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Sample records for main steam piping

  1. Experience with compressed air cleaning of main steam piping

    SciTech Connect

    Skrgic, P.J. ); Brookins, C. ); Larson, L.; Rothe, D. ); Pier, J.B.; Goldman, G. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of long-term and short-term experience that demonstrates compressed air-blow results are at least as good, and often better than steam-blows. Compressed air-blows have been used effectively on applications for supercritical boilers, drum-type boilers, and heat recovery steam generators for preoperational cleaning of main steam lines at power plants with ratings from 35 to 700 MW.

  2. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik

    1997-04-01

    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

  3. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  4. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  5. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  6. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  7. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  8. Stratification transients in steam transporting pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Z.N.

    1996-12-01

    Thermal stratification may occur in horizontal piping segments due to temperature difference and lack of mixing between fluid layers. This results in nonuniform temperature transient profiles across the pipe sections that escalates the low cycle fatigue degradation of the concerned piping system. In the specific case of steam transporting pipes, the incipient warmup after a prolonged cold shutdown would result in steam condensation on the pipe walls. The temperature of accumulated condensate at the bottom of horizontal pipe segments is initially cooler than that of incoming hot steam flowing above it. In addition, the saturated steam high heat flux transfer, as it condenses on the upper portions of the pipe wall, is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the heat flux at the condensate-covered wetted bottom wall of the pipe. This condition generates stratified temperature transient profiles across the horizontal pipe sections. In this paper, the complex phenomenon of the thermal stratification in steam transporting pipes is parametrically investigated. The severity of the thermal stratification transients depends upon parameters such as pressure, steam quality, drainage efficiency, pipe size, material, and routing. The author used simplified finite difference heat transfer models to investigate the influences of these parameters. The resulting maximum linear, nonlinear, and average top to bottom temperature distributions are presented. The associated decay level at 1,000 seconds is also presented. In this paper, basic formulations used in the simplified finite difference heat transfer thermal stratification modeling are introduced. The parametric investigations are intended to provide the piping design engineers with load estimates resulting from the thermal stratification in steam transporting pipes.

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a)...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a)...

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a)...

  14. Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, P.; Silva, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4{degrees} allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft/sec (1m/s) in a two inch (5 cm) pipe without water hammer. A semi-empirical theory allows extrapolation to other pressures, pipe sizes and inclinations. 4 refs.

  15. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes...

  16. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes...

  17. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes...

  18. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes...

  19. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and... individual conducting the inspection must enter the smoke box to conduct the inspection, looking for signs of...

  20. Morphological traits of damage to steam pipes in aggressive media

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, I.I.; Khodykina, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    In steam pipes handling steam 540-560{degrees}C hot there were repeated cases of damage to curved parts of the pipes (bends). In the bends cracks form both on the outer surface of tensioned zones and on the inner surface of neutral zones. Statistical processing of the cases of destruction of steam pipe bends showed that damage to bends was found on the inner surface of the neutral zones only in power stations which used returned condensate from petrochemical production. The proportion of damaged bends in the neutral zones is about 30% of the total number. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  1. 39. FOURTH FLOOR: DETAIL OF STEAM HEATING PIPES ON NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. FOURTH FLOOR: DETAIL OF STEAM HEATING PIPES ON NORTHEAST WALL OF DINING AND SOCIAL HALL ON NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST - Masonic Temple, 1111-1119 Eleventh Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  2. Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. Note control valve to right of control box, view E. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  3. 4. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING STEAM PIPES CROSSING RAILROAD TRACKS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING STEAM PIPES CROSSING RAILROAD TRACKS AT BASE OF BERM. - Loring Air Force Base, Double Cantilever Hangar, East of Arizona Road, west of southern portion of Taxiway J, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  4. VIEW ALONG ARIZONA AVENUE. WITH STEAM PIPES IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG ARIZONA AVENUE. WITH STEAM PIPES IN FOREGROUND AND NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION SHOP (BUILDING 2802) AT LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  5. Cracking resistance in steam pipe fittings having various microdamage levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, I.I.; Googe, S.Yu.; Shul`gina, N.G.

    1995-05-01

    Cracking resistance and metal damage are considered in relation to structural state for steam-pipe fittings during use. An approximate scheme is given for estimating the maximum permissible operating time in the plastic state in relation to the depth of an observed crack-type defect.

  6. Quad Cities Unit 2 Main Steam Line Acoustic Source Identification and Load Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    DeBoo, Guy; Ramsden, Kevin; Gesior, Roman

    2006-07-01

    The Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 have a history of steam line vibration issues. The implementation of an Extended Power Up-rate resulted in significant increases in steam line vibration as well as acoustic loading of the steam dryers, which led to equipment failures and fatigue cracking of the dryers. This paper discusses the results of extensive data collection on the Quad Cities Unit 2 replacement dryer and the Main Steam Lines. This data was taken with the intent of identifying acoustic sources in the steam system. Review of the data confirmed that vortex shedding coupled column resonance in the relief and safety valve stub pipes were the principal sources of large magnitude acoustic loads in the main steam system. Modifications were developed in sub-scale testing to alter the acoustic properties of the valve standpipes and add acoustic damping to the system. The modifications developed and installed consisted of acoustic side branches that were attached to the Electromatic Relief Valve (ERV) and Main Steam Safety Valve (MSSV) attachment pipes. Subsequent post-modification testing was performed in plant to confirm the effectiveness of the modifications. The modifications have been demonstrated to reduce vibration loads at full Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) conditions to levels below those at Original Licensed Thermal Power (OLTP). (authors)

  7. Acoustic Analysis for a Steam Dome and Pipings of a 1,100 MWe-Class Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumi, Kitajima; Masanobu, Watanabe; Keiji, Matsunaga; Tsuyoshi, Hagiwara

    2006-07-01

    For the integrity evaluation of steam dryers in up-rated nuclear power plants, we have applied acoustic analysis to a nuclear power plant steam dome and main steam pipings. We have selected a 1,100 MWe-class boiling water reactor as a subject of the analysis. We have constructed a three-dimensional finite element model, and conducted acoustic analyses. The analysis result suggested that the origin of steam pressure pulsation in high frequency range was due to vortex shedding at standpipes. (authors)

  8. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, P.

    1997-09-01

    A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

  9. Steam-leak cost estimation using thermographically acquired pipe temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madding, Robert P.; MacNamara, Neal A.

    1997-04-01

    Predictive maintenance practitioners readily diagnose steam leaks through drain using infrared thermography, often supplemented with ultrasonic probe verification. Typically, a pipe carries the leaking steam to a flash tank or directly to the condenser. Thus, the energy used to create the steam is what is lost, not the steam itself. However, the cost of steam production is not inexpensive. We have found steam leaks we estimate cost $30 K/year. As a part of the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Boiler, Condenser and Steam Cycle Applications Project, the EPRI M&D (Monitoring & Diagnostic) Centers have begun acquiring steam leak data at several electric utilities. Estimates of steam leak costs are key to evaluating cost savings and recommendation of corrective action, but are hampered by lack of knowledge of the steam flow in the line. These lines are usually not instrumented because typically there is no flow. Consequently, we must derive an indirect method of estimating steam flow. This can be done for uninsulated pipes given knowledge of the pipe surface temperature gradient over a known distance. For single phase conditions, the mass flow of steam equals the heat lost from a length of pipe divided by the temperature drop along the length and the heat capacity of the steam. Pipe heat loss is calculated knowing the pipe diameter, pipe surface temperature, ambient air temperature and using American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) tabulated values. The temperatures are derived from thermographic data. Distances can also be derived from thermal imaging radiometer data, depending on the type of system employed. To facilitate calculation of steam leak cost estimates, we have developed a Microsoft ExcelTM spreadsheet macro. The user can interface directly with the spreadsheet, entering appropriate temperatures, distances, pipe diameter, heat rate, cost of power, etc. Or, the analyst can use thermal imaging radiometer

  10. View looking east in the main pipe mill building at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking east in the main pipe mill building at the operators pulpit of the east-west reelers, no. 2 seamless line. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  11. Energy savings in one-pipe steam heating systems fitted with high-capacity air vents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Multifamily buildings heated by one-pipe steam systems experience significant temperature gradients from apartment to apartment, often reaching 15{degrees}F. As a result, many tenants are to cold, or if the heating system output is increased so as to heat the coldest apartment adequately, too hot. While both are undesirable, the second is particularly so because it wastes energy. It was thought that insufficient air venting of the steam pipes contributed to the gradient. Theoretically, if steam mains and risers are quickly vented, steam will reach each radiator at approximately the same time and balance apartment temperatures. The project`s objective was to determine if the installation of large-capacity air vents at the ends of steam mains and risers would economically reduce the temperature gradient between apartments and reduce the amount of space heating energy required. The test was conducted by enabling and disabling air vents biweekly in 10 multifamily buildings in New York City between December 1992 to May 1993. The temperatures of selected apartments and total space heating energy were compared during each venting regime. There was no difference in energy consumption between ``vents on`` and ``vents off`` periods (see Tables 2 and 5); however, there was a reduction in the maximum spread of apartment temperatures.

  12. Application of PHADEC method for the decontamination of radioactive steam piping components

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Frano, R.; Pilo, F.; Aquaro, D.

    2013-07-01

    The dismantling of nuclear plants is a complex activity that originates often a large quantity of radioactive contaminated residue. In this paper the attention was focused on the PHADEC (Phosphoric Acid Decontamination) plant adopted for the clearance of Caorso NPP (in Italy) metallic systems and components contaminated by Co{sup 60} (produced by the neutron capture in the iron materials), like the main steam lines, moisture separator of the turbine buildings, etc.. The PHADEC plant consists in a chemical off line treatment: the crud, deposited along the steam piping during life plant as an example, is removed by means of acid attacks in ponds coupled to a high pressure water washing. Due to the fact that the removed contaminated layers, essentially, iron oxides of various chemical composition, depend on components geometry, type of contamination and time of treatment in the PHADEC plant, it becomes of meaningful importance to suggest a procedure capable to improve the control of the PHADEC process parameters. This study aimed thus at the prediction and optimization of the mentioned treatment time in order to improve the efficiency of the plant itself and to achieve, in turn, the minimization of produced wastes. To the purpose an experimental campaign was carried out by analysing several samples, i.e. taken along the main steam piping line. Smear tests as well as metallographic analyses were carried out in order to determine respectively the radioactivity distribution and the crud composition on the inner surface of the components. Moreover the radioactivity in the crud thickness was measured. These values allowed finally to correlate the residence time in the acid attack ponds to the level of the achieved decontamination. (authors)

  13. High Temperature Ultrasonic Probe and Pulse-Echo Probe Mounting Fixture for Testing and Blind Alignment on Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Lih, Shyh-Shiuh (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Takano, Nobuyuki (Inventor); Ostlund, Patrick N. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A high temperature ultrasonic probe and a mounting fixture for attaching and aligning the probe to a steam pipe using blind alignment. The high temperature ultrasonic probe includes a piezoelectric transducer having a high temperature. The probe provides both transmitting and receiving functionality. The mounting fixture allows the high temperature ultrasonic probe to be accurately aligned to the bottom external surface of the steam pipe so that the presence of liquid water in the steam pipe can be monitored. The mounting fixture with a mounted high temperature ultrasonic probe are used to conduct health monitoring of steam pipes and to track the height of condensed water through the wall in real-time.

  14. 28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. 14. DETAIL OF CLEAN GAS MAIN (UPPER PIPE) AND ROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF CLEAN GAS MAIN (UPPER PIPE) AND ROUGH GAS MAIN FOR BLAST FURNACE No. 2 AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES LOOKING EAST. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. STEAM PLANT, TRA609. MEZZANINE LAYOUT. PIPE TRENCH AND SURGE TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEAM PLANT, TRA-609. MEZZANINE LAYOUT. PIPE TRENCH AND SURGE TANK PIT. BLAW-KNOX 3150-9-3, 6/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0609-00-098-100019, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Improvements in the simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Sergio; Querol, Andrea; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2014-06-01

    The result of simultaneous Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) and a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system because both systems are connected through the SGTR. The OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduces these simultaneous breaks in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). A simulation of this Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Some discrepancies found, such as an underestimation of SG-A secondary pressure during the depressurization and overestimation of the primary pressure drop after the first Power Operated Relief Valve (PORV) opening can be improved increasing the nodalization of the Upper Head in the pressure vessel and meeting the actual fluid conditions of Upper Head during the transient.

  18. In-Service Monitoring of Steam Pipe Systems at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Scott, James S.; Blosiu, Julian O.; Widholm, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    An effective, in-service health monitoring system is needed to track water condensation in real time through the walls of steam pipes. The system is required to measure the height of the condensed water from outside the pipe, while operating at temperatures that are as high as 250 C. The system needs to account for the effects of water flow and cavitation. In addition, it is desired that the system does not require perforating the pipes and thereby reducing the structural integrity. Generally, steam pipes are used as part of the district heating system carrying steam from central power stations under the streets to heat, cool, or supply power to high-rise buildings and businesses. This system uses ultrasonic waves in pulse-echo and acquires reflected signal data. Via autocorrelation, it determines the water height while eliminating the effect of noise and multiple reflections from the wall of the pipe. The system performs nondestructive monitoring through the walls of steam pipes, and automatically measures the height of condensed water while operating at the high-temperature conditions of 250 C. For this purpose, the ultrasonic pulse-echo method is used where the time-of-flight of the wave reflections inside the water are measured, and it is multiplied by the wave velocity to determine the height. The pulse-echo test consists of emitting ultrasonic wave pulses from a piezoelectric transducer and receiving the reflections from the top and bottom of the condensed water. A single transducer is used as a transmitter as well as the receiver of the ultrasonic waves. To obtain high resolution, a broadband transducer is used and the frequency can be in the range of 2.25 to 10 MHz, providing sharp pulses in the time domain allowing for higher resolution in identifying the individual reflections.

  19. Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

  20. An Energy Signature Scheme for Steam Trap Assessment and Flow Rate Estimation Using Pipe-Induced Acoustic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Lake, Joe E

    2012-01-01

    The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework within the steam distribution system within the ORNL campus. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by observing the state measurements of acoustic sensors mounted on the steam pipes/traps/valves. In this paper, we describe a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps health status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap health status and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate steam flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. The analysis based on estimated steam flow and steam trap status helps generate alerts that enable operators and maintenance personnel to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves.

  1. Examination of a steam generator tube removed from Maine Yankee

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, T.P.; Plante, P.J.

    1992-12-31

    Non-destructive and destructive examinations performed on an Alloy 600 steam generator tube with a circumferential indication confirmed that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) had occurred in high temperature final mill annealled material. The tube material generally has low susceptibility to PWSCC. Additional PWSCC in this material is expected but would not by itself lead to steam generator replacement.

  2. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  3. Apparatus for and Method of Monitoring Condensed Water in Steam Pipes at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring the properties of a fluid, such as water, in a steam pipe without mechanically penetrating the wall of the pipe. The system uses a piezoelectric transducer to launch an ultrasonic probe signal into the pipe. Reflected ultrasonic signals are captured in a transducer, which can be the same transducer that launched the probe signal. The reflected signals are subjected to data processing, which can include filtering, amplification, analog-to-digital conversion and autocorrelation analysis. A result is extracted which is indicative of a property of the fluid, such as a height of the condensed fluid, a cavitation of the condensed fluid, and a surface perturbation of the condensed fluid. The result can be recorded, displayed, and/or transmitted to another location. One embodiment of the system has been constructed and tested based on a general purpose programmable computer using instructions recorded in machine-readable non-volatile memory.

  4. In-Service Monitoring of Steam Pipe Systems at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Lih, Shyh-Shiuh (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor); Blosiu, Julian O. (Inventor); Widholm, Scott E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring the properties of a fluid, such as water, in a steam pipe without mechanically penetrating the wall of the pipe. The system uses a piezoelectric transducer to launch an ultrasonic probe signal into the pipe. Reflected ultrasonic signals are captured in a transducer, which can be the same transducer that launched the probe signal. The reflected signals are subjected to data processing, which can include filtering, amplification, analog-to-digital conversion and autocorrelation analysis. A result is extracted which is indicative of a property of the fluid, such as a height of the condensed fluid, a cavitation of the condensed fluid, and a surface perturbation of the condensed fluid. The result can be recorded, displayed, and/or transmitted to another location. One embodiment of the system has been constructed and tested based on a general purpose programmable computer using instructions recorded in machine-readable non-volatile memory.

  5. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  6. High Temperature Monitoring the Height of Condensed Water in Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2011-01-01

    An in-service health monitoring system is needed for steam pipes to track through their wall the condensation of water. The system is required to measure the height of the condensed water inside the pipe while operating at temperatures that are as high as 250 deg. C. The system needs to be able to make real time measurements while accounting for the effects of cavitation and wavy water surface. For this purpose, ultrasonic wave in pulse-echo configuration was used and reflected signals were acquired and auto-correlated to remove noise from the data and determine the water height. Transmitting and receiving the waves is done by piezoelectric transducers having Curie temperature that is significantly higher than 250 deg. C. Measurements were made at temperatures as high as 250 deg. C and have shown the feasibility of the test method. This manuscript reports the results of this feasibility study.

  7. Wireless Monitoring of the Height of Condensed Water in Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Dingizian, Arsham; Takano, Nobuyuki; Blosiu, Julian O.

    2014-01-01

    A wireless health monitoring system has been developed for determining the height of water condensation in the steam pipes and the data acquisition is done remotely using a wireless network system. The developed system is designed to operate in the harsh environment encountered at manholes and the pipe high temperature of over 200 °C. The test method is an ultrasonic pulse-echo and the hardware includes a pulser, receiver and wireless modem for communication. Data acquisition and signal processing software were developed to determine the water height using adaptive signal processing and data communication that can be controlled while the hardware is installed in a manhole. A statistical decision-making tool is being developed based on the field test data to determine the height of in the condensed water under high noise conditions and other environmental factors.

  8. Wireless monitoring of the height of condensed water in steam pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Dingizian, Arsham; Takano, Nobuyuki; Blosiu, Julian O.

    2014-04-01

    A wireless health monitoring system has been developed for determining the height of water condensation in steam pipes. The data acquisition in this system is done remotely using a wireless network system. The developed system is designed to operate in the harsh manhole environment and the pipe temperature of over 200 °C. The test method is an ultrasonic pulse-echo and the hardware that includes a pulser, receiver, a data processor and wireless modem for communication. Data acquisition and signal processing software were developed to determine the water height using adaptive signal processing and data communication that can be controlled while the hardware is installed in a manhole. A statistical decision-making tool is being developed based on the field test data to determine the height of the condensed water height under high noise conditions and other environmental factors.

  9. Wireless Monitoring of the Height of Condensed Water in Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Dingizian, Arsham; Takano, Nobuyuki; Blosiu, Julian O.

    2014-01-01

    A wireless health monitoring system has been developed for determining the height of water condensation in the steam pipes and the data acquisition is done remotely using a wireless network system. The developed system is designed to operate in the harsh environment encountered at manholes and the pipe high temperature of over 200 °C. The test method is an ultrasonic pulse-echo and the hardware includes a pulser, receiver and wireless modem for communication. Data acquisition and signal processing software were developed to determine the water height using adaptive signal processing and data communication that can be controlled while the hardware is installed in a manhole. A statistical decision-making tool is being developed based on the field test data to determine the height of in the condensed water under high noise conditions and other environmental factors.

  10. High Temperature Monitoring the Height of Condensed Water in Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2011-01-01

    An in-service health monitoring system is needed for steam pipes to track through their wall the condensation of water. The system is required to measure the height of the condensed water inside the pipe while operating at temperatures that are as high as 250 deg. C. The system needs to be able to make real time measurements while accounting for the effects of cavitation and wavy water surface. For this purpose, ultrasonic wave in pulse-echo configuration was used and reflected signals were acquired and auto-correlated to remove noise from the data and determine the water height. Transmitting and receiving the waves is done by piezoelectric transducers having Curie temperature that is significantly higher than 250 deg. C. Measurements were made at temperatures as high as 250 deg. C and have shown the feasibility of the test method. This manuscript reports the results of this feasibility study.

  11. Signal Processing for Determining Water Height in Steam Pipes with Dynamic Surface Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced signal processing method based on the filtered Hilbert envelope of the auto-correlation function of the wave signal has been developed to monitor the height of condensed water through the steel wall of steam pipes with dynamic surface conditions. The developed signal processing algorithm can also be used to estimate the thickness of the pipe to determine the cut-off frequency for the low pass filter frequency of the Hilbert Envelope. Testing and analysis results by using the developed technique for dynamic surface conditions are presented. A multiple array of transducers setup and methodology are proposed for both the pulse-echo and pitch-catch signals to monitor the fluctuation of the water height due to disturbance, water flow, and other anomaly conditions.

  12. High temperature monitoring the height of condensed water in steam pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, M.; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2011-04-01

    An in-service health monitoring system is needed for steam pipes to track through their wall the condensation of water. The system is required to measure the height of the condensed water inside the pipe while operating at temperatures that are as high as 250oC. The system needs to be able to make real time measurements while accounting for the effects of cavitation and wavy water surface. For this purpose, ultrasonic wave in pulse-echo configuration was used and reflected signals were acquired and auto-correlated to remove noise from the data and determine the water height. Transmitting and receiving the waves is done by piezoelectric transducers having Curie temperature that is significantly higher than 250oC. Measurements were made at temperatures as high as 250oC and have shown the feasibility of the test method. This manuscript reports the results of this feasibility study.

  13. Condition assessment of main structural members of steam schooner WAPAMA

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; James Wacker; Robert Ross; Brian Brashaw

    2008-01-01

    The historic American ship WAPAMA is the last surviving example of the wooden steam-powered schooners designed for the 19th- and 20th-century Pacific Coast lumber trade and coastal service. Since its launching in 1915, the WAPAMA has had a long and productive life in plying cargo and passengers along the stormy West Coast from Mexico to Alaska. As the sole survivor of...

  14. Advanced Signal Processing for High Temperatures Health Monitoring of Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    An advanced signal processing methodology is being developed to monitor the height of condensed water thru the wall of a steel pipe while operating at temperatures as high as 250deg. Using existing techniques, previous study indicated that, when the water height is low or there is disturbance in the environment, the predicted water height may not be accurate. In recent years, the use of the autocorrelation and envelope techniques in the signal processing has been demonstrated to be a very useful tool for practical applications. In this paper, various signal processing techniques including the auto correlation, Hilbert transform, and the Shannon Energy Envelope methods were studied and implemented to determine the water height in the steam pipe. The results have shown that the developed method provides a good capability for monitoring the height in the regular conditions. An alternative solution for shallow water or no water conditions based on a developed hybrid method based on Hilbert transform (HT) with a high pass filter and using the optimized windowing technique is suggested. Further development of the reported methods would provide a powerful tool for the identification of the disturbances of water height inside the pipe.

  15. Advanced Signal Processing for High Temperatures Health Monitoring of Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    An advanced signal processing methodology is being developed to monitor the height of condensed water thru the wall of a steel pipe while operating at temperatures as high as 250deg. Using existing techniques, previous study indicated that, when the water height is low or there is disturbance in the environment, the predicted water height may not be accurate. In recent years, the use of the autocorrelation and envelope techniques in the signal processing has been demonstrated to be a very useful tool for practical applications. In this paper, various signal processing techniques including the auto correlation, Hilbert transform, and the Shannon Energy Envelope methods were studied and implemented to determine the water height in the steam pipe. The results have shown that the developed method provides a good capability for monitoring the height in the regular conditions. An alternative solution for shallow water or no water conditions based on a developed hybrid method based on Hilbert transform (HT) with a high pass filter and using the optimized windowing technique is suggested. Further development of the reported methods would provide a powerful tool for the identification of the disturbances of water height inside the pipe.

  16. In-service monitoring of steam pipe systems at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Widholm, Scott; Scott, Jim; Blosiu, Julian

    2010-03-01

    An effective in-service health monitoring system is needed for steam pipes to track through their wall the condensation of water in real-time at high temperatures. The system is required to measure the height of the condensed water inside the pipe while operating at temperatures that are as high as 250°C. The system needs to be able to make time measurements while accounting for the effects of water flow and cavitation. For this purpose, ultrasonic waves were used to perform data acquisition of reflected signals in pulse-echo and via autocorrelation the data was processed to determine the water height. Transmitting and receiving the waves is done by piezoelectric transducers. There are transducers with Curie temperatures that are significantly higher than the required for this task offering the potential to sustain the conditions of the pipe over extended operation periods. This paper reports the progress of the current feasibility study that is intended to establish the foundations for such health monitoring systems.

  17. Identification of corrosion modes in steam pipes from the secondary system at Indian Point 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gmurczyk, M.U.; Barkatt, A.; Ballard, D.; Cherepakbov, G.; Kessler, W.; Burns, R.

    1998-12-31

    Failure analysis of specimens removed from secondary side piping at Indian Point 2 was performed. The study included visual examination, wall thickness measurements, metallographic (optical and SEM) studies, and measurements of mechanical properties. Chemical analysis was carried out on the bulk metal, the surface region, and the overlying deposits. Oxide speciation was performed using XRD and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results of the evaluation showed that erosion-corrosion was the principal pipe degradation mechanism. The factors contributing to significant erosion-corrosion were found to include a lower Cr content of the steel than needed to suppress erosion-corrosion, relatively low pH (8.8--9.2 during most of the period of plant operation), and high flow rates. The combination of these factors also gave rise to relatively high transport of iron oxides (predominantly magnetite) in the secondary system, which further increased the extent of erosion-corrosion. One important finding was the observation that magnetite particles in the wet steam were apparently responsible for the significant extent of erosion-corrosion of the pipes.

  18. 54. (Credit JAM) New main pumping room, c1975, showing steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. (Credit JAM) New main pumping room, c1975, showing steam cylinders of high service engines, 1920 Worthington-Snow in foreground. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  19. In-situ measurement of the height of condensed water in steam pipes with dynamic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2016-04-01

    A method based on the use of enhanced filtered Hilbert envelope of the wave signal was developed in order to monitor the height of condensed water through the wall of steam pipes having dynamic flow conditions. A prototype testbed was designed and fabricated in this study to simulate the dynamic flow conditions including the air stream flowing above the water and bubble induced disturbance. A dual-transducer was used to perform the test as a basis for the multiple transducers system to facilitate the detectability and reliability for long term monitoring of the condensed water height in dynamic conditions. The results demonstrated that the method of measuring the water height using multiple-transducer system employing the developed novel signal processing technique is an efficient and accurate tool for practical applications.

  20. Investigation of Temperature Fluctuations Caused by Steam-Water Two-Phase Flow in Pressurizer Spray Piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Oumaya, Toru

    In a PWR plant, a steam-water two-phase flow may possibly exist in the pressurizer spray pipe under a normal operating condition since the flow rate of the spray water is not sufficient to fill the horizontal section of the pipe completely. Initiation of high cycle fatigue cracks is suspected to occur under such thermally stratified two phase flow conditions due to cyclic thermal stress fluctuations caused by oscillations of the water surface. Such oscillations cannot be detected by the measurement of temperature on outer surface of the pipe. In order to clarify the flow and thermal conditions in the pressurizer spray pipe and assess their impact on the pipe structure, an experiment was conducted for a steam-water flow at a low flow rate using a mock-up pressurizer spray pipe. The maximum temperature fluctuation of about 0.2 times of the steam-water temperature difference was observed at the inner wall around water surface in the test section. Visualization tests were conducted to investigate the temperature fluctuation phenomena. It was shown that the fluid temperature fluctuations were not caused by the waves on the water surface, but were caused by liquid temperature fluctuations in water layer below the interface. The influence of small amount of non-condensable gas dissolved in the reactor coolant on the liquid temperature fluctuation phenomena was investigated by injecting air into the experimental loop. The air injection attenuated the liquid temperature fluctuations in the water layer since the condensation was suppressed by the non- condensable gas. It is not expected that wall temperature fluctuation in the actual PWR plant may exceed the temperature equivalent to the fatigue limit stress amplitude when it is assumed to be proportional to the steam-water temperature difference.

  1. Containment response to a small main steam line break

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Baratta, A. )

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of the work described in this paper was the development of a dry-well temperature profile for 100 days following a small steam line break inside primary containment. The results of this study will be used to justify a plant-specific dry-well temperature envelope for equipment qualification that is less severe than that recommended by General Electric (GE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The current dry-well temperature envelope used for equipment qualification at certain boiling water reactor (BWR)/4 MK I plants specifies a constant dry-well temperature of 366.5 K (200{degree}F) after 1 day. The results of CONTAIN calculations performed on a BWR/4 MK I plant were compared to the existing qualification envelope and a new curve was developed. The results of this study indicate the usefulness of plant-specific analysis for this particular scenario. The revised temperature profile predicts lower containment temperatures than the conservatively high GE profile; therefore, equipment that was qualified using the old profile can now be qualified for longer periods of time, and previously unavailable equipment may now be qualified. This revised equipment availability may alter current emergency operating procedures for this particular transient.

  2. 46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section 134.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of...

  3. 46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section 134.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of...

  4. 46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section 134.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of...

  5. 46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section 134.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of...

  6. 46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section 134.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of...

  7. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Backfish, Michael

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab’s Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

  8. Steam-water two-phase flow in large diameter vertical piping at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanein, H.A.; Kawaji, Masahiro; Chan, A.M.C.; Yoshioka, Yuzuru

    1996-08-01

    No information on steam/water two-phase flow behavior in large diameter pipes (10 inch or larger) at elevated pressures is available in the open literature. However, there are many applications, in the nuclear, chemical and petroleum industries among others where two-phase flows in large diameter pipes at elevated pressures and temperatures are encountered routinely or under accident scenarios. Experimental data on steam-water two-phase flow in a large diameter (20 inch, 50.08 cm I.D.) vertical pipe at elevated pressures and temperatures (2.8 MPa/230 C--6.4 MPa/280 C) have been obtained. Void fraction, two-phase mass flux, phase and velocity distributions as well as pressure drop along the test pipe have been measured using the Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) Pump Test Loop. The void fraction distributions were found to be axially symmetric and nearly flat over a wide range of two-phase flow conditions. The two-phase flow regime could be inferred from the dynamic void fluctuations data. For the 280 C tests, the flow was found to be relatively stable with bubbly flow at low average void fractions and churn turbulent or wispy-annular flow at higher void fractions. At 230 C, the flow became rather oscillatory and slugging was suspected at relatively low voids. It has also been found that the average void fractions in the test section can be determined reasonably accurately using the axial pressure drop data.

  9. Development of large-capacity main steam isolation valves and safety relief valves for next-generation BWR plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsugu Nishimura; Shin-ichi Furukawa; Gen Itoh; Kikuo Takeshima

    2002-07-01

    A study was made of high capacity main steam isolation valves (MSIV) and safety relief valves (SRV) for the main steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). The next-generation BWR plants, which are planned to have higher thermal power, have raised concerns relating to the main steam line of an increase in maintenance work to SRVs and erosion of the MSIV valve seat due to the increased main steam flow velocity. In this research project, the capacity of the MSIV and SRV was increased and the valve configuration was changed in an attempt to solve these problems. (authors)

  10. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  11. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  12. Maine Yankee steam generator tube sleeving thermal-hydraulic and safety analysis impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, K.R.; Palmer, S.; Harvey, R.C.; Bergeron, P.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the impact of the complete plugging and sleeving campaign at Maine Yankee on the thermal-hydraulic analysis. A discussion of the hydraulic resistance calculations associated with the plugging and sleeving is provided. Finally, the impact on the plant safety analyses is provided, considering the changes in the hydraulic resistance of the steam generator tubes and the associated impact on reactor coolant system flow rate including asymmetry, steam generator overall heat transfer capability (UA), LOCA, reactor coolant pump coastdown, and Reactor Protection System trip setpoints.

  13. 49 CFR 192.367 - Service lines: General requirements for connections to main piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... connections to main piping. 192.367 Section 192.367 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.367 Service lines: General... main connection must: (1) Be designed and installed to effectively sustain the longitudinal pull-out or...

  14. Nondestructive Testing Qualification of Main Circulatory Tube Pipes DU 500

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakova, Bojana M.; Tzokov, Petio

    2004-07-01

    The criteria for safe operation of nuclear energetic installations is given a higher priority in the policy of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant. An efficient non-destructive inspection is the key point for the safe service. Kozloduy NPP keeps on making investments in equipment and qualification of specialists in this field. The processes of qualification of the NDT components, important for the nuclear and radiation safety, make considerable improvement in Kozloduy NPP, thanks to the accumulated in the years experience in the activities of NDT inspection qualification, and to the help of our partners Serco Assurance and the Institute of Rzes. The results obtained by ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of circulation tube mains DU 500 WWER 440 type are under discussion in this report. (authors)

  15. Effects of aging and service wear on main steam isolation valves and valve operators

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    In recent years main steam isolation valve (MSIV operating problems have resulted in significant operational transients (e.g., spurious reactor trips, steam generator dry out, excessive valve seat leakage), increased cost, and decreased plant availability. A key ingredient to an engineering-oriented reliability improvement effort is a thorough understanding of relevant historical experience. A detailed review of historical failure data available through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation`s Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System has been conducted for several types of MSIVs and valve operators for both boiling-water reactors and pressurized-water reactors. The focus of this review is on MSIV failures modes, actuator failure modes, consequences of failure on plant operations, method of failure detection, and major stressors affecting both valves and valve operators.

  16. 49 CFR 192.367 - Service lines: General requirements for connections to main piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... connections to main piping. 192.367 Section 192.367 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...

  17. 49 CFR 192.367 - Service lines: General requirements for connections to main piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... connections to main piping. 192.367 Section 192.367 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...

  18. 46 CFR 56.35-1 - Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). 56.35-1... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-1 Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). (a) A summary of the results of pipe stress calculations for the main and auxiliary steam...

  19. 46 CFR 56.35-1 - Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). 56.35-1... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-1 Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). (a) A summary of the results of pipe stress calculations for the main and auxiliary steam...

  20. 46 CFR 56.35-1 - Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). 56.35-1... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-1 Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). (a) A summary of the results of pipe stress calculations for the main and auxiliary steam...

  1. 46 CFR 56.35-1 - Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). 56.35-1... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-1 Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). (a) A summary of the results of pipe stress calculations for the main and auxiliary steam...

  2. 46 CFR 56.35-1 - Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). 56.35-1... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-1 Pipe stress calculations (replaces 119.7). (a) A summary of the results of pipe stress calculations for the main and auxiliary steam...

  3. Evaluation of cracking in feedwater piping adjacent to the steam generators in Nine Pressurized Water Reactor Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A.; Streit, R.D.; Scott, R.G.

    1980-06-25

    Cracking in ASTM A106-B and A106-C feedwater piping was detected near the inlet to the steam generators in a number of pressurized water reactor plants. We received sections with cracks from nine of the plants with the objective of identifying the cracking mechanism and assessing various factors that might contribute to this cracking. Variations were observed in piping surface irregularities, corrosion-product, pit, and crack morphology, surface elmental and crystal structure analyses, and steel microstructures and mechanical properties. However, with but two exceptions, namely, arrest bands and major surface irregularities, we were unable to relate the extent of cracking to any of these factors. Tensile and fracture toughness (J/sub Ic/ and tearing modulus) properties were measured over a range of temperatures and strain rates. No unusual properties or microstructures were observed that could be related to the cracking problem. All crack surfaces contained thick oxide deposits and showed evidence of cyclic events in the form of arrest bands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed fatigue striations on replicas of cleaned crack surfaces from one plant and possibly from three others. Calculations based on the observed striation spacings gave a value of ..delta..sigma = 150 MPa (22 ksi) for one of the major cracks. The direction of crack propagation was invariably related to the piping surface and not to the piping axis. These two factors are consistent with the proposed concept of thermally induced, cyclic, tensile surface stresses. Although surface irregularities and corrosion pits were sources for crack initiation and corrosion may have contributed to crack propagation, it is proposed that the overriding factor in the cracking problem is the presence of unforeseen cyclic loads.

  4. In situ application of hard-facing materials in Main Steam Isolation Valves. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brittain, K.; Dahlke, R.; French, T.; McNeely, W.

    1985-03-01

    The Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIV) in boiling water reactors (BWR) have shown a tendency to fail a local leak rate test (LLRT). Lapping applications were developed to improve seat conditions, but continued lapping or incorrect lapping can result in the need to resurface the seat. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has initiated research projects (RP-2186-1, -2, and -4) to address the problem of hardfacing in MSIVs. This final report is a compilation of the results of research projects that evaluate the application of hardfacing materials to MSIVs (RP-2186-1) and resurfacing the valve body main seat (RP-2186-2). The report also discusses in-situ application of hardfacing in MSIVs (RP-2186-4).

  5. Study of condensation heat transfer following a main steam line break inside containment

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.H.; Elia, F.A. Jr.; Lischer, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    An alternative model for calculating condensation heat transfer following a main stream line break (MSLB) accident is proposed. The proposed model predictions and the current regulatory model predictions are compared to the results of the Carolinas Virginia Tube Reactor (CVTR) test. The very conservative results predicted by the current regulatory model result from: (1) low estimate of the condensation heat transfer coefficient by the Uchida correlation and (2) neglecting the convective contribution to the overall heat transfer. Neglecting the convection overestimates the mass of steam being condensed and does not permit the calculation of additional convective heat transfer resulting from superheated conditions. In this study, the Uchida correlation is used, but correction factors for the effects of convection an superheat are derived. The proposed model uses heat and mass transfer analogy methods to estimate to convective fraction of the total heat transfer and bases the steam removal rate on the condensation heat transfer portion only. The results predicted by the proposed model are shown to be conservative and more accurate than those predicted by the current regulatory model when compared with the results of the CVTR test. Results for typical pressurized water reactors indicate that the proposed model provides a basis for lowering the equipment qualification temperature envelope, particularly at later times following the accident.

  6. Replacement of outboard main steam isolation valves in a boiling water reactor plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schlereth, J.R.; Pennington, D.

    1996-12-01

    Most Boiling Water Reactor plants utilize wye pattern globe valves for main steam isolation valves for both inboard and outboard isolation. These valves have required a high degree of maintenance attention in order to pass the plant local leakage rate testing (LLRT) requirements at each outage. Northern States Power made a decision in 1993 to replace the outboard valves at it`s Monticello plant with double disc gate valves. The replacement of the outboard valves was completed during the fall outage in 1994. During the spring outage in April of 1996 the first LLRT testing was performed with excellent results. This presentation will address the decision process, time requirements and planning necessary to accomplish the task as well as the performance results and cost effectiveness of replacing these components.

  7. Research on Fuzzy Diagnosis Method of Boiler Steam and Water Pipe Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xianglei; Wang, Yan

    Diagnosis pipe leakage timely and accurately is of great significance for safe and economic operation for boilers. According to the characteristics of the failure of boiler, this paper gives new function to describe fault symptoms and puts forward a new method of fault fuzzy recognition. Through simulation experiment, the new method was validated and compared with the existing fault diagnosis methods. The simulation results show that the new method for boiler failure recognition has high accuracy, and is better than other methods.

  8. Virginia Power's generic main steam-line-break DNBR (departure from nucleate boiling ratio) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.C.; Harrell, J.R.; Erb, J.O.

    1990-06-01

    Virginia Power operates four nuclear reactors, two units each at the Surry and North Anna Power stations. The original operating licenses were based on acceptable analysis results of the accidents in the final safety analysis report (FSAR). The assumptions of these analyses must be verified on a reload basis. Included in these FSAR accidents is the main steam-line-break (MSLB) event. The plant FSARs describe the MSLB analyses, which is summarized as follows. The plant is assumed to be at hot zero power at end of life, when the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) is most negative. The MSLB rapidly cools the secondary side, followed by a primary cooldown in one loop. The surge of cold water into the core, coupled with the negative MTC, results in high local power factors, which in turn can result in a violation of the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) limit. The three-dimensional power distribution is calculated at several key state points. These distributions are then subjected to core thermal-hydraulic analysis by the COBRA code. The W-3 correlation is used to calculate the state-point DNBRs. Both the physics and the DNBR calculations have been repeated on a reload basis. As a result, Virginia Power has accumulated a reasonably large data base of MSLB DNBRs for both Surry and North Anna. Virginia Power now uses the power peaking factors criterion to verify that the MSLB analysis remains bounding on a reload basis.

  9. Sensitivity Studies for Main Steam Line Break Exercises 2 and 3 with RELAP5/PANBOX

    SciTech Connect

    Boeer, Rainer; Knoll, Alfred

    2003-05-15

    This paper presents and discusses results obtained with the nuclear plant safety analysis code system RELAP5/PANBOX (R/P/C) for the return-to-power scenario of exercises 2 and 3 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) Benchmark. Both the external and internal coupling options of R/P/C have been considered for exercise 3; i.e., the COBRA module of PANBOX was used to calculate the core thermal hydraulics in the external coupling option, whereas the core thermal hydraulics of RELAP5 was used in the internal coupling option. For the representation of thermal-hydraulic channels, a fine channel geometry based on the 177 fuel assemblies was selected for the external coupling option, and a coarse channel geometry based on 19 coarse channels has been investigated for the internal coupling option. The comparison of the results shows very good agreement of important core parameters between the considered coupling variants. Both exercises 2 and 3 have been investigated with respect to local safety parameters like fuel centerline temperatures and minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratios using the on-line hot subchannel analysis capability of R/P/C in the external coupling option. The results show that both quantities are far from the safety-related limits.The benchmark demonstrates, that R/P/C - as part of the integrated CASCADE-3D core analysis system of Framatome ANP GmbH - has proven to be a powerful tool for detailed analyses of an MSLB accident.

  10. Steam injection pilot study in a contaminated fractured limestone (Maine, USA): Modeling and analysis of borehole radar reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, C.; Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    Steam-enhanced remediation (SER) has been successfully used to remove DNAPL and LNAPL contaminants in porous media. Between August and November 2002, SER was tested in fractured limestone at the former Loring Air Force Base, in Maine, USA. During the SER investigation, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a series of borehole radar surveys to evaluate the effectiveness of radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through the fractured limestone. The data were collected before steam injection, 10 days after the beginning of injection, and at the end of injection. In this paper, reflection-mode borehole radar data from wells JBW-7816 and JBW-7817A are presented and discussed. Theoretical modeling was performed to predict the variation of fracture reflectivity owed to heating, to show displacement of water and to assess the effect of SER at the site. Analysis of the radar profile data indicates some variations resulting from heating (increase of continuity of reflectors, attenuation of deeper reflections) but no substantial variation of traveltimes. Spectral content analysis of several individual reflections surrounding the boreholes was used to investigate the replacement of water by steam in the fractures. Observed decrease in radar reflectivity was too small to be explained by a replacement of water by steam, except for two high-amplitude reflectors, which disappeared near the end of the injection; moreover, no change of polarity, consistent with steam replacing water, was observed. The decrease of amplitude was greater for reflectors near well JBW-7817A and is explained by a greater heating around this well.

  11. Functioning efficiency of intermediate coolers of multistage steam-jet ejectors of steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Murmanskii, I. B.

    2017-03-01

    Designs of various types of intermediate coolers of multistage ejectors are analyzed and thermal effectiveness and gas-dynamic resistance of coolers are estimated. Data on quantity of steam condensed from steam-air mixture in stage I of an ejector cooler was obtained on the basis of experimental results. It is established that the amount of steam condensed in the cooler constitutes 0.6-0.7 and is almost independent of operating steam pressure (and, consequently, of steam flow) and air amount in steam-air mixture. It is suggested to estimate the amount of condensed steam in a cooler of stage I based on comparison of computed and experimental characteristics of stage II. Computation taking this hypothesis for main types of mass produced multistage ejectors into account shows that 0.60-0.85 of steam amount should be condensed in stage I of the cooler. For ejectors with "pipe-in-pipe" type coolers (EPO-3-200) and helical coolers (EO-30), amount of condensed steam may reach 0.93-0.98. Estimation of gas-dynamic resistance of coolers shows that resistance from steam side in coolers with built-in and remote pipe bundle constitutes 100-300 Pa. Gas-dynamic resistance of "pipein- pipe" and helical type coolers is significantly higher (3-6 times) compared with pipe bundle. However, performance by "dry" (atmospheric) air is higher for ejectors with relatively high gas-dynamic resistance of coolers than those with low resistance at approximately equal operating flow values of ejectors.

  12. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report and Appendices (CD-ROM)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-10-01

    The main report on this CD assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performace and efficiency improvements. The Appendices on this CD provide supporting information for the analyses and provides and recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of the U.S. Department of Energy BestPractices Steam Program.

  13. Durability and Reliability of Large Diameter HDPE Pipe for Water Main Applications (Web Report 4485)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research validates HDPE as a suitable material for use in municipal piping systems, and more research may help users maximize their understanding of its durability and reliability. Overall, corrosion resistance, hydraulic efficiency, flexibility, abrasion resistance, toughness, f...

  14. Durability and Reliability of Large Diameter HDPE Pipe for Water Main Applications (Web Report 4485)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research validates HDPE as a suitable material for use in municipal piping systems, and more research may help users maximize their understanding of its durability and reliability. Overall, corrosion resistance, hydraulic efficiency, flexibility, abrasion resistance, toughness, f...

  15. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE INTERNAL PIPE SEALING SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER MAIN REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many utilities are seeking emerging and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the service life of their infrastructure systems. This report describes the testing and performance evaluation of an internal pipe sealing system, which provides a permanent physical seal fo...

  16. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE INTERNAL PIPE SEALING SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER MAIN REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many utilities are seeking emerging and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the service life of their infrastructure systems. This report describes the testing and performance evaluation of an internal pipe sealing system, which provides a permanent physical seal fo...

  17. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B.

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

  18. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. Steamer of steam circulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Onodera, M.

    1986-09-23

    A conveyor steamer is described which consists of: a room enclosed with heat-insulated walls, floor, and ceiling, the room having an entrance and an exit for goods to be steamed, a conveyor means for carrying the goods to be steamed, the conveyor means traversing into the entrance of the room, through the room, and out of the exit of the room; a source of heated primary steam; first pipe means, arranged beneath the conveyor means, for jetting the heated primary steam upwardly from across the floor of the room; second pipe means disposed across the entire ceiling of the room arranged above the conveyor means, for scavenging spent steam from across the entire ceiling of the room; and an ejector-condenser means, interconnected between the first pipe means, the source of primary heated steam and the second pipe means, for mixing the spent steam from the second pipe means with the heated primary steam in the first pipe means; whereby the spent steam mixed with the heated primary steam is caused to recirculate in the first pipe means through the room, thus saving energy and consuming less heated primary steam so that cost reductions will result.

  20. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  1. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  2. Measure Guideline. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jayne; Ludwig, Peter; Brand, Larry

    2013-04-01

    This guideline provides building owners, professionals involved in multifamily audits, and contractors insights for improving the balance and tuning of steam systems. It provides readers an overview of one-pipe steam heating systems, guidelines for evaluating steam systems, typical costs and savings, and guidelines for ensuring quality installations. It also directs readers to additional resources for details not included here. Measures for balancing a distribution system that are covered include replacing main line vents and upgrading radiator vents. Also included is a discussion on upgrading boiler controls and the importance of tuning the settings on new or existing boiler controls. The guideline focuses on one-pipe steam systems, though many of the assessment methods can be generalized to two-pipe steam systems.

  3. Containment response to a main steam-line break using CONTAIN, RIS, and TRAC/BF1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Baratta, A. ); Talens, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes containment analyses performed using the CONTAIN, RIS, and TRAC/BF1 computer codes. Although each of these codes is a containment response code, they differ in their approaches to modeling the various phenomena that occur in the containment. The work was initiated to evaluate the ability of these codes to predict containment response during a main steam-line break (MSLB). This project expands on previous analysis performed by KEMA using the RIS and TRAC/BF1 codes to include CONTAIN results. In the course of this project, all three codes demonstrated their usefulness. Although all three codes predicted satisfactory results, the RIS and CONTAIN codes seem best suited for this type of transient. The TRAC/BF1 code should be used for transients where the interactions between the primary and containment system are though to be large.

  4. Main steam-line break core shroud loading calculations for BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Shoop, U.; Feltus, M.A.; Baratta, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    In July 1994, the U.S. Nuclear regulatory Commission sent out Generic Letter 94-03 to all boiling water reactors in the United States, informing them of intergranular stress corrosion cracking of core shrouds found in 2 reactors. The letter directed all to perform safety analysis of the BWR units. Penn State performed scoping calculations to determine the forces experienced by the core shroud during a main-stream line break transient.

  5. Application of adaptive PID control based on RBF-NN for the supercritical main steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Juan; Fang, Yan-jun

    2012-01-01

    The traditional PID control with RBF function the nerve network integration and made based on RBF the nerve network the PID controller. the controller for the supercritical main system, the network for temperature control system RBF an on-line to identify and build up the reference in the line and PID controller model for providing information and controllers of the online study to their control, adjust the parameter from online, the performance indicators. MATLAB simulation results show that the controller for temperature system has good control, not only keep track of good performance and robustness better.

  6. Application of adaptive PID control based on RBF-NN for the supercritical main steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Juan; Fang, Yan-Jun

    2011-12-01

    The traditional PID control with RBF function the nerve network integration and made based on RBF the nerve network the PID controller. the controller for the supercritical main system, the network for temperature control system RBF an on-line to identify and build up the reference in the line and PID controller model for providing information and controllers of the online study to their control, adjust the parameter from online, the performance indicators. MATLAB simulation results show that the controller for temperature system has good control, not only keep track of good performance and robustness better.

  7. Analysis of main steam isolation valve leakage in design basis accidents using MELCOR 1.8.6 and RADTRAD.

    SciTech Connect

    Salay, Michael; Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Radel, Tracy E.

    2008-10-01

    Analyses were performed using MELCOR and RADTRAD to investigate main steam isolation valve (MSIV) leakage behavior under design basis accident (DBA) loss-of-coolant (LOCA) conditions that are presumed to have led to a significant core melt accident. Dose to the control room, site boundary and LPZ are examined using both approaches described in current regulatory guidelines as well as analyses based on best estimate source term and system response. At issue is the current practice of using containment airborne aerosol concentrations as a surrogate for the in-vessel aerosol concentration that exists in the near vicinity of the MSIVs. This study finds current practice using the AST-based containment aerosol concentrations for assessing MSIV leakage is non-conservative and conceptually in error. A methodology is proposed that scales the containment aerosol concentration to the expected vessel concentration in order to preserve the simplified use of the AST in assessing containment performance under assumed DBA conditions. This correction is required during the first two hours of the accident while the gap and early in-vessel source terms are present. It is general practice to assume that at {approx}2hrs, recovery actions to reflood the core will have been successful and that further core damage can be avoided. The analyses performed in this study determine that, after two hours, assuming vessel reflooding has taken place, the containment aerosol concentration can then conservatively be used as the effective source to the leaking MSIV's. Recommendations are provided concerning typical aerosol removal coefficients that can be used in the RADTRAD code to predict source attenuation in the steam lines, and on robust methods of predicting MSIV leakage flows based on measured MSIV leakage performance.

  8. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D.

    1995-09-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified.

  9. VERA-CS Modeling and Simulation of PWR Main Steam Line Break Core Response to DNB

    SciTech Connect

    Salko, Robert K; Sung, Yixing; Kucukboyaci, Vefa; Xu, Yiban; Cao, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications core simulator (VERA-CS) being developed by the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) includes coupled neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, and fuel temperature components with an isotopic depletion capability. The neutronics capability employed is based on MPACT, a three-dimensional (3-D) whole core transport code. The thermal-hydraulics and fuel temperature models are provided by the COBRA-TF (CTF) subchannel code. As part of the CASL development program, the VERA-CS (MPACT/CTF) code system was applied to model and simulate reactor core response with respect to departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) at the limiting time step of a postulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) main steamline break (MSLB) event initiated at the hot zero power (HZP), either with offsite power available and the reactor coolant pumps in operation (high-flow case) or without offsite power where the reactor core is cooled through natural circulation (low-flow case). The VERA-CS simulation was based on core boundary conditions from the RETRAN-02 system transient calculations and STAR-CCM+ computational fluid dynamics (CFD) core inlet distribution calculations. The evaluation indicated that the VERA-CS code system is capable of modeling and simulating quasi-steady state reactor core response under the steamline break (SLB) accident condition, the results are insensitive to uncertainties in the inlet flow distributions from the CFD simulations, and the high-flow case is more DNB limiting than the low-flow case.

  10. Evaluation of a main steam line break with induced, multiple tube ruptures: A comparison of NUREG 1477 (Draft) and transient methodologies Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the approach taken to analyze the radiological consequences of a postulated main steam line break event, with one or more tube ruptures, for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The analysis was required to support the restart of PVNGS Unit 2 following the steam generator tube rupture event on March 14, 1993 and to justify continued operation of Units 1 and 3. During the post-event evaluation, the NRC expressed concern that Unit 2 could have been operating with degraded tubes and that similar conditions could exist in Units 1 and 3. The NRC therefore directed that a safety assessment be performed to evaluate a worst case scenario in which a non-isolable main steam line break occurs inducing one or more tube failures in the faulted steam generator. This assessment was to use the generic approach described in NUREG 1477, Voltage-Based Interim Plugging Criteria for Steam Generator Tubes - Task Group Report. An analysis based on the NUREG approach was performed but produced unacceptable results for off-site and control room thyroid doses. The NUREG methodology, however, does not account for plant thermal-hydraulic transient effects, system performance, or operator actions which could be credited to mitigate dose consequences. To deal with these issues, a more detailed analysis methodology was developed using a modified version of the Combustion Engineering Plant Analysis Code, which examines the dose consequences for a main steam line break transient with induced tube failures for a spectrum equivalent to 1 to 4 double ended guillotine U-tube breaks. By incorporating transient plant system responses and operator actions, the analysis demonstrates that the off-site and control room does consequences for a MSLBGTR can be reduced to acceptable limits. This analysis, in combination with other corrective and recovery actions, provided sufficient justification for continued operation of PVNGS Units 1 and 3, and for the subsequent restart of Unit 2.

  11. Development and testing of a multi-transducer system for measuring height of condensed water in steam pipes with steady-state and turbulent flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Cervantes, William; Simonini, Alan

    2017-04-01

    One of the critical requirements for ensuring the safety of a steam pipe is to monitor the condensed water level under operation. For this objective, the authors initially developed methods and obtained preliminary test results based on the use of ultrasonic pulse-echo transducers and enhanced signal-processing tool; however, the methodology needed further development in order to obtain measurements in turbulent dynamic flow conditions. To improve the reliability of measurements taken in turbulent flow conditions, an experimental system was developed using multiple transducers driven by a multiplexer, and a data acquisition module capable of operating in any flow conditions. The system consists of a simulation testbed, which allows testing the performance over a range of flow rates and water levels and to observe flow conditions and patterns, as well as measure actual water level, flow velocities, wave conditions, etc. In this paper, we present the development details that include description of the testbed for simulating the flow of condensed water, the multiple transducers arrangement, the signal processing method, and the test results of both steady state and turbulent flow.

  12. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EMERGING PIPE WALL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LARGE CAST IRON WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  13. Field Demonstration of Emerging Pipe Wall Integrity Assessment Technologies for Large Cast Iron Water Mains - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast-iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  14. Field Demonstration of Emerging Pipe Wall Integrity Assessment Technologies for Large Cast Iron Water Mains - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast-iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  15. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EMERGING PIPE WALL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LARGE CAST IRON WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  16. Use of Borehole-Radar Methods to Monitor a Steam-Enhanced Remediation Pilot Study at a Quarry at the Former Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, Colette; Joesten, Peter K.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2007-01-01

    Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography surveys were used in conjunction with conventional borehole-geophysical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of borehole-radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through fractured bedrock. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), conducted surveys in an abandoned limestone quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base during a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation (SER) pilot project conducted by the USEPA, the U.S. Air Force, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection to study the viability of SER to remediate non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in fractured bedrock. Numerical modeling and field experiments indicate that borehole-radar methods have the potential to monitor the presence of steam and to measure large temperature changes in the limestone matrix during SER operations. Based on modeling results, the replacement of water by steam in fractures should produce a decrease in radar reflectivity (amplitude of the reflected wave) by a factor of 10 and a change in reflection polarity. In addition, heating the limestone matrix should increase the bulk electrical conductivity and decrease the bulk dielectric permittivity. These changes result in an increase in radar attenuation and an increase in radar-wave propagation velocity, respectively. Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography data were collected in two boreholes using 100-megahertz antennas before the start of steam injection, about 10 days after the steam injection began, and 2 months later, near the end of the injection. Fluid temperature logs show that the temperature of the fluid in the boreholes increased by 10?C (degrees Celsius) in one borehole and 40?C in the other; maximum temperatures were measured near the bottom of the boreholes. The results of the numerical modeling were used to interpret the borehole-radar data. Analyses of the

  17. Heat pipe methanator

    DOEpatents

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  18. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WATER MAINS: ACOUSTIC PIPE WALL ASSESSMENT, INTERNAL INSPECTION, AND EXTERNAL INSPECTIONVOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT AND VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine pipe wall integrity assessment technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condi...

  19. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WATER MAINS: ACOUSTIC PIPE WALL ASSESSMENT, INTERNAL INSPECTION, AND EXTERNAL INSPECTIONVOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT AND VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine pipe wall integrity assessment technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condi...

  20. Remote Diagnosis of Dug-in Areas and Bottom Pipe by Main Acoustic Emission Method Using a Self-organizing Wireless Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsova, Ye; Shram, V.; Lysyannikova, N.; Bezborodov, Yu; Selsky, A.; Lysyannikov, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses methods of nondestructive testing, the main method is method of acoustic flue gas emission. It was found that the use of this method in the diagnosis of bottom pipe and dug-in areas allows to reduce time, does not require surface dressing to a certain value, provides almost instant information about the defect at a great distance to the nearest gas-pumping station and is not inferior to the reliability of the control other existing methods.

  1. District steam and the St. Louis steam loop

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, T.M.; Sauer, H.J. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Owned and operated by large public electric utilities, district steam systems flourished in most northern US cities in the first half of this century. Following World War II, however, district steam systems became minor and, in some cases, unprofitable portions of the utilities' operations. Consequently, public utilities ceased promoting district steam to existing and potential customers, leading to the decline of their use. In recent years, district steam systems have been revitalized by independent enterprises that have the commitment and expertise to make these systems once again reliable and cost-effective energy sources. This paper reports on one such system, The St. Louis Steam Loop. The St. Louis steam loop consists of 22 miles of insulated underground steam piping encompassing a 400-square block area in the city's downtown business district. The loop is supplied with steam by the Ashley Plant, which was built in 1904 for the St. Louis World's Fair. Due to the rising cost of oil, which has been used to fuel the Ashley Plant since 1972, and the subsequent loss of customers, many people considered the steam system a dinosaur in the jet age. In 1982, Trigen-St. Louis Energy Corporation purchased the steam system and embarked on an aggressive campaign to upgrade all aspects of the system, including valves, piping, and meters. In 1999, Trigen-St. Louis will install an ISMW state-of-the-art combustion turbine cogenerator to provide 95% of the steam to the steam loop. A primary reason for the St. Louis Steam Loop's longevity is that it has reliably supplied steam to many downtown buildings for the better part of the 20th century.

  2. Applications of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-04-01

    The piping systems in nuclear power plants, even with conventional snubber supports, are highly complex nonlinear structures under severe earthquake loadings mainly due to various mechanical gaps in support structures. Some type of nonlinear analysis is necessary to accurately predict the piping responses under earthquake loadings. The application of equivalent linearization approaches (ELA) to seismic analyses of nonlinear piping systems is presented. Two types of ELA`s are studied; i.e., one based on the response spectrum method and the other based on the linear random vibration theory. The test results of main steam and feedwater piping systems supported by snubbers and energy absorbers are used to evaluate the numerical accuracy and limitations.

  3. 49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dry pipe. 230.62 Section 230.62 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes §...

  4. 49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dry pipe. 230.62 Section 230.62 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes §...

  5. 49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dry pipe. 230.62 Section 230.62 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes §...

  6. 49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dry pipe. 230.62 Section 230.62 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230...

  7. 49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dry pipe. 230.62 Section 230.62 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230...

  8. Heat loss through insulated steam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepfer, J.G.; Dykstra, S.

    1982-02-22

    Heat loss through piping is a costly problem in steam-oriented thermal recovery operations. To determine the heat loss from above- and below-ground insulated steam piping, a program has been written for the TI-59 programmable calculator. Given the pipe parameters, steam temperature, and wind velocity, this program calculates the heat loss in w/m. Assuming pressure drop through the line is negligible, steam quality may be calculated at any point along the pipe. The newton-Raphson iterative technique is used to solve 2 simultaneous equations for the skin temperature. Once convergence is complete, skin temperature is used to calculate the heat loss. The program will allow the engineer to determine heat lost from the steam generator to the wellhead.

  9. Analysis of nuclear piping system seismic tests with conventional and energy absorbing supports

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; DeGrassi, G.; Hofmayer, C.; Bezler, P.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-04-01

    Large-scale models of main steam and feedwater piping systems were tested on the shaking table by the Nuclear Power Engineering Cooperation (NUPEC) of Japan, as part of the Seismic Proving Test Program. This paper describes the linear and nonlinear analyses performed by NRC/BNL and compares the results to the test data.

  10. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Ferrous pipe. ASTM Specification A 53 (incorporated by reference, see § 56.01-2) furnace welded pipe shall... found from Table 56.60-1(a). (3) Copper-nickel alloys may be used for water and steam service within the... specifically permitted by this part. (6) Aluminum-alloy pipe or tube along with similar junction equipment may...

  11. Piping design considerations in a solar-Rankine power plant. [pipe size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Two of the main parameters in sizing the piping of a solar power plant are the working pressure of the vapor leaving the solar collectors, and the type of working fluid used. Numerical examples for each case are given using the graphical Moody friction charts and the analytical Darcy-Weisbach equation. Different working pressures of steam vapor in the solar collector-turbine pipe connection indicate their major role in the design. The size variation was found not to be in linear proportion to vapor density variations. On the other hand, high molecular weight organic fluids such as R-11 and R-113, when compared with water, show insignificant changes in piping sizes.

  12. Piping design considerations in a solar-Rankine power plant. [pipe size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Two of the main parameters in sizing the piping of a solar power plant are the working pressure of the vapor leaving the solar collectors, and the type of working fluid used. Numerical examples for each case are given using the graphical Moody friction charts and the analytical Darcy-Weisbach equation. Different working pressures of steam vapor in the solar collector-turbine pipe connection indicate their major role in the design. The size variation was found not to be in linear proportion to vapor density variations. On the other hand, high molecular weight organic fluids such as R-11 and R-113, when compared with water, show insignificant changes in piping sizes.

  13. 4. FIRST FLOOR SOUTH WALL, WITH PIPE MANIFOLDS AND (RIGHTCENTER) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FIRST FLOOR SOUTH WALL, WITH PIPE MANIFOLDS AND (RIGHT-CENTER) PORTABLE STEAM PUMP FOR PIPE MAINTENANCE AND CLEANING - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-3, 47-51 York Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  14. Steam Generator of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure

    SciTech Connect

    Cinotti, L.; Bruzzone, M.; Meda, N.; Corsini, G.; Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.; Conway, L.E.

    2002-07-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a light water cooled, 335 MWe power reactor which is being designed by an international consortium as part of the US DOE NERI Program. IRIS features an integral reactor vessel that contains all the main reactor coolant system components including the reactor core, the coolant pumps, the steam generators and the pressurizer. This integral design approach eliminates the large coolant loop piping, and thus eliminates large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) as well as the individual component pressure vessels and supports. In addition, IRIS is being designed with a long-life core and enhanced safety to address the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors. The design of the steam generators, which are internally contained within the reactor vessel, is a major design effort in the development of the integral IRIS concept. The ongoing design activity about the steam generator is the subject of this paper. (authors)

  15. Spiral inlets for steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škach, Radek; Uher, Jan

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the design process of special nozzle blades for spiral inlets. Spiral inlets are used for the first stages of high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines with both reaction and impulse blades when throttling or sliding pressure control is applied. They improve the steam flow uniformity from the inlet pipe and thus decrease the aerodynamic losses. The proposed evaluation of the inlet angle is based on the free vortex law.

  16. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: Steam rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, I.G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton`s and Avogadro`s laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  17. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: steam rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, I. G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton's and Avogadro's laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  18. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis of departure from nucleate boiling limiting case with CASL core simulator VERA-CS in response to PWR main steam line break event

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Cameron S.; Zhang, Hongbin; Kucukboyaci, Vefa; Sung, Yixing

    2016-09-07

    VERA-CS (Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, Core Simulator) is a coupled neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics subchannel code under development by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). VERA-CS was used to simulate a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) full core response with 17x17 fuel assemblies for a main steam line break (MSLB) accident scenario with the most reactive rod cluster control assembly stuck out of the core. The accident scenario was initiated at the hot zero power (HZP) at the end of the first fuel cycle with return to power state points that were determined by a system analysis code and the most limiting state point was chosen for core analysis. The best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis method was applied using Wilks’ nonparametric statistical approach. In this way, 59 full core simulations were performed to provide the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR) at the 95/95 (95% probability with 95% confidence level) tolerance limit. The results show that this typical PWR core remains within MDNBR safety limits for the MSLB accident.

  19. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis of departure from nucleate boiling limiting case with CASL core simulator VERA-CS in response to PWR main steam line break event

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Cameron S.; Zhang, Hongbin; Kucukboyaci, Vefa; ...

    2016-09-07

    VERA-CS (Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, Core Simulator) is a coupled neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics subchannel code under development by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). VERA-CS was used to simulate a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) full core response with 17x17 fuel assemblies for a main steam line break (MSLB) accident scenario with the most reactive rod cluster control assembly stuck out of the core. The accident scenario was initiated at the hot zero power (HZP) at the end of the first fuel cycle with return to power state points that were determined by amore » system analysis code and the most limiting state point was chosen for core analysis. The best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis method was applied using Wilks’ nonparametric statistical approach. In this way, 59 full core simulations were performed to provide the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR) at the 95/95 (95% probability with 95% confidence level) tolerance limit. The results show that this typical PWR core remains within MDNBR safety limits for the MSLB accident.« less

  20. Apparatus and method for acoustic monitoring of steam quality and flow

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-09-13

    An apparatus and method for noninvasively monitoring steam quality and flow and in pipes or conduits bearing flowing steam, are described. By measuring the acoustic vibrations generated in steam-carrying conduits by the flowing steam either by direct contact with the pipe or remotely thereto, converting the measured acoustic vibrations into a frequency spectrum characteristic of the natural resonance vibrations of the pipe, and monitoring the amplitude and/or the frequency of one or more chosen resonance frequencies, changes in the steam quality in the pipe are determined. The steam flow rate and the steam quality are inversely related, and changes in the steam flow rate are calculated from changes in the steam quality once suitable calibration curves are obtained.

  1. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan; Griffin, Mr. Bob; Wright, Anthony L

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  2. Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  3. Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  4. Three Mile Island Unit 1 Main Steam Line Break Three-Dimensional Neutronics/Thermal-Hydraulics Analysis: Application of Different Coupled Codes

    SciTech Connect

    D'Auria, Francesco; Moreno, Jose Luis Gago; Galassi, Giorgio Maria; Grgic, Davor; Spadoni, Antonino

    2003-05-15

    A comprehensive analysis of the double ended main steam line break (MSLB) accident assumed to occur in the Babcock and Wilcox Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1) has been carried out at the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione of the University of Pisa, Italy, in cooperation with the University of Zagreb, Croatia. The overall activity has been completed within the framework of the participation in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development-Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations-Nuclear Science Committee pressurized water reactor MSLB benchmark.Thermal-hydraulic system codes (various versions of Relap5), three-dimensional (3-D) neutronics codes (Parcs, Quabbox, and Nestle), and one subchannel code (Cobra) have been adopted for the analysis. Results from the following codes (or code versions) are assumed as reference:1. Relap5/mod3.2.2, beta version, coupled with the 3-D neutron kinetics Parcs code parallel virtual machine (PVM) coupling2. Relap5/mod3.2.2, gamma version, coupled with the 3-D neutron kinetics Quabbox code (direct coupling)3. Relap5/3D code coupled with the 3-D neutron kinetics Nestle code.The influence of PVM and of direct coupling is also discussed.Boundary and initial conditions of the system, including those relevant to the fuel status, have been supplied by Pennsylvania State University in cooperation with GPU Nuclear Corporation (the utility, owner of TMI) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The comparison among the results obtained by adopting the same thermal-hydraulic nodalization and the coupled code version is discussed in this paper.The capability of the control rods to recover the accident has been demonstrated in all the cases as well as the capability of all the codes to predict the time evolution of the assigned transient. However, one stuck control rod caused some 'recriticality' or 'return to power' whose magnitude is largely affected by boundary and initial conditions.

  5. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... found from Table 56.60-1(a). (3) Copper-nickel alloys may be used for water and steam service within the... specifically permitted by this part. (6) Aluminum-alloy pipe or tube along with similar junction equipment...

  6. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... found from table 56.60-1(a). (3) Copper-nickel alloys may be used for water and steam service within the... specifically permitted by this part. (6) Aluminum-alloy pipe or tube along with similar junction equipment...

  7. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... found from Table 56.60-1(a). (3) Copper-nickel alloys may be used for water and steam service within the... specifically permitted by this part. (6) Aluminum-alloy pipe or tube along with similar junction equipment...

  8. Minimization of the negative influence on the biosphere in heavy oil extraction and ecologically clean technology for the injection of the steam with supercritical parameters in oil strata on the basis of new ecologically clean tubing pipes with heat-resistant coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkov, M. A.; Moiseev, V. A.; Tarasov, V. A.; Timofeev, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Some ecological problems related to heavy-oil extraction and ways for minimizing the negative impacts of this process on the biosphere are discussed. The ecological hazard of, for example, frequently used multistage hydraulic fracturing of formation is noted and the advantages and perspectives of superheated steam injection are considered. Steam generators of a new type and ecologically clean and costeffective insulating for tubing pipes (TPs) are necessary to develop the superheated steam injection method. The article is devoted to solving one of the most important and urgent tasks, i.e., the development and usage of lightweight, nonflammable, environmentally safe, and cost-effective insulating materials. It is shown that, for tubing shielding operating at temperatures up to 420°C, the most effective thermal insulation is a highly porous material based on basalt fiber. The process of filtration deposition of short basalt fibers with a bunch of alumina thermal insulation tubing pipe coatings in the form of cylinders and cylindrical shells from liquid pulp is substantiated. Based on the thermophysical characteristics of basalt fibers and on the technological features of manufacturing highly porous coating insulation, the thickness of a tubing pipe is determined. During the prolonged pumping of the air at an operating temperature of 400°C in the model sample of tubing pipes with insulation and a protective layer, we find that the surface temperature of the thermal barrier coating does not exceed 60°C. Introducing the described technology will considerably reduce the negative impact of heavy-oil extraction on the biosphere.

  9. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  10. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  11. Piping benchmark problems for the ABB/CE System 80+ Standardized Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

    1994-07-01

    To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the ABB/Combustion Engineering System 80+ Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the System 80+ standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solution to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set. The first System 80+ piping benchmark is a uniform support motion response spectrum solution for one section of the feedwater piping subjected to safe shutdown seismic loads. The second System 80+ piping benchmark is a time history solution for the feedwater piping subjected to the transient loading induced by a water hammer. The third System 80+ piping benchmark is a time history solution of the pressurizer surge line subjected to the accelerations induced by a main steam line pipe break. The System 80+ reactor is an advanced PWR type.

  12. Steaming Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoverson, Rick

    2006-01-01

    Schools can provide a cleaner, more healthful school environment by simply combining heat and water. Steam vapor systems use only tap water with no chemicals added. Low-pressure (12 psi to 65 psi) steam vapor sanitizes and deodorizes. This process can then be used safely in many situations, but is especially suited for restrooms and food-service…

  13. Steaming Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoverson, Rick

    2006-01-01

    Schools can provide a cleaner, more healthful school environment by simply combining heat and water. Steam vapor systems use only tap water with no chemicals added. Low-pressure (12 psi to 65 psi) steam vapor sanitizes and deodorizes. This process can then be used safely in many situations, but is especially suited for restrooms and food-service…

  14. Heat pipe waste heat recovery boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littwin, D. A.; McCurley, J.

    The use of heat pipes as transport devices in waste heat recovery boilers is examined. Test results show that heat pipes can efficiently extract heat from the hot gas stream and transfer it inside the pressure vessel for the steam generation process. The benefits of incorporating heat pipes into the design of waste heat recovery boilers include a highly compact package, a significant reduction in thermally induced stresses, double isolation of the steam from the heat source, an extended surface for improved efficiency in heat extraction, improved circulation and stability in the boiling regime, easy cleaning, individually replaceable tubes, and low flue gas pressure drop.

  15. 9. HIGH POWER SPRAY IN MEN'S STEAM ROOM. Hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. HIGH POWER SPRAY IN MEN'S STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 46. AUXILIARY CHAMBER (EAST END), LOOKING NORTHWEST AT STEAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. AUXILIARY CHAMBER (EAST END), LOOKING NORTHWEST AT STEAM AND FEEDWATER PIPING AND PRESSURIZER AND FLASH/BLOWOFF TANK ROOMS (LOCATION EEE) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  17. 19. STAIRWAY TO TAINTER GATE SECTION OF SPILLWAY, SHOWING STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. STAIRWAY TO TAINTER GATE SECTION OF SPILLWAY, SHOWING STEAM PIPES EMERGING FROM BOILERHOUSE (RIGHT) AND CONCRETE TAINTER GATE COUNTER WEIGHTS (BACKGROUND RIGHT). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section 56.50-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING... valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping from unfired steam generator, boiler, and superheater safety...

  19. Main Design Principles of the Cold Beam Pipe in the FastRamped Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for Heavy Ion Synchrotron SIS100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierau, A.; Schnizer, P.; Fischer, E.; Macavei, J.; Wilfert, S.; Koch, S.; Weiland, T.; Kurnishov, R.; Shcherbakov, P.

    SIS100, the world second large scale heavy ion synchrotron using fast ramped superconducting magnets, is to be built at FAIR. Its high current operation of intermediate charge state ions requires stable vacuum pressures < 10-12 mbar under dynamic machine conditions which are only achievable when the whole beam pipe is used as an huge cryopump. In order to find technological feasible design solutions, three opposite requirements have to be met: minimum magnetic field distortion caused by AC losses, mechanical stability and low and stable wall temperatures of the beam pipe. We present the possible design versions of the beam pipe for the high current curved dipole. The pros and cons of these proposed designs were studied using simplified analytical models, FEM calculations and tests on models.

  20. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M.; Urabe, Y.

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  1. Steam Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

  2. Technical evaluation: 300 Area steam line valve accident

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    On June 7, 1993, a journeyman power operator (JPO) was severely burned and later died as a result of the failure of a 6-in. valve that occurred when he attempted to open main steam supply (MSS) valve MSS-25 in the U-3 valve pit. The pit is located northwest of Building 331 in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Figure 1-1 shows a layout of the 300 Area steam piping system including the U-3 steam valve pit. Figure 1-2 shows a cutaway view of the approximately 10- by 13- by 16-ft-high valve pit with its various steam valves and connecting piping. Valve MSS-25, an 8-in. valve, is located at the bottom of the pit. The failed 6-in. valve was located at the top of the pit where it branched from the upper portion of the 8-in. line at the 8- by 8- by 6-in. tee and was then ``blanked off`` with a blind flange. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the cause of the accident that led to the failure of the 6-in. valve. The probable cause for the 6-in. valve failure was determined by visual, nondestructive, and destructive examination of the failed valve and by metallurgical analysis of the fractured region of the valve. The cause of the accident was ultimately identified by correlating the observed failure mode to the most probable physical phenomenon. Thermal-hydraulic analyses, component stress analyses, and tests were performed to verify that the probable physical phenomenon could be reasonably expected to produce the failure in the valve that was observed.

  3. Condensation-induced waterhammer in a vertical upfill pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltsgendler, E.; Tahir, A.; Leung, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    Waterhammer can be defined as a rapid pressure increase occurring in a piping system caused by a sudden change in the liquid velocity. A classic example is the pressure spike due to rapid closure of a valve. In nuclear power plants, as well as in conventional plants, there are other mechanisms for initiating waterhammer aside from valve closure. One of them is a steam bubble collapse in a pipe due to contact with subcooled water. This is condensation-induced waterhammer (CIWH). One of the important papers on CIWH is by Chou and Griffith. The tests were performed at a small driving force and consequently low waterhammer pressure spike ({approximately}70 kPa). To get experimental data for large driving forces and high waterhammer pressure spike ({approximately}10 MPa), a test facility has been built at Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT). Funding for the work has been provided by the Ontario Hydro Darlington nuclear generating station. In these experiments, the subcooled water has been injected into saturated steam. The steam temperature ranged from 100 to 142{degrees}C. The experiments were initiated by quickly opening a ball valve. During the experimental program, significant data scatter was recorded. This data scatter was very large at high temperature (142{degrees}C). The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the main phenomena for CIWH, to define the reason for the data scatter, and to illustrate the results of implementation of the proposed mechanism into a thermal-hydraulic code.

  4. Pipe support

    DOEpatents

    Pollono, Louis P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

  5. Acoustically induced structural fatigue of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eisinger, F.L.; Francis, J.T.

    1999-11-01

    Piping systems handling high-pressure and high-velocity steam and various process and hydrocarbon gases through a pressure-reducing device can produce severe acoustic vibration and metal fatigue in the system. It has been previously shown that the acoustic fatigue of the piping system is governed by the relationship between fluid pressure drop and downstream Mach number, and the dimensionless pipe diameter/wall thickness geometry parameter. In this paper, the devised relationship is extended to cover acoustic fatigue considerations of medium and smaller-diameter piping systems.

  6. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  7. Pipe Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

  8. Pipe Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

  9. An Experimental Study on Physical Factors Affecting Dispersion and Dilution of the Main Street Stormwater Outfall Pipe in North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mears, N. P.; Hackett, E. E.; Gurka, R.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how stormwater will disperse from outfall pipes in the coastal environment is a critical aspect of discharge pipe design and evaluation, ensuring that environmental quality standards are met. In order to understand the dispersal, one must consider the processes of dispersion, the characteristics of the discharge from the pipe, the ambient conditions of the discharge area and how these factors are coupled together. Stratification, currents and waves can affect the dispersion and dilution of an outfall's discharge. Estimates of dilution are based on the relative strength of environmental conditions such as wave orbital velocities, tidal currents and stratification, relative to discharge characteristics, such as density and flow rate. In this study, we investigate the ambient conditions and discharge characteristics of a stormwater outfall pipe in North Myrtle Beach, SC. Previous studies on stormwater outfall dispersion and dilution in the area provide only qualitative descriptions of outfall discharge behavior based on assumed conditions. This study evaluates the percentage of time the dilution of the discharge is tidally dominated, stratification dominated, wave dominated or a combination of these factors over the study period. This objective is accomplished by making in situ measurements of velocity, temperature and salinity of both the discharge and ambient conditions using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters, an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, and temperature and conductivity sensors. The results characterize typical conditions expected close to shore along the South Carolina coastline, and we assess their impact on the dispersion of stormwater from this outfall. This information is valuable for modeling the dispersion of contaminants in this environment and provide accurate data on expected conditions for engineering design purposes.

  10. WEST ELEVATION, CAMERA FACING EAST. THE OVERHEAD PIPES ARE FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION, CAMERA FACING EAST. THE OVERHEAD PIPES ARE FOR DISTRIBUTING STEAM FROM THE NEARBY HEATING PLANT TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE COMPLEX. - New Haven Rail Yard, Oil Storage Building, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. Find optimum pipe size

    SciTech Connect

    Fastenakels, M.; Campana, H.

    1984-09-01

    For decades, chemical engineers have used various rules of thumb for selecting the size of pipe in continuousprocess plants. Often these methods result in sizes that are not the correct selection for the operating conditions. This causes the plant to be less efficient to operate or more costly to erect. The optimum size is controlled by one of three modes of selection: the least annual cost (energy external source), the pressure drop available or the velocity allowable (often is two-phase flow)./sup 3/ Pressure drop available applies when a pressure loss may be (or must be) absorbed by the pipe. The optimum size then becomes the smallest and the least expensive that permits the flow to take place with no undesirable side effects. Except for very special cases, this would not be used in conjunction with a pumped or compressed fluid. This mode requires at least an approximation of the length of the pipe and the quantity and nature of the fittings in the system before the selection can be made. It can also apply under some conditions to the suction piping for pumps or compressors, to the lines conducting steam to and from reciprocating pumps and to heating equipment.

  12. Steam condensate leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

  13. Steam Pressure-Reducing Station Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Mark D; Christopher, Timothy W; Oland, C Barry

    2011-06-01

    The Facilities and Operations (F&O) Directorate is sponsoring a continuous process improvement (CPI) program. Its purpose is to stimulate, promote, and sustain a culture of improvement throughout all levels of the organization. The CPI program ensures that a scientific and repeatable process exists for improving the delivery of F&O products and services in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Management Systems. Strategic objectives of the CPI program include achieving excellence in laboratory operations in the areas of safety, health, and the environment. Identifying and promoting opportunities for achieving the following critical outcomes are important business goals of the CPI program: improved safety performance; process focused on consumer needs; modern and secure campus; flexibility to respond to changing laboratory needs; bench strength for the future; and elimination of legacy issues. The Steam Pressure-Reducing Station (SPRS) Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, which is under the CPI program, focuses on maintaining and upgrading SPRSs that are part of the ORNL steam distribution network. This steam pipe network transports steam produced at the ORNL steam plant to many buildings in the main campus site. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project promotes excellence in laboratory operations by (1) improving personnel safety, (2) decreasing fuel consumption through improved steam system energy efficiency, and (3) achieving compliance with applicable worker health and safety requirements. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project being performed by F&O is helping ORNL improve both energy efficiency and worker safety by modifying, maintaining, and repairing SPRSs. Since work began in 2006, numerous energy-wasting steam leaks have been eliminated, heat losses from uninsulated steam pipe surfaces have been reduced, and deficient pressure retaining components have been replaced. These improvements helped ORNL

  14. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 1, Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Since 1982, there has been a major effort expended to evaluate the susceptibility of nuclear Power plant equipment to failure and significant damage during seismic events. This was done by making use of data on the performance of electrical and mechanical equipment in conventional power plants and other similar industrial facilities during strong motion earthquakes. This report is intended as an extension of the seismic experience data collection effort and a compilation of experience data specific to power plant piping and supports designed and constructed US power piping code requirements which have experienced strong motion earthquakes. Eight damaging (Richter Magnitude 7.7 to 5.5) California earthquakes and their effects on 8 power generating facilities in use natural gas and California were reviewed. All of these facilities were visited and evaluated. Seven fossel-fueled (dual use natural gas and oil) and one nuclear fueled plants consisting of a total of 36 individual boiler or reactor units were investigated. Peak horizontal ground accelerations that either had been recorded on site at these facilities or were considered applicable to these power plants on the basis of nearby recordings ranged between 0.20g and 0.5lg with strong motion durations which varied from 3.5 to 15 seconds. Most US nuclear power plants are designed for a safe shutdown earthquake peak ground acceleration equal to 0.20g or less with strong motion durations which vary from 10 to 15 seconds.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Gravity-Driven Pipe Flow With Cavitation

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, Tobias; Laurien, Eckart; Schwarz, Wolfgang

    2002-07-01

    Gravity driven pipe flows contain no risk of pump failure and are considered to be reliable even under accident conditions. However, accurate prediction methods are only available for single phase flow. In case of the occurrence of two-phase flow (caused e.g. by boiling or cavitation), a considerable reduction in mass flux can be observed. In this study, an experimental and numerical investigation of gravity driven two-phase pipe flow was performed in order to understand and model such flows. An experiment was conducted to analyse gravity driven flow of water near saturation temperature in a complex pipe consisting of several vertical and horizontal sections. The diameter was 100 mm with a driving height of 13 m between an elevated tank and the pipe outlet. The experiment shows that cavitation leads to formation of steam. The two-phase character of the flow causes a significant reduction of mass flux in comparison to a single phase flow case. The experimental flow rate was reproduced by one dimensional single and two phase flow analysis based on standard one dimensional methods including models for steam formation. The main part of this study consists of a three dimensional CFD analysis of the two phase flow. A three dimensional model for cavitation and recondensation phenomena based on thermal transport processes was developed, implemented and validated against our experimental data. Due to the fact that beside bubbly flow, also the stratified and droplet flow regimes occur, a new approach to model phase interaction terms of the Two-Fluid Model for mass, momentum and energy is presented. Thereby, the transition from one flow regime to another is taken into account. The experimental mass flow rate can be predicted with an accuracy of 10%. The three dimensional analysis of the flow situation demonstrates the influence of pipe elements such as horizontal and vertical sections, bends and valves of the pipe on the mass flux and the steam distribution. The analysis of

  16. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  17. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, Paul R.; McLennan, George A.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  18. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  19. 35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT STEAM CHEST AND CYLINDER HEADS. ORIGINAL STEAM FIRE PUMP IS ON PORT SIDE - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. Steam drum design for direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willwerth, Lisa; Müller, Svenja; Krüger, Joachim; Succo, Manuel; Feldhoff, Jan Fabian; Tiedemann, Jörg; Pandian, Yuvaraj; Krüger, Dirk; Hennecke, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    For the direct steam generation in solar fields, the recirculation concept has been demonstrated in several installations. Water masses in the solar field vary during transient phases, such as passing clouds. The volume of the steam drum can serve as a buffer during such transients by taking in excess water and providing water storage. The saturated steam mass flow to the superheating section or the consumer can be maintained almost constant during short transients; therefore the steam drum plays a key role for constant steam supply. Its buffer effect depends on the right sizing of the steam drum for the prevailing situations. Due to missing experiences, steam drums have been sized under conservative assumptions and are thereby usually oversized. With this paper, experiences on the steam drum of the 5 MWel TSE1 power plant are discussed for optimized future plant design. The results are also of relevance for process heat installations, in which saturated steam is produced by the solar field.

  1. Inspecting Pipe Radiographically Through Asbestos Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianettino, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Welds between sections of insulated steampipe located and inspected radiographically. Unless need to repair defective weld, one avoids cost, time, and hazard of removing asbestos insulation. Enables inspectors to locate and evaluate nondestructively any weld in pipe system, without shutting down steam. Hidden weld joints first located by use of low-power fluoroscope, moved along pipe while technician observes fluoroscopic image. Low-energy x rays from fluoroscope penetrate insulation but not pipe. Weld bead appears in silhouette on fluoroscope screen. Technician then accurately marks weld sites on insulation for later inspection.

  2. Inspecting Pipe Radiographically Through Asbestos Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianettino, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Welds between sections of insulated steampipe located and inspected radiographically. Unless need to repair defective weld, one avoids cost, time, and hazard of removing asbestos insulation. Enables inspectors to locate and evaluate nondestructively any weld in pipe system, without shutting down steam. Hidden weld joints first located by use of low-power fluoroscope, moved along pipe while technician observes fluoroscopic image. Low-energy x rays from fluoroscope penetrate insulation but not pipe. Weld bead appears in silhouette on fluoroscope screen. Technician then accurately marks weld sites on insulation for later inspection.

  3. Pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Thomas E.; Pardini, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated.

  4. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  5. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  6. 10. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. CHIPPER AT LEFT, STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. CHIPPER AT LEFT, STEAM PLANT AT RIGHT. NOTE STEAM EXHAUSTS IN ROOF; LEFT IS MAIN ENGINE, RIGHT IS CARRIAGE DRIVE ENGINE. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  7. Piping Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  8. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  9. Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

  10. Failure Analysis of PRDS Pipe in a Thermal Power Plant Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Ray, Subrata; Mandal, Jiten; Mandal, Nilrudra; Shukla, Awdhesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The pressure reducer desuperheater (PRDS) pipeline is used for reducing the pressure and desuperheating of the steam in different auxiliary pipeline. When the PRDS pipeline is failed, the reliability of the boiler is affected. This paper investigates the probable cause/causes of failure of the PRDS tapping line. In that context, visual inspection, outside diameter and wall thickness measurement, chemical analysis, metallographic examination and hardness measurement are conducted as part of the investigative studies. Apart from these tests, mechanical testing and fractographic analysis are also conducted as supplements. Finally, it has been concluded that the PRDS pipeline has mainly failed due to graphitization due to prolonged exposure of the pipe at higher temperature. The improper material used is mainly responsible for premature failure of the pipe.

  11. The STEAM Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schéele, F.; Steam Team

    The proposed satellite project "Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange And climate Monitor" (STEAM) is dedicated to the investigation of chemical, dynamical, and radiative processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) altitude range and their links with the Earth climate and stratosphere evolution. The main objectives are to provide vertically and horizontally resolved information on the global distributions of UT/LS key species such as H2O, O3, and CO, and global fields of O3, H2O and halogen compounds responsible for the O3 destruction like ClO in the stratosphere. The UT/LS region plays an important role in the Earth's climate system. Despite its importance there is still a lack of accurate, height-resolved data from the UT/LS. Confronting 3-D climate and chemical-transport models with STEAM observations will improve our knowledge of this atmospheric region. Furthermore, it will be important to continue monitoring the evolution of the stratosphere regarding the expected decline of halogen compounds and recovery of the ozone layer. STEAM consists of a microwave limb-sounding instrument, operating in the 320-360 GHz range to sound the UT/LS and in the 485-505 GHz range to sound the stratosphere, and an optical instrument. By sounding the Earth atmosphere's limb from 5 to 28 km employing a new technique with 8 simultaneous measurements, STEAM will produce a global dataset of UT/LS key species with high vertical (1.5-2.5 km) and horizontal (30-50 km) resolution. The sub-mm band will cover 15 to 40 km. An optical instrument, co-aligned with the mm-wave band, will support micro-wave measurements with cloud indications and in addition provide stratospheric ozone, and aerosol and cloud property measurements. STEAM, planned for a launch in 2008, will be a collaboration between laboratories, industry and agencies in several countries. The Odin heritage of the project (e.g. microwave and optical instruments) provides technical maturity and will help to keep

  12. 67. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF A STEAM LAUNDRY LOCATED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF A STEAM LAUNDRY LOCATED IN THE CONDENSER GALLERY UNDER THE TURBINE HALL. THE FACILITY WAS USED TO WASH WORKERS CLOTHES. THE WASH TUB IS LOCATED AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE TUB WAS LOADED WITH LAUNDRY, SOAP AND WATER. STEAM WAS BLOWN IN THROUGH THE PIPE AT THE EXTREME LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE ROUNDED RIGHT END OF THE TUB PROMOTED TUMBLING AND SCRUBBING ACTION. ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A STEAM POWERED CENTRIFUGE FOR SPIN DRYING LAUNDRY. THE WIRE FRAMES AT THE CENTER BACKGROUND ARE PANTS STRETCHERS. THEY WERE INSERTED INTO OVERALL OR TROUSER LEGS TO MINIMIZE WRINKLING AND ENCOURAGE DRYING. LAUNDRY WAS DRIED ON NEARBY STEAM PIPES. (WITH SCALE) - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 17. Internal view of boiler in steam space above return ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Internal view of boiler in steam space above return flues. View looks forward in ship toward fireboxes; tubes (flues) below carry hot combustion gases from return chamber to smoke chamber. From thence gasses flow through vertical pipe at left into steam stack, and eventually to ship's smokestack. Inclined and radiating straps are stays used to reinforce boiler plates against distortion under pressure. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  14. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Corletti, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  15. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  16. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that is...

  17. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that is...

  18. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that is...

  19. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that is...

  20. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that is...

  1. Piping support system for liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor

    DOEpatents

    Brussalis, Jr., William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pipe support consisting of a rigid link pivotally attached to a pipe and an anchor, adapted to generate stress or strain in the link and pipe due to pipe thermal movement, which stress or strain can oppose further pipe movement and generally provides pipe support. The pipe support can be used in multiple combinations with other pipe supports to form a support system. This support system is most useful in applications in which the pipe is normally operated at a constant elevated or depressed temperature such that desired stress or strain can be planned in advance of pipe and support installation. The support system is therefore especially useful in steam stations and in refrigeration equipment.

  2. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  3. Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  4. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  5. Steam on the frontier: District heating in Denver, 1880--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.E.; Pierce, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    In late 1879 a group of Denver businessmen led by pioneer John W. Smith incorporated the Denver City Steam Heating Company to supply heat and power to their frontier own. The following summer they installed a Holly district steam system, including a boiler plant and several thousand feet of underground steam pipe laid under unpaved streets. On November 5, 1880, the company began supplying steam to downtown Denver. Henry M. Porter, Smith`s son-in-law, became president of the company in 1888 and replaced the distribution system with larger pipes in anticipation of asphalt paving. Although rarely meeting the financial expectations of its owners, the system grew over the years and in 1909 was acquired by a predecessor to the Public Service Company of Colorado. The Denver steam system is the oldest commercial district heating company in the world and continues to supply steam for heating and cooling to a large portion of downtown Denver from its original plant location.

  6. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... fuel or nuclear), and in some oil field uses (on shore and off shore) such as for separator lines...: Seamless pressure pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil... intended for the conveyance of oil and natural gas or other fluids in pipe lines. Seamless line pipes are...

  7. Piping Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A complex of high pressure piping at Stennis Space Center carries rocket propellants and other fluids/gases through the Center's Component Test Facility. Conventional clamped connectors tend to leak when propellant lines are chilled to extremely low temperatures. Reflange, Inc. customized an existing piping connector to include a secondary seal more tolerant of severe thermal gradients for Stennis. The T-Con connector solved the problem, and the company is now marketing a commercial version that permits testing, monitoring or collecting any emissions that may escape the primary seal during severe thermal transition.

  8. Pipe gripper

    DOEpatents

    Moyers, S.M.

    1975-12-16

    A device for gripping the exterior surface of a pipe or rod is described which has a plurality of wedges, each having a concave face which engages the outer surface of the pipe and each having a smooth face opposing the concave face. The wedges are seated on and their grooved concave faces are maintained in circular alignment by tapered axial segments of an opening extending through a wedge-seating member. The wedges are allowed to slide across the tapered axial segments so that such a sliding movement acts to vary the diameter of the circular alignment.

  9. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  10. 2. Credit BG. Looking west at east facade of Steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit BG. Looking west at east facade of Steam Generator Plant, Building 4280/E-81; steam generators have been removed as part of dismantling program for Test Stand 'D.' Metal cylindrical objects to left of door were roof vents. The steam-driven ejector system for Dv Cell is clearly visible on the east side of Test Stand 'D' tower. The X-stage ejector is vertically installed at the bottom left of the tower, Y-stage is horizontally positioned close to the tower top, and the Z- and Z-1 stages are attached to the top of the interstage condenser. Light-colored piping is thermally insulated steam line. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Steam Generator Plant, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  13. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  14. High performance steam development

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1995-12-31

    DOE has launched a program to make a step change in power plant to 1500 F steam, since the highest possible performance gains can be achieved in a 1500 F steam system when using a topping turbine in a back pressure steam turbine for cogeneration. A 500-hour proof-of-concept steam generator test module was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. It has four once-through steam generator circuits. The complete HPSS (high performance steam system) was tested above 1500 F and 1500 psig for over 102 hours at full power.

  15. Integrated (operational) piping and instrumentation diagrams (RADL item 2-38). 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar-facilities design integration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Included in this drawing set are: composite operational piping and instrumentation diagrams for the overall plant, for the receiver system, for the thermal storage system, and for the electrical power generation system; receiver preheat panel feedwater; receiver boiler panels, main steam manifold, GN/sub 2/ and drain systems; thermal storage system oil, steam and condensate systems and ullage and maintenance unit; steam system; turbine system; feedwater and condensate system; condenser and condensate drains; equipment cooling water system; circulating water system; sumps and drains; turbine control oil and lube oil system; sampling system; condensate polishing system; service water system; water treatment system; fire protection system; instrument air and service air system; and miscellaneous systems. (LEW)

  16. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  17. Size safety valve discharge piping with a programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    D'ambra, A.

    1982-10-01

    Discussed is a program that will aid in the proper sizing of steam safety valve discharge piping frequently encountered in steam distribution systems. Basis for calculation is the ASME/ANSI Power Piping Code. Code reference is not necessary for running the program. Presented is a safety valve installation schematic, the program listing, data registers, constants, and a sample problem. The calculation done by this program is a fluid momentum check to assure that selected pipe sizes yield velocities and back pressures such that the steam blowing out of the safety valve is driven up the stack and not backwards out of the clearance. Back pressure should not exceed safety valve manufacturers' limits to realize full design capacity of the installation.

  18. Steam condensation and liquid hold-up in steam generator U-tubes during oscillatory natural circulation

    SciTech Connect

    De Santi, G.F.; Mayinger, F.

    1990-01-01

    In many accident scenarios, natural circulation is an important heat transport mechanism for long-term cooling of light water reactors. In the event of a small pipe break, with subsequent loss of primary cooling fluid loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), or under abnormal operating conditions, early tripping of the main coolant pumps can be actuated. Primary fluid flow will then progress from forced to natural convection. Understanding of the flow regimes and heat-removal mechanisms in the steam generators during the entire transient is of primary importance to safety analysis. Flow oscillations during two-phase natural circulation experiments for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) with inverted U-tube steam generators occur at high pressure and at a primary inventory range between two-phase circulation and reflex heat removal. This paper deals with the oscillatory flow behavior that was observed in the LOBI-MOD2 facility during the transition period between two-phase natural circulation and reflex condensation.

  19. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  20. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Muir, James F.; Wayland, Jr., J. Robert

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  1. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  2. Steam or water connection with remnant of concrete basin in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam or water connection with remnant of concrete basin in foreground. Pipe connection located approximately 6' east of metal stairs leading to Bright Angel Lodge. Dry laid retaining wall in background. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  3. Replacement of alloy 800H superheated steam line

    SciTech Connect

    Barbier, R.A.; Bullock, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    Sterling Chemicals utilizes alloy 800HT (UNS N08811) piping for superheated steam service in its styrene dehydrogenation unit. An engineering project to replace these lines was recently completed. Material acquisition, shop fabrication, inspection requirements, and field erection will be highlighted in this paper.

  4. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-12-31

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  5. The Invisibility of Steam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature…

  6. Strategies for steam

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1996-03-01

    This article is a review of worldwide developments in the steam turbine and heat recovery steam generator markets. The Far East is driving the market in HRSGs, while China is driving the market in orders placed for steam turbine prime movers. The efforts of several major suppliers are discussed, with brief technical details being provided for several projects.

  7. The Invisibility of Steam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature…

  8. Visualization of heat transport in heat pipes using thermocamera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Patrik; Čaja, Alexander; Lenhard, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Heat pipes, as passive elements show a high level of reliability when taking heat away and they can take away heat flows having a significantly higher density than systems with forced convection. A heat pipe is a hermetically closed duct, filled with working fluid. Transport of heat in heat pipes is procured by the change of state of the working fluid from liquid state to steam and vice versa and depends on the hydrodynamic and heat processes in the pipe. This study have been focused on observing the impact these processes have on the heat process, the transport of heat within the heat pipe with the help of thermovision. The experiment is oriented at scanning the changes in the surface temperatures of the basic structural types of capillary heat pipes in vertical position.

  9. Boundary Layer Control in Pipes through Strong Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, William Chor-Chun; Holt, Maurice

    1982-01-01

    In coal gasification, oxidation and sulfidization cause serious pipe corrosion. This study attempts to determine the feasibility of reducing such corrosion by injecting steam at pipe entry to modify the boundary-layer gas composition along pipe walls. The injection will form a thin layer on the inner wall, preventing, for a time, contact with the corrosive gases. (Turbulence will eventually force diffusion through the protective layer.) The gas products are assumed to be hydrogen sulfide and steam. The Method of Integral Relations is used to obtain the numerical solutions to the governing equations. Finally, with several different injectant lengths and velocities, the concentration of H2S along the pipe wall is calculated and is found low enough to prevent corrosion.

  10. Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop of High Quality Steam

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, J. M.; Coffield, R. D.

    2001-10-01

    Two-phase pressure drop across a straight test pipe was experimentally determined for high Reynolds (Re) number steam flow for a flow quality range of 0.995 to 1.0. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties associated with the effects of two-phase flow on pressure drop. Two-phase flow develops in steam piping because a small fraction of the steam flow condenses due to heat loss to the surroundings. There has been very limited two-phase pressure drop data in open literature for the tested flow quality range. The two-phase pressure drop data obtained in this test has enabled development of a correlation between friction factor, Reynolds number, and flow quality.

  11. BOA II: pipe-asbestos insulation removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Mutschler; Boehmke, S.; Chemel, B.; Piepgras, C.

    1996-12-31

    BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal costly and inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  12. SATURATED-SUBCOOLED STRATIFIED FLOW IN HORIZONTAL PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schultz

    2010-08-01

    Advanced light water reactor systems are designed to use passive emergency core cooling systems with horizontal pipes that provide highly subcooled water from water storage tanks or passive heat exchangers to the reactor vessel core under accident conditions. Because passive systems are driven by density gradients, the horizontal pipes often do not flow full and thus have a free surface that is exposed to saturated steam and stratified flow is present.

  13. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  14. Heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of heat pipe technology to provide a summary of research projects conducted on heat pipes is presented. The subjects duscussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design and fabrication, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  15. Pouring on the steam

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-02-01

    Engineers at Solar Turbines Inc. in San Diego have achieved a breakthrough in steam power by using modern gas-turbine technology, high-temperature-resistant superalloys, advanced manufacturing technologies, and a new class of steam generators to build a high-performance steam system (HPSS). The system is a full-scale, 4-megawatt industrial prototype steam power plant that produces steam heated to 1,500 F and pressurized to 1,500 psig. In a cogeneration steam cycle, these temperatures and pressures can double the power generated using the same amount of steam, according to the US Department of Energy (DOE), which sponsored the project as part of the Advanced Turbine System Program.

  16. Steam trap monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  17. Adjustable pipes and adaptive passive damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Siddharth; Creasy, M. Austin

    2017-05-01

    Pipe natural frequencies are dependent on the geometry of the pipe where the pipe length is the main contributor in regulating the natural frequencies. The boundary conditions are another major contributor because the acoustic waves in the pipe will produce standing waves because of the reflections at the boundary conditions. Making one of the boundary conditions location in the pipe adjustable will allow for the length of the pipe to be modified and therefore change the natural frequencies of the pipe. This adjustable pipe provides a means for introducing undergraduate students to an inexpensive setup to test pipe length in changing the natural frequencies of pipes and the associated sound pressure level within the pipe. Helmholtz resonators are passive devices that can absorb acoustic energy from an acoustic enclosure. These resonators have three major variables that are used to determine the resonant frequency of the resonator and therefore the frequency at which the resonator will absorb acoustic energy. Designing a resonator where one of the variables can be altered allows the resonator to be tuned to a specific frequency. The adaptive Helmholtz resonator provides undergraduate students an inexpensive setup to tune a resonator and test how acoustic pressure is dampened by the energy absorption of the resonator.

  18. Steam distribution and energy delivery optimization using wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Djouadi, Seddik M; Lake, Joe E

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme Measurement Communications Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) explores the deployment of a wireless sensor system with a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework in the ORNL campus. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize the energy delivery within the steam distribution system. We address the goal of achieving significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam valves/traps. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capabilities. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observe the state measurements of these sensors. Our assessments are based on analysis of the wireless sensor measurements. We describe Fourier-spectrum based algorithms that interpret acoustic vibration sensor data to characterize flows and classify the steam system status. We are able to present the sensor readings, steam flow, steam trap status and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  19. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  20. Steam treatment of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Rybarik, D.L.; Thiel, J.

    1995-06-01

    Steam injection into intake bays is a nonchemical method to control zebra mussels. This technique was demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s J.P. Madgett Station located in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was funded by the EPRI Zebra Mussel Consortium which includes: Dairyland Power Cooperative, Central Illinois Public Service, Duke Power, Illinois Power Company, PSI Energy, Public Service Electric & Gas, and Tennessee Valley Authority. This technique can be used by other power plants with a similar problem. A contract between Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone & Webster) was initiated in August 1994. The steam treatments were performed at the J.P. Madgett intake in Alma, Wisconsin, on September 14 and 18, 1994. The J.P. Madgett Station has two water intake bays with storage capacities of approximately 295,000 and 265,000 gallons, respectively. Each intake can be isolated, permitting either full or reduced generation depending on river temperature conditions. In addition to the intake bays, the outside fire protection loop and hydrants were also treated with the hot water from one of the bays. This paper presents the process design, piping and steam educator configurations, portable industrial boiler sizing and description, and the thermocouples to monitor the water temperature in the intake bay. The biological mortality and control test protocol and treatment results are also presented. Treatment effectiveness was 100%; however, equipment installation and operation was more problematic than anticipated. A generic computer program is developed and verified using thermal data from the test. The PC program will allow other utilities to size the boiler and estimate the heat losses from an intake bay. The treatment also provided valuable information that simplifies future applications and provides for more realistic design and installation schedules and costs.

  1. Wireless Sensing, Monitoring and Optimization for Campus-Wide Steam Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Woodworth, Ken; Lake, Joe E

    2011-11-01

    The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize energy delivery within the steam distribution system. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capability. We make real time state assessment on the steam trap health and steam flow estimate of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observing measurements of these sensors with state estimators for system health. Our assessments are based on a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap states and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. We are able to present the steam flow and steam trap status, sensor readings, and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  2. Cured-in-place pipe reconstruction of existing underground systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knasel, J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes InLiner USA{reg_sign} which is a cost effective process that allows pipes to be rebuilt without digging and avoids disturbing the area surrounding the pipe. This cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) technology is a unique process for reconstructing deteriorated pipe line systems in municipal and industry applications, which includes powerplants. The process uses a resin that coats and rebuilds th interior of the pipe to improve its structural integrity and corrosion resistance. CIPP creates continuous, seamless construction which increases flow capacities, stops infiltration, improves structural strength, resists long term corrosion and forms its own pipe within a pipe. It can be installed in a matter of hours or days and can be utilized in gravity and pressure pipes for storm sewers, sanitary sewers, combined sewers, water mains, gas mains and process piping.

  3. The LBB methodology application results performed on the safety related piping of NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice

    SciTech Connect

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P.

    1997-04-01

    A broad overview of the leak before break (LBB) application to the Slovakian V-1 nuclear power plant is presented in the paper. LBB was applied to the primary cooling circuit and surge lines of both WWER 440 type units, and also used to assess the integrity of safety related piping in the feed water and main steam systems. Experiments and calculations performed included analyses of stresses, material mechanical properties, corrosion, fatigue damage, stability of heavy component supports, water hammer, and leak rates. A list of analysis results and recommendations are included in the paper.

  4. Sink or swim pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, B.C.; Rhines, J.A.

    1985-07-01

    The development of a six-inch ID flexible pipe system for use as a rapidly deployable offshore fuel delivery system is described. Pipe design data, pipe construction, and advantages of the offshore petroleum delivery system are discussed.

  5. H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Smith, J. M.; Nichols, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    Estimates are made for both the performance and the power costs of H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems. Hydrogen gas is assumed to be transmitted by pipe from a remote coal gasifier into the city and converted to electricity in a steam MHD plant having an integral gaseous oxygen plant. These steam MHD systems appear to offer an attractive alternative to both in-city clean fueled conventional steam power plants and to remote coal fired power plants with underground electric transmission into the city.

  6. Analysis of cost effective pipe insulation requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, D.W.; Somasundaram, S.

    1997-06-01

    The proposed BRS/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1989R contains updated requirements for pipe insulation thicknesses developed on the basis of technical and economic principles. These requirements were determined based on computer simulations of the annual energy flow through the insulation, first cost assumptions for the insulation, and economic assumptions of discount rate and energy escalation rate. In later work, the same tools were used to analyze the sensitivity of the cost-effective insulation level for piping insulation to variations in operating hours, ambient temperature, fluid temperature, and economic assumptions. These analyses were carried out using cost data for pipe insulation averaged across several sources. The results of the sensitivity study showed that system operating hours is a critical parameter in determining the cost-effective pipe insulation thicknesses. Although there is a lack of reliable sources of typical operating hour data for heating systems, anecdotal information suggests that while most smaller, building level systems are operated only during a heating season, many site-wide steam and hot water heating systems are operated year round and insulation levels on these systems should reflect both the pipe size and the different operating schedules. In addition, the analysis showed that because of differences in private and Federal sector economics, the cost-effective pipe insulation levels appropriate for the private sector are often substantially different from those that are appropriate for the Federal sector.

  7. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  8. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  9. Size steam tracers quickly: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, K.W. )

    1994-01-01

    To perform the repetitive computations for selecting and sizing steam tracers, a spreadsheet program can be a valuable tool. Therefore, They developed one that is easy to use and can run in a windows environment. The spreadsheet selects the best-size steam tracer line and the right number of lines to install. It also decides whether thermally conducting cement should be used. The program's concept is to maintain the required pipe temperature during periods of no-flow. During normal plant operation, heat transfer from the tracer to the flowing fluid is extremely inefficient compared to conventional heat transfer processes. Hence, the tracing system should not be considered a way to raise the material's temperature under dynamic conditions. Three insulation materials widely accepted in the industry are used in the worksheet: foam glass (or cellular glass), mineral wool and calcium silicate.

  10. A new steam-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, M.A.; Edlund, M.C.

    1985-08-01

    A new ultrasafe type of nuclear power plant is described that has a complete ''walk-awayfrom'' characteristic. That is, the reactor can safely dissipate its shutdown heat even if its powe and water supplies are cut off. The reactor is steam cooled and is designed to operate at one fixed steam density. Its reactivity characteristics are such that if the power level increases, the steam becomes less dense than the optimum and tends to shut the reactor off. Similarly, if the reactor is flooded wit water, the reactivity greatly decreases and also shuts the reactor down. The reactor can be operated as a burner, a high-efficiency converter, or a breeder, depending on the isotopic content of the fuel. The plant operates at low pressure and relatively high efficiency with an example given at 1000 psia and 35% efficiency. The reactor is enclosed in a conventional steel vessel resembling a boiling water reactor. The vessel is connected to a large atmospheric pressure pool of water, and shutdown consists of passively cou pling the pool to the reactor through the loss of steam flow. Shutdown cooling is provided by forced air and natural draft convection cooling of the pressure vessel. Sufficient water and passive cooling are provided by the pool for many months of shutdown water cooling. The plant piping is double walled, and all paths of radiation escape, including pressure-vessel cracking, are channeled through an on-line cleanup system.

  11. The Invisibility of Steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-11-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature falls below 100 °C (under standard conditions).

  12. Evaluating steam trap performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, N.Y.

    1985-08-08

    This paper presents a method for evaluating the performance level of steam traps by preparing an economic analysis of several types to determine the equivalent uniform annual cost. A series of tests on steam traps supplied by six manufacturers provided data for determining the relative efficiencies of each unit. The comparison was made using a program developed for the Texas Instruments T1-59 programmable calculator to evaluate overall steam trap economics.

  13. Large scale steam flow test: Pressure drop data and calculated pressure loss coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.B.; Spears, J.R.; Feder, A.R.; Moore, B.P.; Young, C.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the result of large scale steam flow testing, 3 million to 7 million lbs/hr., conducted at approximate steam qualities of 25, 45, 70 and 100 percent (dry, saturated). It is concluded from the test data that reasonable estimates of piping component pressure loss coefficients for single phase flow in complex piping geometries can be calculated using available engineering literature. This includes the effects of nearby upstream and downstream components, compressibility, and internal obstructions, such as splitters, and ladder rungs on individual piping components. Despite expected uncertainties in the data resulting from the complexity of the piping geometry and two-phase flow, the test data support the conclusion that the predicted dry steam K-factors are accurate and provide useful insight into the effect of entrained liquid on the flow resistance. The K-factors calculated from the wet steam test data were compared to two-phase K-factors based on the Martinelli-Nelson pressure drop correlations. This comparison supports the concept of a two-phase multiplier for estimating the resistance of piping with liquid entrained into the flow. The test data in general appears to be reasonably consistent with the shape of a curve based on the Martinelli-Nelson correlation over the tested range of steam quality.

  14. 14. MARINE STEAM BOILERS AT WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MARINE STEAM BOILERS AT WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. August 4, 1947 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. SHOWS CURRENT LEVEL OF DISREPAIR. December 4, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chelating agent poisoning; Mineral deposit remover poisoning ... harmful chemicals in steam iron cleaner are: Chelating agents Hydroxyacetic acid Phosphoric acid Sodium hydroxide (dilute) Sulfuric ...

  18. Downhole steam injector

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  19. LARGE-BORE PIPE DECONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-01-01

    The decontamination and characterization of large-bore pipe is difficult because of the various geometries and diameters of pipe and its different material types. A robust decontamination system must be capable of adapting to different pipe diameters (project scope is 6 inches to 24 inches), cleaning surfaces with various surface conditions and material types (i.e., painted, rusted, carbon steel, or stainless steel), and be cost-effective to operate and maintain. The characterization system must be capable of handling the different pipe parameters and detecting contamination on the inside and outside surfaces. It must also operate in a cost-effective manner. Current technology options do not provide a robust system to meet these objectives. The purpose of this project is to verify the need for this technology through determining quantities of pipe available for decontamination (completed FY97), perform a technology screening process to select technologies for decontamination (completed FY97) and characterization (completed FY98), perform treatability studies to collect required performance data (completed FY97), and design and fabricate a prototype system to decontaminate and characterize the internal and external surfaces of large-bore pipe. A field mobile system capable of performing decontamination and characterization operations will be the main deliverable for this project. A summary of activities completed during FY97 is provided to understand the project development and implementation process.

  20. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  1. Response margins of the dynamic analysis of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.J.; Benda, B.J.; Chuang, T.Y.; Smith, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    This report is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the three piping systems of the Zion nuclear power plant which formed the basis of the present study. The auxiliary feedwater (AFW) piping from steam generator to containment, the residual heat removal (RHR) and safety injection piping in the auxiliary building, and the reactor coolant loops (RCL) including a portion of the branch lines were analyzed. Section 3 describes the analysis methods and the analyses performed. Section 4 presents the numerical results; the principal results presented as comparisons of response calculated by best estimate time history analysis methods vs. the SRP response spectrum technique. Section 5 draws conclusions from the results. Appendix A contains a brief description of the mathematical models that defined the structures containing the three piping systems. Response from these models provided input to the piping models. Appendix B provides a detailed derivation of the pseudostatic mode approach to the multisupport time history analysis method used in this study.

  2. 46 CFR 132.110 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT General Provisions; Fire Main § 132.110 Piping. (a) Except as provided for liftboats by § 134.180 of this subchapter, each fitting, flange, valve, and run of piping must meet the applicable requirements of part 128...

  3. 46 CFR 132.110 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main § 132..., valve, and run of piping must meet the applicable requirements of part 128 of this subchapter. Piping...-resistant material. (b) Each distribution cut-off valve must be marked in compliance with § 131.820 of...

  4. 46 CFR 132.110 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT General Provisions; Fire Main § 132.110 Piping. (a) Except as provided for liftboats by § 134.180 of this subchapter, each fitting, flange, valve, and run of piping must meet the applicable requirements of part 128...

  5. 46 CFR 132.110 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT General Provisions; Fire Main § 132.110 Piping. (a) Except as provided for liftboats by § 134.180 of this subchapter, each fitting, flange, valve, and run of piping must meet the applicable requirements of part 128...

  6. 46 CFR 132.110 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main § 132..., valve, and run of piping must meet the applicable requirements of part 128 of this subchapter. Piping...-resistant material. (b) Each distribution cut-off valve must be marked in compliance with § 131.820 of...

  7. STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

    1963-07-16

    The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

  8. Aeroacoustical coupling in a ducted shallow cavity and fluid/structure effects on a steam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, P.; Caillaud, S.; Devos, J. P.; Lambert, C.

    2003-11-01

    A pure tone phenomenon has been observed at 460Hz in a piping steam line. The acoustical energy has been identified to be generated in an open gate valve and to be of cavity noise type. This energy is then transmitted to the main pipe by fluid/structure coupling. The objectives here are to display the mechanism of the flow acoustic coupling in the cavity and in the duct through an aeroacoustical analysis and to understand the way of energy transfer from the fluid to the main pipe through a vibroacoustical analysis. Concerning the first objective, an experimental study by means of 2/7 scale models in air is analysed by means of numerical flow simulation. The flow acoustic phenomena are modelled by computing the Euler equations. Two different computations are carried out: in the first one, a pure Euler modelling is used, in the second one, a boundary layer obtained from experimental data is introduced in the computation in order to have a realistic flow profile upstream the cavity. The boundary layer flow profile appears to be essential to recover the experimentally observed coupling between the shear-layer instability and the acoustical transverse mode of the pipe. The numerical results confirm that the second aerodynamic mode is responsible for the oscillation. While the predicted frequency agrees about 1% with the scale model experiments, the predicted amplitude is approximately 15dB too low. For the second objective, fluid/structure coupling in the main pipe is studied using two fully coupled methods. The first method consists in a modal analysis of the line using a fluid-structure finite element model. The second one is based on the analysis of dispersion diagrams derived from the local equations of cylindrical shells filled with fluid. The way of energy transfer in transverse acoustical waves coupled with flexion-ovalization deformations of the pipe is highlighted using both methods. The dispersion diagrams allow a fast and accurate analysis. The modal analysis

  9. Ultrasonic pipe assessment

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Graham H.; Morrow, Valerie L.; Levie, Harold; Kane, Ronald J.; Brown, Albert E.

    2003-12-23

    An ultrasonic pipe or other structure assessment system includes an ultrasonic transducer positioned proximate the pipe or other structure. A fluid connection between the ultrasonic transducer and the pipe or other structure is produced. The ultrasonic transducer is moved relative to the pipe or other structure.

  10. The Sacred Calf Pipe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    Tells how the author learned of and recorded the list of Sioux tribe members who have kept the White Buffalo Calf Pipe. Reviews the legend surrounding the origin of the pipe and describes the succession of pipe-keepers and how they inherit the pipe. (Author/AEM)

  11. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  12. Novel metallic alloys as phase change materials for heat storage in direct steam generation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Maestre, J.; Iparraguirre-Torres, I.; Velasco, Z. Amondarain; Kaltzakorta, I.; Zubieta, M. Merchan

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is one of the key electricity production renewable energy technologies with a clear distinguishing advantage: the possibility to store the heat generated during the sunny periods, turning it into a dispatchable technology. Current CSP Plants use an intermediate Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF), thermal oil or inorganic salt, to transfer heat from the Solar Field (SF) either to the heat exchanger (HX) unit to produce high pressure steam that can be leaded to a turbine for electricity production, or to the Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. In recent years, a novel CSP technology is attracting great interest: Direct Steam Generation (DSG). The direct use of water/steam as HTF would lead to lower investment costs for CSP Plants by the suppression of the HX unit. Moreover, water is more environmentally friendly than thermal oils or salts, not flammable and compatible with container materials (pipes, tanks). However, this technology also has some important challenges, being one of the major the need for optimized TES systems. In DSG, from the exergy point of view, optimized TES systems based on two sensible heat TES systems (for preheating of water and superheating vapour) and a latent heat TES system for the evaporation of water (around the 70% of energy) is the preferred solution. This concept has been extensively tested [1, 2, 3] using mainly NaNO3 as latent heat storage medium. Its interesting melting temperature (Tm) of 306°C, considering a driving temperature difference of 10°C, means TES charging steam conditions of 107 bar at 316°C and discharging conditions of 81bar at 296°C. The average value for the heat of fusion (ΔHf) of NaNO3 from literature data is 178 J/g [4]. The main disadvantage of inorganic salts is their very low thermal conductivity (0.5 W/m.K) requiring sophisticated heat exchanging designs. The use of high thermal conductivity eutectic metal alloys has been recently proposed [5, 6, 7] as a feasible alternative. Tms

  13. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192.311... Lines and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed. ...

  14. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192.311... Lines and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed. ...

  15. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192.311... Lines and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed. [Amdt. 192-93, 68 FR 53900, Sept. 15, 2003] ...

  16. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192.311... Lines and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed. ...

  17. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192.311... Lines and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed. ...

  18. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  19. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  20. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  1. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  2. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  3. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  4. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  5. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  6. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  7. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  8. 46 CFR 58.20-20 - Refrigeration piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refrigeration piping. 58.20-20 Section 58.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-20 Refrigeration piping. (a) All piping...

  9. 46 CFR 58.20-20 - Refrigeration piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigeration piping. 58.20-20 Section 58.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-20 Refrigeration piping. (a) All piping...

  10. 46 CFR 58.20-20 - Refrigeration piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refrigeration piping. 58.20-20 Section 58.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-20 Refrigeration piping. (a) All piping...

  11. STEAM by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Linda; Keane, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We live in a designed world. STEAM by Design presents a transdisciplinary approach to learning that challenges young minds with the task of making a better world. Learning today, like life, is dynamic, connected and engaging. STEAM (Science, Technology, Environment, Engineering, Art, and Math) teaching and learning integrates information in…

  12. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  13. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  14. Steampunk: Full Steam Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Steam-powered machines, anachronistic technology, clockwork automatons, gas-filled airships, tentacled monsters, fob watches, and top hats--these are all elements of steampunk. Steampunk is both speculative fiction that imagines technology evolved from steam-powered cogs and gears--instead of from electricity and computers--and a movement that…

  15. Running Out of Steam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Promod

    2000-01-01

    Explains why schools should evaluate whether their older steam-heating systems are still cost-effective, or need to be repaired or replaced. The symptoms of deterioration are listed along with discussions on repair or replacement decision making on three areas of steam heating systems: boilers; distribution system; and terminal equipment. (GR)

  16. Running Out of Steam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Promod

    2000-01-01

    Explains why schools should evaluate whether their older steam-heating systems are still cost-effective, or need to be repaired or replaced. The symptoms of deterioration are listed along with discussions on repair or replacement decision making on three areas of steam heating systems: boilers; distribution system; and terminal equipment. (GR)

  17. Steampunk: Full Steam Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Steam-powered machines, anachronistic technology, clockwork automatons, gas-filled airships, tentacled monsters, fob watches, and top hats--these are all elements of steampunk. Steampunk is both speculative fiction that imagines technology evolved from steam-powered cogs and gears--instead of from electricity and computers--and a movement that…

  18. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O.

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  19. Steam trap monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  20. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  1. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  2. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

    2011-09-07

    Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

  3. Flooding characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal U bend pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, T.; Hosokawa, S.; Fujii, Y.

    1995-09-01

    For next-generation nuclear reactors, hybrid safety systems which consist of active and passive safety systems have been planned. Steam generators with horizontal U bend pipelines will be used as one of the passive safety systems. It is required to clarify flow characteristics, especially the onset of flooding, in the horizontal U bend pipelines in order to examine their safety. Flooding in vertical pipes has been studied extensively. However, there is little study on flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines. It is supposed that the onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines is different from that in vertical pipes. On the other hand, liquid is generated due to condensation of steam in pipes of the horizontal steam generators at the loss of coolant accident because the steam generators will be used as a condenser of a cooling system of steam from the reactor. It is necessary to simulate this situation by the supply of water at the middle of horizontal pipe. In the present paper, experiments were carried out using a horizontal U bend pipeline with a liquid supply section in the midway of pipeline. The onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipeline was measured. Effects of the length of horizontal pipe and the radius of U bend on the onset of flooding were discussed.

  4. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  5. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  6. 77 FR 50465 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... (electrical-fossil fuel or nuclear), and in some oil field uses (on shore and off shore) such as for separator..., steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids and gasses in industrial.... Seamless line pipes are intended for the conveyance of oil and natural gas or other fluids in pipe lines...

  7. 76 FR 66688 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... such as oil, gas, or water pipeline, or utility distribution systems. Seamless pressure pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other... quadruple certified pipes in large diameters is for use as oil and gas distribution lines for commercial...

  8. Reusable pipe flange covers

    DOEpatents

    Holden, James Elliott; Perez, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  9. Field Inspection Techniques for Buried Steam Distribution Lines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    to thank my wife, Jane, for her unfaltering support and patience, and Andrew, Nicholas and Christopher for letting Daddy do his homework without too...to measure them. The method described in Chapter III for measuring losses is applicable to any steam line, as long as access to a few feet of pipe at...diffuse to the surface. If too long a time is allowed, area saturation will result, yielding a result similar to using too high a gas concentration

  10. Analysis of Steam Heat System at Fort Myer, VA: Retrofit Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    to an underground distributed hot water heating system. 3. Convert to a Decentralized System: Replace the central system with distributed heating...cost of this equipment is $3,954,000. The current natural gas underground piping would need to be increased in size to handle the addition gas use. The...Steam at 90 psig is distributed underground to the buildings served. There is also an under- ground return piping system used to return condensate

  11. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  12. Cost Reduction Strategies - Steam

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-01

    Boilers play a particularly important role in integrated mills because they not only provide the steam needed for key processes but also consume by-product fuels generated in the coke ovens, blast furnace, and BOF.

  13. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  14. Pipe performance analysis with nonparametric regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Hu, Yafei; Wu, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Asbestos cement (AC) water mains were installed extensively in North America, Europe, and Australia during 1920s-1980s and subject to a high breakage rate in recent years in some utilities. It is essential to understand how the influential factors contribute to the degradation and failure of AC pipes. The historical failure data collected from twenty utilities are used in this study to explore the correlation between pipe condition and its working environment. In this paper, we applied four nonparametric regression methods to model the relationship between pipe failure represented by average break rates and influential variables including pipe age and internal and external working environmental parameters. The nonparametric regression models do not take a predetermined form but it needs information derived from data. The feasibility of using a nonparametric regression model for the condition assessment of AC pipes is investigated and understood.

  15. Pipe selection guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.D.

    1982-04-01

    Four parameters are used to define a particular pipe: inside diameter, wall thickness, material, and ends. The factors influencing pipe selection are limited to fluid pressure, temperature, chemistry, flow rate, and cost. Other pipe parameters and factors that influence pipe selection and design are mentioned, and, where appropriate, the user is warned that at some stage in the project these factors must be dealt with. It is assumed that the objective is the direct application of geothermal water at temperatures lower than 200/sup 0/F and with 12-in. or smaller pipe. When considering friction losses for sizing purposes, only straight pipe is considered. A discussion of the characteristics and attributes of readily available pipe is included to aid in making a preliminary selection. Energy loss from buried pipe is considered.

  16. Design and Activation of a LOX/GH Chemical Steam Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.; Mulkey, C. A.; Taylor, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed description of the design and activation of the LOX/GH fueled chemical steam generator installed in Cell 2 of the E3 test facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC). The steam generator uses a liquid oxygen oxidizer with gaseous hydrogen fuel. The combustion products are then quenched with water to create steam at pressures from 150 to 450 psig at temperatures from 350 to 750 deg F (from saturation to piping temperature limits).

  17. Pipe-to-pipe impact program

    SciTech Connect

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984.

  18. Heat pipes. [technology utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development and use of heat pipes are described, including space requirements and contributions. Controllable heat pipes, and designs for automatically maintaining a selected constant temperature, are discussed which would add to the versatility and usefulness of heat pipes in industrial processing, manufacture of integrated circuits, and in temperature stabilization of electronics.

  19. Pipe protection bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pipes and pipelines are being used for an ever widening range of materials, for increasing flows and in harsher applications. There is also more legal and social pressure to reduce the hazards associated with handling materials in pipes. All of this increases the demand for improved pipe reliability. Two of the major preventable causes of pipe failure are corrosion and wear. These may result from the pipe surroundings, or from the material which is carried and it is often impossible to prevent failure by the choice of pipe materials and design. However, additional pipe protection measures are available and it is these measures which are considered in this bibliography. The most common pipe protection methods are the application of coatings and the use of cathodic protection. Accordingly, much of this bibliography is devoted to these techniques. Articles dealing with other means of protecting pipes have also been included. The bibliography covers the protection of oil pipes, (both offshore and on land); water supply systems; gas distribution systems; sewer pipes; pipes for hydraulic and pneumatic transport of solids; power plant pipework; process plant pipework.

  20. Singing Corrugated Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1974-01-01

    Presents theoretical and experimental observations made with a musical toy called Hummer consisting of a corrugated flexible plastic tube about three-feet long and one-inch diam open at both ends. Included are descriptions of three new instruments: the Water Pipe, the Gas-Pipe Corrugahorn Bugle, and the Gas-Pipe Blues Corrugahorn. (CC)

  1. Design and fabrication of polymer concrete pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.E.; Abdelgawad, A.T.

    1982-10-08

    Polymer concrete is a composite material which has strength and durability characteristics greatly superior to those of portland cement concrete and better durability in hot brine than steel. polymer concrete has been successfully tested in brine and steam at temperatures up to 260 C. Exposures were as long as 960 days. Glass filament wound polymer concrete pipe was developed with excellent strength, low weight, and a cost comparable to or less than schedule 40 steel. Connections can be made with slip joints for low pressure applications and flanged joints for high pressure applications.

  2. Origin and transport of chloride in superheated geothermal steam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Haizlip, J.R.; Armannsson, H.; D'Amore, F.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a known component of some volcanic gases and volcanic-related hydrothermal systems. It has recently been discovered in superheated steam in exploited geothermal systems, usually as a result of HCl-induced corrosion of well casing and steam gathering systems. Evaluation of four geothermal systems (Tatun, Taiwan; Krafla, Iceland; Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, USA) which produce CI-bearing steam provides evidence for the presence of Cl as HCl and the natural reservoir conditions which can produce HCl-bearing steam. Theoretical calculations defining the physical and chemical conditions of the reservoir liquid which can produce HCl-bearing steam are presented. The main factors are pH, temperature and Cl concentration. Lower pH, higher temperature and higher chlorinity allow more HCl to be volatilized with steam. In order to reach the surface in steam, the HCl cannot contact liquid water in which it is more soluble, essentially limiting transport to superheated steam. Temperature, pH and Cl concentration of reservoir liquids in each of the geothermal systems evaluated combine differently to produce HCl-bearing steam. ?? 1989.

  3. Selection of labyrinth seals in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency, vibration stability, operational durability, and cost of the main types of peripheral seals used in steam turbines are considered. A comparison between the conventional and honeycomb seals is given. Conditions subject to which replacement of conventional seals by honeycomb ones can be justified are pointed out. The use of variable-pitch multicomb seals as the most promising ones is recommended.

  4. Hydrodynamic Computations of Pressures Generated by Steam Pipe Rupture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-23

    Compressible Flow Problems," J. Comput. Phys. 1, pp 87-118, 1966. *Until now, this code was called TUTTI, However, this is also the name of a Los...the "nozzle" cross section (Figure 8). This effect is the familiar vena contracta of incompressible flow and is knowvn tc occur for compressible flow ... Lapple , C. E., "Discharge Coefficients of Small-Piamreter Orifices and Flow Nozzles," Trans. ASME, pp 639-647, Jul 1951. llArnberg, G. T., "Review of

  5. Pipe Line Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The array of tanks, pipes and valves in the photo below is a petroleum tank farm in Georgia, part of a petrochemical pipe line system that moves refined petroleum products from Texas and Louisiana to the mid-Eastern seaboard. The same pipes handle a number of different products, such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel or fuel oil. The fluids are temporarily stored in tanks, pumped into the pipes in turn and routed to other way stations along the pipe line. The complex job of controlling, measuring and monitoring fuel flow is accomplished automatically by a computerized control and communications system which incorporates multiple space technologies.

  6. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Mist/steam cooling in a 180{degree} tube bend

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    1999-07-01

    An experimental study on mist/steam cooling in a highly heated, horizontal 180{degree} tube bend has been performed. The mist/steam mixture is obtained by blending fine water droplets (3{approximately}15 microns) with the saturated steam at 1.5 bar. The test section consists of a thin wall ({approximately}0.9 mm), welded, circular, stainless steel 180-degree tube (20 mm ID) with a straight section downstream of the curved section, and is heated directly by a DC power supply. The experiment was conducted with steam Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 35,000, wall superheat up to 300 C, and droplet to steam mass ratio at about 2%. The results show that the heat transfer performance of steam can be significantly improved by adding mist into the main flow. Due to the effect of centrifugal force, the outer wall of the test section always exhibits a higher heat transfer enhancement than the inner wall. The highest enhancement occurs at a location on the outer wall about 45{degree} downstream of the inlet of the test section. Generally, only a small number of droplets can survive the 180{degree} turn and be present in the downstream straight section, as observed by a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) system. The overall cooling enhancement of the mist/steam flow ranges from 40% to 300%. It increases as the main steam flow increases, but decreases as the wall heat flux increases.

  8. Natural gas transport by plastic pipes. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of plastic piping to transport natural gas or liquid propane gas. The interaction between gas odorants and plastic pipe, the effects of aging on plastic pipe used to transport gas, and pipe failure analyses are examined. Bending, joining, and repair methods are discussed. Composite reinforced plastic pipes and plastic coated pipes are considered. Polyethylene and epoxy composites are among the materials discussed. Gas main upgrading projects that replaced old pipes with plastic ones are briefly cited. (Contains a minimum of 88 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-10-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  10. BOA: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Abatement Robot System

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.

    1996-06-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  11. 13. View of Picking Shakers, Steam Picking Shaker (right), Lamp ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of Picking Shakers, Steam Picking Shaker (right), Lamp Picking Shaker (right) Photograph taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  12. 13. Interior view, basement, boiler room, looking southeast, showing steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view, basement, boiler room, looking southeast, showing steam engine and belt-drive flywheel footings. - Larrabee & Hingston Company, Main Shop Building, 19 Howley Street, Peabody, Essex County, MA

  13. High performance steam development

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1995-10-01

    Over 30 years ago U.S. industry introduced the world`s highest temperature (1200{degrees}F at 5000 psig) and most efficient power plant, the Eddystone coal-burning steam plant. The highest alloy material used in the plant was 316 stainless steel. Problems during the first few years of operation caused a reduction in operating temperature to 1100{degrees}F which has generally become the highest temperature used in plants around the world. Leadership in high temperature steam has moved to Japan and Europe over the last 30 years.

  14. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  15. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  16. Steam locomotive ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Coombs, L F

    1973-03-01

    A retrospective study of some of the ergonomic factors of the man/machine interface of the steam locomotive of the 19th century. Reference is made to the dominance of mechanical requirements over human engineering factors, to the perceptual task of drivers, and to the specialised form of the machine and its control position. Examples are given of the application of some ergonomics to control position design in the 20th century, and the present day 'non-steam' control positions are described so as to form comparisons with the 19th century control position practices.

  17. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  18. 65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL MAST IN LOWER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO LAUNCHER IN UPPER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO FLAME BUCKET IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTOGRAPH. POTABLE WATER PIPING IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. In Situ Steam Fracture Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP In Situ Steam Generation Steam Diffusion Downhole 14 1 2 1 J il Properties...in the high- permeability paintbrush-type tuff found in P-Tunnel. All tests were -. performed using downhole steam generation systems capable of...Command, Albuquerque. S-CUBED developed, designed, fabricated, and fielded the downhole , steam - . . generation system. In addition, S-CUBED was

  20. An Industrial Steam Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemistry experiment which demonstrates the use of codistillation for the separation of substances of low volatility from nonvolatiles. Pine gum is separated into turpentine and rosin by means of codistillation with steam at temperatures above 100 degrees centigrade. (MLH)

  1. Optimal selection on water-supply pipe of building based on analytic hierarchy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tianyun; Chen, Guiqing

    2017-04-01

    The main problem of pipes used in water-supply system was analyzed, and the commonly used pipe and their main features were introduced in this paper. The principles that the selection on water-supply pipes should follow were pointed out. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) using 9 scaling was applied to optimize water-supply pipes quantitatively. The optimal water-supply pipes were determined according to the sorting result of comprehensive evaluation index. It could provide the reference to select the reasonable water-supply pipes for the engineers.

  2. 78 FR 69078 - Houston Pipe Line Company LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Houston Pipe Line Company LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 28, 2013, Houston Pipe Line Company LP (HPL), 1300 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an... directed to Mr. Jim Wright, Deputy General Counsel, Houston Pipe Line Company LP, 1300 Main Street, Houston...

  3. Recent Development of Steam Turbines with High Steam Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Hideo; Kuroki, Yoshikazu; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fujitsuka, Shinya

    Power plants with high thermal efficiency are essential and indispensable in order to decrease the impact on the environments. In order to achieve this goal, enhancement of the steam conditions is the most fundamental and effective measure. Recent steam conditions in Japan range from 593 to 610 degree C owing to the technological development. There are many areas of technology for the realization of such steam conditions, for instance, material development, cooling design, steam path development, casing design, and so on. Not only the research and development but also accumulation of the operational results is of importance to achieve a breakthrough in turbine design. In this paper, recent development of steam turbines with high temperatures will be presented focusing on their design features including material selections. This paper also deals with further efforts targeting even higher steam conditions, which are promising for future development of steam turbine technology.

  4. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    PVC pipe should be used only for low pressure liquid systems where the liquid is at or near ambient temperature. PVC pipe, because of its brittle nature, should be used only in unmanned areas or where it is isolated from personnel. It should be otherwise protected so that it is not subjected to ultraviolet light, temperature cycling or damage after installation. Heat (particularly welding and cutting) should be avoided in the immediate vicinity of the piping. PVC pipe should not be used where it would be subject to vibration. The effects of certain chemicals on PVC should be carefully considered, both where the pipe is a carrying medium for the chemical and where the pipe may be exposed to the chemicals externally.

  5. Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

  6. Piping inspection instrument carriage

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  7. Miniature Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  8. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Jurriaan; van Dijk, Eric; de Munck, Sander; van den Brink, Ruud

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475 °C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800 °C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements. (1) Steam vessels, and motor vessels fitted with steam driven electrical generators shall have at... the main propelling unit, shall be provided with at least one independently driven feed pump. Each of... boilers at their normal capacity. In addition, a second independently driven pump, capable of supplying...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements. (1) Steam vessels, and motor vessels fitted with steam driven electrical generators shall have at... the main propelling unit, shall be provided with at least one independently driven feed pump. Each of... boilers at their normal capacity. In addition, a second independently driven pump, capable of supplying...

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements. (1) Steam vessels, and motor vessels fitted with steam driven electrical generators shall have at... the main propelling unit, shall be provided with at least one independently driven feed pump. Each of... boilers at their normal capacity. In addition, a second independently driven pump, capable of supplying...

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements. (1) Steam vessels, and motor vessels fitted with steam driven electrical generators shall have at... the main propelling unit, shall be provided with at least one independently driven feed pump. Each of... boilers at their normal capacity. In addition, a second independently driven pump, capable of supplying...

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements. (1) Steam vessels, and motor vessels fitted with steam driven electrical generators shall have at... the main propelling unit, shall be provided with at least one independently driven feed pump. Each of... boilers at their normal capacity. In addition, a second independently driven pump, capable of supplying...

  14. DETAIL OF CONNECTION PIPES AND PIPE SUPPORT ROLLERS, LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CONNECTION PIPES AND PIPE SUPPORT ROLLERS, LOOKING EAST. PIPES AND CRANKS IN BACKGROUND ARE FOR TURNOUTS (L-R) 25, 29, AND 27. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  15. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  16. Dehumidifying Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K.

    1993-01-01

    U-shaped heat pipe partly dehumidifies air leaving air conditioner. Fits readily in air-handling unit of conditioner. Evaporator and condenser sections of heat pipe consist of finned tubes in comb pattern. Each tube sealed at one end and joined to manifold at other. Sections connected by single pipe carrying vapor to condenser manifold and liquid to evaporator manifold. Simple on/off or proportional valve used to control flow of working fluid. Valve actuated by temperature/humidity sensor.

  17. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  18. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Purgert, Robert; Shingledecker, John; Saha, Deepak; Thangirala, Mani; Booras, George; Powers, John; Riley, Colin; Hendrix, Howard

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  19. Heat Pipe Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  20. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  1. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  2. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  3. Pipe crawler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Gregory L.; Erickson, Scott A.; Blackmon, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

  4. Heat pipe investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The OAO-C spacecraft has three circular heat pipes, each of a different internal design, located in the space between the spacecraft structural tube and the experiment tube, which are designed to isothermalize the structure. Two of the pipes are used to transport high heat loads, and the third is for low heat loads. The test problems deal with the charging of the pipes, modifications, the mobile tilt table, the position indicator, and the heat input mechanisms. The final results showed that the techniques used were adequate for thermal-vacuum testing of heat pipes.

  5. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1994-12-13

    An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

  6. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, Richard M.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Henning, Carl D.; Lennon, Joseph P.; Pastrnak, John W.; Smith, Joseph A.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment mechanism for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection.

  7. Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.

  8. Modeling of transient heat pipe operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Gene T.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heat pipes is being considered as a means of reducing the peak temperature and large thermal gradients at the leading edges of reentry vehicles and hypersonic aircraft and in nuclear reactors. In the basic cooling concept, the heat pipe covers the leading edge, a portion of the lower wing surface, and a portion of the upper wing surface. Aerodynamic heat is mainly absorbed at the leading edge and transported through the heat pipe to the upper and lower wing surface, where it is rejected by thermal radiation and convection. Basic governing equations are written to determine the startup, transient, and steady state performance of a haet pipe which has initially frozen alkali-metal as the working fluid.

  9. Thermal efficient steam producing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced Energy Systems Inc. manufactures compact, high-pressure combustion direct-contact steam generation systems for thermal stimulation of oil-bearing formations. The products were designed to leverage off the field experience and test information obtained under the U.S. Department of Energy Project Deep Steam. The thermal- efficient line of steam stimulation systems is the result of extensive design and testing activities aimed at modifying the technology demonstrated in the Deep Steam Project for reliable and cost effective commercial recovery operations. Specific products are produced for steam and inert gas stimulation in a wide range of reservoir conditions using either wellhead or downhole positioning of the steam generator. The steam systems utilize full electronic monitoring on all products and electronic control for downhole systems.

  10. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  11. Reliable vacuum system cuts steam requirements 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    In choosing a new high-vacuum system for fractional distillation, Polarome Manufacturing Company, New York, NY and Newark, NJ, a producer of high-quality flavor and fragrance chemicals, considered reliability and performance and steam consumption to be the most important factors. Distillation is carried out under vacuum to minimize thermal degradation. For stable operation, the vacuum system for the distillation column has to be ultra-reliable, and has to be able to go on-line quickly. Fluctuations in vacuum affect operating temperature and fractionation and cause deterioration of the product quality. Polarome's process requires a gas removal rate from the distillation column of 7.5 lg/hr of air plus 7.5 lb/hr of condensible vapors at 0.5 mm Hg absolute pressure at 105/sup 0/F. Polarome chose a combination ejector/liquid ring pump system that combines the two distinctly different types of equipment to improve high-vacuum efficiency. The unit requires only 400 lb/hr of motive steam at 125 psig, and the liquid ring pump only draws 5.7 brake hp. Polarome purchased two virtually identical four-stage systems, each composed of two ejector stages, a shell-and-tube condenser, and a two-stage liquid ring vacuum pump. The fully packaged systems were delivered skid-mounted, ready to pipe and operate. Polarome found a number of advantages with their combined system. Steam savings are considerable - up to 50% over a conventional ejector system - because the liquid-ring pump is substituted for the less efficient final two ejector stages. In Polarome's vacuum range of 0.5 mm Hg, this was considered the most efficient way of drawing vacuum, with lowest investment and operating costs for the greatest capacity.

  12. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  13. Utilizing clad piping to improve process plant piping integrity, reliability, and operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarti, B.

    1996-07-01

    During the past four years carbon steel piping clad with type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel has been used to solve the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) problem in nuclear power plants with exceptional success. The product is designed to allow ``like for like`` replacement of damaged carbon steel components where the carbon steel remains the pressure boundary and type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel the corrosion allowance. More than 3000 feet of piping and 500 fittings in sizes from 6 to 36-in. NPS have been installed in the extraction steam and other lines of these power plants to improve reliability, eliminate inspection program, reduce O and M costs and provide operational benefits. This concept of utilizing clad piping in solving various corrosion problems in industrial and process plants by conservatively selecting a high alloy material as cladding can provide similar, significant benefits in controlling corrosion problems, minimizing maintenance cost, improving operation and reliability to control performance and risks in a highly cost effective manner. This paper will present various material combinations and applications that appear ideally suited for use of the clad piping components in process plants.

  14. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-26

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  15. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition. PMID:26608736

  16. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  17. Steam-water jet analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwa, B.A.; Harlow, F.H.; Demuth, R.B.; Ruppel, H.M.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of a theoretical study on the effects of the steam-water jet emitted from a hypothetical rupture in the high-pressure piping pf a nuclear power plant. A set of calculations is presented, incorporating increasingly complex formulations for mass and momentum exchange between the liquid and vapor flow fields. Comparisons between theory and detailed experimental data are given. The study begins with a thorough evaluation of the specification of equilibrium mass and momentum exchange (homogeneous equilibrium) throughout the flow region, a model that generally overpredicts the rate of jet momentum divergence. The study finds that a near-equilibrium momentum exchange rate and a strongly nonequilibrium momentum exchange rate are needed in the region of large vapor-volume fraction to explain the impingement data for fully developed two-phase jets. This leads to the viewpoint that the large-scale jet is characterized by a flow of large liquid entities that travel relatively unaffected by the strongly diverging vapor flow field. The study also finds circumstances in which a persistent core of metastable superheated water can cause much larger impingement pressures than would otherwise be possible. Existing engineering methods are evaluated for jet-loading predictions in plant design. The existing methods appear to be conservative in most possible rupture circumstances with one exception: when the impingement target is about one pipe-diameter away, large enough to capture the full jet, and the rupture flow area is equal to the full pipe flow area, the existing method can produce loadings that are slightly lower than observed for subcooled, flashing discharge. Recommendations have been made to improve the prediction of existing methods under these conditions.

  18. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  19. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  20. Project DEEP STEAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschliman, D. P.; Clay, R. G.; Donaldson, A. B.; Eisenhawer, S. W.; Fox, R. L.; Johnson, D. R.; Mulac, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology to economically produce heavy oils from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are the development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. During the period January 1-March 31, 1981, effort has continued on a low pressure combustion downhole generator (Rocketdyne), and on two high pressure designs (Foster-Miller Associates, Sandia National Laboratories). The Sandia design was prepared for deployment in the Wilmington Field at Long Beach, California. Progress continued on the Min-Stress II packer concept at L'Garde, Inc., and on the extruded metal packer at Foster-Miller. Initial bare string field data are reported on the insulated tubular test at Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada.

  1. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  2. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  3. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  4. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  5. Unstable heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, M.J.; Pruess, K.

    1987-10-01

    Heat pipes are an important feature of models of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. Numerical experiments reveal that a vapor-dominated heat pipe is unstable if pressure is controlled at shallow levels. This instability is discussed in physical terms, and some implications for geothermal reservoirs are considered. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Splayed mirror light pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.D.

    2010-02-15

    An expression is given for the transmission of the rectangular-section mirror light pipe. The expression is used to model throughputs for simulated solar conditions over a calender year. It is found that the splaying of a mirror light pipe results in a significant increase in throughputs particularly in winter months. (author)

  7. 49 CFR 230.96 - Main, side, and valve motion rods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving Gear § 230.96 Main, side, and valve motion rods. (a) General. Main, side or... shall be made in accordance with an accepted national standard. The steam locomotive owner and/or...

  8. 49 CFR 230.96 - Main, side, and valve motion rods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving Gear § 230.96 Main, side, and valve motion rods. (a) General. Main, side or... shall be made in accordance with an accepted national standard. The steam locomotive owner and/or...

  9. 49 CFR 230.96 - Main, side, and valve motion rods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving Gear § 230.96 Main, side, and valve motion rods. (a) General. Main, side or... shall be made in accordance with an accepted national standard. The steam locomotive owner and/or...

  10. The monster sound pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  11. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.

    1991-05-28

    A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

  12. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by "inchworm"-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward.

  13. Steam drive recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Snavely, E. S.; Hopkins, D. N.

    1984-09-18

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  14. Steam drive oil recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nopkins, D. N.; Snavely, E. S.

    1984-10-23

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water or a stable hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF PIPES USING ELECTRET ION CHAMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The decontamination and characterization of large-bore pipe is difficult because of the various geometries and diameters of pipe and its different material types. A robust decontamination system must be capable of adapting to different pipe diameters (p-eject scope is 6 inches to 24 inches), cleaning surfaces with various surface conditions and material types (i.e., painted, rusted, carbon steel, or stainless steel) and be cost-effective to operate and maintain. The characterization system must be capable of handling the different pipe parameters and detecting contamination on the inside and outside surfaces. It must also operate in a cost-effective manner. Current technology options do not provide a robust system to meet these objectives. The purpose of this project is to verify the need for this technology through determining quantities of pipe available for decontamination (completed FY97), perform a technology screening process to select technologies for decontamination (completed FY97) and characterization (completed FY98), perform treatability studies to collect required performance data (completed FY97), and design and fabricate a prototype system to decontaminate and characterize the internal and external surfaces of large-bore pipe. A field-mobile system capable of performing decontamination and characterization operations will be the main deliverable for this project. A summary of activities completed during FY97 is provided to understand the project development and implementation process.

  16. Integrated (operational) piping and instrumentation diagrams (RADL Item 2-38) (Engineering Materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-19

    Illustrations of the piping and instrumentation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented in a set of schematic drawings. Diagrams of the systems include: receivers, thermal storage, steam systems, turbines feedwater, cooling water, drains, water treatment, and fire protection. Reference DOE/SF/10499--T127.

  17. Light as a key driver of freshwater biofouling surface roughness in an experimental hydrocanal pipe rig.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, Matilde; Giosio, Dean; Henderson, Alan; Hovenden, Mark; Hudson, Monica; Salleh, Sazlina; Sargison, Jane; Shaw, Jennifer L; Walker, Jessica; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf

    2016-07-01

    Biofouling in canals and pipelines used for hydroelectric power generation decreases the flow capacity of conduits. A pipeline rig was designed consisting of test sections of varying substrata (PVC, painted steel) and light levels (transparent, frosted, opaque). Stalk-forming diatoms were abundant in both the frosted and transparent PVC pipes but negligible in the painted steel and opaque PVC pipes. Fungi were slightly more abundant in the painted steel pipe but equally present in all the other pipes while bacterial diversity was similar in all pipes. Photosynthetically functional biofouling (mainly diatoms) was able to develop in near darkness. Different biological fouling compositions generated differing friction factors. The highest friction factor was observed in the transparent pipe (densest diatom fouling), the lowest peak friction for the opaque PVC pipe (lowest fouling biomass), and with the painted steel pipe (high fouling biomass, but composed of fungal and bacterial crusts) being intermediate between the opaque and frosted PVC pipes.

  18. Probabilistic analyses of failure in reactor coolant piping. [Double-ended guillotine break

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.

    1984-07-20

    LLNL is performing probabilistic reliability analyses of PWR and BWR reactor coolant piping for the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Specifically, LLNL is estimating the probability of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the reactor coolant loop piping in PWR plants, and in the main stream, feedwater, and recirculation piping of BWR plants. In estimating the probability of DEGB, LLNL considers two causes of pipe break: pipe fracture due to the growth of cracks at welded joints (direct DEGB), and pipe rupture indirectly caused by the seismically-induced failure of critical supports or equipment (indirect DEGB).

  19. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  20. 46 CFR 58.16-17 - Piping and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping and fittings. 58.16-17 Section 58.16-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-17 Piping and...

  1. 46 CFR 58.16-17 - Piping and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping and fittings. 58.16-17 Section 58.16-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-17 Piping and...

  2. 46 CFR 58.16-17 - Piping and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping and fittings. 58.16-17 Section 58.16-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-17 Piping and...

  3. 46 CFR 58.16-17 - Piping and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping and fittings. 58.16-17 Section 58.16-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-17 Piping and...

  4. 46 CFR 58.16-17 - Piping and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping and fittings. 58.16-17 Section 58.16-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-17 Piping and...

  5. 46 CFR 34.10-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping-T/ALL. 34.10-15 Section 34.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-15 Piping—T/ALL. (a) All piping, valves and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements...

  6. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  7. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  8. Downhole steam injector. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, E.

    1981-06-03

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  9. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  10. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  11. Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E.; Roselius, D.G.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.

  12. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  13. Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-01-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

  14. Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-01-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

  15. K-65-12.8 condensing steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.; Shekhter, M. V.; Shibaev, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    A new condensing steam turbine K-65-12.8 is considered, which is the continuation of the development of the steam turbine family of 50-70 MW and the fresh steam pressure of 12.8 MPa, such as twocylinder T-50-12.8 and T-60/65-12.8 turbines. The turbine was developed using the modular design. The design and the main distinctive features of the turbine are described, such as a single two-housing cylinder with the steam flow loop; the extraction from the blading section for the regeneration, the inner needs, and heating; and the unification of some assemblies of serial turbines with shorter time of manufacture. The turbine uses the throttling steam distribution; steam from a boiler is supplied to a turbine through a separate valve block consisting of a central shut-off valve and two side control valves. The blading section of a turbine consists of 23 stages: the left flow contains ten stages installed in the inner housing and the right flow contains 13 stages with diaphragm placed in holders installed in the outer housing. The disks of the first 16 stages are forged together with a rotor, and the disks of the rest stages are mounted. Before the two last stages, the uncontrolled steam extraction is performed for the heating of a plant with the heat output of 38-75 GJ/h. Also, a turbine has five regenerative extraction points for feed water heating and the additional steam extraction to a collector for the inner needs with the consumption of up to 10 t/h. The feasibility parameters of a turbine plant are given. The main solutions for the heat flow diagram and the layout of a turbine plant are presented. The main principles and features of the microprocessor electro hydraulic control and protection system are formulated.

  16. Natural gas transport by plastic pipes. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of plastic piping to transport natural gas or liquid propane gas. The interaction between gas odorants and plastic pipe, the effects of aging on plastic pipe used to transport gas, and pipe failure analyses are examined. Bending, joining, and repair methods are discussed. Composite reinforced plastic pipes and plastic coated pipes are considered. Polyethylene and epoxy composites are among the materials discussed. Gas main upgrading projects that replaced old pipes with plastic ones are briefly cited. (Contains a minimum of 91 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Natural gas transport by plastic pipes. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of plastic piping to transport natural gas or liquid propane gas. The interaction between gas odorants and plastic pipe, the effects of aging on plastic pipe used to transport gas, and pipe failure analyses are examined. Bending, joining, and repair methods are discussed. Composite reinforced plastic pipes and plastic coated pipes are considered. Polyethylene and epoxy composites are among the materials discussed. Gas main upgrading projects that replaced old pipes with plastic ones are briefly cited. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Natural gas transport by plastic pipes. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of plastic piping to transport natural gas or liquid propane gas. The interaction between gas odorants and plastic pipe, the effects of aging on plastic pipe used to transport gas, and pipe failure analyses are examined. Bending, joining, and repair methods are discussed. Composite reinforced plastic pipes and plastic coated pipes are considered. Polyethylene and epoxy composites are among the materials discussed. Gas main upgrading projects that replaced old pipes with plastic ones are briefly cited. (Contains a minimum of 89 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe of radical design is proposed which substitutes polarization electrohydrodynamic force effects for capillarity in collecting, guiding, and pumping a condensate liquid phase. The discussed device is restricted to the use of dielectric liquids as working fluids. Because of the relatively poor thermal transport properties of these liquids, capillary heat pipes using these liquids have not been high performance devices. The employment of the electrohydrodynamic concept should enhance this performance and help fill the performance gap that exists in the temperature range from 250 F to 750 F for 'conventional' capillary heat pipes.

  20. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  1. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  2. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  3. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  4. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Barbara E.

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straight pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.

  5. Application of imitation steam'' systems to hot water district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aalto, P.J.; Chen, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Pequod Associates, Inc. and District Energy St. Paul, Inc. installed a pilot project of an innovative District Heating technology through a contract with the US DOE. This applied research was funded by the Energy Research and Development Act (94--163) for District Heating and Cooling Research. The experimental design is an intervention technique that permits hot water district heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems. This method can substantially reduce conversion costs in many older buildings. The method circulates Imitation Steam, which is moist hot air, as a heating medium in standard steam radiators and steam heating coils. Based on the operation of the system during the 1989--90 and 1990--91 winter heating seasons, we conclude the following: the basic concept of using Imitation Steam was proved feasible. The performance of the system can be improved beyond the levels achieved in this installation. Imitation Steam did not cause significant corrosion in the piping system. The technology can be used by other district heating systems to lower conversion costs and increase market penetration. Among the additional benefits from this technology are: eliminating old, inefficient boilers; lower maintenance costs; improved fuel efficiency; reduced emissions.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION STEAM TECH ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steam Enhanced Remediation is a process in which steam is injected into the subsurface to recover volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants. It has been applied successfully to recover contaminants from soil and aquifers and at a fractured granite site. This SITE demonstra...

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION STEAM TECH ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steam Enhanced Remediation is a process in which steam is injected into the subsurface to recover volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants. It has been applied successfully to recover contaminants from soil and aquifers and at a fractured granite site. This SITE demonstra...

  8. Steam refining as an alternative to steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Fokko; Westereng, Bjørge; Horn, Svein J; Puls, Jürgen; Saake, Bodo

    2012-05-01

    In steam pretreatment the defibration is usually achieved by an explosion at the end of the treatment, but can also be carried out in a subsequent refiner step. A steam explosion and a steam refining unit were compared by using the same raw material and pretreatment conditions, i.e. temperature and time. Smaller particle size was needed for the steam explosion unit to obtain homogenous slurries without considerable amounts of solid chips. A higher amount of volatiles could be condensed from the vapour phase after steam refining. The results from enzymatic hydrolysis showed no significant differences. It could be shown that, beside the chemical changes in the cell wall, the decrease of the particle size is the decisive factor to enhance the enzymatic accessibility while the explosion effect is not required.

  9. Effects of water states on steam explosion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Sui, Wenjie; Chen, Hongzhang

    2016-01-01

    The work aimed to identify the complexity and roles of water states in steam explosion process of corn stalk to enhance the treatment efficiency. Results showed that two main water states with different mobility existed in corn stalk and influenced steam explosion treatment. By correlating dynamic water states data to feedstock mechanical properties and treatment process characteristics, the bound water being the excellent plasticizer that reduced the mechanical strength of fibers by over 30%, was conducive to treatment; while, the free water presenting buffering effects in treatment by hindering heat transfer which was reflected by the increase of temperature rising time by 1.29 folds and steam consumption by 2.18 folds, was not conducive. The distinguished point of these two waters was fiber saturated point. By considering treatment efficacy and energy consumption, the significance of fiber saturated point was highlighted as the optimal water states for steam explosion of corn stalk.

  10. Robotized system for removal of slime from the bottom of steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, O. V.; Shvarov, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    Reliability of steam generators depends not only on the main technical characteristics and correctness of the operational mode but also on the cleanliness of the heat-exchange surface and the presence of slime precipitated on the bottom. To provide the cleanliness, chemical methods of cleaning the heatexchange surfaces are used. In this article, we consider the process of removal of sediments that are formed precisely on the bottom of the steam generator from its volume. Possible mechanical methods for removal of sediments are presented. The consideration of variants of cleaning approved for acting steam generators showed the efficiency and applicability of the developed installation for the slime removal from steam generators. The main principles of construction of the system for slime removal from the steam generator bottom and constructive features of the installation, which make it possible to implement the stated tasks on the slime removal from the steam generator bottom, are given.

  11. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  12. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

  13. Heat pipe development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienart, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  14. Miniature pipe crawler tractor

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Ferrante, Todd A.; Willis, W. David

    2000-01-01

    A pipe crawler tractor may comprise a half tractor assembly having a first base drive wheel, a second base drive wheel, and a top drive wheel. The drive wheels are mounted in spaced-apart relation so that the top drive wheel is positioned between the first and second base drive wheels. The mounting arrangement is also such that the first and second base drive wheels contact the inside surface of the pipe at respective first and second positions and so that the top drive wheel contacts the inside surface of the pipe at a third position, the third position being substantially diametrically opposed to the first and second positions. A control system connected to the half tractor assembly controls the rotation of the first base wheel, the second base wheel, and the top drive wheel to move the half tractor assembly within the pipe.

  15. The pipes of pan.

    PubMed

    Chalif, David J

    2004-12-01

    The pipes of pan is the crowning achievement of Pablo Picasso's neoclassical period of the 1920s. This monumental canvas depicts a mythological Mediterranean scene in which two sculpted classical giants stare out, seemingly across the centuries, toward a distant and lost Arcadia. Picasso was influenced by Greco-Roman art during his travels in Italy, and his neoclassical works typically portray massive, immobile, and pensive figures. Pan and his pipes are taken directly from Greek mythological lore by Picasso and placed directly into 20th century art. He frequently turned to various mythological figures throughout his metamorphosing periods. The Pipes of Pan was also influenced by the painter's infatuation with the beautiful American expatriate Sara Murphy, and the finished masterpiece represents a revision of a previously conceived neoclassical work. The Pipes of Pan now hangs in the Musee Picasso in Paris.

  16. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric liquid for transfer of heat provides liquid flow from the condenser section to the evaporator section in conventional heat pipes. Working fluid is guided or pumped by an array of wire electrodes connected to a high-voltage source.

  17. CORROSION OF BURIED PIPES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in excellent condition. Extreme care was necessary during installation to prevent cuts or nicks in the tape. The black steel pipes protected by bituminous coating, cured gilsonite , and uncured gilsonite had deteriorated badly.

  18. Liquid Explosive in Pipes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    ETH - ethanolamine, ED - ethylenediamine, HMT - hexamethylenetetramine , MOR - morpholine. NM - nitromethane, PYR - pyridine, TETA...ror a detonable mixture in 16-mm ID pipe: diethylamine, diethylenetetramine, ethanolamine, ethylenediamine, hexamethylenetetramine , morpholine

  19. Dynamic evaluation of a nuclear main steam isolation valve actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, A.J.

    1981-09-01

    Architect and Engineering Specifications for ASME Section III, Class I values include seismic requirements of natural frequency determination of the valve and valve actuator. Detailed tests of the springs were conducted to evaluate the effect of these component resonators on the actuator assembly. The importance of using clear, concise definitions within contract documents is discussed as related to the interpretation of experimental results. 16 refs.

  20. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  1. The Monster Sound Pipe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-01-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which…

  2. Freezable heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.; Sanzi, James L.

    1981-02-03

    A heat pipe whose fluid can be repeatedly frozen and thawed without damage to the casing. An additional part is added to a conventional heat pipe. This addition is a simple porous structure, such as a cylinder, self-supporting and free standing, which is dimensioned with its diameter not spanning the inside transverse dimension of the casing, and with its length surpassing the depth of maximum liquid.

  3. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  4. Steam drying -- Modeling and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmerstedt, R.; Hager, J.

    1996-08-01

    The concept of steam drying originates from the mid of the last century. However, a broad industrial acceptance of the technique has so far not taken place. The paper deals with modelling the steam drying process and applications of steam drying within certain industrial sectors where the technique has been deemed to have special opportunities. In the modelling section the mass and heat transfer processes are described along with equilibrium, capillarity and sorption phenomena occurring in porous materials during the steam drying process. In addition existing models in the literature are presented. The applications discussed involve drying of fuels with high moisture contents, cattle feed exemplified by sugar beet pulp, lumber, paper pulp, paper and sludges. Steam drying is compared to flue gas drying of biofuels prior to combustion in a boiler. With reference to a current installation in Sweden, the exergy losses, as manifested by loss of co-generation capacity, are discussed. The energy saving potential when using steam drying of sugar beet pulp as compared to other possible plant configurations is demonstrated. Mechanical vapor recompression applied to steam drying is analyzed with reference to reported data from industrial plants. Finally, environmental advantages when using steam drying are presented.

  5. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  6. Two-phase flow pattern measurements with a wire mesh sensor in a direct steam generating solar thermal collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Michael; Mokhtar, Marwan; Zahler, Christian; Willert, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Anton; Schleicher, Eckhard

    2017-06-01

    At Industrial Solar's test facility in Freiburg (Germany), two phase flow patterns have been measured by using a wire mesh sensor from Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). Main purpose of the measurements was to compare observed two-phase flow patterns with expected flow patterns from models. The two-phase flow pattern is important for the design of direct steam generating solar collectors. Vibrations should be avoided in the peripheral piping, and local dry-outs or large circumferential temperature gradients should be prevented in the absorber tubes. Therefore, the choice of design for operation conditions like mass flow and steam quality are an important step in the engineering process of such a project. Results of a measurement with the wire mesh sensor are the flow pattern and the plug or slug frequency at the given operating conditions. Under the assumption of the collector power, which can be assumed from previous measurements at the same collector and adaption with sun position and incidence angle modifier, also the slip can be evaluated for a wire mesh sensor measurement. Measurements have been performed at different mass flows and pressure levels. Transient behavior has been tested for flashing, change of mass flow, and sudden changes of irradiation (cloud simulation). This paper describes the measurements and the method of evaluation. Results are shown as extruded profiles in top view and in side view. Measurement and model are compared. The tests have been performed at low steam quality, because of the limits of the test facility. Conclusions and implications for possible future measurements at larger collectors are also presented in this paper.

  7. Steam generator tube integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  8. Hookah pipe smoking among health sciences students.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, N; Banoobhai, T; Gqweta, A; Gwala, A; Masiea, T; Misra, M; Zweigenthal, V

    2013-09-30

    Hookah pipe smoking is a social practice and has gained popularity, especially among South African youth. The extent of this practice among health sciences students, and their knowledge regarding the health risks, are unknown. This is important, as these students will become future health professionals possibly influencing the practice of individuals and communities. To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of hookah pipe smoking among students at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town. METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate and postgraduate students. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed as a hard copy and online survey. Of 228 participants, 66% had smoked a hookah pipe before, with 18% still smoking. Most began smoking in high school, with 25% initiating at university. Of the current smokers, 65% smoked occasionally socially, commonly at friends' houses for 30 - 60 min/session. A further 11% smoked cigarettes concurrently and 30% added other substances, mainly cannabis, to pipes. Most current hookah smokers had no interest in quitting (84%). Only 30% of participants had prior health information about hookah pipe smoking. Most knew that it was harmful (91%), with many not knowing why. A total of 80% of participants perceived that the practice was socially acceptable and 84% would recommend it to others.CONCLUSION; The poor knowledge about the dangers of hookah pipe smoking and the extent of its practice among health sciences students is alarming. These findings highlight the need for school and university health promotion campaigns, and for better regulation of hookah pipe smoking.

  9. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached to

  10. The cogeneration steam turbine of the Tp-35/40-8.8 type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. Ye.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Goldberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Shekhter, M. V.; Paneque Aguilera, H. C.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    The main performance characteristics of the turbine, descriptions of the electrohydraulic control and protection system (EHCPS), the heat flow diagram, arrangement decisions, and motivation for selecting them, are given. The steam turbine presented by the Ural Turbine Works (UTW) is intended for replacing the VPT-25 turbine the service life of which has already expired at the Novokuybyshevsk CHP plant. The mixed-pressure turbine will operate in combination of the double-circuit heat recovery boiler (HRB) in a parallel scheme. High-pressure (HP) steam will be supplied from the main steam header to which high-pressure steam from the power boilers and the HRB will be fed, while low-pressure (LP) steam will be supplied directly from the HRB. For the turbine, nozzle steam distribution and the two-row control stage are adopted. The turbine has a process steam extraction line with its stop and control valve and heating steam extraction line leading to the main steam collector.

  11. 50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  12. 68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  13. Effect of the Heat Pipe Adiabatic Region.

    PubMed

    Brahim, Taoufik; Jemni, Abdelmajid

    2014-04-01

    The main motivation of conducting this work is to present a rigorous analysis and investigation of the potential effect of the heat pipe adiabatic region on the flow and heat transfer performance of a heat pipe under varying evaporator and condenser conditions. A two-dimensional steady-state model for a cylindrical heat pipe coupling, for both regions, is presented, where the flow of the fluid in the porous structure is described by Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model which accounts for the boundary and inertial effects. The model is solved numerically by using the finite volumes method, and a fortran code was developed to solve the system of equations obtained. The results show that a phase change can occur in the adiabatic region due to temperature gradient created in the porous structure as the heat input increases and the heat pipe boundary conditions change. A recirculation zone may be created at the condenser end section. The effect of the heat transfer rate on the vapor radial velocities and the performance of the heat pipe are discussed.

  14. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants :

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600ÀC were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580ÀC, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320ÀC) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600ÀC and the other 565ÀC. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565ÀC. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  15. [Study on pipe material's influence on chlorine dioxide drinking water disinfection].

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Yue, Yinling; Ling, Bo; Zhang, Lan

    2010-09-01

    To study the pipe material's influence on chlorine dioxide drinking water disinfection. 0.8 mg/L chlorine dioxide solution was injected into 5 kinds of pipes respectively, PPR, PVC-U, Steel with Zinc coating, copper and PE pipes. Dipped free from light for 48 hours and the concentrations of chlorine dioxide, chlorite and chlorate were tested from samples taken from each kind of pipe at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours respectively. Chlorine dioxides decay rates in the water dipping the pipes increase as the dipping time increases and the decay of chlorine dioxide mainly occurs within 6 hours after the dipping. But for different pipe, the influence of decay differs. The consumption of chlorine dioxide of the metal pipes is more than that of the plastic pipes. And with 2 hours after the dipping experiment begins, the concentrations of the chlorite of the copper pipe and of the steel with zinc coating pipe increase quickly and reach the maximum concentration. But then the chlorite concentration decreases greatly. After dipped 24 hours, the chlorite in the water in the pipe can not be detected. For other plastic piples, all the chlorite concentrations in the dipping water increase as the dipping time increase. Compared with the start of the dipping experiment, the chlorate concentration in the dipping water of each pipe has no obvious change. The material of the water transportation pipe does have influence on chlorine dioxide drinking water disinfection.

  16. Downhole steam generation: material studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Weirick, L.J.; Muir, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    One enhanced oil recovery technique for extracting heavy crude from deep reservoirs by steam at the bottom of an injection well. Development of a downhole steam generator that will produce steam and inject it into formations at depths greater than 2500 feet is one objective of a Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories development effort - Project DEEP STEAM. Extensive material studies have been performed in support of Project DEEP STEAM; current efforts are devoted primarily to the selection and evaluation of materials for use in downhole steam generators. This paper presents observations of the performance of candidate metals and refractory ceramics (combustor liners) during tests of two prototypic, high pressure, diesel/air combustion, direct contact, downhole steam generators. The first downhole test of such a generator provides data on the performance of various metals (304L, 310 and 316S stainless steels and plain carbon steel) exposed for several weeks to a warm, aerated saltwater environment. A number of corrosion mechanisms acted to cause severely degraded perforance of some of the metals. Several refractory liner designs were evaluated during ground level tests of a generator having a ceramic-lined combustion chamber. Of the two refractories employed, alumina and silicon carbide, the alumina liners exhibited more serious surface degradation and corrosion.

  17. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  18. Microbial diversity in nonsulfur, sulfur and iron geothermal steam vents.

    PubMed

    Benson, Courtney A; Bizzoco, Richard W; Lipson, David A; Kelley, Scott T

    2011-04-01

    Fumaroles, commonly called steam vents, are ubiquitous features of geothermal habitats. Recent studies have discovered microorganisms in condensed fumarole steam, but fumarole deposits have proven refractory to DNA isolation. In this study, we report the development of novel DNA isolation approaches for fumarole deposit microbial community analysis. Deposit samples were collected from steam vents and caves in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Yellowstone National Park and Lassen Volcanic National Park. Samples were analyzed by X-ray microanalysis and classified as nonsulfur, sulfur or iron-dominated steam deposits. We experienced considerable difficulty in obtaining high-yield, high-quality DNA for cloning: only half of all the samples ultimately yielded sequences. Analysis of archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that sulfur steam deposits were dominated by Sulfolobus and Acidianus, while nonsulfur deposits contained mainly unknown Crenarchaeota. Several of these novel Crenarchaeota lineages were related to chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizers, indicating that fumaroles represent a putative habitat for ammonia-oxidizing Archaea. We also generated archaeal and bacterial enrichment cultures from the majority of the deposits and isolated members of the Sulfolobales. Our results provide the first evidence of Archaea in geothermal steam deposits and show that fumaroles harbor diverse and novel microbial lineages.

  19. Steam generator feedwater nozzle transition piece replacement experience at Salem Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, D.B.; Perrin, J.S.; Roberts, A.T.; Cofie, N.G.; Mattson, R.A.; Amberg, A.A.; Burkhalter, S.M.; Amador, P.E.

    1996-12-01

    Cracking of steam generator feedwater piping adjacent to the feedwater nozzles has been a recurring problem since 1979 at Salem Unit 1 owned and operated by Public Service Electric and Gas Company. In addition to the cracking problem, erosion-corrosion at the leading edge of the feedwater nozzle thermal sleeve was also observed in 1992. To provide a long-term solution for the pipe cracking and thermal sleeve erosion-corrosion problems, a unique transition piece forging was specially designed, fabricated, and installed for each of the four steam generators during the 1995 outage. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and installation of the transition piece forgings at Salem Unit 1, and the experiences gained from this project. It is believed that these experiences may help other utilities when planning similar replacements in the future.

  20. Loop heat pipe radiator

    SciTech Connect

    Sarraf, D.B.; Gernert, N.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Radiator (LHPR) which was developed as an alternative to state-of-the-art axially-grooved heat pipes for space-based heat rejection which would be usable with tubing made of aluminum foil covered with a carbon-epoxy composite. The LHPR had an aluminum envelope and a polymer wick, and used ammonia as a working fluid. It was 4 meters long with a mass of 1.4 kg. The LHPR transported 500 watts at a 2.3 meter adverse inclination and 1500 watts when horizontal. This non-optimized LHPR had a 3000 watt-meter capability, which is four times greater than an axially-grooved heat pipe of similar power-handling capability and mass. In addition to a higher power handling capability, the LHPR has a much higher capillary margin than axially-grooved pipes. That high capillary margin simplifies ground testing in a 1-g environment by reducing the need for the careful levelling and vibration reduction required by axially-grooved pipes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Remotely operated pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Josefiak, Leonard J.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely assembling and disassembling a Graylock type coctor between a pipe and a closure for the pipe includes a base and a receptacle on the base for the closure. The pipe is moved into position vertically above the closure by a suitable positioning device such that the flange on the pipe is immediately adjacent and concentric with the flange on the closure. A moving device then moves two semicircular collars from a position free of the closure to a position such that the interior cam groove of each collar contacts the two flanges. Finally, a tensioning device automatically allows remote tightening and loosening of a nut and bolt assembly on each side of the collar to cause a seal ring located between the flanges to be compressed and to seal the closure. Release of the pipe and the connector is accomplished in the reverse order. Preferably, the nut and bolt assembly includes an elongate shaft portion on which a removable sleeve is located.

  2. Wedgethread pipe connection

    DOEpatents

    Watts, John D.

    2003-06-17

    Several embodiments of a wedgethread pipe connection are disclosed that have improved makeup, sealing, and non-loosening characteristics. In one embodiment, an open wedgethread is disclosed that has an included angle measured in the gap between the stab flank and the load flank to be not less than zero, so as to prevent premature wedging between mating flanks before the position of full makeup is reached, as does occur between trapped wedgethreads wherein the included angle is less than zero. The invention may be used for pipe threads large or small, as a flush joint, with collars, screwed into plates or it may even be used to reversibly connect such as solid posts to base members where a wide makeup torque range is desired. This Open wedgethread, as opposed to trapped wedgethreads, provides a threaded pipe connection that: is more cost-effective; can seal high pressure gas; can provide selectively a connection strength as high as the pipe strength; assures easy makeup to the desired position of full makeup within a wide torque range; may have a torque strength as high as the pipe torque strength; is easier to manufacture; is easier to gage; and is less subject to handling damage.

  3. General purpose steam table library :

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John H.; Belcourt, Kenneth Noel; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Completion of the CASL L3 milestone THM.CFD.P7.04 provides a general purpose tabular interpolation library for material properties to support, in particular, standardized models for steam properties. The software consists of three parts, implementations of analytic steam models, a code to generate tables from those models, and an interpolation package to interface the tables to CFD codes such as Hydra-TH. Verification of the standard model is maintained through the entire train of routines. The performance of interpolation package exceeds that of freely available analytic implementation of the steam properties by over an order of magnitude.

  4. GCFR steam generator conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

  5. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  6. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  7. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  8. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  9. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  10. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  11. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  12. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...

  13. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...

  14. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-15

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  15. Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Lewis, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher.

  16. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  17. Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Lewis, G.W.

    1995-07-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher. 8 figs.

  18. Heat Pipe Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  19. Composite drill pipe

    DOEpatents

    Leslie, James C [Fountain Valley, CA; Leslie, II, James C.; Heard, James [Huntington Beach, CA; Truong, Liem , Josephson; Marvin, Neubert [Huntington Beach, CA; Hans, [Anaheim, CA

    2008-12-02

    A composite pipe segment is formed to include tapered in wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self centering receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes a contact ring in one pipe assembly pierced by a pointed contact in the other to connect the corresponding leads across the joint.

  20. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  1. Heat-pipe Earth.

    PubMed

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  2. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Park, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  3. Heat Pipe Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  4. Further Studies in Filmwise Condensation of Steam on Horizontal Finned Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    and then descended down a 1.52 m straight length of pyrex glass piping. The steam then entered the stainless steel test section containing the...test section. The auxiliary condenser was constructed of a single copper coil mounted to a stainless steel baseplate enclosed within a pyrex glass... stainless steel side plates with penetrations for pressure bleed, vacuum line, and a pressure transducer. These three penetrations were fitted with screw

  5. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  6. Superfluid Helium Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, P.

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.

  7. Steam chugging analysis in single-vent vapor injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. K. B.; Chan, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    A complete cycle of the periodic steam chugging phenomenon is analyed. Steam velocity and pressure variations in the vent are described by one-dimensional conservation equations. This is coupled either to the water slug model when water is in the vent, or, the infinite pool spherical bubble model at the vent exit during bubble growth. An isolated spherical bubble model is used for computing the collapse pressures. Comparisons of the model predictions with the UCLA 1/12-scale and the Japan 1/6-scale data indicate that the vent-pipe model predicts the vent-clearing times and the bubble growth times well. In addition, the predicted maximum chugging heights compared well with those measured in the Japan data. On bubble collapse pressures, the comparison with the spherical bubble model predictions is only fair. The model generally overpredicts the magnitude of the spikes. On examining the effects of pool subcooling and steam mass flux, general agreement is found between the predicted trends and those measured.

  8. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  9. Heat Pipe With Interrupted Slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F.; Kosson, Robert L.; Edelstein, Fred

    1994-01-01

    Newer version of heat pipe slot interrupted by plug or, if heat pipe is cast, by bridge of heat-pipe material cast integrally across groove. Small barrier assists in priming heat pipe. Vapor and noncondensible gas still accumulates in liquid channel at evaporator before or during startup, but barrier keeps liquid out of small part of slot at bubble. Dry part of slot allows bubble to escape into vapor channel, making room for liquid to move in during startup.

  10. Coal-fired steam locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, L. D.; Berkowitz, D. A.; Hamilton, C. C.; Withuhn, W. L.

    1984-01-17

    A coal-fired steam locomotive powered by reciprocating steam engines. The locomotive is a two-unit drawbar-coupled locomotive. The units, which are designated as a power unit and a support unit, are arranged back-to-back, with each having a cab-in-front. Operation of the locomotive is equally effective in both directions. The power unit basically contains a furnace and combustion system, an ash storage system, a gas cleanup and exhaust system, a boiler and steam generator, steam engines, a jet condenser, and a control cab. The support unit, on two 6-wheel trucks, contains a modular coal storage area, a stoker motor, a water storage area, heat transfer assemblies and fans for air-cooling circulating.

  11. New steam properties are coming

    SciTech Connect

    Bellows, J.C.; Sewell, J.B.; Friend, D.G.; Harvey, A.H.; Sengers, J.M.H.L.; Parry, W.T.; Sengers, J.V.; White, H.J. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The IFC-67 Formulation for Industrial Use for the thermodynamic properties of water and steam (familiar to many from its implementation in the ASME Steam Tables) has served as the international steam property standard for contractual and design calculations in the power industry for 30 years, but is showing its age. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) has developed and adopted the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 (IAPWS-IF97) as the successor to IFC-67. While the new property formulation will be a significant improvement, the changeover to IAPWS-IF97 will present major challenges for some users. In particular, there could be large economic impacts on manufacturers and buyers of boilers and turbines if they do not properly account for the new property calculations. This article, in addition to describing the structure and advantages of the new formulation, provides guidance for how to make this changeover as painless as possible.

  12. 46 CFR 105.35-10 - Fire main system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... effective stream of water from a single length of hose. (c) All piping, valves, and fittings shall be in... fire main system including fire main, hydrants, hose, and nozzles. (b) Fire hydrants, when required...

  13. Apparatus for handling well pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Boyadjieff, G.I.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a well pipe handling machine for use in a rig having a string of pipe extending vertically along an axis of a well, comprising: a movable support; pipe holding means carried by the support for movement therewith and adapted to hold a section of pipe in vertical condition; means for moving the support carrying the pipe holding means and a pipe section held thereby between a first position in which the pipe holding means hold the pipe section in vertical condition in alignment with the axis of the well and a second position in which the pipe holding means locate the pipe section in vertical condition at a storage location offset from the axis; a control station for holding an operator and which is carried by the support for movement therewith between the first and second positions of the support; a torque wrench for making or breaking a connection between a vertical pipe section and the pipe string and which is carried by the support at essentially the lower end of the control station and for movement with the support between the first and second positions thereof.

  14. Reusable high-temperature heat pipes and heat pipe panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A reusable, durable heat pipe which is capable of operating at temperatures up to about 3000 F in an oxidizing environment and at temperatures above 3000 F in an inert or vacuum environment is produced by embedding a refractory metal pipe within a carbon-carbon composite structure. A reusable, durable heat pipe panel is made from an array of refractory-metal pipes spaced from each other. The reusable, durable, heat-pipe is employed to fabricate a hypersonic vehicle leading edge and nose cap.

  15. 77 FR 27428 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... in some oil field uses (on shore and off shore) such as for separator lines, gathering lines and... such as oil, gas, or water pipeline, or utility distribution systems. Seamless pressure pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other...

  16. 76 FR 39852 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... in some oil field uses (on shore and off shore) such as for separator lines, gathering lines and... such as oil, gas, or water pipeline, or utility distribution systems. Seamless pressure pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other...

  17. 77 FR 34344 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...-pressure conveyance of water, steam, natural gas, air, and other liquids and gases in plumbing and heating systems, air- conditioning units, automatic sprinkler systems, and other related uses. Standard pipe may... tubing used for framing and as support members for reconstruction or load- bearing purposes in the...

  18. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  19. Heat-pipe planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2017-09-01

    Observations of the surfaces of all terrestrial bodies other than Earth reveal remarkable but unexplained similarities: endogenic resurfacing is dominated by plains-forming volcanism with few identifiable centers, magma compositions are highly magnesian (mafic to ultra-mafic), tectonic structures are dominantly contractional, and ancient topographic and gravity anomalies are preserved to the present. Here we show that cooling via volcanic heat pipes may explain these observations and provide a universal model of the way terrestrial bodies transition from a magma-ocean state into subsequent single-plate, stagnant-lid convection or plate tectonic phases. In the heat-pipe cooling mode, magma moves from a high melt-fraction asthenosphere through the lithosphere to erupt and cool at the surface via narrow channels. Despite high surface heat flow, the rapid volcanic resurfacing produces a thick, cold, and strong lithosphere which undergoes contractional strain forced by downward advection of the surface toward smaller radii. We hypothesize that heat-pipe cooling is the last significant endogenic resurfacing process experienced by most terrestrial bodies in the solar system, because subsequent stagnant-lid convection produces only weak tectonic deformation. Terrestrial exoplanets appreciably larger than Earth may remain in heat-pipe mode for much of the lifespan of a Sun-like star.

  20. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.