Science.gov

Sample records for main theoretical framework

  1. An integrative nursing theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Schmieding, N J

    1990-04-01

    The use of an integrative nursing theoretical framework for both clinical and administrative practice has recently been suggested. The author developed a theoretical framework which incorporates key concepts from the writings of Ida J. Orlando and Virginia Henderson and proposes it to be used as an integrative framework. The rationale for using a framework is discussed along with clinical and administrative examples of how to integrate concepts from the proposed framework. The reasons for using an integrative theoretical framework are that it: serves as a guide for both clinical and administrative decisions; forms the basis of the nursing philosophy; facilitates communication with patients and colleagues; helps identify congruent supporting theories and concepts; provides a basis for educational programmes; helps to differentiate nursing from non-nursing activities; and enhances nurse unity and self-esteem. The premise of the article is that benefits are derived from the use of a nursing theoretical framework because it provides a specific vision of nursing.

  2. The Basic Theoretical Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Abraham

    Cosmology is by now a mature experimental science. We are privileged to live at a time when the story of genesis (how the Universe started and developed) can be critically explored by direct observations. Looking deep into the Universe through powerful telescopes, we can see images of the Universe when it was younger because of the finite time it takes light to travel to us from distant sources. Existing data sets include an image of the Universe when it was 0.4 million years old (in the form of the cosmic microwave background), as well as images of individual galaxies when the Universe was older than a billion years. But there is a serious challenge: in between these two epochs was a period when the Universe was dark, stars had not yet formed, and the cosmic microwave background no longer traced the distribution of matter. And this is precisely the most interesting period, when the primordial soup evolved into the rich zoo of objects we now see. The observers are moving ahead along several fronts. The first involves the construction of large infrared telescopes on the ground and in space, that will provide us with new photos of the first galaxies. Current plans include ground-based telescopes which are 24-42 m in diameter, and NASA's successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, called the James Webb Space Telescope. In addition, several observational groups around the globe are constructing radio arrays that will be capable of mapping the three-dimensional distribution of cosmic hydrogen in the infant Universe. These arrays are aiming to detect the long-wavelength (redshifted 21-cm) radio emission from hydrogen atoms. The images from these antenna arrays will reveal how the non-uniform distribution of neutral hydrogen evolved with cosmic time and eventually was extinguished by the ultra-violet radiation from the first galaxies. Theoretical research has focused in recent years on predicting the expected signals for the above instruments and motivating these ambitious

  3. An e-Learning Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Manuela; Bacao, Fernando; Oliveira, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    E-learning systems have witnessed a usage and research increase in the past decade. This article presents the e-learning concepts ecosystem. It summarizes the various scopes on e-learning studies. Here we propose an e-learning theoretical framework. This theory framework is based upon three principal dimensions: users, technology, and services…

  4. Unifying Different Theories of Learning: Theoretical Framework and Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this research study was to test out a conceptual model encompassing the theoretical frameworks of achievement goals, study processing strategies, effort, and reflective thinking practice. In particular, it was postulated that the causal influences of achievement goals on academic performance are direct and indirect through study…

  5. Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided. PMID:20195441

  6. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Savalia, Tejas; Shukla, Anuj; Bapi, Raju S.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit vs. explicit and goal-directed vs. habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus, attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI) on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks. PMID:27917146

  7. Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

    2004-01-01

    This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

  8. Bayesian Decision Theoretical Framework for Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mo

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we establish a novel probabilistic framework for the data clustering problem from the perspective of Bayesian decision theory. The Bayesian decision theory view justifies the important questions: what is a cluster and what a clustering algorithm should optimize. We prove that the spectral clustering (to be specific, the…

  9. Assessing Two Theoretical Frameworks of Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Cabrero, Benilde; Pérez-Martínez, María Guadalupe; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Caso-Niebla, Joaquín; Díaz-López, Carlos David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically test two major theoretical models: a modified version of the social capital model (Pattie, Seyd and Whiteley, 2003), and the Informed Social Engagement Model (Barr and Selman, 2014; Selman and Kwok, 2010), to explain civic participation and civic knowledge of adolescents from Chile, Colombia and Mexico,…

  10. An integrative theoretical framework of acculturation and salutogenesis.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Jeannette; Wiesmann, Ulrich; Hannich, Hans-Joachim

    2011-12-01

    During the last two decades, the number of international migrants worldwide has constantly risen. In this context, cross-cultural dimensions of psychological disorders receive increased attention, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders among the migrant population. In this paper we propose a theoretical framework for the understanding of migrant mental health. This framework combines elements from Berry's acculturation model and Antonovsky's salutogenic theory. The former illustrates the main factors that affect an individual's adaptation in a new cultural context. The term acculturative stress denotes unresolved problems resulting from intercultural contact that cannot be overcome easily by simply adjusting or assimilating. The latter specifies the relationship between culturally associated stress and mental health more distinctive, introducing the concepts of generalized resistance resources and sense of coherence that determine mental health outcomes of migrants during acculturative stress periods. Specifically, we provide an integrative framework of acculturation and salutogenesis that helps to integrate inconsistent findings in the migrant mental health literature. The current paper focuses on the effect of resource factors for positive mental health outcomes in the migrant population and summarises some implications for future research activities.

  11. Responsive space: Concept analysis and theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Joseph H.; Dubos, Gregory F.

    2009-08-01

    Customers' needs are dynamic and evolve in response to unfolding environmental uncertainties. The ability of a company or an industry to address these changing customers' needs in a timely and cost-effective way is a measure of its responsiveness. In the space industry, a systemic discrepancy exists between the time constants associated with the change of customers' needs, and the response time of the industry in delivering on-orbit solutions to these needs. There are important penalties associated with such delays, and space responsiveness is recognized as a strategic imperative in commercial competitive and military environments. In this paper, we provide a critical assessment of the literature on responsive space and introduce a new multi-disciplinary framework for thinking about and addressing issues of space responsiveness. Our framework advocates three levels of responsiveness: a global industry-wide responsiveness, a local stakeholder responsiveness, and an interactive or inter-stakeholder responsiveness. We introduce and motivate the use of "responsiveness maps" for multiple stakeholders. We then identify "levers of responsiveness": technical spacecraft- and launch-centric, as well as "soft" levers (e.g., acquisition policies) for improving the responsiveness of the space industry. Finally, we propose a series of research questions to aggressively tackle problems associated with space responsiveness.

  12. Theoretical Framework of Leadership in Higher Education of England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukan, Nataliya; Havrylyuk, Marianna; Stolyarchuk, Lesia

    2015-01-01

    In the article the theoretical framework of leadership in higher education of England and Wales has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of the theoretical fundamentals of educational…

  13. A Theoretical Framework for Physics Education Research: Modeling Student Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redish, Edward F.

    2004-01-01

    Education is a goal-oriented field. But if we want to treat education scientifically so we can accumulate, evaluate, and refine what we learn, then we must develop a theoretical framework that is strongly rooted in objective observations and through which different theoretical models of student thinking can be compared. Much that is known in the…

  14. A Theoretical Framework for Lagrangian Descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopesino, C.; Balibrea-Iniesta, F.; García-Garrido, V. J.; Wiggins, S.; Mancho, A. M.

    This paper provides a theoretical background for Lagrangian Descriptors (LDs). The goal of achieving rigorous proofs that justify the ability of LDs to detect invariant manifolds is simplified by introducing an alternative definition for LDs. The definition is stated for n-dimensional systems with general time dependence, however we rigorously prove that this method reveals the stable and unstable manifolds of hyperbolic points in four particular 2D cases: a hyperbolic saddle point for linear autonomous systems, a hyperbolic saddle point for nonlinear autonomous systems, a hyperbolic saddle point for linear nonautonomous systems and a hyperbolic saddle point for nonlinear nonautonomous systems. We also discuss further rigorous results which show the ability of LDs to highlight additional invariants sets, such as n-tori. These results are just a simple extension of the ergodic partition theory which we illustrate by applying this methodology to well-known examples, such as the planar field of the harmonic oscillator and the 3D ABC flow. Finally, we provide a thorough discussion on the requirement of the objectivity (frame-invariance) property for tools designed to reveal phase space structures and their implications for Lagrangian descriptors.

  15. A theoretical framework for human and veterinary medical ethics education.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics education. Drawing from published literature on ethics education in the health professions a theoretical framework common to the teaching of human and veterinary medical ethics is proposed, based on three concepts: professional rules, moral virtues and ethical skills. The rules approach relies on the transmission of professional and social values by means of regulatory documents and depends intimately on the knowledge that students have of those documents. The virtues approach involves the inculcation of moral values and virtues that will stimulate students to develop desirable behaviours. The main focus of this approach to ethics is to develop students' attitudinal competences. Finally, the skills approach is focused on equipping the students with the necessary moral reasoning abilities to recognise and respect the plurality of ethical views that make part of contemporary society. This framework can inform future curriculum development in human and veterinary medical ethics as well as in other health care professions.

  16. An Overview of a Theoretical Framework of Phenomenography in Qualitative Education Research: An Example from Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and…

  17. Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

    2013-01-01

    Communications technologies have been continuously integrated into learning and training environments which has revealed the need for a clear understanding of the process. The Community of Inquiry (COI) Theoretical Framework has a philosophical foundation which provides planned guidelines and principles to development useful learning environments…

  18. Internet Use and Cognitive Development: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve

    2006-01-01

    The number of children and adolescents accessing the Internet as well as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities include playing video games, accessing web sites, and communicating via chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A theoretical framework for understanding the effects of Internet use on…

  19. The Theoretical Framework of Jim Cummins: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baral, David P.

    In recent years, the theoretical framework of Jim Cummins has been widely discussed by bilingual educators. This paper traces the evolution of Cummins' theory and examines the criticisms which have been raised against it. The first part of the paper discusses the major elements of his theory of bilingual proficiency: the threshhold hypothesis, the…

  20. Exploring How Globalization Shapes Education: Methodology and Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of "Sustainability by the bay"" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors'…

  1. Intimate partner violence theoretical considerations: moving towards a contextual framework.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kathryn M; Naugle, Amy E

    2008-10-01

    Several theories have been developed to provide a conceptual understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) episodes. Although each of these theories has found some degree of empirical support, they are limited in their explanatory power of IPV episodes and their ability to significantly impact the efficacy of IPV prevention and treatment programs. The current paper provides a review and critique of current IPV theories and highlights strategies for improving upon these theories. An alternative theoretical conceptualization is introduced that incorporates existing IPV and functional analytic literature into a contextual framework for conceptualizing IPV episodes. Components of the IPV contextual framework include distal, static and proximal antecedents; motivating factors; behavioral repertoire; discriminative stimuli (i.e. environmental cues/signals); verbal rules; and IPV consequences. The proposed theoretical framework offers two primary advantages over former IPV theories. First, it provides a comprehensive conceptualization of IPV by integrating components of previous IPV theories and their related empirical findings into one, cohesive conceptual framework. Additionally, it allows for a more fine-grained analysis of more proximal variables potentially related to discrete IPV episodes. A discussion of how the proposed theoretical framework may influence future IPV research and clinical practice is provided.

  2. Framework for a space shuttle main engine health monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawman, Michael W.; Galinaitis, William S.; Tulpule, Sharayu; Mattedi, Anita K.; Kamenetz, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    A framework developed for a health management system (HMS) which is directed at improving the safety of operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is summarized. An emphasis was placed on near term technology through requirements to use existing SSME instrumentation and to demonstrate the HMS during SSME ground tests within five years. The HMS framework was developed through an analysis of SSME failure modes, fault detection algorithms, sensor technologies, and hardware architectures. A key feature of the HMS framework design is that a clear path from the ground test system to a flight HMS was maintained. Fault detection techniques based on time series, nonlinear regression, and clustering algorithms were developed and demonstrated on data from SSME ground test failures. The fault detection algorithms exhibited 100 percent detection of faults, had an extremely low false alarm rate, and were robust to sensor loss. These algorithms were incorporated into a hierarchical decision making strategy for overall assessment of SSME health. A preliminary design for a hardware architecture capable of supporting real time operation of the HMS functions was developed. Utilizing modular, commercial off-the-shelf components produced a reliable low cost design with the flexibility to incorporate advances in algorithm and sensor technology as they become available.

  3. Towards a Theoretical Framework of Heritage Language Literacy and Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wing-Yan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing mainly on Pierre Bourdieu's notions of symbolic capital, Bakhtin's concept of voice and heteroglossia in the novel, and Gee's theory of Discourses and the term third space as applied in education, I construct a theoretical framework for heritage language (HL) literacy and identity processes. I propose that HL literacy acquisition be viewed…

  4. A theoretical framework for TTO valuations of health.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Ken; Devlin, Nancy

    2006-10-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework, drawing on Hicks utility theory, for the Time Trade-off (TTO) method conventionally used to value health states. We briefly describe that theory and posit four distinctive TTO valuation approaches suggested by it: each of compensating variation and equivalent variation for both gains and losses in health, with valuation of health states in each case derived from trade-offs between health and length of life. Recent developments and research on TTO valuation are placed in the context of this framework.

  5. Toward a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    2010-04-01

    Cyberspace is an indispensable part of the economy and society, but has been "polluted" with many compromised computers that can be abused to launch further attacks against the others. Since it is likely that there always are compromised computers, it is important to be aware of the (dynamic) cyber security-related situation, which is however challenging because cyberspace is an extremely large-scale complex system. Our project aims to investigate a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing. With the perspective of treating cyberspace as a large-scale complex system, the core question we aim to address is: What would be a competent theoretical (mathematical and algorithmic) framework for designing, analyzing, deploying, managing, and adapting cyber sensor systems so as to provide trustworthy information or input to the higher layer of cyber situation-awareness management, even in the presence of sophisticated malicious attacks against the cyber sensor systems?

  6. Extended physics as a theoretical framework for systems biology?

    PubMed

    Miquel, Paul-Antoine

    2011-08-01

    In this essay we examine whether a theoretical and conceptual framework for systems biology could be built from the Bailly and Longo (2008, 2009) proposal. These authors aim to understand life as a coherent critical structure, and propose to develop an extended physical approach of evolution, as a diffusion of biomass in a space of complexity. Their attempt leads to a simple mathematical reconstruction of Gould's assumption (1989) concerning the bacterial world as a "left wall of least complexity" that we will examine. Extended physical systems are characterized by their constructive properties. Time is acting and new properties emerge by their history that can open the list of their initial properties. This conceptual and theoretical framework is nothing more than a philosophical assumption, but as such it provides a new and exciting approach concerning the evolution of life, and the transition between physics and biology.

  7. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    PubMed

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  8. Using Learning Principles as a Theoretical Framework for Instructional Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Michele; Norman, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Learning theory provides a powerful framework for analyzing instructional consultations and increasing their effectiveness. In this paper, the authors review the main tenets of learning theory, apply them to consultation scenarios, and present a complex case study to show how they can guide analysis and problem solving around challenging…

  9. A theoretical framework for narrative explanation in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Guilbert, Sandra M.; Smith, Martha L.; Hakimelahi, Shahram; Phillips, Linda M.

    2005-07-01

    This paper deals with a number of conceptual and theoretical issues that underlie the proposal to employ narrative explanations in science education: What is narrative? What is explanation? and What is narrative explanation? In answering these questions, we develop a framework of narrative elements and characteristics of narrative explanations. Two possible examples of narrative explanation are presented and examined in light of the framework. This examination brings to light various conceptual and empirical questions related to the examples and to the larger issue of the use of examples like them in science instruction. The value of the framework lies partly in its power to point to such questions. The questions can guide a program of theoretical and empirical research into the psychological reality of the narrative form of explanation, the existence of narrative explanations in science, the use of narrative explanations in science teaching, and the nature and extent of the narrative effect upon which proposals for the use of narrative often are justified.

  10. An information-theoretic framework for flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijie; Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The process of visualization can be seen as a visual communication channel where the input to the channel is the raw data, and the output is the result of a visualization algorithm. From this point of view, we can evaluate the effectiveness of visualization by measuring how much information in the original data is being communicated through the visual communication channel. In this paper, we present an information-theoretic framework for flow visualization with a special focus on streamline generation. In our framework, a vector field is modeled as a distribution of directions from which Shannon's entropy is used to measure the information content in the field. The effectiveness of the streamlines displayed in visualization can be measured by first constructing a new distribution of vectors derived from the existing streamlines, and then comparing this distribution with that of the original data set using the conditional entropy. The conditional entropy between these two distributions indicates how much information in the original data remains hidden after the selected streamlines are displayed. The quality of the visualization can be improved by progressively introducing new streamlines until the conditional entropy converges to a small value. We describe the key components of our framework with detailed analysis, and show that the framework can effectively visualize 2D and 3D flow data.

  11. A Universal Operator Theoretic Framework for Quantum Fault Tolerance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Gerald; Calderbank, Robert; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Hamrick, Michael; Weinstein, Yaakov

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a universal operator theoretic framework for quantum fault tolerance. This incorporates a top-down approach that implements a system-level criterion based on specification of the full system dynamics, applied at every level of error correction concatenation. This leads to more accurate determinations of error thresholds than could previously be obtained. The basis for the approach is the Quantum Computer Condition (QCC), an inequality governing the evolution of a quantum computer. In addition to more accurate determination of error threshold values, we show that the QCC provides a means to systematically determine optimality (or non-optimality) of different choices of error correction coding and error avoidance strategies. This is possible because, as we show, all known coding schemes are actually special cases of the QCC. We demonstrate this by introducing a new, operator theoretic form of entanglement assisted quantum error correction.

  12. Sociomateriality: a theoretical framework for studying distributed medical education.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Anna; Kits, Olga; Whelan, Emma; Fournier, Cathy; Wilson, Keith; Power, Gregory; Mann, Karen; Tummons, Jonathan; Brown, Peggy Alexiadis

    2015-11-01

    Distributed medical education (DME) is a type of distance learning in which students participate in medical education from diverse geographic locations using Web conferencing, videoconferencing, e-learning, and similar tools. DME is becoming increasingly widespread in North America and around the world.Although relatively new to medical education, distance learning has a long history in the broader field of education and a related body of literature that speaks to the importance of engaging in rigorous and theoretically informed studies of distance learning. The existing DME literature is helpful, but it has been largely descriptive and lacks a critical "lens"-that is, a theoretical perspective from which to rigorously conceptualize and interrogate DME's social (relationships, people) and material (technologies, tools) aspects.The authors describe DME and theories about distance learning and show that such theories focus on social, pedagogical, and cognitive considerations without adequately taking into account material factors. They address this gap by proposing sociomateriality as a theoretical framework allowing researchers and educators to study DME and (1) understand and consider previously obscured actors, infrastructure, and other factors that, on the surface, seem unrelated and even unimportant; (2) see clearly how the social and material components of learning are intertwined in fluid, messy, and often uncertain ways; and (3) perhaps think differently, even in ways that disrupt traditional approaches, as they explore DME. The authors conclude that DME brings with it substantial investments of social and material resources, and therefore needs careful study, using approaches that embrace its complexity.

  13. Exploring the UMLS: a rough sets based theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, P

    1999-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) [1] has a unique and leading position in the evolution of thesauri and metathesauri. Features that set it apart are: its composition from more than fifty component health care vocabularies; the sophisticated UMLS ontology linking the Metathesaurus with structures such as the Semantic Network and the SPECIALIST lexicon; and the high level of social collaboration invested in its construction and growth. It is our thesis that in order to successfully harness such a complex vocabulary for text retrieval we need sophisticated methods derived from a deeper understanding of the UMLS system. Thus we propose a theoretical framework based on the theory of rough sets, that supports the systematic and exploratory investigation of the UMLS Metathesaurus for text retrieval. Our goal is to make it more feasible for individuals such as patients and health care professionals to access relevant information at the point of need.

  14. Development of a theoretical framework for analyzing cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Vedel, Søren; Wei, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Background To date hydrocephalus researchers acknowledge the need for rigorous but utilitarian fluid mechanics understanding and methodologies in studying normal and hydrocephalic intracranial dynamics. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs introduced pressure into volume conservation; but control volume analysis enforces independent conditions on pressure and volume. Previously, utilization of clinical measurements has been limited to understanding of the relative amplitude and timing of flow, volume and pressure waveforms; qualitative approaches without a clear framework for meaningful quantitative comparison. Methods Control volume analysis is presented to introduce the reader to the theoretical background of this foundational fluid mechanics technique for application to general control volumes. This approach is able to directly incorporate the diverse measurements obtained by clinicians to better elucidate intracranial dynamics and progression to disorder. Results Several examples of meaningful intracranial control volumes and the particular measurement sets needed for the analysis are discussed. Conclusion Control volume analysis provides a framework to guide the type and location of measurements and also a way to interpret the resulting data within a fundamental fluid physics analysis. PMID:19772652

  15. A Game Theoretic Framework for Analyzing Re-Identification Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Zhiyu; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Xia, Weiyi; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Ganta, Ranjit; Heatherly, Raymond; Malin, Bradley A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the potential wealth of insights in personal data the big databases can provide, many organizations aim to share data while protecting privacy by sharing de-identified data, but are concerned because various demonstrations show such data can be re-identified. Yet these investigations focus on how attacks can be perpetrated, not the likelihood they will be realized. This paper introduces a game theoretic framework that enables a publisher to balance re-identification risk with the value of sharing data, leveraging a natural assumption that a recipient only attempts re-identification if its potential gains outweigh the costs. We apply the framework to a real case study, where the value of the data to the publisher is the actual grant funding dollar amounts from a national sponsor and the re-identification gain of the recipient is the fine paid to a regulator for violation of federal privacy rules. There are three notable findings: 1) it is possible to achieve zero risk, in that the recipient never gains from re-identification, while sharing almost as much data as the optimal solution that allows for a small amount of risk; 2) the zero-risk solution enables sharing much more data than a commonly invoked de-identification policy of the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); and 3) a sensitivity analysis demonstrates these findings are robust to order-of-magnitude changes in player losses and gains. In combination, these findings provide support that such a framework can enable pragmatic policy decisions about de-identified data sharing. PMID:25807380

  16. Vaccine Hesitancy: Clarifying a Theoretical Framework for an Ambiguous Notion

    PubMed Central

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K.; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term “vaccine hesitancy” (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people’s level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine. PMID:25789201

  17. Vaccine hesitancy: clarifying a theoretical framework for an ambiguous notion.

    PubMed

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

    2015-02-25

    Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term "vaccine hesitancy" (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people's level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine.

  18. The Dolinar Receiver in an Information Theoretic Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Samuel J.

    2011-01-01

    Optical communication at the quantum limit requires that measurements on the optical field be maximally informative, but devising physical measurements that accomplish this objective has proven challenging. The Dolinar receiver exemplifies a rare instance of success in distinguishing between two coherent states: an adaptive local oscillator is mixed with the signal prior to photodetection, which yields an error probability that meets the Helstrom lower bound with equality. Here we apply the same local-oscillator-based architecture with aninformation-theoretic optimization criterion. We begin with analysis of this receiver in a general framework for an arbitrary coherent-state modulation alphabet, and then we concentrate on two relevant examples. First, we study a binary antipodal alphabet and show that the Dolinar receiver's feedback function not only minimizes the probability of error, but also maximizes the mutual information. Next, we study ternary modulation consistingof antipodal coherent states and the vacuum state. We derive an analytic expression for a near-optimal local oscillator feedback function, and, via simulation, we determine its photon information efficiency (PIE). We provide the PIE versus dimensional information efficiency (DIE) trade-off curve and show that this modulation and the our receiver combination performs universally better than (generalized) on-off keying plus photoncounting, although, the advantage asymptotically vanishes as the bits-per-photon diverges towards infinity.

  19. A theoretical framework for jamming in confluent biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, M. Lisa

    2015-03-01

    For important biological functions such as wound healing, embryonic development, and cancer tumorogenesis, cells must initially rearrange and move over relatively large distances, like a liquid. Subsequently, these same tissues must undergo buckling and support shear stresses, like a solid. Our work suggests that biological tissues can accommodate these disparate requirements because the tissues are close to glass or jamming transition. While recent self propelled particle models generically predict a glass/jamming transition that is driven by packing density φ and happens at some critical φc less than unity, many biological tissues that are confluent with no gaps between cells appear to undergo a jamming transition at a constant density (φ = 1). I will discuss a new theoretical framework for predicting energy barriers and rates of cell migration in 2D tissue monolayers, and show that this model predicts a novel type of rigidity transition, which takes place at constant φ = 1 and depends only on single cell properties such as cell-cell adhesion, cortical tension and cell elasticity. This model additionally predicts that an experimentally observable parameter, the ratio between a cell's perimeter and the square root of its cross-sectional area, attains a specific, critical value at the jamming transition. We show that this prediction is precisely realized in primary epithelial cultures from human patients, with implications for asthma pathology.

  20. Experiences of using the Theoretical Domains Framework across diverse clinical environments: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Cameron J; Marshall, Andrea P; Chaves, Nadia J; Jankelowitz, Stacey K; Lin, Ivan B; Loy, Clement T; Rees, Gwyneth; Sakzewski, Leanne; Thomas, Susie; To, The-Phung; Wilkinson, Shelley A; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) is an integrative framework developed from a synthesis of psychological theories as a vehicle to help apply theoretical approaches to interventions aimed at behavior change. Purpose This study explores experiences of TDF use by professionals from multiple disciplines across diverse clinical settings. Methods Mixed methods were used to examine experiences, attitudes, and perspectives of health professionals in using the TDF in health care implementation projects. Individual interviews were conducted with ten health care professionals from six disciplines who used the TDF in implementation projects. Deductive content and thematic analysis were used. Results Three main themes and associated subthemes were identified including: 1) reasons for use of the TDF (increased confidence, broader perspective, and theoretical underpinnings); 2) challenges using the TDF (time and resources, operationalization of the TDF) and; 3) future use of the TDF. Conclusion The TDF provided a useful, flexible framework for a diverse group of health professionals working across different clinical settings for the assessment of barriers and targeting resources to influence behavior change for implementation projects. The development of practical tools and training or support is likely to aid the utility of TDF. PMID:25834455

  1. A theoretical stochastic control framework for adapting radiotherapy to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Saberian, Fatemeh; Ghate, Archis; Kim, Minsun

    2016-10-07

    Hypoxia, that is, insufficient oxygen partial pressure, is a known cause of reduced radiosensitivity in solid tumors, and especially in head-and-neck tumors. It is thus believed to adversely affect the outcome of fractionated radiotherapy. Oxygen partial pressure varies spatially and temporally over the treatment course and exhibits inter-patient and intra-tumor variation. Emerging advances in non-invasive functional imaging offer the future possibility of adapting radiotherapy plans to this uncertain spatiotemporal evolution of hypoxia over the treatment course. We study the potential benefits of such adaptive planning via a theoretical stochastic control framework using computer-simulated evolution of hypoxia on computer-generated test cases in head-and-neck cancer. The exact solution of the resulting control problem is computationally intractable. We develop an approximation algorithm, called certainty equivalent control, that calls for the solution of a sequence of convex programs over the treatment course; dose-volume constraints are handled using a simple constraint generation method. These convex programs are solved using an interior point algorithm with a logarithmic barrier via Newton's method and backtracking line search. Convexity of various formulations in this paper is guaranteed by a sufficient condition on radiobiological tumor-response parameters. This condition is expected to hold for head-and-neck tumors and for other similarly responding tumors where the linear dose-response parameter is larger than the quadratic dose-response parameter. We perform numerical experiments on four test cases by using a first-order vector autoregressive process with exponential and rational-quadratic covariance functions from the spatiotemporal statistics literature to simulate the evolution of hypoxia. Our results suggest that dynamic planning could lead to a considerable improvement in the number of tumor cells remaining at the end of the treatment course. Through

  2. A theoretical stochastic control framework for adapting radiotherapy to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberian, Fatemeh; Ghate, Archis; Kim, Minsun

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia, that is, insufficient oxygen partial pressure, is a known cause of reduced radiosensitivity in solid tumors, and especially in head-and-neck tumors. It is thus believed to adversely affect the outcome of fractionated radiotherapy. Oxygen partial pressure varies spatially and temporally over the treatment course and exhibits inter-patient and intra-tumor variation. Emerging advances in non-invasive functional imaging offer the future possibility of adapting radiotherapy plans to this uncertain spatiotemporal evolution of hypoxia over the treatment course. We study the potential benefits of such adaptive planning via a theoretical stochastic control framework using computer-simulated evolution of hypoxia on computer-generated test cases in head-and-neck cancer. The exact solution of the resulting control problem is computationally intractable. We develop an approximation algorithm, called certainty equivalent control, that calls for the solution of a sequence of convex programs over the treatment course; dose-volume constraints are handled using a simple constraint generation method. These convex programs are solved using an interior point algorithm with a logarithmic barrier via Newton’s method and backtracking line search. Convexity of various formulations in this paper is guaranteed by a sufficient condition on radiobiological tumor-response parameters. This condition is expected to hold for head-and-neck tumors and for other similarly responding tumors where the linear dose-response parameter is larger than the quadratic dose-response parameter. We perform numerical experiments on four test cases by using a first-order vector autoregressive process with exponential and rational-quadratic covariance functions from the spatiotemporal statistics literature to simulate the evolution of hypoxia. Our results suggest that dynamic planning could lead to a considerable improvement in the number of tumor cells remaining at the end of the treatment course

  3. Toward an Instructional Philosophy: "A Theoretical Framework for Teaching and Training at Salman Bin Abdulaziz University (SAU)"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qandile, Yasine A.; Al-Qasim, Wajeeh Q.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a clear instructional philosophy for Salman bin Abdulaziz University as a fundamental basis for teaching and training as well as a theoretical framework for curriculum design and development. The study attempts to answer the main questions about pertaining to the basic structure of contemporary higher…

  4. Factors Influencing the Use of Learning Management System in Saudi Arabian Higher Education: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiri, Mohammed J. Sherbib; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical framework underlying a research on factors that influence utilization of the Jusur Learning Management System (Jusur LMS) in Saudi Arabian public universities. Development of the theoretical framework was done based on library research approach. Initially, the existing literature relevant to…

  5. Using a Theoretical Framework of Institutional Culture to Analyse an Institutional Strategy Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Anthea Hydi Maxine

    2016-01-01

    This paper builds on a conceptual analysis of institutional culture in higher education. A theoretical framework was proposed to analyse institutional documents of two higher education institutions in the Western Cape, for the period 2002 to 2012 (Jacobs 2012). The elements of this theoretical framework are "shared values and beliefs",…

  6. Cosmopolitanism: Extending Our Theoretical Framework for Transcultural Technical Communication Research and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Zsuzsanna Bacsa

    2013-01-01

    The effects of globalization on communication products and processes have resulted in document features and interactional practices that are sometimes difficult to describe within current theoretical frameworks of inter/transcultural technical communication. Although it has been recognized in our field that the old theoretical frameworks and…

  7. A Theoretical Framework for the Studio as a Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Carol B.; Cennamo, Katherine; Douglas, Sarah; Vernon, Mitzi; McGrath, Margarita; Reimer, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe a holistic, ecological framework that takes into account the surface structures and pedagogical approaches in the studio and how these elements are connected to the construction of design knowledge: epistemology. In our development of this framework, we came to understand how disciplinary underpinnings and academic…

  8. Developing a Theoretical Framework for Faculty Planning and Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soled, Suzanne Wegener; Yinger, Robert J.

    The College of Education at the University of Cincinnati agreed to examine its teacher education programs and initiate program changes within the broad framework provided by the Holmes initiatives. Those involved began by developing a conceptual framework for pursuing planning and implementation efforts in the college. Rather than proposing a…

  9. Theoretical Framework of Researcher Knowledge Development in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontorovich, Igor'

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a framework of researcher knowledge development in conducting a study in mathematics education. The key components of the framework are: knowledge germane to conducting a particular study, processes of knowledge accumulation, and catalyzing filters that influence a researcher's decision making. The components…

  10. Language Learner Strategies: Adhering to a Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaro, Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    The editors and guest editors of Volume 35 have very kindly asked me to write an end-piece to this special issue of "The Language Learning Journal" that has focused on language learner strategies (LLS). Particularly they have asked me to evaluate the extent to which the papers presented in this volume adhere to some sort of theoretical consensus.…

  11. Potential benefits of remote sensing: Theoretical framework and empirical estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.

  12. [Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].

    PubMed

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.

  13. Reading as a Group Process Phenomenon: A Theoretical Framework for Bibliotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Laura J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a unifying theoretical framework for bibliotherapy, based on C. Shrodes' model of bibliotherapy and I. D. Yalom's research on therapeutic factors in group therapy. Draws research and practice implications for both individual and group therapy. (RS)

  14. Competence and drug use: theoretical frameworks, empirical evidence and measurement.

    PubMed

    Lindenberg, C S; Solorzano, R; Kelley, M; Darrow, V; Gendrop, S C; Strickland, O

    1998-01-01

    Statistics show that use of harmful substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine) among women of childbearing age is widespread and serious. Numerous theoretical models and empirical studies have attempted to explain the complex factors that lead individuals to use drugs. The Social Stress Model of Substance Abuse [1] is one model developed to explain parameters that influence drug use. According to the model, the likelihood of an individual engaging in drug use is seen as a function of the stress level and the extent to which it is offset by stress modifiers such as social networks, social competencies, and resources. The variables of the denominator are viewed as interacting with each other to buffer the impact of stress [1]. This article focuses on one of the constructs in this model: that of competence. It presents a summary of theoretical and conceptual formulations for the construct of competence, a review of empirical evidence for the association of competence with drug use, and describes the preliminary development of a multi-scale instrument designed to assess drug protective competence among low-income Hispanic childbearing women. Based upon theoretical and empirical studies, eight domains of drug protective competence were identified and conceptually defined. Using subscales from existing instruments with psychometric evidence for their validity and reliability, a multi-scale instrument was developed to assess drug protective competence. Hypothesis testing was used to assess construct validity. Four drug protective competence domains (social influence, sociability, self-worth, and control/responsibility) were found to be statistically associated with drug use behaviors. Although not statistically significant, expected trends were observed between drug use and the other four domains of drug protective competence (intimacy, nurturance, goal directedness, and spiritual directedness). Study limitations and suggestions for further psychometric testing

  15. Studying Activities That Take Place in Speech Interactions: A Theoretical and Methodological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Dizier de Almeida, Valérie; Colletta, Jean-Marc; Auriac-Slusarczyk, Emmanuelle; Specogna, Antonietta; Simon, Jean-Pascal; Fiema, Gabriela; Luxembourger, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a theoretical and methodological framework based on a pluralistic, concerted approach to the study of activities that take place in and through speech interactions. The framework has a general scope, applying to any collective activity taking form through language interactions. It contributes to a fuller understanding of the…

  16. Upping the "Anti-": The Value of an Anti-Racist Theoretical Framework in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2015-01-01

    In a time that some have argued is "postracial" following the election and reelection of Barack Obama (see Wise 2010, for discussion), this paper argues that antiracism is a crucial theoretical framework for music education. I explore three areas of music education, in which such a framework can push toward change. The first area speaks…

  17. A Theoretically Grounded Framework for Integrating the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Jill K.

    2016-01-01

    SoTL scholars have written about the importance and utility of teaching from a guiding theoretical framework. In this paper, ecological theory and specifically Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, is examined as a potential framework for synthesizing SoTL research findings to inform teaching and learning scholarship at the college level. A…

  18. Theoretical frameworks used to discuss ethical issues in private physiotherapy practice and proposal of a new ethical tool.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations.

  19. The Importance of Theoretical Frameworks and Mathematical Constructs in Designing Digital Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinter, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The increase in availability of educational technologies over the past few decades has not only led to new practice in teaching mathematics but also to new perspectives in research, methodologies, and theoretical frameworks within mathematics education. Hence, the amalgamation of theoretical and pragmatic considerations in digital tool design…

  20. Towards Culturally Relevant Classroom Science: A Theoretical Framework Focusing on Traditional Plant Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate…

  1. Towards Developing a Theoretical Framework for Measuring Public Sector Managers' Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…

  2. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Moisture Variability: A Theoretical Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertson, J. D.; Montaldo, N.

    Much observational effort has been devoted of late to the issue of sub-grid variability of near surface soil moisture fields. This work has been motivated by the tendency for large scale atmospheric models to have coarse land surface grids (and hence soil moisture fields) and the prospect for the development of satellite platforms for re- motely sensing coarse grained soil moisture fields. The interest in sub-grid variability is intended to provide insights needed to complement the coarse scale models and observational systems. Interestingly, the empirical results have often appeared contra- dictory at first glance. Some studies have shown spatial variance to increase through the drying phase while other studies found the variance to decrease through time. Var- ious explanations have been proposed, typically centered on possible disparate scales of the studies or differing hydrometeorological conditions. In this presentation we de- rive from basic fluid mechanical tools a prognostic equation for the temporal evolution of the spatial variance of soil moisture. The resulting equation includes separate vari- ance production-destruction terms for infiltration, drainage, horizontal convergence- divergence, and evapotranspiration. In this talk we demonstrate how the individual terms contribute uniquely to the temporal changes of the spatial variance of soil mois- ture under contrasting physiographic and hydrometeorological conditions. We contend that the derived variance evolution equation provides a framework for reconciling em- pirical results that were previously considered to be contradictory.

  3. Emergent Writing in Preschoolers: Preliminary Evidence for a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and educators use the term emergent literacy to refer to a broad set of skills and attitudes that serve as foundational skills for acquiring success in later reading and writing; however, models of emergent literacy have generally focused on reading and reading-related behaviors. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to articulate and evaluate a theoretical model of the components of emergent writing. Alternative models of the structure of individual and developmental differences of emergent writing and writing-related skills were examined in 372 preschool children who ranged in age from 3- to 5-years using confirmatory factor analysis. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis provide evidence that these emergent writing skills are best described by three correlated but distinct factors, (a) Conceptual Knowledge, (b) Procedural Knowledge, and (c) Generative Knowledge. Evidence that these three emergent writing factors show different patterns of relations to emergent literacy constructs is presented. Implications for understanding the development of writing and assessment of early writing skills are discussed. PMID:25316955

  4. Use of Theoretical Frameworks as a Pragmatic Guide for Mixed Methods Studies: A Methodological Necessity?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Coon, David W.; Ume, Ebere

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing acceptance of the utility of mixed methods in health sciences but there is no widely accepted set of ideas in regard to use of a conceptual or theoretical framework to guide inquiry. Few mixed methods health science articles report the use of such a framework. Lack of available conceptual maps provided by theoretical frameworks, necessary intricacy of design, and the qualitative “black box” tradition all contribute to a dearth of methodological guidance in such studies. This article uses a funded National Institutes of Health study as an example to explain the utility of a theoretical framework in conceptualizing a study, making design decisions such as sampling and recruitment, collecting and analyzing data, and data interpretation. PMID:22368533

  5. Deliberate Practice as a Theoretical Framework for Interprofessional Experiential Education

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joyce M.; Zorek, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The theory of deliberate practice has been applied to many skill-based performance activities. The primary aim of this project was to integrate synergistic principles from deliberate practice and consensus-derived competencies for interprofessional education into a framework upon which educational models to advance interprofessional experiential education (IEE) might be built. Methods: CINAHL, ERIC, and MEDLINE databases were searched using the keywords “deliberate practice” and “interprofessional education,” both individually and in combination. Relevant articles were selected from the catalog based on support for the premise of the project. Defining characteristics of deliberate practice were distilled with particular emphasis on their application to the Interprofessional Education Collaborative's (IPEC) core competencies. Recommendations for IEE development were identified through the synthesis of deliberate practice principles and IPEC competencies. Results: There is a high degree of synergy between deliberate practice principles and IPEC competencies. Our synthesis of the literature yielded a cyclical four-step process to advance IEE: (1) implement an IEE plan guided by the student's strengths/weaknesses and in consideration of the collaborative practice skills they wish to develop, (2) engage in IPE experiences that will challenge targeted skills according to the IEE plan, (3) embed frequent opportunities for student reflection and preceptor/team feedback within IEE plan, and (4) revise the IEE plan and the IPE experience based on insights gained during step 3. Conclusion: The cyclical four-step process synthesized through this literature review may be used to guide the development of new IEE models. The purposeful development of IEE models grounded in a theory that has already been operationalized in other skill-based performance areas is an important step to address expanding accreditation standards throughout the health professions

  6. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-12-12

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and

  7. The functional-cognitive meta-theoretical framework: Reflections, possible clarifications and how to move forward.

    PubMed

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Hussey, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The functional-cognitive meta-theoretical framework has been offered as a conceptual basis for facilitating greater communication and cooperation between the functional/behavioural and cognitive traditions within psychology, thus leading to benefits for both scientific communities. The current article is written from the perspective of two functional researchers, who are also proponents of the functional-cognitive framework, and attended the "Building Bridges between the Functional and Cognitive Traditions" meeting at Ghent University in the summer of 2014. The article commences with a brief summary of the functional approach to theory, followed by our reflections upon the functional-cognitive framework in light of that meeting. In doing so, we offer three ways in which the framework could be clarified: (a) effective communication between the two traditions is likely to be found at the level of behavioural observations rather than effects or theory, (b) not all behavioural observations will be deemed to be of mutual interest to both traditions, and (c) observations of mutual interest will be those that serve to elaborate and extend existing theorising in the functional and/or cognitive traditions. The article concludes with a summary of what we perceive to be the strengths and weaknesses of the framework, and a suggestion that there is a need to determine if the framework is meta-theoretical or is in fact a third theoretical approach to doing psychological science.

  8. Theoretical properties of regularities in the oscillation spectra of A-F main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Juan Carlos; Hernández, Antonio García; Moya, Andrés; Rodrigo, Carlos; Solano, Enrique; Garrido, Rafael; Rodón, José R.

    2014-02-01

    We study the theoretical properties of the regular spacings found in the oscillation spectra of δ Scuti stars. A linear relation between the large separation and the mean density is predicted to be found in the low-frequency domain (i.e. radial orders spanning from 1 to 8, approximately) of the main-sequence δ Scuti stars' oscillation spectrum. This implies an independent direct measure of the average density of δ Scuti stars, analogous to that of the Sun, and places tight constraints on the mode identification and hence on the stellar internal structure and dynamics, and allows a determination the radii of planets orbiting around δ Scuti stars with unprecedented precision. This opens the way for studying the evolution of regular patterns in pulsating stars, and its relation to stellar structure and evolution.

  9. Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünkorn, Juliane; Belzen, Annette Upmeier zu; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-07-01

    Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical evaluation). Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present the results of an empirical evaluation of a conjoint theoretical framework. The theoretical framework integrates relevant research findings and comprises five aspects which are subdivided into three levels each: nature of models, multiple models, purpose of models, testing, and changing models. The study was conducted with a sample of 1,177 seventh to tenth graders (aged 11-19 years) using open-ended items. The data were analysed by identifying students' understandings of models (nature of models and multiple models) and their use in science (purpose of models, testing, and changing models), and comparing as well as assigning them to the content of the theoretical framework. A comprehensive category system of students' understandings was thus developed. Regarding the empirical evaluation, the students' understandings of the nature and the purpose of models were sufficiently described by the theoretical framework. Concerning the understandings of multiple, testing, and changing models, additional initial understandings (only one model possible, no testing of models, and no change of models) need to be considered. This conjoint and now empirically tested framework for students' understandings can provide a common basis for future science education research. Furthermore, evidence-based indications can be provided for teachers and their instructional practice.

  10. A Theoretical Framework to Guide the Re-Engineering of Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd; Kellam, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Before leaders in technology education are able to identify a theoretical framework upon which a curriculum is to stand, they must first grapple with two opposing views of the purpose of technology education--education for all learners or career/technical education. Dakers (2006) identifies two opposing philosophies that can serve as a framework…

  11. Memory and the Self in Autism: A Review and Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Sophie E.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional…

  12. Variation Theory: A Theory of Learning and a Useful Theoretical Framework for Chemical Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors are constantly baffled by the fact that two students who are sitting in the same class, who have access to the same materials, can come to understand a particular chemistry concept differently. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in…

  13. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  14. Understanding the Role of Numeracy in Health: Proposed Theoretical Framework and Practical Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipkus, Isaac M.; Peters, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Numeracy--that is, how facile people are with mathematical concepts and their applications--is gaining importance in medical decision making and risk communication. This article proposes six critical functions of health numeracy. These functions are integrated into a theoretical framework on health numeracy that has implications for risk…

  15. Modeling in Chemistry as Cultural Practice: A Theoretical Framework with Implications for Chemistry Education. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erduran, Sibel

    This paper reports on an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for the characterization of models and modeling that can be useful in application to chemistry education. The underlying argument marks a departure from an emphasis on concepts that are the outcomes of chemical inquiry about how knowledge growth occurs through modeling in chemistry.…

  16. Unpacking Teacher-Researcher Collaboration with Three Theoretical Frameworks: A Case of Expansive Learning Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-01-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the…

  17. In Search of Theoretical Framework: A Case Study of Chinese Mothers' Experiences in Immigration and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shujun

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop a theoretical framework that is applicable to research on recent immigrant Chinese mothers in the United States. Although Black, Chicana, and transnational feminist epistemologies exist in previous scholarship, there is no comparable discourse in the study of Chinese mothers' experiences in the United States. In this…

  18. The Pedagogy of Primary Historical Sources in Mathematics: Classroom Practice Meets Theoretical Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Janet Heine; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

    2014-01-01

    We analyze our method of teaching with primary historical sources within the context of theoretical frameworks for the role of history in teaching mathematics developed by Barbin, Fried, Jahnke, Jankvist, and Kjeldsen and Blomhøj, and more generally from the perspective of Sfard's theory of learning as communication. We present case studies…

  19. Language Learning Strategies--The Theoretical Framework and Some Suggestions for Learner Training Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ting

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of second language learning indicates that proper use of language learning strategies leads to the improvement of overall Second Language (L2) or Foreign Language (FL) proficiency as well as specific language skills. This essay firstly attempts to build a theoretical framework of learning strategies theories by clarifying the…

  20. Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the words…

  1. First-Year Biology Students' Understandings of Meiosis: An Investigation Using a Structural Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Frances; Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Meiosis is a biological concept that is both complex and important for students to learn. This study aims to explore first-year biology students' explanations of the process of meiosis, using an explicit theoretical framework provided by the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) model. The research was based on responses of 334…

  2. A Theoretical Framework for Organizing the Effect of the Internet on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2006-01-01

    The number of children and adolescents accessing the Internet as well as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities include playing video games, navigating web sites, and communicating via chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A theoretical framework for understanding the effects of Internet use on…

  3. NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

  4. Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

  5. Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your "House"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cynthia; Osanloo, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework is one of the most important aspects in the research process, yet is often misunderstood by doctoral candidates as they prepare their dissertation research study. The importance of theory-driven thinking and acting is emphasized in relation to the selection of a topic, the development of research questions, the…

  6. The Influence of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge Theoretical Framework on Research on Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecoli, Storey

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Lee S. Shulman's theoretical framework, has had a substantial influence on research in preservice teacher education, and consequently, schools of education. This review builds from Grossman's case studies that concluded that beginning teachers provided with excellent teacher education developed more substantial PCK…

  7. Applying the Grossman et al. Theoretical Framework: The Case of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucan, Linda; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Busse, Tracy; Heisey, Natalie; Klingelhofer, Rachel; Rimbey, Michelle; Schutz, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: This article describes the application of the theoretical framework proposed by Grossman and her colleagues to a research effort focusing on text-based discussion as a context for comprehension instruction. According to Grossman and her colleagues, a useful way to consider the teaching of complex practices to candidates is to…

  8. Ecological Dynamics as a Theoretical Framework for Development of Sustainable Behaviours towards the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes how the theoretical framework of ecological dynamics can provide an influential model of the learner and the learning process to pre-empt effective behaviour changes. Here we argue that ecological dynamics supports a well-established model of the learner ideally suited to the environmental education context because of its…

  9. Compassion Fatigue as a Theoretical Framework to Help Understand Burnout among Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari; Palladino, John M.; Barnett, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Compassion fatigue is a theoretical framework researchers have applied to helping professions other than teaching. The purpose of this report is to propose the use of this theory to better understand the prevalent rates of special education teachers' exit from the profession often labeled as burnout. A qualitative study with six middle school…

  10. Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hyemin

    2014-01-01

    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

  11. Developing a Theoretical Framework for Examining Student Understanding of Fractional Concepts: An Historical Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkerson, Trena L.; Montgomery, Mark; Mechell, Sara; Arterbury, Kristin; Moore, Sherrie

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a group of mathematics educators and researchers met to examine rational numbers and why children have such an issue with them. An extensive review of the literature on fractional understanding was conducted. The ideas in that literature were then consolidated into a theoretical framework for examining fractions. Once that theoretical…

  12. Temporal discounting in life cycle assessment: A critical review and theoretical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Chris; Wang, Endong; Zhai, Qiang; Yang, Fan

    2015-02-15

    Temporal homogeneity of inventory data is one of the major problems in life cycle assessment (LCA). Addressing temporal homogeneity of life cycle inventory data is important in reducing the uncertainties and improving the reliability of LCA results. This paper attempts to present a critical review and discussion on the fundamental issues of temporal homogeneity in conventional LCA and propose a theoretical framework for temporal discounting in LCA. Theoretical perspectives for temporal discounting in life cycle inventory analysis are discussed first based on the key elements of a scientific mechanism for temporal discounting. Then generic procedures for performing temporal discounting in LCA is derived and proposed based on the nature of the LCA method and the identified key elements of a scientific temporal discounting method. A five-step framework is proposed and reported in details based on the technical methods and procedures needed to perform a temporal discounting in life cycle inventory analysis. Challenges and possible solutions are also identified and discussed for the technical procedure and scientific accomplishment of each step within the framework. - Highlights: • A critical review for temporal homogeneity problem of life cycle inventory data • A theoretical framework for performing temporal discounting on inventory data • Methods provided to accomplish each step of the temporal discounting framework.

  13. Innovation value chain capability in Malaysian-owned company: A theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norkisme Zainal; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Good quality products or services are no longer adequate to guarantee the sustainability of a company in the present competitive business. Prior research has developed various innovation models with the hope to better understand the innovativeness of the company. Due to countless definitions, indicators, factors, parameter and approaches in the study of innovation, it is difficult to ensure which one will best suit the Malaysian-owned company innovativeness. This paper aims to provide a theoretical background to support the framework of the innovation value chain capability in Malaysian-owned Company. The theoretical framework was based on the literature reviews, expert interviews and focus group study. The framework will be used to predict and assess the innovation value chain capability in Malaysian-owned company.

  14. Microarray missing data imputation based on a set theoretic framework and biological knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Xiangchao; Liew, Alan Wee-Chung; Yan, Hong

    2006-01-01

    Gene expressions measured using microarrays usually suffer from the missing value problem. However, in many data analysis methods, a complete data matrix is required. Although existing missing value imputation algorithms have shown good performance to deal with missing values, they also have their limitations. For example, some algorithms have good performance only when strong local correlation exists in data while some provide the best estimate when data is dominated by global structure. In addition, these algorithms do not take into account any biological constraint in their imputation. In this paper, we propose a set theoretic framework based on projection onto convex sets (POCS) for missing data imputation. POCS allows us to incorporate different types of a priori knowledge about missing values into the estimation process. The main idea of POCS is to formulate every piece of prior knowledge into a corresponding convex set and then use a convergence-guaranteed iterative procedure to obtain a solution in the intersection of all these sets. In this work, we design several convex sets, taking into consideration the biological characteristic of the data: the first set mainly exploit the local correlation structure among genes in microarray data, while the second set captures the global correlation structure among arrays. The third set (actually a series of sets) exploits the biological phenomenon of synchronization loss in microarray experiments. In cyclic systems, synchronization loss is a common phenomenon and we construct a series of sets based on this phenomenon for our POCS imputation algorithm. Experiments show that our algorithm can achieve a significant reduction of error compared to the KNNimpute, SVDimpute and LSimpute methods. PMID:16549873

  15. A game-theoretic framework for landmark-based image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Ibragimov, Bulat; Likar, Boštjan; Pernus, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaz

    2012-09-01

    A novel game-theoretic framework for landmark-based image segmentation is presented. Landmark detection is formulated as a game, in which landmarks are players, landmark candidate points are strategies, and likelihoods that candidate points represent landmarks are payoffs, determined according to the similarity of image intensities and spatial relationships between the candidate points in the target image and their corresponding landmarks in images from the training set. The solution of the formulated game-theoretic problem is the equilibrium of candidate points that represent landmarks in the target image and is obtained by a novel iterative scheme that solves the segmentation problem in polynomial time. The object boundaries are finally extracted by applying dynamic programming to the optimal path searching problem between the obtained adjacent landmarks. The performance of the proposed framework was evaluated for segmentation of lung fields from chest radiographs and heart ventricles from cardiac magnetic resonance cross sections. The comparison to other landmark-based segmentation techniques shows that the results obtained by the proposed game-theoretic framework are highly accurate and precise in terms of mean boundary distance and area overlap. Moreover, the framework overcomes several shortcomings of the existing techniques, such as sensitivity to initialization and convergence to local optima.

  16. Field-widened Michelson interferometer for spectral discrimination in high-spectral-resolution lidar: theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Dong; Luo, Jing; Yang, Yongying; Zhou, Yudi; Zhang, Yupeng; Duan, Lulin; Su, Lin; Yang, Liming; Shen, Yibing; Wang, Kaiwei; Bai, Jian

    2015-05-04

    A field-widened Michelson interferometer (FWMI) is developed to act as the spectral discriminator in high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL). This realization is motivated by the wide-angle Michelson interferometer (WAMI) which has been used broadly in the atmospheric wind and temperature detection. This paper describes an independent theoretical framework about the application of the FWMI in HSRL for the first time. In the framework, the operation principles and application requirements of the FWMI are discussed in comparison with that of the WAMI. Theoretical foundations for designing this type of interferometer are introduced based on these comparisons. Moreover, a general performance estimation model for the FWMI is established, which can provide common guidelines for the performance budget and evaluation of the FWMI in the both design and operation stages. Examples incorporating many practical imperfections or conditions that may degrade the performance of the FWMI are given to illustrate the implementation of the modeling. This theoretical framework presents a complete and powerful tool for solving most of theoretical or engineering problems encountered in the FWMI application, including the designing, parameter calibration, prior performance budget, posterior performance estimation, and so on. It will be a valuable contribution to the lidar community to develop a new generation of HSRLs based on the FWMI spectroscopic filter.

  17. Obesity in sub-Saharan Africa: development of an ecological theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Scott, Alison; Ejikeme, Chinwe Stella; Clottey, Emmanuel Nii; Thomas, Joy Goens

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There is a need for theoretical frameworks to catalyze further research and to inform the development of multi-level, context-appropriate interventions. In this commentary, we propose a preliminary ecological theoretical framework to conceptualize factors that contribute to increases in overweight and obesity in SSA. The framework is based on a Causality Continuum model [Coreil et al. Social and Behavioral Foundations of Public Health. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks] that considers distant, intermediate and proximate influences. The influences incorporated in the model include globalization and urbanization as distant factors; occupation, social relationships, built environment and cultural perceptions of weight as intermediate factors and caloric intake, physical inactivity and genetics as proximate factors. The model illustrates the interaction of factors along a continuum, from the individual to the global marketplace, in shaping trends in overweight and obesity in SSA. The framework will be presented, each influence elucidated and implications for research and intervention development discussed. There is a tremendous need for further research on obesity in SSA. An improved evidence base will serve to validate and develop the proposed framework further.

  18. Analysis of poetic literature using B. F. Skinner's theoretical framework from verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nicole M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines Skinner's work on verbal behavior in the context of literature as a particular class of written verbal behavior. It looks at contemporary literary theory and analysis and the contributions that Skinner's theoretical framework can make. Two diverse examples of poetic literature are chosen and analyzed following Skinner's framework, examining the dynamic interplay between the writer and reader that take place within the bounds of the work presented. It is concluded that Skinner's hypotheses about verbal behavior and the functional approach to understanding it have much to offer literary theorists in their efforts to understand literary works and should be more carefully examined.

  19. An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Framework for Cyber-threat Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-09

    Cyberattack on JP Morgan Chase & Co. [3] reportedly compromised the accounts of 76 million households and 7 million small businesses. Disclosure of this...An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Framework for Cyber- threat Information Sharing Deepak Tosh, Shamik Sengupta Dept of Computer Science and Engineering...attacks. Isolated research on cybersecurity threat analysis and indi- vidually developed anti- threat strategies may not be a cost- effective way to

  20. Praxis and reflexivity for interprofessional education: towards an inclusive theoretical framework for learning.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Maggie; Scammell, Janet; Quinney, Anne

    2013-09-01

    While there is growing evidence of theoretical perspectives adopted in interprofessional education, learning theories tend to foreground the individual, focusing on psycho-social aspects of individual differences and professional identity to the detriment of considering social-structural factors at work in social practices. Conversely socially situated practice is criticised for being context-specific, making it difficult to draw generalisable conclusions for improving interprofessional education. This article builds on a theoretical framework derived from earlier research, drawing on the dynamics of Dewey's experiential learning theory and Archer's critical realist social theory, to make a case for a meta-theoretical framework enabling social-constructivist and situated learning theories to be interlinked and integrated through praxis and reflexivity. Our current analysis is grounded in an interprofessional curriculum initiative mediated by a virtual community peopled by health and social care users. Student perceptions, captured through quantitative and qualitative data, suggest three major disruptive themes, creating opportunities for congruence and disjuncture and generating a model of zones of interlinked praxis associated with professional differences and identity, pedagogic strategies and technology-mediated approaches. This model contributes to a framework for understanding the complexity of interprofessional learning and offers bridges between individual and structural factors for engaging with the enablements and constraints at work in communities of practice and networks for interprofessional education.

  1. Intuitive Decision Making as the Culmination of Continuing Education: A Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Payne, Leslie Karns

    2015-07-01

    The ability to make sound clinical decisions is the cornerstone of excellent nursing care and the goal of continuing nurse educators. Research has revealed that expert nurses make fewer errors in decision making; it also has shown differences in the decision-making process of expert nurses, compared with novice nurses. Specifically, expert nurses report a greater use of intuitive decision making. Accordingly, an important goal for continuing nurse educators is the development of intuitive decision making by nurses. This article proposes a pattern-based, constructivist educational framework that synthesizes Benner's novice to expert (NTE) theory, Damascio's somatic marker hypothesis (SMH), and Hammond's cognitive continuum theory (CCT). This framework provides a foundation for continuing education that fosters the development of intuitive decision making in nurses. Although this framework needs further empirical validation, it is theoretically sound and applicable to all areas of nursing, and its implementation could help reduce errors in decision making by nurses, thus improving patient outcomes.

  2. Multi-scale theoretical investigation of hydrogen storage in covalent organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Klontzas, Emmanouel; Froudakis, George E

    2011-03-01

    The quest for efficient hydrogen storage materials has been the limiting step towards the commercialization of hydrogen as an energy carrier and has attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. Sophisticated multi-scale theoretical techniques have been considered as a valuable tool for the prediction of materials storage properties. Such techniques have also been used for the investigation of hydrogen storage in a novel category of porous materials known as Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs). These framework materials are consisted of light elements and are characterized by exceptional physicochemical properties such as large surface areas and pore volumes. Combinations of ab initio, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Grand Canonical Monte-Carlo (GCMC) calculations have been performed to investigate the hydrogen adsorption in these ultra-light materials. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the theoretical hydrogen storage studies that have been published after the discovery of COFs. Experimental and theoretical studies have proven that COFs have comparable or better hydrogen storage abilities than other competitive materials such as MOF. The key factors that can lead to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of COFs are highlighted, accompanied with some recently presented theoretical multi-scale studies concerning these factors.

  3. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

  4. A theoretical framework for modeling dilution enhancement of non-reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous media.

    PubMed

    de Barros, F P J; Fiori, A; Boso, F; Bellin, A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the hydraulic properties of geological porous formations leads to erratically shaped solute clouds, thus increasing the edge area of the solute body and augmenting the dilution rate. In this study, we provide a theoretical framework to quantify dilution of a non-reactive solute within a steady state flow as affected by the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity. Embracing the Lagrangian concentration framework, we obtain explicit semi-analytical expressions for the dilution index as a function of the structural parameters of the random hydraulic conductivity field, under the assumptions of uniform-in-the-average flow, small injection source and weak-to-mild heterogeneity. Results show how the dilution enhancement of the solute cloud is strongly dependent on both the statistical anisotropy ratio and the heterogeneity level of the porous medium. The explicit semi-analytical solution also captures the temporal evolution of the dilution rate; for the early- and late-time limits, the proposed solution recovers previous results from the literature, while at intermediate times it reflects the increasing interplay between large-scale advection and local-scale dispersion. The performance of the theoretical framework is verified with high resolution numerical results and successfully tested against the Cape Cod field data.

  5. Trajectories on the Path to Reciprocity-A Theoretical Framework for Collaborating With Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Communities.

    PubMed

    Minas, Maria; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa; Anglin, James P

    2017-03-16

    The importance of cultivating connection to enhance individual, relational and collective well-being is gaining attention in the current literature on building community. Although these goals are being increasingly considered, the concept of reciprocity has been less prominent than may be warranted in the field of psychology. This article presents a theoretical framework on the dynamics of reciprocity which resulted from grounded theory (GT) research involving 2 complementary studies. The first study involved 22 participants from different socioeconomic backgrounds engaged in "reflecting-team with appreciative audiences" sessions (Madsen, 2007) in Portugal. The second study involved participant observation of 15 community programs recognized as good-practices in collaboration with socioeconomically disadvantaged participants, at national and international levels, across 9 countries. The theoretical framework emphasizes the centrality of building reciprocity for the development of individuals, families, communities, and programs. It integrates the trajectories of reciprocity; quadrants reflecting the standpoints assumed according to socioeconomic and cultural positions; basic social-psychological processes inherent to the process of building reciprocity; and characterizes different types of programs. The resulting framework is analyzed in relation to prior literature for a broader understanding of synergies and challenges, and the article concludes by suggesting implications for further research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. The conceptual basis for interprofessional collaboration: core concepts and theoretical frameworks.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, Danielle; Ferrada-Videla, Marcela; San Martin Rodriguez, Leticia; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique

    2005-05-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is a key factor in initiatives designed to increase the effectiveness of health services currently offered to the public. It is important that the concept of collaboration be well understood, because although the increasingly complex health problems faced by health professionals are creating more interdependencies among them, we still have limited knowledge of the complexity of interprofessional relationships. The goal of this literature review was to identify conceptual frameworks that could improve our understanding of this important aspect of health organizations. To this end, we have identified and taken into consideration: (A) the various definitions proposed in the literature and the various concepts associated with collaboration, and (B) the various theoretical frameworks of collaboration. Our results demonstrate that: (1) the concept of collaboration is commonly defined through five underlying concepts: sharing, partnership, power, interdependency and process; (2) the most complete models of collaboration seem to be those based on a strong theoretical background, either in organizational theory or in organizational sociology and on empirical data; (3) there is a significant amount of diversity in the way the various authors conceptualized collaboration and in the factors influencing collaboration; (4) these frameworks do not establish clear links between the elements in the models and the outputs; and (5) the literature does not provide a serious attempt to determine how patients could be integrated into the health care team, despite the fact that patients are recognized as the ultimate justification for providing collaborative care.

  7. Towards culturally relevant classroom science: a theoretical framework focusing on traditional plant healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate local culture in science classrooms. A multi-focal approach is adopted because the integration of indigenous knowledge and modern classroom science is complex. The central argument in this paper is that a multi-focal lens accommodates the multifaceted nature of integrating indigenous knowledge and western oriented classroom science. The objective of the paper, therefore, is to construct a theoretical framework that can be used to guide and inform the integration of indigenous knowledge and western science at classroom science level. The traditional plant healing form of indigenous knowledge is used as a case study. The paper is important for raising the complexities, tensions and dilemmas inherent in the design and implementation of indigenous knowledge-science integrated curricula. An understanding of the issues raised will pave the way towards achieving culturally relevant classroom science.

  8. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maine's rivers and lakes in the winter and spring during the last century are well documented, and several river and lake variables have been shown to be sensitive to air-temperature changes. Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. The framework of the hydrologic climate-response program presented here consists of four major parts: (1) identifying homogeneous climate-response regions; (2) identifying hydrologic components and key variables of those components that would be included in a hydrologic climate-response data network - as an example, streamflow has been identified as a primary component, with a key variable of streamflow being winter-spring streamflow timing; the data network would be created by maintaining existing USGS data-collection stations and establishing new ones to fill data gaps; (3) regularly updating historical trends of hydrologic data network variables; and (4) establishing basins for process-based studies. Components proposed for inclusion in the hydrologic climate-response data network have at least one key variable for which substantial historical data are available. The proposed components are streamflow, lake ice, river ice, snowpack, and groundwater. The proposed key variables of each component have extensive historical data at multiple sites and are expected to be responsive to climate change in the next few decades. These variables are also important for human water use and (or) ecosystem function. Maine would be divided into seven climate-response regions that follow major river-basin boundaries (basins subdivided to hydrologic units with 8-digit codes or larger) and have relatively homogeneous climates. Key

  9. Dealing with the multidimensionality of sustainability through the use of multiple perspectives - a theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Svanström, Magdalena; Ingerman, Åke; Holmberg, John

    2016-05-01

    The concept of perspectives is important in discussions about the multidimensionality of sustainability problems and the need to consider many different aspects when dealing with them. This paper aims to facilitate discussions among both educators and researchers about didactical approaches to developing students' abilities to deal with the multidimensionality of sustainability challenges through the use of multiple perspectives. For this purpose, a theoretical framework was developed that describes perspectives in terms of a set of general characteristics, as well as a number of ways in which students can develop and reflect on perspectives. Development of the framework was supported by a qualitative content analysis of transcripts from interviews with undergraduate engineering students in Sweden.

  10. A second gradient theoretical framework for hierarchical multiscale modeling of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Darby J; Bronkhorst, Curt A; Mc Dowell, David L

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical framework for the hierarchical multiscale modeling of inelastic response of heterogeneous materials has been presented. Within this multiscale framework, the second gradient is used as a non local kinematic link between the response of a material point at the coarse scale and the response of a neighborhood of material points at the fine scale. Kinematic consistency between these scales results in specific requirements for constraints on the fluctuation field. The wryness tensor serves as a second-order measure of strain. The nature of the second-order strain induces anti-symmetry in the first order stress at the coarse scale. The multiscale ISV constitutive theory is couched in the coarse scale intermediate configuration, from which an important new concept in scale transitions emerges, namely scale invariance of dissipation. Finally, a strategy for developing meaningful kinematic ISVs and the proper free energy functions and evolution kinetics is presented.

  11. Adapting a theoretical framework for characterizing students' use of equations in physics problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, Carina M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have focused on the resources that students activate and utilize while solving a given physics problem. However, few studies explore how students relate a given resource such as an equation, to various types of physics problems and contexts and how they ascertain the meaning and applicability of that resource. We explore how students view physics equations, derive meaning from those equations, and use those equations in physics problem solving. We adapt Dubinsky and McDonald's description of APOS (action-process-object-schema) theory of learning in mathematics, to construct a theoretical framework that describes how students interpret and use equations in physics in terms of actions, processes, objects, and schemas. This framework provides a lens for understanding how students construct their understanding of physics concepts and their relation to equations. We highlight how APOS theory can be operationalized to serve as a lens for studying the use of mathematics in physics problem solving.

  12. An integrative theoretical framework for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Toates, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    An integrative theoretical framework and model for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior is presented, combining the principles of incentive motivation theory and the hierarchical control of behavior. It is intended to stimulate discussion. The framework can serve as a "route map" in understanding the links between different component processes and their interactions, as well as the relations between different academic perspectives on understanding sexuality. It is suggested that both excitation and inhibition of sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior act at various levels in a hierarchical structure, and much confusion can be avoided by distinguishing these levels. The model integrates information from different branches of psychology: biological, evolutionary, clinical, cognitive, developmental, and social. It describes interactions between sexual behavior and anxiety, attachment, aggression, and drug taking; and it is applied to gender differences, evolutionary psychology, sexual deviancy, sexual addiction, and the biological bases of sexuality.

  13. A unified theoretical framework for mapping models for the multi-state Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new unified theoretical framework to construct equivalent representations of the multi-state Hamiltonian operator and present several approaches for the mapping onto the Cartesian phase space. After mapping an F-dimensional Hamiltonian onto an F+1 dimensional space, creation and annihilation operators are defined such that the F+1 dimensional space is complete for any combined excitation. Commutation and anti-commutation relations are then naturally derived, which show that the underlying degrees of freedom are neither bosons nor fermions. This sets the scene for developing equivalent expressions of the Hamiltonian operator in quantum mechanics and their classical/semiclassical counterparts. Six mapping models are presented as examples. The framework also offers a novel way to derive such as the well-known Meyer-Miller model.

  14. A new theoretical framework for modeling respiratory protection based on the beta distribution.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Ziv; Fattal, Eyal

    2014-08-01

    The problem of modeling respiratory protection is well known and has been dealt with extensively in the literature. Often the efficiency of respiratory protection is quantified in terms of penetration, defined as the proportion of an ambient contaminant concentration that penetrates the respiratory protection equipment. Typically, the penetration modeling framework in the literature is based on the assumption that penetration measurements follow the lognormal distribution. However, the analysis in this study leads to the conclusion that the lognormal assumption is not always valid, making it less adequate for analyzing respiratory protection measurements. This work presents a formulation of the problem from first principles, leading to a stochastic differential equation whose solution is the probability density function of the beta distribution. The data of respiratory protection experiments were reexamined, and indeed the beta distribution was found to provide the data a better fit than the lognormal. We conclude with a suggestion for a new theoretical framework for modeling respiratory protection.

  15. Theoretical framework and methodological development of common subjective health outcome measures in osteoarthritis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Beth; Johnston, Marie; Dixon, Diane

    2007-03-07

    Subjective measures involving clinician ratings or patient self-assessments have become recognised as an important tool for the assessment of health outcome. The value of a health outcome measure is usually assessed by a psychometric evaluation of its reliability, validity and responsiveness. However, psychometric testing involves an accumulation of evidence and has recognised limitations. It has been suggested that an evaluation of how well a measure has been developed would be a useful additional criteria in assessing the value of a measure. This paper explored the theoretical background and methodological development of subjective health status measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research. Fourteen subjective health outcome measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research were examined. Each measure was explored on the basis of their i) theoretical framework (was there a definition of what was being assessed and was it part of a theoretical model?) and ii) methodological development (what was the scaling strategy, how were the items generated and reduced, what was the response format and what was the scoring method?). Only the AIMS, SF-36 and WHOQOL defined what they were assessing (i.e. the construct of interest) and no measure assessed was part of a theoretical model. None of the clinician report measures appeared to have implemented a scaling procedure or described the rationale for the items selected or scoring system. Of the patient self-report measures, the AIMS, MPQ, OXFORD, SF-36, WHOQOL and WOMAC appeared to follow a standard psychometric scaling method. The DRP and EuroQol used alternative scaling methods. The review highlighted the general lack of theoretical framework for both clinician report and patient self-report measures. This review also drew attention to the wide variation in the methodological development of commonly used measures in OA. While, in general the patient self-report measures had good methodological development, the

  16. A theoretical framework for a virtual diabetes self-management community intervention.

    PubMed

    Vorderstrasse, Allison; Shaw, Ryan J; Blascovich, Jim; Johnson, Constance M

    2014-10-01

    Due to its high prevalence, chronic nature, potential complications, and self-management challenges for patients, diabetes presents significant health education and support issues. We developed and pilot-tested a virtual community for adults with type 2 diabetes to promote self-management education and provide social support. Although digital-based programs such as virtual environments can address significant barriers to reaching patients (i.e., child care, transportation, location), they must be strongly grounded in a theoretical basis to be well-developed and effective. In this article, we discuss how we synthesized behavioral and virtual environment theoretical frameworks to guide the development of SLIDES (Second Life Impacts Diabetes Education and Support).

  17. Fat stigma and public health: a theoretical framework and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Odeh, Desiree

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding fat stigma and its impact on people's well-being. It argues that stigma should never be used as a tool to achieve public health ends. Drawing on Bruce Link and Jo Phelan's 2001 conceptualization of stigma as well as the works of Hilde Lindemann, Paul Benson, and Margaret Urban Walker on identity, positionality, and agency, this paper clarifies the mechanisms by which stigmatizing, oppressive conceptions of overweight and obesity damage identities and diminish moral agency, arguing that the use of obesity-related stigma for public health ends violates the bioethics principles of nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice.

  18. Theoretical analysis of structural diversity of covalent organic framework: Stacking isomer structures thermodynamics and kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Taku; Hijikata, Yuh; Page, Alister; Jiang, Donglin; Irle, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have attracted much interest due to their utility as functional materials. Unfortunately, experimental synthesis struggles with low single crystallinity of COFs. We have theoretically investigated isomer structures of a representative two-dimensional COF for both monolayer and three-dimensional stacking orders. We show that rotations of p-phenylene rings are common in monolayers, however, affect the global stacking order substantially. We also discuss the discrepancy between powder X-ray diffraction patterns corresponding to the structures predicted by our calculations and those experimentally observed. The discrepancy demonstrates the importance of dynamics in the self-assembly process of COF organic components.

  19. Accuracy of theoretical calculations of the main parameters of the F2-layer of the daytime ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Sitnov, Iu. S.

    1985-10-01

    Pavlov's (1984) method is used to determine the relative errors (due to errors in measuring the input parameters of the model) in theoretical calculations of the main parameters of the daytime F2-layer under quiet conditions. The parameters calculated are the height of the F2-layer maximum and the electron density.

  20. Beyond the SCS-CN method: A theoretical framework for spatially lumped rainfall-runoff response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Parolari, A. J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Porporato, A.

    2016-06-01

    Since its introduction in 1954, the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method has become the standard tool, in practice, for estimating an event-based rainfall-runoff response. However, because of its empirical origins, the SCS-CN method is restricted to certain geographic regions and land use types. Moreover, it does not describe the spatial variability of runoff. To move beyond these limitations, we present a new theoretical framework for spatially lumped, event-based rainfall-runoff modeling. In this framework, we describe the spatially lumped runoff model as a point description of runoff that is upscaled to a watershed area based on probability distributions that are representative of watershed heterogeneities. The framework accommodates different runoff concepts and distributions of heterogeneities, and in doing so, it provides an implicit spatial description of runoff variability. Heterogeneity in storage capacity and soil moisture are the basis for upscaling a point runoff response and linking ecohydrological processes to runoff modeling. For the framework, we consider two different runoff responses for fractions of the watershed area: "prethreshold" and "threshold-excess" runoff. These occur before and after infiltration exceeds a storage capacity threshold. Our application of the framework results in a new model (called SCS-CNx) that extends the SCS-CN method with the prethreshold and threshold-excess runoff mechanisms and an implicit spatial description of runoff. We show proof of concept in four forested watersheds and further that the resulting model may better represent geographic regions and site types that previously have been beyond the scope of the traditional SCS-CN method.

  1. Graph theoretic framework based cooperative control and estimation of multiple UAVs for target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mousumi

    Designing the control technique for nonlinear dynamic systems is a significant challenge. Approaches to designing a nonlinear controller are studied and an extensive study on backstepping based technique is performed in this research with the purpose of tracking a moving target autonomously. Our main motivation is to explore the controller for cooperative and coordinating unmanned vehicles in a target tracking application. To start with, a general theoretical framework for target tracking is studied and a controller in three dimensional environment for a single UAV is designed. This research is primarily focused on finding a generalized method which can be applied to track almost any reference trajectory. The backstepping technique is employed to derive the controller for a simplified UAV kinematic model. This controller can compute three autopilot modes i.e. velocity, ground heading (or course angle), and flight path angle for tracking the unmanned vehicle. Numerical implementation is performed in MATLAB with the assumption of having perfect and full state information of the target to investigate the accuracy of the proposed controller. This controller is then frozen for the multi-vehicle problem. Distributed or decentralized cooperative control is discussed in the context of multi-agent systems. A consensus based cooperative control is studied; such consensus based control problem can be viewed from the algebraic graph theory concepts. The communication structure between the UAVs is represented by the dynamic graph where UAVs are represented by the nodes and the communication links are represented by the edges. The previously designed controller is augmented to account for the group to obtain consensus based on their communication. A theoretical development of the controller for the cooperative group of UAVs is presented and the simulation results for different communication topologies are shown. This research also investigates the cases where the communication

  2. Phylogenetic framework and molecular signatures for the main clades of the phylum Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Gao, Beile; Gupta, Radhey S

    2012-03-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria harbors many important human pathogens and also provides one of the richest sources of natural products, including numerous antibiotics and other compounds of biotechnological interest. Thus, a reliable phylogeny of this large phylum and the means to accurately identify its different constituent groups are of much interest. Detailed phylogenetic and comparative analyses of >150 actinobacterial genomes reported here form the basis for achieving these objectives. In phylogenetic trees based upon 35 conserved proteins, most of the main groups of Actinobacteria as well as a number of their superageneric clades are resolved. We also describe large numbers of molecular markers consisting of conserved signature indels in protein sequences and whole proteins that are specific for either all Actinobacteria or their different clades (viz., orders, families, genera, and subgenera) at various taxonomic levels. These signatures independently support the existence of different phylogenetic clades, and based upon them, it is now possible to delimit the phylum Actinobacteria (excluding Coriobacteriia) and most of its major groups in clear molecular terms. The species distribution patterns of these markers also provide important information regarding the interrelationships among different main orders of Actinobacteria. The identified molecular markers, in addition to enabling the development of a stable and reliable phylogenetic framework for this phylum, also provide novel and powerful means for the identification of different groups of Actinobacteria in diverse environments. Genetic and biochemical studies on these Actinobacteria-specific markers should lead to the discovery of novel biochemical and/or other properties that are unique to different groups of Actinobacteria.

  3. Phylogenetic Framework and Molecular Signatures for the Main Clades of the Phylum Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Beile

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The phylum Actinobacteria harbors many important human pathogens and also provides one of the richest sources of natural products, including numerous antibiotics and other compounds of biotechnological interest. Thus, a reliable phylogeny of this large phylum and the means to accurately identify its different constituent groups are of much interest. Detailed phylogenetic and comparative analyses of >150 actinobacterial genomes reported here form the basis for achieving these objectives. In phylogenetic trees based upon 35 conserved proteins, most of the main groups of Actinobacteria as well as a number of their superageneric clades are resolved. We also describe large numbers of molecular markers consisting of conserved signature indels in protein sequences and whole proteins that are specific for either all Actinobacteria or their different clades (viz., orders, families, genera, and subgenera) at various taxonomic levels. These signatures independently support the existence of different phylogenetic clades, and based upon them, it is now possible to delimit the phylum Actinobacteria (excluding Coriobacteriia) and most of its major groups in clear molecular terms. The species distribution patterns of these markers also provide important information regarding the interrelationships among different main orders of Actinobacteria. The identified molecular markers, in addition to enabling the development of a stable and reliable phylogenetic framework for this phylum, also provide novel and powerful means for the identification of different groups of Actinobacteria in diverse environments. Genetic and biochemical studies on these Actinobacteria-specific markers should lead to the discovery of novel biochemical and/or other properties that are unique to different groups of Actinobacteria. PMID:22390973

  4. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Eric B; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B; Fresco, David M; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A; Fulwiler, Carl

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy.

  5. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B.; Fresco, David M.; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A.; Fulwiler, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy. PMID:26482755

  6. An algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of aerosols: 1. Development of theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Weizhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Han, Dong

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the first part of a series of investigations to develop algorithms for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol parameters and surface reflectance from a newly developed hyperspectral instrument, the GEOstationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GEO-TASO), by taking full advantage of available hyperspectral measurement information in the visible bands. We describe the theoretical framework of an inversion algorithm for the hyperspectral remote sensing of the aerosol optical properties, in which major principal components (PCs) for surface reflectance is assumed known, and the spectrally dependent aerosol refractive indices are assumed to follow a power-law approximation with four unknown parameters (two for real and two for imaginary part of refractive index). New capabilities for computing the Jacobians of four Stokes parameters of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere with respect to these unknown aerosol parameters and the weighting coefficients for each PC of surface reflectance are added into the UNified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNL-VRTM), which in turn facilitates the optimization in the inversion process. Theoretical derivations of the formulas for these new capabilities are provided, and the analytical solutions of Jacobians are validated against the finite-difference calculations with relative error less than 0.2%. Finally, self-consistency check of the inversion algorithm is conducted for the idealized green-vegetation and rangeland surfaces that were spectrally characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey digital spectral library. It shows that the first six PCs can yield the reconstruction of spectral surface reflectance with errors less than 1%. Assuming that aerosol properties can be accurately characterized, the inversion yields a retrieval of hyperspectral surface reflectance with an uncertainty of 2% (and root-mean-square error of less than 0.003), which suggests self-consistency in the

  7. The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

  8. Rethinking theoretical approaches to stigma: a Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS).

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2008-08-01

    A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman's notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking "difference". Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results.

  9. Connecting single cell to collective cell behavior in a unified theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Mishel; Bullo, Francesco; Campàs, Otger

    Collective cell behavior is an essential part of tissue and organ morphogenesis during embryonic development, as well as of various disease processes, such as cancer. In contrast to many in vitro studies of collective cell migration, most cases of in vivo collective cell migration involve rather small groups of cells, with large sheets of migrating cells being less common. The vast majority of theoretical descriptions of collective cell behavior focus on large numbers of cells, but fail to accurately capture the dynamics of small groups of cells. Here we introduce a low-dimensional theoretical description that successfully captures single cell migration, cell collisions, collective dynamics in small groups of cells, and force propagation during sheet expansion, all within a common theoretical framework. Our description is derived from first principles and also includes key phenomenological aspects of cell migration that control the dynamics of traction forces. Among other results, we explain the counter-intuitive observations that pairs of cells repel each other upon collision while they behave in a coordinated manner within larger clusters.

  10. A simple theoretical framework for understanding heterogeneous differentiation of CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background CD4+ T cells have several subsets of functional phenotypes, which play critical yet diverse roles in the immune system. Pathogen-driven differentiation of these subsets of cells is often heterogeneous in terms of the induced phenotypic diversity. In vitro recapitulation of heterogeneous differentiation under homogeneous experimental conditions indicates some highly regulated mechanisms by which multiple phenotypes of CD4+ T cells can be generated from a single population of naïve CD4+ T cells. Therefore, conceptual understanding of induced heterogeneous differentiation will shed light on the mechanisms controlling the response of populations of CD4+ T cells under physiological conditions. Results We present a simple theoretical framework to show how heterogeneous differentiation in a two-master-regulator paradigm can be governed by a signaling network motif common to all subsets of CD4+ T cells. With this motif, a population of naïve CD4+ T cells can integrate the signals from their environment to generate a functionally diverse population with robust commitment of individual cells. Notably, two positive feedback loops in this network motif govern three bistable switches, which in turn, give rise to three types of heterogeneous differentiated states, depending upon particular combinations of input signals. We provide three prototype models illustrating how to use this framework to explain experimental observations and make specific testable predictions. Conclusions The process in which several types of T helper cells are generated simultaneously to mount complex immune responses upon pathogenic challenges can be highly regulated, and a simple signaling network motif can be responsible for generating all possible types of heterogeneous populations with respect to a pair of master regulators controlling CD4+ T cell differentiation. The framework provides a mathematical basis for understanding the decision-making mechanisms of CD4+ T cells, and it can be

  11. Using Bourdieu’s Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065

  12. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-09-07

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers.

  13. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework

    PubMed Central

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers. PMID:27618121

  14. Unpacking teacher-researcher collaboration with three theoretical frameworks: a case of expansive learning activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-09-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the experiential and relational nature of collaboration; relational agency, draws on activity theory perspectives and identifies the change in the purpose of collaboration, from initially conducting classroom interventions to co-authoring research. Finally, cogenerative dialogue, deploys hermeneutic-phenomenological perspectives and investigates the dialogue that transpired between Lotta and the author, as they co-authored their research report. Such analysis sheds invaluable light on a case of expansive learning activity.

  15. Revisiting Symbolic Interactionism as a Theoretical Framework Beyond the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    PubMed

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT tradition. Drawing on an examination of the central tenets of SI, we illustrate with a field study using interpretive description as methodology how SI can be applied as a theoretical lens through which layers of socially constructed meaning can help surface the subjective world of patients. We demonstrate how SI can function as a powerful framework for human health behavior research through its capacity to orient questions, inform design options, and refine analytic directions. We conclude that using SI as a lens can serve as a translation mechanism in our quest to interpret the subjective world underlying patients' health and illness behavior.

  16. Matching Adherence Interventions to Patient Determinants Using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    PubMed Central

    Allemann, Samuel S.; Nieuwlaat, Robby; van den Bemt, Bart J. F.; Hersberger, Kurt E.; Arnet, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite much research, interventions to improve medication adherence report disappointing and inconsistent results. Tailored approaches that match interventions and patient determinants of non-adherence were seldom used in clinical trials. The presence of a multitude of theoretical frameworks and models to categorize interventions and patient determinants complicated the development of common categories shared by interventions and determinants. We retrieved potential interventions and patient determinants from published literature on medication adherence, matched them like locks and keys, and categorized them according to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Methods: We identified the most relevant literature reviews on interventions and determinants in a pragmatic literature search, extracted all interventions and determinants, grouped similar concepts to umbrella terms and assigned them to TDF categories. All steps were finalized in consensus discussion between the authors. Results: Sixteen articles (5 with determinants, 11 with interventions) were included for analysis. We extracted 103 interventions and 42 determinants that we divided in 26 modifiable and 16 unmodifiable determinants. All interventions and modifiable determinants were matched within 11 categories (Knowledge; Skills; Social/professional role and identity; Beliefs about capabilities; Beliefs about consequences; Intentions; Memory, Attention and decision processes; Environmental context and resources; Social influences; Emotion; and Behavioral regulation). Conclusion: In published trials on medication adherence, the congruence between interventions and determinants can be assessed with matching interventions to determinants. To be successful, interventions in medication adherence should target current modifiable determinants and be tailored to the unmodifiable determinants. Modifiable and unmodifiable determinants need to be assessed at inclusion of intervention studies to

  17. A theoretical study of acoustic glitches in low-mass main-sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Kuldeep; Antia, H. M.; Basu, Sarbani; Mazumdar, Anwesh E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in E-mail: anwesh@tifr.res.in

    2014-10-20

    There are regions in stars, such as ionization zones and the interface between radiative and convective regions, that cause a localized sharp variation in the sound speed. These are known as 'acoustic glitches'. Acoustic glitches leave their signatures on the oscillation frequencies of stars, and hence these signatures can be used as diagnostics of these regions. In particular, the signatures of these glitches can be used as diagnostics for the position of the second helium ionization zone and that of the base of the envelope convection zone. With the help of stellar models, we study the properties of these acoustic glitches in main-sequence stars. We find that the acoustic glitch due to the helium ionization zone does not correspond to the dip in the adiabatic index Γ{sub 1} caused by the ionization of He II, but to the peak in Γ{sub 1} between the He I and He II ionization zones. We find that it is easiest to study the acoustic glitch that is due to the helium ionization zone in stars with masses in the range 0.9-1.2 M {sub ☉}.

  18. Geoscience Academic Provenance: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Geoscience Students' Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlton, H.; Keane, C.

    2012-04-01

    The demand and employment opportunities for geoscientists in the United States are projected to increase 23% from 2008 to 2018 (Gonzales, 2011). Despite this trend, there is a disconnect between undergraduate geoscience students and their desire to pursue geoscience careers. A theoretical framework was developed to understand the reasons why students decide to major in the geosciences and map those decisions to their career aspirations (Houlton, 2010). A modified critical incident study was conducted to develop the pathway model from 17, one-hour long semi-structured interviews of undergraduate geoscience majors from two Midwest Research Institutions (Houlton, 2010). Geoscience Academic Provenance maps geoscience students' initial interests, entry points into the major, critical incidents and future career goals as a pathway, which elucidates the relationships between each of these components. Analyses identified three geoscience student population groups that followed distinct pathways: Natives, Immigrants and Refugees. A follow up study was conducted in 2011 to ascertain whether these students continued on their predicted pathways, and if not, reasons for attrition. Geoscientists can use this framework as a guide to inform future recruitment and retention initiatives and target these geoscience population groups for specific employment sectors.

  19. Biological stoichiometry: a theoretical framework connecting ecosystem ecology, evolution, and biochemistry for application in astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, James J.

    2003-07-01

    Astrobiology is an extremely wide-ranging field and thus is in special need of conceptual and theoretical frameworks that can integrate its various arenas of study. In this paper I review recent work associated with a conceptual framework known as "ecological stoichiometry" and even more recent extensions in the development of "biological stoichiometry". Ecological stoichiometry is the study of the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions and has developed rapidly in the study of nutrient cycling and energy flow in aquatic food webs. It identifies the elemental composition of interacting biota as central in understanding the nature of their interactions and dynamics, including key feedbacks via nutrient recycling. Biological stoichiometry extends this mode of thinking to all types of biological systems. It especially seeks to better understand, at the biochemical and genetic levels, the factors influencing the elemental composition of living things and the evolutionary forces that drive and constrain that elemental composition. By connecting key concepts of ecosystem ecology, evolutionary biology and biochemistry, stoichiometric theory integrates biological information into a more coherent whole that holds considerable promise for application in astrobiology. Several examples of potential astrobiological applications of stoichiometric analysis are offered, including ones related to pre-biotic evolution, the Cambrian explosion, biosignatures and biological feedbacks on planetary carbon cycling.

  20. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A proposed theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H. S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to compare existing usability data to ideal goals or to that for other products, usability practitioners have tried to develop a framework for deriving an integrated metric. However, most current usability methods with this aim rely heavily on human judgment about the various attributes of a product, but often fail to take into account of the inherent uncertainties in these judgments in the evaluation process. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a universal method of usability evaluation by combining the analytic hierarchical process (AHP) and the fuzzy evaluation method. By integrating multiple sources of uncertain information during product usability evaluation, the method proposed here aims to derive an index that is structured hierarchically in terms of the three usability components of effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction of a product. METHODS: With consideration of the theoretical basis of fuzzy evaluation, a two-layer comprehensive evaluation index was first constructed. After the membership functions were determined by an expert panel, the evaluation appraisals were computed by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation technique model to characterize fuzzy human judgments. Then with the use of AHP, the weights of usability components were elicited from these experts. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Compared to traditional usability evaluation methods, the major strength of the fuzzy method is that it captures the fuzziness and uncertainties in human judgments and provides an integrated framework that combines the vague judgments from multiple stages of a product evaluation process. PMID:28035943

  1. A theoretical framework for early human studies: uncertainty, intervention ensembles, and boundaries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical development of novel therapeutics begins with a coordinated sequence of early phase clinical trials. Such early human studies confront a series of methodological and ethical challenges. In what follows, I propose a theoretical framework for early human studies aimed at informing the negotiation of these challenges. At the outset of clinical development, researchers confront a virtually undifferentiated landscape of uncertainty with respect to three variables: outcomes, their probability of occurrence, and operation dimensions needed to effectuate favorable outcomes. Early human trials transform this uncertain landscape into one where there are grounds for belief about risk and benefit for various combined operation dimensions. To accomplish this, studies set out with two aims. First, they identify a set of operation dimensions that, when combined as a package (intervention ensemble), elicits a reasonable probability of a target outcome. Second, they define the boundaries of dimension values within an intervention ensemble. This latter aim entails exposing at least some volunteers in early studies to treatments that are inactive or excessive. I provide examples that illustrate the way early human studies discover and delimit intervention ensembles, and close by offering some implications of this framework for ethics, methodology, and efficiency in clinical development of new interventions. PMID:22999017

  2. A conceptual framework related to ICT-AT competence development: The theoretical foundations of ENTELIS.

    PubMed

    Mavrou, Katerina; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Maria; Kärki, Anne; Sallinen, Merja

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the construction of a conceptual framework regarding ICT-Assistive Technology (ICT-AT) competence development, designed to gain awareness of the elements involved and to facilitate the understanding and exchange among stakeholders of the ENTELIS (European Network for Technology Enhanced Learning in an Inclusive Society) project. The framework was designed based on the basic principles of Activity Theory, which however have been adapted and adjusted to the project's objectives. Hence, it includes a map of actors and other parameters functioning in a person surrounding "ecosystem", and it allows us to understand and map roles, expectations, barriers, as well as to devise solutions to tackle digital divide. Taking as a starting and central point the person and his/her wish to self-determination and fulfilment (quality of life) and the related needs, it provides a map of how the various concepts and variables interact within the theoretical and methodological perspective of the collection, description and assessment of experiences in ICT-AT education and competences development of persons with disabilities (PwD) of all ages. The conceptual framework represents two interacting learning activity systems: (a) the internal system of the end-user, which includes the end-user and his/her needs, the setting where learning takes place and the other actors involved, and (b) the external system, which embraces the internal system but also wider issues of policy and practice and experiences and 'actors' that contribute to the development and use of ICT and ICT-AT skills in all areas of life. The elements of these systems and their interaction provide the basis for analysing experiences and advancing knowledge relevant for bridging the digital divide.

  3. Design and implementation of confocal imaging systems with a generalized theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gao-Wei; Liao, Chia-Cheng; Yeh, Zong-Mu

    2007-02-01

    Confocal imaging is primarily based on the use of apertures in the detection path to provide the acquired three-dimensional images with satisfactory contrast and resolution. For many years, it has become an important mode of imaging in microscopy. In biotechnology and related industries, this technique has powerful abilities of biomedical inspection and material detection with high spatial resolution, and furthermore it can combine with fluorescence microscopy to get more useful information. The objective of this paper is first to present a generalized theoretical framework for confocal imaging systems, and then efficiently to design and implement such systems with satisfactory imaging resolutions. In our approach, a theoretical review for confocal imaging is given to investigate this technique from theory to practice. Also, computer simulations are performed to analyze the imaging performance with varying optomechanical conditions. For instance, the effects of stray light on the microscopic systems are examined using the simulations. In this paper, a modified optomechanical structure for the imaging process is proposed to reduce the undesired effects. From the simulation results, it appears that the modified structure highly improves the system signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, the imaging resolution is improved through the investigation on the tolerance of fabrication and assembly of the optical components. In the experiments, it is found that the imaging resolution of the proposed system is less sensitive than that of common microscopes, to the position deviations arising from installations of the optical components, such as those from the pinhole and the objective lens.

  4. Political Shifts and Forest Transitions: A Review and Theoretical Framework for Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, E.

    2015-12-01

    Most armed conflicts in recent history have occurred in biodiversity hotspots. Yet, studies examining impacts of warfare on forests yield contradictory results making it difficult to decipher trends and patterns. This study provides a theoretical framework that can be used to clarify hypothetical relationships between conflict and forest transitions, contributing to our ability to push forward a growing field of research on environmental change and conflict. Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite data were analyzed to examine forest transitions in Rwanda during a conflict and post conflict period. Net trends showed little difference between periods, with a rate of 1.6% annual gain in forest cover during conflict years, and 2.5% after the conflict. Further investigation revealed spatially concentrated forest loss during conflict years; 96% of forest loss occurred in protected areas with the most loss in Gishwati Forest Reserve at a rate of 6.1%. Trends were explored using spatially explicit conflict data that distinguished armed conflict activity from conflict induced settlements. Impacts of conflict on forests in Rwanda appear to be influenced by natural resource use near settlements. Massive migrations of people into settlements during the conflict, who had previously been scattered across the landscape, likely resulted in a redistribution of pressures. Reduced pressure elsewhere supports this inference. Results underscore the vulnerability of protected areas and the spatial dynamics of forest resource dependence during conflicts. This work demonstrates the value of distinguishing conflict activities to assess their varied environmental effects, and contributes to our theoretical development of environmental change and conflict.

  5. Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    Lüdecke, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended. PMID:25411573

  6. Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Lucas M.; Lima, Evandro F.; Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M.; Barreto, Carla J.

    2014-12-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Volcanic Province records the volcanism of the Early Cretaceous that precedes the fragmentation of the South-Gondwana supercontinent. Traditionally, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic stack as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil and where the Parana-Etendeka basalts are well preserved. This work provides a detailed analysis of lithofacies and facies architecture, integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. We identified seven distinct lithofacies grouped into four facies associations related to different flow morphologies. The basaltic lava flows in the area can be divided into two contrasting units: Unit I - pahoehoe flow fields; and Unit II - simple rubbly flows. The first unit is build up by innumerous pahoehoe lava flows that cover the sandstones of Botucatu Formation. These flows occur as sheet pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, and ponded lavas morphologies. Compound lavas are olivine-phyric basalts with intergranular pyroxenes. In ponded lavas and cores of sheet flows coarse plagioclase-phyric basalts are common. The first pahoehoe lavas are more primitive with higher contents of MgO. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flows is related to low volume eruptions, while sheet lavas were emplaced during sustained eruptions. In contrast, Unit II is formed by thick simple rubbly lavas, characterized by a massive core and a brecciated/rubbly top. Petrographically these flows are characterized by plagioclase-phyric to aphyric basalts with high density of plagioclase crystals in the matrix. Chemically they are more differentiated lavas, and the emplacement is related to sustained high effusion rate eruptions. Both units are low TiO2 and have geochemical characteristics of Gramado magma type. The Torres Syncline main valley has a similar evolution when compared to other Large Igneous Provinces

  7. A dynamic systems approach to psychotherapy: A meta-theoretical framework for explaining psychotherapy change processes.

    PubMed

    Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Salvatore, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Notwithstanding the many methodological advances made in the field of psychotherapy research, at present a metatheoretical, school-independent framework to explain psychotherapy change processes taking into account their dynamic and complex nature is still lacking. Over the last years, several authors have suggested that a dynamic systems (DS) approach might provide such a framework. In the present paper, we review the main characteristics of a DS approach to psychotherapy. After an overview of the general principles of the DS approach, we describe the extent to which psychotherapy can be considered as a self-organizing open complex system, whose developmental change processes are described in terms of a dialectic dynamics between stability and change over time. Empirical evidence in support of this conceptualization is provided and discussed. Finally, we propose a research design strategy for the empirical investigation of psychotherapy from a DS approach, together with a research case example. We conclude that a DS approach may provide a metatheoretical, school-independent framework allowing us to constructively rethink and enhance the way we conceptualize and empirically investigate psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. A Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Effects of Saharan Mineral Dust Aerosols on African Easterly Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, T. R.; Grogan, D.; Chen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Studies have shown that a large fraction of the intense hurricanes observed over the Atlantic Ocean originate as African easterly waves (AEWs). Of the many processes that affect the propagation, growth and structure of AEWs, the effects of Saharan mineral dust aerosols on AEWs remains an outstanding scientific problem. With this in mind, a new theoretical framework is presented that illuminates causal relationships between Saharan dust and the linear dynamics of AEWs. The framework is built on a quasi-geostrophic system governed by coupled equations for potential vorticity, temperature, and dust continuity. The radiative-dust heating rate accounts for both shortwave and longwave radiative transfer. The source of dust is due to surface emission, which depends on surface wind; the sinks of dust are due to sedimentation and dry deposition. A perturbation analysis yields analytical expressions for the propagation and growth characteristics of the model's AEWs. These expressions are functions of vertically and meridionally averaged wave activity, which depends on wave spatial structure, dust-radiative heating, and the background distributions of wind, temperature, and dust mixing ratio. More specifically, the propagation and growth of the AEWs depend on the amount of dust lofted from the surface by the wind, and the meridional and vertical gradients of the basic state dust distribution, which are modulated by the Doppler-shifted frequency. Idealized cases are presented that show the effects of Saharan dust on the propagation, group velocity, growth, structure, and wave fluxes of AEWs. The clarity of the expressions connecting dust aerosols to the linear properties of AEWs provides an important interpretive tool for analyzing results obtained from comprehensive model simulations of AEWs, such as those produced by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.

  9. From Mouth-level to Tooth-level DMFS: Conceptualizing a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is no dearth of correlated count data in any biological or clinical settings, and the ability to accurately analyze and interpret such data remains an exciting area of research. In oral health epidemiology, the Decayed, Missing, Filled (DMF) index has been continuously used for over 70 years as the key measure to quantify caries experience. The DMF index projects a subject’s caries status using either the DMF(T), the total number of DMF teeth, or the DMF(S), counting the total DMF teeth surfaces, for that subject. However, surfaces within a particular tooth or a subject constitute clustered data, and the DMFS mostly overlook this clustering effect to attain an over-simplified summary index, ignoring the true tooth-level caries status. Besides, the DMFT/DMFS might exhibit excess of some specific counts (say, zeroes representing the set of relatively disease-free carious state), or can exhibit overdispersion, and accounting for the excess responses or overdispersion remains a key component is selecting the appropriate modeling strategy. Methods & Results This concept paper presents the rationale and the theoretical framework which a dental researcher might consider at the onset in order to choose a plausible statistical model for tooth-level DMFS. Various nuances related to model fitting, selection and parameter interpretation are also explained. Conclusion The author recommends conceptualizing the correct stochastic framework should serve as the guiding force to the dental researcher’s never-ending goal of assessing complex covariate-response relationships efficiently. PMID:26618183

  10. A Theoretical Framework for Combining Techniques that Probe the Link Between Galaxies and Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2011-09-01

    We develop a theoretical framework that combines measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy stellar mass function in a self-consistent manner. While considerable effort has been invested in exploring each of these probes individually, attempts to combine them are still in their infancy. These combinations have the potential to elucidate the galaxy-dark matter connection and the galaxy formation physics responsible for it, as well as to constrain cosmological parameters and to test the nature of gravity. In this paper, we focus on a theoretical model that describes the galaxy-dark matter connection based on standard halo occupation distribution techniques. Several key modifications enable us to extract additional parameters that determine the stellar-to-halo mass relation and to simultaneously fit data from multiple probes while allowing for independent binning schemes for each probe. We construct mock catalogs from numerical simulations to investigate the effects of sample variance and covariance for each probe. Finally, we analyze how trends in each of the three observables impact the derived parameters of the model. In particular, we investigate various features of the observed galaxy stellar mass function (low-mass slope, "plateau," knee, and high-mass cutoff) and show how each feature is related to the underlying relationship between stellar and halo mass. We demonstrate that the observed "plateau" feature in the stellar mass function at M * ~ 2 × 1010 M sun is due to the transition that occurs in the stellar-to-halo mass relation at Mh ~ 1012 M sun from a low-mass power-law regime to a sub-exponential function at higher stellar mass.

  11. A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR COMBINING TECHNIQUES THAT PROBE THE LINK BETWEEN GALAXIES AND DARK MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2011-09-01

    We develop a theoretical framework that combines measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy stellar mass function in a self-consistent manner. While considerable effort has been invested in exploring each of these probes individually, attempts to combine them are still in their infancy. These combinations have the potential to elucidate the galaxy-dark matter connection and the galaxy formation physics responsible for it, as well as to constrain cosmological parameters and to test the nature of gravity. In this paper, we focus on a theoretical model that describes the galaxy-dark matter connection based on standard halo occupation distribution techniques. Several key modifications enable us to extract additional parameters that determine the stellar-to-halo mass relation and to simultaneously fit data from multiple probes while allowing for independent binning schemes for each probe. We construct mock catalogs from numerical simulations to investigate the effects of sample variance and covariance for each probe. Finally, we analyze how trends in each of the three observables impact the derived parameters of the model. In particular, we investigate various features of the observed galaxy stellar mass function (low-mass slope, 'plateau', knee, and high-mass cutoff) and show how each feature is related to the underlying relationship between stellar and halo mass. We demonstrate that the observed 'plateau' feature in the stellar mass function at M{sub *} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} is due to the transition that occurs in the stellar-to-halo mass relation at M{sub h} {approx} 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} from a low-mass power-law regime to a sub-exponential function at higher stellar mass.

  12. Multinucleon short-range correlation model for nuclear spectral functions: Theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artiles, Oswaldo; Sargsian, Misak M.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a theoretical approach for nuclear spectral functions at high missing momenta and removal energies based on the multinucleon short-range correlation (SRC) model. The approach is based on the effective Feynman diagrammatic method which allows us to account for the relativistic effects important in the SRC domain. In addition to two-nucleon (2N) SRC with center of mass motion we also derive the contribution of three-nucleon SRCs to the nuclear spectral functions. The latter is modeled based on the assumption that 3N SRCs are a product of two sequential short-range nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions. This approach allows us to express the 3N SRC part of the nuclear spectral function as a convolution of two NN SRCs. Thus the knowledge of 2N SRCs allows us to model both two- and three-nucleon SRC contributions to the spectral function. The derivations of the spectral functions are based on two theoretical frameworks for evaluating covariant Feynman diagrams: In the first, referred to as virtual nucleon approximation, we reduce Feynman diagrams to the time ordered noncovariant diagrams by evaluating nucleon spectators in the SRC at their positive energy poles, neglecting explicitly the contribution from vacuum diagrams. In the second approach, referred to as light-front approximation, we formulate the boost invariant nuclear spectral function in the light-front reference frame in which case the vacuum diagrams are generally suppressed and the bound nucleon is described by its light-front variables such as momentum fraction, transverse momentum, and invariant mass.

  13. A theoretical framework for the incorporation of history in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, James Stephen

    This thesis formulates a theoretical framework for the incorporation of history of science in science teaching, which, it is argued, is essential to laying a stable foundation for instructional design and future empirical studies. It is assumed that the historical approach to teaching science no longer needs defending and that contextual methods are a pedagogically sound approach to learning. Various cognitive and learning theories suggest that there are five distinct contexts that are important in engaging learners: the theoretical, practical, social, historical, and affective. On the basis of these five contexts, a model for teaching and learning is constructed, in which the story assumes a major role in engaging the learner affectively. This model is named the Story-Driven Contextual Approach (SDCA). The SDCA is introduced to students by means of a narrative, encouraging students to become actively engaged with the five contexts. In the SDCA, students are seen as novice researchers and the teacher as a research director. The place and nature of the historical science story in science education is a relatively undeveloped area in the literature. This thesis argues that the development of the events in a story proceed in the same fashion as the steps in learning a concept. A structural model of a story consisting of a three-stage temporal sequence, which includes a causative element, is presented and developed. It is argued that the conceptual change process, from a temporal perspective, can also be viewed as a three-stage sequence similar to the story. The story can, in this light, be thought of as the re-enactment of a particular type of learning process. This knowledge about the nature of stories can serve as a guiding principle in the designing and writing of effective stories based on the history of science, which are to be incorporated with the SDCA. The SDCA was tested in a university physics class using a constructed story which portrays the heroic

  14. An inverse finite element method for beam shape sensing: theoretical framework and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherlone, Marco; Cerracchio, Priscilla; Mattone, Massimiliano; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Shape sensing, i.e., reconstruction of the displacement field of a structure from surface-measured strains, has relevant implications for the monitoring, control and actuation of smart structures. The inverse finite element method (iFEM) is a shape-sensing methodology shown to be fast, accurate and robust. This paper aims to demonstrate that the recently presented iFEM for beam and frame structures is reliable when experimentally measured strains are used as input data. The theoretical framework of the methodology is first reviewed. Timoshenko beam theory is adopted, including stretching, bending, transverse shear and torsion deformation modes. The variational statement and its discretization with C0-continuous inverse elements are briefly recalled. The three-dimensional displacement field of the beam structure is reconstructed under the condition that least-squares compatibility is guaranteed between the measured strains and those interpolated within the inverse elements. The experimental setup is then described. A thin-walled cantilevered beam is subjected to different static and dynamic loads. Measured surface strains are used as input data for shape sensing at first with a single inverse element. For the same test cases, convergence is also investigated using an increasing number of inverse elements. The iFEM-recovered deflections and twist rotations are then compared with those measured experimentally. The accuracy, convergence and robustness of the iFEM with respect to unavoidable measurement errors, due to strain sensor locations, measurement systems and geometry imperfections, are demonstrated for both static and dynamic loadings.

  15. Linking predator risk and uncertainty to adaptive forgetting: a theoretical framework and empirical test using tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Maud C O; Brown, Grant E; Bortolotti, Gary R; Chivers, Douglas P

    2010-07-22

    Hundreds of studies have examined how prey animals assess their risk of predation. These studies work from the basic tennet that prey need to continually balance the conflicting demands of predator avoidance with activities such as foraging and reproduction. The information that animals gain regarding local predation risk is most often learned. Yet, the concept of 'memory' in the context of predation remains virtually unexplored. Here, our goal was (i) to determine if the memory window associated with predator recognition is fixed or flexible and, if it is flexible, (ii) to identify which factors affect the length of this window and in which ways. We performed an experiment on larval wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, to test whether the risk posed by, and the uncertainty associated with, the predator would affect the length of the tadpoles' memory window. We found that as the risk associated with the predator increases, tadpoles retained predator-related information for longer. Moreover, if the uncertainty about predator-related information increases, then prey use this information for a shorter period. We also present a theoretical framework aiming at highlighting both intrinsic and extrinsic factors that could affect the memory window of information use by prey individuals.

  16. Assessment of Environmental Enteropathy in the MAL-ED Cohort Study: Theoretical and Analytic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A.; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C.; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293

  17. A cooperative game-theoretic framework for negotiating marine spatial allocation agreements among heterogeneous players.

    PubMed

    Kyriazi, Zacharoula; Lejano, Raul; Maes, Frank; Degraer, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Marine spatial allocation has become, in recent decades, a political flashpoint, fuelled by political power struggles, as well as the continuously increasing demand for marine space by both traditional and emerging marine uses. To effectively address this issue, we develop a decision-making procedure, that facilitates the distribution of disputed areas of specific size among heterogeneous players in a transparent and ethical way, while considering coalitional formations through coexistence. To do this, we model players' alternative strategies and payoffs within a cooperative game-theoretic framework. Depending on whether transferable utility (TU) or non-transferable utility (NTU) is the more appropriate assumption, we illustrate the use of the TU Shapley value and the Lejano's fixed point NTU Shapley value to solve for the ideal allocations. The applicability and effectiveness of the process has been tested in a case study area, the Dogger Bank Special Area of Conservation in the North Sea, which involves three totally or partially conflicting activities, i.e. fishing, nature conservation and wind farm development. The findings demonstrate that the process is capable of providing a unique, fair and equitable division of space Finally, among the two solution concepts proposed the fixed point NTU Shapley value manages to better address the heterogeneity of the players and thus to provide a more socially acceptable allocation that favours the weaker player, while demonstrating the importance of the monetary valuation attributed by each use to the area.

  18. A general theoretical framework for understanding essential dynamics of Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Guosen

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by observed structure of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), a general theoretical model framework is advanced for understanding fundamental aspects of MJO dynamics. The model extends the Matsuno-Gill theory by incorporating (a) moisture feedback to precipitation, (b) a trio-interaction among equatorial waves, boundary layer (BL) dynamics, and precipitation, and (c) a simplified Betts-Miller (B-M) cumulus parameterization. The general model with B-M scheme yields a frictionally coupled dynamic moisture mode, which produces an equatorial planetary-scale, unstable system moving eastward slowly with coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave structure and BL moisture convergence leading major convection. The moisture feedback in B-M scheme reinforces the coupling between precipitation heating and Rossby waves and enhances the Rossby wave component in the MJO mode, thereby slowing down eastward propagation and resulting in a more realistic horizontal structure. It is, however, the BL frictional convergence feedback that couples equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves with convective heating and selects a preferred eastward propagation. The eastward propagation speed in the model is inversely related to the relative intensity of the equatorial "Rossby" westerly versus "Kelvin" easterly associated with the MJO. The cumulus parameterization scheme may affect propagation speed through changing MJO horizontal structure. The SST or basic-state moist static energy has a fundamental control on MJO propagation speed and intensification/decay. Model sensitivity to BL and cumulus scheme parameters and ramifications of the model results to general circulation modeling are discussed.

  19. Assessment of environmental enteropathy in the MAL-ED cohort study: theoretical and analytic framework.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world.

  20. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Kathryn E; Shafi, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

  1. Development, theoretical framework, and evaluation of a parent and teacher-delivered intervention on adolescent vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gargano, Lisa M; Herbert, Natasha L; Painter, Julia E; Sales, Jessica M; Vogt, Tara M; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M

    2014-07-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adolescents includes three vaccines (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis [Tdap]; human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccine; and meningococcal conjugate vaccine [MCV4]) and an annual influenza vaccination. Given the increasing number of recommended vaccines for adolescents and health and economic costs associated with nonvaccination, it is imperative that effective strategies for increasing vaccination rates among adolescents are developed. This article describes the development, theoretical framework, and initial first-year evaluation of an intervention designed to promote vaccine acceptance among a middle and high school-based sample of adolescents and their parents in eastern Georgia. Adolescents, parents, and teachers were active participants in the development of the intervention. The intervention, which consisted of a brochure for parents and a teacher-delivered curriculum for adolescents, was guided by constructs from the health belief model and theory of reasoned action. Evaluation results indicated that our intervention development methods were successful in creating a brochure that met cultural relevance and the literacy needs of parents. We also demonstrated an increase in student knowledge of and positive attitudes toward vaccines. To our knowledge, this study is the first to extensively engage middle and high school students, parents, and teachers in the design and implementation of key theory-based educational components of a school-based, teacher-delivered adolescent vaccination intervention.

  2. A theoretical framework to three-dimensional ultrasound reconstruction from irregularly sampled data.

    PubMed

    San José-Estépar, Raúl; Martín-Fernández, Marcos; Caballero-Martínez, P Pablo; Alberola-López, Carlos; Ruiz-Alzola, Juan

    2003-02-01

    Several techniques have been described in the literature in recent years for the reconstruction of a regular volume out of a series of ultrasound (US) slices with arbitrary orientations, typically scanned by means of US freehand systems. However, a systematic approach to such a problem is still missing. This paper focuses on proposing a theoretical framework for the 3-D US volume reconstruction problem. We introduce a statistical method for the construction and trimming of the sampling grid where the reconstruction will be carried out. The results using in vivo US data demonstrate that the computed reconstruction grid that encloses the region-of-interest (ROI) is smaller than those obtained from other reconstruction methods in those cases where the scanning trajectory deviates from a pure straight line. In addition, an adaptive Gaussian interpolation technique is studied and compared with well-known interpolation methods that have been applied to the reconstruction problem in the past. We find that the proposed method numerically outperforms former proposals in several control studies; subjective visual results also support this conclusion and highlight some potential deficiencies of methods previously proposed.

  3. The growth threshold conjecture: a theoretical framework for understanding T-cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    Arias, Clemente F; Herrero, Miguel A; Cuesta, José A; Acosta, Francisco J; Fernández-Arias, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Adaptive immune responses depend on the capacity of T cells to target specific antigens. As similar antigens can be expressed by pathogens and host cells, the question naturally arises of how can T cells discriminate friends from foes. In this work, we suggest that T cells tolerate cells whose proliferation rates remain below a permitted threshold. Our proposal relies on well-established facts about T-cell dynamics during acute infections: T-cell populations are elastic (they expand and contract) and they display inertia (contraction is delayed relative to antigen removal). By modelling inertia and elasticity, we show that tolerance to slow-growing populations can emerge as a population-scale feature of T cells. This result suggests a theoretical framework to understand immune tolerance that goes beyond the self versus non-self dichotomy. It also accounts for currently unexplained observations, such as the paradoxical tolerance to slow-growing pathogens or the presence of self-reactive T cells in the organism.

  4. The growth threshold conjecture: a theoretical framework for understanding T-cell tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Clemente F.; Herrero, Miguel A.; Cuesta, José A.; Acosta, Francisco J.; Fernández-Arias, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses depend on the capacity of T cells to target specific antigens. As similar antigens can be expressed by pathogens and host cells, the question naturally arises of how can T cells discriminate friends from foes. In this work, we suggest that T cells tolerate cells whose proliferation rates remain below a permitted threshold. Our proposal relies on well-established facts about T-cell dynamics during acute infections: T-cell populations are elastic (they expand and contract) and they display inertia (contraction is delayed relative to antigen removal). By modelling inertia and elasticity, we show that tolerance to slow-growing populations can emerge as a population-scale feature of T cells. This result suggests a theoretical framework to understand immune tolerance that goes beyond the self versus non-self dichotomy. It also accounts for currently unexplained observations, such as the paradoxical tolerance to slow-growing pathogens or the presence of self-reactive T cells in the organism. PMID:26587263

  5. Community of Inquiry as a Theoretical Framework to Foster "Epistemic Engagement" and "Cognitive Presence" in Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Peter; Bidjerano, Temi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, several recent theoretical conceptions of technology-mediated education are examined and a study of 2159 online learners is presented. The study validates an instrument designed to measure teaching, social, and cognitive presence indicative of a community of learners within the community of inquiry (CoI) framework [Garrison, D. R.,…

  6. A Theoretical Framework for Serious Game Design: Exploring Pedagogy, Play and Fidelity and Their Implications for the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that digital games can provide an engaging, motivating and "fun" experience for students. However an entertaining game does not necessarily constitute a meaningful, valuable learning experience. For this reason, experts espouse the importance of underpinning serious games with a sound theoretical framework which…

  7. Toward an Integrative Theoretical Framework for Explaining Beliefs about Wife Beating: A Study among Students of Nursing from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Uysal, Aynur

    2011-01-01

    An integrative theoretical framework was tested as the basis for explaining beliefs about wife beating among Turkish nursing students. Based on a survey design, 406 nursing students (404 females) in all 4 years of undergraduate studies completed a self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed and collected from the participants…

  8. The Problem With the Phrase Women and Minorities: Intersectionality—an Important Theoretical Framework for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Intersectionality is a theoretical framework that posits that multiple social categories (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status) intersect at the micro level of individual experience to reflect multiple interlocking systems of privilege and oppression at the macro, social-structural level (e.g., racism, sexism, heterosexism). Public health’s commitment to social justice makes it a natural fit with intersectionality’s focus on multiple historically oppressed populations. Yet despite a plethora of research focused on these populations, public health studies that reflect intersectionality in their theoretical frameworks, designs, analyses, or interpretations are rare. Accordingly, I describe the history and central tenets of intersectionality, address some theoretical and methodological challenges, and highlight the benefits of intersectionality for public health theory, research, and policy. PMID:22594719

  9. Can the theoretical domains framework account for the implementation of clinical quality interventions?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health care quality improvement movement is a complex enterprise. Implementing clinical quality initiatives requires attitude and behaviour change on the part of clinicians, but this has proven to be difficult. In an attempt to solve this kind of behavioural challenge, the theoretical domains framework (TDF) has been developed. The TDF consists of 14 domains from psychological and organisational theory said to influence behaviour change. No systematic research has been conducted into the ways in which clinical quality initiatives map on to the domains of the framework. We therefore conducted a qualitative mapping experiment to determine to what extent, and in what ways, the TDF is relevant to the implementation of clinical quality interventions. Methods We conducted a thematic synthesis of the qualitative literature exploring clinicians’ perceptions of various clinical quality interventions. We analysed and synthesised 50 studies in total, in five domains of clinical quality interventions: clinical quality interventions in general, structural interventions, audit-type interventions, interventions aimed at making practice more evidence-based, and risk management interventions. Data were analysed thematically, followed by synthesis of these themes into categories and concepts, which were then mapped to the domains of the TDF. Results Our results suggest that the TDF is highly relevant to the implementation of clinical quality interventions. It can be used to map most, if not all, of the attitudinal and behavioural barriers and facilitators of uptake of clinical quality interventions. Each of these 14 domains appeared to be relevant to many different types of clinical quality interventions. One possible additional domain might relate to perceived trustworthiness of those instituting clinical quality interventions. Conclusions The TDF can be usefully applied to a wide range of clinical quality interventions. Because all 14 of the domains emerged as

  10. Linear regression calibration: theoretical framework and empirical results in EPIC, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Becker, Nikolaus; Kroke, Anja; Brandstetter, Birgit R; Wahrendorf, Jürgen; Boeing, Heiner

    2002-01-01

    Large scale dietary assessment instruments are usually based on the food frequency technique and have therefore to be tailored to the involved populations with respect to mode of application and inquired food items. In multicenter studies with different populations, the direct comparability of dietary data is therefore a challenge because each local dietary assessment tool might have its specific measurement error. Thus, for risk analysis the direct use of dietary measurements across centers requires a common reference. For example, in the European prospective cohort study EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) a 24-hour recall was chosen to serve as such a reference instrument which was based on a highly standardized computer-assisted interview (EPIC-SOFT). The 24-hour recall was applied to a representative subset of EPIC participants in all centers. The theoretical framework of combining multicenter dietary information was previously published in several papers and is called linear regression calibration. It is based on a linear regression of the food frequency questionnaire to the reference. The regression coefficients describe the absolute and proportional scaling bias of the questionnaire with the 24-hour recall taken as reference. This article describes the statistical basis of the calibration approach and presents first empirical results of its application to fruit, cereals and meat consumption in EPIC Germany represented by the two EPIC centers, Heidelberg and Potsdam. It was found that fruit could be measured well by the questionnaire in both centers (lambdacirc; = 0.98 (males) and lambdacirc; = 0.95 (females) in Heidelberg, and lambdacirc; = 0.86 (males) and lambdacirc; = 0.7 (females) in Potsdam), cereals less (lambdacirc; = 0.53 (males) and lambdacirc; = 0.4 (females) in Heidelberg, and lambdacirc; = 0.53 (males) and lambdacirc; = 0.44 (females) in Potsdam), and that the assessment of meat (lambdacirc; = 0.72 (males) and

  11. Mathematical Evidence-theoretic Framework for Information Fusion of Disaster Scene Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The remote sensing community and geospatial industries are embracing the paradigm of 'big data'. This trend is in one hand due to the fact that heterogeneous remote sensors are producing tremendous amounts of earth observation (EO) data every day; on the other hand it is aspired by the promise that big data computing may be the fourth paradigm for scientific discovery. Many traditional techniques have been developed and will continue to be useful to deal with earth-observation big data, for examples, pansharpening, fusion of data with different electromagnetic nature (e.g. color images and SAR images), and use of multi-sensor data for improved land-cover classification. However, two limitations are recognized for these techniques, which include: (1) first, these methods are tightly dependent on a two-dimensional grid scale; and (2) second, temporal, spatial and causal relations are not intelligently treated. These limitations render them insufficient when used to attack the emerging Disaster Scene Big Data (DSBD). DSBD emerges as a geological or climatic hazard unfolds into a disaster. In the example of an earthquake, disaster data starts accruing as the ground shaking is being monitored. Along the time scale, heterogeneous multi-sensor data arise: EO data with various electromagnetic nature, oblique images, airborne/terrestrial active (Lidar) data, and the recently emerged crowdsourcing data. Neither theoretical models nor effective methods exist to date that can sufficiently fuse these data towards revealing the 'ground-truth' of the disaster effects, for example, damage to built objects. This presentation will present an augmented evidence-theoretic framework based on the classical Dempster-Shafer theory. With a focus on reasoning the ground-truth of build-object damage, causal, correlational and relational evidences will be defined considering their temporal and spatial scales. The newly developed graph-based learning approach will be explored for estimating

  12. The tectono-stratigraphic framework and evolution of southwestern Maine and southeastern New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hussey, Arthur M.; Bothner, Wallace A.; Alienikoff, John N.; Tollo, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Five belts of metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks underlie southwestern Maine and southeastern New Hampshire: Middle Ordovician Falmouth-Brunswick sequence; Middle and Late Ordovician Casco Bay Group, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian rocks of the Merribuckfred Basin; Late Ordovician to Early Silurian rocks of the East Harpswell Group; Silurian to Early Devonian rocks of the Central Maine Basin; and highly tectonized enigmatic rocks of the Rye complex of uncertain age. Stratigraphic reassessment and new U/Pb zircon ages support a model of east-directed Middle Ordovician subduction beneath Miramichi, a peri-Gondwanan block, and formation of the Falmouth-Brunswick–Casco Bay volcanic arc complex that is roughly correlative with arc activity on strike in New Brunswick. Passive Late Ordovician sedimentation in a reducing restricted backarc basin followed. Late Ordovician to Early Silurian volcanic rocks and volcanogenic sediments (East Harpswell Group) support west-directed subduction under the Miramichi block. Late Ordovician to Early Silurian turbidites accumulated in the Merribuckfred Basin between the Falmouth-Brunswick–Casco Bay arc and Ganderia to the east. The collision of Ganderia with the Falmouth Brunswick arc in Late Silurian time represents an early phase of the Acadian orogeny, during which the Merribuckfred rocks were deformed, metamorphosed, intruded, and uplifted. Simultaneously and inboard, the Central Maine Basin received sediment eroded mostly from Laurentia. Later, during the Late Silurian and Early Devonian, uplifted Merribuckfred basin rocks became the major source of sediments for the Central Maine Basin. A later phase of the Acadian orogeny resulted in Middle Devonian deformation, metamorphism, and intrusion of rocks of all six belts.

  13. Theoretical values of convective turnover times and Rossby numbers for solar-like, pre-main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landin, N. R.; Mendes, L. T. S.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Magnetic fields are at the heart of the observed stellar activity in late-type stars, and they are presumably generated by a dynamo mechanism at the interface layer (tachocline) between the radiative core and the base of the convective envelope. Aims: Since dynamo models are based on the interaction between differential rotation and convective motions, the introduction of rotation in the ATON 2.3 stellar evolutionary code allows for explorations regarding a physically consistent treatment of magnetic effects in stellar structure and evolution, even though there are formidable mathematical and numerical challenges involved. Methods: As examples of such explorations, we present theoretical estimates for both the local convective turnover time (τ_c), and global convective times (τ_g) for rotating pre-main sequence solar-type stars, based on up-to-date input physics for stellar models. Our theoretical predictions are compared with the previous ones available in the literature. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the convective turnover time on convection regimes, the presence of rotation and atmospheric treatment. Results: Those estimates, as opposed to the use of empirically derived values of τ_c for such matters, can be used to calculate the Rossby number Ro, which is related to the magnetic activity strength in dynamo theories and, at least for main-sequence stars, shows an observational correlation with stellar activity. More important, they can also contribute for testing stellar models against observations. Conclusions: Our theoretical values of τ_c, τ_g and Ro qualitatively agree with those published by Kim & Demarque (1996, ApJ, 457, 340). By increasing the convection efficiency, τ_g decreases for a given mass. FST models show still lower values. The presence of rotation shifts τ_g towards slightly higher values when compared with non-rotating models. The use of non-gray boundary conditions in the models yields values of τ_g smaller

  14. A theoretical framework for the episodic-urban air quality management plan ( e-UAQMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Sharad; Khare, Mukesh

    The present research proposes the local urban air quality management plan which combines two different modelling approaches (hybrid model) and possesses an improved predictive ability including the 'probabilistic exceedances over norms' and their 'frequency of occurrences' and so termed, herein, as episodic-urban air quality management plan ( e-UAQMP). The e-UAQMP deals with the consequences of 'extreme' concentrations of pollutant, mainly occurring at urban 'hotspots' e.g. traffic junctions, intersections and signalized roadways and are also influenced by complexities of traffic generated 'wake' effects. The e-UAQMP (based on probabilistic approach), also acts as an efficient preventive measure to predict the 'probability of exceedances' so as to prepare a successful policy responses in relation to the protection of urban environment as well as disseminating information to its sensitive 'receptors'. The e-UAQMP may be tailored to the requirements of the local area for the policy implementation programmes. The importance of such policy-making framework in the context of current air pollution 'episodes' in urban environments is discussed. The hybrid model that is based on both deterministic and stochastic based approaches predicting the 'average' as well as 'extreme' concentration distribution of air pollutants together in form of probability has been used at two air quality control regions (AQCRs) in the Delhi city, India, in formulating and executing the e-UAQMP— first, the income tax office (ITO), one of the busiest signalized traffic intersection and second, the Sirifort, one of the busiest signalized roadways.

  15. Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

    2014-02-01

    Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols.

  16. Reprint of "Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials".

    PubMed

    Guttman, Nurit

    2016-12-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns.

  17. Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Nurit

    2015-11-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns.

  18. A theoretical framework to obtain interface's shapes during the high-temperature annealing of high-aspect-ratio gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castez, Marcos F.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Nakamura, Jun; Sudoh, Koichi

    2010-09-01

    High-temperature annealing applied to solid samples produces important morphological modifications on their surfaces, particularly in high-aspect-ratio gratings. We show, how by means of a framework based in a nonlinear analysis of the Mullins' equation [J. Appl. Phys. 28, 333 (1957)], we can mathematically reproduce surface's shapes just by measuring a few characteristic features of the interfaces (essentially pattern's amplitudes and wavelengths). We compared our results with experimental data on silicon samples, finding a close agreement between experimental shapes and those theoretically predicted. The introduced framework could be particularly useful in those situations where no cross-sectional information were available.

  19. A Theoretical Framework of the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    A socio-psychological analytical framework will be adopted to illuminate the relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The framework puts the emphasis to incorporate micro familial factors into macro factor of the tracking system. Initially, children of the poor families always lack major prerequisite: diminution of cognitive…

  20. Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and Their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grünkorn, Juliane; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical evaluation).…

  1. Organizational culture and organizational effectiveness: a meta-analytic investigation of the competing values framework's theoretical suppositions.

    PubMed

    Hartnell, Chad A; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo

    2011-07-01

    We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial performance). The paper also tests theoretical suppositions undergirding the CVF by investigating the framework's nomological validity and proposed internal structure (i.e., interrelationships among culture types). Results based on data from 84 empirical studies with 94 independent samples indicate that clan, adhocracy, and market cultures are differentially and positively associated with the effectiveness criteria, though not always as hypothesized. The findings provide mixed support for the CVF's nomological validity and fail to support aspects of the CVF's proposed internal structure. We propose an alternative theoretical approach to the CVF and delineate directions for future research.

  2. Theoretical framework for the histone modification network: modifications in the unstructured histone tails form a robust scale-free network.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yohei; Senda, Toshiya; Sano, Norihiko; Horikoshi, Masami

    2009-07-01

    A rapid increase in research on the relationship between histone modifications and their subsequent reactions in the nucleus has revealed that the histone modification system is complex, and robust against point mutations. The prevailing theoretical framework (the histone code hypothesis) is inadequate to explain either the complexity or robustness, making the formulation of a new theoretical framework both necessary and desirable. Here, we develop a model of the regulatory network of histone modifications in which we encode histone modifications as nodes and regulatory interactions between histone modifications as links. This network has scale-free properties and subnetworks with a pseudo-mirror symmetry structure, which supports the robustness of the histone modification network. In addition, we show that the unstructured tail regions of histones are suitable for the acquisition of this scale-free property. Our model and related insights provide the first framework for an overall architecture of a histone modification network system, particularly with regard to the structural and functional roles of the unstructured histone tail region. In general, the post-translational "modification webs" of natively unfolded regions (proteins) may function as signal routers for the robust processing of the large amounts of signaling information.

  3. From Traditional to Constructivist Epistemologies: A Proposed Theoretical Framework Based on Activity Theory for Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Tan, Seng-Chee; Koh, Thiam-Seng

    2006-01-01

    This article is concerned with how learning communities are transformed as they evolve from traditional learning epistemologies towards constructivist orientations and pedagogies. Adopting activity theory as a framework, the article discusses how transformations take place through a two-way process of appropriation (learning from one another as a…

  4. A Validation Study of the Leadership Styles of a Holistic Leadership Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauckmann, Stefan; Pashiardis, Petros

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The overall purpose of the European Union-funded Leadership Improvement for Student Achievement (LISA) project was to explore how leadership styles, as conceptualized in the developed dynamic holistic leadership framework, directly or indirectly affect student achievement at the lower secondary level of education in seven European…

  5. Critical Argument and Writer Identity: Social Constructivism as a Theoretical Framework for EFL Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article makes the argument that we need to situate student's academic writing as socially constructed pieces of writing that embody a writer's cultural identity and critical argument. In support, I present and describe a comprehensive model of an original English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing analytical framework. This article explains…

  6. Framework of a Decision-Theoretic Tutoring System for Learning of Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pek, Peng-Kiat; Poh, Kim-Leng

    2000-01-01

    Presents the application of decision-theoretic technique to a computer-based tutoring system for elementary mechanics. Uses sound probabilistic reasoning and a student model to identify learners' misconceptions. Focuses on the integration of Bayesian belief networks, item response theory, decision analysis, and database management systems in…

  7. A Theoretical Framework for Educational Output Measurement. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reece, William S.

    Construction of a theoretical measure of educational output is attempted in this paper. The effort begins by specifying the purpose for which this measure is intended: centralized allocation, according to the equimarginal principle, of limited resources to alternative units producing education. It then specifies a simple and narrow goal that…

  8. An Examination of Physical Education Teacher Motivation from a Self-Determination Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Russell L.; Chase, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The motivation of physical education (PE) teachers has received precious little attention over the years. Self-determination theory (SDT) is a salient theoretical model for understanding motivation, and posits that self-determined motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation) stems from the perceived fulfillment of three psychological needs:…

  9. Game Object Model Version II: A Theoretical Framework for Educational Game Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amory, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Complex computer and video games may provide a vehicle, based on appropriate theoretical concepts, to transform the educational landscape. Building on the original game object model (GOM) a new more detailed model is developed to support concepts that educational computer games should: be relevant, explorative, emotive, engaging, and include…

  10. Developing a Theoretical Framework for Classifying Levels of Context Use for Mathematical Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almuna Salgado, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to revisit and clarify the term problem context and to develop a theoretical classification of the construct of levels of context use (LCU) to analyse how the context of a problem is used to formulate a problem in mathematical terms and to interpret the answer in relation to the context of a given problem. Two criteria and six…

  11. Teachers' Stances on Cell Phones in the ESL Classroom: Toward a "Theoretical" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In the ongoing and constantly expanding discussion surrounding cell phones in the classroom, a theoretical complement to the practical side of the issue is generally lacking. This is perhaps understandable. Many teachers are still trying to deal with the simple presence of cell phones in the class, and managing a classroom in which the presence…

  12. Exploring Asynchrony as a Theoretical Framework for Understanding Giftedness: A Case of Cognitive Dissonance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andronaco, Julie A.; Shute, Rosalyn; McLachlan, Angus

    2014-01-01

    Asynchrony is a theoretical construct that views the intellectually gifted child as inherently vulnerable because of disparities arising from the mismatch between his or her chronological age and mental age. Such disparities, for example, between wanting to belong but being intellectually out of step with peers, are said to give rise to a…

  13. Contextualising Vocational Knowledge: A Theoretical Framework and Illustrations from Culinary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusdens, W. T.; Bakker, A.; Baartman, L. K. J.; De Bruijn, E.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of knowledge in vocational education is often described in dichotomies such as theory versus practice or general versus specific. Although different scholars now acknowledge that vocational knowledge is more than putting bits of theoretical and practical knowledge together, it is still unclear how vocational knowledge should be…

  14. A theoretical framework for antigay aggression: Review of established and hypothesized effects within the context of the general aggression model⋆

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research on antigay aggression has identified different motives that facilitate aggression based on sexual orientation. However, the individual and situational determinants of antigay aggression associated with these motivations have yet to be organized within a single theoretical framework. This limits researchers’ ability to organize existing knowledge, link that knowledge with related aggression theory, and guide the application of new findings. To address these limitations, this article argues for the use of an existing conceptual framework to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. Contemporary theories of antigay aggression, and empirical support for these theories, are reviewed and interpreted within the unifying framework of the general aggression model [Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.]. It is concluded that this conceptual framework will facilitate investigation of individual and situational risk factors that may contribute to antigay aggression and guide development of individual-level intervention. PMID:18355952

  15. A theoretical and computational setting for a geometrically nonlinear gradient damage modelling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedjar, B.

    The present work deals with the extension to the geometrically nonlinear case of recently proposed ideas on elastic- and elastoplastic-damage modelling frameworks within the infinitesimal theory. The particularity of these models is that the damage part of the modelling involves the gradient of damage quantity which, together with the equations of motion, are ensuing from a new formulation of the principle of virtual power. It is shown how the thermodynamics of irreversible processes is crucial in the characterization of the dissipative phenomena and in setting the convenient forms for the constitutive relations. On the numerical side, we discuss the problem of numerically integrating these equations and the implementation within the context of the finite element method is described in detail. And finally, we present a set of representative numerical simulations to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  16. Measuring molecular reorientation at liquid surfaces with time-resolved sum-frequency spectroscopy: a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Nienhuys, Han-Kwang; Bonn, Mischa

    2009-05-28

    A theoretical framework is presented for the design and analysis of ultrafast time- and polarization-resolved surface vibrational spectroscopy, aimed at elucidating surface molecular reorientational motion in real time. Vibrational excitation with linearly polarized light lifts the azimuthal symmetry of the surface transition-dipole distribution, causing marked, time-dependent changes in the surface sum-frequency generation (SFG) intensity. The subsequent recovery of the SFG signal generally reflects both vibrational relaxation and reorientational motion of surface molecules. We present experimental schemes that allow direct quantification of the time scale of surface molecular reorientational diffusive motion.

  17. [Relational Frame Theory--A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Behavioral Science].

    PubMed

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-07-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective--regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.

  18. Patient safety culture in primary care: developing a theoretical framework for practical use

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Susan; Parker, Dianne; Claridge, Tanya; Esmail, Aneez; Marshall, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective Great importance has been attached to a culture of safe practice in healthcare organisations, but it has proved difficult to engage frontline staff with this complex concept. The present study aimed to develop and test a framework for making the concept of safety culture meaningful and accessible to managers and frontline staff, and facilitating discussion of ways to improve team/organisational safety culture. Setting Eight primary care trusts and a sample of their associated general practices in north west England. Methods In phase 1 a comprehensive review of the literature and a postal survey of experts helped identify the key dimensions of safety culture in primary care. Semistructured interviews with 30 clinicians and managers explored the application of these dimensions to an established theory of organisational maturity. In phase 2 the face validity and utility of the framework was assessed in 33 interviews and 14 focus groups. Results Nine dimensions were identified through which safety culture is expressed in primary care organisations. Organisational descriptions were developed for how these dimensions might be characterised at five levels of organisational maturity. The resulting framework conceptualises patient safety culture as multidimensional and dynamic, and seems to have a high level of face validity and utility within primary care. It aids clinicians' and managers' understanding of the concept of safety culture and promotes discussion within teams about their safety culture maturity. Conclusions The framework moves the agenda on from rhetoric about the importance of safety culture to a way of understanding why and how the shared values of staff working within a healthcare organisation may be operationalised to create a safe environment for patient care. PMID:17693682

  19. Catchment travel and residence time distributions: a theoretical framework for solute transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, G.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    The probability density functions (pdf's) of travel and residence times are key descriptors of the mechanisms through which catchments retain and release old and event water, transporting solutes to receiving water bodies. In this contribution we derive a general stochastic framework applicable to arbitrary catchment control volumes, where time-variable precipitation, evapotranspiration and discharge are assumed to be the major hydrological drivers for water and solutes. A master equation for the residence time pdf is derived and solved analytically, providing expressions for travel and residence time pdf's as a function of input/output fluxes and of the relevant mixing processes occurring along streamflow production and plant upatke. Our solutions suggest intrinsically time variant travel and residence time pdf's through a direct dependence on the underlying hydrological forcings and soil vegetation dynamics. The proposed framework highlights the dependence of water/solute travel times on eco-hydrological processes (especially transpiration and uptake), and integrates age-dating and tracer hydrology techniques by providing a coherent framework for catchment transport models. An application to the release of pesticides from an agricultural watershead is also discussed.

  20. The Case for the Development of a Theoretical Framework for Defence Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    and theoretical baggage. The debate on the epistemology of practical knowledge demonstrates that to ignore or misunderstand the implications of...on even one aspect was also reflected in epistemological indeterminacy around meta-theory. While the definition is contested, there is far more...demonstrates, different theories are often founded on different epistemological and ontological assumptions (i.e., paradigms), which in turn have

  1. Validation of theoretical framework explaining active solute uptake in dynamically loaded porous media.

    PubMed

    Albro, Michael B; Li, Roland; Banerjee, Rajan E; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2010-08-26

    Solute transport in biological tissues is a fundamental process necessary for cell metabolism. In connective soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, cells are embedded within a dense extracellular matrix that hinders the transport of solutes. However, according to a recent theoretical study (Mauck et al., 2003, J. Biomech. Eng. 125, 602-614), the convective motion of a dynamically loaded porous solid matrix can also impart momentum to solutes, pumping them into the tissue and giving rise to concentrations which exceed those achived under passive diffusion alone. In this study, the theoretical predictions of this model are verified against experimental measurements. The mechanical and transport properties of an agarose-dextran model system were characterized from independent measurements and substituted into the theory to predict solute uptake or desorption under dynamic mechanical loading for various agarose concentrations and dextran molecular weights, as well as different boundary and initial conditions. In every tested case, agreement was observed between experiments and theoretical predictions as assessed by coefficients of determination ranging from R(2)=0.61 to 0.95. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that dynamic loading of a deformable porous tissue can produce active transport of solutes via a pumping mechanisms mediated by momentum exchange between the solute and solid matrix.

  2. Validation of theoretical framework explaining active solute uptake in dynamically loaded porous media

    PubMed Central

    Albro, Michael B.; Li, Roland; Banerjee, Rajan E.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2010-01-01

    Solute transport in biological tissues is a fundamental process necessary for cell metabolism. In connective soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, cells are embedded within a dense extracellular matrix that hinders the transport of solutes. However, according to a recent theoretical study (Mauck et al., 2003, J. Biomech. Eng. 125, 602–614), the convective motion of a dynamically loaded porous solid matrix can also impart momentum to solutes, pumping them into the tissue and giving rise to concentrations which exceed those achived under passive diffusion alone. In this study, the theoretical predictions of this model are verified against experimental measurements. The mechanical and transport properties of an agarose–dextran model system were characterized from independent measurements and substituted into the theory to predict solute uptake or desorption under dynamic mechanical loading for various agarose concentrations and dextran molecular weights, as well as different boundary and initial conditions. In every tested case, agreement was observed between experiments and theoretical predictions as assessed by coefficients of determination ranging from R2=0.61 to 0.95. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that dynamic loading of a deformable porous tissue can produce active transport of solutes via a pumping mechanisms mediated by momentum exchange between the solute and solid matrix. PMID:20553797

  3. On building methodological and theoretical frameworks to examine the interrelationships between environmental change and armed conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Hoek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Relationships between environmental change and armed conflict have long been studied. Sometimes referred to as 'warfare' or 'conflict' ecology, much of this scholarship has come in response to local-level perceptions of landscape or livelihood changes that result from regional armed conflict. However, such studies have, first, typically focused on spatiotemporally acute and readily detectable environmental change, like deforestation, to the exclusion of protracted and more subtle environmental changes, like agricultural degradation; second, been limited to situational conflicts or circumstances, thereby inhibiting broader theoretical development; and, third, often only considered the environmental consequences rather than the environmental or climatic circumstances that may contribute to conflict. As a result, there is little opportunity for methodological or theoretical cohesion between studies. In this presentation, I synthesize findings from three case studies examining the interrelationships between agricultural change and armed conflict in the semi-arid landscapes of northwest Pakistan, Palestine, and southern Syria. Using coarse through very high resolution remotely sensed imagery, socio-economic and demographic data, conflict databases, open-source programming, and building on theoretical underpinnings of political ecology and conflict studies, I present methods and modeling approaches that aid in overcoming data scarcity and disparity between scales of analysis and integrate environmental and conflict data in spatiotemporally explicit ways. Results from these case studies illuminate the interrelationships between both protracted and acute agricultural change and armed conflict, and have broad relevance for understanding the means by which environment, conflict, and livelihoods are linked, a nexus that will only become tighter with the advance of global climate change.

  4. On the presence of electric currents in the solar atmosphere. I - A theoretical framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M.; Low, B. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1981-01-01

    The general magnetic field above the solar photosphere is divided by an elementary analysis based on Ampere's law into two parts: a potential field due to electric currents below the photosphere and a field produced by electric currents above the photosphere combined with the induced mirror currents. The latter, by symmetry, has a set of field lines lying in the plane taken to be the photosphere which may be constructed from given vector magnetograph measurements. These field lines also represent all the information on the electric currents above the photosphere that a magnetograph can provide. Theoretical illustrations are given, and implications for data analysis are discussed.

  5. Elder abuse and neglect in Latino families: an ecological and culturally relevant theoretical framework for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Meyer, Emily; Schiamberg, Lawrence; Post, Lori

    2007-12-01

    There is a scarcity of theoretical frameworks capable of describing precursors and dynamics associated with elder abuse and neglect in Latino families. The present manuscript seeks to address this gap in the literature by presenting an integrative theoretical framework that fosters an ecological and cultural understanding of elder abuse and neglect among Latinos. The proposed model rests on the premise that Latino families caring for elder adults have the ability to adapt to the demands of aging only if they are supported by nurturing environments. The usefulness of the model is threefold. First, the proposed model describes elder abuse and neglect as multifactorial phenomena and identifies specific risk factors associated with the etiology and maintenance of elder abuse and neglect in Latino families. Second, the model provides clinical applications, including reflections about the therapists' need to extend their scope of practice beyond traditional family therapy interventions. A brief case study is presented that illustrates the clinical application of the model with a Latino family. Implications for future research are discussed.

  6. What would a theory of interprofessional education look like? Some suggestions for developing a theoretical framework for teamwork training 1.

    PubMed

    Clark, Phillip G

    2006-12-01

    Much of the literature on interprofessional education (IPE) is descriptive, anecdotal, and atheoretical. To advance both practice and research in this field, IPE needs to develop theoretical frameworks that: (i) identify major concepts to guide the development of course and program structures and processes, (ii) specify learning objectives and effective methods for their achievement, (iii) suggest appropriate roles for faculty and students in the educational process, and (iv) aid in research and assessment of program impacts and outcomes. Following an exploration of what theory should mean and the role it might play in advancing IPE, this discussion surveys five different theoretical approaches for guidance in developing an IPE framework: (i) cooperative, collaborative, or social learning; (ii) experiential learning; (iii) epistemology and ontology of interdisciplinary inquiry; (iv) cognitive and ethical student development; and (v) education of the reflective practitioner. Common themes are discussed and their implications for IPE are explored. These include: (i) social context of collaborative and experiential learning, (ii) epistemology and ontology, facts and values, (iii) importance of reflection, and (iv) implications for student and faculty roles. Overall, this discussion aims to foster continued dialogue, discussion, and debate on the need for, and the role of, theory in IPE.

  7. Supportive Non-Parental Adults and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning: Using Social Support as a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, E. M.; Jones, D. J.; McKee, L. G.; Kincaid, C.

    2014-01-01

    Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research efforts, is lacking. The aim of the current paper is to utilize the well-established lens of social support to integrate, across this broad range of literatures, recent findings regarding associations between SNPAs and four indices of adolescent psychosocial adjustment: academic functioning, self-esteem, and behavioral and emotional problems. Beyond offering an integrative framework for understanding the link between SNPAs and adolescent functioning, the issues reviewed here have potentially far-reaching consequences for adolescents and their families, as well as the professionals working with adolescents and their families in the health care, school, and community settings. PMID:21384233

  8. On the theoretical framework of magnetized outflows from stellar-mass black holes and related observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-09-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly non-linear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behaviour may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion discs is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  9. Validating Photogrammetric Orientation Steps by the Use of Relevant Theoretical Models. Implementation in the "ARPENTEUR" Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahiddine, A.; Seinturier, J.; Peloso, D.; Boulaassal, H.; Boï, J.-M.; Merad, D.; Drap, P.

    2013-07-01

    The new advance in photogrammetry using the automatic procedures such as the famous algorithm which was proposed by David Lowe (Lowe, 2004) features descriptors and matching (SIFT) and then the recent development of external orientation (Nister (Stewenius et alii, 2006) or Snavely (Snavely et alii, 2010)) have changed drastically the way of measuring space with photogrammetry. The complexity of the process and the huge quantity of processed data (thousands of photographs) makes difficult validating the different process steps. We propose in this paper several theoretical model generation methods in order to validate the complete photogrammetric orientation process. A theoretical photogrammetric model generation has been developed in order to produce photographs, photo orientation, 3D points and 2D observations according to some defined camera and a parametric photograph distribution in the scene. In addition the use of synthesis image software generation as POV-Ray allow us to generate set of photographs with pre-computed internal and external orientation in order to check the whole pipeline from feature extraction to Photographs External Orientation. We apply this model generation approach to several typical geometry of photogrammetric scene, stereo, parallel triplet, parallel strip and convergent models.

  10. A game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchaser's willingness-to-pay for health and for expansion.

    PubMed

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Roberts, Stephen D

    2010-12-01

    A health purchaser's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for health is defined as the amount of money the health purchaser (e.g. a health maximizing public agency or a profit maximizing health insurer) is willing to spend for an additional unit of health. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchaser's WTP for health in markets where the health purchaser offers a menu of medical interventions, and each individual in the population selects the intervention that maximizes her prospect. We discuss how the WTP for health can be employed to determine medical guidelines, and to price new medical technologies, such that the health purchaser is willing to implement them. The framework further introduces a measure for WTP for expansion, defined as the amount of money the health purchaser is willing to pay per person in the population served by the health provider to increase the consumption level of the intervention by one percent without changing the intervention price. This measure can be employed to find how much to invest in expanding a medical program through opening new facilities, advertising, etc. Applying the proposed framework to colorectal cancer screening tests, we estimate the WTP for health and the WTP for expansion of colorectal cancer screening tests for the 2005 US population.

  11. Theoretically speaking: use of a communities of practice framework to describe and evaluate interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Lees, Amanda; Meyer, Edgar

    2011-03-01

    This article uses Wenger's (1998) theory of communities of practice, and in particular his learning design framework, to describe and evaluate the pedagogy of one interprofessional continuing professional development (CPD) programme for health, education and social care professionals. The article presents findings from 27 post-intervention interviews conducted 12 months after the CPD. Key pedagogic features of small group working, action planning, facilitation, continued independent learning and 'safe' learning environment were found to provide facilities for 'engagement', 'imagination' and 'alignment' (Wenger, 1998), with the use of task-focused small group work particularly appreciated by participants. Problems of falling attendance and marginalisation are discussed using Wenger's concept of 'identification/negotiability'. It is suggested that careful selection of delegates and provision of sufficient organisational support may mitigate such problems.

  12. Towards a theoretical basis for students' alternative frameworks in science and for science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian L.; Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.

    1993-12-01

    As there is nothing as practical as a good theory, there is a continuing need in the field of science education enquiry to look for theories which help to interpret the findings about students' alternative frameworks and to inform the design of teaching strategies which relate to a research focus on ‘how the student learns’. The developmental model of cognitive functioning based on the SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs & Collis, 1982) as updated in 1991 (Biggs & Collis, 1991; Collis & Biggs, 1991) is being applied in this way. Questionnaire data from two large studies of science learning of Australian students (conducted by ACER and NBEET) are being re-analysed in terms of the current theory. This paper illustrates the theory and describes a plan of further research.

  13. Transition Services for DHH Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities: Challenges and Theoretical Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Luft, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) adolescents and young adults with disabilities (DWD) are a highly diverse group who may also demonstrate a range of functional limitations. These present unique challenges to professional efforts to provide high-quality transition services. Despite these issues, a majority of this population has cognitive abilities within the typical range, and therefore, their transition expectations should be commensurately high in comparison to those of their DHH peers. Research-based transition practices offer a range of interventions, and although none have been validated with DHH or DWD students, several provide important foundational learning opportunities. Yet their implementation will require modifications with programming and expertise beyond what is available in most school districts. Use of a multilevel, ecological framework and person-centered planning offers systematic strategies for increasing access to transition resources and supports to address these unique needs and lead to successful adulthood.

  14. Emotional intelligence: a theoretical framework for individual differences in affective forecasting.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P; Epstein, Ronald M; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-08-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed.

  15. Electron-deuteron DIS with spectator tagging at EIC: Development of theoretical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cosyn, Wim B.; Guzey, Vadim A.; Sargsian, Misak M.; Strikman, Mark M.; Weiss, Christian

    2016-03-01

    An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable next-generation measurements of deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) on the deuteron with detection of a forward-moving nucleon (p, n) and measurement of its recoil momentum ("spectator tagging''). Such experiments offer full control of the nuclear configuration during the high-energy process and can be used for precision studies of the neutron's partonic structure and its spin dependence, nuclear modifications of partonic structure, and nuclear shadowing at small x. We review the theoretical description of spectator tagging at EIC energies (light-front nuclear structure, on-shell extrapolation in the recoil nucleon momentum, final-state interactions, diffractive effects at small x) and report about on-going developments.

  16. Emotional Intelligence: A Theoretical Framework for Individual Differences in Affective Forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally-evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed. PMID:22251053

  17. Deep Brain Stimulation for Obesity: From a Theoretical Framework to Practical Application

    PubMed Central

    Nangunoori, Raj K.; Tomycz, Nestor D.; Oh, Michael Y.; Whiting, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity remains a pervasive global health problem. While there are a number of nonsurgical and surgical options for treatment, the incidence of obesity continues to increase at an alarming rate. The inability to curtail the growing rise of the obesity epidemic may be related to a combination of increased food availability and palatability. Research into feeding behavior has yielded a number of insights into the homeostatic and reward mechanisms that govern feeding. However, there remains a gap between laboratory investigations of feeding physiology in animals and translation into meaningful treatment options for humans. In addition, laboratory investigation may not be able to recapitulate all aspects of human food consumption. In a landmark pilot study of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the lateral hypothalamic area for obesity, we found that there was an increase in resting metabolic rate as well as a decreased urge to eat. In this review, the authors will review some of the work relating to feeding physiology and research surrounding two nodes involved in feeding homeostasis, nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hypothalamus, and use this to provide a framework for future investigations of DBS as a viable therapeutic modality for obesity. PMID:26819774

  18. A theoretical framework for 3D LADAR ATR problem definition and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelMarco, Stephen; Sobel, Erik; Douglas, Joel

    2005-05-01

    LADAR imagery provides the capability to represent high resolution detail of 3D surface geometry of complex targets. In previous work we exploited this capability for automatic target recognition (ATR) by developing matching algorithms for performing surface matching of 3D LADAR point clouds with highly-detailed target CAD models. A central challenge in evaluating ATR performance is characterizing the degree of problem difficulty. One of the most important factors is the inherent similarity of target signatures. We've developed a flexible approach to target taxonomy based on 3D shape which includes a classification framework for defining the target recognition problem and evaluating ATR algorithm performance. The target model taxonomy consists of a hierarchical, tree-structured target classification scheme in which different levels of the tree correspond to different degrees of target classification difficulty. Each node in the tree corresponds to a collection of target models forming a target category. Target categories near the tree root represent large and very general target classes, exhibiting large interclass distance. Targets in these categories are easily separated. Target categories near the tree bottom represent very specific target classes with small interclass distance. These targets are difficult to separate. In this paper we focus on creation of optimal categories. We develop approaches for optimal aggregation of target model types into categories which provide for improved classification performance. We generate numerical results using match scores derived from matching highly-detailed CAD models of civilian ground vehicles.

  19. Theoretical framework to analyze searches for hidden light gauge bosons in electron scattering fixed target experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranek, T.; Merkel, H.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by anomalies in cosmic ray observations and by attempts to solve questions of the Standard Model of particle physics like the (g-2)μ discrepancy, U(1) extensions of the Standard Model have been proposed in recent years. Such U(1) extensions allow for the interaction of dark matter by exchange of a photonlike massive force carrier γ' not included in the Standard Model. In order to search for γ' bosons, various experimental programs have been started. One approach is the dedicated search at fixed-target experiments at modest energies as performed at microtron (MAMI) or at the Jefferson Lab. In these experiments the process e(A,Z)→e(A,Z)l+l- is investigated, and a search for a very narrow resonance in the invariant mass distribution of the l+l- pair is performed. In this work we analyze this process in terms of signal and background in order to describe existing data obtained by the A1 experiment at MAMI with the aim to give accurate predictions for exclusion limits in the γ' parameter space. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the cross sections entering in the description of such processes.

  20. [Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology as a theoretical-philosophical framework in teaching research in nursing].

    PubMed

    Terra, Marlene Gomes; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; dos Santos, Evangelia Kotzias Atherino; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2009-09-01

    This paper aims at describing the theoretical-philosophical appraoch used in the development of the qualitative research that constituted the thesis "Meanings of sensibility for being a nursing teacher-nurse in teaching and learning to be and do nursing in light of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology. This approach made it possible to seek subsidies for the questions that result from life experience, since the philosopher recognizes the body inserted in the world as a constitution of the subjectivity and expression of speech. According to the Merleau-Pontyan thought, it is possible to comprehend the language as gesture and body expression in the perceptive experiences of the other when interviews are done with the participants. The results indicate the importance of phenomenology as it helped the researchers to figure out their own ways, know the feelings, behaviors, and the relations with the other in a dynamic world, which is in constant transformation and that develops a dialogue and makes connections with life.

  1. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  2. A theoretical framework for evaluating analytical digestion methods for poorly soluble particulate beryllium.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Brink, Christopher A; Dickerson, Robert M; Day, Gregory A; Brisson, Michael J; Hoover, Mark D; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2007-04-01

    Complete digestion of all chemical forms and sizes of particulate analytes in environmental samples is usually necessary to obtain accurate results with atomic spectroscopy. In the current study, we investigate the physicochemical properties of beryllium particles likely to be encountered in samples collected from different occupational environments and present a hypothesis that a dissolution theory can be used as a conceptual framework to guide development of strategies for digestion procedures. For monodisperse single-chemical constituent primary particles, such as those encountered when handling some types of beryllium oxide (BeO) powder, theory predicts that a digestion procedure is sufficient when it completely dissolves all primary particles, independent of cluster size. For polydisperse single-chemical constituent particles, such as those encountered during the handling of some types of beryllium metal powder, theory predicts that a digestion procedure is sufficient only when it completely dissolves the largest particle in the sample. For samples with unknown or multi-chemical constituent particles and with particles having undefined sizes, e.g., fume emissions from a copper-beryllium alloy furnace operation or dust from a beryl ore crushing operation, a surface area-limited and single-constituent-dependent dissolution theory may not predict complete dissolution, thereby requiring non-routine robust treatment procedures with post-digestion filtration, followed by examination of residual particulate material. Additionally, for beryllium, and likely other poorly soluble materials, particulate reference materials of various chemical forms and size distributions are needed to better evaluate and harmonize analytical digestion procedures. Figure Generation of aerosol particles during machining of beryllium oxide.

  3. Functional mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying the character process: a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chang-Xing; Casella, George; Wu, Rongling

    2002-08-01

    Unlike a character measured at a finite set of landmark points, function-valued traits are those that change as a function of some independent and continuous variable. These traits, also called infinite-dimensional characters, can be described as the character process and include a number of biologically, economically, or biomedically important features, such as growth trajectories, allometric scalings, and norms of reaction. Here we present a new statistical infrastructure for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the character process. This strategy, termed functional mapping, integrates mathematical relationships of different traits or variables within the genetic mapping framework. Logistic mapping proposed in this article can be viewed as an example of functional mapping. Logistic mapping is based on a universal biological law that for each and every living organism growth over time follows an exponential growth curve (e.g., logistic or S-shaped). A maximum-likelihood approach based on a logistic-mixture model, implemented with the EM algorithm, is developed to provide the estimates of QTL positions, QTL effects, and other model parameters responsible for growth trajectories. Logistic mapping displays a tremendous potential to increase the power of QTL detection, the precision of parameter estimation, and the resolution of QTL localization due to the small number of parameters to be estimated, the pleiotropic effect of a QTL on growth, and/or residual correlations of growth at different ages. More importantly, logistic mapping allows for testing numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning the genetic basis of quantitative variation, thus gaining an insight into the critical role of development in shaping plant and animal evolution and domestication. The power of logistic mapping is demonstrated by an example of a forest tree, in which one QTL affecting stem growth processes is detected on a linkage group using our method, whereas it cannot

  4. Functional mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying the character process: a theoretical framework.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chang-Xing; Casella, George; Wu, Rongling

    2002-01-01

    Unlike a character measured at a finite set of landmark points, function-valued traits are those that change as a function of some independent and continuous variable. These traits, also called infinite-dimensional characters, can be described as the character process and include a number of biologically, economically, or biomedically important features, such as growth trajectories, allometric scalings, and norms of reaction. Here we present a new statistical infrastructure for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the character process. This strategy, termed functional mapping, integrates mathematical relationships of different traits or variables within the genetic mapping framework. Logistic mapping proposed in this article can be viewed as an example of functional mapping. Logistic mapping is based on a universal biological law that for each and every living organism growth over time follows an exponential growth curve (e.g., logistic or S-shaped). A maximum-likelihood approach based on a logistic-mixture model, implemented with the EM algorithm, is developed to provide the estimates of QTL positions, QTL effects, and other model parameters responsible for growth trajectories. Logistic mapping displays a tremendous potential to increase the power of QTL detection, the precision of parameter estimation, and the resolution of QTL localization due to the small number of parameters to be estimated, the pleiotropic effect of a QTL on growth, and/or residual correlations of growth at different ages. More importantly, logistic mapping allows for testing numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning the genetic basis of quantitative variation, thus gaining an insight into the critical role of development in shaping plant and animal evolution and domestication. The power of logistic mapping is demonstrated by an example of a forest tree, in which one QTL affecting stem growth processes is detected on a linkage group using our method, whereas it cannot

  5. Sedimentary framework of the southern Maine inner continental shelf: Influence of glaciation and sea-level change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.; Shipp, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Although the tidally influenced shoreline of Maine is longer than that of virtually any other state, almost no research on its geology has been published. In order to go some way towards remedying this, 1500 km of high-resolution seismic reflection data and 800 km of sidescan sonar imagery have been collected. On the basis of these data and observations made during ten submersible dives, more than 800 bottom samples were collected and evaluated for texture and composition. The understanding of the sedimentary framework of the southern Maine shelf and the processes that maintain it are summarized, and future research directions to evaluate the strategic mineral potential are indicated. In the past 14,000 years, the Maine shelf has experienced a deglaciation and two marine transgressions separated by a regression. The deglaciation was accompanied by the first transgression and deposited till interbedded with up to 40 m of glaciomarine sediment (the Presumpscot Formation) across the shelf. The first transgression culminated about 12,500 yrs B.P., and its landward limit is marked by large glaciomarine deltas 50-100 km landward of the present-day coast. Sea level fell until about 9500 yrs B.P., when shorelines were cut at about the 65 m depth and some large "lowstand deltas" were deposited. Sea level has risen since then and in the general absence of modern river sediment input marine processes have reworked the older sediment. Five shelf environments have been defined in terms of their surficial sediment and stratigraphy. Nearshore ramps are sandy regions extending to about 30 m deep offshore of sandy beaches. These may be reworked lowstand deltas, and possess the thickest bodies of sand in the region. Nearshore basins are mud-filled troughs seaward of coastal areas lacking significant river input. Slumping glaciomarine deposits provide most of the Holocene mud that floors these basins. Rocky zones are extensive areas of exposed rock most common in the 30-50 m depth

  6. ON A NEW THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR RR LYRAE STARS. I. THE METALLICITY DEPENDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Marconi, M.; Coppola, G.; Musella, I.; Ripepi, V.; Bono, G.; Braga, V.; Buonanno, R.; Pietrinferni, A.; Castellani, M.; Stellingwerf, R. F. E-mail: giuseppe.bono@roma2.infn.it E-mail: adriano@oa-teramo.inaf.it E-mail: rfs@swcp.com

    2015-07-20

    We present new nonlinear, time-dependent convective hydrodynamical models of RR Lyrae stars computed assuming a constant helium-to-metal enrichment ratio and a broad range in metal abundances (Z = 0.0001–0.02). The stellar masses and luminosities adopted to construct the pulsation models were fixed according to detailed central He-burning horizontal-branch evolutionary models. The pulsation models cover a broad range in stellar luminosity and effective temperatures and the modal stability is investigated for both fundamental (FU) and first overtone polsators (FOs). We predict the topology of the instability strip (IS) as a function of the metal content and new analytical relations for the edges of the IS in the observational plane. Moreover, a new analytical relation to constrain the pulsation mass of double pulsators as a function of the period ratio and the metal content is provided. We derive new Period–Radius–Metallicity relations for FU and FO pulsators. They agree quite well with similar empirical and theoretical relations in the literature. From the predicted bolometric light curves, transformed into optical (UBVRI) and near-infrared (NIR; JHK) bands, we compute the intensity-averaged mean magnitudes along the entire pulsation cycle and in turn new and homogenous metal-dependent (RIJHK) Period–Luminosity relations. Moreover, we compute new dual and triple-band optical, optical–NIR, and NIR Period–Wesenheit–Metallicity relations. Interestingly, we find that the optical Period-W(V, B–V) is independent of the metal content and that the accuracy of individual distances is a balance between the adopted diagnostics and the precision of photometric and spectroscopic data sets.

  7. [Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence].

    PubMed

    Soares, Cassia Baldini; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Yonekura, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the integration in systematic reviews of research developed from a Marxist perspective of knowledge production and their results as evidence in healthcare. The study objectives are to review the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism (DHM) and discuss the implications of dialectics for a literature review and the synthesis of evidence. DHM is a powerful framework for knowledge generation and transformation of policies and practices in healthcare. It assumes that social contradictions underlie the health-disease process, the fundamental theoretical construction in the field of collective health. Currently, we observe a considerable influence of the critical paradigm, of Marxist origin, in the construction of knowledge in health. Studies based on this critical paradigm incorporate complex methods, which are inherent to the guidelines of dialect, to identify the object and arrive at results that constitute evidence in healthcare. Systematic reviews should address the methodological difficulties associated with entirely integrating these results to healthcare.

  8. Neurophysiological and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of yoga-based practices: towards a comprehensive theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Schmalzl, Laura; Powers, Chivon; Henje Blom, Eva

    2015-01-01

    During recent decades numerous yoga-based practices (YBP) have emerged in the West, with their aims ranging from fitness gains to therapeutic benefits and spiritual development. Yoga is also beginning to spark growing interest within the scientific community, and yoga-based interventions have been associated with measureable changes in physiological parameters, perceived emotional states, and cognitive functioning. YBP typically involve a combination of postures or movement sequences, conscious regulation of the breath, and various techniques to improve attentional focus. However, so far little if any research has attempted to deconstruct the role of these different component parts in order to better understand their respective contribution to the effects of YBP. A clear operational definition of yoga-based therapeutic interventions for scientific purposes, as well as a comprehensive theoretical framework from which testable hypotheses can be formulated, is therefore needed. Here we propose such a framework, and outline the bottom-up neurophysiological and top-down neurocognitive mechanisms hypothesized to be at play in YBP.

  9. Neurophysiological and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of yoga-based practices: towards a comprehensive theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    Schmalzl, Laura; Powers, Chivon; Henje Blom, Eva

    2015-01-01

    During recent decades numerous yoga-based practices (YBP) have emerged in the West, with their aims ranging from fitness gains to therapeutic benefits and spiritual development. Yoga is also beginning to spark growing interest within the scientific community, and yoga-based interventions have been associated with measureable changes in physiological parameters, perceived emotional states, and cognitive functioning. YBP typically involve a combination of postures or movement sequences, conscious regulation of the breath, and various techniques to improve attentional focus. However, so far little if any research has attempted to deconstruct the role of these different component parts in order to better understand their respective contribution to the effects of YBP. A clear operational definition of yoga-based therapeutic interventions for scientific purposes, as well as a comprehensive theoretical framework from which testable hypotheses can be formulated, is therefore needed. Here we propose such a framework, and outline the bottom-up neurophysiological and top-down neurocognitive mechanisms hypothesized to be at play in YBP. PMID:26005409

  10. A Quantitative Theoretical Framework For Protein-Induced Fluorescence Enhancement–Förster-Type Resonance Energy Transfer (PIFE-FRET)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule, protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE) serves as a molecular ruler at molecular distances inaccessible to other spectroscopic rulers such as Förster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) or photoinduced electron transfer. In order to provide two simultaneous measurements of two distances on different molecular length scales for the analysis of macromolecular complexes, we and others recently combined measurements of PIFE and FRET (PIFE-FRET) on the single molecule level. PIFE relies on steric hindrance of the fluorophore Cy3, which is covalently attached to a biomolecule of interest, to rotate out of an excited-state trans isomer to the cis isomer through a 90° intermediate. In this work, we provide a theoretical framework that accounts for relevant photophysical and kinetic parameters of PIFE-FRET, show how this framework allows the extraction of the fold-decrease in isomerization mobility from experimental data, and show how these results provide information on changes in the accessible volume of Cy3. The utility of this model is then demonstrated for experimental results on PIFE-FRET measurement of different protein–DNA interactions. The proposed model and extracted parameters could serve as a benchmark to allow quantitative comparison of PIFE effects in different biological systems. PMID:27184889

  11. Induction of therapeutic hypothermia by pharmacological modulation of temperature-sensitive TRP channels: theoretical framework and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Feketa, Viktor V; Marrelli, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as a remarkably effective method of neuroprotection from ischemia and is being increasingly used in clinics. Accordingly, it is also a subject of considerable attention from a basic scientific research perspective. One of the fundamental problems, with which current studies are concerned, is the optimal method of inducing hypothermia. This review seeks to provide a broad theoretical framework for approaching this problem, and to discuss how a novel promising strategy of pharmacological modulation of the thermosensitive ion channels fits into this framework. Various physical, anatomical, physiological and molecular aspects of thermoregulation, which provide the foundation for this text, have been comprehensively reviewed and will not be discussed exhaustively here. Instead, the first part of the current review, which may be helpful for a broader readership outside of thermoregulation research, will build on this existing knowledge to outline possible opportunities and research directions aimed at controlling body temperature. The second part, aimed at a more specialist audience, will highlight the conceptual advantages and practical limitations of novel molecular agents targeting thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in achieving this goal. Two particularly promising members of this channel family, namely TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), will be discussed in greater detail.

  12. Highly effective hydrogen isotope separation in nanoporous metal-organic frameworks with open metal sites: direct measurement and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyunchul; Savchenko, Ievgeniia; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Heine, Thomas; Hirscher, Michael

    2014-01-28

    Separating gaseous mixtures that consist of very similar size is one of the critical issues in modern separation technology. Especially, the separation of the isotopes hydrogen and deuterium requires special efforts, even though these isotopes show a very large mass ratio. Conventionally, H/D separation can be realized through cryogenic distillation of the molecular species or the Girdler-sulfide process, which are among the most energy-intensive separation techniques in the chemical industry. However, costs can be significantly reduced by using highly mass-selective nanoporous sorbents. Here, we describe a hydrogen isotope separation strategy exploiting the strongly attractive open metal sites present in nanoporous metal-organic frameworks of the CPO-27 family (also referred to as MOF-74). A theoretical analysis predicts an outstanding hydrogen isotopologue separation at open metal sites due to isotopal effects, which has been directly observed through cryogenic thermal desorption spectroscopy. For H2/D2 separation of an equimolar mixture at 60 K, the selectivity of 12 is the highest value ever measured, and this methodology shows extremely high separation efficiencies even above 77 K. Our theoretical results imply also a high selectivity for HD/H2 separation at similar temperatures, and together with catalytically active sites, we propose a mechanism to produce D2 from HD/H2 mixtures with natural or enriched deuterium content.

  13. Modeling the atmospheric convective boundary layer within a zero-order jump approach: An extended theoretical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorovich, E.

    1995-09-01

    The paper presents an extended theoretical background for applied modeling of the atmospheric convective boundary layer within the so-called zero-order jump approach, which implies vertical homogeneity of meteorological fields in the bulk of convective boundary layer (CBL) and zero-order discontinuities of variables at the interfaces of the layer. The zero-order jump model equations for the most typical cases of CBL are derived. The models of nonsteady, horizontally homogeneous CBL with and without shear, extensively studied in the past with the aid of zero-order jump models, are shown to be particular cases of the general zero-order jump theoretical framework. The integral budgets of momentum and heat are considered for different types of dry CBL. The profiles of vertical turbulent fluxes are presented and analyzed. The general version of the equation of CBL depth growth rate (entrainment rate equation) is obtained by the integration of the turbulence kinetic energy balance equation, invoking basic assumptions of the zero-order parameterizations of the CBL vertical structure. The problems of parameterizing the turbulence vertical structure and closure of the entrainment rate equation for specific cases of CBL are discussed. A parameterization scheme for the horizontal turbulent exchange in zero-order jump models of CBL is proposed. The developed theory is generalized for the case of CBL over irregular terrain. 28 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Toward an integrative theoretical framework for explaining beliefs about wife beating: a study among students of nursing from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Uysal, Aynur

    2011-05-01

    An integrative theoretical framework was tested as the basis for explaining beliefs about wife beating among Turkish nursing students. Based on a survey design, 406 nursing students (404 females) in all 4 years of undergraduate studies completed a self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed and collected from the participants during their attendance of core courses. The results revealed that between 8% and 27% of the students expressed some level of willingness to justify wife beating, between 8% and 11% showed a tendency to believe that battered women benefit from beating, and between 10% and about 29% indicated that battered women are responsible for their beating. However, more than 88% of the students expressed willingness to help battered women, more than 63% of them indicated that violent husbands are responsible for their behavior, and about 28% or more showed a tendency to support punishing violent husbands. The results also indicated that significant amounts of the variance in the students' beliefs about wife beating can be attributed to their patriarchal ideology, to their exposure to family violence during childhood and adolescence, and to their traumatic symptoms. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the results for future research on the topic. Emphasis is placed on developing a more integrative theoretical approach for explaining beliefs about wife beating, and on the professional socialization of nursing students.

  15. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    PubMed

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2015-09-02

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required.

  16. Would the solvent effect be the main cause of band shift in the theoretical absorption spectrum of large lanthanide complexes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rodrigues, Nailton M.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Gimenez, Iara F.; da Costa Junior, Nivan B.

    2011-06-01

    As most reactions take place in solution, the study of solvent effects on relevant molecular properties - either by experimental or theoretical methods - is crucial for the design of new processes and prediction of technological properties. In spite of this, only few works focusing the influence of the solvent nature specifically on the spectroscopic properties of lanthanide complexes can be found in the literature. The present work describes a theoretical study of the solvent effect on the prediction of the absorption spectra for lanthanide complexes, but other possible relevant factors have been also considered such as the molecular geometry and the excitation window used for interaction configuration (CI) calculations. The [Eu(ETA) 2· nH 2O] +1 complex has been chosen as an ideal candidate for this type of study due to its small number of atoms (only 49) and also because the absorption spectrum exhibits a single band. Two Monte Carlo simulations were performed, the first one considering the [Eu(ETA) 2] +1 complex in 400 water molecules, evidencing that the complex presents four coordinated water molecules. The second simulation considered the [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex in 400 ethanol molecules, in order to evaluate the solvent effect on the shift of the maximum absorption in calculated spectra, compared to the experimental one. Quantum chemical studies were also performed in order to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of calculated ground state geometry on the prediction of absorption spectra. The influence of the excitation window used for CI calculations on the spectral shift was also evaluated. No significant solvent effect was found on the prediction of the absorption spectrum for [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex. A small but significant effect of the ground state geometry on the transition energy and oscillator strength was also observed. Finally it must be emphasized that the absorption spectra of lanthanide complexes can be predicted with great accuracy

  17. The Analysis on Influence of Main Factors on Theoretical Value of Energy Saving Rate for Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhenling; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Fan; Li, Peng; Cao, Wei

    For typical residential buildings, no-large-scale and large-scale public buildings, according to China's Technical Guide for the Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings, makes up missing data of the calculation benchmark and determines the boundary conditions for calculating the theoretical values of civil building energy efficiency. Based on equivalent full load hours method, develops a modular program and calculates building energy consumption for the demands of dynamic cooling and heating and lighting etc., finds out the corresponding relationship between star level's theoretical value of energy saving rate and specified-term limiting value in the Guide. With orthogonal experimental design and multiple linear regression, establishes the quantitative function of both the theoretical value of energy saving rate and main factors parameters, analyzes the impact of the control parameter on energy saving rate, and reveals the law of theoretical value of energy saving rate variation with the control parameter. For building energy efficiency labeling upgrade, presents technical measure need to be taken and analyses its feasibility. The results from the study can provide theoretical guidance for energy-saving design or retrofitting of civil buildings.

  18. Activity Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Health Self-Quantification: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-quantification (SQ) is a way of working in which, by using tracking tools, people aim to collect, manage, and reflect on personal health data to gain a better understanding of their own body, health behavior, and interaction with the world around them. However, health SQ lacks a formal framework for describing the self-quantifiers’ activities and their contextual components or constructs to pursue these health related goals. Establishing such framework is important because it is the first step to operationalize health SQ fully. This may in turn help to achieve the aims of health professionals and researchers who seek to make or study changes in the self-quantifiers’ health systematically. Objective The aim of this study was to review studies on health SQ in order to answer the following questions: What are the general features of the work and the particular activities that self-quantifiers perform to achieve their health objectives? What constructs of health SQ have been identified in the scientific literature? How have these studies described such constructs? How would it be possible to model these constructs theoretically to characterize the work of health SQ? Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were included. The content of these studies was thematically analyzed using Activity Theory as an organizing framework. Results The literature provided varying descriptions of health SQ as data-driven and objective-oriented work mediated by SQ tools. From the literature, we identified two types of SQ work: work on data (ie, data management activities) and work with data (ie, health management activities). Using Activity Theory, these activities could be characterized into 6 constructs: users, tracking tools, health objectives, division of work, community or group setting, and SQ plan and rules. We could not find a reference to any single study that accounted for all these activities and

  19. Understanding diagnosis and management of dementia and guideline implementation in general practice: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dementia is a growing problem, causing substantial burden for patients, their families, and society. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in diagnosing and managing dementia; however, there are gaps between recommended and current practice. The aim of this study was to explore GPs’ reported practice in diagnosing and managing dementia and to describe, in theoretical terms, the proposed explanations for practice that was and was not consistent with evidence-based guidelines. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs in Victoria, Australia. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) guided data collection and analysis. Interviews explored the factors hindering and enabling achievement of 13 recommended behaviours. Data were analysed using content and thematic analysis. This paper presents an in-depth description of the factors influencing two behaviours, assessing co-morbid depression using a validated tool, and conducting a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale. Results A total of 30 GPs were interviewed. Most GPs reported that they did not assess for co-morbid depression using a validated tool as per recommended guidance. Barriers included the belief that depression can be adequately assessed using general clinical indicators and that validated tools provide little additional information (theoretical domain of ‘Beliefs about consequences’); discomfort in using validated tools (‘Emotion’), possibly due to limited training and confidence (‘Skills’; ‘Beliefs about capabilities’); limited awareness of the need for, and forgetting to conduct, a depression assessment (‘Knowledge’; ‘Memory, attention and decision processes’). Most reported practising in a manner consistent with the recommendation that a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale be undertaken. Key factors enabling this were having an awareness of the need to conduct a cognitive assessment (‘Knowledge’); possessing

  20. Theoretical domains framework to assess barriers to change for planning health care quality interventions: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mosavianpour, Mirkaber; Sarmast, Hamideh Helen; Kissoon, Niranjan; Collet, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Theoretical domains framework (TDF) provides an integrative model for assessing barriers to behavioral changes in order to suggest interventions for improvement in behavior and ultimately outcomes. However, there are other tools that are used to assess barriers. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the degree of concordance between domains and constructs identified in two versions of the TDF including original (2005) and refined version (2012) and independent studies of other tools. Methods We searched six databases for articles that studied barriers to health-related behavior changes of health care professionals or the general public. We reviewed quantitative papers published in English which included their questionnaires in the article. A table including the TDF domains of both original and refined versions and related constructs was developed to serve as a reference to describe the barriers assessed in the independent studies; descriptive statistics were used to express the results. Results Out of 552 papers retrieved, 50 were eligible to review. The barrier domains explored in these articles belonged to two to eleven domains of the refined TDF. Eighteen articles (36%) used constructs outside of the refined version. The spectrum of barrier constructs of the original TDF was broader and could meet the domains studied in 48 studies (96%). Barriers in domains of “environmental context and resources”, “beliefs about consequences”, and “social influences” were the most frequently explored in 42 (84%), 37 (74%), and 33 (66%) of the 50 articles, respectively. Conclusion Both refined and original TDFs cataloged barriers measured by the other studies that did not use TDF as their framework. However, the original version of TDF explored a broader spectrum of barriers than the refined version. From this perspective, the original version of the TDF seems to be a more comprehensive tool for assessing barriers in practice. PMID:27499628

  1. An algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of aerosols: theoretical framework, information content analysis and application to GEO-TASO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, W.; Wang, J.; Xu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Delker, T.; Chen, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper includes a series of studies that aim to develop a hyperspectral remote sensing technique for retrieving aerosol properties from a newly developed instrument GEO-TASO (Geostationary Trance gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization) that measures the radiation at 0.4-0.7 wavelengths at spectral resolution of 0.02 nm. GEOS-TASO instrument is a prototype instrument of TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution), which will be launched in 2022 to measure aerosols, O3, and other trace gases from a geostationary orbit over the N-America. The theoretical framework of optimized inversion algorithm and the information content analysis such as degree of freedom for signal (DFS) will be discussed for hyperspectral remote sensing in visible bands, as well as the application to GEO-TASO, which has mounted on the NASA HU-25C aircraft and gathered several days' of airborne hyperspectral data for our studies. Based on the optimization theory and different from the traditional lookup table (LUT) retrieval technique, our inversion method intends to retrieve the aerosol parameters and surface reflectance simultaneously, in which UNL-VRTM (UNified Linearized Radiative Transfer Model) is employed for forward model and Jacobians calculation, meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to constrain the hyperspectral surface reflectance.The information content analysis provides the theoretical analysis guidance about what kind of aerosol parameters could be retrieved from GeoTASO hyperspectral remote sensing to the practical inversion study. Besides, the inversion conducted iteratively until the modeled spectral radiance fits with GeoTASO measurements by a Quasi-Newton method called L-BFGS-B (Large scale BFGS Bound constrained). Finally, the retrieval results of aerosol optical depth and other aerosol parameters are compared against those retrieved by AEROENT and/or in situ measurements such as DISCOVER-AQ during the aircraft campaign.

  2. Public Disaster Communication and Child and Family Disaster Mental Health: a Review of Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Houston, J Brian; First, Jennifer; Spialek, Matthew L; Sorenson, Mary E; Koch, Megan

    2016-06-01

    Children have been identified as particularly vulnerable to psychological and behavioral difficulties following disaster. Public child and family disaster communication is one public health tool that can be utilized to promote coping/resilience and ameliorate maladaptive child reactions following an event. We conducted a review of the public disaster communication literature and identified three main functions of child and family disaster communication: fostering preparedness, providing psychoeducation, and conducting outreach. Our review also indicates that schools are a promising system for child and family disaster communication. We complete our review with three conclusions. First, theoretically, there appears to be a great opportunity for public disaster communication focused on child disaster reactions. Second, empirical research assessing the effects of public child and family disaster communication is essentially nonexistent. Third, despite the lack of empirical evidence in this area, there is opportunity for public child and family disaster communication efforts that address new domains.

  3. Biomechanics of the Sensor–Tissue Interface—Effects of Motion, Pressure, and Design on Sensor Performance and the Foreign Body Response—Part I: Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Helton, Kristen L; Ratner, Buddy D; Wisniewski, Natalie A

    2011-01-01

    The importance of biomechanics in glucose sensor function has been largely overlooked. This article is the first part of a two-part review in which we look beyond commonly recognized chemical biocompatibility to explore the biomechanics of the sensor–tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I provides a theoretical framework to describe how biomechanical factors such as motion and pressure (typically micromotion and micropressure) give rise to interfacial stresses, which affect tissue physiology around a sensor and, in turn, impact sensor performance. Three main contributors to sensor motion and pressure are explored: applied forces, sensor design, and subject/patient considerations. We describe how acute forces can temporarily impact sensor signal and how chronic forces can alter the foreign body response and inflammation around an implanted sensor, and thus impact sensor performance. The importance of sensor design (e.g., size, shape, modulus, texture) and specific implant location on the tissue response are also explored. In Part II: Examples and Application (a sister publication), examples from the literature are reviewed, and the application of biomechanical concepts to sensor design are described. We believe that adding biomechanical strategies to the arsenal of material compositions, surface modifications, drug elution, and other chemical strategies will lead to improvements in sensor biocompatibility and performance. PMID:21722578

  4. Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elasticity reconstruction based on a segmentation-driven optimization procedure using strain measurements: theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Le Floc'h, Simon; Ohayon, Jacques; Tracqui, Philippe; Finet, Gérard; Gharib, Ahmed M; Maurice, Roch L; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I

    2009-07-01

    It is now recognized that prediction of the vulnerable coronary plaque rupture requires not only an accurate quantification of fibrous cap thickness and necrotic core morphology but also a precise knowledge of the mechanical properties of plaque components. Indeed, such knowledge would allow a precise evaluation of the peak cap-stress amplitude, which is known to be a good biomechanical predictor of plaque rupture. Several studies have been performed to reconstruct a Young's modulus map from strain elastograms. It seems that the main issue for improving such methods does not rely on the optimization algorithm itself, but rather on preconditioning requiring the best estimation of the plaque components' contours. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop: 1) a preconditioning model to extract the plaque morphology in order to initiate the optimization process, and 2) an approach combining a dynamic segmentation method with an optimization procedure to highlight the modulogram of the atherosclerotic plaque. This methodology, based on the continuum mechanics theory prescribing the strain field, was successfully applied to seven intravascular ultrasound coronary lesion morphologies. The reconstructed cap thickness, necrotic core area, calcium area, and the Young's moduli of the calcium, necrotic core, and fibrosis were obtained with mean relative errors of 12%, 4% and 1%, 43%, 32%, and 2%, respectively.

  5. Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque Elasticity Reconstruction Based on a Segmentation-Driven Optimization Procedure Using Strain Measurements: Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Le Floc’h, Simon; Tracqui, Philippe; Finet, Gérard; Gharib, Ahmed M.; Maurice, Roch L.; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I.

    2016-01-01

    It is now recognized that prediction of the vulnerable coronary plaque rupture requires not only an accurate quantification of fibrous cap thickness and necrotic core morphology but also a precise knowledge of the mechanical properties of plaque components. Indeed, such knowledge would allow a precise evaluation of the peak cap-stress amplitude, which is known to be a good biomechanical predictor of plaque rupture. Several studies have been performed to reconstruct a Young’s modulus map from strain elastograms. It seems that the main issue for improving such methods does not rely on the optimization algorithm itself, but rather on preconditioning requiring the best estimation of the plaque components’ contours. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop: 1) a preconditioning model to extract the plaque morphology in order to initiate the optimization process, and 2) an approach combining a dynamic segmentation method with an optimization procedure to highlight the modulogram of the atherosclerotic plaque. This methodology, based on the continuum mechanics theory prescribing the strain field, was successfully applied to seven intravascular ultrasound coronary lesion morphologies. The reconstructed cap thickness, necrotic core area, calcium area, and the Young’s moduli of the calcium, necrotic core, and fibrosis were obtained with mean relative errors of 12%, 4% and 1%, 43%, 32%, and 2%, respectively. PMID:19164080

  6. A theoretical understanding of the scrape-off layer main heat-flux widths multi-tokamak database for limited plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Federico; Horacek, Jan; Pitts, Richard; Ricci, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    The Scrape-off Layer and Divertor topical group of the International Tokamak Physics Activity(ITPA) has amassed a database comprising hundreds of measurements of the main scrape-off layer (SOL) heat-flux widthsin inner-wall limited discharges. We have carried out an analysis of the dependence of the heat-flux widthswith respect to the plasma dimensionless parameters, derived fromturbulent transport theory. Restricting our analysis to circular plasmas, we find that a model based on non-linearly saturated turbulence can reproduce the heat-flux width values found in the database with very good agreement. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053.

  7. Developing a Framework for Distributed and Dynamic Data Sharing Among the Coastal Ocean Community: Gulf of Maine Spatial Data Project and the Open IOOS Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogden, P.; Shyka, T.; McIlhagga, D.

    2005-12-01

    In the past year the Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS), the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) and DM Solutions Group worked with multiple government, academic and private industry partners to develop regional and national distributed data-sharing frameworks for the coastal ocean community. These projects were initiated by a joint FGDC and GeoConnections grant for the Gulf of Maine Framework Data Project. This project catalyzed activities in the Gulf of Maine region, building upon the years of effort at the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and related developments in the NSDI and the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure. This one year demonstration project resulted in a distributed framework data resource that spans international borders and connects more than a dozen regional, State, Federal, Provincial and other types of organizations (www.gommap.org). Even though the project funding has ended the regional partnership continues to grow and has formed the basis for the Gulf of Maine Ocean Data Partnership. Additionally, many organizations within the Canadian government are looking at this project as a model for future data sharing collaborations. Concurrent to the Gulf of Maine project, the SURA Coastal Ocean Observing and Prediction (SCOOP) program initiative leveraged the developing data sharing capacity to coordinate and develop the OpenIOOS portal (www.openioos.org), which demonstrates the capacity of the Integrated Ocean Observing System and starts putting the "I" in IOOS in an OGC-compliant fashion. These efforts have engaged the ocean-science community on the national scale. Indeed, a culture change seems to be underway that will have important implications for our nation's response to recommendations from the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. This presentation will discuss the successes and lessons learned from these related projects.

  8. A direct vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elasticity reconstruction method based on an original material-finite element formulation: theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M; Yazdani, Saami K; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I; Ohayon, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10−8±5.7 × 10−8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method. PMID:24240392

  9. A direct vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elasticity reconstruction method based on an original material-finite element formulation: theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M.; Yazdani, Saami K.; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Ohayon, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10-8±5.7 × 10-8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method.

  10. Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…

  11. Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Competing Values Framework's Theoretical Suppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnell, Chad A.; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial…

  12. Towards a Theoretical Framework for Understanding PGCE Student Teacher Learning in the Wild Coast Rural Schools' Partnership Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a theoretical model that I am developing in order to understand student teacher learning in a rural context and the enabling conditions that can support this learning. The question of whether a supervised teaching practice in a rural context can contribute to the development of student teacher professional learning and…

  13. The Role of Body Image in the Relationship Between Internet Use and Bulimic Symptoms: Three Theoretical Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Melioli, Tiffany; Rodgers, Rachel F; Rodrigues, Marie; Chabrol, Henri

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to traditional media has been associated with bulimic symptoms. However, to date, little is known regarding the effects of Internet exposure. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between Internet use and bulimic symptoms within the competing frameworks of sociocultural, impression management, and self-objectification theory. A sample of 289 French women aged 18-25 years completed an online questionnaire assessing bulimic symptoms, body dissatisfaction, body image avoidance, self-surveillance, body shame, and weekly Internet use. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that body shame and body image avoidance mediated the effect of weekly Internet use on bulimic symptoms. Furthermore, when entered into a multiple mediation analysis, these two variables provided independent mediation pathways of equal magnitude. The findings support the usefulness of both the self-objectification and impression management frameworks for investigating the relationship between Internet use and bulimic symptoms. Longitudinal research would help to clarify these pathways further.

  14. Career advising in family medicine: a theoretical framework for structuring the medical student/faculty advisor interview.

    PubMed

    Bradner, Melissa; Crossman, Steven H; Vanderbilt, Allison A; Gary, Judy; Munson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background There are unique challenges to recruiting students into the specialty of family medicine within academic medical centers. Methods At Virginia Commonwealth University, we developed an advising framework to help students address institutional and personal obstacles to choosing family medicine as a career. Results The role of a faculty advisor is not to direct the student to a career choice but rather to foster a mentor relationship and help the student come to his or her own realizations regarding career choice. The faculty advisor/medical student interview is conceptualized as five discussion topics: self-knowledge, perception, organizational voice, cognitive dissonance, and anticipatory counseling. Conclusion This framework is intended to assist faculty in their efforts to encourage students to consider a career in family medicine.

  15. Understanding practice: the factors that influence management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department-a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild traumatic brain injury is a frequent cause of presentation to emergency departments. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines in this area, there is variation in practice. One of the aims of the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation program is to develop and evaluate a targeted, theory- and evidence-informed intervention to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in Australian emergency departments. This study is the first step in the intervention development process and uses the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore the factors perceived to influence the uptake of four key evidence-based recommended practices for managing mild traumatic brain injury. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with emergency staff in the Australian state of Victoria. The interview guide was developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore current practice and to identify the factors perceived to influence practice. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. Results A total of 42 participants (9 Directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses) were interviewed over a seven-month period. The results suggested that (i) the prospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia was influenced by: knowledge; beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; skills; social/professional role and identity; and beliefs about capabilities; (ii) the use of guideline-developed criteria or decision rules to inform the appropriate use of a CT scan was influenced by: knowledge; beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; memory, attention and decision processes; beliefs about capabilities; social influences; skills and behavioral regulation; (iii) providing verbal and written patient information on discharge was influenced by: beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; memory, attention and decision processes; social/professional role and identity; and

  16. Tetrazine chromophore-based metal-organic frameworks with unusual configurations: synthetic, structural, theoretical, fluorescent, and nonlinear optical studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianghua; Jia, Ding; Meng, Suci; Zhang, Jinfang; Cifuentes, Marie P; Humphrey, Mark G; Zhang, Chi

    2015-05-18

    Three unusual three-dimensional (3D) tetrazine chromophore-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) {(Et4 N)[WS4 Cu3 (CN)2 (4,4'-pytz)0.5 ]}n (1), {[MoS4 Cu4 (CN)2 (4,4'-pytz)2 ]⋅CH2 Cl2 }n (2), and {[WS4 Cu3 (4,4'-pytz)3 ]⋅[N(CN)2 ]}n (3; 4,4'-pytz=3,6-bis(4-pyridyl)tetrazine) have been synthesized and characterized by using FTIR and UV/Vis spectroscopy, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, gel permeation chromatography, steady-state fluorescence, and thermogravimetric analysis; their identities were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. MOF 1 possesses the first five-connected M/S/Cu (M=Mo, W) framework with an unusual 3D (4(4) ⋅6(6) ) topology constructed from T-shaped [WS4 Cu3 ](+) clusters as nodes and single CN(-) /4,4'-pytz bridges as linkers. MOF 2 features a novel 3D MOF structure with (4(20) ⋅6(8) ) topology, in which the bridging 4,4'-pytz ligands exhibit unique distorted arch structures. MOF 3 displays the first 3D MOF structure based on flywheel-shaped [WS4 Cu3 ](+) clusters with a non-interpenetrating honeycomb-like framework and a heavily distorted "ACS" topology. Steady-state fluorescence studies of 1-3 reveal significant fluorescence emissions. The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of 1-3 were investigated by using a Z-scan technique with 5 ns pulses at λ=532 nm. The Z-scan experimental results show that the π-delocalizable tetrazine-based 4,4'-pytz ligands contribute to the strong third-order NLO properties exhibited by 1-3. Time-dependent density functional theory studies afforded insight into the electronic transitions and spectral characterization of these functionalized NLO molecular materials.

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the electronic band structure of metal-organic frameworks of HKUST-1 type

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Zhi-Gang; Heinke, Lars Wöll, Christof; Neumann, Tobias; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Li, Qiang; Fink, Karin; Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2015-11-02

    The electronic properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are increasingly attracting the attention due to potential applications in sensor techniques and (micro-) electronic engineering, for instance, as low-k-dielectric in semiconductor technology. Here, the band gap and the band structure of MOFs of type HKUST-1 are studied in detail by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry applied to thin surface-mounted MOF films and by means of quantum chemical calculations. The analysis of the density of states, the band structure, and the excitation spectrum reveal the importance of the empty Cu-3d orbitals for the electronic properties of HKUST-1. This study shows that, in contrast to common belief, even in the case of this fairly “simple” MOF, the excitation spectra cannot be explained by a superposition of “intra-unit” excitations within the individual building blocks. Instead, “inter-unit” excitations also have to be considered.

  18. Altered circadian profiles in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an integrative review and theoretical framework for future studies.

    PubMed

    Imeraj, Lindita; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Roeljan; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the sleep-wake cycle and the circadian system have been found in a wide range of psychiatric disorders and are generally correlated with clinical severity and diminished quality of life. Emerging evidence suggests similar disturbances may be found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we review the available literature on across the day fluctuations in ADHD-related processes in terms of; (i) time of day effects on behavior and activity; (ii) morningness-eveningness chronotypology; (iii) sleep/wake rhythms; and (iv) rhythmicity in neuroendocrine and neurophysiological responsiveness. On this basis, we propose a neurobiological framework to guide future study, which sees circadian effects in ADHD, along with other aspects of ADHD arousal-related deficits (e.g., cognitive energetic deficits), as being the result of dysregulated locus coeruleus function. Based on this perspective specific recommendations for future research are presented.

  19. Signalling entropy: A novel network-theoretical framework for systems analysis and interpretation of functional omic data.

    PubMed

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Sollich, Peter; Kuehn, Reimer

    2014-06-01

    A key challenge in systems biology is the elucidation of the underlying principles, or fundamental laws, which determine the cellular phenotype. Understanding how these fundamental principles are altered in diseases like cancer is important for translating basic scientific knowledge into clinical advances. While significant progress is being made, with the identification of novel drug targets and treatments by means of systems biological methods, our fundamental systems level understanding of why certain treatments succeed and others fail is still lacking. We here advocate a novel methodological framework for systems analysis and interpretation of molecular omic data, which is based on statistical mechanical principles. Specifically, we propose the notion of cellular signalling entropy (or uncertainty), as a novel means of analysing and interpreting omic data, and more fundamentally, as a means of elucidating systems-level principles underlying basic biology and disease. We describe the power of signalling entropy to discriminate cells according to differentiation potential and cancer status. We further argue the case for an empirical cellular entropy-robustness correlation theorem and demonstrate its existence in cancer cell line drug sensitivity data. Specifically, we find that high signalling entropy correlates with drug resistance and further describe how entropy could be used to identify the achilles heels of cancer cells. In summary, signalling entropy is a deep and powerful concept, based on rigorous statistical mechanical principles, which, with improved data quality and coverage, will allow a much deeper understanding of the systems biological principles underlying normal and disease physiology.

  20. Cell-Type-Selective Effects of Intramembrane Cavitation as a Unifying Theoretical Framework for Ultrasonic Neuromodulation123

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diverse translational and research applications could benefit from the noninvasive ability to reversibly modulate (excite or suppress) CNS activity using ultrasound pulses, however, without clarifying the underlying mechanism, advanced design-based ultrasonic neuromodulation remains elusive. Recently, intramembrane cavitation within the bilayer membrane was proposed to underlie both the biomechanics and the biophysics of acoustic bio-effects, potentially explaining cortical stimulation results through a neuronal intramembrane cavitation excitation (NICE) model. Here, NICE theory is shown to provide a detailed predictive explanation for the ability of ultrasonic (US) pulses to also suppress neural circuits through cell-type-selective mechanisms: according to the predicted mechanism T-type calcium channels boost charge accumulation between short US pulses selectively in low threshold spiking interneurons, promoting net cortical network inhibition. The theoretical results fit and clarify a wide array of earlier empirical observations in both the cortex and thalamus regarding the dependence of ultrasonic neuromodulation outcomes (excitation-suppression) on stimulation and network parameters. These results further support a unifying hypothesis for ultrasonic neuromodulation, highlighting the potential of advanced waveform design for obtaining cell-type-selective network control. PMID:27390775

  1. Strategizing Safety: Theoretical Frameworks to Understand Women's Decision Making in the Face of Partner Violence and Social Inequities.

    PubMed

    Velonis, Alisa J; Daoud, Nihaya; Matheson, Flora; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; O'Campo, Patricia

    2015-08-24

    Women in physically and psychologically abusive relationships face numerous decisions related to their safety: decisions that historically have been viewed by researchers and human service practitioners as related to individual or interpersonal factors, such as how they feel about their partner, what they (or those they are close to) think is best for their children, or whether they have a safe place to go to. Social and structural factors, such as poverty, sexism, and barriers related to disability, are either left out or viewed at their individual-level consequence, such as a woman's employment status. Using interview data and case studies from a larger study on housing instability, partner violence, and health, the authors apply ecological and macro-level theoretical models that go beyond the individual level to the stories of women who struggled with partner violence, arguing that it is critical to examine the large social and structural forces that impact women's lives if we are to understand the decisions women make when facing a violent partner.

  2. Theoretical study of molecular hydrogen and spiltover hydrogen storage on two-dimensional covalent-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiu-Ying; He, Jie; Yu, Jing-Xin; Li, Zheng-Xin; Fan, Zhi-Qin

    2014-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen and spiltover hydrogen storages on five two-dimensional (2D) covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) (PPy-COF, TP-COF, BTP-COF, COF-18 Å, and HHTP-DPB COF) are investigated using the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and the density functional theory (DFT), respectively. The GCMC simulated results show that HHTP-DPB COF has the best performance for hydrogen storage, followed by BTP-COF, TP-COF, COF-18 Å, and PPy-COF. However, their adsorption amounts at room temperature are all too low to meet the uptake target set by US Department of Energy (US-DOE) and enable practical applications. The effects of pore size, surface area, and isosteric heat of hydrogen on adsorption amount are considered, which indicate that these three factors are all the important factors for determining the H2 adsorption amount. The chemisorptions of spiltover hydrogen atoms on these five COFs represented by the cluster models are investigated using the DFT method. The saturation cluster models are constructed by considering all possible adsorption sites for these cluster models. The average binding energy of a hydrogen atom and the saturation hydrogen storage density are calculated. The large average binding energy indicates that the spillover process may proceed smoothly and reversibly. The saturation hydrogen storage density is much larger than the physisorption uptake of H2 molecules at 298 K and 100 bar (1 bar = 105 Pa), and is close to or exceeds the 2010 US-DOE target of 6 wt% for hydrogen storage. This suggests that the hydrogen storage capacities of these COFs by spillover may be significantly enhanced. Thus 2D COFs studied in this paper are suitable hydrogen storage media by spillover.

  3. [A history of primary health care policy in the Federal District, Brazil (1960-2007): an analysis based on the theoretical framework of historical neo-institutionalism].

    PubMed

    Göttems, Leila Bernardo Donato; Evangelista, Maria do Socorro Nantua; Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Silva, Aline Ferreira Melgaço da; Silva, Priscila Avelino da

    2009-06-01

    This article analyzes the history of primary health care policy in the Federal District, Brazil, based on the theoretical framework of historical neo-institutionalism, identifying the predominant configurations and trends in the various administrations of the State Health Secretariat (SES-DF) from 1960 to 2007. The study indicates that the characteristics of the Federal District's health policy are dependent on the history of the original health system plans for setting priorities and goals, as well as for the health system's implementation. This influence, in addition to the centralization of decision-making processes and limited political participation, can contribute to making primary care ancillary to hospital care, thus jeopardizing its potential to produce change in the health care model.

  4. Barriers and enablers to delivery of the Healthy Kids Check: an analysis informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than a fifth of Australian children arrive at school developmentally vulnerable. To counteract this, the Healthy Kids Check (HKC), a one-off health assessment aimed at preschool children, was introduced in 2008 into Australian general practice. Delivery of services has, however, remained low. The Theoretical Domains Framework, which provides a method to understand behaviours theoretically, can be condensed into three core components: capability, opportunity and motivation, and the COM-B model. Utilising this system, this study aimed to determine the barriers and enablers to delivery of the HKC, to inform the design of an intervention to promote provision of HKC services in Australian general practice. Methods Data from 6 focus group discussions with 40 practitioners from general practices in socio-culturally diverse areas of Melbourne, Victoria, were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Many practitioners expressed uncertainty regarding their capabilities and the practicalities of delivering HKCs, but in some cases HKCs had acted as a catalyst for professional development. Key connections between immunisation services and delivery of HKCs prompted practices to have systems of recall and reminder in place. Standardisation of methods for developmental assessment and streamlined referral pathways affected practitioners’ confidence and motivation to perform HKCs. Conclusion Application of a systematic framework effectively demonstrated how a number of behaviours could be targeted to increase delivery of HKCs. Interventions need to target practice systems, the support of office staff and referral options, as well as practitioners’ training. Many behavioural changes could be applied through a single intervention programme delivered by the primary healthcare organisations charged with local healthcare needs (Medicare Locals) providing vital links between general practice, community and the health of young children. PMID:24886520

  5. A novel theoretical framework for the dynamic stability analysis, movement control, and trajectory generation in a multisegment biomechanical model.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Kamran; Roy, Anindo

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simplified characterization of the postural control system that embraces two broad components: one representing the musculoskeletal dynamics in the sagittal plane and the other representing proprioceptive feedback and the central nervous system (CNS). Specifically, a planar four-segment neuromusculoskeletal model consisting of the ankle, knee, and hip degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) is described in this paper. The model includes important physiological constructs such as Hill-type muscle model, active and passive muscle stiffnesses, force feedback from the Golgi tendon organ, muscle length and rate feedback from the muscle spindle, and transmission latencies in the neural pathways. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for each individual DOF is assumed to represent the CNS analog in the modeling paradigm. Our main hypothesis states that all stabilizing PID controllers for such multisegment biomechanical models can be parametrized and analytically synthesized. Our analytical and simulation results show that the proposed representation adequately shapes a postural control that (a) possesses good disturbance rejection and trajectory tracking, (b) is robust against feedback latencies and torque perturbations, and (c) is flexible to embrace changes in the musculoskeletal parameters. We additionally present detailed sensitivity analysis to show that control under conditions of limited or no proprioceptive feedback results in (a) significant reduction in the stability margins, (b) substantial decrease in the available stabilizing parameter set, and (c) oscillatory movement trajectories. Overall, these results suggest that anatomical arrangement, active muscle stiffness, force feedback, and physiological latencies play a major role in shaping motor control processes in humans.

  6. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory’ outcomes of our team’s program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services’ Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk’ student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. Methods A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program’s goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS’s work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. Results With improved understanding of the OWS’s goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program’s universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS’s definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk’ student population. Conclusions It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation

  7. A theoretical framework for whole-plant carbon assimilation efficiency based on metabolic scaling theory: a test case using Picea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Mingfei; Deng, Jianming; Milne, Richard I; Ran, Jinzhi; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhexuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Li, Jiangtao; Huang, Heng; Cheng, Dongliang; Niklas, Karl J

    2015-06-01

    Simultaneous and accurate measurements of whole-plant instantaneous carbon-use efficiency (ICUE) and annual total carbon-use efficiency (TCUE) are difficult to make, especially for trees. One usually estimates ICUE based on the net photosynthetic rate or the assumed proportional relationship between growth efficiency and ICUE. However, thus far, protocols for easily estimating annual TCUE remain problematic. Here, we present a theoretical framework (based on the metabolic scaling theory) to predict whole-plant annual TCUE by directly measuring instantaneous net photosynthetic and respiratory rates. This framework makes four predictions, which were evaluated empirically using seedlings of nine Picea taxa: (i) the flux rates of CO(2) and energy will scale isometrically as a function of plant size, (ii) whole-plant net and gross photosynthetic rates and the net primary productivity will scale isometrically with respect to total leaf mass, (iii) these scaling relationships will be independent of ambient temperature and humidity fluctuations (as measured within an experimental chamber) regardless of the instantaneous net photosynthetic rate or dark respiratory rate, or overall growth rate and (iv) TCUE will scale isometrically with respect to instantaneous efficiency of carbon use (i.e., the latter can be used to predict the former) across diverse species. These predictions were experimentally verified. We also found that the ranking of the nine taxa based on net photosynthetic rates differed from ranking based on either ICUE or TCUE. In addition, the absolute values of ICUE and TCUE significantly differed among the nine taxa, with both ICUE and temperature-corrected ICUE being highest for Picea abies and lowest for Picea schrenkiana. Nevertheless, the data are consistent with the predictions of our general theoretical framework, which can be used to access annual carbon-use efficiency of different species at the level of an individual plant based on simple, direct

  8. Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

  9. A theoretical interpretation of the main scrape-off layer heat-flux width scaling for tokamak inner-wall limited plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, F. D.; Horacek, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Ricci, P.

    2016-08-01

    The International Tokamak Physics Activity Topical Group on scrape-off layer and divertor physics has amassed a database comprising hundreds of reciprocating Langmuir probe measurements of the main scrape-off layer heat-flux width {λq} in inner-wall limited discharges. We have carried out an analysis, based on turbulent transport theory, of the variation of {λq} with respect to the dimensionless plasma parameters. Restricting our analysis to circular plasmas, we find that a model based on non-linearly saturated turbulence can well reproduce the {λq} values found in the database.

  10. Intersectorial health-related policies: the use of a legal and theoretical framework to propose a typology to a case study in a Brazilian municipality.

    PubMed

    Tess, Beatriz Helena; Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2014-11-01

    This article analyzes intersectorial health-related policies (IHRP) based on a case study performed in 2008-2009 that mapped the social policies of the city of Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The research strategy comprised quantitative and qualitative methodologies and converging information sources. Legal and theoretical conceptual frameworks were applied to the Piracicaba study results and served as the basis for proposing a typology of IHRP. Three types of IHRP were identified: health policies where the health sector is coordinator but needs non-health sectors to succeed; policies with a sector other than health as coordinator, but which needs health sector collaboration to succeed; and thirdly, genuine intersectorial policies, not led by any one sector but by a specifically-appointed intersectorial coordinator. The authors contend that political commitment of local authorities alone may not be enough to promote efficient intersectorial social policies. Comprehension of different types of IHRP and their interface mechanisms may contribute to greater efficiency and coverage of social policies that affect health equity and its social determinants positively. In the final analysis,, this will lead to more equitable health outcomes.

  11. Theoretical studies of massive stars. I - Evolution of a 15-solar-mass star from the zero-age main sequence to neon ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of a star with mass 15 times that of the sun from the zero-age main sequence to neon ignition has been computed by the Henyey method. The hydrogen-rich envelope and all shell sources were explicitly included in the models. An algorithm has been developed for approximating the results of carbon burning, including the branching ratio for the C-12 + C-12 reaction and taking some secondary reactions into account. Penetration of the convective envelope into the core is found to be unimportant during the stages covered by the models. Energy transfer from the carbon-burning shell to the core by degenerate electron conduction becomes important after the core carbon-burning stage. Neon ignition will occur in a semidegenerate core and will lead to a mild 'flash.' Detailed numerical results are given in an appendix. Continuation of the calculations into later stages and variations with the total mass of the star will be discussed in later papers.

  12. σ-Bond Prevents Short π-Bonds: A Detailed Theoretical Study on the Compounds of Main Group and Transition Metal Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswarup; Umayal, Muthaiah; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D.

    The unusual shortness of the bond length in several main group and transition metal compounds is explained on the basis of their π-alone bonding. The detailed electronic structure calculation on C2, HBBH, and Fe2(CO)6 shows that each of them has two π-alone bonds (unsupported by an underlying σ-bond), whereas B2 has two-half π-bonds. The C-C bond length in C2 is 1.240 Å, shorter than any C-C double (σ + π, in C2H4, C-C=1.338 Å) bonded species. The B-B bond distance in B2 (1.590 Å, two half-π bonds) is shorter than any B-B single σ-bonded (~1.706 Å) species. The calculated Fe-Fe bond distance of 2.002 Å in Fe2(CO)6 is shorter than those of some experimentally known M-M single bonded compounds in the range of 2.904-3.228 Å. Here, our detailed studies on the second and third row diatomics (five, six, seven and eight valence electrons species) and transition metal complexes show that π-alone bonds left to themselves are shorter than σ-bonds; in many ways, σ-bonds prevent π-bonds from adopting their optimal shorter distances.

  13. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences); beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity); the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences); conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients without x-rays ( belief

  14. Exceptional H2 sorption characteristics in a Mg(2+)-based metal-organic framework with small pores: insights from experimental and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Falcão, Eduardo H L; Eckert, Juergen; Space, Brian

    2016-01-21

    Experimental sorption measurements, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and theoretical studies of H2 sorption were performed in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6], a metal-organic framework (MOF) that consists of a network of Mg(2+) ions coordinated to formate ligands. The experimental H2 uptake at 77 K and 1.0 atm was observed to be 0.96 wt%, which is quite impressive for a Mg(2+)-based MOF that has a BET surface area of only 150 m(2) g(-1). Due to the presence of small pore sizes in the MOF, the isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) value was observed to be reasonably high for a material with no open-metal sites (ca. 7.0 kJ mol(-1)). The INS spectra for H2 in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6] is very unusual for a porous material, as there exist several different peaks that occur below 10 meV. Simulations of H2 sorption in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6] revealed that the H2 molecules sorbed at three principal locations within the small pores of the framework. It was discovered through the simulations and two-dimensional quantum rotation calculations that different groups of peaks correspond to particular sorption sites in the material. However, for H2 sorbed at a specific site, it was observed that differences in the positions and angular orientations led to distinctions in the rotational tunnelling transitions; this led to a total of eight identified sites. An extremely high rotational barrier was calculated for H2 sorbed at the most favorable site in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6] (81.59 meV); this value is in close agreement to that determined using an empirical phenomenological model (75.71 meV). This rotational barrier for H2 exceeds those for various MOFs that contain open-metal sites and is currently the highest yet for a neutral MOF. This study highlights the synergy between experiment and theory to extract useful and important atomic level details on the remarkable sorption mechanism for H2 in a MOF with small pore sizes.

  15. Effect of temperature on formation of two new lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: Synthesis, characterization and theoretical studies of Tm(III)-succinate

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto F. de; Silva, Fausthon Fred da; Malvestiti, Ivani; Malta, Valeria Rodrigues dos S.; Dutra, Jose Diogo L.; Costa, Nivan B. da; Freire, Ricardo O.; Junior, Severino A.

    2013-01-15

    Two new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized under different hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Compound 1, crystallized in space group P1-bar with the formula [Tm{sub 2}(L){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, (H{sub 2}L=succinic acid), has triclinic cell parameters of a=7.61780(10), b=10.58050(10), c=12.71030(10), {alpha}=95.3130(10), {beta}=107.4370(10), {gamma}=111.0960(10) and a cell volume of 888.446(16) A{sup 3}. Compound 2, crystallized in space group I2/a with the same formula, is monoclinic, with cell parameters of a=13.77020(10), b=7.63170(10), c=17.2410(2), {beta}=101.303(10) and a cell volume of 1776.72(3) A{sup 3}. The results of this work indicate that a flexible succinate ligand that provides several modes of coordination can lead to different conformations, depending on the temperature used in the reaction. In the theoretical part of this study, semiempirical quantum chemistry methods using AM1, PM3 and PM6 models are employed to predict the structure of MOFs, calculate the geometric and crystallographic parameters, and make comparisons with experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Scheme of obtaining [Tm{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]H{sub 2}O in two different crystalline phases under the influence of reaction temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Was synthesized new MOFs based on Tm{sup 3+} ions and succinic acid in different temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in the temperature leads to two compounds with different crystalline systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Sparkle AM1, PM3 and PM6 models were used to comparison of the theoretical and experimental cell.

  16. A cross-age study of students' conceptual understanding of interdependency in seed dispersal, pollination, and food chains using a constructivist theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Shirley Mccraw

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate students' understanding of interdependency across grade levels. Interdependency concepts selected for this study included food chains, pollination, and seed dispersal. Children's everyday concepts and scientific concepts across grade levels represented the focus of conceptual understanding. The researcher interviewed a total of 24 students across grade levels, six students each from grades 3, 7, and 10, and 6 college students. Data were collected by means of interviews and card sorts. A constructivist theoretical framework formed the groundwork for presenting the focus of this study and for interpreting the results of the interview data. Results were analyzed on the basis of identifying student responses to interview questions as either everyday concepts or as scientific concepts, along with transition through the zone of proximal development (ZPD) by mediation, as developed by Vygotsky. Results revealed that children across grade levels vary in their everyday and scientific understanding of the three interdependency concepts. Results for seed dispersal showed little evidence of understanding for grade 3, that is, seed dispersal was not within the zone of proximal development (ZPD) for grade 3 students. Students in grades 7 and 10 showed a developing transition within the zone of proximal development from everyday to scientific understanding, and college students demonstrated scientific understanding of seed dispersal. For pollination and food chains, results showed that grades 3, 7, and 10 were in transition from everyday to scientific understanding, and all college students demonstrated scientific understanding. The seed dispersal concept proved more complex than pollination and food chains. The findings of this study have implications for classroom teachers. By understanding the dynamic nature of the ZPD continuum for students, teachers can plan instruction to meet the needs of each student.

  17. Forensic intelligence framework. Part II: Study of the main generic building blocks and challenges through the examples of illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Esseiva, Pierre; Margot, Pierre; Roux, Claude

    2015-05-01

    The development of forensic intelligence relies on the expression of suitable models that better represent the contribution of forensic intelligence in relation to the criminal justice system, policing and security. Such models assist in comparing and evaluating methods and new technologies, provide transparency and foster the development of new applications. Interestingly, strong similarities between two separate projects focusing on specific forensic science areas were recently observed. These observations have led to the induction of a general model (Part I) that could guide the use of any forensic science case data in an intelligence perspective. The present article builds upon this general approach by focusing on decisional and organisational issues. The article investigates the comparison process and evaluation system that lay at the heart of the forensic intelligence framework, advocating scientific decision criteria and a structured but flexible and dynamic architecture. These building blocks are crucial and clearly lay within the expertise of forensic scientists. However, it is only part of the problem. Forensic intelligence includes other blocks with their respective interactions, decision points and tensions (e.g. regarding how to guide detection and how to integrate forensic information with other information). Formalising these blocks identifies many questions and potential answers. Addressing these questions is essential for the progress of the discipline. Such a process requires clarifying the role and place of the forensic scientist within the whole process and their relationship to other stakeholders.

  18. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important…

  19. A quantitative synthesis of the medicinal ethnobotany of the Malinké of Mali and the Asháninka of Peru, with a new theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    Bletter, Nathaniel

    2007-01-01

    Background Although ethnomedically and taxonomically guided searches for new medicinal plants can improve the percentage of plants found containing active compounds when compared to random sampling, ethnobotany has fulfilled little of its promise in the last few decades to deliver a bounty of new, laboratory-proven medicinal plants and compounds. It is quite difficult to test, isolate, and elucidate the structure and mechanism of compounds from the plethora of new medicinal plant uses described each year with limited laboratory time and resources and the high cost of clinical trials of new drug candidates. Methods A new quantitative theoretical framework of mathematical formulas called "relational efficacy" is proposed that should narrow down this search for new plant-derived medicines based on the hypothesis that closely related plants used to treat closely related diseases in distantly related cultures have a higher probability of being effective because they are more likely to be independent discoveries of similar plant compounds and disease mechanisms. A prerequisite to this hypothesis, the idea that empirical testing in traditional medicine will lead to choosing similar medicinal plants and therefore the medicinal flora of two distant cultures will prove to be more similar than their general flora, is tested using resampling statistics on cross-cultural field data of the plants used by the Malinké of Mali and the Asháninka of Peru to treat the diseases malaria, African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, diabetes, eczema, asthma, and uterine fibroids. Results In this case, the similarity of the medicinal floras is found to be significantly greater than the similarity of the general floras, but only when the diseases in question are grouped into the categories of parasitic and autoimmune diseases. Conclusion If the central theoretical framework of this hypothesis is shown to be true, it will allow the synthesis of medicinal plant information

  20. Assessment of Student Performance in a PSI College Physics Course Using Ausubel's Learning Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Content Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriera, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    David Ausubel's learning theory was used as a framework for the content organization of an experimental Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) course in physics. Evaluation suggests that the combination of PSI as a method of instruction and Ausubel's theory for organization might result in better learning outcomes. (Author/JMD)

  1. Cultural targeting and tailoring of shared decision making technology: a theoretical framework for improving the effectiveness of patient decision aids in culturally diverse groups.

    PubMed

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Schapira, Marilyn; Stiggelbout, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Patient decision aids are known to positively impact outcomes critical to shared decision making (SDM), such as gist knowledge and decision preparedness. However, research on the potential improvement of these and other important outcomes through cultural targeting and tailoring of decision aids is very limited. This is the case despite extensive evidence supporting use of cultural targeting and tailoring to improve the effectiveness of health communications. Building on prominent psychological theory, we propose a two-stage framework incorporating cultural concepts into the design process for screening and treatment decision aids. The first phase recommends use of cultural constructs, such as collectivism and individualism, to differentially target patients whose cultures are known to vary on these dimensions. Decision aid targeting is operationalized through use of symbols and values that appeal to members of the given culture. Content dimensions within decision aids that appear particularly appropriate for targeting include surface level visual characteristics, language, beliefs, attitudes and values. The second phase of the framework is based on evidence that individuals vary in terms of how strongly cultural norms influence their approach to problem solving and decision making. In particular, the framework hypothesizes that differences in terms of access to cultural mindsets (e.g., access to interdependent versus independent self) can be measured up front and used to tailor decision aids. Thus, the second phase in the framework emphasizes the importance of not only targeting decision aid content, but also tailoring the information to the individual based on measurement of how strongly he/she is connected to dominant cultural mindsets. Overall, the framework provides a theory-based guide for researchers and practitioners who are interested in using cultural targeting and tailoring to develop and test decision aids that move beyond a "one-size fits all" approach

  2. To Be Cared for and to Care: Understanding Theoretical Conceptions of Care as a Framework for Effective Inclusion in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that incorporating theoretical conceptions of care into Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) programmes creates a foundation for achieving the effective inclusion of children with disabilities. Critical examinations of the origins of care theory and current conceptions of care are used to consider the differing valuation…

  3. The Degree of Applying the Theoretical Frameworks of Child-Raising Specialty Courses in the Field of Training among the Female Students of Princess Alia University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweeikat, Mashhour Mohammad; AL-Kaddah, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying to what extent the female students in Child Education department at Princess Alia University College manage to apply the theoretical part in field training program. The data, which is the scope of this study, consists of 42 staff members and 36 educational supervisors responsible for the program. The two researchers…

  4. Theoretical modeling of spin crossover in metal-organic frameworks: [Fe(pz)2Pt(CN)4] as a case study.

    PubMed

    Cirera, Jordi; Babin, Volodymyr; Paesani, Francesco

    2014-10-20

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with spin-crossover behavior are promising materials for applications in memory storage and sensing devices. A key parameter that characterizes these materials is the transition temperature T1/2, defined as the temperature with equal populations of low-spin and high-spin species. In this study, we describe the development, implementation, and application of a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics method that builds upon the Ligand Field Molecular Mechanics approach and enables the modeling of spin-crossover properties in bulk materials. The new methodology is applied to the study of a spin-crossover MOF with molecular formula [Fe(pz)2Pt(CN)4] (pz = pyrazine). The total magnetic moment of the material is determined as a function of the temperature from direct calculations of the relative equilibrium populations of both low-spin and high-spin states of each Fe(II) center of the framework. The T1/2 value, calculated from the temperature dependence of the magnetization curve, is in good agreement with the available experimental data. A comparison between the spin-crossover behavior of the isolated secondary building block of the framework and the bulk material is presented, which reveals the origin of the different spin-crossover properties of the isolated molecular system and corresponding MOF structure.

  5. Framework for a virtual nursing faculty and student learning collaboration between universities in Sweden and the United States: A theoretical paper.

    PubMed

    Wihlborg, Monne; Friberg, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    A sound pedagogical framework must be explored and identified to implement opportunities for collaborative learning through international exchange. This paper identifies the framework used by two universities, in Sweden and the United States. Virtual learning environments and meaningful learning activities can be constructed using web-based learning platforms. The goal for this initiative was 'internationalisation on home plan' for nursing faculty and students that opened up internationalised learning opportunities for all students, including those who do not participate in study abroad/mobility activities. This broader opportunity supports the development of cultural awareness and understanding of global health care practices and the nursing profession on mutual topics of concern, in this case patient safety. Learning activities and learning outcomes can be stipulated. The pedagogical framework was compatible with the Bologna Process' constructive alignment, deep learning and a student focus. The student nurses were not only given the opportunity to explore the learning objective of patient safety and participate in an international collaboration with another university, but also gained university academic credit for fulfilling the task. There is a great gain in using virtual collaboration and learning modules that are embedded in courses for the purpose of 'internationalisation on home plan' since not all students can participate in student mobility activities.

  6. Dynamics of Occupational and Educational Status Projections: A Theoretical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework to describe and account for dynamic properties of status projection phenomena. The effort is limited in the main to consideration of occupational and educational status projections, and emphasis is given to the particular characteristics and attributes of the rural social milieu…

  7. TU-AB-201-11: A Novel Theoretical Framework for MRI-Only Image Guided LDR Prostate and Breast Brachytherapy Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, A; Elzibak, A; Fatemi, A; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, W; Han, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a novel framework for accurate model-based dose calculations using only MR images for LDR prostate and breast seed implant brachytherapy. Methods: Model-based dose calculation methodologies recommended by TG-186 require further knowledge about specific tissue composition, which is challenging with MRI. However, relying on MRI-only for implant dosimetry would reduce the soft tissue delineation uncertainty, costs, and uncertainties associated with multi-modality registration and fusion processes. We propose a novel framework to address this problem using quantitative MRI acquisitions and reconstruction techniques. The framework includes three steps: (1) Identify the locations of seeds(2) Identify the presence (or absence) of calcification(s)(3) Quantify the water and fat content in the underlying tissueSteps (1) and (2) consider the sources that limit patient dosimetry, particularly the inter-seed attenuation and the calcified regions; while step (3) targets the quantification of the tissue composition to consider the heterogeneities in the medium. Our preliminary work has shown that the seeds and the calcifications can be identified with MRI using both the magnitude and the phase images. By employing susceptibility-weighted imaging with specific post-processing techniques, the phase images can be further explored to distinguish the seeds from the calcifications. Absolute quantification of tissue, water, and fat content is feasible and was previously demonstrated in phantoms and in-vivo applications, particularly for brain diseases. The approach relies on the proportionality of the MR signal to the number of protons in an image volume. By employing appropriate correction algorithms for T1 - and T2*-related biases, B1 transmit and receive field inhomogeneities, absolute water/fat content can be determined. Results: By considering calcification and interseed attenuation, and through the knowledge of water and fat mass density, accurate patient

  8. Using a Theoretical Framework to Investigate Whether the HIV/AIDS Information Needs of the AfroAIDSinfo Web Portal Members Are Met: A South African eHealth Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Zyl, Hendra; Kotze, Marike; Laubscher, Ria

    2014-01-01

    eHealth has been identified as a useful approach to disseminate HIV/AIDS information. Together with Consumer Health Informatics (CHI), the Web-to-Public Knowledge Transfer Model (WPKTM) has been applied as a theoretical framework to identify consumer needs for AfroAIDSinfo, a South African Web portal. As part of the CHI practice, regular eSurveys are conducted to determine whether these needs are changing and are continually being met. eSurveys show high rates of satisfaction with the content as well as the modes of delivery. The nature of information is thought of as reliable to reuse; both for education and for referencing of information. Using CHI and the WPKTM as a theoretical framework, it ensures that needs of consumers are being met and that they find the tailored methods of presenting the information agreeable. Combining ICTs and theories in eHealth interventions, this approach can be expanded to deliver information in other sectors of public health. PMID:24686487

  9. Synthesis, structural characterization, luminescent properties and theoretical study of three novel lanthanide metal-organic frameworks of Ho(III), Gd(III) and Eu(III) with 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate anion

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Lippy F.; Correa, Charlane C.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Santos, Molíria V. dos; Dutra, José Diogo L.; Freire, Ricardo O.; Machado, Flávia C.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, the synthesis of three new metal-organic frameworks of lanthanides (LnMOFs) ([Ln{sub 2}(2,5-tdc){sub 3}(dmso){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (Ln=Ho (1); Gd (2); Eu (3); 2,5-tdc=2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate anion; dmso=dimethylsulfoxide), and their complete characterization, including single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis are reported. In especial, photophysical properties of Eu(III) complex have been studied in detail via both theoretical and experimental approaches. Crystal structure of (1) reveals that each lanthanide ion is seven-coordinated by oxygen atoms in an overall distorted capped trigonal – prismatic geometry. The 2,5-tdc{sup 2−} ligands connect four Ln(III) centers, adopting (κ{sup 1}–κ{sup 1})–(κ{sup 1}–κ{sup 1})–μ{sub 4} coordination mode, generating an 8-connected uninodal 3D network. In addition, theoretical studies for Eu(III) complex were performed using the Sparkle model for lanthanide complexes. - Graphical abstract: Three new metal-organic frameworks of lanthanides (LnMOFs) ([Ln{sub 2}(2,5-tdc){sub 3}(dmso){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (Ln=Ho (1); Gd (2); Eu (3); 2,5-tdc=2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate anion; dmso=dimethylsulfoxide), were synthesized and their complete characterization, including single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis are reported. In especial, photophysical properties of Eu(III) complex have been studied in detail via both theoretical and experimental approaches. - Highlights: • Three new LnMOFs were synthesized and fully characterized. • Ho{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} complexes photoluminescence properties were investigated. • Theoretical approaches for Eu{sup 3+} complex luminescence has been performed. • An energy level diagram is used to establish the ligand-to-metal energy transfer. • These metal−organic frameworks can act as light conversion molecular devices.

  10. [Transcultural discussion in bioethics drawn from research experience in China: building up a theoretical and methodological framework for further research cooperation].

    PubMed

    Micollier, Evelyne

    2012-06-01

    My article discusses bioethics in transcultural context and builds on an experience of conducting research in China in partnership with Chinese scholars and institutions. Key points are about the creation of ethical committees and their prerogatives, the regulation of experimenting in human and animal, and of donating and transplanting organs. Ethical issues are approached according to an anthropological reading. Three transversal lines for further research are suggested: global/local ethical governance applied to research ethics; implications of transnationalizing and delocalizing research practices with regards to governance; theoretical positioning--conceptual pluralism versus pragmatic pluralism--following actual confrontation to transcultural variations in research ethics. Moreover, this work claims for conceptualizing and implementing an ethics in context while assessing intangible (non-relative) principles based on knowledge production and a global patrimony.

  11. A theoretical study of nitric oxide adsorption and dissociation on copper-exchanged zeolites SSZ-13 and SAPO-34: the impact of framework acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Uzunova, Ellie L; Mikosch, Hans

    2016-04-28

    The adsorption of nitric oxide as dinitrosyls and the deNOx proton-mediated reaction mechanism are assessed using electronic structure methods and transition state theory. Dinitrosyls bind to copper cations either via a N-atom or via an O-atom, with N-binding being more stable. In their ground states, dinitrosyls reach a planar configuration with the metal cation. The two nitric oxide molecules are kept together in O-bonded dinitrosyls by the N-N bond and the adsorption complex obtains a cyclic planar structure, while N-bonded dinitrosyls have out-of-plane conformations with low energy barriers. An asymmetric structure ZCu(ON)(NO) with one N-bonded nitrosyl and the other O-bonded is of the lowest stability. The cyclic hyponitrite ZCu(ON)2 adsorption complex undergoes O-N bond breaking upon protonation of one oxygen atom and this lowers the energy barrier of the first reaction step of nitric oxide dissociation to yield N2O and a hydroxylated copper site ZCu(OH) by 45 kJ mol(-1) for Cu-SAPO-34 and by 46 kJ mol(-1) for Cu-SSZ-13. The more stable N-bonded dinitrosyl ZCu(NO)2 provides less favorable reaction which passes through the asymmetric ZCu(ON)(NO) intermediate structure. Brønsted acid sites facilitate the reversal of one nitrosyl group. The role of proton transfer from a Brønsted acid site to dinitrosyls is not limited to the initial step of facilitating the N-O bond cleavage, but it also contributes to the stabilization of intermediate oxygen species formed at the copper site as hydroxide ZCu(OH) and hydroperoxide, ZCuOOH. Without protonation, the unstable ZCuO intermediate causes structural deformation with strongly lengthened T-O bonds in the framework. The rate determining step is N2O decomposition to N2 and O2, whether starting with a ZCu(NO)2 or a ZCu(ON)2 adsorption complex, and Cu-SSZ-13 has a clear advantage with an energy barrier of 195 kJ mol(-1)vs. 265 kJ mol(-1) for Cu-SAPO-34. In the final step the Brønsted acid site is restored by proton

  12. A theoretical study of the hydrogen-storage potential of (H2)4CH4 in metal organic framework materials and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Thonhauser, T

    2012-10-24

    The hydrogen-methane compound (H(2))(4)CH(4)-or for short H4M-is one of the most promising hydrogen-storage materials. This van der Waals compound is extremely rich in molecular hydrogen: 33.3 mass%, not including the hydrogen bound in CH(4); including it, we reach even 50.2 mass%. Unfortunately, H4M is not stable under ambient pressure and temperature, requiring either low temperature or high pressure. In this paper, we investigate the properties and structure of the molecular and crystalline forms of H4M, using ab initio methods based on van der Waals DFT (vdW-DF). We further investigate the possibility of creating the pressures required to stabilize H4M through external agents such as metal organic framework (MOF) materials and carbon nanotubes, with very encouraging results. In particular, we find that certain MOFs can create considerable pressure for H4M in their cavities, but not enough to stabilize it at room temperature, and moderate cooling is still necessary. On the other hand, we find that all the investigated carbon nanotubes can create the high pressures required for H4M to be stable at room temperature, with direct implications for new and exciting hydrogen-storage applications.

  13. A theoretical study of the hydrogen-storage potential of (H2)4CH4 in metal organic framework materials and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Thonhauser, T.

    2012-10-01

    The hydrogen-methane compound (H2)4CH4—or for short H4M—is one of the most promising hydrogen-storage materials. This van der Waals compound is extremely rich in molecular hydrogen: 33.3 mass%, not including the hydrogen bound in CH4; including it, we reach even 50.2 mass%. Unfortunately, H4M is not stable under ambient pressure and temperature, requiring either low temperature or high pressure. In this paper, we investigate the properties and structure of the molecular and crystalline forms of H4M, using ab initio methods based on van der Waals DFT (vdW-DF). We further investigate the possibility of creating the pressures required to stabilize H4M through external agents such as metal organic framework (MOF) materials and carbon nanotubes, with very encouraging results. In particular, we find that certain MOFs can create considerable pressure for H4M in their cavities, but not enough to stabilize it at room temperature, and moderate cooling is still necessary. On the other hand, we find that all the investigated carbon nanotubes can create the high pressures required for H4M to be stable at room temperature, with direct implications for new and exciting hydrogen-storage applications.

  14. Theoretical study of different features of the fission process of excited nuclei in the framework of the modified statistical model and four-dimensional dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslamizadeh, H.

    2017-02-01

    Evaporation residue cross section, fission probability, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, mass and energy distributions of fission fragments and the pre-scission neutron multiplicity for the excited compound nuclei {}168{{Y}}{{b}}, {}172{{Y}}{{b}}, {}178{{W}} and {}227{{P}}{{a}} produced in fusion reactions have been calculated in the framework of the modified statistical model and multidimensional dynamical model. In the dynamical calculations, the dynamics of fission of excited nuclei has been studied by solving three- and four-dimensional Langevin equations with dissipation generated through the chaos-weighted wall and window friction formula. Three collective shape coordinates plus the projection of total spin of the compound nucleus to the symmetry axis, K, were considered in the four-dimensional dynamical model. A non-constant dissipation coefficient of K, {γ }k, was applied in the four-dimensional dynamical calculations. A comparison of the results of the three- and four-dimensional dynamical models with the experimental data showed that the results of the four-dimensional dynamical model for the evaporation residue cross section, fission probability, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, mass and energy distributions of fission fragments and the pre-scission neutron multiplicity are in better agreement with the experimental data. It was also shown that the modified statistical model can reproduce the above-mentioned experimental data by choosing appropriate values of the temperature coefficient of the effective potential, λ , and the scaling factor of the fission-barrier height, {r}s.

  15. Theoretical Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  16. Beyond safety outcomes: An investigation of the impact of safety climate on job satisfaction, employee engagement and turnover using social exchange theory as the theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lee, Jin; McFadden, Anna C; Murphy, Lauren A; Robertson, Michelle M; Cheung, Janelle H; Zohar, Dov

    2016-07-01

    Safety climate, a measure of the degree to which safety is perceived by employees to be a priority in their company, is often implicated as a key factor in the promotion of injury-reducing behavior and safe work environments. Using social exchange theory as a theoretical basis, this study hypothesized that safety climate would be related to employees' job satisfaction, engagement, and turnover rate, highlighting the beneficial effects of safety climate beyond typical safety outcomes. Survey data were collected from 6207 truck drivers from two U.S. trucking companies. The objective turnover rate was collected one year after the survey data collection. Results showed that employees' safety climate perceptions were linked to employees' level of job satisfaction, engagement, and objective turnover rate, thus supporting the application of social exchange theory. Job satisfaction was also a significant mediator between safety climate and the two human resource outcomes (i.e., employee engagement and turnover rate). This study is among the first to assess the impact of safety climate beyond safety outcomes among lone workers (using truck drivers as an exemplar).

  17. Non-specific mechanisms in orthodox and CAM management of low back pain (MOCAM): theoretical framework and protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Katherine; Al-Abbadey, Miznah; Carnes, Dawn; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Eardley, Susan; Fawkes, Carol; Foster, Jo; Greville-Harris, Maddy; Harvey, J Matthew; Leach, Janine; Lewith, George; Roberts, Lisa; Parry, Laura; Yardley, Lucy; Bishop, Felicity L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Components other than the active ingredients of treatment can have substantial effects on pain and disability. Such ‘non-specific’ components include: the therapeutic relationship, the healthcare environment, incidental treatment characteristics, patients’ beliefs and practitioners’ beliefs. This study aims to: identify the most powerful non-specific treatment components for low back pain (LBP), compare their effects on patient outcomes across orthodox (physiotherapy) and complementary (osteopathy, acupuncture) therapies, test which theoretically derived mechanistic pathways explain the effects of non-specific components and identify similarities and differences between the therapies on patient–practitioner interactions. Methods and analysis This research comprises a prospective questionnaire-based cohort study with a nested mixed-methods study. A minimum of 144 practitioners will be recruited from public and private sector settings (48 physiotherapists, 48 osteopaths and 48 acupuncturists). Practitioners are asked to recruit 10–30 patients each, by handing out invitation packs to adult patients presenting with a new episode of LBP. The planned multilevel analysis requires a final sample size of 690 patients to detect correlations between predictors, hypothesised mediators and the primary outcome (self-reported back-related disability on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire). Practitioners and patients complete questionnaires measuring non-specific treatment components, mediators and outcomes at: baseline (time 1: after the first consultation for a new episode of LBP), during treatment (time 2: 2 weeks post-baseline) and short-term outcome (time 3: 3 months post-baseline). A randomly selected subsample of participants in the questionnaire study will be invited to take part in a nested mixed-methods study of patient–practitioner interactions. In the nested study, 63 consultations (21/therapy) will be audio-recorded and analysed

  18. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external variables. Linear regression was used to explore the TPB's ability to predict future NIAD adherence, which was prospectively measured as the proportion of days covered by at least 1 NIAD using pharmacy claims data. The interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention was tested. The sample included 340 people. There was an interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention to adhere to the NIAD (P = 0.032). Intention did not predict future NIAD adherence in the past adherers and nonadherers groups, but its association measure was high among past nonadherers (β = 5.686, 95% confidence interval [CI] -10.174, 21.546). In contrast, intention was mainly predicted by perceived behavioral control both in the past adherers (β = 0.900, 95% CI 0.796, 1.004) and nonadherers groups (β = 0.760, 95% CI 0.555, 0.966). The present study suggests that TPB is a good tool to predict intention to adhere and future NIAD adherence. However, there was a gap between intention to adhere and actual adherence to the NIAD, which is partly explained by the past adherence level in adults with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external variables. Linear regression was used to explore the TPB's ability to predict future NIAD adherence, which was prospectively measured as the proportion of days covered by at least 1 NIAD using pharmacy claims data. The interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention was tested. The sample included 340 people. There was an interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention to adhere to the NIAD (P = 0.032). Intention did not predict future NIAD adherence in the past adherers and nonadherers groups, but its association measure was high among past nonadherers (β = 5.686, 95% confidence interval [CI] −10.174, 21.546). In contrast, intention was mainly predicted by perceived behavioral control both in the past adherers (β = 0.900, 95% CI 0.796, 1.004) and nonadherers groups (β = 0.760, 95% CI 0.555, 0.966). The present study suggests that TPB is a good tool to predict intention to adhere and future NIAD adherence. However, there was a gap between intention to adhere and actual adherence to the NIAD, which is partly explained by the past adherence level in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27082543

  20. Towards general information theoretical representations of database problems

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    1997-06-01

    General database systems are described from the General Systems Theoretical (GST) framework. In this context traditional information theoretical (statistical) and general information theoretical (fuzzy measure and set theoretical, possibilistic, and random set theoretical) representations are derived. A preliminary formal framework is introduced.

  1. Theoretical geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Andrzej; Kosek, Wiesław

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a summary of research activities concerning theoretical geodesy performed in Poland in the period of 2011-2014. It contains the results of research on new methods of the parameter estimation, a study on robustness properties of the M-estimation, control network and deformation analysis, and geodetic time series analysis. The main achievements in the geodetic parameter estimation involve a new model of the M-estimation with probabilistic models of geodetic observations, a new Shift-Msplit estimation, which allows to estimate a vector of parameter differences and the Shift-Msplit(+) that is a generalisation of Shift-Msplit estimation if the design matrix A of a functional model has not a full column rank. The new algorithms of the coordinates conversion between the Cartesian and geodetic coordinates, both on the rotational and triaxial ellipsoid can be mentioned as a highlights of the research of the last four years. New parameter estimation models developed have been adopted and successfully applied to the control network and deformation analysis. New algorithms based on the wavelet, Fourier and Hilbert transforms were applied to find time-frequency characteristics of geodetic and geophysical time series as well as time-frequency relations between them. Statistical properties of these time series are also presented using different statistical tests as well as 2nd, 3rd and 4th moments about the mean. The new forecasts methods are presented which enable prediction of the considered time series in different frequency bands.

  2. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  3. New Theoretical Frameworks for Machine Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-15

    190213089, Google , and the IBM Ph.D. Fellowship. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted...and S. Micali. How to construct random functions. Journal of the ACM, 33(4): 792–807, 1986. 6.5 [126] A. Grigoriev, J. van Loon , R. Sitters, and M. Uetz

  4. Interpersonal Relations: A Choice-Theoretic Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couvillion, L. Michael; Eckstein, Daniel G.

    The microeconomic theory relating to utility and cost is applied to the "risk," and the possible "payoff" relative to relationships with others. A good measure of utility is the need or want-satisfying power of an alternative. For the analysis of interpersonal relationships, the needs delineated by Maslow (i.e. food, shelter, belongingness, love,…

  5. Theoretical Frameworks for Studying Female Marriage Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merali, Noorfarah

    2008-01-01

    Transnational marriages account for a significant proportion of family-based immigration to North America. An increasing number of immigrant men are choosing to marry women from their countries of origin, and an increasing number of nonimmigrant men are choosing to marry women from other countries. Existing studies on the experiences of foreign…

  6. Theoretical Tinnitus Framework: A Neurofunctional Model

    PubMed Central

    Ghodratitoostani, Iman; Zana, Yossi; Delbem, Alexandre C. B.; Sani, Siamak S.; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Sanchez, Tanit G.

    2016-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus is the conscious (attended) awareness perception of sound in the absence of an external source and can be classified as an auditory phantom perception. Earlier literature establishes three distinct states of conscious perception as unattended, attended, and attended awareness conscious perception. The current tinnitus development models depend on the role of external events congruently paired with the causal physical events that precipitate the phantom perception. We propose a novel Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model to indicate that the conscious (attended) awareness perception of phantom sound is essential in activating the cognitive-emotional value. The cognitive-emotional value plays a crucial role in governing attention allocation as well as developing annoyance within tinnitus clinical distress. Structurally, the Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model includes the peripheral auditory system, the thalamus, the limbic system, brainstem, basal ganglia, striatum, and the auditory along with prefrontal cortices. Functionally, we assume the model includes presence of continuous or intermittent abnormal signals at the peripheral auditory system or midbrain auditory paths. Depending on the availability of attentional resources, the signals may or may not be perceived. The cognitive valuation process strengthens the lateral-inhibition and noise canceling mechanisms in the mid-brain, which leads to the cessation of sound perception and renders the signal evaluation irrelevant. However, the “sourceless” sound is eventually perceived and can be cognitively interpreted as suspicious or an indication of a disease in which the cortical top-down processes weaken the noise canceling effects. This results in an increase in cognitive and emotional negative reactions such as depression and anxiety. The negative or positive cognitive-emotional feedbacks within the top-down approach may have no relation to the previous experience of the patients. They can also be associated with aversive stimuli similar to abnormal neural activity in generating the phantom sound. Cognitive and emotional reactions depend on general personality biases toward evaluative conditioning combined with a cognitive-emotional negative appraisal of stimuli such as the case of people with present hypochondria. We acknowledge that the projected Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model does not cover all tinnitus variations and patients. To support our model, we present evidence from several studies using neuroimaging, electrophysiology, brain lesion, and behavioral techniques. PMID:27594822

  7. Theoretical Frameworks to Guide School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Lisa; Thornton, Bill; Usinger, Janet

    2012-01-01

    A firm grounding in change theory can provide educational leaders with an opportunity to orchestrate meaningful organizational improvements. This article provides an opportunity for practicing leaders to review four major theories of organizational change--continuous improvement, two approaches to organizational learning, and appreciative inquiry.…

  8. A Theoretical Framework for Defense Acquisition Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    the large business schools which have, within the last five years, developed adjunct courses in their graduate management programs as well as...than 800 non-labor related courses have been developed recently in American business schools . Forty percent of these courses are offered in business and...political science. A listing of course titles from various business schools is attached in the Appendix. In a recent survey major industry CEO’s revealed a

  9. Learning Physical Domains: Toward a Theoretical Framework.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    corpus relations are binary relations among variables - for example, "Bigger objects weigh more." ( Piaget , 1951; Smith, Wiser & Carey, in press), or... Piaget (1958) and Siegler (1976, 1981) have documented such a stage in the development of understanding about the balance beam (with analogous...psycholinguistics of figurative language. Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J., 1980 Inhelder. B., & Piaget . J., The growth of logical thinking from childhood to

  10. [Marketing in veterinary practice; a theoretical framework].

    PubMed

    Schuurmans, A J; Smidts, A

    1990-03-15

    An increase in the number of veterinarians, while at the same time the number of animals has remained constant, has resulted in growing competition. By extending the range of products and by enlarging the veterinarians' scope of activities this competition can be decreased. A marketing-orientation will be helpful in this respect. This article indicates in which way marketing concepts can be used in a veterinary practice. The services of the veterinarian will be looked at by means of the Abell approach. This focuses on the functions performed by the services and examines, per function performed, for whom this might be interesting and which alternatives there might be. Next the concept of market segmentation is filled in for a veterinary practice by means of a hypothetical example. The marketing mix (product, place, price, promotion and personnel) is given considerable attention. The last element of marketing in a veterinary practice that is discussed here is the marketing information system. In a next article the question will be answered how marketing-directed the Dutch veterinarian works nowadays. To find this out research has been done; 166 vets were interviewed by telephone for approximately 40 minutes each.

  11. Theoretical Tinnitus Framework: A Neurofunctional Model.

    PubMed

    Ghodratitoostani, Iman; Zana, Yossi; Delbem, Alexandre C B; Sani, Siamak S; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Sanchez, Tanit G

    2016-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus is the conscious (attended) awareness perception of sound in the absence of an external source and can be classified as an auditory phantom perception. Earlier literature establishes three distinct states of conscious perception as unattended, attended, and attended awareness conscious perception. The current tinnitus development models depend on the role of external events congruently paired with the causal physical events that precipitate the phantom perception. We propose a novel Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model to indicate that the conscious (attended) awareness perception of phantom sound is essential in activating the cognitive-emotional value. The cognitive-emotional value plays a crucial role in governing attention allocation as well as developing annoyance within tinnitus clinical distress. Structurally, the Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model includes the peripheral auditory system, the thalamus, the limbic system, brainstem, basal ganglia, striatum, and the auditory along with prefrontal cortices. Functionally, we assume the model includes presence of continuous or intermittent abnormal signals at the peripheral auditory system or midbrain auditory paths. Depending on the availability of attentional resources, the signals may or may not be perceived. The cognitive valuation process strengthens the lateral-inhibition and noise canceling mechanisms in the mid-brain, which leads to the cessation of sound perception and renders the signal evaluation irrelevant. However, the "sourceless" sound is eventually perceived and can be cognitively interpreted as suspicious or an indication of a disease in which the cortical top-down processes weaken the noise canceling effects. This results in an increase in cognitive and emotional negative reactions such as depression and anxiety. The negative or positive cognitive-emotional feedbacks within the top-down approach may have no relation to the previous experience of the patients. They can also be associated with aversive stimuli similar to abnormal neural activity in generating the phantom sound. Cognitive and emotional reactions depend on general personality biases toward evaluative conditioning combined with a cognitive-emotional negative appraisal of stimuli such as the case of people with present hypochondria. We acknowledge that the projected Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model does not cover all tinnitus variations and patients. To support our model, we present evidence from several studies using neuroimaging, electrophysiology, brain lesion, and behavioral techniques.

  12. The Co-Emergence of Machine Techniques, Paper-and-Pencil Techniques, and Theoretical Reflection: A Study of CAS Use in Secondary School Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieran, Carolyn; Drijvers, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the dialectical relation between theoretical thinking and technique, as they co-emerge in a combined computer algebra (CAS) and paper-and-pencil environment. The theoretical framework in this ongoing study consists of the instrumental approach to tool use and an adaptation of Chevallard's anthropological theory. The main aim…

  13. On the Grammar and Model-Theoretic Semantics of Children's Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The paper shows informally how model-theoretical semantics may be used by a computer to give a straight-forward analysis of the meaning of children's language. This approach to semantics grows out of the main thrust of work in mathematical logic. It is discussed in the framework of generative grammar and is based on the application of the…

  14. Theoretical Explanation for Success of Deep-Level-Learning Study Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsteiner, Harald; Avery, Gayle C.

    2008-01-01

    Study tours can help internationalize curricula and prepare students for global workplaces. We examine benefits of tours providing deep-level learning experiences rather than industrial tourism using five main theoretical frameworks to highlight the diverse learning benefits associated with intensive study tours in particular. Relevant theoretical…

  15. Framework for Supporting Web-Based Collaborative Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei

    The article proposes an intelligent framework for supporting Web-based applications. The framework focuses on innovative use of existing resources and technologies in the form of services and takes the leverage of theoretical foundation of services science and the research from services computing. The main focus of the framework is to deliver benefits to users with various roles such as service requesters, service providers, and business owners to maximize their productivity when engaging with each other via the Web. The article opens up with research motivations and questions, analyses the existing state of research in the field, and describes the approach in implementing the proposed framework. Finally, an e-health application is discussed to evaluate the effectiveness of the framework where participants such as general practitioners (GPs), patients, and health-care workers collaborate via the Web.

  16. Exploring Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, M. V.; Larson, S. M.; Whiteley, R.; Fink, U.; Jedicke, R.; Emery, J.; Fevig, R.; Kelley, M.; Harris, A. W.; Ostro, S.; Reed, K.; Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A.; Magri, C.; Bottke, W.; Durda, D.; Walker, R.; Davis, D.; Hartmann, W. K.; Sears, D.; Yano, H.; Granahan, J.; Storrs, A.; Bus, S. J.; Bell, J. F.; Tholen, D.; Cellino, A.

    2001-11-01

    Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of fragments, and significantly depleted of mass as a consequence of dynamical scattering. Yet, these fragments retain a record of the early steps of planet formation and evolution, as well as a record of early solar system conditions and the primordial composition gradient in that region. By exploring main belt asteroids through groundbased observations and spacecraft, modeling and theoretical work, we seek ultimately to recover this information. A single mission to a single target is not sufficient to address, in isolation, these questions. They require a foundation of robust, broad, and continuing groundbased, theoretical, and modeling programs. Such work is funded at a small fraction of a typical mission cost through the NASA Research and Analysis Program. Therefore, within the context of planetary decadal study recommendations to NASA, highest priority needs to be given to maintaining and growing a healthy R&A program over the next ten years and beyond. Missions also have an important role to play. An Earth orbiting remote sensing mission needs to be considered as a means of collecting important data for a large fraction of all main belt asteroids above a sub-kilometer diameter (while also realizing synergistic benefits to astrophysics). Missions to specific main belt targets can provide important new insights and leverage new understanding of existing data, models, and theories, but target definition (and corresponding instrument complement) is critical and must be based on our existing knowledge of these very diverse objects

  17. A Monte-Carlo step-by-step simulation code of the non-homogeneous chemistry of the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions. Part I: theoretical framework and implementation.

    PubMed

    Plante, Ianik

    2011-08-01

    The importance of the radiolysis of water in irradiation of biological systems has motivated considerable theoretical and experimental work in the radiation chemistry of water and aqueous solutions. In particular, Monte-Carlo simulations of radiation track structure and non-homogeneous chemistry have greatly contributed to the understanding of experimental results in radiation chemistry of heavy ions. Actually, most simulations of the non-homogeneous chemistry are done using the Independent Reaction Time (IRT) method, a very fast technique. The main limitation of the IRT method is that the positions of the radiolytic species are not calculated as a function of time, which is needed to simulate the irradiation of more complex systems. Step-by-step (SBS) methods, which are able to provide such information, have been used only sparsely because these are time consuming in terms of calculation. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry. In the present paper, the first of a series of two, the SBS method is reviewed in detail. To these ends, simulation of diffusion of particles and chemical reactions in aqueous solutions is reviewed, and implementation of the program is discussed. Simulation of model systems is then performed to validate the adequacy of stepwise diffusion and reaction schemes. In the second paper, radiochemical yields of simulated radiation tracks calculated by the SBS program in different conditions of LET, pH, and temperature are compared with results from the IRT program and experimental data.

  18. Theoretical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  19. Institute for Theoretical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, S.B.; Ooguri, H.; Peet, A.W.; Schwarz, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    String theory is the only serious candidate for a unified description of all known fundamental particles and interactions, including gravity, in a single theoretical framework. Over the past two years, activity in this subject has grown rapidly, thanks to dramatic advances in understanding the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories and string theories. The cornerstone of these new developments is the discovery of duality which relates apparently different string theories and transforms difficult strongly coupled problems of one theory into weakly coupled problems of another theory.

  20. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  1. Theoretical Studies on Cluster Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhenyang

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The Thesis describes some theoretical studies on ligated and bare clusters. Chapter 1 gives a review of the two theoretical models, Tensor Surface Harmonic Theory (TSH) and Jellium Model, accounting for the electronic structures of ligated and bare clusters. The Polyhedral Skeletal Electron Pair Theory (PSEPT), which correlates the structures and electron counts (total number of valence electrons) of main group and transition metal ligated clusters, is briefly described. A structural jellium model is developed in Chapter 2 which accounts for the electronic structures of clusters using a crystal-field perturbation. The zero-order potential we derive is of central-field form, depends on the geometry of the cluster, and has a well-defined relationship to the full nuclear-electron potential. Qualitative arguments suggest that this potential produces different energy level orderings for clusters with a nucleus with large positive charge at the centre of the cluster. Analysis of the effects of the non-spherical perturbation on the spherical jellium shell structures leads to the conclusion that for a cluster with a closed shell electronic structure a high symmetry arrangement which is approximately or precisely close packed will be preferred. It also provides a basis for rationalising those structures of clusters with incomplete shell electronic configurations. In Chapter 3, the geometric conclusions derived in the structural jellium model are developed in more detail. The group theoretical consequences of the Tensor Surface Harmonic Theory are developed in Chapter 4 for (ML_2) _{rm n}, (ML_4) _{rm n} and (ML_5 ) _{rm n} clusters where either the xz and yz or x^2 -y^2 and xy components to L_sp{rm d}{pi } and L_sp{rm d} {delta} do not contribute equally to the bonding. The closed shell requirements for such clusters are defined and the orbital symmetry constraints pertaining to the

  2. A theoretical and empirical investigation of nutritional label use.

    PubMed

    Drichoutis, Andreas C; Lazaridis, Panagiotis; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Chryssochoidis, George

    2008-08-01

    Due in part to increasing diet-related health problems caused, among others, by obesity, nutritional labelling has been considered important, mainly because it can provide consumers with information that can be used to make informed and healthier food choices. Several studies have focused on the empirical perspective of nutritional label use. None of these studies, however, have focused on developing a theoretical economic model that would adequately describe nutritional label use based on a utility theoretic framework. We attempt to fill this void by developing a simple theoretical model of nutritional label use, incorporating the time a consumer spends reading labels as part of the food choice process. The demand equations of the model are then empirically tested. Results suggest the significant role of several variables that flow directly from the model which, to our knowledge, have not been used in any previous empirical work.

  3. Framework for Modeling the Cognitive Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-16

    Yaworsky Air Force Research Laboratory/IFSB Rome, NY Keywords: Cognitive Process Modeling, Cognition, Conceptual Framework , Information...center of our conceptual framework and will distinguish our use of terms within the context of this framework. 3. A Conceptual Framework for...Modeling the Cognitive Process We will describe our conceptual framework using graphical examples to help illustrate main points. We form the two

  4. Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed.

  5. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Bours, Madelon

    2013-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of Type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of different research groups and conclude that, although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this alone cannot explain all the differences.

  6. Scaling Up Decision Theoretic Planning to Planetary Rover Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Dearden, Richard; Washington, Rich

    2004-01-01

    Because of communication limits, planetary rovers must operate autonomously during consequent durations. The ability to plan under uncertainty is one of the main components of autonomy. Previous approaches to planning under uncertainty in NASA applications are not able to address the challenges of future missions, because of several apparent limits. On another side, decision theory provides a solid principle framework for reasoning about uncertainty and rewards. Unfortunately, there are several obstacles to a direct application of decision-theoretic techniques to the rover domain. This paper focuses on the issues of structure and concurrency, and continuous state variables. We describes two techniques currently under development that address specifically these issues and allow scaling-up decision theoretic solution techniques to planetary rover planning problems involving a small number of goals.

  7. An Emerging Theoretical Perspective for Research in Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    The emergence of a new theoretical framework for research in human development is discussed. The theoretical perspective is contrasted with the classical laboratory experiment, which produces ecologically invalid research because of the restrictions of the artificial laboratory environment. The emerging framework enhances ecological validity by…

  8. The Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.

    1992-11-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed.

  9. MVC Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Zachary; McClain, Jonathan; Bauer, Travis; Titus, Brian

    2008-06-03

    Provides a reusable model-view-controller application programming interface (API) for use in the rapid development of graphical user interface applications in the .NET 2.0 framework. This includes a mechanism for adding new data stores, data sources, data analyses, and visualizations in the form of plugins.] The MVC Framework is implemented in C# as a .NET 2.0 framework that can then be built against when developing applications. The infrasturcture allows for presenting application specific views (visualizations) to the user to interact with. Based on the interactions the suer makes with a view, requests are generated which in turn are handled by the central controller facility. The controller handles the request in an application specific manner by routing the request to appropriate data stores, data accessors or data analyzers. Retrieved or processed data is published to subscribed components for further processing or for presentation to the user.

  10. The Maine Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

  11. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  12. Seven Basic Steps to Solving Ethical Dilemmas in Special Education: A Decision-Making Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay R.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a seven-step framework for decision making to solve ethical issues in special education. The authors developed the framework from the existing literature and theoretical frameworks of justice, critique, care, and professionalism. The authors briefly discuss each theoretical framework and then describe the decision-making…

  13. Healthy public policy A conceptual cognitive framework.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, France; Turgeon, Jean; Dallaire, Clémence

    2007-04-01

    More than three decades ago, the report A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians (1974) highlighted the significance of other determinants than the healthcare system. The adoption of healthy public policy was identified in the Ottawa Charter (1986) as one of five strategies aiming to promote health. It must now be acknowledged that even if we have a better understanding of health determinants, the latter are not necessarily taken into consideration when developing public policies. The purpose of this paper is to help foster a better understanding of the healthy public policies by presenting a conceptual framework that is inspired by the Advocacy Coalition Framework developed by Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1999). On the one hand, this paper intends to show the relevance of the notion of subsystem of public policies in healthy public policy process. On the other, it aims to convince that it is necessary to channel the analysis around the decision-making process, the prospective evaluation of public policies and the knowledge transfer and appropriation process. Finally, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the role of knowledge, values or beliefs in the formulation and adoption of public policies. After briefly summarizing the theoretical developments in studies on public policies, the logic and components of the ACF are introduced. The main criticisms regarding the ACF are then examined, followed by an introduction of the conceptual framework that is adapted to the reality of healthy public policies. The notions of the subsystem of public policy(ies), of process and of learning process are central to this framework.

  14. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  15. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Ladybugs of Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  17. Schooling for Social Change: Some Theoretical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates the ability of public schools in the United States to bring about desired social change. Argues that the notion of schooling for social change is both theoretically and empirically consistent with the structural-functionalism framework. Concludes that one must decide what one means by social change before deciding whether schooling can…

  18. Theoretical Issues of the Constitutional Regulation Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhussupova, Guldaray B.; Zhailyaubayev, Rassul T.; Ukin, Symbat K.; Shunayeva, Sylu M.; Nurmagambetov, Rachit G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to define the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism." The definition of the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism" will give jurists and legislators a theoretical framework for developing legal sciences, such as the constitutional law and the theory of state and law. The…

  19. Higgs boson couplings: Measurements and theoretical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Chiara; Passarino, Giampiero

    2017-02-01

    This report will review the Higgs boson properties: the mass, the total width and the couplings to fermions and bosons. The measurements have been performed with the data collected in 2011 and 2012 at the LHC accelerator at CERN by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. Theoretical frameworks to search for new physics are also introduced and discussed.

  20. On the main flow pattern in hydrocyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, C.C.; Shen, H.Q.; Zhu, G.; Khonsari, M.M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    A theoretical model is developed for the prediction of the main flow pattern in hydrocyclones. The model regards the main body of the cyclone as inviscid and includes provisions for the fluid underflow in cyclones. The governing equations are solved analytically in closed form. To verify the results, a laboratory-scale conically-shaped hydrocyclone was designed, built, and tested. Experimental measurements for axial and tangential velocities are presented with a series of test solely devoted to the effect of underflow. The theoretical and experimental results are shown to be in good agreement. It is concluded that such an inviscid model gives an adequate representation of the main flow field in a cyclone.

  1. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  2. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  3. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity

  4. Rethinking Theoretical Approaches to Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman’s notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking “difference”. Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results. PMID:18436358

  5. V&V framework

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Richard G.; Maniaci, David Charles; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    2015-09-01

    A Verification and Validation (V&V) framework is presented for the development and execution of coordinated modeling and experimental program s to assess the predictive capability of computational models of complex systems through focused, well structured, and formal processes.The elements of the framework are based on established V&V methodology developed by various organizations including the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Four main topics are addressed: 1) Program planning based on expert elicitation of the modeling physics requirements, 2) experimental design for model assessment, 3) uncertainty quantification for experimental observations and computational model simulations, and 4) assessment of the model predictive capability. The audience for this document includes program planners, modelers, experimentalist, V &V specialist, and customers of the modeling results.

  6. A Theoretical Framework for Human and Veterinary Medical Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…

  7. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2008-06-13

    This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced) when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i) there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii) this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i) phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii) phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii) phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv) In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks are optimized to achieve tension between local and global interactions. These basic examples appear to match well against neurobiological evidence concerning the neural substrates of consciousness. More generally, phi appears to be a useful metric to characterize the capacity of any physical system to integrate information.

  8. Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzu-Bin; Li, Jen-Yi; Deng, Feng; Lee, Ling

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of new media technologies, the role of media in a society has been changed that leads researchers to re-construct the meaning of literacy from classic literacy to new media literacy. There have been continuing efforts to understand new media and promote the importance of becoming new media literate among researchers, educators,…

  9. Understanding Educational Transfer: Theoretical Perspectives and Conceptual Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura B.; Tor, Geok-hwa

    2008-01-01

    Educational transfer is an important and growing body of literature in the field of comparative education. Work from the last decade has focused on the stages of the borrowing cycle, and the context, causes and rationales for education borrowing. This recent work has contributed to earlier research on the role of multilateral organizations in…

  10. Assessment of Student Outcomes Using a Theoretical Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Lesley

    1997-01-01

    Examines the scientific concept of evaporation. Attempts to show how students develop their understanding through the levels of the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. Shows how designing learning experiences to suit the learners' developmental stages in understanding a concept is paramount to the overall growth of the…

  11. Theoretical Framework for Evaluation of Cross-cultural Training Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.

    1977-01-01

    Considers six types of cross-cultural training including general, specific, affective, cognitive, behavioral and self-insight, and examines the quantity and timing of the training and the attributes of the trainers and the trainees. Available from: Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers--The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903,…

  12. Analysis of Implicit Uncertain Systems. Part 1: Theoretical Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-07

    approach for sys- tem theory and the integral quadratic constraint formulation. In this approach, a system is defined by implicit equations, and the...viewpoint in systems and control theory , a system is an input-output (110) entity, where the variables are clearly separated in two groups, and a cause...approach to system theory where the central concept is the behavior, a set of allowed signal trajectories, and no input-output partition is a priori

  13. Learning to trust and trusting to learn: a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Asheley R; Eaves, Baxter S; Shafto, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Learning from other people requires integrating reasoning about an informant's psychological properties, such as knowledge and intent, with reasoning about the implications of the data the informant chooses to present. Here, we argue for an approach that considers these two reasoning paths as interrelated, reciprocal processes that develop over experience and guide learners when acquiring knowledge about the world.

  14. Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Science: A New Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Walma van der Molen, Juliette H.; Asma, Lieke J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Attention to the attitudes of preservice and inservice primary teachers toward science is of fundamental importance to research on primary science education. However, progress in this field of research has been slow due to the poor definition and conceptualization of the construct of primary teachers' attitude toward science. This poor theoretical…

  15. Development of Theoretical Framework for Uncertainty-Based Design Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    only 400 samples! Extensive numerical tests were conducted for a variety of problems and all results are very similar. The new method makes accurate...Differential Equations, Dipartimento di Matematica , Politecnico di Torino, Italy, May 10-13, 2010. • Invited speaker. Workshop on Uncertainty

  16. Interpersonal relations: a theoretical framework for application in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Peplau, H E

    1992-01-01

    Peplau discusses major features of the theory of interpersonal relations. She describes her theory as among the most useful to apply during nursing practice in order to understand nurse-patient interactive phenomena. Peplau addresses how she derived constructs from clinical data and identified their congruence with nursing practice. She further addresses the specific concepts of her theory and their relations, and specific uses of the theory in practice.

  17. Integrated Information in Discrete Dynamical Systems: Motivation and Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, φ, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, φ quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced) when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i) there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii) this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i) φ varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii) φ varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii) φ varies as a function of network architecture. High φ values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high φ because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high φ but are inefficient. (iv) In Hopfield networks, φ is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks are optimized to achieve tension between local and global interactions. These basic examples appear to match well against neurobiological evidence concerning the neural substrates of consciousness. More generally, φ appears to be a useful metric to characterize the capacity of any physical system to integrate information. PMID:18551165

  18. A Framework for Information Theoretic Cooperative Sensing and Predictive Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-11

    waste of precious stored energy . Our idea is to connect individual cells together to form a network and use the developed methodologies for moving the...the potential transition of the developed methodologies to the problem of balancing electri - cal batteries in passenger vehicles. Approach, goals and methodologies to be shared during the transition are subject of ongoing discussions. 6

  19. Structure-Mapping: A Theoretical Framework for Analogy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Sciences Dept. Navy Personnel R&D Center Naval Aerospace Vedical Research Laborat San Diego. CA 92152 Pensacola. FL 32503 1 Mr John 1,. Wolfe Dr. Gzry...Office of Naval Research Personnel and Training Research Programs 0-. This research was sponsored by the Personnel and Training ResearchE3 iPrograms...Psychological Sciences Division, Office of Naval Research ,1 under Contract No. N00014-79-C-0338, Contract Authority Identification LAJ No. NR157.428

  20. Design theoretic analysis of three system modeling frameworks.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2007-05-01

    This paper analyzes three simulation architectures from the context of modeling scalability to address System of System (SoS) and Complex System problems. The paper first provides an overview of the SoS problem domain and reviews past work in analyzing model and general system complexity issues. It then identifies and explores the issues of vertical and horizontal integration as well as coupling and hierarchical decomposition as the system characteristics and metrics against which the tools are evaluated. In addition, it applies Nam Suh's Axiomatic Design theory as a construct for understanding coupling and its relationship to system feasibility. Next it describes the application of MATLAB, Swarm, and Umbra (three modeling and simulation approaches) to modeling swarms of Unmanned Flying Vehicle (UAV) agents in relation to the chosen characteristics and metrics. Finally, it draws general conclusions for analyzing model architectures that go beyond those analyzed. In particular, it identifies decomposition along phenomena of interaction and modular system composition as enabling features for modeling large heterogeneous complex systems.

  1. Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. I Theoretical framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Binary collision rates for arbitrary scattering cross sections are derived in the case of a beam of particles interacting with a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) plasma, or in the case of two MB plasmas interacting at generally different temperatures. The expressions are valid for all beam energies and plasma temperatures, from the nonrelativistic to the extreme relativistic limits. The calculated quantities include the reaction rate, the energy exchange rate, and the average rate of change of the squared transverse momentum component of a monoenergetic particle beam as a result of scatterings with particles of a MB plasma. Results are specialized to elastic scattering processes, two-temperature reaction rates, or the cold plasma limit, reproducing previous work.

  2. Quantitative Theoretical and Conceptual Framework Use in Agricultural Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchel, Tracy; Ball, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this philosophical paper was to articulate the disciplinary tenets for consideration when using theory in agricultural education quantitative research. The paper clarified terminology around the concept of theory in social sciences and introduced inaccuracies of theory use in agricultural education quantitative research. Finally,…

  3. Changing Mental Models of the IT Professions: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Denise E.; Gasson, Susan; Atwood, Michael

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the current and projected shortage of adequately-educated IT professionals could be greatly reduced if more female and minority students would major in IT disciplines, yet the dramatic under-representation of these populations appears to be worsening. This under-representation is reflected in Drexel University's…

  4. Theoretical Framework for Educational Assessment: A Synoptic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaicha, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    At this age of accountability, it is acknowledged that assessment is a powerful lever that can either boost or undermine students' learning. Hitherto, much of the regular institutional and instructional practices show that assessments remain inhibitory or void rather than constructive as these lack the assessment formative aspect. This denotes…

  5. Theoretical framework for filtered back projection in tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauritsch, Guenter; Haerer, Wolfgang H.

    1998-06-01

    Tomosynthesis provides only incomplete 3D-data of the imaged object. Therefore it is important for reconstruction tasks to take all available information carefully into account. We are focusing on geometrical aspects of the scan process which can be incorporated into reconstruction algorithms by filtered backprojection methods. Our goal is a systematic approach to filter design. A unified theory of tomosynthesis is derived in the context of linear system theory, and a general four-step filter design concept is presented. Since the effects of filtering are understandable in this context, a methodical formulation of filter functions is possible in order to optimize image quality regarding the specific requirements of any application. By variation of filter parameters the slice thickness and the spatial resolution can easily be adjusted. The proposed general concept of filter design is exemplarily discussed for circular scanning but is valid for any specific scan geometry. The inherent limitations of tomosynthesis are pointed out and strategies for reducing the effects of incomplete sampling are developed. Results of a dental application show a striking improvement in image quality.

  6. Research Leadership in Writing for Publication: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rowena; Steckley, Laura; MacLeod, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Academics experience difficulty in managing competing tasks, particularly in relation to writing for publication. In a study conducted on a writing retreat, analysis of data obtained from academic writers revealed that facilitative leadership provided at a writing retreat was central to managing task complexity and writing-related anxiety. The…

  7. Literacy Sign Language Application Using Visual Phonics: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulghafoor, Maath S.; Ahmad, Azlina; Huang, Jiung-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Literacy is the ability to read and write. Being able to read and write is an important skill in modern society. Deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) students' literacy achievement has been reported as lower than that of hearing students. This research focuses on the literacy skills of D/HH students, aiming to determine their reading/writing skills and…

  8. Aquarius Main Structure Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eremenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory is a joint US-Argentine mission to map the salinity at the ocean surface. This information is critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system - the water cycle and ocean circulation. By measuring ocean salinity from space, the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will provide new insights into how the massive natural exchange of freshwater between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice influences ocean circulation, weather and climate. Aquarius is the primary instrument on the SAC-D spacecraft. It consists of a Passive Microwave Radiometer to detect the surface emission that is used to obtain salinity and an Active Scatterometer to measure the ocean waves that affect the precision of the salinity measurement. The Aquarius Primary Structure houses instrument electronics, feed assemblies, and supports a deployable boom with a 2.5 m Reflector, and provides the structural interface to the SAC-D Spacecraft. The key challenge for the Aquarius main structure configuration is to satisfy the needs of component accommodations, ensuring that the instrument can meet all operational, pointing, environmental, and launch vehicle requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the Aquarius main structure configuration, the challenges of balancing the conflicting requirements, and the major configuration driving decisions and compromises.

  9. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  10. Theoretical Grounding: The "Missing Link" in Suicide Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the strengths and limitations of the current pragmatic focus of research in suicidology and presents an argument for theoretical grounding as a precursor for continued advancement in this area. Presents an existential-constructivist framework of "meaning creation" as a theoretical heuristic for understanding suicide. Outlines general…

  11. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  12. [Main parasitic skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Bernigaud, C; Monsel, G; Delaunay, P; Do-Pham, G; Foulet, F; Botterel, F; Chosidow, O

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but their global distribution is heterogenous; prevalence is especially high in subtropical and tropical countries. They are mainly due to arthropods (insects and mites). Many species of parasites are involved, explaining the diversity of their clinical signs. The most common are caused by ectoparasites such as scabies or pediculosis (head lice, body lice and pubic lice). Clinical signs may be related to the penetration of the parasite under the skin, its development, the inoculation of venom or allergic symptoms. Diagnosis can be easy when clinical signs are pathognomonic (e.g. burrows in the interdigital web spaces in scabies) or sometimes more difficult. Some epidemiological characteristics (diurnal or nocturnal bite, seasonality) and specific clinical presentation (single or multiple bites, linear or grouped lesions) can be a great diagnostic help. Modern non-invasive tools (dermoscopy or confocal microscopy) will play an important role in the future but the eye and experience of the specialist (dermatologist, parasitologist, infectious disease specialist or entomologist) remains for the time the best way to guide or establish a diagnosis. For most skin parasites, therapeutic proposals are rarely based on studies of high level of evidence or randomized trials but more on expert recommendations or personal experience.

  13. [Masked orthographic priming in the recognition of written words: empirical data and theoretical prospects].

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reviews the main studies that have been conducted on the effects of masked orthographic priming in written word recognition. Empirical data accumulated over the last two decades are exposed by considering three factors that play a role in the effects of orthographic priming: prime lexicality, prime duration, and target and/or prime orthographic neighbourhood. The theoretical implications of these data are discussed in light of the two major frameworks of visual word recognition, the serial search and the interactive activation. As a whole, the interactive activation hypothesis seems to be more appropriate to account for the empirical data.

  14. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  15. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution.

    PubMed

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries.

  16. Experimental analysis of chaotic neural network models for combinatorial optimization under a unifying framework.

    PubMed

    Kwok, T; Smith, K A

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to study both the theoretical and experimental properties of chaotic neural network (CNN) models for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Previously we have proposed a unifying framework which encompasses the three main model types, namely, Chen and Aihara's chaotic simulated annealing (CSA) with decaying self-coupling, Wang and Smith's CSA with decaying timestep, and the Hopfield network with chaotic noise. Each of these models can be represented as a special case under the framework for certain conditions. This paper combines the framework with experimental results to provide new insights into the effect of the chaotic neurodynamics of each model. By solving the N-queen problem of various sizes with computer simulations, the CNN models are compared in different parameter spaces, with optimization performance measured in terms of feasibility, efficiency, robustness and scalability. Furthermore, characteristic chaotic neurodynamics crucial to effective optimization are identified, together with a guide to choosing the corresponding model parameters.

  17. Main Factors of Teachers' Professional Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to reveal the main factors of teachers' professional well being. Theoretically constructed model was tested on large scale data belong to 72.190 teachers working at lower secondary level. Theoretical model included teachers' individual, professional and organizational characteristics. Professional well-being…

  18. Relationships among Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory Frameworks via Factor Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Nidhi; Koran, Jennifer; Henn, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    There are well-defined theoretical differences between the classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) frameworks. It is understood that in the CTT framework, person and item statistics are test- and sample-dependent. This is not the perception with IRT. For this reason, the IRT framework is considered to be theoretically superior…

  19. Hospitality Invites Sociability, Which Builds Cohesion: a Model for the Role of Main Streets in Population Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Izenberg, Jacob M; Fullilove, Mindy Thompson

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of main streets to community social cohesion, a factor important to health. Prior work suggests that casual contact in public space, which we call "sociability," facilitates more sustained social bonds in the community. We appropriate the term "hospitality" to describe a main street's propensity to support a density of such social interactions. Hospitality is a result of the integrity and complex contents of the main street and surrounding area. We examine this using a typology we term "box-circle-line" to represent the streetscape (the box), the local neighborhood (the circle), and the relationship to the regional network of streets (the line). Through field visits to 50 main streets in New Jersey and elsewhere, and a systematic qualitative investigation of main streets in a densely interconnected urban region (Essex County, New Jersey), we observed significant variation in main street hospitality, which generally correlated closely with sociability. Physical elements such as street wall, neighborhood elements such as connectivity, inter-community elements such as access and perceived welcome, and socio-political elements such as investment and racial discrimination were identified as relevant to main street hospitality. We describe the box-circle-line as a theoretical model for main street hospitality that links these various factors and provides a viable framework for further research into main street hospitality, particularly with regard to geographic health disparities.

  20. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  1. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-06-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell's theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks.

  2. Some thoughts on theoretical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-12-01

    Some thoughts are presented on the inter-relation between beauty and truth in science in general and theoretical physics in particular. Some conjectural procedures that can be used to create new ideas, concepts and results are illustrated in both Boltzmann-Gibbs and nonextensive statistical mechanics. The sociological components of scientific progress and its unavoidable and benefic controversies are, mainly through existing literary texts, briefly addressed as well. Short essay based on the plenary talk given at the International Workshop on Trends and Perspectives in Extensive and Non-Extensive Statistical Mechanics, held in November 19-21, 2003, in Angra dos Reis, Brazil.

  3. Theoretical evaluation of zeolite confinement effects on the reactivity of bulky intermediates.

    PubMed

    Lesthaeghe, David; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Waroquier, Michel

    2009-07-14

    Zeolites provide a unique setting for heterogeneous Brønsted acid catalysis, because the effects of the surrounding framework on fundamental reaction kinetics go well beyond what would be expected for a mere reaction flask. This aspect becomes very pronounced when bulky molecules form key intermediates for the reaction under study, which is exactly when the interaction between the framework and the intermediate is maximal. We will use the example of methanol-to-olefin conversion (MTO), and, more specifically, the constant interplay between the inorganic host framework and the organic hydrocarbon pool co-catalyst, to illustrate how zeolite confinement directly influences catalytic reaction rates. Theoretical calculations are used to isolate and quantify these specific effects, with the main focus on methylbenzenes in ZSM-5, as the archetypical MTO catalyst. This review intends to give an overview of recent theoretical insights, which have proven to provide an ideal complementary tool to experimental investigations. In addition, we will also introduce the role of zeolite breathing in activating a catalytic cycle.

  4. Vulnerability Evaluation Framework

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the Vulnerability Evaluation Framework, which provides policy-makers, stakeholders, industry, and the public with a transparent framework to evaluate vulnerabilities associated with geologic sequestration sites.

  5. The Open-Ended Approach Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a pedagogical framework that teachers can use to support students who are engaged in solving open-ended problems, by explaining how two Japanese expert teachers successfully apply open-ended problems in their mathematics class. The Open-Ended Approach (OPA) framework consists of two main sections: Understanding Mathematical…

  6. Information Theoretic Causal Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-12

    his 1969 paper, Clive Granger , British economist and Nobel laureate, proposed a statistical def- inition of causality between stochastic processes. It...showed that the directed infor- mation, an information theoretic quantity, quantifies Granger causality . We also explored a more pessimistic setup...Final Technical Report Project Title: Information Theoretic Causal Coordination AFOSR Award Number: AF FA9550-10-1-0345 Reporting Period: July 15

  7. Theoretical and computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Meuwly, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Computer-based and theoretical approaches to chemical problems can provide atomistic understanding of complex processes at the molecular level. Examples ranging from rates of ligand-binding reactions in proteins to structural and energetic investigations of diastereomers relevant to organo-catalysis are discussed in the following. They highlight the range of application of theoretical and computational methods to current questions in chemical research.

  8. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  9. 6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. Metabolic engineering from a cybernetic perspective. 1. Theoretical preliminaries

    PubMed

    Varner; Ramkrishna

    1999-05-01

    The theoretical basis of a cybernetic metabolic network design and analysis framework, which has been subsequently successfully applied to predict system response to genetic alteration, is presented. This conceptual methodology consists of three main branches, namely, a model realization framework, a representation of genetic alteration, and lastly, a metabolic design component. These concepts are introduced as a series of postulates that describe the basic tenets of the approach. Each branch is discussed in turn, starting with the cybernetic representation of arbitrarily complex metabolic networks. A set of postulates is put forth that affords the modular construction of cybernetic models of metabolic networks using as a base a library of elementary pathways. This is followed by a discussion of the representation of genetic alterations within the cybernetic framework. It is postulated that the objective of the base network and the altered system are identical (at least on the time scale required for the organism to "learn" new objectives). This implies, with respect to resource allocation, that the base network and its genetically altered counterpart may still be treated as optimal systems; however, the set of competing physiological choices open to the altered network expands or contracts depending upon the nature of the genetic perturbation. Lastly, to add a predictive design aspect to the methodology, we present a set of postulates that outline the application of metabolic control analysis to cybernetic model systems. We postulate that sensitivity coefficients computed from a cybernetic model, although still local in scope, have the added benefit of a systematic representation of regulatory function as described by the cybernetic variables. Thus, information gained from sensitivity measurements stemming from a cybernetic model include the explicit input of metabolic regulation, a component that is lacking in a purely kinetic representation of metabolic function

  11. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  12. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Andrew; Schmaltz, Martin; Katz, Emmanuel; Rebbi, Claudio; Glashow, Sheldon; Brower, Richard; Pi, So-Young

    2016-09-30

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  13. [Once again: theoretical pathology].

    PubMed

    Bleyl, U

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical pathology refers to the attempt to reintroduce methodical approaches from the humanities, philosophical logic and "gestalt philosophy" into medical research and pathology. Diseases, in particular disease entities and more complex polypathogenetic mechanisms of disease, have a "gestalt quality" due to the significance of their pathophysiologic coherence: they have a "gestalt". The Research group Theoretical Pathology at the Academy of Science in Heidelberg are credited with having revitalized the philosophical notion of "gestalt" for morphological and pathological diagnostics. Gestalt means interrelated schemes of pathophysiological significance in the mind of the diagnostician. In pathology, additive and associative diagnostic are simply not possible without considering the notion of synthetic entities in Kant's logic.

  14. Information Theoretic Criteria for Observation-to-Observation Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, I.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.; Schumacher, P.

    2014-09-01

    There are three types of data association problems. The first is the observation-to-track association (OTTA) problem, where given an observation with some known measurement statistics and a set of existing candidate (uncertain) resident space object (RSO) tracks the analyst seeks to associate each observation with a unique track (or none). The second association problem is where we have multiple tracks at different time instances and wish to determine whether any of the tracks belong to the same RSO. This is the track-to-track association (TTTA) problem. The final association problem is where we are given a set observations at different time instances and wish to determine which of these observations were generated by the same RSO. This is the observation-to-observation association (OTOA) problem. The focus of our paper is the OTOA problem. In this paper, we tackle the OTOA problem by using an appropriate initial orbit determination (IOD) method as well as criteria from information theory. The two main criteria we use in this paper are mutual information and information divergence. We demonstrate how these two criteria can beused within an unscented transform framework as well as with a particle-based approach. The information theoretic solutions described in this paper can be adjusted to address the other (OTTA and TTTA) association problems, which will be the focus of future research. We will demonstrate the main result in simulation.

  15. Self, College Experiences, and Society: Rethinking the Theoretical Foundations of Student Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the psychological theoretical foundations of college student development theory and the theoretical assumptions of this framework. A complimentary, sociological perspective and the theoretical assumptions of this approach are offered. The potential limitations of the overuse of each perspective are considered. The conclusion…

  16. Theoretical models for trace gas preconcentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihyun

    2013-11-01

    Muntz et al., in 2004 and 2011, had attempted to describe theoretical models about the shape of a main flow channel and the concentration ratio of trace gas for a Continuous Flow-Through Trace Gas Preconcentrator by concepts of net flux and mass flow rate respectively. The possibilities were suggested to obtain theoretical models for the preconcentrator even through they were not satisfied with experimental results, because the theoretical models were only considered for free molecular flow. In this study, new theoretical models based on net flux and mass flow rate have been applied for each regime; free molecular flow, transition flow, and hydrodynamic flow. There are comprehensive numerical models to describe entire regimes with the new theoretical models induced by mass flow rate, but the new theoretical models induced by net flux can be only obtained for the hydrodynamic flow. The numerical predictions were compared with existing experimental results of the prototype of the preconcentrator. The numerical predictions of hydrodynamic and transition flows by mass flow rate were close to the experimental results, but other cases were different to the experimental data. Nevertheless, the theoretical models can provide the possibility to develop the theory of preconcentrator.

  17. Computational and theoretical methods for protein folding.

    PubMed

    Compiani, Mario; Capriotti, Emidio

    2013-12-03

    A computational approach is essential whenever the complexity of the process under study is such that direct theoretical or experimental approaches are not viable. This is the case for protein folding, for which a significant amount of data are being collected. This paper reports on the essential role of in silico methods and the unprecedented interplay of computational and theoretical approaches, which is a defining point of the interdisciplinary investigations of the protein folding process. Besides giving an overview of the available computational methods and tools, we argue that computation plays not merely an ancillary role but has a more constructive function in that computational work may precede theory and experiments. More precisely, computation can provide the primary conceptual clues to inspire subsequent theoretical and experimental work even in a case where no preexisting evidence or theoretical frameworks are available. This is cogently manifested in the application of machine learning methods to come to grips with the folding dynamics. These close relationships suggested complementing the review of computational methods within the appropriate theoretical context to provide a self-contained outlook of the basic concepts that have converged into a unified description of folding and have grown in a synergic relationship with their computational counterpart. Finally, the advantages and limitations of current computational methodologies are discussed to show how the smart analysis of large amounts of data and the development of more effective algorithms can improve our understanding of protein folding.

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukan, Natalia; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role…

  19. A Theoretical Trombone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    What follows is a description of a theoretical model designed to calculate the playing frequencies of the musical pitches produced by a trombone. The model is based on quantitative treatments that demonstrate the effects of the flaring bell and cup-shaped mouthpiece sections on these frequencies and can be used to calculate frequencies that…

  20. A Future-Oriented Retirement Transition Adjustment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl; Griffin, Barbara; Loh, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This theoretical paper presents a person-environment fit framework that extends the Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment to retirement transition and adjustment. The proposed Retirement Transition and Adjustment Framework (RTAF) also accommodates dynamic intra-individual and environment change over time, configural combinations of variables, and an…

  1. Mid-Career Counseling--A Model Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Placement Council, Bethlehem, PA.

    This model framework consists of client-centered strategies that can help the mid-career changer explore options. The framework presented in this document integrates theoretical and practical applications and can be adapted for use by a variety of campuses to meet the needs of the campus' adult population through individual or group counseling.…

  2. Taking a geometric look at the socio-political functioning schemes of the living. Catastrophe theory and theoretical sociology.

    PubMed

    Morier, Clément

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this communication is to consider morphological processes in sociology, mainly through the study of the stability of forms of sociality. At the same time, it aims to study the regulation of constraints, related to an increasingly conflictual environment, through political organization. We use a specific theoretical framework: the catastrophe theory developed by René Thom in topology, further developed by Claude Bruter from a physics point of view, and reworked by Jacques Viret in biology. The idea is to show the existence of archetypal processes organizing social forms.

  3. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks.

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-03-26

    framework. The framework proposed in this paper can act as a theoretical guide for academic researchers and institutions to set up their own public health capacity assessment. Significance for public healthAs the concept of public health capacities is increasingly debated across countries and national/ international organizations, there is no consensus on the main dimensions of public health capacity. This paper therefore provides a rigorous review of currently existing frameworks, which describe public health capacities at the national or regional level. The main objective is to highlight commonalities among these frameworks, and propose a country-level framework which integrates all reoccurring dimensions. Such a comparison can yield vital information on those dimensions for public health capacities, which are common across all frameworks, and hence could be considered indispensable, irrespective of their context or geographic origin. As such, this review and the subsequent presentation of a conceptual framework is targeted at academic researchers and policy makers, who are interested in setting up a capacity mapping process and who are looking for concepts and frameworks on which they can base their work.

  4. A General Framework of Human Trust in Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    information dominance and complete mission objectives. Soldiers must possess a sufficient amount of trust in networks for adequate mission performance. We are investigating human trust in tactical networks by establishing a theoretical framework for analysis and an approach for validation of the framework. We identify reliability and availability as network parameters that define the relationship between quality of service performance and human trust in networks. A general framework is being developed for human trust in networks, which combines singular elements of trust

  5. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  6. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  7. A theoretical trombone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2014-09-01

    What follows is a description of a theoretical model designed to calculate the playing frequencies of the musical pitches produced by a trombone. The model is based on quantitative treatments that demonstrate the effects of the flaring bell and cup-shaped mouthpiece sections on these frequencies and can be used to calculate frequencies that compare well to both the desired frequencies of the musical pitches and those actually played on a real trombone.

  8. Theoretical Approaches to Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, Krzysztof

    Nanoparticles can be viewed as wave resonators. Involved waves are, for example, carrier waves, plasmon waves, polariton waves, etc. A few examples of successful theoretical treatments that follow this approach are given. In one, an effective medium theory of a nanoparticle composite is presented. In another, plasmon polaritonic solutions allow to extend concepts of radio technology, such as an antenna and a coaxial transmission line, to the visible frequency range.

  9. Panorama of theoretical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimouni, J.

    2012-06-01

    We shall start this panorama of theoretical physics by giving an overview of physics in general, this branch of knowledge that has been taken since the scientific revolution as the archetype of the scientific discipline. We shall then proceed in showing in what way theoretical physics from Newton to Maxwell, Einstein, Feynman and the like, in all modesty, could be considered as the ticking heart of physics. By its special mode of inquiry and its tantalizing successes, it has capturing the very spirit of the scientific method, and indeed it has been taken as a role model by other disciplines all the way from the "hard" ones to the social sciences. We shall then review how much we know today of the world of matter, both in term of its basic content and in the way it is structured. We will then present the dreams of today's theoretical physics as a way of penetrating into its psyche, discovering in this way its aspirations and longing in much the same way that a child's dreams tell us about his yearning and craving. Yet our understanding of matter has been going in the past decades through a crisis of sort. As a necessary antidote, we shall thus discuss the pitfalls of dreams pushed too far….

  10. Theoretical Developments in SUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I will review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry.

  11. TIMSS 2007 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Ruddock, Graham J.; O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Arora, Alka; Erberber, Ebru

    2005-01-01

    Developing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 Assessment Frameworks represents an extensive collaborative effort involving individuals and expert groups from more than 60 countries around the world. The document contains three frameworks for implementing TIMSS 2007--the Mathematics Framework, the Science…

  12. Choices, Frameworks and Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Islam, Nayeem; Johnson, Ralph; Kougiouris, Panos; Madany, Peter

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. We describe how we used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system.

  13. A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane; Keen, Justin; Wilson, Lyn; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Dealey, Carol; Stubbs, Nikki; Farrin, Amanda; Dowding, Dawn; Schols, Jos MGA; Cuddigan, Janet; Berlowitz, Dan; Jude, Edward; Vowden, Peter; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Bader, Dan L; Gefen, Amit; Oomens, Cees WJ; Nelson, E Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Aim This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Background Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. Design Discussion Paper. Data Sources The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010–2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). Implications for Nursing A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. Conclusion By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research. PMID:24684197

  14. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  15. Maine Indians: A Brief Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The Indians of Maine, descendants of Algonquian linguistic stock, number approximately 1800 and reside on 3 reservations totalling 22,600 acres of land. Most of the reservation land is forested, with important economic and recreational advantages in terms of timber production and hunting and fishing opportunities. In 1965, Maine became the first…

  16. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  17. Masochism: a clinical and theoretical overview.

    PubMed

    Sack, R L; Miller, W

    1975-08-01

    This paper will review some of the theoretical and clinical features of masochism from an eclectic point of view. The topic of masochism has been taken up by authors of many perspectives because it addresses one of the anomalous, absurd, difficult-to-explain aspects of behavior for which no psychological system has an easy answer. Therefore, a wide-ranging literature on the topic of masochism is available. However, few previous reviewers have attempted to draw from a variety of disciplines and theoretical frameworks. In this review the historical development of the term and some of the psychoanalytic conceptualizations will be presented first. Since previous reviews of masochism from a strictly psychoanalytic perspective are adequate (Brenner, 1959; Eisenbud, 1967; Fenichel, 1945; Loewenstein, 1957; Panken, 1967), our discussions of masochism will be developed employing more extensively the interpersonal, social, learning theory, and biological perspectives.

  18. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  19. Graph-theoretic strengths of contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, Nadish

    2017-03-01

    Cabello-Severini-Winter and Abramsky-Hardy (building on the framework of Abramsky-Brandenburger) both provide classes of Bell and contextuality inequalities for very general experimental scenarios using vastly different mathematical techniques. We review both approaches, carefully detail the links between them, and give simple, graph-theoretic methods for finding inequality-free proofs of nonlocality and contextuality and for finding states exhibiting strong nonlocality and/or contextuality. Finally, we apply these methods to concrete examples in stabilizer quantum mechanics relevant to understanding contextuality as a resource in quantum computation.

  20. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  1. Theoretical Astrophysics at Fermilab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Theoretical Astrophysics Group works on a broad range of topics ranging from string theory to data analysis in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The group is motivated by the belief that a deep understanding of fundamental physics is necessary to explain a wide variety of phenomena in the universe. During the three years 2001-2003 of our previous NASA grant, over 120 papers were written; ten of our postdocs went on to faculty positions; and we hosted or organized many workshops and conferences. Kolb and collaborators focused on the early universe, in particular and models and ramifications of the theory of inflation. They also studied models with extra dimensions, new types of dark matter, and the second order effects of super-horizon perturbations. S tebbins, Frieman, Hui, and Dodelson worked on phenomenological cosmology, extracting cosmological constraints from surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They also worked on theoretical topics such as weak lensing, reionization, and dark energy. This work has proved important to a number of experimental groups [including those at Fermilab] planning future observations. In general, the work of the Theoretical Astrophysics Group has served as a catalyst for experimental projects at Fennilab. An example of this is the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Fennilab is now a member of SNAP, and much of the work done here is by people formerly working on the accelerator. We have created an environment where many of these people made transition from physics to astronomy. We also worked on many other topics related to NASA s focus: cosmic rays, dark matter, the Sunyaev-Zel dovich effect, the galaxy distribution in the universe, and the Lyman alpha forest. The group organized and hosted a number of conferences and workshop over the years covered by the grant. Among them were:

  2. M dwarfs: Theoretical work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, Dermott J.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical work on the atmospheres of M dwarfs has progressed along lines parallel to those followed in the study of other classes of stars. Such models have become increasingly sophisticated as improvements in opacities, in the equation of state, and in the treatment of convection were incorporated during the last 15 to 20 years. As a result, spectrophotometric data on M dwarfs can now be fitted rather well by current models. The various attempts at modeling M dwarf photospheres in purely thermal terms are summarized. Some extensions of these models to include the effects of microturbulence and magnetic inhomogeneities are presented.

  3. Theoretical Optics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, Hartmann

    2005-02-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researchers.

  4. Theoretical Aspects of Dromedaryfoil.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    Seginer were taken on a Yoshihara "A" supercritical airfoil. Steinle and Gross used a 64A010 airfoil. All the data points lie within the theoretical...experimental data that for the same airfoil, either 64A410 or 64A010 , the higher the angle of attack, the sooner the limiting pressure is reached. The...shock 13 Stivers, L.S., Jr., "Effects of Subsonic Mach Numbers on the Forces and Pressure Distributions on Four NACA 64A-Series Airfoil Sections at

  5. Contextual analysis framework for bursty dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Pan, Raj Kumar; Perotti, Juan I.; Kaski, Kimmo

    2013-06-01

    To understand the origin of bursty dynamics in natural and social processes we provide a general analysis framework in which the temporal process is decomposed into subprocesses and then the bursts in subprocesses, called contextual bursts, are combined to collective bursts in the original process. For the combination of subprocesses, it is required to consider the distribution of different contexts over the original process. Based on minimal assumptions for interevent time statistics, we present a theoretical analysis for the relationship between contextual and collective interevent time distributions. Our analysis framework helps to exploit contextual information available in decomposable bursty dynamics.

  6. Geospatial evaluations of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maine consistently ranks in the top ten potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production areas though yields are substantially lower than the mid- and western USA. Geospatial frameworks help resolve patterns and trends in production environments (at multiple scales) that may enable improvements in adaptive ...

  7. CLARA: CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyurgyan, V.; Mancilla, S.; Oyarzún, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we present SOA based CLAS12 event Reconstruction and Analyses (CLARA) framework. CLARA design focus is on two main traits: real-time data stream processing, and service-oriented architecture (SOA) in a flow based programming (FBP) paradigm. Data driven and data centric architecture of CLARA presents an environment for developing agile, elastic, multilingual data processing applications. The CLARA framework presents solutions capable of processing large volumes of data interactively and substantially faster than batch systems.

  8. CLARA: CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Gyurjyan, Vardan; Matta, Sebastian Mancilla; Oyarzun, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present SOA based CLAS12 event Reconstruction and Analyses (CLARA) framework. CLARA design focus is on two main traits: real-time data stream processing, and service-oriented architecture (SOA) in a flow based programming (FBP) paradigm. Data driven and data centric architecture of CLARA presents an environment for developing agile, elastic, multilingual data processing applications. The CLARA framework presents solutions capable of processing large volumes of data interactively and substantially faster than batch systems.

  9. Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

  10. Theoretical ecology without species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail

    The sequencing-driven revolution in microbial ecology demonstrated that discrete ``species'' are an inadequate description of the vast majority of life on our planet. Developing a novel theoretical language that, unlike classical ecology, would not require postulating the existence of species, is a challenge of tremendous medical and environmental significance, and an exciting direction for theoretical physics. Here, it is proposed that community dynamics can be described in a naturally hierarchical way in terms of population fluctuation eigenmodes. The approach is applied to a simple model of division of labor in a multi-species community. In one regime, effective species with a core and accessory genome are shown to naturally appear as emergent concepts. However, the same model allows a transition into a regime where the species formalism becomes inadequate, but the eigenmode description remains well-defined. Treating a community as a black box that expresses enzymes in response to resources reveals mathematically exact parallels between a community and a single coherent organism with its own fitness function. This coherence is a generic consequence of division of labor, requires no cooperative interactions, and can be expected to be widespread in microbial ecosystems. Harvard Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications;John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  11. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1993-06-01

    The author both reviews and makes the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the [open quotes]standard model[close quotes] of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for [open quotes]new physics.[close quotes] The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10[sup [minus]6]--10[sup [minus]4] eV), a light neutrino (20--90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. The author briefly mentions more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. 119 refs.

  12. Dark matter: theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, M S

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the "standard model" of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for "new physics." The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10(-6)-10(-4) eV), a light neutrino (20-90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV-2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. PMID:11607395

  13. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. |

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  14. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. . Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  15. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance.

  16. Theoretical Models of Parental HIV Disclosure: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    This review critically examined three major theoretical models related to parental HIV disclosure (i.e., the Four-Phase Model, the Disclosure Decision Making Model, and the Disclosure Process Model), and the existing studies that could provide empirical support to these models or their components. For each model, we briefly reviewed its theoretical background, described its components and or mechanisms, and discussed its strengths and limitations. The existing empirical studies supported most theoretical components in these models. However, hypotheses related to the mechanisms proposed in the models have not yet tested due to a lack of empirical evidence. This review also synthesized alternative theoretical perspectives and new issues in disclosure research and clinical practice that may challenge the existing models. The current review underscores the importance of including components related to social and cultural contexts in theoretical frameworks, and calls for more adequately designed empirical studies in order to test and refine existing theories and to develop new ones. PMID:22866903

  17. The Theoretical Foundation for Intercultural Business Communication: A Conceptual Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Iris I.

    2000-01-01

    Develops a theoretical framework for intercultural business communication which sets it apart from intercultural communication and international business. Presents a model that discusses the intercultural, business, and communication strategies that are part of intercultural business communication. Examines how past articles in the field fit into…

  18. Principles of Reform and Reforming Principal Training: A Theoretical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.; Ginsberg, Rick

    1995-01-01

    Examines reform debates in educational administration training programs using a theoretical framework derived from Thomas Kuhn's notion of paradigm. Most administrator training programs in the United States are characterized as hybrid/preparadigm departments unlikely to undertake fundamental changes. Using a collaborative school leadership program…

  19. Understanding Literacy: Theoretical Foundations for Research in Media Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Lori

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the major scholarship of Harold Innis, Eric Havelock, Marshall McLuhan, Jack Goody, Walter Ong and Elizabeth Eisenstein, as they focused on the development of writing systems, and later, printing. Discusses how their theoretical frameworks are central to understanding media ecology, an emerging field of interdisciplinary study for…

  20. Presenting a Theoretical Model of Four Conceptions of Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Aviv

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual study will question the ways different epistemological conceptions of citizenship and education influence the characteristics of civic education. While offering a new theoretical framework, the different undercurrent conceptions that lay at the base of the civic education process shall be brought forth. With the use of the method…

  1. Building a Theoretical Model of Metacognitive Processes in Complex Modeling Activities: A Window into the Development of Students' Metacognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Rae

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical model of metacognition in complex modeling activities has been developed based on existing frameworks, by synthesizing the re-conceptualization of metacognition at multiple levels by looking at the three sources that trigger metacognition. Using the theoretical model as a framework, this study was designed to explore how students'…

  2. A framework to analyse gender bias in epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz‐Cantero, María Teresa; Vives‐Cases, Carmen; Artazcoz, Lucía; Delgado, Ana; del Mar García Calvente, Maria; Miqueo, Consuelo; Montero, Isabel; Ortiz, Rocío; Ronda, Elena; Ruiz, Isabel; Valls, Carme

    2007-01-01

    The design and analysis of research may cause systematic gender dependent errors to be produced in results because of gender insensitivity or androcentrism. Gender bias in research could be defined as a systematically erroneous gender dependent approach related to social construct, which incorrectly regards women and men as similar/different. Most gender bias can be found in the context of discovery (development of hypotheses), but it has also been found in the context of justification (methodological process), which must be improved. In fact, one of the main effects of gender bias in research is partial or incorrect knowledge in the results, which are systematically different from the real values. This paper discusses some forms of conceptual and methodological bias that may affect women's health. It proposes a framework to analyse gender bias in the design and analysis of research carried out on women's and men's health problems, and on specific women's health issues. Using examples, the framework aims to show the different theoretical perspectives in a social or clinical research context where forms of selection, measurement and confounding bias are produced as a result of gender insensitivity. Finally, this paper underlines the importance of re‐examining results so that they may be reinterpreted to produce new gender based knowledge. PMID:18000118

  3. A framework to analyse gender bias in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Artazcoz, Lucía; Delgado, Ana; García Calvente, Maria Mar; Miqueo, Consuelo; Montero, Isabel; Ortiz, Rocío; Ronda, Elena; Ruiz, Isabel; Valls, Carme

    2007-12-01

    The design and analysis of research may cause systematic gender dependent errors to be produced in results because of gender insensitivity or androcentrism. Gender bias in research could be defined as a systematically erroneous gender dependent approach related to social construct, which incorrectly regards women and men as similar/different. Most gender bias can be found in the context of discovery (development of hypotheses), but it has also been found in the context of justification (methodological process), which must be improved. In fact, one of the main effects of gender bias in research is partial or incorrect knowledge in the results, which are systematically different from the real values. This paper discusses some forms of conceptual and methodological bias that may affect women's health. It proposes a framework to analyse gender bias in the design and analysis of research carried out on women's and men's health problems, and on specific women's health issues. Using examples, the framework aims to show the different theoretical perspectives in a social or clinical research context where forms of selection, measurement and confounding bias are produced as a result of gender insensitivity. Finally, this paper underlines the importance of re-examining results so that they may be reinterpreted to produce new gender based knowledge.

  4. Verification of Gyrokinetic codes: theoretical background and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronko, Natalia

    2016-10-01

    In fusion plasmas the strong magnetic field allows the fast gyro motion to be systematically removed from the description of the dynamics, resulting in a considerable model simplification and gain of computational time. Nowadays, the gyrokinetic (GK) codes play a major role in the understanding of the development and the saturation of turbulence and in the prediction of the consequent transport. We present a new and generic theoretical framework and specific numerical applications to test the validity and the domain of applicability of existing GK codes. For a sound verification process, the underlying theoretical GK model and the numerical scheme must be considered at the same time, which makes this approach pioneering. At the analytical level, the main novelty consists in using advanced mathematical tools such as variational formulation of dynamics for systematization of basic GK code's equations to access the limits of their applicability. The indirect verification of numerical scheme is proposed via the Benchmark process. In this work, specific examples of code verification are presented for two GK codes: the multi-species electromagnetic ORB5 (PIC), and the radially global version of GENE (Eulerian). The proposed methodology can be applied to any existing GK code. We establish a hierarchy of reduced GK Vlasov-Maxwell equations using the generic variational formulation. Then, we derive and include the models implemented in ORB5 and GENE inside this hierarchy. At the computational level, detailed verification of global electromagnetic test cases based on the CYCLONE are considered, including a parametric β-scan covering the transition between the ITG to KBM and the spectral properties at the nominal β value.

  5. Theoretical analysis of ARC constriction

    SciTech Connect

    Stoenescu, M.L.; Brooks, A.W.; Smith, T.M.

    1980-12-01

    The physics of the thermionic converter is governed by strong electrode-plasma interactions (emissions surface scattering, charge exchange) and weak interactions (diffusion, radiation) at the maximum interelectrode plasma radius. The physical processes are thus mostly convective in thin sheaths in front of the electrodes and mostly diffusive and radiative in the plasma bulk. The physical boundaries are open boundaries to particle transfer (electrons emitted or absorbed by the electrodes, all particles diffusing through some maximum plasma radius) and to convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. In a first approximation the thermionic converter may be described by a one-dimensional classical transport theory. The two-dimensional effects may be significant as a result of the sheath sensitivity to radial plasma variations and of the strong sheath-plasma coupling. The current-voltage characteristic of the converter is thus the result of an integrated current density over the collector area for which the boundary conditions at each r determine the regime (ignited/unignited) of the local current density. A current redistribution strongly weighted at small radii (arc constriction) limits the converter performance and opens questions on constriction reduction possibilities. The questions addressed are the followng: (1) what are the main contributors to the loss of current at high voltage in the thermionic converter; and (2) is arc constriction observable theoretically and what are the conditions of its occurrence. The resulting theoretical problem is formulated and results are given. The converter electrical current is estimated directly from the electron and ion particle fluxes based on the spatial distribution of the electron/ion density n, temperatures T/sub e/, T/sub i/, electrical voltage V and on the knowledge of the transport coefficients. (WHK)

  6. Theoretical Model of Critical issues in Informed Consent in HIV Vaccine Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cindi A.; Dewhurst, Stephen; McMahon, James M.; Bunce, Catherine A.; Keefer, Michael C.; Alio, Amina P.

    2014-01-01

    The informed consent (IC) process for HIV vaccine trials poses unique challenges and would benefit from improvements to its historically-based structure and format. Here, we propose a theoretical framework that provides a basis for systematically evaluating and addressing these challenges. The proposed framework follows a linear pathway, starting with the precondition of voluntariness, three main variables of valid decision-making (competency, provision of information and understanding) and then the consequential outcome of either refusal or consent to participate. The existing literature reveals that culturally appropriate provision of information and resultant understanding by the vaccine trial participant are among the most significant factors influencing the authenticity of valid decision-making, though they may be overridden by other considerations, such as individual altruism, mistrust and HIV-related stigma. Community collaborations to foster bidirectional transmission of information and more culturally tailored consenting materials therefore represent a key opportunity to enhance the informed consent process. By providing a visual synopsis of the issues most critical to IC effectiveness in a categorical and relational manner, the framework provided here presents HIV vaccine researchers a tool by which the informed consent process can be more systematically evaluated and consequently improved. PMID:24865892

  7. Measuring user experience in digital gaming: theoretical and methodological issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatalo, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka; Kaistinen, Jyrki; Nyman, Göte

    2007-01-01

    There are innumerable concepts, terms and definitions for user experience. Few of them have a solid empirical foundation. In trying to understand user experience in interactive technologies such as computer games and virtual environments, reliable and valid concepts are needed for measuring relevant user reactions and experiences. Here we present our approach to create both theoretically and methodologically sound methods for quantification of the rich user experience in different digital environments. Our approach is based on the idea that the experience received from a content presented with a specific technology is always a result of a complex psychological interpretation process, which components should be understood. The main aim of our approach is to grasp the complex and multivariate nature of the experience and make it measurable. We will present our two basic measurement frameworks, which have been developed and tested in large data set (n=2182). The 15 measurement scales extracted from these models are applied to digital gaming with a head-mounted display and a table-top display. The results show how it is possible to map between experience, technology variables and the background of the user (e.g., gender). This approach can help to optimize, for example, the contents for specific viewing devices or viewing situations.

  8. SOCIO-EMOTIONAL AND CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT: A Theoretical Orientation.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Frank J

    More and more researchers are studying socio-emotional and character development (SECD). The rise and progress in SECD research is encouraging, but there is a critical issue with such a multidisciplinary and fast-developing field: SECD research and evaluation can be more consistent to prevent heterogeneity in definitions and disparate theoretical, measurement, and program models. After summarizing SECD-related literature, I recommend the theory of triadic influence (TTI) as a force to generate consistency and a resource to assist in guiding the design and evaluation of SECD-related programs. The theory fills a gulf in the literature that seeks an ecological theory aligned with SECD-related programs and etiology. The recommendation of the TTI stems from 3 main advantages: (1) The TTI integrates a full range of risk and protective factors in a detailed mediation and moderation framework; (2) it takes a comprehensive view of all the stakeholders in the educational system (i.e., youth, schools, families, and communities); (3) and its utility has been substantiated by empirical evidence from a variety of fields. I discuss applications of the TTI in SECD-related work and suggest improvements for etiology research and the design and evaluation of SECD programs.

  9. Re: Mental health rehabilitation in therapeutic jurisprudence: Theoretical improvements.

    PubMed

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Legal scholarship relevant to criminal court mental health initiatives that divert people with mental illness from prosecution to treatment has created the concept of therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ), an approach that seeks to maximize the law's potential for therapeutic outcomes. Despite recognition that TJ includes a rehabilitative response as a key animating principle and that it advocates for interdisciplinary synthesis, TJ has developed mainly from within the practice and discipline of law and without reference to the discipline of rehabilitation science, in which approaches to mental health rehabilitation (MHR) have witnessed significant developments in recent decades. In particular, concepts of MHR have shifted from a biomedical focus to a psychosocial approach, such as the recovery model, that incorporates values of self-determination, independence, and empowerment. It is argued that greater consideration of MHR will improve the theoretical validity of TJ by 1) helping define what 'therapeutic' means; 2) constructing a normative framework; and 3) broadening the scope of TJ as an interdisciplinary approach. More research is needed to ensure concepts from MHR rehabilitation science are considered in TJ legal scholarship and criminal court mental health initiatives.

  10. Theoretical Tools in Modeling Communication and Language Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreto, Vittorio

    Statistical physics has proven to be a very fruitful framework to describe phenomena outside the realm of traditional physics. In social phenomena, the basic constituents are not particles but humans and every individual interacts with a limited number of peers, usually negligible compared to the total number of people in the system. In spite of that, human societies are characterized by stunning global regularities that naturally call for a statistical physics approach to social behavior, i.e., the attempt to understand regularities at large scale as collective effects of the interaction among single individuals, considered as relatively simple entities. This is the paradigm of Complex Systems: an assembly of many interacting (and simple) units whose collective behavior is not trivially deducible from the knowledge of the rules governing their mutual interactions. In this chapter we review the main theoretical concepts and tools that physics can borrow to socially-motivated problems. Despite their apparent diversity, most research lines in social dynamics are actually closely connected from the point of view of both the methodologies employed and, more importantly, of the general phenomenological questions, e.g., what are the fundamental interaction mechanisms leading to the emergence of consensus on an issue, a shared culture, a common language or a collective motion?

  11. Theoretical Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    2013-08-07

    Abstract: Theoretical Particle Astrophysics The research carried out under this grant encompassed work on the early Universe, dark matter, and dark energy. We developed CMB probes for primordial baryon inhomogeneities, primordial non-Gaussianity, cosmic birefringence, gravitational lensing by density perturbations and gravitational waves, and departures from statistical isotropy. We studied the detectability of wiggles in the inflation potential in string-inspired inflation models. We studied novel dark-matter candidates and their phenomenology. This work helped advance the DoE's Cosmic Frontier (and also Energy and Intensity Frontiers) by finding synergies between a variety of different experimental efforts, by developing new searches, science targets, and analyses for existing/forthcoming experiments, and by generating ideas for new next-generation experiments.

  12. IBRD Operational Decision Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R; Hibbard, W; Raber, E; Carlsen, T; Folks, K; MacQueen, D; Mancieri, S; Bunt, T; Richards, J; Hirabayashi-Dethier, J

    2010-11-12

    The IBRD Operational Decision Framework in this document is an expansion of an emerging general risk management framework under development by an interagency working group. It provides the level of detail necessary to develop a general Consequence Management Guidance Document for biological contamination remediation and restoration. It is the intent of this document to support both wide area and individual site remediation and restoration activities. This product was initiated as a portion of the IBRD Task 1 Systems Analysis to aid in identification of wide area remediation and restoration shortcomings and gaps. The draft interagency general risk management framework was used as the basis for the analysis. The initial Task 1 analysis document expanded the draft interagency framework to a higher level of resolution, building on both the logic structure and the accompanying text explanations. It was then employed in a qualitative manner to identify responsible agencies, data requirements, tool requirements, and current capabilities for each decision and task. This resulted in identifying shortcomings and gaps needing resolution. Several meetings of a joint LLNL/SNL working group reviewed and approved the initial content of this analysis. At the conclusion of Task 1, work continued on the expanded framework to generate this Operational Decision Framework which is consistent with the existing interagency general risk management framework. A large LLNL task group met repeatedly over a three-month period to develop the expanded framework, coordinate the framework with the biological remediation checklist, and synchronize the logic with the Consequence Management Plan table of contents. The expanded framework was briefed at a large table top exercise reviewing the interagency risk management framework. This exercise had representation from major US metropolitan areas as well as national agencies. This product received positive comments from the participants. Upon

  13. Conceptualizing Environmental Refugees in Education: A Transformative Language-Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Environmental refugees are increasing worldwide. Consequently, a theoretical framework is necessary for conceptualizing them in education. This article breaks new ground by providing such a framework in education, in general, and bilingual-bicultural education, in particular. The framework is grounded in O'Sullivan's (1999, 2002) transformative…

  14. Theoretical approach of the main means of appeals in the European procedural law.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Oana M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge and understanding the means of appeals lodged before the courts of the European Union, limited only to the points of law, are very important taking into account the modality to control a judgment delivered by an inferior court exists since ancient times, being governed among others, by the Larin principle: res judicata pro veritate accipitur. In the following we will examine, in general, the judicial control of the judgments and orders delivered by the General Court and by the Civil Service Tribunal, as a specialized tribunal on civil servant issues, but also the sui generis means of appeals and the extraordinary means of reviews of the judgments and orders. We shall mention that all of them are exercised in accordance with the Rules of Procedure of the European courts and the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Another aspect to be mentioned is that the judjments of the Court of Justice cannot be challenged to another court, as they remain final and irrevocable.

  15. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 1: Main program. Part 1: Theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    The General Aviation synthesis program performs tasks generally associated with aircraft preliminary design and allows an analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner. GASP emphasizes small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying froma single piston engine with fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/ turbofan powered business or transport type aircraft. The program, which may be operated from a computer terminal in either the batch or interactive graphic mode, is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedure. The model is a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies, and assessing the impact of advanced technologies on aircraft performance and economics.

  16. Theoretical and experimental study of spectral characteristics of the photoacoustic signal from stochastically distributed particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohua; Tao, Chao; Yang, Yiqun; Wang, Xueding; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technique which inherits the merits of optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging. However, classical photoacoustic imaging mainly makes use of the time-domain parameters of signals. In contrast to previous studies, we theoretically investigate the spectral characteristics of the photoacoustic signal from stochastic distributed particles. The spectral slope is extracted and used for describing the spectral characteristics of the photoacoustic signal. Both Gaussian and spherical distributions of optical absorption in particles are considered. For both situations, the spectral slope is monotonically decreased with the increase of particle size. In addition, the quantitative relationship between the spectral slope and the imaging system factors, including the laser pulse envelope, directivity of ultrasound transducer, and signal bandwidth, are theoretically analyzed. Finally, an idealized phantom experiment is performed to validate the analyses and examine the instrument independent of the spectral slope. This work provides a theoretical framework and new experimental evidence for spectrum analysis of the photoacoustic signal. This could be helpful for quantitative tissue evaluation and imaging based on the spectral parameters of the photoacoustic signal.

  17. Group theoretical approach to nonlinear evolution equations of lax type III. The Boussinesq equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, D.; Olshanetsky, M. A.; Perelomov, A. M.; Ragnisco, O.

    1980-06-01

    Within the group theoretical framework recently proposed by Berezin and Perelomov, we are able to derive an abstract (operator) generalization of the classical Boussinesq equation, which possesses an infinite sequence of conserved quantities.

  18. Understanding childbirth practices as an organizational cultural phenomenon: a conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the main values and beliefs that might promote humanized birth practices in the specialized hospitals requires articulating the theoretical knowledge of the social and cultural characteristics of the childbirth field and the relations between these and the institution. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework allowing examination of childbirth practices through the lens of an organizational culture theory. A literature review performed to extrapolate the social and cultural factors contribute to birth practices and the factors likely overlap and mutually reinforce one another, instead of complying with the organizational culture of the birth place. The proposed conceptual framework in this paper examined childbirth patterns as an organizational cultural phenomenon in a highly specialized hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Allaire and Firsirotu’s organizational culture theory served as a guide in the development of the framework. We discussed the application of our conceptual model in understanding the influences of organizational culture components in the humanization of birth practices in the highly specialized hospitals and explained how these components configure both the birth practice and women’s choice in highly specialized hospitals. The proposed framework can be used as a tool for understanding the barriers and facilitating factors encountered birth practices in specialized hospitals. PMID:24215446

  19. Understanding childbirth practices as an organizational cultural phenomenon: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Misago, Chizuru

    2013-11-11

    Understanding the main values and beliefs that might promote humanized birth practices in the specialized hospitals requires articulating the theoretical knowledge of the social and cultural characteristics of the childbirth field and the relations between these and the institution. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework allowing examination of childbirth practices through the lens of an organizational culture theory. A literature review performed to extrapolate the social and cultural factors contribute to birth practices and the factors likely overlap and mutually reinforce one another, instead of complying with the organizational culture of the birth place. The proposed conceptual framework in this paper examined childbirth patterns as an organizational cultural phenomenon in a highly specialized hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Allaire and Firsirotu's organizational culture theory served as a guide in the development of the framework. We discussed the application of our conceptual model in understanding the influences of organizational culture components in the humanization of birth practices in the highly specialized hospitals and explained how these components configure both the birth practice and women's choice in highly specialized hospitals. The proposed framework can be used as a tool for understanding the barriers and facilitating factors encountered birth practices in specialized hospitals.

  20. A framework for modeling line-of-sight effects in strong gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeton, Charles R.; McCully, C.; Wong, K. C.; Zabludoff, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    In strong gravitational lens systems, the light bending is usually dominated by one main galaxy but may be affected by other objects along the line of sight (LOS). Perturbers projected far from the lens can be approximated with convergence and shear, but perturbers projected closer to the lens create higher-order effects and need to be treated individually. We present a theoretical framework for multi-plane lensing that can handle an arbitrary combination of planes with shear/convergence and planes with higher-order terms. We test our framework first using simulations with a single perturber to study where the shear approximation is not valid and where non-linear effects are important. We show that perturbers behind the lens galaxy can be treated as an effective shear in the main lens plane, but perturbers in front of the lens cannot be mimicked by such a shear. Applying this to realistic fields, we find that our LOS framework can reproduce the fitted lens properties and the Hubble Constant, H0, without bias and with scatter that is smaller than typical measurement uncertainties.

  1. Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.

    Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform…

  2. Maine's Approach to Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broyles, India L.; Krawic, Joanne

    This study of Maine schools inquires into efforts that have been made to internationalize the curriculum. Specifically, the researchers were interested in how curricular goals and organization contribute to an understanding of global society. The efforts to internationalize the curriculum upon which the researchers focused included the…

  3. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Maine Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Maine state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  4. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  5. High frequency variations of the main magnetic field: convergence of observations and theory (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jault, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the main magnetic field variations has been hindered by the discrepancy between the periods (from months to years) of the simplest linear wave phenomena and the relatively long time intervals (10 to 100 years) over which magnetic field changes can be confidently monitored. A theoretical description of short-period waves within the Earth's fluid core is at hand. Quasi-geostrophic inertial waves (akin to Rossby waves in the atmosphere) are slightly modified in the presence of magnetic fields and torsional oscillations consist of differential motion between coaxial rigid cylindrical annuli. Torsional oscillations are sensitive to the whole magnetic field that they shear in the course of their propagation. From their modelling, we have thus gained an estimate for the magnetic field strength in the core interior. There is now ongoing work to extend the theoretical framework to longer times. Furthermore, data collected from the Swarm constellation of three satellites to be launched this year by ESA will permit to better separate the internal and external magnetic signals. We may thus dream to detect quasi-geostrophic inertial waves. As the spectral ranges of theoretical models and observations begin to overlap, we can now go beyond the understanding of the magnetic field variations as the juxtaposition of partial models, arranged as a set of nested Matryoshka dolls. This talk will give illustrations for this statement, among which the question of induction in the lower mantle.

  6. A comparison of justice frameworks for international research.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2015-07-01

    Justice frameworks have been developed for international research that provide guidance on the selection of research targets, ancillary care, research capacity strengthening, and post-trial benefits. Yet there has been limited comparison of the different frameworks. This paper examines the underlying aims and theoretical bases of three such frameworks--the fair benefits framework, the human development approach and research for health justice--and considers how their aims impact their guidance on the aforementioned four ethical issues. It shows that the frameworks' underlying objectives vary across two dimensions. First, whether they seek to prevent harmful or exploitative international research or to promote international research with health benefits for low and middle-income countries. Second, whether they address justice at the micro level or the macro level. The fair benefits framework focuses on reforming contractual elements in individual international research collaborations to ensure fairness, whereas the other two frameworks aim to connect international research with the reduction of global health inequities. The paper then highlights where there is overlap between the frameworks' requirements and where differences in the strength and content of the obligations they identify arise as a result of their varying objectives and theoretical bases. In doing so, it does not offer a critical comparison of the frameworks but rather seeks to add clarity to current debates on justice and international research by showing how they are positioned relative to one another.

  7. Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis - Maine, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-09-25

    Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are rickettsial tickborne diseases that have had at least a twofold increase in prevalence in the United States since 2000. Despite similar clinical presentations, the causative organisms are carried by different ticks with distinct geographic and ecologic associations. Surveillance efforts are complicated by ambiguous terminology and serologic testing with antibody cross-reactivity. Although anaplasmosis historically has been reported in Maine, ehrlichiosis has been reported infrequently. During 2007-2008, the number of physician-reported anaplasmosis cases nearly doubled in Maine, and ehrlichiosis cases increased more than fourfold. To examine this increase, the Maine Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) analyzed available data on tick burden and physician-reported cases of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis during 2000-2008. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that Ixodes scapularis (the tick vector for Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was broadly distributed in Maine, whereas Amblyomma americanum (the tick vector for Erhlichia chaffeenisis) was scarce. Moreover, 95% of physician-reported ehrlichiosis cases lacked a concurrent serologic assessment to exclude anaplasmosis, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity might have resulted in misclassification. In 2008, Maine modified case classification to enhance specificity; ehrlichiosis cases that lack a concurrent test for anaplasmosis are now classified as suspect rather than probable and therefore are not included in national surveillance summaries. The accuracy of case classification and surveillance can be improved by educating health-care providers regarding 1) the expected geographic distribution of tick vectors and 2) recommendations for confirmatory testing to distinguish between the causative organisms of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis.

  8. Topics in theoretical astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao

    This thesis presents a study of various interesting problems in theoretical astrophysics, including gravitational wave astronomy, gamma ray bursts and cosmology. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 explore prospects for detecting gravitational waves from stellar-mass compact objects spiraling into intermediate-mass black holes with ground-based observatories. It is shown in chapter 2 that if the central body is not a BH but its metric is stationary, axisymmetric, reflection symmetric and asymptotically flat, then the waves will likely be triperiodic, as for a BH. Chapters 3 and 4 show that the evolutions of the waves' three fundamental frequencies and of the complex amplitudes of their spectral components encode (in principle) details of the central body's metric, the energy and angular momentum exchange between the central body and the orbit, and the time-evolving orbital elements. Chapter 5 studies a local readout method to enhance the low frequency sensitivity of detuned signal-recycling interferometers. We provide both the results of improvement in quantum noise and the implementation details in Advanced LIGO. Chapter 6 applies and generalizes causal Wiener filter to data analysis in macroscopic quantum mechanical experiments. With the causal Wiener filter method, we demonstrate that in theory we can put the test masses in the interferometer to its quantum mechanical ground states. Chapter 7 presents some analytical solutions for expanding fireballs, the common theoretical model for gamma ray bursts and soft gamma ray repeaters. We apply our results to SGR 1806-20 and rediscover the mismatch between the model and the afterglow observations. Chapter 8 discusses the reconstruction of the scalar-field potential of the dark energy. We advocate direct reconstruction of the scalar field potential as a way to minimize prior assumptions on the shape, and thus minimize the introduction of bias in the derived potential. Chapter 9 discusses gravitational lensing modifications to cosmic

  9. A Review of Telehealth Service Implementation Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    van Dyk, Liezl

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential of telehealth services to increase the quality and accessibility of healthcare, the success rate of such services has been disappointing. The purpose of this paper is to find and compare existing frameworks for the implementation of telehealth services that can contribute to the success rate of future endeavors. After a thorough discussion of these frameworks, this paper outlines the development methodologies in terms of theoretical background, methodology and validation. Finally, the common themes and formats are identified for consideration in future implementation. It was confirmed that a holistic implementation approach is needed, which includes technology, organizational structures, change management, economic feasibility, societal impacts, perceptions, user-friendliness, evaluation and evidence, legislation, policy and governance. Furthermore, there is some scope for scientifically rigorous framework development and validation approaches. PMID:24464237

  10. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Marian A; Lindemann, Hilde

    2011-02-01

    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical resources that are up to the task. This paper identifies four distinct understandings of 'globalised' in the bioethics literature: (1) a focus on global issues; (2) an attempt to develop a universal ethical theory that can transcend cultural differences; (3) an awareness of how bioethics itself has expanded, with new centres and journals emerging in nearly every corner of the globe; (4) a concern to avoid cultural imperialism in encounters with other societies. Each of these approaches to globalisation has some merit, as will be shown. The difficulty with them is that the standard theoretical tools on which they rely are not designed for cross-cultural ethical reflection. As a result, they leave important considerations hidden. A set of theoretical resources is proposed to deal with the moral puzzles of globalisation. Abandoning idealised moral theory, a normative framework is developed that is sensitive enough to account for differences without losing the broader context in which ethical issues arise. An empirically nourished, self-reflexive, socially inquisitive, politically critical and inclusive ethics allows bioethicists the flexibility they need to pick up on the morally relevant particulars of this situation here without losing sight of the broader cultural contexts in which it all takes place.

  11. Frameworks of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This paper, written from a 20th-century perspective, traces the development of, and influences on, the field of instructional technology and attempts to describe a framework within which we can better understand the field. [This article is based on "Instructional Technology: Contemporary Frameworks" originally written by the author for the…

  12. Overlooking the Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

  13. Unicam Activity Framework (UAF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, R.; Mauri, M.; Polzonetti, A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation illustrates the framework of processing performance of the faculty of the University of Camerino. The evaluation criteria are explained and the technological structure that allows automatic performance assessment available online anywhere and anytime. The designed framework is usually applied to the performance evaluation of…

  14. Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    pedigree information across communities-of-interest and across network boundaries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ptolemy II, Systems Dynamics, PMESII, National...3 4.2 ADAPT THE PTOLEMY II FRAMEWORK TO ENSURE A WELL-SUITED MODELING...report of activities in the Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework project performed by the Ptolemy Project, University of California, Berkeley for

  15. A category theoretical argument against the possibility of artificial life: Robert Rosen's central proof revisited.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dominique; Ho, Weng Kin

    2006-01-01

    One of Robert Rosen's main contributions to the scientific community is summarized in his book Life itself. There Rosen presents a theoretical framework to define living systems; given this definition, he goes on to show that living systems are not realizable in computational universes. Despite being well known and often cited, Rosen's central proof has so far not been evaluated by the scientific community. In this article we review the essence of Rosen's ideas leading up to his rejection of the possibility of real artificial life in silico. We also evaluate his arguments and point out that some of Rosen's central notions are ill defined. The conclusion of this article is that Rosen's central proof is wrong.

  16. Information Theoretic Shape Matching.

    PubMed

    Hasanbelliu, Erion; Giraldo, Luis Sanchez; Príncipe, José C

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we describe two related algorithms that provide both rigid and non-rigid point set registration with different computational complexity and accuracy. The first algorithm utilizes a nonlinear similarity measure known as correntropy. The measure combines second and high order moments in its decision statistic showing improvements especially in the presence of impulsive noise. The algorithm assumes that the correspondence between the point sets is known, which is determined with the surprise metric. The second algorithm mitigates the need to establish a correspondence by representing the point sets as probability density functions (PDF). The registration problem is then treated as a distribution alignment. The method utilizes the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence to measure the similarity/distance between the point sets and recover the spatial transformation function needed to register them. Both algorithms utilize information theoretic descriptors; however, correntropy works at the realizations level, whereas Cauchy-Schwarz divergence works at the PDF level. This allows correntropy to be less computationally expensive, and for correct correspondence, more accurate. The two algorithms are robust against noise and outliers and perform well under varying levels of distortion. They outperform several well-known and state-of-the-art methods for point set registration.

  17. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  18. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

  19. Reusable rocket engine intelligent control system framework design, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, ED; Anderson, Ron; Ols, Joe; Olsasky, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Elements of an advanced functional framework for reusable rocket engine propulsion system control are presented for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) demonstration case. Functional elements of the baseline functional framework are defined in detail. The SSME failure modes are evaluated and specific failure modes identified for inclusion in the advanced functional framework diagnostic system. Active control of the SSME start transient is investigated, leading to the identification of a promising approach to mitigating start transient excursions. Key elements of the functional framework are simulated and demonstration cases are provided. Finally, the advanced function framework for control of reusable rocket engines is presented.

  20. Adventures in theoretical astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Alison Jane

    This thesis is a tour of topics in theoretical astrophysics, unified by their diversity and their pursuit of physical understanding of astrophysical phenomena. In the first chapter, we raise the possibility of the detection of white dwarfs in transit surveys for extrasolar Earths, and discuss the peculiarities of detecting these more massive objects. A population synthesis calculation of the gravitational wave background from extragalactic binary stars is then presented. In this study, we establish a firm understanding of the uncertainties in such a calculation and provide a valuable reference for planning the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission. The long-established problem of cosmic ray confinement to the Galaxy is addressed in another chapter. We introduce a new wave damping mechanism, due to the presence of background turbulence, that prevents the confinement of cosmic rays by the resonant streaming instability. We also investigate the spokes in Saturn's B ring, an electrodynamic mystery that is being illuminated by new data sent back from the Cassini spacecraft. In particular, we present assessments of the presence of charged dust near the rings, and the size of currents and electric fields in the ring system. We make inferences from the Cassini discovery of oxygen ions above the rings. In addition, the previous leading theory for spoke formation is demonstrated to be unphysical. In the final chapter, we explain the wayward motions of Prometheus and Pandora, two small moons of Saturn. Previously found to be chaotic as a result of mutual interactions, we account for their behavior by analogy with a parametric pendulum. We caution that this behavior may soon enter a new regime.

  1. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  2. YNPS main coolant system decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, E.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) located in Rowe, Massachusetts, is a four-loop pressurized water reactor that permanently ceased power operation on February 26, 1992. Decommissioning activities, including steam generator removal, reactor internals removal, and system dismantlement, have been in progress since the shutdown. One of the most significant challenges for YNPS in 1996 was the performance of the main coolant system chemical decontamination. This paper describes the objectives, challenges, and achievements involved in the planning and implementation of the chemical decontamination.

  3. A Model of Resource Allocation in Public School Districts: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.

    This paper formulates a comprehensive model of resource allocation in a local public school district. The theoretical framework specified could be applied equally well to any number of local public social service agencies. Section 1 develops the theoretical model describing the process of resource allocation. This involves the determination of the…

  4. "The Integrity and Obstinacy of Intellectual Creations": Jurgen Habermas and Librarianship's Theoretical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschman, John

    2006-01-01

    Librarianship and library and information science (LIS) have long struggled with an ongoing lack of a theoretical and epistemological basis. There have been renewed efforts to explore various theoretical and philosophical positions and their meaning for librarianship and LIS research. This article explores the framework that Jurgen Habermas offers…

  5. A thermodynamical framework for chemically reacting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we develop a thermodynamic framework that is capable of describing the response of viscoelastic materials that are undergoing chemical reactions that takes into account stoichiometry. Of course, as a special sub-case, we can also describe the response of elastic materials that undergo chemical reactions. The study generalizes the framework developed by Rajagopal and co-workers to study the response of a disparate class of bodies undergoing entropy producing processes. One of the quintessential feature of this framework is that the second law of thermodynamics is formulated by introducing Gibbs' potential, which is the natural way to study problems involving chemical reactions. The Gibbs potential-based formulation also naturally leads to implicit constitutive equations for the stress tensor. Another feature of the framework is that the constraints due to stoichiometry can also be taken into account in a consistent manner. The assumption of maximization of the rate of entropy production due to dissipation, heat conduction, and chemical reactions is invoked to determine an equation for the evolution of the natural configuration κ p( t)( B), the heat flux vector and a novel set of equations for the evolution of the concentration of the chemical constituents. To determine the efficacy of the framework with regard to chemical reactions, those occurring during vulcanization, a challenging set of chemical reactions, are chosen. More than one type of reaction mechanism is considered and the theoretically predicted distribution of mono, di and polysulfidic cross-links agree reasonably well with available experimental data.

  6. Conductive open frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2016-02-23

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  7. [A proposal to combine Roy's conceptual framework with crisis theory].

    PubMed

    Luis, M V

    1990-04-01

    It is reported the crisis theory framework's and is proposed its linkage with the Callista Roy conceptual Model. The aim is to provide the nurse with an instrumental and theoretical framework of the knowledge of the person in crisis intervention. In this proposition is still suggested, a guide to nursing care. It is derived of both theories and exemplified by the author trough practice application.

  8. Zeolitic Boron Imidazolate Frameworks**

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Cong; Chen, Shumei; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-01-01

    From porous AlPO4 to porous BIFs Reported here are a family of crystalline materials based on boron imidazolate frameworks (BIFs). It is demonstrated that the synthetic method, which is based on the crosslinking of various pre-synthesized boron imidazolates by monovalent cations (Li+ and Cu+), is capable of generating a large variety of open frameworks ranging from the 4-connected zeolitic sodalite type to the 3-connected chiral (10,3)-a type. PMID:19241428

  9. Main Pipelines Corrosion Monitoring Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatoliy, Bazhenov; Galina, Bondareva; Natalia, Grivennaya; Sergey, Malygin; Mikhail, Goryainov

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to substantiate the technical solution for the problem of monitoring corrosion changes in oil and gas pipelines with use (using) of an electromagnetic NDT method. Pipeline wall thinning under operating conditions can lead to perforations and leakage of the product to be transported outside the pipeline. In most cases there is danger for human life and environment. Monitoring of corrosion changes in pipeline inner wall under operating conditions is complicated because pipelines are mainly made of structural steels with conductive and magnetic properties that complicate test signal passage through the entire thickness of the object under study. The technical solution of this problem lies in monitoring of the internal corrosion changes in pipes under operating conditions in order to increase safety of pipelines by automated prediction of achieving the threshold pre-crash values due to corrosion.

  10. Space shuttle main engine controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

  11. The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

  12. STS-3 main parachute failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runkle, R.; Henson, K.

    1982-01-01

    A failure analysis of the parachute on the Space Transportation System 3 flight's solid rocket booster's is presented. During the reentry phase of the two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), one 115 ft diameter main parachute failed on the right hand SRB (A12). This parachute failure caused the SRB to impact the Ocean at 110 ft/sec in lieu of the expected 3 parachute impact velocity of 88 ft/sec. This higher impact velocity relates directly to more SRB aft skirt and more motor case damage. The cause of the parachute failure, the potential risks of losing an SRB as a result of this failure, and recommendations to ensure that the probability of chute failures of this type in the future will be low are discussed.

  13. Theoretical description of metabolism using queueing theory.

    PubMed

    Evstigneev, Vladyslav P; Holyavka, Marina G; Khrapatiy, Sergii V; Evstigneev, Maxim P

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical description of the process of metabolism has been developed on the basis of the Pachinko model (see Nicholson and Wilson in Nat Rev Drug Discov 2:668-676, 2003) and the queueing theory. The suggested approach relies on the probabilistic nature of the metabolic events and the Poisson distribution of the incoming flow of substrate molecules. The main focus of the work is an output flow of metabolites or the effectiveness of metabolism process. Two simplest models have been analyzed: short- and long-living complexes of the source molecules with a metabolizing point (Hole) without queuing. It has been concluded that the approach based on queueing theory enables a very broad range of metabolic events to be described theoretically from a single probabilistic point of view.

  14. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-03-01

    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  15. Solar and stellar activity - The theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, G.

    1985-10-01

    The unified approach to understanding solar and stellar activity is examined. Stellar activity observations have stimulated theoretical work, mostly within the framework of the alpha-omega dynamo theory. A number of uncertainties and intrinsic limits in dynamo theory do still exist, and these are discussed together with alternative or complementary suggestions. The relevance is stressed of nonlinear problems in dynamo theory - magnetoconvection, growth and stability of flux tubes against magnetic buoyancy, hydromagnetic global dynamos - to improve the understanding of both small and large scale interaction of rotation, turbulent convection and magnetic fields, and the transition from the linear to the nonlinear regime. Recent dynamo models of stellar activity are critically reviewed regarding the dependence of activity indexes and cycles on rotation rate and spectral type. Open problems to be solved by future work are outlined.

  16. Some theoretical issues on computer simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C.L.; Reidys, C.M.

    1998-02-01

    The subject of this paper is the development of mathematical foundations for a theory of simulation. Sequentially updated cellular automata (sCA) over arbitrary graphs are employed as a paradigmatic framework. In the development of the theory, the authors focus on the properties of causal dependencies among local mappings in a simulation. The main object of and study is the mapping between a graph representing the dependencies among entities of a simulation and a representing the equivalence classes of systems obtained by all possible updates.

  17. The "Earth Charter": An Ethical Framework for a Feasible Utopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contini, Valerio; Garcia Pascual, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    This research objective is to highlight an innovative, holistic, inclusive, integrated approach to a sustainable future promoted by the "Earth Charter" and describe the structure of its ethical framework. The main conclusion of the research is that the ethical framework of the "Earth Charter" is based on a limited number of…

  18. Main memory unit. [hybrid computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

  19. General Aviation Data Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Elaine M.; Chung, Victoria I.

    2006-01-01

    The Flight Research Services Directorate at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides development and operations services associated with three general aviation (GA) aircraft used for research experiments. The GA aircraft includes a Cessna 206X Stationair, a Lancair Colombia 300X, and a Cirrus SR22X. Since 2004, the GA Data Framework software was designed and implemented to gather data from a varying set of hardware and software sources as well as enable transfer of the data to other computers or devices. The key requirements for the GA Data Framework software include platform independence, the ability to reuse the framework for different projects without changing the framework code, graphics display capabilities, and the ability to vary the interfaces and their performance. Data received from the various devices is stored in shared memory. This paper concentrates on the object oriented software design patterns within the General Aviation Data Framework, and how they enable the construction of project specific software without changing the base classes. The issues of platform independence and multi-threading which enable interfaces to run at different frame rates are also discussed in this paper.

  20. Developing interdisciplinary environmental frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Petri; Willamo, Risto

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review interdisciplinary systemic frameworks of environmental protection and evaluate their use as tools, educational policymaking and education. We analyze the pressures-state-responses (PSR) framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the drivers-pressures-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework developed in the European Environment Agency and a later environmental political dynamics framework developed by Schroll and Staerdahl. We then continue the discussion by introducing a comprehensive model, labeled as the environmental protection process (EPP) framework that can be used to analyze and teach why there are environmental problems, what are their characteristics, and in which ways they can be mitigated. The EPP model is used for classifying measures of coping with environmental problems. Finally, a submodel of individual and societal factors affecting human action is formed. Environmental issues of transport are used as an illustrative example. We hope to contribute a relevant way to outline a wide interdisciplinary picture of environmental problems and solutions.