey caused ˜600 deaths and caused widespread damage and economic loss. The seismogenic rupture was restricted to 10-25 km in depth, but aseismic surface creep, coincident with outcrop fault exposures, was observed in the hours to months after the earthquake. We combine observations from radar interferometry, seismology, geomorphology and Quaternary dating to investigate the geological slip rate and seismotectonic context of the Van earthquake, and assess the implications for continuing seismic hazard in the region. Transient post-seismic slip on the upper Van fault started immediately following the earthquake, and decayed over a period of weeks; it may not fully account for our long-term surface slip-rate estimate of ≥0.5 mm yr-1. Post-seismic slip on the Bostaniçi splay fault initiated several days to weeks after the main shock, and we infer that it may have followed the MW 5.9 aftershock on the 9th November. The Van earthquake shows that updip segmentation can be important in arresting seismic ruptures on dip-slip faults. Two large, shallow aftershocks show that the upper 10 km of crust can sustain significant earthquakes, and significant slip is observed to have reached the surface in the late Quaternary, so there may be a continuing seismic hazard from the upper Van fault and the associated splay. The wavelength of folding in the hanging wall of the Van fault is dominated by the structure in the upper 10 km of the crust, masking the effect of deeper seismogenic structures. Thus, models of subsurface faulting based solely on surface folding and faulting in regions of reverse faulting may underestimate the full depth extent of seismogenic structures in the region. In measuring the cumulative post-seismic offsets to anthropogenic structures, we show that Structure-from-Motion can be rapidly deployed to create snapshots of post-seismic displacement. We also demonstrate the utility of declassified Corona

  8. Violent Reactions from Non-Shock Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, Harold

    2007-06-01

    Most reactions are thermally initiated, whether from direct heating or dissipation of energy from mechanical, shock, or electrical stimuli. For other than prompt shock initiation, the reaction must be able to spread through porosity or over large surface area to become more violent than just rupturing any confinement. While burning rates are important, high-strain mechanical properties are nearly so, either by reducing existing porosity or generating additional surface area through fracture. The first example is deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in porous beds. During the early stages, weak compressive waves ahead of the convective ignition front will reduce porosity, thereby restricting the spread of combustion and the pressure buildup. If, however, pressure increases faster than can be relieved by loss of confinement, coalescing compressive waves can initiate reaction at hot spots from rapid pore collapse. This compressive reaction can drive a shockwave that transits to detonation, the most violent reaction in any scenario. It has been shown that reaction violence is reduced in DDT experiments if the binder is softened, either by raising the initial temperature or adding a solvent. An example of the role of mechanical properties in enhancing reaction violence through fracturing occurs when cavities in projectile fills collapse during acceleration in the gun barrel, which is referred to as setback. Explosives with soft rubber binders will deform and undergo mild reaction from shear heating within the explosive and adiabatic compression of any gas in the cavity. Stiff explosives are similarly ignited, but also fracture and generate additional surface area for a violent event. The last example to be considered is slow cook-off, where thermal damage can increase burning rate as well as provide porosity to enhance the pressure buildup. As reaction spreads from the zone of thermal run-away, an explosive binder that resists breakup will limit the violence.

  9. Shock Surface Undulation and Particle Acceleration at Oblique Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss-Varban, D.; Li, Y.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Considering the average Parker spiral magnetic field configuration, CME-driven interplanetary (IP) shocks within 1 AU should have oblique portions over much of their domain. Indeed, CME-driven shocks observed close to Earth are often oblique. However, it is well known that the standard diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, which relies on self-consistent wave generation via upstream propagating ions and their scattering, becomes increasingly inefficient with greater shock normal angle. Not only is a higher threshold energy required for the ions to leave the shock upstream, but also, approximately-parallel propagating waves are more quickly convected back into the shock, and the growth rate for waves propagating normal to the shock (the ones with the largest convective growth) decreases. As a result, typical, small-scale hybrid simulations of oblique shocks only show a dilute upstream beam, similar to what is often observed at the oblique Earth's bow shock - and no scattered, highly-energized ions. On the other hand, there are many "energetic storm particle" (ESP) events associated with oblique shocks that have significant fluxes of energetic ions. Recently, we have found that when run for a long time, our hybrid simulations (kinetic ions, electron fluid) show that the initial, weak beam is sufficient to generate compressive, steepening upstream waves. These waves are capable of disturbing the shock surface, resulting in an undulation that is propagating along the surface and growing in amplitude over time. The process is akin to that of the well-known reformation occurring at sufficiently strong quasi-parallel shocks. However, here the perturbations require at least two dimensions, show a strong spatial correlation, and travel along the shock surface. This process not only leads to enhanced ion acceleration, but also means that the shock characteristics are difficult to pinpoint, observationally: both the local jumps and the shock normal angle are highly variable

  10. Raman Study of Shock Effects in Plagioclase Feldspar from the Mistastin Lake Impact Structure, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, T. X.; Shieh, S. R. S.; Osinski, G. R. O.

    2016-08-01

    This study mainly uses Raman spectroscopy with a 514 nm laser to study anorthosite from Mistastin Lake Impact Crater, Canada, which mainly contains plagioclase with composition of An 28-55, to better understand shock processes in plagioclase feldspar.

  11. Shock induced dissociation of polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; Loughran, E.D.; Mortensen, G.F.; Gray, G.T. III; Shaw, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    To identify the physical processes occurring on the Hugoniot, shock-recovery experiments were performed. Cylindrical recovery systems were used that enabled a wide range of single-shock Hugoniot states to be examined. Mass spectroscopy was used to examine the gaseous dissociation products. X-ray and TEM measurements were made to characterize the post-shock carbon structures. A dissociation product equation of state is presented to interpret the observed results. Polyethylene (PE) samples that were multiply shocked to their final states dissociated at much higher pressures than single-shocked samples. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Weak-shock reflection factors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-09-07

    The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

  13. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  14. [Whole-blood transfusion for hemorrhagic shock resuscitation: two cases in Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Cordier, P Y; Eve, O; Dehan, C; Topin, F; Menguy, P; Bertani, A; Massoure, P L; Kaiser, E

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock requires early aggressive treatment, including transfusion of packed red blood cells and hemostatic resuscitation. In austere environments, when component therapy is not available, warm fresh whole-blood transfusion is a convenient treatment. It provides red blood cells, clotting factors, and functional platelets. Therefore it is commonly used in military practice to treat hemorrhagic shock in combat casualties. At Bouffard Hospital Center in Djibouti, the supply of packed red blood cells is limited, and apheresis platelets are unavailable. We used whole blood transfusion in two civilian patients with life-threatening non-traumatic hemorrhages. One had massive bleeding caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation due to septic shock; the second was a 39 year-old pregnant woman with uterine rupture. In both cases, whole blood transfusion (twelve and ten 500 mL bags respectively), combined with etiological treatment, enabled coagulopathy correction, hemorrhage control, and satisfactory recovery.

  15. The Maine Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

  16. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important…

  17. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  18. Fetal immune response following prematurely ruptured membranes.

    PubMed

    Cederqvist, L L; Francis, L C; Zervoudakis, I A; Becker, C G; Litwin, S D

    1976-10-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig)A1, and IgA2, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM have been determined in cord blood, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum in a group of patients with a history of prematurely ruptured membranes (PRM) prior to the onset of labor and in a control group of patients undergoing normal delivery and without a history of infection during pregnancy. IgA and IgD were determined by sensitive hemagglutination-inhibition tests; IgG and IgM, by radial immunodiffusion; IgE, by a radioimmunoassay. There was evidence for an immune response in 10 of 16 cases of PRM: five of 16 had increased IgA but normal IgM; three of 16 had increased IgA and IgM; two of 16 had high IgM and normal IgA in cord blood. In patients with significantly increased levels of either IgA or IgM or both, there was a decreased level of IgD. These changes are most likely the result of the immune response to ascending infection from the maternal genitals. The sensitive testing method employed could demonstrate the presence of IgD in 53 per cent of normal cord blood samples and 72 per cent of amniotic fluid samples obtained at term. IgE was found in all normal cord blood and amniotic fluid samples tested. By concentrating the amniotic fluid up to 180-fold, IgM was demonstrated in all normal samples tested. The potential importance of IgA determinations in cord blood in addition to IgM determination for detection of intrauterine infections is stressed.

  19. Management of infected carotid artery rupture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zeng, Quan; Huang, Jiang-Ju; Hu, Guo-Hua

    2014-06-01

    Carotid artery rupture (CAR) is a life-threatening complication of head and neck cancer, and infection complicates its management. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with the treatment of infected CAR and to summarize the existing literature on this topic. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients treated in our department from 2000 to 2011 and re-analyzed cases reported in the literature during the same time period. We analyzed etiology, anatomic location, treatment, and rates of recurrent hemorrhage for each case. A total of 46 episodes of infected CAR occurred in the four patients in our own records and 27 patients described in the literature. Twenty-eight patients suffered from various head and neck cancers and underwent surgical resection, and 27 of them subsequently received radiotherapy or radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy (the 28th patient died before radiotherapy due to severe blood loss). The most common site of bleeding was the common carotid artery (33/46, 71.7%). Seventeen cases (17/45, 37.8%) were treated with surgical ligation, 20 (44.4%) with stent placement, and 7 (15.6%) with embolization. Surgical ligation had a lower rate of recurrent bleeding (2/17, 11.8%) than stent placement (12/20, 60.0%) when used for the treatment of infected CAR (P = 0.037, Chi squared test). Our results suggest that surgical ligation is an effective option in the management of infected CAR and may be the best choice to prevent recurrent hemorrhage. The complication rates, however, may be high when the common carotid or the internal carotid arteries are ligated.

  20. Dynamic rupture modeling of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake with an unstructured 3D spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, P.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2011-12-01

    initial model is composed of overlapping patches of a range of sizes which Dc correlates with the patch size. By trial-and-error we can determine a range of asperity properties that reproduce the main features of this earthquake, such as the multi type of ruptures featuring regions of low and high frequency radiation. In particular, a collection of small patches near the bottom of the seismogenic zone that may account for the strong high frequency radiation in that deeper region.