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Sample records for mainstream cigarette smoke

  1. Percutaneous penetration enhancers in cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carr J; Perfetti, Thomas A; Garg, Rajni; Martin, Patricia; Hansch, Corwin

    2004-01-01

    Percutaneous penetration enhancers (PPEs) are chemicals used to enhance the transdermal delivery of drugs. Fifty-eight of the approximately 150 PPEs used for the transdermal delivery of drugs have been reported in cigarette mainstream smoke (MS). MS is a complex aerosol of minute liquid droplets (termed the particulate phase) suspended within a mixture of gases (CO(2), CO, NO(x), etc.) and semi-volatile compounds. The gases and many of the semi-volatiles are termed the vapor phase. Twenty-nine of the 58 PPEs have been identified in MS vapor phase, 15 in the particulate phase and 14 in both the vapor and particulate phases. There is a tendency for MS PPEs to be hydrophobic, with 40 of the 58 compounds (69%) being either hydrophobic or strongly hydrophobic, and only 24% being hydrophilic. Many of the 4800 known constituents of MS are hydrophilic and would not be expected to readily cross cell membranes or penetrate tissue when delivered as single compounds. The in vivo effect on biological activity of the juxtaposition within the cigarette smoke aerosol of the large number of hydrophilic constituents with the 58 PPEs is currently unknown. As an initial step in understanding this potential complex interaction, the 58 PPEs in MS have been identified and a number of molecular parameters related to the ability to penetrate tissue have been calculated, including MS concentration, measured and calculated base ten logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient (Mlog P and Clog P), molecular volume (MgVol) and calculated molar refractivity (CMR).

  2. Microbiological components in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has shown that tobacco smoke contains substances of microbiological origin such as ergosterol (a fungal membrane lipid) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria). The aim of the present study was to compare the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in the tobacco and mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of some popular US cigarettes. Methods We measured LPS 3-hydroxy fatty acids and fungal biomass biomarker ergosterol in the tobacco and smoke from cigarettes of 11 popular brands purchased in the US. University of Kentucky reference cigarettes were also included for comparison. Results The cigarette tobacco of the different brands contained 6.88-16.17 (mean 10.64) pmol LPS and 8.27-21.00 (mean 14.05) ng ergosterol/mg. There was a direct correlation between the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in cigarette tobacco and in MS smoke collected using continuous suction; the MS smoke contained 3.65-8.23% (ergosterol) and 10.02-20.13% (LPS) of the amounts in the tobacco. Corresponding percentages were 0.30-0.82% (ergosterol) and 0.42-1.10% (LPS) for SS smoke collected without any ongoing suction, and 2.18% and 2.56% for MS smoke collected from eight two-second puffs. Conclusions Tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol likely to contain a wide range of potentially harmful bacterial and fungal components. PMID:22898193

  3. Effect of cigarette menthol content on mainstream smoke emissions.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S M; Brinkman, M C; Meng, R Q; Anderson, G M; Chuang, J C; Kroeger, R R; Reyes, I L; Clark, P I

    2011-10-17

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act empowered the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to study "the impact of the use of menthol in cigarettes on the public health, including such use among children, African Americans, Hispanics and other racial and ethnic minorities," and develop recommendations. Current scientific evidence comparing human exposures between menthol and nonmenthol smokers shows mixed results. This is largely because of the many differences between commercial menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes other than their menthol content. We conducted an innovative study using two types of test cigarettes: a commercial nonmenthol brand that we mentholated at four different levels, and Camel Crush, a commercial cigarette containing a small capsule in the filter that releases menthol solution into the filter when crushed. Cigarettes were machine-smoked at each of the menthol levels investigated, and the total particulate matter (TPM) was collected on a quartz fiber filter pad and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for menthol, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cotinine, and quinoline. The mainstream smoke was also monitored continuously in real time on a puff-by-puff basis for seven gas-phase constituents (acetaldehyde, acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and 2,5-dimethylfuran), using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. Average yields (in micrograms/cigarette) for the analytes were determined. Menthol in the TPM samples increased linearly with applied menthol concentration, but the amounts of nicotine along with the target TSNAs, PAHs, cotinine, and quinoline in the cigarettes remained essentially unchanged. Similarly, yields of the targeted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in whole smoke from the mentholated nonmenthol cigarettes that were measured in real-time were largely unaffected by their menthol levels. In the Camel Crush

  4. "IARC group 2A Carcinogens" reported in cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Smith, C J; Perfetti, T A; Rumple, M A; Rodgman, A; Doolittle, D J

    2000-04-01

    As a follow-up to an earlier study on IARC Group I compounds, further efforts have been made to evaluate the international literature on cigarette mainstream smoke for reports on constituents classified as IARC "Group 2A: probably carcinogenic to humans" and IARC "Group 2B: possibly carcinogenic to humans." IARC classifies 59 agents, mixtures and exposures as Group 2A. Of the overall list of 59, 50 represent chemical entities or complex mixtures ( [IARC,] ). When only chemical entities which have their origin from cigarette components (tobacco and paper) are considered, further searching of the international literature has revealed that nine chemical compounds of the 50 Group 2A listings have been reported in cigarette mainstream smoke ( Table 1 ). In micrograms/cigarette (mug/cig), the ranges reported for each of the nine compounds are as follows: formaldehyde (3.4-283); benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.004-0. 108); dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DB[a,h]A) (0.004-0.076); N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) (non-detectable-0.0076); benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) (trace-0.08); N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN) (non-detectable-0.7-1.62); acrylamide (1.1-2.34); 1,3-butadiene (16-77); and 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) (0. 00026-0.00049).

  5. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  6. Triple Quad-ICP-MS Measurement of Toxic Metals in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke from Spectrum Research Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Pappas, R Steven; Gray, Naudia; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Fresquez, Mark; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported toxic metal concentrations in the mainstream smoke from 50 varieties of commercial cigarettes available in the USA using quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). However, efforts to continue producing high quality data on select mainstream cigarette smoke constituents demand continued improvements in instrumentation and methodology and application of the methodology to cigarettes that differ in design or construction. Here we report a new application of 'triple quad'-ICP-MS instrumentation to analyze seven toxic metals in mainstream cigarette smoke from the Spectrum variable nicotine research cigarettes. The Spectrum cigarettes are available for research purposes in different configurations of low or conventional levels of nicotine, mentholated or nonmentholated, and tar delivery ranges described as 'low tar' or 'high tar'. Detailed characterizations of specific harmful or potentially harmful constituents delivered by these research cigarettes will help inform researchers using these cigarettes in exposure studies, cessation studies and studies related to nicotine addiction or compensation.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of an electrically heated cigarette. Part 2: Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Stabbert, R; Voncken, P; Rustemeier, K; Haussmann, H-J; Roemer, E; Schaffernicht, H; Patskan, G

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition of mainstream smoke from an electrically heated cigarette (EHC) and that of mainstream smoke from the University of Kentucky Reference Cigarette 1R4F was analyzed. In contrast to the 1R4F, which is a conventional, lit-end cigarette, the EHC is smoked in a microprocessor-controlled lighter with electrical heater elements. The electrical heating causes the tobacco under the heater element to burn at a low temperature during each puff. A comprehensive list of chemical constituents was analyzed in mainstream smoke. The list is a combination of those compounds suggested for analysis in cigarette smoke by a US Consumer Product Safety Commission proposal in 1993, and those cigarette smoke constituents identified by the International Agency on Research on Cancer as being present in cigarette smoke and characterized as carcinogens. The low pyrolysis/combustion temperature of tobacco in the EHC causes distinct shifts in the composition of the smoke compared with a conventional cigarette. A significant drop was seen in the yields of almost all toxicologically relevant constituents. On a per cigarette basis almost two-thirds of the constituents were reduced by at least 80%, whereas on an equal total particulate matter basis about two-thirds of the constituents were reduced by at least 50%, with many constituents reduced by more than 90%. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema.

    PubMed

    Dey, Neekkan; Das, Archita; Ghosh, Arunava; Chatterjee, Indu B

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100-200 μg/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73-80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70- 90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  9. Acrolein Yields in Mainstream Smoke From Commercial Cigarette and Little Cigar Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Todd L; Brewer, Tim M; Young, Mimy; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    Many carbonyls are produced from the combustion of tobacco products and many of these carbonyls are harmful or potentially harmful constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke. One carbonyl of particular interest is acrolein, which is formed from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and the most significant contributor to non-cancer respiratory effects from cigarette smoke. Sheet-wrapped cigars, also known as "little cigars," are a type of tobacco products that have not been extensively investigated in literature. This study uses standard cigarette testing protocols to determine the acrolein yields from sheet-wrapped cigars. Sheet-wrapped cigar and cigarette products were tested by derivatizing the mainstream smoke with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution and then quantifying the derivatives using conventional analytical systems. The results demonstrate that sheet-wrapped cigars can be tested for acrolein yields in mainstream smoke using the same methods used for the evaluation of cigarettes. The variability in the sheet-wrapped cigars and cigarettes under the International Organization for Standardization smoking regimen is statistically similar at the 95% confidence interval; however, increased variability is observed for sheet-wrapped cigar products under the Health Canada Intense (CI) smoking regimen. The amount of acrolein released by smoking sheet-wrapped cigars can be measured using standard smoking regimen currently used for cigarettes. The sheet-wrapped cigars were determined to yield similar quantity of acrolein from commercial cigarette products using two standard smoking regimens. This article reports on the measured quantity of acrolein from 15 commercial sheet-wrapped cigars using a validated standard smoking test method that derivatizes acrolein in the mainstream smoke with DNPH solution, and uses Liquid Chromatography/Ultra-Violet Detection (LC/UV) for separation and detection. These acrolein yields were similar to the levels found in

  10. New insights into the formation of volatile compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Feng, S.; van Heemst, J.; McAdam, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    A sampling system has been set up to monitor a group of volatile smoke analytes (nitric oxide, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, toluene, 1,3 butadiene, isoprene and carbon dioxide) from mainstream cigarette smoke on a puff-resolved basis. The system was able to record gas evolution profiles during puffing and interpuff periods without interruption (e.g. taking clearing puffs). Gas phase smoke analytes were sampled as close to the mouth end of the cigarette filter as possible in order to minimise any dead volume effect. The results revealed that, for some volatile species, a significant fraction (e.g. up to 30% for benzene) in the cigarette mainstream smoke had been generated during the preceding smoulder period. These species were trapped or absorbed within the cigarette rod and then subsequently eluted during the puff. The identification of the two sources of the mainstream smoke, a smouldering source and a puffing source, has not been reported before. The observation contributes to the fundamental knowledge of the cigarette smoke formation and may have implications on wider smoke chemistry and associated effects. Figure A cross-sectional schematic of a burning cigarette, illustrating the main chemical and physical processes involved in the smoke formation PMID:20101495

  11. Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed.

  12. Method for the Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Feng, June; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Stanelle, Rayman; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the "smoke pH." An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1μg to 23μg per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38μg to 67μg per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions.

  13. Method for the Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using Ion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Feng, June; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Stanelle, Rayman; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the “smoke pH.” An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1μg to 23μg per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38μg to 67μg per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions. PMID:27415766

  14. Kinetic modeling of nicotine in mainstream cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Joshua; Kurgat, Caren; Limo, Samuel; Rono, Nicholas; Bosire, Josephate

    2016-01-01

    The attempt to understand the kinetic behavior of nicotine in tobacco will provide a basis for unraveling its energetics in tobacco burning and the formation of free radicals considered harmful to the cigarette smoking community. To the best of our knowledge, the high temperature destruction kinetic characteristics of nicotine have not been investigated before; hence this study is necessary especially at a time addiction science and tobacco research in general is gaining intense attention. The pyrolysis of tobacco under conditions simulating cigarette smoking in the temperature region 200-700 °C has been investigated for the evolution of nicotine and pyridine from two commercial cigarettes coded ES1 and SM1 using gas chromatography hyphenated to a mass selective detector (MSD). Moreover, a kinetic model on the thermal destruction of nicotine within a temperature window of 673 and 973 K is proposed using pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. A reaction time of 2.0 s was employed in line with the average puff time in cigarette smoking. Nonetheless, various reaction times were considered for the formation kinetics of nicotine. GC-MS results showed the amount of nicotine evolved decreased with increase in the puff time. This observation was remarkably consistent with UV-Vis data reported in this investigation. Generally, the temperature dependent rate constants for the destruction of nicotine were found to be [Formula: see text] s(-1) and [Formula: see text] s(-1) for ES1 and SM1 cigarettes respectively. In addition, the amount of nicotine evolved by ES1 cigarette was ~10 times more than the amount of nicotine released by SM1 cigarette. The suggested mechanistic model for the formation of pyridine from the thermal degradation of nicotine in tobacco has been found to be agreement with the kinetic model proposed in this investigation. Consequently, the concentration of radical intermediates of tobacco smoke such as pyridinyl radical can be determined indirectly

  15. The relative toxicity of compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Smith, C J; Hansch, C

    2000-07-01

    Many different in vivo and in vitro tests are currently used to assess the toxicity of chemicals and complex mixtures such as cigarette smoke condensate. In vivo tests include assays in rodents to determine carcinogenicity, tumorigenicity and reproductive effects In vitro tests of mutagenicity are conducted with both bacterial and mammalian cell systems. A first step towards lowering the toxicity of cigarette smoke condensate is the identification of the relevant compound However, changing the concentration of a given smoke component may not linearly alter the biological activity of the complex mixture due to interactive effects. The "effective toxicity" of a chemical constituent is a function of the concentration, the metabolic fate, the potency in in vivo and in vitro assays, and the ability to reach the target tissues. The logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) is an important parameter since it affects metabolism, biological transport properties and intrinsic toxicity. Using concentration data from the International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC), biological activity data from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) database and measured and calculated log P values, we have rank ordered some of the important compounds in cigarette smoke condensate by their measured or potential toxicity. Condensates from different cigarette brands, tar categories and styles vary in their concentrations of these compounds. Chemicals of greater commercial or scientific interest may be toxicity tested more extensively, thereby increasing the probability of positive test results and highlighting the need for consideration of structure-activity relationships.

  16. Semi-volatiles in mainstream smoke delivery from select charcoal-filtered cigarette brand variants.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Bryan A; Ding, Yan S; Vaughan, Christina; Zhang, Liqin; Polzin, Gregory; Caudill, Samuel P; Watson, Clifford H; Ashley, David L

    2010-06-01

    It has been reported that charcoal added to cigarette filters selectively removes many of the more volatile chemicals, but it is not clear to what extent charcoal may reduce the delivery of important less volatile chemical constituents in mainstream cigarette smoke. We analysed machine-derived mainstream smoke deliveries (under three smoking regimens) for variants of a charcoal-filtered cigarette commercially test-marketed in the USA, focusing on selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). While charcoal-containing filters selectively removed lower molecular weight PAHs from mainstream smoke, they did not significantly remove the heavier and more toxic PAHs studied, such as benzo[a]pyrene, a known carcinogen. Likewise, charcoal-containing filters removed phenols and TSNAs from mainstream smoke to differing amounts depending on the compound, filter design and the smoking regimen. The addition of sufficient charcoal to cigarette filters is known to remove many volatile compounds and can potentially reduce deliveries of certain semi-volatile compounds under some machine smoking regimens. Less volatile compounds, with a significant portion in the particulate phase, are less available for selective filtration by charcoal-containing filters than the more volatile compounds that reside predominantly in the gas phase.

  17. A protocol for detecting and scavenging gas-phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Yu, Long-Xi; Dzikovski, Boris G; Freed, Jack H

    2012-01-02

    Cigarette smoking is associated with human cancers. It has been reported that most of the lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking (5,6,7,12). Although tobacco tars and related products in the particle phase of cigarette smoke are major causes of carcinogenic and mutagenic related diseases, cigarette smoke contains significant amounts of free radicals that are also considered as an important group of carcinogens(9,10). Free radicals attack cell constituents by damaging protein structure, lipids and DNA sequences and increase the risks of developing various types of cancers. Inhaled radicals produce adducts that contribute to many of the negative health effects of tobacco smoke in the lung(3). Studies have been conducted to reduce free radicals in cigarette smoke to decrease risks of the smoking-induced damage. It has been reported that haemoglobin and heme-containing compounds could partially scavenge nitric oxide, reactive oxidants and carcinogenic volatile nitrosocompounds of cigarette smoke(4). A 'bio-filter' consisted of haemoglobin and activated carbon was used to scavenge the free radicals and to remove up to 90% of the free radicals from cigarette smoke(14). However, due to the cost-ineffectiveness, it has not been successfully commercialized. Another study showed good scavenging efficiency of shikonin, a component of Chinese herbal medicine(8). In the present study, we report a protocol for introducing common natural antioxidant extracts into the cigarette filter for scavenging gas phase free radicals in cigarette smoke and measurement of the scavenge effect on gas phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) using spin-trapping Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy(1,2,14). We showed high scavenging capacity of lycopene and grape seed extract which could point to their future application in cigarette filters. An important advantage of these prospective scavengers is that they can be obtained in large quantities from byproducts of

  18. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  19. [Determination of carbon-centred radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke using spin-labelled fluorophore].

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhaoyang; Tang, Gangling; Yang, Fei; Pang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Hongfei; Hu, Qingyuan

    2012-06-01

    A method of the determination of the carbon-centred radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke using a spin-labelled fluorophore, 4-((9-acridinecarbonyl) amino)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO-9-AC), as a fluorescent probe is presented. After being producted by smoking in International Organization for Standardization (ISO) mode, the carbon-centred radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke were trapped by TEMPO-9-AC, a carbon-centred radical probe with a low fluorescence intensity. Then the latter was transformed to a stable diamagnetic o-alkoxyamine, a high-fluorescence compound. Finally, high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to demonstrate the structures of the carbon-centred radicals, and high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) was used to determine the concentration of the carbon-centred radicals. The results showed that the 10 carbon-centred radicals were detected in the mainstream cigarette smoke, and the total carbon-centred radicals concentrations for 1R5F, 3R4F, CM6, and two Virginia type cigarettes, were 52.5 nmol/cig, 214.6 nmol/cig, 424.1 nmol/cig, 68.6 nmol/cig, and 334.2 nmol/cig, respectively; and there was positive relation between the concentrations of the total amount of carbon-centred radicals and the tar amounts in the mainstream cigarette smoke. The detection limit was 0.318 nmol/cig, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 3.5% to 9.7%. This method is suitable for the determination of the carbon-centred radicals in the mainstream cigarette smoke.

  20. Effect of Permeability of Tipping Paper on Cigarette Burning Temperature and the Property of Mainstream Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhen-Yu; Shen, Yan; Huang, Hai-Qun; Xu, Ji-Cang

    2016-05-01

    Cigarette smoke analysis of tipping paper with different permeability was carried out. The infrared thermal imager was used to measure burning temperature of cigarette with different permeability tipping paper. The results indicated that with the increase of tipping paper permeability, Tar, CO and nicotine in cigarette mainstream were significantly linear decreased, puff count was increased. Tipping paper permeability had a great influence on cigarette burning temperature. With the increase of tipping paper permeability, the third puff burning temperature and the average peak temperature values were dropped obviously, but the changes of smoldering temperature were not obvious. In addition, smoldering average temperature was significantly lower than the third puff burning temperature and peak temperature.

  1. Chemical Characterization of Mainstream Smoke from SPECTRUM Variable Nicotine Research Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Richter, Patricia; Hearn, Bryan; Zhang, Liqin; Bravo, Roberto; Yan, Xizheng; Perez, Jose J; Chan, Michele; Hughes, Jared; Chen, Patrick; Chen, Wayne; Wong, Joshua; Holmberg, Sydney; Smith, Shakia; Larango, Morgan; Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods. Data are presented as means and standard deviations of 5 replicates for all analytes. Under the ISO smoking regimen, mean levels of many smoke emissions for SPECTRUM varieties were comparable to the 3R4F research cigarette. Calculated SPECTRUM elasticity ranged from 1.6 to 4.0. Accordingly, under intense machine smoking conditions differences in emissions of SPECTRUM cigarettes were apparent. In addition, NNN increased with smoke nicotine while the same rate of change was not seen for NNK. It is important to monitor levels of chemicals of public health concern and regulatory interest as technologies emerge to reduce levels of nicotine or other targeted chemicals in tobacco products.

  2. FTIR analysis of gaseous compounds in the mainstream smoke of regular and light cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Bacsik, Z; McGregor, J; Mink, J

    2007-02-01

    Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been applied to the study of mainstream cigarette smoke from cigarettes of different stated strengths (regular and various light cigarettes with different reported nicotine, tar and CO contents). This technique has allowed for the measurement of a variety of gaseous components including hydrocarbons and both nitrogen and carbon oxides. The results demonstrate that the strength of the cigarette does not have a significant bearing on the quantity of the observed components produced. Additionally, open-path FTIR studies of diluted sidestream and exhaled smoke have been conducted. These measurements revealed that the majority of gaseous pollutants originated from the sidestream smoke, while the primary smoke was 'purified' or diluted upon exhalation by the smoker.

  3. Biological responses in rats exposed to mainstream smoke from a heated cigarette compared to a conventional reference cigarette.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Okubo, Chigusa; Fukuda, Ichiro; Nishino, Tomoki; Lee, K Monica; Renne, Roger; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The heated cigarette (HC) generates mainstream smoke by vaporizing the components of the tobacco rod using a carbon heat source at the cigarette tip. Mainstream smoke of HC contains markedly less chemical constituents compared to combusted cigarettes. Mainstream smoke from HC was generated under Health Canada Intense regimen and its biological effects were compared to those of Reference (3R4F) cigarettes, using nose-only 5-week and 13-week inhalation studies. In the 13-week study, SD rats were necropsied following exposure to mainstream smoke from each cigarette at 200, 600 or 1000 µg wet total particulate matter/L for 1 h/day, 7 days/week or following a 13-week recovery period. Histopathological changes in the respiratory tract were significantly lesser in HC groups; e.g. respiratory epithelial hyperplasia in the nasal cavity and accumulation of pigmented macrophages in alveoli. After a 13-week recovery, the lesions were completely or partially regressed, except for accumulation of pigmented macrophages in alveoli, in both HC and 3R4F groups. In the 5-week study, SD rats were necropsied following exposure to mainstream smoke of either cigarette at 600 or 1000 µg/L for 1 h, two times/day (with 30 min interval), 7 days/week or following a 4-week recovery period. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis of neutrophil percentages and enzyme levels like γ-GT, ALP and LDH indicated that pulmonary inflammation was significantly less in HC groups compared to 3R4F groups. In conclusion, HC demonstrated significantly lower biological effects compared to 3R4F, based on the BALF parameters and histopathology.

  4. In Situ Derivatization and Quantification of Seven Carbonyls in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Yan, Xizheng; Wong, Joshua; Chan, Michele; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-19

    Carbonyls, especially aldehydes, are a group of harmful volatile organic compounds that are found in tobacco smoke. Seven carbonyls are listed on the FDA's harmful and potential harmful constituents list for tobacco or tobacco smoke. Carbonyls have reactive functional groups and thus are challenging to quantitatively measure in cigarette smoke. The traditional method of measuring carbonyls in smoke involves solvent-filled impinger trapping and derivatization. This procedure is labor-intensive and generates significant volumes of hazardous waste. We have developed a new method to efficiently derivatize and trap carbonyls from mainstream smoke in situ on Cambridge filter pads. The derivatized carbonyls are extracted from the pads and subsequently quantified by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The new method has been validated and applied to research and commercial cigarettes. Carbonyl yields from research cigarettes are comparable to those from other published literature data. With a convenient smoke collection apparatus, a 4 min sample analysis time, and a low- or submicrogram detection limit, this new method not only simplifies and speeds the detection of an important class of chemical constituents in mainstream smoke but also reduces reactive losses and provides a more accurate assessment of carbonyl levels in smoke. Excellent accuracy (average 98%) and precision (14% average relative standard deviation in research cigarettes) ensure this new method's sufficient fidelity to characterize conventional combusted tobacco products, with potential application toward new or emerging products.

  5. A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions.

    PubMed

    Moir, David; Rickert, William S; Levasseur, Genevieve; Larose, Yolande; Maertens, Rebecca; White, Paul; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for cannabinoid content and for tar generation. There have not been extensive studies of the chemistry of marijuana smoke, especially in direct comparison to tobacco smoke. In this study, a systematic comparison of the smoke composition of both mainstream and sidestream smoke from marijuana and tobacco cigarettes prepared in the same way and consumed under two sets of smoking conditions, was undertaken. This study examined the suite of chemicals routinely analyzed in tobacco smoke. As expected, the results showed qualitative similarities with some quantitative differences. In this study, ammonia was found in mainstream marijuana smoke at levels up to 20-fold greater than that found in tobacco. Hydrogen cyanide, NO, NO x , and some aromatic amines were found in marijuana smoke at concentrations 3-5 times those found in tobacco smoke. Mainstream marijuana smoke contained selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at concentrations lower than those found in mainstream tobacco smoke, while the reverse was the case for sidestream smoke, with PAHs present at higher concentrations in marijuana smoke. The confirmation of the presence, in both mainstream and sidestream smoke of marijuana cigarettes, of known carcinogens and other chemicals implicated in respiratory diseases is important information for public health and communication of the risk related to exposure to such materials.

  6. An international literature survey of "IARC Group I carcinogens" reported in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Smith, C J; Livingston, S D; Doolittle, D J

    1997-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) currently lists 44 individual chemical agents, 12 groups or mixtures of chemicals and 13 exposure circumstances as "Group 1 human carcinogens". A comprehensive search of the published literature revealed that nine of the 44 chemical agents classified as "Group I carcinogens" by IARC have been reported to occur in mainstream cigarette smoke. The other 35 have never been reported to occur in cigarette smoke. The nine agents reported are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, 2-naphthyl-amine, vinyl chloride, 4-aminobiphenyl and beryllium. The reported yields of each of these nine agents in mainstream smoke varies widely. The range of yields reported for a given compound is influenced by the type of cigarette tested and when the analysis was conducted. In micrograms/cigarette, the ranges that have been reported for each of the nine compounds are: benzene (0.05-104), cadmium (0-6.67), arsenic (0-1.4), nickel (0-0.51), chromium (0.0002-0.5), 2-naphthylamine (0.0002-0.022), vinyl chloride (0.0013-0.0158), 4-aminobiphenyl (0.00019-0.005) and beryllium (0-0.0005). Although some of the variation in reported yields may be due to differences in analytical methodology, several correlations between the yield of a particular chemical in mainstream smoke and certain cigarette characteristics were observed. For example, charcoal filtration was associated with reduced vinyl chloride, and the concentration of sodium nitrate in the tobacco was positively correlated with the mainstream yield of both 2-naphthylamine and 4-aminobiphenyl. Benzene yield in mainstream cigarette smoke was correlated with the amount of tobacco burned and with the 'tar' level. Agronomic factors such as production practices and soil characteristics, and environmental conditions such as rainfall, reportedly influence the accumulation of metals, for example, cadmium, beryllium, chromium, nickel and arsenic, in the leaf. The use of fertilizers low in

  7. Electrothermal Vaporization-QQQ-ICP-MS for Determination of Chromium in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Particulate.

    PubMed

    Fresquez, Mark R; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-05-01

    Chromium is transported in mainstream tobacco smoke at very low concentrations. However, when chromium is deposited too deeply in the lungs for mucociliary clearance, or is in a particle that is too large to pass directly through tissues, it bioaccumulates in the lungs of smokers. It is important to determine the concentrations of chromium that are transported in mainstream smoke. Several reliable studies have resulted in reports of chromium concentrations in smoke particulate that were below limits of detection (LODs) for the instruments and methods employed. In this study, electrothermal vaporization-triple quad-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS) was chosen for determination of chromium concentrations in mainstream smoke because of the high sensitivity of ETV combined with QQQ-ICP-MS. The smoke from five reference, quality control, and commercial cigarettes was analyzed using ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS with isotope dilution for quantitative determination of chromium. The method LOD was sufficiently low that chromium concentrations in mainstream smoke could indeed be determined. The chromium concentrations in the smoke particulate were between 0.60 and 1.03 ng/cigarette. The range of chromium concentrations was at or below previously reported LODs. Determination of the oxidation state of the chromium transported in mainstream smoke would also be important, in consideration of the fact that both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) oxidation states cause inhalation toxicity, but chromium(VI) is also a carcinogen. It was possible to separate the oxidation states using ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS. However, determination of individual species at the levels found in mainstream smoke particulate matter was not possible with the present method. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Cellular mechanisms of mainstream cigarette smoke-induced lung epithelial tight junction permeability changes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Dorian S; Boggs, Susan E; Beenhouwer, Chris; Aden, James; Knall, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke increases the permeability of human airways; however, the mechanism for this increased permeability is poorly defined. Tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells constitute the physiological barrier to fluid and macromolecules in epithelium. These structures are highly regulated by phosphorylation and their association with the cytoskeleton. The goal of these studies was to identify the signal transduction pathways that regulate smoke-induced permeability. Using a physiologically relevant air-liquid interface exposure system, electrically tight monolayers of the human bronchial epithelial cell-line Calu-3 were exposed to fresh, whole mainstream cigarette smoke. This exposure results in a regulated, dose-dependent loss of epithelial barrier function in the lung epithelial monolayers. With cigarette smoke exposure, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) is decreased and albumin flux is increased, indicating a loss in barrier function to ions and macromolecules, respectively; however, both largely recover in 30 min. Smoke-induced losses of macromolecular barrier function are the result of multicellular junctional reorganization, resulting in increased leak volume rather than leak frequency. Inhibiting Rho kinase (ROCK) significantly reduces the smoke-induced permeability to both ions and macromolecules, while inhibiting protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) only reduces smoke-induced macromolecular permeability. Interestingly, inhibiting myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) exacerbates smoke-induced permeability, indicating that MLCK and ROCK have opposing regulatory roles. Our results demonstrate that the smoke-induced loss of epithelial barrier function in human bronchial epithelium is a regulated process rather than a cytotoxic response. Additionally, our results indicate that activation of PTK and ROCK and inactivation of MLCK contribute to the increased airway permeability caused by mainstream cigarette smoke.

  9. Mainstream smoke emissions of Australian and Canadian cigarettes.

    PubMed

    King, Bill; Borland, Ron; Fowles, Jeff

    2007-08-01

    We investigated how mainstream smoke emissions vary and interrelate in 15 Australian and 21 Canadian brands, using public emissions disclosures from 2001. These disclosures provided emission data for 40 hazardous agents under both standard and intensive ISO testing conditions. Our analyses focused on "adjusted emissions" (i.e., emissions per milligram of nicotine yield) for 13 selected agents. Adjusted emissions differed significantly by ISO testing condition for 9 of the 13 selected agents. Intensive condition adjusted emissions were strongly negatively correlated for several agent pairs. Country and manufacturer variables were the strongest predictors of intensive condition adjusted emissions for 8 of the 13 selected agents and significant predictors for all of them. Taken together, these results suggest potential for the intent of emission limits to be undermined by risk swapping (in which one specific exposure is reduced within a group at the cost of another's exposure increasing) and risk shifting (in which a specific exposure is reduced within a group at the cost of that exposure's increasing within another group).

  10. Effect of charcoal-containing cigarette filters on gas phase volatile organic compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Polzin, G M; Zhang, L; Hearn, B A; Tavakoli, A D; Vaughan, C; Ding, Y S; Ashley, D L; Watson, C H

    2008-09-01

    Of the chemicals identified to date in mainstream cigarette smoke with known toxicological properties, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered the most hazardous group owing to their high abundance and toxicity. In this research we evaluate a recently introduced line of cigarettes that contain charcoal in their filters. The amount of charcoal in these filters ranged from 45 mg to 180 mg and were either dispersed among the filter material or contained in a small cavity in the filter segment. Charcoal has long been used for removing VOCs from both water and air. Our findings indicate that these cigarettes reduce machine generated mainstream smoke deliveries of a wide range of VOCs compared to a similar, non-charcoal filtered, cigarette. However, this reduction is dependent not only on the amount of charcoal present but also on the volume of smoke being drawn through the filter. While a brand with 45 mg charcoal reduces VOC delivery under ISO smoking conditions, charcoal saturation and breakthrough occur under more intense smoking conditions. Breakthrough is minimised for brands with the most charcoal. Overall, the brands with the most charcoal are effective at reducing VOC deliveries under even intense smoking conditions.

  11. Determination of 10 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2007-07-25

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one class of chemical compounds that (1) are present at low to trace levels in unburned cigarette filler, and (2) are predominantly generated during combustion. According to a recent report of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, 10 carcinogenic PAHs together with 53 other known carcinogens are present in cigarette smoke. Accurate quantification of these chemicals helps assess public health risk to both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to second-hand smoke. We have developed and validated a specific and sensitive method for measuring these 10 carcinogenic PAHs in the particulate phase of mainstream tobacco smoke. Cigarette smoke particulate, produced using standard machine smoking protocols, was collected on glass fiber Cambridge filter pads. The particulate matter was solvent extracted, purified by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry using isotopically labeled analogues as internal standards. Our method's limits of detection ranged from 11 to 166 pg and achieved sufficient reproducibility and accuracy to provide useful information on a range of cigarettes having dramatically different machine-smoked tar and nicotine deliveries. The identity of each PAH analyte was established from chromatographic retention time, analyte-specific fragmentation patterns, and relative peak area ratios of the product/precursor ion pairs. This new method provides higher sensitivity, specificity, and throughput than did earlier methods. We found relatively consistent PAH levels among a selection of domestic full-flavor cigarettes. The PAH levels in smoke from highly ventilated light and ultralight cigarettes were low when smoked using ISO (International Organization for Standardization) conditions. However, if highly ventilated cigarettes were smoked under more intense conditions (e.g., larger or more frequent puffs, vents blocked), their PAH

  12. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke of U.S. Commercial Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Selvin H; Rossiter, Lana M; Taylor, Kenneth M; Holman, Matthew R; Zhang, Liqin; Ding, Yan S; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-02-20

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration's list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco and mainstream smoke from 50 U.S. commercial cigarette brands were measured from November 15, 2011 to January 4, 2012 using a validated HPLC/MS/MS method. Smoke samples were generated using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) machine-smoking regimens. NNN and NAT were the most abundant TSNAs in tobacco filler and smoke across all cigarette brands, whereas NNK and NAB were present in lesser amounts. The average ratios for each TSNA in mainstream smoke to filler content is 29% by the CI smoking regimen and 13% for the ISO machine-smoking regimen. The reliability of individual TSNAs to predict total TSNA amounts in the filler and smoke was examined. NNN, NAT, and NAB have a moderate to high correlation (R(2) = 0.61-0.98, p < 0.0001), and all three TSNAs individually predict total TSNAs with minimal difference between measured and predicted total TSNA amounts (error < 7.4%). NNK has weaker correlation (R(2) = 0.56-0.82; p < 0.0001) and is a less reliable predictor of total TSNA quantities. Tobacco weight and levels of TSNAs in filler influence TSNA levels in smoke from the CI machine-smoking regimen. In contrast, filter ventilation is a major determinant of levels of TSNAs in smoke by the ISO machine-smoking regimen. Comparative analysis demonstrates substantial variability in TSNA amounts in tobacco filler and mainstream smoke yields under ISO and CI machine-smoking regimens among U.S. commercial cigarette brands.

  13. Acrylamide content in cigarette mainstream smoke and estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Cendrowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a "probably human carcinogen" monomer that can form in heated starchy food as a result of a reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars via Maillard reaction. The main source of acrylamide in human diet are potato products, cereal products and coffee. Tobacco smoke may be another significant source of exposure to acrylamide. The aim of our study was to determine acrylamide content in cigarettes available on the Polish market and to estimate the exposure to acrylamide originating from tobacco smoke in smokers in Poland. The material was cigarettes of the top five brands bought in Poland and tobacco from non-smoked cigarettes. Acrylamide content in cigarettes mainstream smoke was determined by LC-MS/MS. Exposure assessment was carried out using analytical data of acrylamide content in cigarettes and the mean quantity of cigarettes smoked daily by smokers in Poland, assuming body weight at 70 kg. The mean content of acrylamide was 679.3 ng/cigarette (range: 455.0 - 822.5 ng/cigarette). The content of acrylamide was evidenced to correlate positively with total particulate matter (TPM) content in cigarettes. The estimated average exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in adult smokers in Poland is 0.17 μg/kg b.w./day. Our results demonstrate that tobacco smoke is a significant source of acrylamide and total exposure to acrylamide in the population of smokers, on average, is higher by more than 50% in comparison with non-smokers. Our estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke is the first estimation taking into account the actual determined acrylamide content in the cigarettes available on the market.

  14. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Mainstream Smoke of Popular U.S. Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Vu, An T.; Taylor, Kenneth M.; Holman, Matthew R.; Ding, Yan S.; Hearn, Bryan; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    The mainstream smoke yields of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined for 50 commercial U.S. cigarettes using a validated GC/MS method with the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) smoking machine regimens. PAH mainstream smoke deliveries vary widely among the commercial cigarettes with the ISO smoking regimen primarily because of differing filter ventilation. The more abundant, lower molecular weight PAHs such as naphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene predominantly comprise the total PAH yields. In contrast, delivery yields of high molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are much lower. Comparative analysis of PAHs deliveries shows brand specific differences. Correlation analysis shows strong positive associations between BaP and most of the other PAHs as well as total PAHs. The results suggest that BaP may be a representative marker for other PAH constituents in cigarette smoke generated from similarly blended tobacco, particularly those PAHs with similar molecular weights and chemical structures. PMID:26158771

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Mainstream Smoke of Popular U.S. Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Vu, An T; Taylor, Kenneth M; Holman, Matthew R; Ding, Yan S; Hearn, Bryan; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-08-17

    The mainstream smoke yields of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined for 50 commercial U.S. cigarettes using a validated GC/MS method with the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) smoking machine regimens. PAH mainstream smoke deliveries vary widely among the commercial cigarettes with the ISO smoking regimen primarily because of differing filter ventilation. The more abundant, lower molecular weight PAHs such as naphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene predominantly comprise the total PAH yields. In contrast, delivery yields of high molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are much lower. Comparative analysis of PAHs deliveries shows brand specific differences. Correlation analysis shows strong positive associations between BaP and most of the other PAHs as well as total PAHs. The results suggest that BaP may be a representative marker for other PAH constituents in cigarette smoke generated from similarly blended tobacco, particularly those PAHs with similar molecular weights and chemical structures.

  16. Determination of hydrogen cyanide in cigarette mainstream smoke by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Nicolas; Jeanneret, Florent; Rotach, Michel

    2010-01-01

    An LC/MS/MS method is presented for the determination of hydrogen cyanide in cigarette mainstream smoke. Cyanide is derivatized with 2,3'-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde and taurine to form a benzo[f]isoindole derivative, which is then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Isotopic KCN (K13C15N) was used as an internal standard. The regression equation was linear within the range 2.4-331 ng/mL for cyanide with a correlation coefficient > 0.999. The LOD was calculated as 4.1 ng/cigarette. The influence of the sodium hydroxide trapping solution concentration on the results is discussed. A 1 M solution showed the best results in terms of sample stability and trapping efficiency. The method proved to be robust, reliable, and more selective than current methods, making it a logical choice for determination of total cyanide in cigarette smoke.

  17. Detection of reactive oxygen species in mainstream cigarette smoke by a fluorescent probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Shi-jie; Li, Song-zhan

    2009-07-01

    A mass of reactive oxygen species(ROS) are produced in the process of smoking. Superfluous ROS can induce the oxidative stress in organism, which will cause irreversible damage to cells. Fluorescent probe is taken as a marker of oxidative stress in biology and has been applied to ROS detection in the field of biology and chemistry for high sensitivity, high simplicity of data collection and high resolution. As one type of fluorescent probe, dihydrorhodamine 6G (dR6G) will be oxidized to the fluorescent rhodamine 6G, which could be used to detect ROS in mainstream cigarette smoke. We investigated the action mechanism of ROS on dR6G, built up the standard curve of R6G fluorescence intensity with its content, achieved the variation pattern of R6G fluorescence intensity with ROS content in mainstream cigarette smoke and detected the contents of ROS from the 4 types of cigarettes purchased in market. The result shows that the amount of ROS has close relationship with the types of tobacco and cigarette production technology. Compared with other detecting methods such as electronic spin resonance(ESR), chromatography and mass spectrometry, this detection method by the fluorescent probe has higher efficiency and sensitivity and will have wide applications in the ROS detection field.

  18. Carbonyl Compounds in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Mainstream Smoke and Their Pharmacological Properties.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Takahiro; Higashi, Tsunehito; Mazaki, Yuichi; Miwa, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette mainstream smoke is composed of gas and tar phases and contains >4000 chemical constituents, including nicotine and tar. The substances in the gas phase but not in the tar phase can pass through the airway epithelial barrier, enter the systemic circulation via the pulmonary circulation, and increase systemic oxidative damage, leading to the development of cigarette smoking-related diseases such as atherosclerosis. Recently, we identified some stable carbonyl compounds, including acrolein (ACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), as major cytotoxic factors in nicotine- and tar-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) of the gas phase. CSE, ACR, and MVK induce protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent activation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NOX, causing plasma membrane damage and cell apoptosis. CSE, ACR, and MVK also trigger carbonylation of PKC, which is an irreversible oxidative modification. Cell damage and PKC carbonylation in response to treatment with CSE, ACR, or MVK are abolished by thiol-containing antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine and reduced glutathione. Thus pharmacological modulation of PKC and NOX activities and the trapping of ROS are potential strategies for the prevention of diseases related to cigarette smoking.

  19. Distribution of toxic chemicals in particles of various sizes from mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Li, Xiang; Guo, Junwei; Peng, Bin; Cui, Huapeng; Liu, Kejian; Wang, Sheng; Qin, Yaqiong; Sun, Peijian; Zhao, Le; Xie, Fuwei; Liu, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    To accurately estimate the risk of inhaling cigarette smoke containing toxic chemicals, it is important that the distribution of these chemicals is accurately measured in cigarette smoke aerosol particles of various sizes. In this study, a single-channel smoking machine was directly coupled to an electrical low-pressure impactor. The particles of mainstream cigarette smoke were collected using 12 polyester films, and the particulate matter (PM) was characterized. Nicotine, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs, including NNN, NAT, NAB, and NNK), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(a)anthracene, and chrysene), and heavy metals (including Cr, As, Cd, and Pb) present in the particles of different sizes were analyzed by GC, HPLC-MS/MS, GC/MS, or ICP-MS, respectively. The results demonstrated that the nicotine, TSNAs, PAHs, and heavy metals in mainstream cigarette smoke were dispersed over a particle size ranging from 0.1 μm to 2.0 μm, and the concentration of these toxic chemicals initially increased and then decreased the particle size grew. The distribution of nicotine was uniform for the PM in the size ranges of less than 0.1 μm, 0.1-1.0 μm, and 1.0-2.0 μm, TSNAs and heavy metals in particles of less 0.1 μm were more abundant, and PAHs in fine particles were also more abundant.

  20. Effect of filtration by activated charcoal on the toxicological activity of cigarette mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, Charles L; Schramke, Heike; Diekmann, Joerg; Meisgen, Thomas J; Tewes, Franz J; Veltel, Detlef J; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick M; Rajendran, Narayanan; Muzzio, Miguel; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2009-07-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) filtration reportedly decreases the yields of smoke vapor phase constituents including some identified as human carcinogens and respiratory irritants. Non-clinical studies including chemical smoke analysis, in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity (bacterial and mammalian cells), and in vivo subchronic rat inhalation studies were carried out using machine smoking at ISO conditions with lit-end research cigarettes containing AC filters. The objective was to assess whether AC filter technology would alter the established toxicity profile of mainstream smoke by increasing or decreasing any known toxicological properties, or elicit new ones. The reduced yield of vapor phase irritants from AC filter cigarettes correlated with markedly decreased in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo morphology of the nose and lower respiratory tract. Increased yields of particulate phase constituents (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in AC filtered smoke were noted in comparison to controls in some studies. The in vitro bacterial mutagenicity of AC filtered smoke particulate preparations was occasionally increased over control levels. Laryngeal epithelial thickness was increased in some rats inhaling AC filtered smoke in comparison to controls, an effect perhaps related to higher inspiratory flow. When tested under more intense Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions, AC filter associated reductions in vapor phase constituent yields were smaller than those seen with ISO conditions, but the effect on in vitro cytotoxicity remained.

  1. Polonium in size fractionated mainstream cigarette smoke, predicted deposition and associated internal radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, M; Sahu, S K; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2016-10-01

    In this study, size fractionated mass and (210)Po activity concentrations in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) were monitored for three popular cigarette brands. Size segregated collection of MCS was carried out using a cascade type impactor, while mass and (210)Po activity concentration were analyzed gravimetrically and alpha spectrometry (following the radiochemical separation) respectively. Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD V2.11) model is used for prediction of deposition fraction calculations for the MCS deposition in different compartment of human respiratory tract. The activity concentration of (210)Po is founds 10.56 ± 2.46 mBq per cigarette for the tested cigarette brands. (210)Po size distribution indicates most of this associates with fine fraction (Dp < 2.23 μm) of cigarette smoke. The committed annual effective dose to smokers (smoking on an average 20 cigarette a day), considering the (210)Po and (210)Pb concentrations (assuming it is in secular equilibrium with (210)Po) in MCS, was estimated between 0.22 and 0.40 mSv, with mean value of 0.30 mSv for tested cigarette brands. Considering the risk factor of fatal cancer due to radiation exposure of lung (exposure time of 30 years); the average collective estimated fatal cancer risk is estimated as 1.5 × 10(-4) due to (210)Po and (210)Pb exposure to smokers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke particulate matter by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Sébastien; Carré, Vincent; Scheffler, Jean-Luc; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LDI-FTICRMS) was used to investigate particulate matter (PM) associated with mainstream (MSS) and sidestream cigarette smokes (SSS). The high mass resolution and the high mass measurement accuracy allowed a molecular formula for each detected signal in the 150-500 m/z range to be assigned. The high number of peaks observed in mass spectra required additional data processing to extract information. In this context, Kendrick maps and Van Krevelen diagrams were drawn. These postacquisition treatments were used to more easily compare different cigarette smokes: (i) MSS from different cigarettes and (ii) MSS and SSS from the same cigarette. In both ion detection modes, most of the detected species were found to be attributed to C(6-31)H(2-35)N(0-7)O(0-9) compounds. The compounds observed in the study of SSS appeared to be more unsaturated and less oxygenated than those observed when MSS of the same cigarette was investigated.

  3. Utility of the mouse dermal promotion assay in comparing the tumorigenic potential of cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carr J; Perfetti, Thomas A; Garg, Rajni; Hansch, Corwin

    2006-10-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified a number of the chemical constituents reported in cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) as carcinogens. In the international literature, 81 IARC classified carcinogens have been reported historically in MS. Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol of minute liquid droplets (termed the particulate phase) suspended within a mixture of gases (CO(2), CO, NO(x), etc.) and semi-volatile compounds. The gases and semi-volatiles are termed the vapor phase. Due to early difficulties in inducing carcinomas in laboratory animals following inhalation exposure to MS, the mouse dermal promotion assay became the standard method of comparing the tumorigenic potential of cigarette smoke condensates (the particulate phase of MS nearly devoid of MS gases and having a significant reduction of the semi-volatile components of the vapor phase). Of the 81 IARC carcinogens reported in MS, 48 are found exclusively in the particulate phase, 29 in the vapor phase only, and four IARC carcinogens in both phases. A general comparison of the quantity and potency of the individual carcinogenic constituents of the MS vapor and particulate phases illustrates that the potential carcinogenic contribution from the vapor phase might be significant. Therefore, the mouse dermal promotion assay may not be a sensitive comparator of the tumorigenic potential of different MSs displaying a diversity of vapor phase components. However, when used in a weight-of-the-evidence approach that includes smoke chemistry, in vitro studies using whole smoke and human exposure studies evaluating both vapor and particulate phase smoke constituents, the mouse dermal promotion assay remains an important risk assessment tool as the only test that reproducibly measures the tumorigenic potential of cigarette smoke condensate.

  4. Novel approach for selective reduction of NNN in cigarette tobacco filler and mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Lusso, M; Gunduz, I; Kondylis, A; Jaccard, G; Ruffieux, L; Gadani, F; Lion, K; Adams, A; Morris, W; Danielson, T; Warek, U; Strickland, J

    2017-10-01

    Research conducted during past decades to reduce the level of the tobacco specific nitrosamine N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and its precursor nornicotine in tobacco yielded identification of three tobacco genes encoding for cytochrome P450 nicotine demethylases converting nicotine to nornicotine. We carried out trials to investigate the effect of using tobaccos containing three non-functional nicotine demethylase genes on the selective reduction of NNN in cigarette tobacco filler and mainstream smoke. Our results indicate that the presence of non-functional alleles of the three genes reduces the level of nornicotine and NNN in Burley tobacco by 70% compared to the level observed in currently available low converter (LC) Burley tobacco varieties. The new technology, named ZYVERT™, does not require a regular screening process, while a yearly selection process is needed to produce LC Burley tobacco seeds for NNN reduction. The reduction of NNN observed in smoke of blended prototype cigarettes is proportional to the inclusion level of tobacco having ZYVERT™ technology. Inclusion of Burley tobacco possessing the new trait into a typical American blend resulted in a selective reduction of NNN in cigarette smoke, while the levels of other Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHC) currently in the abbreviated list provided by the US Food and Drug Administration are statistically equivalent in comparison with the levels obtained in reference prototype cigarettes containing LC Burley. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of charcoal in modified cigarette filters for mainstream smoke carbonyl reduction

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Matthew R.; Ding, Yan S.; Yan, Xizheng; Chan, Michele; Chafin, Dana; Perez, Jose; Mendez, Magaly I.; Cardenas, Roberto Bravo; Watson, Clifford

    2017-01-01

    Carbonyls are harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS). Carbonyls, including formaldehyde and acrolein, are carcinogenic or mutagenic in a dose-dependent manner. Past studies demonstrate significant reduction of HPHCs by charcoal filtration. However, limits of charcoal filtration and cigarette design have not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. Objective data is needed concerning the feasibility of HPHC reduction in combustible filtered cigarettes. This systematic study evaluates the effect of charcoal filtration on carbonyl reduction in MSS. We modified filters of ten popular cigarette products with predetermined quantities (100–400 mg) of charcoal in a plug-space-plug configuration. MSS carbonyls, as well as total particulate matter, tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide (TNCO), and draw resistance were quantified. Significant carbonyl reductions were observed across all cigarette products as charcoal loading increased. At the highest charcoal loadings, carbonyls were reduced by nearly 99%. Tar and nicotine decreased modestly (<20%) compared to reductions in carbonyls. Increased draw resistance was significant at only the highest charcoal loadings. This work addresses information gaps in the science base that can inform the evaluation of charcoal filtration as an available technological adaptation to cigarette design which reduces levels of carbonyls in MSS. PMID:28238852

  6. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Chung, H L; Mangan, P P; Morrison, C C; Risner, C H; Rogers, J C; Simmons, D F; Uhrig, M S; Wendelboe, F N; Wingate, D E; Winkler, L S

    1998-03-01

    A new-technology cigarette has been developed. While the new cigarette burns some tobacco, it does not use tobacco as the fuel to sustain combustion and provide heat to the cigarette. Rather, the new cigarette primarily heats tobacco thereby reducing products of smoke formation mechanisms such as tobacco combustion, tobacco pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. The mainstream smoke composition from a cigarette based on the new design (TOB-HT) has been characterized in comparative chemical testing with two reference cigarettes using the FTC puffing regimen. Thermal properties, UV absorption characteristics, elemental composition and materials balance studies all suggest a simplified smoke aerosol. Twenty-five smoke constituents ("target compounds") identified by the scientific community as compounds that may contribute to the diseases statistically associated with smoking have also been measured. Mainstream smoke concentrations of most target compounds are significantly lower with the TOB-HT cigarette when compared with reference cigarettes in the ultra-light "tar" and light "tar" categories. Taken together, chemical analysis results suggest simplified TOB-HT smoke chemistry with marked reductions in specific chemicals reported to be biologically active.

  7. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Chung, H L; Mangan, P P; Morrison, C C; Risner, C H; Rogers, J C; Simmons, D F; Uhrig, M S; Wendelboe, F N; Wingate, D E; Winkler, L S

    1998-07-01

    A new-technology cigarette has been developed. While the new cigarette burns some tobacco, it does not use tobacco as the fuel to sustain combustion and provide heat to the cigarette. Rather, the new cigarette primarily heats tobacco thereby reducing products of smoke formation mechanisms such as tobacco combustion, tobacco pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. The mainstream smoke composition from a cigarette based on the new design (TOB-HT) has been characterized in comparative chemical testing with two reference cigarettes using the FTC puffing regimen. Thermal properties, UV absorption characteristics, elemental composition and materials balance studies all suggest a simplified smoke aerosol. Twenty-five smoke constituents ("target compounds") identified by the scientific community as compounds that may contribute to the diseases statistically associated with smoking have also been measured. Mainstream smoke concentrations of most target compounds are significantly lower with the TOB-HT cigarette when compared with reference cigarettes in the ultra-light "tar" and light "tar" categories. Taken together, chemical analysis results suggest simplified TOB-HT smoke chemistry with marked reductions in specific chemicals reported to be biologically active.

  8. Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

    2006-02-01

    The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

  9. The mutagenic assessment of mainstream cigarette smoke using the Ames assay: a multi-strain approach.

    PubMed

    Thorne, David; Kilford, Joanne; Hollings, Michael; Dalrymple, Annette; Ballantyne, Mark; Meredith, Clive; Dillon, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA97, TA102 and TA104 were assessed for their suitability and use in conjunction with a Vitrocell(®) VC 10 Smoking Robot and 3R4F reference mainstream cigarette smoke. Little information exists on TA97, TA104, TA1535, TA1537 and TA102 using an aerosol 35mm spread-plate format. In this study, TA1535 and TA1537 were considered sub-optimal for use with a scaled-down format, due to low spontaneous revertant numbers (0-5 revertants/plate). In the context of a regulatory environment, TA97 is deemed an acceptable alternative for TA1537 and was therefore selected for whole smoke exposure in this study. However, there is no acceptable alternative for TA1535, therefore this strain was included for whole smoke exposure. TA1535, TA97, TA102 and TA104 were assessed for mutagenic responses following exposure to cigarette smoke at varying concentrations (using diluting airflow rates of 1.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0L/min), and exposure times of 24 and 64min. A positive mutagenic response to cigarette smoke was observed in strain TA104 at both the 24 and 64min time points, in the presence of S-9, at the highest smoke concentration tested (1.0L/min diluting airflow). The three remaining strains were found to be unresponsive to cigarette smoke at all concentrations tested, in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Cigarette smoke particulate deposition was quantified in situ of exposure using quartz crystal microbalance technology, enabling data to be presented against an associated gravimetric mass (μg/cm(2)). Finally, data obtained in this study were combined with previously published Ames data for TA98, TA100, YG1024, YG1042 and Escherichia coli (WP2 uvrA pKM101), generated using the same 35mm methodology. The combined data-set was used to propose an aerosol testing strategy, based on strain compatibility with the whole smoke aerosol, whilst maintaining the essence of the regulatory guidelines for the standard Ames assay.

  10. Variation in tobacco and mainstream smoke toxicant yields from selected commercial cigarette products.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A; Betson, T R; Gama, M Vinicius; McAdam, K

    2015-04-01

    There is a drive toward the mandated lowering and reporting of selected toxicants in tobacco smoke. Several studies have quantified the mainstream cigarette emissions of toxicants, providing benchmark levels. Few, however, have examined how measured toxicant levels within a single product vary over time due to natural variation in the tobacco, manufacturing and measurement. In a single centre analysis, key toxicants were measured in the tobacco blend and smoke of 3R4F reference cigarette and three commercial products, each sampled monthly for 10 months. For most analytes, monthly variation was low (coefficient of variation <15%); but higher (⩾ 20%) for some compounds present at low (ppb) levels. Reporting toxicant emissions as a ratio to nicotine increased the monthly variation of the 9 analytes proposed for mandated lowering, by 1-2 percentage points. Variation in toxicant levels was generally 1.5-1.7-fold higher in commercial cigarettes compared with 3R4F over the 10-month period, but increased up to 3.5-fold for analytes measured at ppb level. The potential error (2CV) associated with single-point-in-time sampling averaged ∼ 20%. Together, these data demonstrate that measurement of emissions from commercial cigarettes is associated with considerable variation for low-level toxicants. This variation would increase if the analyses were conducted in more than one laboratory.

  11. Influence of measurement uncertainty on the world health organization recommended regulation for mainstream cigarette smoke constituents.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huimin; Li, Zhonghao; Bian, Zhaoyang; Yang, Fei; Liu, Shanshan; Fan, Ziyan; Wang, Ying; Tang, Gangling

    2017-03-12

    The World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (WHO TobReg) proposed mandated ceilings on 9 prioritized mainstream cigarette smoke constituents determined from the market-specific median of nicotine-normalized yield distributions. Considering the requirements for assessing and reporting of compliance with ceilings, it is of great importance to estimate the measurement uncertainty. To have a better understanding of influence of measurement uncertainty on the WHO recommended regulation for cigarette smoke constituents, in the present study, the measurement uncertainties were evaluated systematically based on series of collaborative studies reported by three different authorities over the years from 2012 to 2016, according to the approaches guided in ISO/TS 21748. Furthermore, the compliance assessment of 20 representative cigarette samples with proposed ceilings was conducted by taking measurement uncertainty into account. This work demonstrated that measurement uncertainty had great influence on the implementation of the regulated mandated lowering of toxic smoke constituents, both on the setting of ceilings and the compliance assessment as well.

  12. Direct determination of hydrogen cyanide in cigarette mainstream smoke by ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Wei; Xu, Ying-Bo; Wang, Cheng-Hui; Chen, Kai-Bo; Tong, Hong-Wu; Liu, Shao-Min

    2011-02-18

    The determination of hydrogen cyanide in cigarette mainstream smoke has been achieved by ion chromatography (IC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). The proposed method of totally trapping whole cigarette mainstream smoke by Cambridge filters, which are treated with sodium hydroxide/ethanol solution, possesses the advantage of fast analysis time over the widespread used solution absorption method. The possible co-existing interferents are evaluated under the optimized detection conditions and excellent recoveries of cyanide are obtained. The cyanide content of absorption solution can be directly determined by the optimized IC-PAD method without any pretreatments. The linear range is 0.0147-2.45 μg/mL with R² value of 0.9997. The limit of the detection is 3 μg/L for a 25 μL injection loop. The overall relative standard deviation of the method is less than 5.20% and the recovery range from 94.3% to 101.0%. The results obtained from the developed method are in good agreement with that of continuous flow analyzer (CFA) method.

  13. Quantitative analysis of six heterocyclic aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqin; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2011-02-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) represent an important class of carcinogens in mainstream cigarette smoke. Accurate HAA quantification is challenging because of their relative low abundances and numerous chemical interferences that arise naturally from thousands of the constituents present in cigarette smoke. We have developed and validated a straightforward high-throughput method to quantify HAA levels in mainstream cigarette smoke and demonstrated the applicability by analyzing select research and domestic cigarette brands. Machine-smoked cigarette condensate collected under both standard and intensive smoking regimens was examined. Mainstream smoke particulate from individual cigarettes trapped on a glass fiber filter pad was spiked with an appropriate internal standard solution and subsequently solvent extracted. The extract was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation data showed excellent accuracy, reproducibility and high throughput; it is suitable for the routine analysis of HAAs in cigarette smoke condensate delivered under a wide of differing smoking conditions. The smoking machine deliveries of HAAs are strongly influenced by cigarettes' physical design, filler blend, and smoking regimen. A quick and accurate method has been developed for the analysis of 6 HAAs in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate. Results provided a good mean to access the ranges of HAAs in commercial products and evaluate the relative contribution of cigarette design, filler blend, and smoking regimen on delivery. Such data are vital in helping provide exposure ranges for potential human exposure estimates.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymers on a silica surface for the adsorption of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-ting; Zhu, Yong-yan; Li, Li; Wang, Wen-na; Yin, Yong-guan; Zhu, Quan-hong

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are one of the most important groups of carcinogens in tobacco products. Using adsorbents as filter additives is an effective way to reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette smoke. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) using nicotinamide as template were grafted on the silica gel surface to obtain MIP@SiO2 and employed as filter additives to absorb tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke. Four milligrams of MIP@SiO2 per cigarette was added to the interface between filter and tobacco rod to prepare a binary filter system. The mainstream smoke was collected on an industry-standard Cambridge filter pad and extracted with ammonium acetate aqueous solution before analysis. Compared to the cigarette smoke of the control group, the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were both reduced, and the adsorption rates of N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanabasine, N-nitrosoanatabine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridine)-1-butanone with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were 20.76, 15.32, 18.79, and 18.01%, and 41.33, 34.04, 37.86, and 35.53%, respectively. Furthermore the content of total particle materials in cigarette smoke with silica gel was decreased evidently but showed no observable change with MIP@SiO2 . It indicated MIP@SiO2 could selectively reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the mainstream cigarette smoke with no change to the cigarette flavor.

  15. Parent, Alkylated, and Sulfur/Oxygen-Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mainstream Smoke from 13 Brands of Chinese Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Du, Xueqing; Wang, Xinming; Tang, Jianhui; Ding, Xiang; Zhang, Yanli; Bi, Xinhui; Zhang, Gan

    2015-08-04

    China has the world's largest population of smokers with serious health consequences, yet we know a very limited spectrum of hazardous chemicals in cigarette smoke even for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Here, we chose 13 popular cigarette brands sold in China markets, collected particulate matters in mainstream smoke using filter pads and an automatic smoking machine, and analyzed 56 PAHs, including 31 parent, 18 alkylated, and 7 sulfur/oxygen-containing PAHs (S/O PAHs). The 56 PAHs in mainstream smoke totaled from 244.2 ± 28.5 to 10254.8 ± 481.5 ng cig(-1); parent, alkylated, and S/O PAHs shared 16-23%, 64-74%, and 6-18%, respectively. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged 1.1-41.6 ng cig(-1), while BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) ranged 3.6-120.2 ng cig(-1), but contributions to BaPeq by individual carcinogenic PAH species varied with cigarette brands. When these cigarette smoke source profiles were pooled together with those of other combustion ones available in the literature, we found that widely used diagnostic ratios of parent PAHs failed to distinguish cigarette smoke from other combustion sources, except that the ratio indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene/(indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene + benzo[g,h,i]perylene) can largely separate cigarette smoke from vehicular emissions and that the ratio of Retene/(Retene + chrysene) can further discriminate cigarette smoke from coal combustion when alkylated PAHs are involved.

  16. Strain-Dependent Differences in Susceptibility to Lung Cancer in Inbred Mice Exposed to Mainstream Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Terry; Bosland, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that genetic susceptibility is an important host factor determining the effects of exposure to a number of airborne particles and gases. Although numerous studies have identified a genetic component for spontaneous pulmonary tumor development and for chemically-induced lung cancer (e.g., urethane) in mice, a systematic examination of murine interstrain differences in response to cigarette smoke inhalation has not been conducted. We addressed this research gap by examining the strain distribution pattern of lung cancer in 9 inbred strains of mice exposed to 258 mg/m3 mainstream cigarette smoke for 5 months followed by 4 months of rest. Lung tumors were enumerated on fixed-lungs visualized at low magnification and on serial step sections examined microscopically. With the low magnification examination, we observed statistically significant increases in the number of lung tumors in cigarette smoke-exposed A/J and the genetically-related A/HeJ mice (p < 0.05). While fewer tumors were identified by the microscopic enumeration method, it confirmed that significant increases in lung tumors occurred only in A/J and A/HeJ mice exposed to cigarette smoke (p<0.05). Thus, as predicted by epidemiologic studies and animal experiments using chemically-induced lung cancer models, these findings suggest that genetic host factors play a significant role in the pulmonary tumorigenic response of mice to mainstream cigarette smoke. PMID:19118942

  17. Evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of mainstream whole smoke and smoke condensate from a cigarette containing a novel carbon filter.

    PubMed

    Bombick, D W; Bombick, B R; Ayres, P H; Putnam, K; Avalos, J; Borgerding, M F; Doolittle, D J

    1997-09-01

    A novel carbon filter has been developed which primarily reduces the amount of certain vapor phase constituents of tobacco smoke with greater efficiency than the charcoal filters of cigarettes currently in the market. In vitro indicators of genotoxic and cytotoxic potential were used to compare the cigarette smoke condensate (particulate phase) or whole cigarette smoke (vapor phase and particulate phase) from cigarettes containing the novel carbon filter with smoke condensate or whole smoke from commercial or prototype cigarettes not containing the novel carbon filter. Ames bacterial mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and neutral red cytotoxicity assays in CHO cells were utilized to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the cigarette smoke condensates. SCE and neutral red cytotoxicity assays were utilized to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the whole smoke. As expected, the novel carbon filter did not significantly affect the genotoxic or cytotoxic activity of the smoke condensate, although we did observe that the use of low-nitrogen tobacco reduced the mutagenicity of the condensate in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. However, the whole smoke from cigarettes containing the novel carbon filter demonstrated significant reductions in genotoxic and cytotoxic potential compared to cigarettes without the novel carbon filter. The toxicity of the smoke was correlated (r = 0.7662 for cytotoxicity and r = 0.7562 for SCE induction) to the aggregate mass of several vapor phase components (acetone, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, ammonia, NOx, HCN, benzene, isoprene, and formaldehyde) in the smoke of the cigarettes utilized in this study. In conclusion, this novel carbon filter, which significantly reduced the amount of carbonyls and other volatiles in mainstream cigarette smoke, resulted in significant reductions in the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the smoke as measured

  18. Influence of filter ventilation on the chemical composition of cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Adam, Thomas; McAughey, John; Mocker, Christoph; McGrath, Conor; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2010-01-04

    Total yields of cigarette smoke constituents are greatly influenced by smoking behaviour, the tobacco blend as well as a variety of cigarette design parameters. Thereby, filter ventilation, i.e. diluting the smoke by providing a zone of microscopic holes around the circumference of the filter is one method to reduce the yield of 'tar' and other smoke compounds. However, little is known how these design variations influence the combustion conditions, and therefore, the overall chemical pattern of the smoke. In this paper single photon ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) is used to characterize and compare cigarettes on a puff-by-puff basis, which differ only in filter ventilation magnitude. The research cigarettes investigated were made from Virginia tobacco and featured filter ventilations of 0% (no ventilation), 35%, and 70%. The cigarettes were smoked under two different puffing regimes, one using the puffing parameters of the conventional International Organization for Standardization (ISO) smoking regime and a more intense smoking condition. Results show that every variation entails a change of the chemical pattern, whereby, in general, cigarettes with 0% filter ventilation as well as the intense smoking regime lead to a more complete combustion compared to the ISO smoking conditions and the high ventilated cigarettes. Changes in the overall patterns can also be observed during the smoking for individual puffs. Some substances dominate the first puff, some species are more pronounced in the middle puffs, whereas others are preferably formed in the last puffs. This demonstrates the high complexity of the occurring processes. Results might help to understand the formation and decomposition reactions taking place when a cigarette is smoked and offer scope for targeted reduction strategies for specific toxicants or groups of toxicants in the smoke.

  19. IARC carcinogens reported in cigarette mainstream smoke and their calculated log P values.

    PubMed

    Smith, C J; Perfetti, T A; Garg, R; Hansch, C

    2003-06-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol of minute liquid droplets (termed the particulate phase) suspended within a mixture of gases (CO(2), CO, NO(x), etc.) and semi-volatile compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified a number of the chemical constituents reported in cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) as carcinogens. Previously, we published a series of historical reviews reporting that 11 IARC Group 1 (known human), nine Group 2A (probable human) and 48 Group 2B (possible human) carcinogens have been observed in MS. Here, we expand the list of IARC classified carcinogens from 68 to 81 compounds (11 Group 1, 14 Group 2A and 56 Group 2B) reported in MS. A number of the IARC compounds reported in MS are found in the vapor phase including three Group 1, eight Group 2A and 18 Group 2B constituents. Several IARC MS compounds are found in both the vapor and particulate phases including two in Group 1, one in Group 2A and one in Group 2B. Forty-eight IARC MS carcinogens are found in the particulate phase only. Lipophilicity, as determined by the base 10 logarithm of the calculated octanol-water partition coefficient and denoted as Clog P, is reported for each of the 71 non-metallic MS IARC carcinogens. Clog P correlates with a number of biological activities including in vitro mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in rodents, and in the absence of any additional toxicological or epidemiological data, a high log P compound is more likely to be carcinogenic than a low log P compound.

  20. Effect of smoking parameters on the particle size distribution and predicted airway deposition of mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kane, David B; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen T; Rostami, Ali; Oldham, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    It is known that puffing conditions such as puff volume, duration, and frequency vary substantially among individual smokers. This study investigates how these parameters affect the particle size distribution and concentration of fresh mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) and how these changes affect the predicted deposition of MCS particles in a model human respiratory tract. Measurements of the particle size distribution made with an electrical low pressure impactor for a variety of puffing conditions are presented. The average flow rate of the puff is found to be the major factor effecting the measured particle size distribution of the MCS. The results of these measurements were then used as input to a deterministic dosimetry model (MPPD) to estimate the changes in the respiratory tract deposition fraction of smoke particles. The MPPD dosimetry model was modified by incorporating mechanisms involved in respiratory tract deposition of MCS: hygroscopic growth, coagulation, evaporation of semivolatiles, and mixing of the smoke with inhaled dilution air. The addition of these mechanisms to MPPD resulted in reasonable agreement between predicted airway deposition and human smoke retention measurements. The modified MPPD model predicts a modest 10% drop in the total deposition efficiency in a model human respiratory tract as the puff flow rate is increased from 1050 to 3100 ml/min, for a 2-s puff.

  1. Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Baren, Randall E; Parrish, Milton E; Shafer, Kenneth H; Harward, Charles N; Shi, Quan; Nelson, David D; McManus, J Barry; Zahniser, Mark S

    2004-12-01

    A compact, fast response, infrared spectrometer using four pulsed quantum cascade (QC) lasers has been applied to the analysis of gases in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke. QC lasers have many advantages over the traditional lead-salt tunable diode lasers, including near room temperature operation with thermoelectric cooling and single mode operation with improved long-term stability. The new instrument uses two 36 m, 0.3 l multiple pass absorption gas cells to obtain a time response of 0.1s for the MS smoke system and 0.4s for the SS smoke system. The concentrations of ammonia, ethylene, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide for three different reference cigarettes were measured simultaneously in MS and SS smoke. A data rate of 20Hz provides sufficient resolution to determine the concentration profiles during each 2s puff in the MS smoke. Concentration profiles before, during and after the puffs also have been observed for these smoke constituents in SS smoke. Also, simultaneous measurements of CO(2) from a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer are obtained for both MS and SS smoke. In addition, during this work, nitrous oxide was detected in both the MS and SS smoke for all reference cigarettes studied.

  2. Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baren, Randall E.; Parrish, Milton E.; Shafer, Kenneth H.; Harward, Charles N.; Shi, Quan; Nelson, David D.; McManus, J. Barry; Zahniser, Mark S.

    2004-12-01

    A compact, fast response, infrared spectrometer using four pulsed quantum cascade (QC) lasers has been applied to the analysis of gases in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke. QC lasers have many advantages over the traditional lead-salt tunable diode lasers, including near room temperature operation with thermoelectric cooling and single mode operation with improved long-term stability. The new instrument uses two 36 m, 0.3 l multiple pass absorption gas cells to obtain a time response of 0.1 s for the MS smoke system and 0.4 s for the SS smoke system. The concentrations of ammonia, ethylene, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide for three different reference cigarettes were measured simultaneously in MS and SS smoke. A data rate of 20 Hz provides sufficient resolution to determine the concentration profiles during each 2 s puff in the MS smoke. Concentration profiles before, during and after the puffs also have been observed for these smoke constituents in SS smoke. Also, simultaneous measurements of CO 2 from a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer are obtained for both MS and SS smoke. In addition, during this work, nitrous oxide was detected in both the MS and SS smoke for all reference cigarettes studied.

  3. The relative toxicity of substituted phenols reported in cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carr J; Perfetti, Thomas A; Morton, Michael J; Rodgman, Alan; Garg, Rajni; Selassie, Cynthia D; Hansch, Corwin

    2002-09-01

    Cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) contains a number of structurally diverse substituted phenols. Recent quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies on phenols show that substituted phenols with electron-releasing groups can form potentially toxic phenoxyl-free radicals. In contrast, substituted phenols with electron-withdrawing groups do not form phenoxyl-free radicals but exert their toxicity primarily through lipophilicity. The chemical structures of 253 different substituted phenols reported in MS have been described in sufficient detail to allow identification of the individual compounds. From a laterally validated equation based on published data on the toxic effects of phenols on cultured cells, the relative toxicity, on a molar basis, of the 253 MS phenols has been determined. Based on this scheme, the most toxic phenols in MS include, in descending order of toxicity, 2-(dimethylamino)-phenol, 2-ethyl-6-methyl-1,4-benzenediol, 2-methoxy-1,4-benzenediol, and 4-ethyl-2-methoxy-6-methylphenol. The least toxic phenols include, in ascending order of toxicity, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid. In the human exposure situation, the toxicity of MS phenols is a complex interaction, with contributions made by the following factors: toxicity per mole; MS concentration; synergistic, additive or antagonistic interactions with other MS components; host susceptibility; metabolism; and individual smoking behavior and inhalation patterns. In the absence of data to the contrary, reduction in the number and concentration of toxic MS smoke components may be considered to be advantageous. Studies of this type can play an important role in identifying MS components for reduction or removal.

  4. [Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Mutagenicity of Mainstream Smoke and Heavy Metals in Tobacco Filler of Cigarettes of a Brand in Japan and Cigarettes of the Same Brand Imported Privately from Other Asian Countries].

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Tadamichi; Inaba, Yohei; Hara, Yasuko; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Some Japanese smokers imported Japanese cigarette brands from other Asian countries for personal use because of the increase in tobacco tax in 2010, which meant that privately importing the cigarettes was cheaper than purchasing them in Japan. We assumed that the health hazards of locally made cigarettes were different from those of privately imported cigarettes, despite the brands being the same. In this study, we carried out a comparative toxicological analysis of domestic and privately imported cigarettes. Privately imported cigarettes of five brands and domestic cigarettes of the brand named "MILD SEVEN ORIGINAL" were selected for the study. The level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mainstream smoke was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using fluorescence detection. The mutagenicity of mainstream smoke was assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA98, and YG1024 with the metabolic activation system (S9mix) by preincubation assay. The levels of heavy metals in cigarette fillers were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The level of PAH in the mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes was higher than that in the smoke from the domestic cigarettes. However, the mutagenic activity of the mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes was equivalent to that from the domestic cigarettes. The levels of nickel and cadmium in the fillers of the privately imported cigarettes were higher than those in the domestic cigarettes. The levels of constituents in the fillers and mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes were higher than those in the fillers and mainstream smoke from the domestic cigarettes. The majority of Japanese smokers are unaware of these findings. The guidelines regulating tobacco products recommend that articles 9 and 10 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should be fully implemented in Japan.

  5. Reduction of aldehydes and hydrogen cyanide yields in mainstream cigarette smoke using an amine functionalised ion exchange resin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a well recognized cause of diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Of the more than 5000 identified species in cigarette smoke, at least 150 have toxicological activity. For example, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have been assigned as Group 1 and Group 2B carcinogens by IARC, and hydrogen cyanide has been identified as a respiratory and cardiovascular toxicant. Active carbon has been shown to be an effective material for the physical adsorption of many of the smoke volatile species. However, physical adsorption of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and also hydrogen cyanide from smoke is less effective using carbon. Alternative methods for the removal of these species from cigarette smoke are therefore of interest. A macroporous, polystyrene based ion-exchange resin (Diaion®CR20) with surface amine group functionality has been investigated for its ability to react with aldehydes and HCN in an aerosol stream, and thus selectively reduce the yields of these compounds (in particular formaldehyde) in mainstream cigarette smoke. Results Resin surface chemistry was characterized using vapour sorption, XPS, TOF-SIMS and 15N NMR. Diaion®CR20 was found to have structural characteristics indicating weak physisorption properties, but sufficient surface functionalities to selectively remove aldehydes and HCN from cigarette smoke. Using 60 mg of Diaion®CR20 in a cigarette cavity filter gave reductions in smoke formaldehyde greater than 50% (estimated to be equivalent to >80% of the formaldehyde present in the smoke vapour phase) independent of a range of flow rates. Substantial removal of HCN (>80%) and acetaldehyde (>60%) was also observed. The performance of Diaion®CR20 was found to be consistent over a test period of 6 months. The overall adsorption for the majority of smoke compounds measured appeared to follow a pseudo-first order approximation to second order kinetics. Conclusions This

  6. Determination of nitroalkanes in mainstream cigarette smoke by heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Jizhao; Shang, Jingjing; Ding, Li; Zhao, Ge; Xie, Fuwei; Jia, Yunzhen; Qin, Yaqiong; Yu, Yongjie; Chen, Li; Zhang, Shusheng

    2015-12-11

    In this paper, heart-cutting two-dimensional GC/MS (GC-GC/MS) method in combination with a simple sample collection procedure was developed for the determination of 6 nitroalkanes in mainstream cigarette smoke. The method could remove large amounts of impurities on-line in the first polar column by heart-cuts and separate from the left interferences in a second mid-polar column. And the target compounds could be focused at the inlet of the second column by cryo-concentration. Compared to conventional GC/MS, GC-GC/MS achieved a lower noise level and sensitivity at least an order of magnitude higher. Furthermore, the GC-GC/MS method could avoid the false negative and false positive results that appeared in the compared conventional GC/MS analysis. By trapping the vapor phase of 20 cigarettes smoke, the LODs and LOQs of the nitroalkanes were 1.3 to 9.8 and 4.3 to 32.6ng/cigarette, respectively, and all linear correlation efficiencies were larger than 0.999. The validation results also indicate that the method has high accuracy (spiked recoveries between 84% and 102%) and good repeatability (RSD between 7.2% and 9.4%). The developed method was applied to analyze 1 Kentucky reference cigarette (3R4F) and 10 Chinese commercial brands of cigarettes. The research results indicated that nitromethane, nitroethane, 2-nitropropane and 1-nitro-n-pentane were detected in mainstream cigarette smoke, but 1-nitro-n-butane and 2-nitropropane, which were reported by one previous study, were not detected in all cigarette samples.

  7. A feasibility study on oxidation state of arsenic in cut tobacco, mainstream cigarette smoke and cigarette ash by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Hu, J.; McAdam, K. G.

    2009-11-01

    This work describes the application of synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy to study the oxidation state of arsenic in cigarette mainstream smoke, cut tobacco and cigarette ash. The level of arsenic in the total particulate matter of the smoke is approximately 1 ppm for the standard research reference cigarette 2R4F and its replacement 3R4F. Smoke particulate samples collected by a conventional glass-fiber membrane (commercially known as Cambridge filter pad) and a jet-impaction method were analyzed and compared. In addition smoke particulate samples were aged either at ambient temperature or at 195 K. X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy results revealed that the cut tobacco powder and cigarette ash contained almost exclusively As V. The smoke particulate samples however contained a mixture of As III and As V. The As V in the smoke particulate was reduced to As III upon aging. Stabilizing the smoke particulate matter at 195 K by solid CO 2 slowed down this aging reaction and revealed a higher percentage of As V. This behavior is consistent with the redox properties of the arsenic species and the smoke particulate matrix.

  8. A probabilistic risk assessment approach used to prioritize chemical constituents in mainstream smoke of cigarettes sold in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianping; Marano, Kristin M; Wilson, Cody L; Liu, Huimin; Gan, Huamin; Xie, Fuwei; Naufal, Ziad S

    2012-03-01

    The chemical and physical complexity of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS) presents a challenge in the understanding of risk for smoking-related diseases. Quantitative risk assessment is a useful tool for assessing the toxicological risks that may be presented by smoking currently available commercial cigarettes. In this study, yields of a selected group of chemical constituents were quantified in machine-generated MSS from 30 brands of cigarettes sold in China. Using constituent yields, exposure estimates specific to and representative of the Chinese population, and available dose-response data, a Monte Carlo method was applied to simulate probability distributions for incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), hazard quotient (HQ), and margin of exposure (MOE) values for each constituent as appropriate. Measures of central tendency were extracted from the outcome distributions and constituents were ranked according to these three risk assessment indices. The constituents for which ILCR >10(-4), HQ >1, and MOE <10,000 included acetaldehyde, acrylonitrile, benzene, cadmium, formaldehyde, and pyridine. While limitations exist to this methodology in estimating the absolute magnitude of health risk contributed by each MSS constituent, this approach provides a plausible and objective framework for the prioritization of toxicants in cigarette smoke and is valuable in guiding tobacco risk management.

  9. DNA solution(R) in cigarette filters reduces polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in mainstream tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Lodovici, M; Akpan, V; Caldini, S; Akanju, B; Dolara, P

    2007-09-01

    Tobacco consumption represents a major health hazard to humans and, despite anti-smoking campaigns, the number of smokers remains high; thus the reduction of toxic compounds from tobacco smoke may reduce the health hazards of smoking. In the last 25 years cigarette manufacturers have introduced a variety of filter designs to reduce toxic and carcinogenic substances in tobacco smoke (normal filters, NF). However, large quantities of harmful constituents are inefficiently retained by commonly used cigarette filters. Following a patented method we modified commercial cigarette filters (modified filter, MF) by injecting a DNA solution into the filter tips; we then evaluated the reduced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in mainstream tobacco smoke of MF relative to NF. The PAH measured were: fluoranthene (FLUO), pyrene (PY), benzo(a)anthracene (B(a)A), chrysene (CRY), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benzo(b)fluoranthene (B(b)F), benzo(k)fluoranthene (B(k)F), benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BGP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA). The levels of PAH in cigarette smoke after MF were significantly reduced (P<0.001) compared to NF, using a variety of cigarette brands in a smoking machine (44.5%+/-8.4 % and 41.8%+/-5% for total and carcinogenic PAH, respectively, means+/-SE). Using B(a)P(TEF) values the reduction in PAH concentrations were similar for all cigarette brands with the exception of Camel, where the reduction was lower considering B(a)P(TEF) values. Amongst carcinogenic PAH, B(a)A, B(b)F and B(k)F) were reduced by 50-58%, CRY, B(a)P and DBA by about 40%. In conclusion MF filters treated with DNA have the potential of decreasing the exposure to PAH in cigarette smoke. Since, unlike some previously proposed biological filters MF do not retain additional nicotine, the main addictive compound of tobacco smoke, these filters may not induce increased smoking to compensate for the reduction in the nicotine delivery to smokers.

  10. New technique using solid-phase extraction for the analysis of aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Smith, C J; Dooly, G L; Moldoveanu, S C

    2003-03-28

    A new procedure has been developed for the quantitation of aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke. Two solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup steps using different retention mechanisms are required to process the samples. The first step uses a cation-exchange cartridge, followed by a second step that uses a cartridge with a hydrophobic retention character. The aromatic amines eluted from the second SPE cartridge are derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and analyzed with GC-MS selected ion monitoring in the negative chemical ionization mode. This new method has several advantages over other reported techniques, being sensitive, robust, and easily automated. The detection limits ranged from 0.02 ng/cigarette for tolidine to 1.41 ng/cigarette for aniline and the recoveries were from 79 to 109%.

  11. Mainstream cigarette smoke exposure alters cytochrome P4502G1 expression in F344 rat olfactory mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Lewis, J.L.; Finch, G.L.; Belinsky, S.A.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-11-01

    Inhalation of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) by rats results in multifocal rhinitis, mucous hypersecretion, nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, and focal olfactory mucosal atrophy. In humans, cigarette smoking causes long-term, dose-related alterations in olfactory function in both current and former smokers. An olfactory-specific cytochrome P450 has been identified in rabbits and rats. The presence of olfactory-specific P450s, as well as relatively high levels of other biotransformation enzymes, such as NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, in the olfactory neuroepithelium suggest that these enzyme systems may play a role in olfaction. This hypothesis is strengthened by the observation that, in rats, the temporal gene activation of P4502G1 coincides with the postnatal increase in the sensitivity of olfactory response to odorants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of MCS exposure on P4502G1 protein expression.

  12. Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bigourd, Damien; Cuisset, Arnaud; Hindle, Francis; Matton, Sophie; Fertein, Eric; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

    2006-08-01

    Continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy by photomixing is applied to the analysis of mainstream cigarette smoke. Using the wide tunability of the source, spectral signatures of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (H2CO), and water (H2O) have been observed from 500 to 2400 GHz. The fine spectral purity allows direct concentration measurement from the pure rotational transitions of HCN and CO. The quantification of the measurement was validated by the means of a calibration gas containing CO. The potential of this technique for trace gas detection is demonstrated with an estimated detection limit of HCN equal to 9 parts in 10(6).

  13. Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigourd, Damien; Cuisset, Arnaud; Hindle, Francis; Matton, Sophie; Fertein, Eric; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

    2006-08-01

    Continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy by photomixing is applied to the analysis of mainstream cigarette smoke. Using the wide tunability of the source, spectral signatures of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (H2CO), and water (H2O) have been observed from 500 to 2400GHz. The fine spectral purity allows direct concentration measurement from the pure rotational transitions of HCN and CO. The quantification of the measurement was validated by the means of a calibration gas containing CO. The potential of this technique for trace gas detection is demonstrated with an estimated detection limit of HCN equal to 9 parts in 106.

  14. Scavenging of free radicals in gas-phase mainstream cigarette smoke by immobilized catalase at filter level.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Hua, Zhaozhe; Du, Guocheng; Ma, Xiaolong; Cao, Jianhua; Yang, Zhanping; Chen, Jian

    2008-03-01

    Catalase is well known as capable of inducing the decomposition of H(2)O(2). In this study, a kind of immobilized catalase (entrapped in cross-linked chitosan beads) was dispersed in conventional acetate filter as an antioxidant additive. Quantitative estimation of the free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) was performed to address the effect of this modified filter. It was found that the levels of PBN adduct and NO(*)/NO(2)(*) associated with the gas-phase mainstream cigarette smoke (GPCS) were efficiently decreased by approximately 40% through catalase filtering. Besides, the modified filter was found to lower the MCS-induced adverse biological effects including lipid peroxidation and mutagenicity. This was proved to be substantially attributed to the catalase-dependent breakdown of NO(*), which was stimulated by some of peroxides (most probably being H(2)O(2)), the dismutation products of tar particulate matters (TPM). These results highlighted a promising approach to reduce the smoking-associated health risks to passive smokers. Moreover, the mechanisms of catalase filtering may be helpful for the development of appropriate immobilized enzyme systems to be applied for reducing health risks associated with gaseous pollutants.

  15. Effectiveness of cigarette filter tips for reducing cadmium in relation to other mainstream smoke constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of filter tips for reducing cadmium, tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were made from tobacco grown on municipal sewage sludge-amended soil and were therefore high in cadmium. When machine-smoked, filter tips did not result in a significant reduction of cadmium deposited on Cambridge filters. This may indicate that a considerable fraction of cadmium is present in the vapor phase of the smoke and therefore not reduced to the same extent as the tar by certain filters. Nicotine and carbon monoxide were reduced to a lesser extent than tar. This indicates that the filter tip has influenced the combustion of the tobacco column during smoking.

  16. Simultaneous on-line size and chemical analysis of gas phase and particulate phase of cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Adam, Thomas; McAughey, John; McGrath, Conor; Mocker, Christoph; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes the combined set-up of on-line chemical analysis of gas phase by single-photon ionisation/resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI/REMPI-TOFMS) and on-line particle size analysis by differential electrical mobility particle spectrometry (DMS 500) for the investigation of fresh cigarette mainstream smoke. SPI is well suited for the investigation of a great variety of organic species, whereas REMPI is highly sensitive for aromatic compounds. Gas phase measurements of filtered and unfiltered smoke are possible with the SPI/REMPI-TOFMS in order to determine the influence of the presence of particles on the chemical composition of the gas phase. Initial results are shown for the characterisation and comparison of three pure Virginia tobacco research cigarettes having filter ventilations of 0%, i.e. no filter ventilation, 35% and 70% ventilation. The three cigarette types are smoked under two different smoking regimes, a standard regime using puff parameters equivalent to the conventional International Standard Organisation regime and a more intense smoking regime. For the gas phase, qualitative puff-by-puff resolved yields of three selected compounds (acetaldehyde, phenol and styrene) are shown and compared. For particulate matter, particle number, count median diameter and total surface area are illustrated on a puff-by-puff basis. Yields of the chemicals analysed, puff number and surface area are in good agreement with the intensity of the smoking regime and the dilution of smoke by filter ventilation. However, gaseous compounds are influenced differently, depending whether an absolute particle filter is present or not, i.e. they can be totally removed (phenol), partially removed (styrene) or not affected (acetaldehyde). For particle analysis, the count median diameter decreases from puff to puff and is strongly dependent on the smoking regime and ventilation rate. Thereby, 0% ventilated cigarettes smoked

  17. Toxic Metal Concentrations in Mainstream Smoke from Cigarettes Available in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Fresquez, Mark R.; Martone, Naudia; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Public health officials and leaders of 168 nations have signaled their concern regarding the health and economic impacts of smoking by becoming signatory parties to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). One of FCTC’s purposes is to help achieve meaningful regulation for tobacco products in order to decrease the exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) delivered to users and those who are exposed to secondhand smoke. Determining baseline delivery ranges for HPHCs in modern commercial tobacco products is crucial information regulators could use to make informed decisions. Establishing mainstream smoke delivery concentration ranges for toxic metals was conducted through analyses of total particulate matter (TPM) collected with smoking machines using standard smoking regimens. We developed a rapid analytical method with microwave digestion of TPM samples obtained with smoking machines using electrostatic precipitation under the ISO and Intense smoking regimens. Digested samples are analyzed for chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, arsenic, cadmium, and lead using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. This method provides data obtained using the ISO smoking regimen for comparability with previous studies as well as an Intense smoking regimen that represents deliveries that fall within the range of human exposure levels to toxic metals. PMID:24535337

  18. Toxic metal concentrations in mainstream smoke from cigarettes available in the USA.

    PubMed

    Pappas, R Steven; Fresquez, Mark R; Martone, Naudia; Watson, Clifford H

    2014-05-01

    Public health officials and leaders of 168 nations have signaled their concern regarding the health and economic impacts of smoking by becoming signatory parties to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). One of FCTC's purposes is to help achieve meaningful regulation for tobacco products in order to decrease the exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) delivered to users and those who are exposed to secondhand smoke. Determining baseline delivery ranges for HPHCs in modern commercial tobacco products is crucial information regulators could use to make informed decisions. Establishing mainstream smoke delivery concentration ranges for toxic metals was conducted through analyses of total particulate matter (TPM) collected with smoking machines using standard smoking regimens. We developed a rapid analytical method with microwave digestion of TPM samples obtained with smoking machines using electrostatic precipitation under the ISO and Intense smoking regimens. Digested samples are analyzed for chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, arsenic, cadmium and lead using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. This method provides data obtained using the ISO smoking regimen for comparability with previous studies as well as an Intense smoking regimen that represents deliveries that fall within the range of human exposure levels to toxic metals.

  19. A method for assessment of the genotoxicity of mainstream cigarette-smoke by use of the bacterial reverse-mutation assay and an aerosol-based exposure system.

    PubMed

    Kilford, Joanne; Thorne, David; Payne, Rebecca; Dalrymple, Annette; Clements, Julie; Meredith, Clive; Dillon, Debbie

    2014-07-15

    To date there are no widely accepted methods for the toxicological testing of complex gaseous mixtures and aerosols, such as cigarette smoke, although some modifications to the standard regulatory methods have been developed and used. Historically, routine testing of cigarettes has primarily focused on the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke. However, this fraction may not accurately reflect the full toxicity and mutagenicity of the smoke aerosol as a whole, which contains semi-volatiles and short-lived products of combustion. In this study we have used a modified version of the bacterial reverse-mutation (Ames) assay for the testing of mainstream smoke generated from 3R4F reference cigarettes with a Vitrocell(®) VC 10 exposure system. This method has been evaluated in four strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100, YG1024 and YG1042) and one strain of Escherichia coli (WP2 uvrA pKM101) in the absence and presence of a metabolic activation system. Following exposure at four concentrations of diluted mainstream cigarette-smoke, concentration-related and reproducible increases in the number of revertants were observed in all four Salmonella strains. E. coli strain WP2 uvrA pKM101 was unresponsive at the four concentrations tested. To quantify the exposure dose and to enable biological response to be plotted as a function of deposited mass, quartz-crystal microbalances were included in situ in the smoke-exposure set-up. This methodology was further assessed by comparing the responses of strain YG1042 to mainstream cigarette-smoke on a second VC 10 Smoking Robot. In summary, the Ames assay can be successfully modified to assess the toxicological impact of mainstream cigarette-smoke.

  20. A comparative study by electron paramagnetic resonance of free radical species in the mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes with conventional acetate filters and 'bio-filters'.

    PubMed

    Valavanidis, A; Haralambous, E

    2001-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most important extrinsic cause, after the diet, for increasing morbidity and mortality in humans. Unless current tobacco smoking patterns in industrialised and non-industrialised countries change, cigarettes will kill prematurely 10 million people a year by 2025. Greece is at the top of the list of European countries in cigarette consumption. In 1997, a Greek tobacco company introduced a new 'bio-filter' (BF) claiming that it reduces substantially the risks of smoking. In a recent publication [Deliconstantinos G, Villiotou V, Stavrides J. Scavenging effects of hemoglobin and related heme containing compounds on nitric oxide, reactive oxidants and carcinogenic volatile nitrosocompounds of cigarette smoke. A new method for protection against the dangerous cigarette constituents. Anticancer Res 1994; 14: 2717-2726] it was claimed that the new 'bio-filter' (activated carbon impregnated with dry hemoglobin) reduces certain toxic substances and oxidants (like NO, CO, NOx, H2O2, aldehydes, trace elements and nitroso-compounds) in the gas-phase of the mainstream smoke. We have investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) the mainstream and sidestream smoke of the BF cigarette, in comparison with three other cigarettes with similar tar and nicotine contents, that have conventional acetate filters. We found that BF cigarette smoke has similar tar radical species with the same intensity EPR signals to those of the other cigarettes. The ability of the aqueous cigarette tar extracts to produce hydroxyl radicals (HO*), which were spin trapped by DMPO, was very similar to, or even higher than, the other 3 brands. The gas-phase of the mainstream smoke of the BF cigarette showed a 30-35% reduction in the production of oxygen-centered radicals (spin trapped with PBN). In the case of the sidestream smoke, BF cigarettes produced substantially higher concentrations of gas-phase radicals, compared to the other brands. These results suggest that BF is

  1. Determination of rutin in cigarette tobacco, filters, mainstream smoke and burned ash of different branded cigarettes by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinshi; Li, Wei; Wang, Jianhua; Bi, Jianjie; Su, Shudong

    2012-03-26

    Tobacco consists of at least 3,800 chemical constituents. Among them, rutin is an important polyphenolic secondary metabolite in tobacco, which has positive actions such as antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and vasoactive, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral and anti-protozoal properties. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze rutin in tobacco and filters, mainstream smoke, and burned ash of ten varieties of cigarettes made in China. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a Hypersil ODS2 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 350 nm using a photodiode array detector. The calibration curves for the determination of analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9998). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.59% and 1.53%. The recoveries were between 98.47 and 100.84%. Under the optimized conditions, namely 45 mL/g of solvent to solid ratio, 30 min of extraction time and 200 W of ultrasound power, the concentrations of rutin in tobacco and filter, mainstream smoke, burned ash of different brands cigarettes were 10.20-63.98, 0.10-0.32, 0.06-0.16 and 0 μg/per cigarette, respectively.

  2. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 8: Nicotine bridging--estimating smoke constituent exposure by their relationships to both nicotine levels in mainstream cigarette smoke and in smokers.

    PubMed

    Urban, H-Jörg; Tricker, Anthony R; Leyden, Donald E; Forte, Natasa; Zenzen, Volker; Feuersenger, Astrid; Assink, Mareike; Kallischnigg, Gerd; Schorp, Matthias K

    2012-11-01

    A modeling approach termed 'nicotine bridging' is presented to estimate exposure to mainstream smoke constituents. The method is based on: (1) determination of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) and in vitro toxicity parameter-to-nicotine regressions obtained using multiple machine-smoking protocols, (2) nicotine uptake distributions determined from 24-h excretion of nicotine metabolites in a clinical study, and (3) modeled HPHC uptake distributions using steps 1 and 2. An example of 'nicotine bridging' is provided, using a subset of the data reported in Part 2 of this supplement (Zenzen et al., 2012) for two conventional lit-end cigarettes (CC) and the Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System (EHCSS) series-K6 cigarette. The bridging method provides justified extrapolations of HPHC exposure distributions that cannot be obtained for smoke constituents due to the lack of specific biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoke constituents in clinical evaluations. Using this modeling approach, exposure reduction is evident when the HPHC exposure distribution curves between the MRTP and the CC users are substantially separated with little or no overlap between the distribution curves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Graphene oxide bound silica for solid-phase extraction of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rui; Yan, Lihong; Xu, Tongguang; Liu, Dongye; Zhu, Yongfa; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-02

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were considered as a source of carcinogenicity in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS). Accurate quantification of these components was necessary for assessing public health risk. In our study, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using graphene oxide (GO) bound silica as adsorbent for purification of 14 PAHs in MSS was developed. During SPE process, large matrices interferences of MSS were adsorbed on SPE column. The result of FTIR spectra demonstrated that these matrices interferences were adsorbed on GO mainly through OH and CO groups. The concentrations of PAHs in MSS extract were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the developed method for 14 PAHs ranged from 0.05 to 0.36 ng/cig and 0.17 to 1.19 ng/cig, respectively. The accuracy of the measurement of 14 PAHs was from 73 to 116%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day analysis were less than 7.8% and 13.9%, respectively. Moreover, the developed method was successfully applied for analysis of real cigarette containing 1R5F reference cigarette and 12 top-selling commercial cigarettes in China.

  4. Gas/particle partitioning and yield levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in the mainstream cigarette smoke of commercial cigarette brands.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzoglou, M; Samara, C

    2006-08-01

    The gas/particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes was investigated in the mainstream smoke (MSS) from 59 commercial cigarette brands classified according to the existence of filter tip, the tar yield indicated on the packet, and the cigarette length and diameter, into 15 cigarette classes: non filter (NF), high (H), medium (M), light (L), super light (SL), ultra light (UL), one-tar yield (O), 100-mm long (H-100, L-100, SL-100, UL-100, O-100), and slim (SL-SLIM, UL-SLIM, O-SLIM). The gas/particle partitioning constant, Kp, was determined and its relationship with the subcooled liquid vapour pressure pL degrees of individual compounds was investigated. A good linear relationship was obtained for both chemical classes following the equation log Kp=mr log pL degrees+br. In all cigarette classes, PAHs were found to sorb more strongly on MSS particles than n-alkanes. Carcinogenic PAHs were detectable only in the total particulate matter (TPM) of MSS and their yields increased linearly with the TPM yield. However, when normalized against TPM, the yields of carcinogenic PAHs were quite similar in all cigarette classes with a slight drop from low tar- to high tar-yield brands suggesting probably lower biological activity per mg TPM for the latter. The nicotine-normalized PAH yields were also similar among the different cigarette classes suggesting that, if smokers adjust their smoking behavior to achieve a consistent nicotine intake, they will be exposed to an equivalent amount of carcinogenic PAHs regardless of whether they smoke full-flavored, light, or ultralight varieties.

  5. Evaluation of two derivatization reagents for the determination by LC-MS/MS of ammonia in cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Nicolas; Jeanneret, Florent

    2011-01-12

    Ammonia in cigarette mainstream smoke was quantified by LC-MS/MS after derivatization. Two different reagents, fluorescamine and dansyl chloride, were investigated, but only the latter gave stable derivatives; therefore, it was considered the most appropriate choice. Smoke samples were collected on a Cambridge filter pad followed by an impinger containing a solution of hydrochloric acid. Ammonia was then derivatized with a 18.5 mM solution of dansyl chloride in acetonitrile at 70 °C for 30 min in a vial with the internal standard, (15)ND(4)Cl. The resulting derivative was analyzed by LC-MS/MS detection with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the positive ionization mode using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 0.02-1.65 μg/mL (r(2) ≥ 0.999), and the limit of detection (LOD) was established at 0.006 μg/mL. This method has the advantage of being sensitive, efficient, and reliable and is not hindered by interferences from the sample matrix. It should thus be considered a reference method of choice for the determination of ammonia in smoke.

  6. Menthol addition to cigarettes using breakable capsules in the filter. Impact on the mainstream smoke yields of the health Canada list constituents.

    PubMed

    Dolka, C; Piadé, J-J; Belushkin, M; Jaccard, G

    2013-10-21

    Cigarettes with menthol capsules embedded in the filter have been introduced recently in many countries. At the same time, concerns have been expressed that filter performance could be affected by the crushing of the capsule therein, altering mainstream smoke constituent yields, ultimately with the potential to impact the toxicity of these products. The present study investigates the possible mechanisms underlying differences in smoke constituent deliveries following the crushing of a menthol capsule in a cigarette filter. It also includes results from a market survey of a selection of commercial cigarette brands with menthol capsules representing the different designs for this type of product available in different markets worldwide. The yields of 46 Health Canada smoke components were determined according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) machine-smoking regime. Data obtained from measurements using cigarettes with the capsule crushed and uncrushed were compared. Except for the intended presence of menthol flavors in smoke, no meaningful differences were identified in the yields of the remaining measured particulate-phase smoke constituents. Regarding the gas-phase smoke constituents, it was found that the delivery of lipophilic volatiles was reduced when the capsule was crushed. Delivery of the other measured gas-phase components remained unaffected. The results from investigations performed in this study did not show any meaningful increase in the yield of smoke constituents listed by Health Canada as a result of crushing the menthol capsule in the cigarette filter.

  7. Lung Inflammatory Effects, Tumorigenesis, and Emphysema Development in a Long-Term Inhalation Study with Cigarette Mainstream Smoke in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stabbert, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, yet there is little mechanistic information available in the literature. To improve this, laboratory models for cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) inhalation–induced chronic disease development are needed. The current study investigated the effects of exposing male A/J mice to MS (6h/day, 5 days/week at 150 and 300mg total particulate matter per cubic meter) for 2.5, 5, 10, and 18 months in selected combinations with postinhalation periods of 0, 4, 8, and 13 months. Histopathological examination of step-serial sections of the lungs revealed nodular hyperplasia of the alveolar epithelium and bronchioloalveolar adenoma and adenocarcinoma. At 18 months, lung tumors were found to be enhanced concentration dependently (up to threefold beyond sham exposure), irrespective of whether MS inhalation had been performed for the complete study duration or was interrupted after 5 or 10 months and followed by postinhalation periods. Morphometric analysis revealed an increase in the extent of emphysematous changes after 5 months of MS inhalation, which did not significantly change over the following 13 months of study duration, irrespective of whether MS exposure was continued or not. These changes were found to be accompanied by a complex pattern of transient and sustained pulmonary inflammatory changes that may contribute to the observed pathogeneses. Data from this study suggest that the A/J mouse model holds considerable promise as a relevant model for investigating smoking-related emphysema and adenocarcinoma development. PMID:23104432

  8. Determination of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream smoke from U.S. brand and non-U.S. brand cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Yan, Xizheng J; Jain, Ram B; Lopp, Eugene; Tavakoli, Ameer; Polzin, Gregory M; Stanfill, Stephen B; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2006-02-15

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of chemical compounds, including many carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To determine the concentration ranges of PAHs in tobacco smoke and to understand what factors alter their levels, we quantitatively measured 14 PAHs in mainstream smoke from a transnational U.S. brand (Marlboro) and from locally popular brand cigarettes from 14 countries. We used standardized machine smoking conditions (35-mL puff volume, 60-s puff interval, and 2-s puff duration), extraction of total particulate matter from the Cambridge filters, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection. Deliveries of total PAHs in mainstream smoke of local brands were statistically significantly higher (p < 0.01) than Marlboros in seven countries. In four countries, Marlboro cigarettes had mainstream smoke total PAH levels that were statistically significantly higher (p < 0.01) than local brands. In the remaining three countries, the differences in PAH levels were not statistically significant. Under standard machine smoking conditions, PAH levels were negatively correlated with cigarette filter ventilation levels. We found that several local brands containing primarily flue-cured tobacco filler had relatively high mainstream smoke PAH deliveries, in agreement with findings by previous researchers that flue-cured tobacco typically delivers more PAHs than other tobacco types. We also observed that PAHs were inversely correlated with total carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nitrate content, but these correlations were not statistically significant at the 95% confidence interval. The findings suggest that tobacco blend and nitrate levels may influence PAH deliveries, but other factors may confound this relation.

  9. Analysis of cigarette mainstream smoke for 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and vinyl acetate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, J; Biefel, C; Rustemeier, K

    2002-10-01

    1,1-Dimethylhydrazine, also known as unsymdimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and vinyl acetate (VA), are both classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as 2B carcinogens (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and listed as cigarette smoke constituents; however, there is little or no quantitative data available on them. For UDMH in cigarette smoke, neither a yield nor a method has been published. For VA, the most recent information on yields dates back to 1965. To bridge this gap, we have developed new gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods for both compounds to determine their yields in cigarette smoke. UDMH is determined by derivatization with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde in methanol and is not found in cigarette smoke at levels above the detection limit of 19 ng/cig. In further experiments, when UDMH is added to the smoke stream or air stream of lit or unlit cigarettes, the derivative 2-nitrobenzaldehyde-2,2-dimethylhydrazone is found only in the air stream of the unlit cigarettes. From this, we conclude that UDMH is either not formed during smoking at all or, if it is, it reacts immediately and quantitatively with other smoke constituents (e.g., aldehydes) and is therefore not detectable in cigarette smoke. VA is determined by trapping in acetone at -78 degrees C and is found at a concentration of 270 ng/cig for a standard reference cigarette with a cellulose acetate filter (the reference cigarette 1 R4F). In the literature, VA is reported at concentrations of 1.6 microg/cig for a cigarette with a cellulose acetate/charcoal filter and 4 microg/cig for a cigarette with a cellulose acetate filter and for an unfiltered cigarette.

  10. Investigation of solid particles in the mainstream aerosol of the Tobacco Heating System THS2.2 and mainstream smoke of a 3R4F reference cigarette.

    PubMed

    Pratte, P; Cosandey, S; Goujon Ginglinger, C

    2017-11-01

    Combustion of biomass produces solid carbon particles, whereas their generation is highly unlikely when a biomass is heated instead of being burnt. For instance, in the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2), the tobacco is heated below 350°C and no combustion takes place. Consequently, at this relatively low temperature, released compounds should form an aerosol consisting of suspended liquid droplets via a homogeneous nucleation process. To verify this assumption, mainstream aerosol generated by the heat-not-burn product, THS2.2, was assessed in comparison with mainstream smoke produced from the 3R4F reference cigarette for which solid particles are likely present. For this purpose, a methodology was developed based on the use of a commercial Dekati thermodenuder operating at 300°C coupled with a two-stage impactor to trap solid particles. If any particles were collected, they were subsequently analyzed by a scanning electron microscope and an electron dispersive X-ray. The setup was first assessed using glycerine-based aerosol as a model system. The removal efficiency of glycerin was determined to be 86 ± 2% using a Trust Science Innovation (TSI) scanning mobility particle sizer, meaning that quantification of solid particles can be achieved as long as their fraction is larger than 14% in number. From experiments conducted using the 3R4F reference cigarette, the methodology showed that approximately 80% in number of the total particulate matter was neither evaporated nor removed by the thermodenuder. This 80% in number was attributed to the presence of solid particles and/or low volatile liquid droplets. The particles collected on the impactor were mainly carbon based. Oxygen, potassium, and chloride traces were also noted. In comparison, solid particles were not detected in the aerosol of THS2.2 after passing through the thermodenuder operated at 300°C. This result is consistent with the fact that no combustion process takes place in THS2.2 and no formation and

  11. Sensitive and selective determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream cigarette smoke using a graphene-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber prior to GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yuan; Qin, Yaqiong; Ding, Li; Chen, Yi; Xie, Fuwei

    2015-08-01

    A simple method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mainstream cigarette smoke. The procedure is based on employing a homemade graphene-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for extraction prior to GC/MS. In comparison to commercial 100-μm poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) fiber, the graphene-coated SPME fiber exhibits advantageous cleanup and preconcentration efficiencies. By collecting the particulate phase 5 cigarettes, the LODs and LOQs of 16 target PAHs were 0.02-0.07 and 0.07-0.22 ng/cigarette, respectively, and all of the linear correlation efficiencies were larger than 0.995. The validation results also indicate that the method has good repeatability (RSD between 4.2% and 9.5%) and accuracy (spiked recoveries between 80% and 110%). The developed method was applied to analyze two Kentucky reference cigarettes (1R5F and 3R4F) and six Chinese brands of cigarettes. In addition, the PAH concentrations in the particulate phase of the smoke from the 1R5F Kentucky cigarettes were in good agreement with recently reported results. Due to easy operation and good validation results, this SPME-GC/MS method may be an excellent alternative for trace analysis of PAHs in cigarette smoke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective inhibition by aspirin and naproxen of mainstream cigarette smoke-induced genotoxicity and lung tumors in female mice.

    PubMed

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Micale, Rosanna T; La Maestra, Sebastiano; D'Oria, Chiara; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

    2016-05-01

    The role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in smoke-related lung carcinogenesis is still controversial. We have developed and validated a murine model for evaluating the tumorigenicity of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) and its modulation by chemopreventive agents. In the present study, the protective effects of the nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitors aspirin and naproxen were investigated by using a total of 277 Swiss H neonatal mice of both genders. Groups of mice were exposed whole-body to MCS during the first 4 months of life, followed by an additional 3.5 months in filtered air in order to allow a better growth of tumors. Aspirin (1600 mg/kg diet) and naproxen (320 mg/kg diet) were given after weanling until the end of the experiment. After 4 months of exposure, MCS significantly enhanced the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of mice, and naproxen prevented such systemic genotoxic damage in female mice. After 7.5 months, exposure of mice to MCS resulted in the formation of lung tumors, both benign and malignant, and in several other histopathological lesions detectable both in the respiratory tract and in the urinary tract. Aspirin and, even more sharply, naproxen significantly inhibited the formation of lung tumors in MCS-exposed mice, but this protective effect selectively occurred in female mice only. These results lend support to the views that estrogens are involved in smoke-related pulmonary carcinogenesis and that NSAIDs have antiestrogenic properties. The two NSAIDs proved to be safe and efficacious in the experimental model used.

  13. Development of a BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake cytotoxicity test using a mainstream cigarette smoke exposure system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoke toxicity has traditionally been assessed using the particulate fraction under submerged culture conditions which omits the vapour phase elements from any subsequent analysis. Therefore, methodologies that assess the full interactions and complexities of tobacco smoke are required. Here we describe the adaption of a modified BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity test methodology, which is based on the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) protocol for in vitro acute toxicity testing. The methodology described takes into account the synergies of both the particulate and vapour phase of tobacco smoke. This is of particular importance as both phases have been independently shown to induce in vitro cellular cytotoxicity. Findings The findings from this study indicate that mainstream tobacco smoke and the gas vapour phase (GVP), generated using the Vitrocell® VC 10 smoke exposure system, have distinct and significantly different toxicity profiles. Within the system tested, mainstream tobacco smoke produced a dilution IC50 (dilution (L/min) at which 50% cytotoxicity is observed) of 6.02 L/min, whereas the GVP produced a dilution IC50 of 3.20 L/min. In addition, we also demonstrated significant dose-for-dose differences between mainstream cigarette smoke and the GVP fraction (P < 0.05). This demonstrates the importance of testing the entire tobacco smoke aerosol and not just the particulate fraction, as has been the historical preference. Conclusions We have adapted the NRU methodology based on the ICCVAM protocol to capture the full interactions and complexities of tobacco smoke. This methodology could also be used to assess the performance of traditional cigarettes, blend and filter technologies, tobacco smoke fractions and individual test aerosols. PMID:24935030

  14. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene in cigarette mainstream smoke by using mid-infrared spectroscopy associated with a novel chemometric algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zou, Hong-Yan; Shi, Pei; Yang, Qin; Tang, Li-Juan; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Wu, Hai-Long; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Determination of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in cigarette smoke can be very important for the tobacco quality control and the assessment of its harm to human health. In this study, mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) coupled to chemometric algorithm (DPSO-WPT-PLS), which was based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT), discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm (DPSO) and partial least squares regression (PLS), was used to quantify harmful ingredient benzo[a]pyrene in the cigarette mainstream smoke with promising result. Furthermore, the proposed method provided better performance compared to several other chemometric models, i.e., PLS, radial basis function-based PLS (RBF-PLS), PLS with stepwise regression variable selection (Stepwise-PLS) as well as WPT-PLS with informative wavelet coefficients selected by correlation coefficient test (rtest-WPT-PLS). It can be expected that the proposed strategy could become a new effective, rapid quantitative analysis technique in analyzing the harmful ingredient BaP in cigarette mainstream smoke.

  15. Selective determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke by GC coupled to positive chemical ionization triple quadrupole MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Da; Lu, Yifeng; Lin, Huaqing; Zhou, Wanhong; Gu, Wenbo

    2013-08-01

    A rapid method for the selective determination of four kinds of tobacco-specific nitrosamines, N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanatabine, N-nitrosoanabasine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, in mainstream cigarette smoke was developed by GC coupled to positive chemical ionization triple-quadrupole MS. After mainstream cigarette smoke was collected on a cambridge filter pad, the particulate matter was extracted with 0.1 M HCL aqueous solution, cleaned by positive cation-exchange solid extraction, and finally injected into GC-MS/MS using isotopically labeled analogues as internal standards. Excellent linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 0.5-200.0 ng mL(-1) for all tobacco-specific nitrosamines with values for correlation coefficient between 0.9996-0.9999. Limits of detection of each tobacco specific nitrosamine varied from 0.023-0.028 ng cig(-1), and lower limits of quantification varied from 0.077-0.093 ng cig(-1). The recovery of each tobacco specific nitrosamine was from 90.0-109.0%. The relative standard deviations of the intra-day and inter-day precisions were 3.1-5.8 and 3.9-6.6, respectively. This method was applied to reference and domestic cigarettes. The result showed that the method was consistent with traditional methods and can be used as an effective approach for the routine analysis of tobacco-specific nitrosamines.

  16. Preparation of phenyl group-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres for fast extraction and analysis of acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danni; Sha, Yunfei; Zheng, Saijing; Liu, Baizhan; Deng, Chunhui

    2013-10-15

    Acetaldehyde is regarded as a toxic mainstream cigarette smoke constituent, and measurement of acetaldehyde in complex real samples is difficult owing to its high volatility and reactivity. In this work, phenyl group-functionalized magnetic mesoporous microspheres were developed as the solid-phase extraction sorbents for enrichment and analysis of acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke. The functional magnetic microspheres were first synthesized through a facile one-pot co-condensation approach. The prepared nanomaterials possessed abundant silanol groups in the exterior surface and numerous phenyl groups in the interior pore-walls, as well as a large surface area (273.5m(2)/g), strong superparamagnetism and uniform mesopores (3.3 nm). Acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke was collected in water and derivatizated with O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine. The formed acetaldehyde oximes were extracted and enriched by the prepared adsorbents via π-π interactions and subsequently analyzed using GC-MS. Extraction conditions such as amounts of sorbents, eluting solvent, adsorption and desorption time were investigated and optimized to achieve the best efficiency. Method validations including linearity, recovery, repeatability, and limit of detection were also studied. It was found that the suggested methodology provided low detection limit of 0.04 mg/mL, good recovery of 88-92%, intra-day and inter-day RSD values of 4.5% and 10.1%, and linear range of 0.25-4 mg/mL (R(2)=0.999). The results indicated that the proposed method based on phenyl-functionalized magnetic mesoporous microspheres was rapid, efficient and convenient for the enrichment and analysis of acetaldehyde in tobacco.

  17. In utero and lactation exposure of rats to 1R4F reference cigarette mainstream smoke: effect on prenatal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, C L; Carmines, E L; Faqi, A S; Rajendran, N

    2004-05-01

    Childhood cognitive and behavioral deficits have been reported in children born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy (Institute of Medicine, 2001). To investigate these potential responses in an animal model, reproductive and neurotoxicity evaluations based on the U.S. FDA guidelines were used to examine the offspring of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed 2 h/day, 7 days/week by nose-only inhalation to whole mainstream smoke total particulate matter (TPM). Concentrations of 150, 300, or 600 mg/m(3) were used (males: 4 weeks prior to and during mating; and females: 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and through weaning at postnatal day 21). Sham air controls receiving filtered air and cage controls were also maintained. F(1) rats were weighed, identified by gender, examined for clinical signs of toxicity, and evaluated for neurobehavioral effects through postnatal day 65. Parental exposure was evidenced by smoke concentration-related increases in blood carboxyhemoglobin, nicotine, and cotinine and by characteristic cigarette smoke-related rodent respiratory tract histopathology. Also, nicotine and cotinine were found in F(1) blood through the lactation period. Maternal toxicity occurred at concentrations of 300 and 600 mg TPM/m(3), where total body weight gain during gestation was significantly (p < or = 0.05) decreased compared to sham controls. While smoke concentration-related decreases in F(1) birth weight and growth were evident (600 mg TPM/m(3), significantly different from sham at all time points), no adverse effects on developmental landmarks, including age at vaginal patency or preputial separation, motor activity, acoustic startle response or learning, and memory, were observed in the F(1) generation. This study confirmed that maternal exposure to high levels of mainstream cigarette smoke during gestation and lactation reduces birth weight and retards growth in the rat neonate; however, the developmental and neurobehavioral testing

  18. Rapid determination of six carcinogenic primary aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke by two-dimensional online solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bie, Zhenying; Lu, Wei; Zhu, You; Chen, Yusong; Ren, Hubo; Ji, Lishun

    2017-01-27

    A fully automated, rapid, and reliable method for simultaneous determination of six carcinogenic primary aromatic amines (AAs), including o-toluidine (o-TOL), 2, 6-dimethylaniline (2, 6-DMA), o-anisidine (o-ASD), 1-naphthylamine (1-ANP), 2-naphthylamine (2-ANP), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), in mainstream cigarette smoke was established. The proposed method was based on two-dimensional online solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS). The particulate phase of the mainstream cigarette smoke was collected on a Cambridge filter pad and pretreated via ultrasonic extraction with 2% formic acid (FA), while the gas phase was trapped by 2% FA without pretreatment for determination. The two-dimensional online SPE comprised of two cartridges with different absorption characteristics was applied for sample pretreatment. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) under multiple reaction monitoring mode. Each sample required about 0.5h for solid phase extraction and analysis. The limit of detections (LODs) for six AAs ranged from 0.04 to 0.58ng/cig and recoveries were within 84.5%-122.9%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day tests for 3R4F reference cigarette were less than 6% and 7%, respectively, while no more than 7% and 8% separately for a type of Virginia cigarette. The proposed method enabled minimum sample pretreatment, full automation, and high throughput with high selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy. As a part of the validation procedure, fifteen brands of cigarettes were tested by the designed method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enzyme induction in rat lung and liver by condensates and fractions from main-stream and side-stream cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquini, R.; Sforzolini, G.S.; Savino, A.; Angeli, G.; Monarca, S.

    1987-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and dimethylnitrosamine demethylase (DMND) activities in pulmonary and hepatic tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats were assayed following pretreatment with known inducers (benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital) and with main-stream (MS) and side-stream (SS) cigarette smoke condensates and their related fractions. Biochemical assays by spectrophotofluorimetry (AHH activity) and spetrophotometry (DMND activity) and by a biological assay (Ames test) were performed to detect AHH and DMND induction. Ames test proved to be much less sensitive than the spectrophotofluorimetric analysis for AHH determination. Both main-stream and side-stream cigarette smoke condensates and some fractions, containing water-soluble bases, water-insoluble bases, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were found to induce AHH activity in lung and liver, the lung being induced to the greatest extent. The highest levels of AHH inducibility were found for the SS-smoke condensate and related fractions. In particular, the insoluble bases fractions gave the highest induction. On the contrary, pulmonary DMND activity was not affected by pretreatment with the same materials, while hepatic DMND response was only minimally induced by Aroclor and phenobarbital treatment.

  20. Empirical characterisation of ranges of mainstream smoke toxicant yields from contemporary cigarette products using quantile regression methodology.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Oscar M; Eldridge, Alison; Proctor, Christopher J; McAdam, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 100 toxicants have been identified in cigarette smoke, to which exposure has been linked to a range of serious diseases in smokers. Smoking machines have been used to quantify toxicant emissions from cigarettes for regulatory reporting. The World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation has proposed a regulatory scenario to identify median values for toxicants found in commercially available products, which could be used to set mandated limits on smoke emissions. We present an alternative approach, which used quantile regression to estimate reference percentiles to help contextualise the toxicant yields of commercially available products with respect to a reference analyte, such as tar or nicotine. To illustrate this approach we examined four toxicants (acetone, N'-nitrosoanatabine, phenol and pyridine) with respect to tar, and explored International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Health Canada Intense (HCI) regimes. We compared this approach with other methods for assessing toxicants in cigarette smoke, such as ratios to nicotine or tar, and linear regression. We concluded that the quantile regression approach effectively represented data distributions across toxicants for both ISO and HCI regimes. This method provides robust, transparent and intuitive percentile estimates in relation to any desired reference value within the data space. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Activation of transcription factors in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to aqueous extracts of mainstream cigarette smoke in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Takashi; Hirata, Tadashi; Mine, Toshiki; Fukano, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the most sensitive transcription factor activated by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and to explore cigarette smoke components that have high biological activities in a cell-base assay. Previously, we found evidence that implicated 10 different transcription factors as having a high biological activity to CSE in vitro, based on the results of a comprehensive gene expression profile. For this study, luciferase reporter assays for each transcription factor were developed in two types of human bronchial epithelial cells: NCI-H292 and BEAS-2B cells. The results demonstrated that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)/anti-oxidant response element (ARE) pathway was the most sensitive in response to CSE. Consistently, hemo oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a downstream target gene of NRF2, was effectively up-regulated in BEAS-2B cells exposed to CSE. Moreover, among 1395 cigarette smoke components, naphthoquinones including 9,10-phenaotrenquinone, quinones, benzenediols and α, β-unsaturated carbonyls, were identified as major smoke components that contribute to activating the NRF2/ARE pathway, as indicated by the ARE-reporter assay in BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, NRF2 appears to be a key molecule in the CSE-induced cellular response, and the employed methodology is helpful for the analysis of molecular and cellular effects by CSE.

  2. Analysis of complex mixtures--cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, Michael; Klus, Hubert

    2005-07-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke is a complex mixture that is inhaled into the respiratory system. The physical characteristics and chemical composition of mainstream smoke are reviewed and briefly compared with that of sidestream smoke. Special attention is paid to ageing effects and artifact formation during the sampling and testing of cigarette smoke, with specific examples of artifact formation during sampling discussed (nitrogen dioxide, methyl nitrite, etc.). Historically, the generation of cigarette smoke for chemical and biological testing has been based on standard smoke generation procedures that are intended for product comparisons. More recently, emerging global regulations have called for alternative smoke generation methods, with emphasis on results relevant to conditions of product use, e.g., estimates of maximum smoke emissions. Strategies for establishing such alternative smoke generation methods are discussed and the potential effects of alternative smoking conditions on analytical accuracy and precision are addressed. Current regulatory requirements that include Hoffmann analyte analysis (i.e., constituents reported to be associated with the risks of cigarette smoking) are also summarized and the potential effect of alternative smoke generation methods on individual constituent yields considered. Finally, a limited critique of emerging regulation that relates to mainstream cigarette smoke measurements, including a discussion of recent WHO recommendations, is offered.

  3. Rapid and simultaneous analysis of ten aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry under ISO and "Health Canada intensive" machine smoking regimens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fuwei; Yu, Jingjing; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Ge; Xia, Qiaoling; Zhang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Shusheng

    2013-10-15

    Ten primary aromatic amines (AAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke under both ISO and "Health Canada intensive" machine smoking regimens were determined in this work, which were suspected to be carcinogenic compounds. The measured AAs included aniline, ortho-toluidine, meta-toluidine, para-toluidine, 1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine, 3-aminobiphenyl, 4-aminobiphenyl, meta-phenylenediamine and meta-anisidine. For rapidly and sensitively analyzing these AAs, a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method coupled with solid phase extraction (SPE) was developed. The particulate phase of mainstream cigarette smoke was collected on a Cambridge filter pads, while the gas phase was trapped by 25 mL 5% HCl solution. Then, the pad was extracted in an ultrasonic bath with the impinger HCl solution. After being neutralized with NaOH, the extract was purified with a HLB solid phase extraction column, and then was analyzed with LC-MS/MS using isotope-labeled internal standard. The overall sample pretreatment and analysis time was less than 1.5h. The limits of detection for all targets ranged from 0.05 ng cig(-1) to 0.96 ng cig(-1) with the recoveries in the range of 75.0-131.8%. And the intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 10% and 16%, respectively. Under HCI machine smoking regimen, the AAs yields in mainstream cigarette smoke were much higher and the average increases were greater than 100% compared with those under ISO smoking condition.

  4. Impact assessment of WHO TobReg proposals for mandated lowering of selected mainstream cigarette smoke toxicants.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Alison C; McAdam, Kevin G; Betson, Tatiana R; Gama, Marcos V; Proctor, Christopher J

    2017-06-01

    The WHO Tobacco Product Regulation Study Group (TobReg) has proposed three regulatory models for cigarettes, each creating mandatory limits for emissions of nine smoke toxicants. One approach proposes country-specific limits, using median or 1.25× median toxicant/nicotine emission ratios. A second model provides fixed toxicant-ratio limits. The third model limits were three times the lowest toxicant emission on a market. Currently, the practical implications of these models are largely unknown. An impact assessment was conducted using cigarette data from 79 countries to identify four diverse test markets. We sampled all products from each market but limited product availability led to incomplete (80-97%) sourcing. Analysis showed that the country-specific model led to diverse (up to threefold) toxicant limits across the four markets. 70%-80% of products were non-compliant, rising to 100% in some countries with the second and the third models. With each regulatory model the main drivers of non-compliance were the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, the simultaneous application of limits for nine poorly correlated smoke toxicants, and analytical variability. Use of nicotine ratios led to compliance of some high toxicant emission products due to high nicotine emissions. Our findings suggest that these proposals would have greater impact on global markets than TobReg's stated aims. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cigarette smoking and nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Torjussen, William; Zachariasen, Hans; Andersen, Ivar

    2003-04-01

    The tobacco plant contains nickel and several other toxic metals, most probably absorbed from the soil, fertilizing products or from pesticides. It has been stated that nickel in a burning cigarette might form the volatile, gaseous compound, nickel tetracarbonyl, and thereby be introduced into the respiratory tract. Accordingly, the main objective of the present study was to find out if nickel content in inhaled smoke from ordinary cigarettes and nickel-contaminated cigarettes handmade by nickel process workers might be a supplementary source of nickel exposure to cigarette smoking process workers leading to additional risk of occupational respiratory cancer in these workers. Blood and urine samples from 318 randomly selected employees from Falconbridge Nickel Refinery in Kristiansand, Norway, allocated to 197 smokers and 121 non-smokers, were analysed for nickel content. Nickel quantities in tobacco from various cigarette brands, from nickel-contaminated cigarettes made by process workers or from cigarettes added known amounts of various nickel salts were analysed before being smoked. The cigarettes were smoked in a smoking machine device applying an electrostatic filter. Blood and urine, tobacco, ash and precipitates in the filter from the main stream smoke of the cigarettes were analysed for nickel quantities by atomic absorption spectrometry methods as previously described by the authors. The nickel concentrations in blood plasma and urine were quite similar among smokers and non-smokers, 6.2 and 48.1 microg L(-1) in smokers, and 6.4 and 50.5 microg L(-1) in non-smokers respectively. We recovered 1.1% or even less of nickel in the mainstream smoke after smoking the entire cigarettes without leaving any butt. Most of the tobacco nickel was recovered in the ash. We conclude that the inhaled nickel in the working atmosphere is probably the main source of the nickel exposure to the respiratory tract in these workers. It remains to be determined why cigarette

  6. [Analysis of seven compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke by ultra performance liquid chromatography using a beta-cyclodextrin mobile phase additive].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhonghao; Tang, Gangling; Pang, Yongqiang; Jiang, Xingyi; Chen, Zaigen; Hu, Qingyuan

    2010-08-01

    A rapid method for the analysis of hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, phenol, p-cresol, m-cresol, and o-cresol in mainstream cigarette smoke by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) using a beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) mobile phase additive was developed. The seven major phenolic compounds in mainstream smoke were collected with YC/T 255-2008 standard method. The extract was filtrated with 0.22 microm filtration film and then subjected to UPLC analysis. The separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column, and the mobile phase with 4 g/L beta-CD additive was used. The fluorescence detection condition was optimized. The analysis time was 10 mm for one sample. Comparing with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods published, the p-cresol and m-cresol were completely separated. In addition, the effect of beta-CD on fluorescence enhancement for seven major phenolic compounds was significant. The linearity were good between the peak area and the concentration in the linear ranges of seven phenolic compounds, and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 9. The limits of detection of the method were 4 - 14 ng/cig, and the recoveries were 95.5% - 103.5% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 4%.

  7. Neuropathology of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Ho, Yuen-Shan; Wong, Shun; Gentleman, Stephen M; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that cigarette smoking is hazardous to health and is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. However, its impact on the brain, whether it be from prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease, is still not very clear. Neuroimaging and neuropathological investigations suggest that there are heterogeneous effects of cigarette smoking on the brain. On the one hand, it is quite clear that cigarette smoking causes damage to endothelial cells, resulting in increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. On the other hand, it seems to be associated with different Alzheimer's pathologies in post-mortem brains and experimental models, despite the fact that epidemiological studies clearly indicate a positive correlation between cigarette smoking and increased risk for AD. Interestingly, cigarette smoking appears to be associated with reduced Parkinson's pathology in post-mortem brains. However, although nicotine in cigarettes may have some neuroprotective actions, the effects of all the other toxic compounds in cigarettes cannot be ignored. It is, therefore, our aim to summarize what is known about the neuropathology of cigarette smoking and, in particular, its implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Transcriptome sequencing reveals e-cigarette vapor and mainstream-smoke from tobacco cigarettes activate different gene expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yifei; Wolkowicz, Michael J; Kotova, Tatyana; Fan, Lonjiang; Timko, Michael P

    2016-04-04

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol vapor (e-vapor) thought to represent a less risky alternative to main stream smoke (MSS) of conventional tobacco cigarettes. RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the transcriptomes of differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to air, MSS from 1R5F tobacco reference cigarettes, and e-vapor with and without added nicotine in an in vitro air-liquid interface model for cellular exposure. Our results indicate that while e-vapor does not elicit many of the cell toxicity responses observed in MSS-exposed HBE cells, e-vapor exposure is not benign, but elicits discrete transcriptomic signatures with and without added nicotine. Among the cellular pathways with the most significantly enriched gene expression following e-vapor exposure are the phospholipid and fatty acid triacylglycerol metabolism pathways. Our data suggest that alterations in cellular glycerophopholipid biosynthesis are an important consequences of e-vapor exposure. Moreover, the presence of nicotine in e-vapor elicits a cellular response distinct from e-vapor alone including alterations of cytochrome P450 function, retinoid metabolism, and nicotine catabolism. These studies establish a baseline for future analysis of e-vapor and e-vapor additives that will better inform the FDA and other governmental bodies in discussions of the risks and future regulation of these products.

  9. Transcriptome sequencing reveals e-cigarette vapor and mainstream-smoke from tobacco cigarettes activate different gene expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yifei; Wolkowicz, Michael J.; Kotova, Tatyana; Fan, Lonjiang; Timko, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol vapor (e-vapor) thought to represent a less risky alternative to main stream smoke (MSS) of conventional tobacco cigarettes. RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the transcriptomes of differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to air, MSS from 1R5F tobacco reference cigarettes, and e-vapor with and without added nicotine in an in vitro air-liquid interface model for cellular exposure. Our results indicate that while e-vapor does not elicit many of the cell toxicity responses observed in MSS-exposed HBE cells, e-vapor exposure is not benign, but elicits discrete transcriptomic signatures with and without added nicotine. Among the cellular pathways with the most significantly enriched gene expression following e-vapor exposure are the phospholipid and fatty acid triacylglycerol metabolism pathways. Our data suggest that alterations in cellular glycerophopholipid biosynthesis are an important consequences of e-vapor exposure. Moreover, the presence of nicotine in e-vapor elicits a cellular response distinct from e-vapor alone including alterations of cytochrome P450 function, retinoid metabolism, and nicotine catabolism. These studies establish a baseline for future analysis of e-vapor and e-vapor additives that will better inform the FDA and other governmental bodies in discussions of the risks and future regulation of these products. PMID:27041137

  10. Identifying the tobacco related free radicals by UPCC-QTOF-MS with radical trapping method in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Misha; Zhu, Yingjing; Cheng, Kuan; Da Wu; Liu, Baizhan; Li, Fengting

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco related free radicals (TFRs) in the cigarette smoke are specific classes of hazardous compounds that merit concern. In this study, we developed a hybrid method to identify TFRs directly based on ultra-performance convergence chromatography with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPCC-QTOF MS) combined spin trapping technique. The short-lived TFRs were stabilized successfully in situ through spin trapping procedure and UPCC was applied to facilitate efficient separation of complex derivative products. Coupling of orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), UPCC-QTOF MS system enabled us to identify specific potential TFRs with exact chemical formula. Moreover, computational stimulations have been carried out to evaluate the optimized stability of TFRs. This work is a successful demonstration for the application of an advanced hyphenated technique for separation of TFRs with short detection time (less than 7min) and high throughput. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous analysis of nine aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke using online solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Bai, Ruoshi; Zhou, Zhaojuan; Liu, Xingyu; Zhou, Jun

    2017-04-01

    A fully automated analytical method was developed and validated by this present study. The method was based on two-dimensional (2D) online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) to determine nine aromatic amines (AAs) in mainstream smoke (MSS) simultaneously. As a part of validation process, AAs yields for 16 top-selling commercial cigarettes from China market were evaluated by the developed method under both Health Canada Intensive (HCI) and ISO machine smoking regimes. The gas phase of MSS was trapped by 25 mL 0.6 M hydrochloric acid solution, while the particulate phase was collected on a glass fiber filter. Then, the glass fiber pad was extracted with hydrochloric acid solution in an ultrasonic bath. The extract was analyzed with 2D online SPE-LC-MS/MS. In order to minimize the matrix effects of sample on each analyte, two cartridges with different extraction mechanisms were utilized to cleanup disturbances of different polarity, which were performed by the 2D SPE. A phenyl-hexyl analytical column was used to achieve a chromatographic separation. Under the optimized conditions, the isomers of p-toluidine, m-toluidine and o-toluidine, 3-aminobiphenyl and 4-aminobiphenyl, and 1-naphthylamine and 2-naphthylamine were baseline separated with good peak shapes for the first time. The limits of detection for nine AAs ranged from 0.03 to 0.24 ng cig(-1). The recovery of the measurement of nine AAs was from 84.82 to 118.47%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of nine AAs were less than 10 and 16%, respectively. Compared with ISO machine smoking regime, the AAs yields in MSS were 1.17 to 3.41 times higher under HCI machine smoking regime. Graphical abstract New method using online SPE-LC/MS/MS for analysis of aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke.

  12. Ciliatoxicity in human primary bronchiolar epithelial cells after repeated exposure at the air-liquid interface with native mainstream smoke of K3R4F cigarettes with and without charcoal filter.

    PubMed

    Aufderheide, Michaela; Scheffler, Stefanie; Ito, Shigeaki; Ishikawa, Shinkichi; Emura, Makito

    2015-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the primary physical mechanism to protect the human airways against harmful effects of inhaled particles. Environmental factors play a significant role in the impairment of this defense mechanism, whereas cigarette smoke is discussed to be one of the clinically most important causes. Impaired mucociliary clearance in smokers has been connected to changes in ciliated cells such as decreased numbers, altered structure and beat frequency. Clinical studies have shown that cilia length is reduced in healthy smokers and that long-term exposure to cigarette smoke leads to reduced numbers of ciliated cells in mice. We present an in vitro model of primary normal human bronchiolar epithelial (NHBE) cells with in vivo like morphology to study the influence of cigarette mainstream smoke on ciliated cells. We exposed mucociliary differentiated cultures repeatedly to non-toxic concentrations of mainstream cigarette smoke (4 cigarettes, 5 days/week, 8 repetitions in total) at the air-liquid interface. Charcoal filter tipped cigarettes were compared to those being equipped with standard cellulose acetate filters. Histopathological analyses of the exposed cultures showed a reduction of cilia bearing cells, shortening of existing cilia and finally disappearance of all cilia in cigarette smoke exposed cells. In cultures exposed to charcoal filtered cigarette smoke, little changes in cilia length were seen after four exposure repetitions, but those effects were reversed after a two day recovery period. Those differences indicate that volatile organic compounds, being removed by the charcoal filter tip, affect primary bronchiolar epithelial cells concerning their cilia formation and function comparable with the in vivo situation. In conclusion, our in vitro model presents a valuable tool to study air-borne ciliatoxic compounds. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. Delivery levels and behavior of 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, and other toxic volatile organic compounds in mainstream tobacco smoke from two brands of commercial cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Pankow, James F; Luo, Wentai; Tavakoli, Ameer D; Chen, Cai; Isabelle, Lorne M

    2004-06-01

    Mainstream tobacco smoke (MTS) was collected from Camel and Marlboro cigarettes for the determination of the delivery levels and equilibrium gas/particle partitioning constants K(p) (m(3) microg(-)(1)) of 26 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of toxicological interest. K(p) values are important for understanding the fractional distribution of each compound of interest between the gas and the particle phases of MTS. The experimental method involved (i) drawing a smoke sample into a Teflon sampling bag at 20 degrees C, (ii) allowing the smoke particulate matter (PM) to collect on the walls of the bag, (iii) sampling the bag to determine the initial gas phase concentration of each VOC, (iv) removing the gas phase from the bag, (v) refilling the bag with humidified nitrogen gas, (vi) reestablishing the gas/PM equilibrium, and (vii) redetermining the gas phase concentrations. For each smoke sample, a comparison of the initial and redetermined gas phase concentrations allowed calculation of the total (i.e., gas + particle) delivery level (= m(tot), ng cig(-)(1)) and K(p) value (= c(p)/c(g)) at 20 degrees C for each compound, where c(p) (ng microg(-)(1)) = concentration in the PM phase and c(g) (ng m(-)(3)) = concentration in the gas phase. Significant deliveries were observed for a number of carcinogenic VOCs. For the Camel cigarettes tested, the average m(tot) values for 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, and benzene were 10(4.6), 10(4.4), and 10(4.8) ng cig(-)(1), respectively; for Marlboro, the m(tot) values were 10(5.0), 10(4.6), and 10(4.7) ng cig(-)(1), respectively. For each of the 26 VOCs, the smoke PM from the two brands yielded very similar K(p) values at 20 degrees C. In addition, the vapor pressure-dependent K(p) values of the 26 VOCs were in close agreement with predictions made by the Pankow theory of absorptive gas/particle partitioning [Pankow, J. F. (1994) Atmos. Environ. 28, 185-188]. These results can be used in general predictions of chemical behavior in

  14. Analyzing Cigarette Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Griffin, Dale; Ricker, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students use their natural inquisitiveness about their personal environment to investigate the composition of cigarette smoke. Includes techniques for measuring tar and carbon monoxide content. (DDR)

  15. Exposure of human lung cells to inhalable substances: a novel test strategy involving clean air exposure periods using whole diluted cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Detlef; Knebel, Jan W; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2003-01-01

    An experimental approach was established for the validation of an in vitro test system for complex environmental test atmospheres consisting of both gaseous substances and particulates. Smoke from two different cigarette types (generated by an automatic cigarette-smoking machine) was employed to assess both the sensitivity and the specificity of the system. The smoke was diluted with synthetic air and used to expose human lung cells grown on microporous membranes. Cells were exposed alternately to diluted cigarette smoke and pure synthetic air. The effect of diluted smoke was assessed without humidification, addition of CO2, or any other physical or chemical modification of the smoke. The experimental setup included online monitoring of the gas phase (by analysis of CO concentration) and particulate phase (by light-scattering photometry). Replicate experiments confirmed a reproducible generation and dilution of the smoke and a smoke age of about 7 s at the time it came into contact with the cells. Experiments using human lung cells revealed that smoke from the two different cigarette types induced different levels of dose-dependent toxicity. A cell exposure of 6 min using 6 alternating smoke and synthetic air periods was sufficient to cause different effects as measured by intracellular glutathione content. The fact that the system could differentiate between two different types of cigarette smoke demonstrated its high sensitivity and specificity. The system offers new ways to test native complex gaseous and aerosol mixtures in vitro using short exposure times and very small amounts of test substances.

  16. Free-base nicotine in tobacco products. Part I. Determination of free-base nicotine in the particulate phase of mainstream cigarette smoke and the relevance of these findings to product design parameters.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, J H; Bao, M; Joza, P J; Rickert, W S

    2010-10-01

    The free-base nicotine (FBN) content of mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS) has been discussed in the peer-reviewed literature and popular press. It has been alleged that manufacturers adjust product design features to increase the percentage of total nicotine (TN) in the MSS gas-vapor phase that is unprotonated [P(g)(,nic)(%)] and/or the fraction of nicotine in the MSS total particulate matter (TPM) that is unprotonated (FBN/TN). Our research showed the Health Canada Intensive smoking conditions negated the effects of blend and cigarette design features reported to raise the pH of TPM collected under ISO or US FTC conditions. Our research also showed that when additive-free Canadian cigarettes were smoked under ISO conditions, the FBN/TN ratio increased as the tar/nicotine ratio decreased. Our findings are in line with other studies that have questioned allegations of a relationship between use of ammonia and its compounds as tobacco additives and amounts of unprotonated nicotine in MSS. In addition, the experimental work demonstrated how use of solid-phase microextraction to estimate FBN can yield erroneously high results due to improper conditioning and/or smoking of the cigarettes. Our research showed that there is no longer any scientific support for regulators to require smoke pH and FBN determinations on cigarette products. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Addition of porphyrins to cigarette filters to reduce the levels of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changguo; Dai, Ya; Feng, Guanglin; He, Rong; Yang, Wenmin; Li, Dongliang; Zhou, Xuezheng; Zhu, Lijun; Tan, Lanlan

    2011-07-13

    Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS) cause smoking-related diseases and environmental pollution. Porphyrins were added to cigarette filters to reduce B[a]P (porphyrins A-E) and TSNAs (porphyrin F) in MSS. The porphyrin-B[a]P and porphyrin F-TSNAs (N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN)) interactions were investigated by fluorescence quenching and UV-visible spectroscopy. The correlation coefficients were 0.987-0.997 (B[a]P) and 0.994-0.999 (TSNAs), and the binding constants were (1.67-5.02) × 10(5) (B[a]P) and 3.42 × 10(3)-1.40 × 10(4) (TSNAs). Up to 36.72% of B[a]P and 46.67% of the TSNAs were eliminated from MSS, with greater reductions when more porphyrin was included in the filter. With the same mass of porphyrin in the filter, the reduction trend for B[a]P by porphyrins A-E was A > B > C > D > E. The reduction trend for TSNAs by porphyrin F was NNN > NAB > NNK > NAT. The porphyrin mode of action is possibly through strong π-π interactions.

  18. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  19. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. The studies concerning passive smoking or presenting the statistically insignificant side effects were excluded. Databases were searched using various combinations of the following terms: cigarette, smoking, smoking cessation, prevalence, history, side effects, and lung cancer by independent reviewers. All the 83 articles concerning the prevalence or side effects of the smoking habit in any Iranian population were selected. The prevalence rate of daily cigarette smoking and the 95% confidence interval as well as smoking health risk associated odds ratio (OR) were retrieved from the articles or calculated. Results: The reported prevalence rates of the included studies, the summary of smoking-related side effects and the ORs (95%CI) of smoking associated risks and the available data on smoking cessation in Iran have been shown in the article. Conclusion: Because of lack of certain data, special studies on local pattern of tobacco use in different districts, about the relationship between tobacco use and other diseases, especially non communicable diseases, and besides extension of smoking cessation strategies, studies on efficacy of these methods seems to be essential in this field. PMID:23113130

  20. Characterization of puff-by-puff resolved cigarette mainstream smoke by single photon ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Adam, Thomas; Baker, Richard R; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2007-03-21

    Soft single photon ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied for the characterization and discrimination of the chemical patterns of all individual cigarette puffs from the 2R4F University of Kentucky research reference cigarette. The SPI-TOFMS was connected to a smoking machine, and 10 cigarettes were smoked under defined smoking conditions. A total of 41 detected mass signals could be clearly assigned to smoke constituents (e.g., unsaturated hydrocarbons, aromatic species, sulfurous compounds, and nitrogen-containing substances). For further analysis, the on-line recorded mass signals were added up for each cigarette puff resulting in a single summed mass spectrum for each puff. The so-achieved puff-by-puff resolved yields were additionally normalized by the corresponding total ion signal, which eliminated the influences of varying amounts of burnt tobacco. These values were incorporated into a PCA to find differences and similarities in the chemical patterns of the individual cigarette puffs. In addition, absolute (without normalization) and normalized puff resolved yields were used to clarify occurring trends. Thereby, it was shown that the chemical pattern of the first cigarette puff was very unique, whereby extraordinary high yields of unsaturated hydrocarbons are mainly responsible for this. Depending on the smoking procedure, the chemical pattern of the second puff can also be separated from the first and the third puff. In this case, nitrogen-containing substances play an important role. Puffs three to eight show only small but observable differences. These changes are greater influenced by oxygen-containing and sulfurous smoke constituents. The findings reveal that the overall chemical patterns of machine-smoked cigarette puffs vary quite a lot during the smoking process. This lets us assume that the burden of hazardous compounds for the human smoker also differs from puff to puff.

  1. Smoke of cigarettes and little cigars: an analytical comparison.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Wynder, E L

    1972-12-15

    Chemical data are presented from a comparison study of the smoke of cigarettes and little cigars. The tobacco products and their mainstream smokes were analyzed for a number of toxic constituents in an effort to define "smoke inhalability." This issue has particular public health importance because the difference in the inhalability of cigar and cigarette smoke is generally assumed to account for the differences in the health risk to the individual smoker.

  2. Comparative 13-week inhalation study of cigarette smoke from cigarettes containing cast sheet tobacco.

    PubMed

    Potts, Ryan J; Meckley, Daniel R; Shreve, W Keith; Pence, Deborah H; Ayres, Paul H; Doolittle, David; Swauger, James E; Sagartz, John W

    2007-06-01

    A subchronic, nose-only inhalation study was conducted to compare the effects of mainstream smoke from a reference cigarette containing conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet at 30% of the finished blend to mainstream smoke from cigarettes containing 10% or 15% cast sheet (a specific type of reconstituted tobacco sheet) substituted for part of the conventional reconstituted tobacco. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 1 h/day, 5 d/wk, for 13 wk to mainstream smoke at 0, 0.06, 0.20, or 0.80 mg wet total particulate matter per liter of air. Clinical signs, body and organ weights, clinical chemistry, hematology, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), serum nicotine, plethysmography, gross pathology, and histopathology were determined. Exposure to cigarette smoke induced a number of changes in respiratory physiology, histopathology, and serum nicotine and COHb levels when compared to sham animals. When corresponding dose groups of reference and cast sheet mainstream smokes were compared, no biological differences were noted. At the end of the exposure period, subsets of rats from each group were maintained without smoke exposures for an additional 13 wk (recovery period). At the end of the recovery period, there were no statistically significant differences in histopathological findings observed between the reference and either cast sheet cigarette. Substitution of 10% or 15% cast sheet tobacco for conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet does not alter the inhalation toxicology of the mainstream smoke when compared to mainstream smoke from a reference cigarette containing conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet.

  3. Determination of nicotine, tar, volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in mainstream cigarette smoke using a glass filter and a sorbent cartridge followed by the two-phase/one-pot elution method with carbon disulfide and methanol.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Hayashida, Hideki; Izu, Rina; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-12-24

    We have developed a new analytical method for the determination of nicotine, tar, volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in main-stream cigarette smoke using a sorbent cartridge packed with Carboxen 572 (CX-572) and a Cambridge filter pad (CFP) followed by the two-phase/one-pot elution method. A CX-572 cartridge is installed between the intake of the CFP and the pump of the smoking machine. Gaseous compounds collected with the CX-572 cartridge and total particulate matter (TPM) collected with the CFP are coeluted simultaneously in the same vial and then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatograph-thermal conductivity detector (GC/TCD). Carbonyl compounds are determined by adding derivatizing reagent (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, DNPH) to the eluate followed by HPLC analysis. VOCs and nicotine are determined by GC/MS, and water is determined by GC/TCD. The same sample eluate solution is used for HPLC, GC/MS and GC/TCD analyses. As a result of measuring main-stream cigarette smoke generated from reference cigarettes, almost all carbonyl compounds and VOCs except formaldehyde were passed through a CFP and trapped in a CX-572 cartridge. 100% of nicotine, tar and TPM were trapped in a CFP. 50% of water and 53% of formaldehyde were trapped in a CFP. The one-pot data is almost equal to the sums of CFP (particulate matter) and CX-572 (gaseous compounds) data. The two-phase/one-pot elution method can simultaneously measure nicotine, tar, volatile organic compounds and carbonyl compounds in cigarette smoke with simple operation and small amounts of reagents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A rapid and selective method for simultaneous determination of six toxic phenolic compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke using single-drop microextraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mistri, Rajib; Ray, Bidhan Chandra

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoke contains several toxic phenolic compounds, measurements of which are essential from a public health standpoint. This article describes a simple and selective analytical method for quantitative determination of six toxic phenolic compounds (phenol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, o-cresol, and p-cresol) from mainstream cigarette smoke using single-drop microextraction in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Single-drop microextraction was applied prior to analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the extraction and preconcentration of target phenolic compounds from raw cigarette smoke extract. The effects of the extraction solvent, sampling time, solution pH, salt addition, sample agitation rate, and temperature on the extraction efficiency were examined and optimized. The identification of each analyte was established by chromatographic retention times, analyte-specific fragmentation patterns, and relative peak area ratios of two product/precursor ion pairs. Analytical parameters such as the detection limit, relative recovery, reproducibility, linearity, and enrichment factor were evaluated under the optimized experimental conditions. 1-Decanol was selected as the extraction solvent and the limits of detection were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.3 ng mL(-1) using an extraction time of 12 min. Gradient chromatographic conditions were optimized for the separation of the six phenolic compounds in a run time of 10 min including reequilibration of the column. The present method for determination of phenolic compounds from mainstream cigarette smoke is simple and specific and shows good reproducibility, with relative standard deviations less than 10% for all targeted phenolics.

  5. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  6. Phenolic Compounds in Particles of Mainstream Waterpipe Smoke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has in recent years become a popular international phenomenon, particularly among youth. While it has been shown to deliver significant quantities of several carcinogenic and toxic substances, phenols, an important class of chemical compounds thought to promote DNA mutation and cardiovascular diseases, however, has not been studied. Due to the relatively low temperature characteristic of waterpipe tobacco during smoking (i.e., <450 °C), it was hypothesized that phenolic compounds, which form at approximately 300 °C, will be found in abundance in waterpipe smoke. Methods: In this study, phenolic compounds in the particle phase of waterpipe mainstream smoke were quantified. Waterpipe and cigarette mainstream smoke generated using standard methods were collected on glass fiber pads and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy selected ion current profile chromatogram method for quantification. Results: We found that relative to a single cigarette, a waterpipe delivers at least 3 times greater quantities of the 7 analyzed phenols (phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone). Moreover, phenol derivatives such as methylcatechol, and flavorings such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and benzyl alcohol were found in quantities up to 1,000 times greater than the amount measured in the smoke of a single cigarette. Conclusion: The large quantities of phenols and phenol derivatives in waterpipe smoke add to the growing evidence that habitual waterpipe use may increase the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23178319

  7. Phenolic compounds in particles of mainstream waterpipe smoke.

    PubMed

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Abdul Halim, Rasha; Salman, Roula; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Shihadeh, Alan; Saliba, Najat A

    2013-06-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking has in recent years become a popular international phenomenon, particularly among youth. While it has been shown to deliver significant quantities of several carcinogenic and toxic substances, phenols, an important class of chemical compounds thought to promote DNA mutation and cardiovascular diseases, however, has not been studied. Due to the relatively low temperature characteristic of waterpipe tobacco during smoking (i.e., <450 °C), it was hypothesized that phenolic compounds, which form at approximately 300 °C, will be found in abundance in waterpipe smoke. In this study, phenolic compounds in the particle phase of waterpipe mainstream smoke were quantified. Waterpipe and cigarette mainstream smoke generated using standard methods were collected on glass fiber pads and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy selected ion current profile chromatogram method for quantification. We found that relative to a single cigarette, a waterpipe delivers at least 3 times greater quantities of the 7 analyzed phenols (phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone). Moreover, phenol derivatives such as methylcatechol, and flavorings such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and benzyl alcohol were found in quantities up to 1,000 times greater than the amount measured in the smoke of a single cigarette. The large quantities of phenols and phenol derivatives in waterpipe smoke add to the growing evidence that habitual waterpipe use may increase the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risks Computed for Benzo[a]pyrene and Two Tobacco-Specific N-nitrosamines in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Compared with Lung Cancer Risks Derived from Epidemiologic Data

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Karen H.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Stellman, Steven D.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Austin, Donald F.; Pankow, James F.

    2009-01-01

    The manner in which humans smoke cigarettes is an important determinant of smoking risks. Of the few investigators that have predicted cancer risks from smoking on a chemical-specific basis, most used mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) carcinogen emissions obtained via machine smoking protocols that only approximate human smoking conditions. Here we use data of Djordjevic et al. (J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92:106–111) for MCS emissions of three carcinogens measured under human smoking conditions to compute probability distributions of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values using Monte Carlo simulations. The three carcinogens considered are benzo[a]pyrene, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Computed NNK ILCR values were compared with lifetime risks of lung cancer (ILCRCMDobsΣ−lung) derived from American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Studies (CPS) I and II. Within the Monte Carlo simulation results, NNK was responsible for the greatest ILCR values for all cancer endpoints: median ILCR values for NNK were ~18-fold and 120-fold higher than medians for NNN and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. For "regular" cigarettes, the NNK median ILCR for lung cancer was lower than ILCRCMDobsΣ−lung from CPS-I and II by >90-fold for men and >4-fold for women. Given what is known about chemical carcinogens in MCS, this study shows that there is a higher incidence of lung cancer from exposure to MCS than can be predicted with current risk assessment methods using available toxicity and emission data. PMID:19540296

  9. Fully automated analysis of four tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke using two-dimensional online solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Bai, Ruoshi; Yi, Xiaoli; Yang, Zhendong; Liu, Xingyu; Zhou, Jun; Liang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A fully automated method for the detection of four tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS) has been developed. The new developed method is based on two-dimensional online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS). The two dimensional SPE was performed in the method utilizing two cartridges with different extraction mechanisms to cleanup disturbances of different polarity to minimize sample matrix effects on each analyte. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC C18 reversed phase analytical column. Under the optimum online SPE/LC-MS/MS conditions, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were baseline separated with good peak shapes. This method appears to be the most sensitive method yet reported for determination of TSNAs in mainstream cigarette smoke. The limits of quantification for NNN, NNK, NAT and NAB reached the levels of 6.0, 1.0, 3.0 and 0.6 pg/cig, respectively, which were well below the lowest levels of TSNAs in MSS of current commercial cigarettes. The accuracy of the measurement of four TSNAs was from 92.8 to 107.3%. The relative standard deviations of intra-and inter-day analysis were less than 5.4% and 7.5%, respectively. The main advantages of the method developed are fairly high sensitivity, selectivity and accuracy of results, minimum sample pre-treatment, full automation, and high throughput. As a part of the validation procedure, the developed method was applied to evaluate TSNAs yields for 27 top-selling commercial cigarettes in China.

  10. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  11. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  12. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation of mainstream cigarette smoke constituents prioritized by the World Health Organization--yield patterns observed in market surveys, clustering and inverse correlations.

    PubMed

    Piadé, J-J; Wajrock, S; Jaccard, G; Janeke, G

    2013-05-01

    The WHO TobReg proposed mandating ceilings on selected smoke constituents determined from the market-specific median of nicotine-normalized yield distributions. Data validating this regulatory concept were obtained from essentially single-blend surveys. This process is strongly impacted by inverse correlations among yields. In the present study, 18 priority WHO smoke constituent yields (nicotine-normalized) were determined (using two smoking regimens) from 262 commercial brands including American, Virginia and local blends from 13 countries. Principal Component Analysis was used to identify yields patterns, clustering of blend types and the inverse correlations causing these clusters. Three principal components explain about 75% of total data variability. PC1 was sensitive to the relative levels of gas- and particle-phase compounds. PC2 and PC3 cluster American- and Virginia-blends, revealing inverse correlations: Nitrogen oxides and amino- or nitroso-aromatic compounds inversely correlate to either formaldehyde and acrolein, or benzo(a)pyrene and di-hydroxybenzenes. These results can be explained by reviewing the processes determining each components smoke delivery. Regulatory initiatives simultaneously targeting selected smoke constituents in markets with mixed blend styles will be strongly impacted by the inverse correlations described. It is difficult to predict the ultimate impact of such regulations on public health, considering the complex chemistry of cigarette smoke formation.

  14. Philip Morris toxicological experiments with fresh sidestream smoke: more toxic than mainstream smoke

    PubMed Central

    Schick, S; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke causes lung cancer; however, there are little data in the open literature on the in vivo toxicology of fresh sidestream cigarette smoke to guide the debate about smoke-free workplaces and public places. Objective: To investigate the unpublished in vivo research on sidestream cigarette smoke done by Philip Morris Tobacco Company during the 1980s at its Institut für Biologische Forschung (INBIFO). Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents now available at the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and other websites. Results: Inhaled fresh sidestream cigarette smoke is approximately four times more toxic per gram total particulate matter (TPM) than mainstream cigarette smoke. Sidestream condensate is approximately three times more toxic per gram and two to six times more tumourigenic per gram than mainstream condensate by dermal application. The gas/vapour phase of sidestream smoke is responsible for most of the sensory irritation and respiratory tract epithelium damage. Fresh sidestream smoke inhibits normal weight gain in developing animals. In a 21day exposure, fresh sidestream smoke can cause damage to the respiratory epithelium at concentrations of 2 µg/l TPM. Damage to the respiratory epithelium increases with longer exposures. The toxicity of whole sidestream smoke is higher than the sum of the toxicities of its major constituents. Conclusion: Fresh sidestream smoke at concentrations commonly encountered indoors is well above a 2 µg/m3 reference concentration (the level at which acute effects are unlikely to occur), calculated from the results of the INBIFO studies, that defines acute toxicity to humans. Smoke-free public places and workplaces are the only practical way to protect the public health from the toxins in sidestream smoke. PMID:16319363

  15. Sleep deprivation increases cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Hamidovic, Ajna; de Wit, Harriet

    2009-09-01

    Loss of sleep may impair the ability to abstain from drug use, through any of a number of mechanisms. Sleep loss may increase drug use by impairing attention and inhibitory control, increasing the value of drug rewards over other rewards, or by inducing mood states that facilitate use of a drug. In the present study, we examined whether sleep deprivation (SD) would increase smoking in cigarette smokers, and whether it would do so by impairing attention or inhibitory control. Healthy cigarette smokers (N=14) were tested in a two-session within subject study, after overnight SD or after a normal night's sleep. Subjects were tested in both conditions in randomized order, after abstaining from cigarettes for 48 hours. The procedure was designed to model the human relapse situation. On each 6-h laboratory session after sleep or no sleep, subjects completed mood and craving questionnaires, tasks measuring behavioral inhibition and attention, and a choice procedure in which they chose between money and smoking cigarettes. SD increased self-reported fatigue and decreased arousal, it increased the number of cigarettes subjects chose to smoke, impaired behavioral inhibition and attention. However, the impairments in inhibition or attention were not related to the increase in smoking. It is possible that SD increases smoking because smokers expect that it will reduce sleepiness. Thus, the findings suggest that sleep loss may increase the likelihood of smoking during abstinence not through inhibitory or attentional mechanisms but because of the potential of nicotine to reduce subjective sleepiness.

  16. Cigarette smoke and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Hofmann, W.; Lowe, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been implicated in a causal relationship with carcinoma of the lung. An intriguing feature of the disease is the site-selectivity with which bronchogenic cancer manifests itself; most cancers are detected in the main, lobar and segmental bronchi, perhaps specifically at airway bifurcations. The elevated risk of lung cancer to smokers may result from a complex interplay between smoking and exposure to ambient Rn progeny, including the promotional-effect role (as opposed to being the initiating event) of cigarette smoke in tumor development. It has been determined that smokers exposed to average indoor Rn progency levels receive surprisingly high doses at hot spots within bronchial bifurcations.

  17. Infrared spectroscopic investigation of erythrocyte membrane-smoke interactions due to chronic cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Mahmoud S; Mervat, Ali A; Eman, Aly M

    2017-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a serious health problem throughout the world, with a complicated and not totally clear bio-effect. In this study, erythrocytes were obtained from healthy male volunteers aged 22 ± 2 years and, the possible effects of three cigarette smoking rates namely 10, 15 and 20 cigarette/day on erythrocytes membrane characteristics were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of this study indicate many smoking-dependent variations on erythrocytes membrane without an obvious dose-response relationship. There was disruption in the acyl chain packing; changes in membrane order and phases as well as membrane proteins becoming more folded. These physico-chemical changes should have an impact on the function of erythrocytes and may explain the complex interaction of cigarette smoke mainstream with erythrocyte membrane and to some extent clarify the pathological processes associated with cigarette smoking.

  18. Determination of Po-210 content in cigarette smoke using a smoking machine: A case study of Iranian cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Mária; Shahrokhi, Amin; Bátor, Péter; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-08-01

    The Po-210 content of tobacco has been known for a long time, however, different results can be found about the estimated amount of Po-210 that is inhaled by humans as a result of smoking cigarettes. Because of the unique properties of Po-210, the smoking machines available on the market are not suitable because of their failure to quantitatively collect Po-210 for measurement. Therefore, to estimate precisely the amount of Po-210 entering the lungs as a result of smoking, a smoking machine and sampling protocol based on relevant ISO standards - ISO-3308, ISO-3402 and ISO-4387 - was developed. A 5% HCl solution was found to be the best absorber of Po-210 from smoke. Seventeen different brands of cigarettes distributed in Iran were used to validate the new machine and sampling protocol. The Po-210 concentration was determined by alpha spectrometry; the cigarette smoke solution underwent combined acid treatment after adding a Po-209 tracer. The Po-210 activity concentration of cigarettes sold in Iran was between 9.7 ± 1.2 and 26.5 ± 4.6 mBq/cigarette and it was determined that there was no relationship between the Po-210 and nicotine contents of cigarette smoke. Additionally, it was found that 15 ± 10% of the cigarette Po-210 was transferred to the mainstream smoke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Measurement of hazardous chemical constituents and mutagenic activity in fillers and mainstream smoke from Neo Cedar].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yohei; Ohkubo, Tadamichi; Sugita, Kazutoshi; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    To determine constituents of fillers and mainstream smoke from Neo Cedar. Neo Cedar is a second-class over-the-counter (OTC) drug and similar to cigarettes in a number of ways. In particular, the design and usage are very similar to those of cigarettes. For the fillers of the drug, the levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and heavy metals, and mutagenicity were determined using the methods for cigarette products. For the mainstream smoke, the levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide (CO), TSNA, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and carbonyl compounds were also determined using the methods for cigarettes. The mainstream smoke from the drug were collected with a smoking machine using two smoking protocols (ISO and Health Canada Intense methods). The nicotine and total TSNA levels in the fillers of the drug averaged 2.86 mg/g and 185 ng/g, respectively. The nine species of heavy metals were also detected in the fillers of the drug. The levels of nicotine, tar, CO, TSNA, PAH, and carbonyl compounds of mainstream smoke from the drug were higher when determined using the HCI regime than when using the ISO regime. The mutagenicity of the mainstream smoke determined using the HCI regime was also higher than that determined using the ISO regime. In this study, all constituents of Neo Cedar were determined by methods for cigarette products. The drug had a ventilation hole on its filter. Thus, its constituents are different from those determined by the smoking protocols. Neo Cedar users should be careful of higher exposure to the hazardous gases owing to smoking patterns.

  20. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium (210Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g-1, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times 210Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d-1, and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed.

  1. Cadmium in smoke particulates of regular and filter cigarettes containing low and high cadmium concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Reid, C.M.; Hoffman, D.; Adams, J.D.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-03-01

    In the work reported, filter and nonfilter cigarettes were prepared from high-cadmium tobacco grown on a municipal sludge-amended soil or a low-cadmium tobacco grown on untreated soil alone. These were smoked by machine to determine the effectiveness of the cigarette filters in possibly reducing the quantities of cadmium in the mainstream smoke particulates.

  2. Cigarette smoking and DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ken W. K.; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification, capable of controlling gene expression in the contexts of normal traits or diseases. It is highly dynamic during early embryogenesis and remains relatively stable throughout life, and such patterns are intricately related to human development. DNA methylation is a quantitative trait determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variants at a specific locus can influence both regional and distant DNA methylation. The environment can have varying effects on DNA methylation depending on when the exposure occurs, such as during prenatal life or during adulthood. In particular, cigarette smoking in the context of both current smoking and prenatal exposure is a strong modifier of DNA methylation. Epigenome-wide association studies have uncovered candidate genes associated with cigarette smoking that have biologically relevant functions in the etiology of smoking-related diseases. As such, DNA methylation is a potential mechanistic link between current smoking and cancer, as well as prenatal cigarette-smoke exposure and the development of adult chronic diseases. PMID:23882278

  3. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baron, J A; Newcomb, P A; Longnecker, M P; Mittendorf, R; Storer, B E; Clapp, R W; Bogdan, G; Yuen, J

    1996-05-01

    A priori hypotheses suggest that cigarette smoking could either increase or decrease breast cancer incidence. To clarify these competing hypotheses, we used data from a very large population-based breast cancer case-control study to investigate the impact of smoking on breast cancer risk. Breast cancer patients less than 75 years old were identified from statewide tumor registries in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire; controls were randomly selected from driver's license lists (age less than 65) or lists of Medicare beneficiaries (age 65-74). Information on reproductive history, medical history, and personal habits including cigarette smoking was obtained by telephone interview. A total of 6,888 cases and 9,529 controls were interviewed. There was virtually no relationship between current smoking and breast cancer risk (multivariate odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.09), and former smokers had a barely increased risk (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.19). Similar results were observed among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no suggestion that heavy or long-term smoking increased or decreased risk, nor were there indications that women who began smoking at an early age were at increased risk, as has been hypothesized. The results of this large population-based study indicate that smoking does not influence the risk of breast cancer, even among heavy smokers who began smoking at an early age.

  4. Cigarette smoke cadmium breakthrough from traditional filters: implications for exposure.

    PubMed

    Pappas, R Steven; Fresquez, Mark R; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found <1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5 to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6 to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers.

  5. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  6. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  7. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, John S; Lai, Sue Min

    2015-06-11

    Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation.

  8. Effects of cigarette smoking on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dechanet, C; Anahory, T; Mathieu Daude, J C; Quantin, X; Reyftmann, L; Hamamah, S; Hedon, B; Dechaud, H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking is associated with lower fecundity rates, adverse reproductive outcomes and a higher risk of IVF failures. Over the last few decades, prevalence of smoking among women of reproductive age has increased. This review focuses on current knowledge of the potential effects of smoke toxicants on all reproductive stages and the consequences of smoke exposure on reproductive functions. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature on the impact of cigarette smoking and smoke constituents on the different stages of reproductive function, including epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies. We attempted to create hypotheses and find explanations for the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke observed in experimental studies. RESULTS Cigarette smoke contains several thousand components (e.g. nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cadmium) with diverse effects. Each stage of reproductive function, folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis, uterine blood flow and uterine myometrium is a target for cigarette smoke components. The effects of cigarette smoke are dose-dependent and are influenced by the presence of other toxic substances and hormonal status. Individual sensitivity, dose, time and type of exposure also play a role in the impact of smoke constituents on human fertility. CONCLUSIONS All stages of reproductive functions are targets of cigarette smoke toxicants. Further studies are necessary to better understand the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke compounds on the reproductive system in order to improve health care, help to reduce cigarette smoking and provide a better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive toxicology.

  9. Health Education and Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Morison, James B.; Medovy, Herry; MacDonell, Gordon T.

    1964-01-01

    The smoking habits of Winnipeg school students were surveyed before and after a three-year program of health education on the hazards of smoking, directed to 8300 out of 48,000 students. The program consisted of informal approaches to students in elementary schools and a formal program of talks, lectures, films, and student participation for older students. There were fewer students at all ages who had never smoked a cigarette at the time of the second survey. There was a slight decrease in the number of regular smokers in high school, most marked in the school where the program was enthusiastically received and student participation was most active. A direct relationship between parental smoking and that of the student, and an inverse relationship between academic achievement and student smoking, were shown on both surveys. The majority of students believed that smoking caused lung cancer and other hazards to health, although this was less marked among smokers. The results indicated that an intensive program of health education directed to the teenagers in school was a potentially useful approach to the problem of cigarette smoking. PMID:14154295

  10. Artifact formation during smoke trapping: An improved method for determination of N-nitrosamines in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, W.S.; Conner, J.M. )

    1990-09-01

    Studies in our laboratory revealed artifactual formation of N-nitrosamines during trapping of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke by the method of Hoffmann and coworkers. Both volatile and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines were produced. This artifact formation took place on the Cambridge filter, which is part of the collection train used in the previously published procedure. When the filter was treated with ascorbic acid before smoke collection, artifact formation was inhibited. The improved method resulting from these studies was applied to a comparative analysis of N-nitrosamines in smoke from cigarettes that heat, but do not burn, tobacco (the test cigarette) and several reference cigarettes. Concentrations of volatile and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in both mainstream and sidestream smoke from the test cigarette were substantially lower than in the reference cigarettes.

  11. Effect of cigarette smoke exposure in vivo on bronchial smooth muscle contractility in vitro in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoshihiko; Murata, Masahiko; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Yoshikawa, Yuji; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Kamei, Junzo; Misawa, Miwa

    2005-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Little is known concerning the effect of cigarette smoking on the contractility of airway smooth muscle. The current study was performed to determine the responsiveness of bronchial smooth muscles isolated from rats that were subacutely exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke in vivo. Male Wistar rats were exposed to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke for 2 h/d every day for 2 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last cigarette smoke exposure, a marked airway inflammation (i.e., increases in numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peribronchial tissues) was observed. In these subacutely cigarette smoke-exposed animals, the responsiveness of isolated intact (nonpermeabilized) bronchial smooth muscle to acetylcholine, but not to high K+ -depolarization, was significantly augmented when compared with the air-exposed control group. In alpha-toxin-permeabilized bronchial smooth muscle strips, the acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction was significantly augmented in rats exposed to cigarette smoke, although the contraction induced by Ca2+ was control level. Immunoblot analyses revealed an increased expression of RhoA protein in the bronchial smooth muscle of rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. Taken together, these findings suggest that the augmented agonist-induced, RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization may be responsible for the enhanced bronchial smooth muscle contraction induced by cigarette smoking, which has relevance to airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  12. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P < .05). Our results support the notion of a content-related effect of cigarette advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  13. Selenium-mediated reduction in the mutagenicity of cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Baker, J.L.; Chamberlain, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains carcinogens and mutagens and affects the health of smokers. Recently, increased research has proven the potentially protective activity of selenium (Se) against heavy metal toxicity, cancer, and other health disorders. Accordingly, we have proposed the fortification of tobacco with Se to develop safer cigarettes. As a start in evaluating any biological effects of added Se, we have determined the mutagenicity of inhaled, mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), with and without Se, in the preincubation assay of the Ames test. Initially, it was shown that Se, as sodium selenite, was not mutagenic at high concentrations (up to 80 micrograms/plate) with strains TA1538 and TA1978. Subsequently, the effects of different levels of Se, added to MS CSC, were examined with TA98, TA100, and TA1538. On the average, addition of 10 micrograms Se produced mutagenicity reductions of about 50%. Higher levels of added Se yielded further reductions. Cigarette sidestream (SS) smoke, collected between puffs, was also tested. Again, Se added to SS-CSC gave similar reductions, confirming its antimutagenic effect for both mainstream and sidestream smoke.

  14. Selenium-mediated reduction in the mutagenicity of cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Baker, J.L.; Chamberlain, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains carcinogens and mutagens and affects the health of smokers. Recently, increased research has proven the potentially protective activity of selenium (Se) against heavy metal toxicity, cancer, and other health disorders. Accordingly, we have proposed the fortification of tobacco with Se to develop safer cigarettes. As a start in evaluating any biological effects of added Se, we have determined the mutagenicity of inhaled, mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), with and without Se, in the preincubation assay of the Ames test. Initially, it was shown that Se, as sodium selenite, was not mutagenic at high concentrations (up to 80 micrograms/plate) with strains TA1538 and TA1978. Subsequently, the effects of different levels of Se, added to MS CSC, were examined with TA98, TA100, and TA1538. On the average, addition of 10 micrograms Se produced mutagenicity reductions of about 50%. Higher levels of added Se yielded further reductions. Cigarette sidestream (SS) smoke, collected between puffs, was also tested. Again, Se added to SS-CSC gave similar reductions, confirming its antimutagenic effect for both mainstream and sidestream smoke.

  15. [Determination of major carbonyls in mainstream smoke by rapid column high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Wang, Yigeng; Miao, Mingming; Zhao, Qihua; Yang, Guangyu

    2007-03-01

    Abstract: The determination of major carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke by rapid column high performance liquid chromatography was investigated. The cigarette smoke was collected using a Cambridge filter treated with acidic solution of 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, 2-butanone and butyraldehyde were extracted from the Cambridge filter with 50 mL of 2% pyridine acetonitrile solution. The carbonyl compounds in samples were separated on a ZORBAX Stable Bound rapid column (50 mm x 4. 6 mm, 1. 8 microm) in approximately seven minutes and then determined by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. The average recoveries were in the range of 89. 1% to 99. 2% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were generally below 6. 0%. The eight carbonyl compounds in the mainstream smoke of five brands of cigarettes were determined using this method. This method is faster, simpler and consumes less solvent. It is suitable for rapid analysis of carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke.

  16. Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Gaworski, Charles L

    2008-04-01

    A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas-vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a reduction in the cytotoxic action of the volatile smoke constituents. Results of a short-term clinical study show small reductions in the biomarkers of the gas-vapor phase smoke constituents in subjects smoking charcoal-filtered cigarettes, compared to subjects smoking non-charcoal filtered cigarettes. The very limited epidemiology data (a single study) fail to demonstrate a conclusive beneficial effect of charcoal-filtered cigarette products compared to non-charcoal filtered cigarette products. Review of the scientific literature is hindered due to the lack of documentation regarding the activity of the charcoal used in the filter, and the inconsistency in product designs used between the various different disciplines (chemistry, pre-clinical, clinical and epidemiology) that have conducted studies with charcoal filtered cigarettes. There do not appear to be any published studies using a combination of data from the different disciplines based on a consistently designed charcoal cigarette filter. Although the literature presently available would suggest that smoke filtration provided by current charcoal filter techniques alone may not be substantial enough to reduce smoking-related disease, the data are limited. Therefore, for the reduction of smoking-induced disease, it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion regarding the potential health benefits of using charcoal as a smoke filtration technology.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke is just as damaging to DNA as mainstream smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, E; Stone, K; Carter, K M; Pryor, W A

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of tar isolated from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to nick DNA in mammalian cells. Solutions of ETS tar behave similarly to aqueous solutions of cigarette tar from mainstream smoke. Both solutions contain the tar semiquinone radical, and this radical associates with the DNA in viable rat alveolar macrophages. Solutions of tar from ETS cause single-strand DNA breaks in rat thymocytes in proportion to the amount of tar present, until a plateau is reached. ETS tar solutions, like mainstream tar solutions, produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide appears to be an essential component of the mechanism by which both ETS tar and mainstream tar cause DNA damage in rat thymocytes, as catalase substantially protects against DNA damage. Glutathione also protects against DNA nicking by both ETS and mainstream tar solutions by scavenging radicals and/or oxidants. The chelator diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid also provides partial (40%) protection. The studies demonstrate that the water-soluble components of ETS tar can enter cells, associate with, and then nick DNA. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9644196

  18. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 2: Smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicological evaluation using smoking regimens reflecting human puffing behavior.

    PubMed

    Zenzen, Volker; Diekmann, Joerg; Gerstenberg, Birgit; Weber, Susanne; Wittke, Sandra; Schorp, Matthias K

    2012-11-01

    Chemical analysis of up to 49 harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in mainstream smoke, in vitro cytotoxicity of the particulate and gas/vapor phase of mainstream smoke determined in the Neutral Red Uptake assay, and in vitro bacterial mutagenicity of the particulate phase determined in the Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation (Ames) assay are reported for three Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System (EHCSS) series-K cigarettes, the University of Kentucky Reference Cigarette 2R4F, and a number of comparator commercial conventional lit-end cigarettes (CC) under ISO machine-smoking conditions and a total of 25 additional smoking regimens reflecting 'human puffing behavior' (HPB). The smoking machines were set to deliver nicotine yields for the EHCSS and comparator CC derived from the 10th percentile to the 90th percentile of nicotine uptake distributions in smokers determined in two clinical studies. Duplication of the smoking intensity 'per cigarette' on a smoking machine may provide an insight into product performance that is directly relevant to obtaining scientific evidence for reduced exposure substantiation based on mainstream cigarette smoke HPHC-to-nicotine regressions. The reported data support an overall evaluation of reduced exposure to HPHC and biological activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke using in-pipette-tip solid-phase extraction and on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Jiang, Xing-Yi; Li, Xue; Li, Xiang-Yu; Zhu, Feng-Peng; Pang, Yong-Qiang; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2016-08-19

    In this study, a silica/primary secondary amine (SiO2/PSA) was used as an in-pipette-tip solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS). We investigated several parameters including an extraction procedure of total particulate matter, type and amount of sorbent and on-line gel permeation chromatography parameters to obtain optimum conditions for a new strategy to target analytes. Under the optimized conditions, we developed a method for the simultaneous determination of PAHs and TSNAs in MSS by coupling in-pipette-tip SPE procedures to an on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line GPC-GC-MS(2)). Our method had limits of detection for target analytes ranging from 0.01 to 0.23ng/cig. Good linearities were obtained with coefficients of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.9984 for all target analytes. Good reproducibility was obtained as intra- and inter-day precisions, and the relative standard deviations were less than 11.4 and 13.3%, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 77.1-108.6% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared to previous standard methods for the determination of PAHs and TSNAs in MSS, our method was highly effective, fast, and had low consumption of organic solvent and a high degree of automation. Finally, our method successfully analyzed PAHs and TSNAs in real samples, and no significant deviations were observed when compared to similar analysis using standard methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF.

  1. Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: Sidestream cigarette smoke literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, M. R.; Higgins, C. E.; Jenkins, R. A.

    The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A literature review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. The ratio method can yield misleading results because of the sensitivity of mainstream deliveries to cigarette and burn characteristics.

  2. Electronic-cigarette smoking experience among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jun Ho; Shin, Eunyoung; Moon, Sang-Sik

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the level of awareness and contact routes to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), and to identify significant factors that may affect adolescent use of e-cigarettes; this study explores the experience of e-cigarettes among adolescents. Using the data from the 2008 Health Promotion Fund Project in Korea, we used a hierarchical logistic regression analysis to evaluate gender, level of school, family smoking, perception of peer influence, satisfaction in school life, and cigarette smoking experience as predictors of trying e-cigarettes among adolescents in five schools in Korea. Overall, 444 (10.2%) students responded as having seen or heard of e-cigarettes. Twenty-two (.5%) students reported as having used an e-cigarette. The contact routes of information on e-cigarettes were the Internet (249, 46.4%), friends (150, 27.9%), television (59, 11.0%), books (50, 9.3%), and others (29, 5.4%). The following factors were determined to be statistically significant predictors of e-cigarette experience: male gender, perception of peer influence, satisfaction in school life, and cigarette smoking experience. In light of this fact, continuous attention needs to be paid on the marketing of e-cigarettes on Internet sites to prevent adolescents from being exposed to unsupported claims about e-cigarettes and to provide appropriate information on health effects. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterisation of mainstream and passive vapours emitted by selected electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Geiss, Otmar; Bianchi, Ivana; Barahona, Francisco; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes have achieved growing popularity since their introduction onto the European market. They are promoted by manufacturers as healthier alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, however debate among scientists and public health experts about their possible impact on health and indoor air quality means further research into the product is required to ensure decisions of policymakers, health care providers and consumers are based on sound science. This study investigated and characterised the impact of 'vaping' (using electronic cigarettes) on indoor environments under controlled conditions using a 30m(3) emission chamber. The study determined the composition of e-cigarette mainstream vapour in terms of propylene glycol, glycerol, carbonyls and nicotine emissions using a smoking machine with adapted smoking parameters. Two different base recipes for refill liquids, with three different amounts of nicotine each, were tested using two models of e-cigarettes. Refill liquids were analysed on their content of propylene glycol, glycerol, nicotine and qualitatively on their principal flavourings. Possible health effects of e-cigarette use are not discussed in this work. Electronic cigarettes tested in this study proved to be sources for propylene glycol, glycerol, nicotine, carbonyls and aerosol particulates. The extent of exposure differs significantly for active and passive 'vapers' (users of electronic cigarettes). Extrapolating from the average amounts of propylene glycol and glycerol condensed on the smoking machine filter pad to the resulting lung-concentration, estimated lung concentrations of 160 and 220mgm(-3) for propylene glycol and glycerol were obtained, respectively. Vaping refill liquids with nicotine concentrations of 9mgmL(-1) led to vapour condensate nicotine amounts comparable to those of low-nicotine regular cigarettes (0.15-0.2mg). In chamber studies, peak concentrations of 2200μgm(-3) for propylene glycol, 136μgm(-3) for glycerol and 0.6

  4. Cigarette smoking, nicotine and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Haustein, K O

    1999-09-01

    Smoking cigarettes during pregnancy and nursing causes considerable health damage to the fetus and to the infant during the initial growth phase. A smoking mother puts her child at considerable risk, not only of higher incidence of spontaneous abortion, premature ablatio placentae and reduced weight at birth, but also of deformities (cheilognathopalatoschisis, deformed extremities, polycystic kidneys, aortopulmonary septum defects, gastroschisis, skull deformation, etc.). Development of the Down syndrome is the subject of some controversy. These types of damage are caused by the hypoxia followed by carboxyhemoglobinemia occurring during smoking and are also observed in CO poisonings that also result in deformities. Numerous infants die during the first months of life of the so-called sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which can also be caused by maternal smoking and passive smoking. The contribution of nicotine to such health damage is still unclear, especially because only animal trial data are available, the applicability of which to human beings is questionable. It can be said that studies to date have revealed no deformities confirmed as having been caused by nicotine. Cardiopulmonary disturbances resulting from changes in the regulation of dopaminergic receptors are under discussion, but have not yet reached the status of a pathogenic principle. On the whole, all child health complications arising during pregnancy can be attributed almost exclusively to tobacco combustion products including the CO formed. Passage of nicotine into human milk has been confirmed in nursing smokers; passive smoking by mother and child also raises nicotine and cotinine levels in the milk and in the infant. These findings could lead to a reconsideration of smoking withdrawal therapy for pregnant women.

  5. Influence of cigarette circumference on smoke chemistry, biological activity, and smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Kevin; Eldridge, Alison; Fearon, Ian M; Liu, Chuan; Manson, Andrew; Murphy, James; Porter, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Cigarettes with reduced circumference are increasingly popular in some countries, hence it is important to understand the effects of circumference reduction on their burning behaviour, smoke chemistry and bioactivity. Reducing circumference reduces tobacco mass burn rate, puff count and static burn time, and increases draw resistance and rod length burned during puff and smoulder periods. Smoulder temperature increases with decreasing circumference, but with no discernible effect on cigarette ignition propensity during a standard test. At constant packing density, mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) tar and nicotine yields decrease approximately linearly with decreasing circumference, as do the majority of smoke toxicants. However, volatile aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde, show a distinctly non-linear relationship with circumference and increases in the ratios of aldehydes to tar and nicotine have been observed as the circumference decreases. Mutagenic, cytotoxic and tumorigenic specific activities of smoke condensates (i.e. per unit weight of condensate) decrease as circumference decreases. Recent studies suggest that there is no statistical difference in mouth-level exposure to tar and nicotine among smokers of cigarettes with different circumferences. Commercially available slim cigarettes usually have changes in other cigarette design features compared with cigarettes with standard circumference, so it is difficult to isolate the effect of circumference on the properties of commercial products. However, available data shows that changes in cigarette circumference offer no discernible change to the harm associated with smoking.

  6. Comparison of True and Smoothed Puff Profile Replication on Smoking Behavior and Mainstream Smoke Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To estimate exposures to smokers from cigarettes, smoking topography is typically measured and programmed into a smoking machine to mimic human smoking, and the resulting smoke emissions are tested for relative levels of harmful constituents. However, using only the summary puff data—with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration—may underestimate or overestimate actual exposure to smoke toxins. In this laboratory study, we used a topography-driven smoking machine that faithfully reproduces a human smoking session and individual human topography data (n = 24) collected during previous clinical research to investigate if replicating the true puff profile (TP) versus the mathematically derived smoothed puff profile (SM) resulted in differences in particle size distributions and selected toxic/carcinogenic organic compounds from mainstream smoke emissions. Particle size distributions were measured using an electrical low pressure impactor, the masses of the size-fractionated fine and ultrafine particles were determined gravimetrically, and the collected particulate was analyzed for selected particle-bound, semivolatile compounds. Volatile compounds were measured in real time using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. By and large, TP levels for the fine and ultrafine particulate masses as well as particle-bound organic compounds were slightly lower than the SM concentrations. The volatile compounds, by contrast, showed no clear trend. Differences in emissions due to the use of the TP and SM profiles are generally not large enough to warrant abandoning the procedures used to generate the simpler smoothed profile in favor of the true profile. PMID:25536227

  7. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  8. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  9. DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-03-13

    Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

  10. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

  11. Dosimetry of localized accumulations of cigarette smoke and radon progeny at bifurcations

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Hofmann, W.

    1991-01-01

    The work focuses upon deposition and clearance processes affecting cigarette smoke particles and radon progeny within surrogate airway models, replica casts and the human lung. As shall be demonstrated, 'cloud motion' for mainstream cigarette smoke can produce locations of enhanced deposition not experienced with dilute aerosols composed of like-sized particles. These sites of concentrated deposits occur at airway bifurcations, especially at the inclusive carinal ridges.

  12. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, A.S.; Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  13. Effect of Menthol on Nicotine Pharmacokinetics in Rats After Cigarette Smoke Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The effect of menthol on nicotine disposition is important in understanding smoking behaviors among different racial groups. The present study was to evaluate whether menthol affects the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after cigarette smoke inhalation. Methods: Rats were exposed to mainstream smoke from either a nonmentholated or mentholated cigarette (1 puff/min for 10 min) using a smoke inhalation apparatus. For the multiple-cigarette smoke inhalation, rats received the smoke from either nonmentholated or mentholated cigarette (10 puffs) every 12 hr for a total of 17 cigarettes. Serial blood samples were collected during the 10-min inhalation phase for the single-cigarette smoke or the 17th cigarette inhalation and for 30 hr thereafter. Nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were assayed by radioimmunoassay methods. Results: Following single-cigarette smoke inhalation, mentholated cigarettes significantly decreased the mean peak concentrations of nicotine in plasma (Cmax) from 27.1 to 9.61 ng/ml and the total area under the plasma concentration–time curves (AUC) from 977 to 391 ng min/ml as compared with those after nonmentholated cigarette smoke inhalation. Cmax and AUC values for cotinine were also significantly reduced by menthol. Similarly after multiple smoke inhalation, Cmax, AUC, and the mean average steady-state plasma concentration of nicotine as well as cotinine were significantly lower in mentholated cigarette inhalation. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in the cotinine to nicotine AUC ratio from 13.8 for the nonmentholated to 21.1 for the mentholated cigarette. Conclusions: These results suggest that menthol in mentholated cigarettes can substantially decrease the absorption and/or increase the clearance of nicotine. PMID:22311961

  14. Effects of cigarette smoking on erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kovac, J R; Labbate, C; Ramasamy, R; Tang, D; Lipshultz, L I

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although public policies have resulted in a decreased number of new smokers, smoking rates remain stubbornly high in certain demographics with 20% of all American middle-aged men smoking. In addition to the well-established harmful effects of smoking (i.e. coronary artery disease and lung cancer), the past three decades have led to a compendium of evidence being compiled into the development of a relationship between cigarette smoking and erectile dysfunction. The main physiologic mechanism that appears to be affected includes the nitric oxide signal transduction pathway. This review details the recent literature linking cigarette smoking to erectile dysfunction, epidemiological associations, dose dependency and the effects of smoking cessation on improving erectile quality. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

    1986-06-20

    A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

  16. Sampling and analysis of cigarette smoke using the solid adsorbent Tenax

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.E.; Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    The commercial introduction of ultra-low-tar delivery cigarette products has posed challenges in the analysis of their smoke constituents. The application of solid sorbent trapping and thermal desorption, programmed-temperature glass-capillary-column gas chromatography has proven useful for both gas phase and particulate matter analyses. In gas phase analysis the cigarette is smoked directly through a Cambridge filter and Tenax trap, and in whole smoke analysis through the Tenax trap alone. For cigarettes having deliveries of < 1 mg tar/cigarette the entire trap content, or a fraction thereof, is desorbed at 250/sup 0/C in the injection port of the gas chromatograph, and the cryothermally trapped organic desorbate is separated by programmed temperature gas chromatography. Tenax used to trap smoke from higher tar delivery cigarettes is duluted with clean Tenax and homogenized before analysis. Quantitation is made by the method of external standards, the RSD for smoke components averaging generally +-20%. Higher RSD's of +-60% in the case of some ultra-low cigarette smoke components may be influenced by mainstream enrichment by sidestream smoke drifting near the air dilution vents in the filter rod. This method of analysis when applied to whole smoke can determine the entire cigarette delivery of many gas phase and particulate matter components, and has sufficient sensitivity that flavor related components in cigarette smoke are analyzable. The distribution of some semivolatile components between gas and particulate phases has been determined by application of this method and is reported.

  17. Price sensitivity and smoking smuggled cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jie-Min; Chen, Sheng-Hung; Chen, Hsin-Fan; Jeng, Huei-Yann Joann

    2009-01-01

    This study analysed the socio-economic factors that influence a smoker's decision to consume smuggled cigarettes when faced with the rising costs of legal cigarettes. We hope our findings will help public health authorities create policies that simultaneously discourage consumption of smuggled cigarettes and lower overall smoking levels. We conducted a national telephone survey from April to June 2004. We then applied Multiple Logistic Regression to the collected data to answer the following questions: do socio-economically disadvantaged smokers differ significantly in their characteristics? If so, which characteristics are most influential in the decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes? Smokers with a personal monthly income of less than New Taiwan dollar (NT$) 10,000 are 24% more likely to smoke smuggled cigarettes than are smokers who earn NT$10,000 or more. Smokers with the least amount of education are 21% more likely to smoke smuggled cigarettes than those with higher levels of education. Smokers with the most experience purchasing smuggled cigarettes are 31% more likely to do so than those with less experience. Finally, smokers who have a personal monthly income of less than NT$10,000 and the least amount of education are 54% more likely to smoke smuggled cigarettes than those with just one--or none--of these characteristics. Low-income, poorly-educated smokers are most likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes. To alter such behaviour, government must understand the motivations and opinions of this population and create marketing messages targeted specifically to their needs.

  18. Health consequences of pipe versus cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Tverdal, Aage; Bjartveit, Kjell

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the risk of dying from all causes and from specified smoking-related diseases in men who were exclusive daily pipe smokers at two consecutive examinations, and in men who switched from smoking cigarettes only to pipe only. A prospective cohort study. Three counties in Norway. 16, 932 men, aged 20-49, screened for cardiovascular disease risk factors in the mid-1970s, re-screened after 3-13 years, and followed throughout 2007. Absolute mortality and relative risks adjusted for confounding variables, of dying from all causes and ischaemic heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and other smoking-related cancer. Altogether, the men were observed for 403, 327 years, and during the observation period, 4933 deaths occurred. With sustained never smokers as reference, the sustained smokers of a pipe only had adjusted relative risk (95% CI), of dying from any cause that was 1.99 (1.73 to 2.27). At comparable tobacco consumption, no significant difference in risk between pipe and cigarette smokers appeared. As to survival, no difference was found between sustained smokers of a pipe only and of cigarettes only. Men who switched from cigarettes only to pipe only had a risk which was not significantly different from the risk in sustained smokers of cigarettes only. Between pipe and cigarette smokers, no or only minor differences were found in mortality from any cause and the specified smoking-related diseases. Pipe smoking is not safer than cigarette smoking.

  19. Women, smoking, cigarette advertising and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ernster, V L

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer in women, accounting for about one-fourth of their estimated 219,000 cancer deaths per year. Cigarette smoking specifically increases a woman's risk of developing cancer of the lung, larynx, esophagus, oral cavity, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and possibly uterine cervix. During the past twenty years, concerted efforts have been made by the tobacco industry to increase sales to women. Strategies have included development of "feminine" brands such as Virginia Slims, slick media campaigns portraying smoking as elegant and glamorous, and sponsorship of fashion, women's sports events, and even medical programs. Reversal of these alarming trends requires that women as well as men recognize the role of cigarette smoking in cancer causation, and support programs which promote non-smoking as well as combat the influence of the tobacco industry on women's smoking behavior.

  20. Investigations on the direct introduction of cigarette smoke for trace elements analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Michael J.; Naworal, John D.; Walker, Kathleen; Connell, Chris T.

    2003-11-01

    Direct introduction of mainstream cigarette smoke into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been investigated with respect to its feasibility for on-line analysis of trace elements. An automated apparatus was designed and built interfacing a smoking machine with an ICP-MS for smoke generation, collection, injection and analysis. Major and minor elements present in the particulate phase and the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke of 2R4F reference cigarettes have been qualitatively identified by examination of their full mass spectra. This method provides a rapid-screening analysis of the transfer of trace elements into mainstream smoke during cigarette combustion. A full suite of elements present in the whole cigarette smoke has been identified, including As, B, Ba, Br, Cd, Cl, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Tl and Zn. Of these elements, the major portions of B, Ba, Cs, Cu, K, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sn, Tl and Zn are present in the particulate phase, whereas the major portion of Hg is present in the gas phase. As, Br, Cd, Cl, I and Sb exist in a distribution between the gas phase and the particulate phase. Depending on the element, the precision of measurement ranges from 5 to 25% in terms of relative standard deviation of peak height and peak area, based on the fourth puff of 2R4F mainstream cigarette smoke analyzed in five smoking replicates.

  1. Mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke affect the cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells discriminately.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ren; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-16

    Epidemiology studies suggest that maternal smoking and passive smoking have strongly resulted in the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring. Cigarette smoke (CS) can be divided into mainstream smoke (MS) and sidestream smoke (SS); CS chemistry study indicates that significant differences exist in the composition of MS and SS. Therefore, MS and SS were suspected to process toxicity dissimilarly. However, much less was known about the difference in the developmental effects induced by MS and SS. In the current study, heart development was mimicked by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation. After MS and SS exposure, by tracing the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-Smad4 signalling pathway, interruption of downstream gene expression was observed, including Gata4, Mef2c and Nkx2.5, as well as myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain. Specifically, SS caused inhibition of Gata4 expression, even at non-cytotoxic concentration. Further, SS-induced hypoacetylation in promoter regions of Gata4 reflected the orchestration of CS-gene modulation-epigenetic regulation. Even though SS induced apoptosis in ESC-derived cardiomyocytes, the partial clearance in cells with down-regulated Gata4 caused these cells to survive and undergo further differentiation, which laid potential risk for abnormal heart development. These data uncovered the difference between MS and SS on heart development preliminarily. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream smoke from different tobacco varieties.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Zhang, Liqin; Jain, Ram B; Jain, Ntasha; Wang, Richard Y; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2008-12-01

    It has been estimated that one in every five cancer deaths worldwide are related to tobacco use. According to the IARC, 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 8 tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), as well as at least 45 other compounds or substances found in tobacco smoke, are potential human carcinogens. The levels of these carcinogens in contents of tobacco and smoke emissions vary between different tobacco products. We evaluated mainstream smoke emissions from cigarettes made with different types of tobacco to examine the relation between their deliveries of TSNAs and PAHs and any possible influence from tobacco nitrate content. To investigate the contribution of tobacco content to mainstream cigarette smoke deliveries without confounders such as filter design, filter ventilation, and paper porosity, we used custom-made, research-grade, unfiltered cigarettes that contained bright, burley, oriental, reconstituted, or mixtures of these tobaccos. Our findings confirm results from other researchers that tobacco type can influence the mainstream smoke delivery of nicotine, TSNAs, and PAHs. However, we found that the effect varies among individual compounds. In addition, we observed a statistically significant relationship between nitrate content and mainstream smoke 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); nitrate level also influenced the mainstream smoke deliveries of the summed total of the 10 PAHs identified by IARC as potential human carcinogens. The influence of nitrate on mainstream smoke NNK and PAH levels were of different magnitude and direction. Our results tend to indicate an inverse relation exists between NNK and PAH deliveries when considering different tobacco blends.

  3. "Smoking wet": respiratory failure related to smoking tainted marijuana cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher R; Baram, Michael; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C

    2013-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the use of a dangerously tainted form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as "wet" or "fry," has increased. Marijuana cigarettes are dipped into or laced with other substances, typically formaldehyde, phencyclidine, or both. Inhaling smoke from these cigarettes can cause lung injuries. We report the cases of 2 young adults who presented at our hospital with respiratory failure soon after they had smoked "wet" marijuana cigarettes. In both patients, progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure necessitated rescue therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After lengthy hospitalizations, both patients recovered with only mild pulmonary function abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first 2-patient report of severe respiratory failure and rescue therapy with extracorporeal oxygenation after the smoking of marijuana cigarettes thus tainted. We believe that, in young adults with an unexplained presentation of severe respiratory failure, the possibility of exposure to tainted marijuana cigarettes should be considered.

  4. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. PMID:26771624

  5. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-12

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70-28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04-19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  6. Does environmental cigarette smoke affect breastfeeding behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Firouzbakht, Mozhgan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimallah; Nikpour, Maryam; Banihosseini, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure of lactating women to environmental cigarette smoke may increase cotinine in breast milk, which in turn may reduce the volume of milk and the duration of breastfeeding. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between exposure to environmental cigarette smoke and breastfeeding behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 290 mothers in Babol - Iran, who had been breastfeeding for 3–5 days after delivery. The lactating mothers were divided into two groups: those exposed to environmental cigarette smoke, and those free from smoke exposure. The study questionnaire included demographic data, information on environmental cigarette smoke, and breastfeeding behavior. Data was collected through telephone interviews at 2, 4, and 6 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, and test of significance using Chi-square test, t-test, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The continuation of breastfeeding for the group of exposed mothers and the unexposed group was (mean ± standard deviation) 5.57 ± 0.098 and 5.58 ± 0.109, respectively in 6 months of follow-up. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.93). The percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months in the group exposed to cigarette smoke was 65% compared to 76% of the nonexposed group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.149). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, no significant association was observed between the group exposed to environmental cigarette smoke and the nonexposed group in breastfeeding behavior, although the percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was less in the group exposed to environmental cigarette smoke. Further exploratory studies are needed. PMID:28163575

  7. Limitations of cigarette machine smoking regimens.

    PubMed

    Roemer, E; Carchman, R A

    2011-05-30

    There is an ongoing debate about the 'usefulness' of the standard machine smoking regimen for cigarettes defined by the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and adopted in principal by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). More intense smoking regimens result in much higher smoke yields, and these higher yields have been suggested to be much closer to human smoke uptake. However, it appears that more intense smoking regimens are less efficient in detecting possible differences in the yield of toxicants. Intense smoking regimens reproducibly decrease the concentration of toxicants in the smoke per unit mass of total particulate matter, tar, or nicotine, most likely as a result of a more complete combustion. The toxicant concentration reaches the same plateau for different cigarette types under the intense smoking regimens. As such, differences in toxicant concentrations due to product changes, which are observable under ISO or FTC conditions, may disappear under intensive smoking regimens. Intense machine smoking regimens might be used for regulatory compliance and consumer information. However, when evaluating the toxicological impact of cigarette product changes, especially to avoid increases in toxicity, they should not be used as a standard (or at least not as the only standard). The type of smoking regimen has to be carefully considered and aligned to the underlying question. Depending on the question a combination of the reviewed regimens or even other approaches might be appropriate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in the sidestream smoke from 15 brands of Canadian cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Rickert, W.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Collishaw, N.

    1984-03-01

    Sidestream smoke yields for 15 brands of cigarettes were determined under conditions where mainstream yields were approximately equal to those used for determining the values which appear on packages of Canadian cigarettes. Sidestream yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were much higher than mainstream yields for all brands tested. The average sidestream-to-mainstream ratios for the 15 brands were 3.5, 6.6, and 6.8 for tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, respectively. The highest yields of sidestream were obtained from the brands with the lowest mainstream yields.

  9. Cigarette smoke exposure facilitates allergic sensitization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moerloose, Katrien B; Robays, Lander J; Maes, Tania; Brusselle, Guy G; Tournoy, Kurt G; Joos, Guy F

    2006-01-01

    Background Active and passive smoking are considered as risk factors for asthma development. The mechanisms involved are currently unexplained. Objective The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoke exposure could facilitate primary allergic sensitization. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) combined with air or tobacco smoke (4 exposures/day) daily for three weeks. Serology, lung cytopathology, cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and on mediastinal lymph node cultures as well as lung function tests were performed after the last exposure. The natural history and the immune memory of allergic sensitization were studied with in vivo recall experiments. Results Exposure to OVA induced a small increase in OVA-specific serum IgE as compared with exposure to PBS (P < 0.05), while no inflammatory reaction was observed in the airways. Exposure to cigarette smoke did not induce IgE, but was characterized by a small but significant neutrophilic inflammatory reaction. Combining OVA with cigarette smoke not only induced a significant increase in OVA-specific IgE but also a distinct eosinophil and goblet cell enriched airway inflammation albeit that airway hyperresponsiveness was not evidenced. FACS analysis showed in these mice increases in dendritic cells (DC) and CD4+ T-lymphocytes along with a marked increase in IL-5 measured in the supernatant of lymph node cell cultures. Immune memory experiments evidenced the transient nature of these phenomena. Conclusion In this study we show that mainstream cigarette smoke temporary disrupts the normal lung homeostatic tolerance to innocuous inhaled allergens, thereby inducing primary allergic sensitization. This is characterized not only by the development of persistent IgE, but also by the emergence of an eosinophil rich pulmonary inflammatory reaction. PMID:16571114

  10. Cigarette Smoking Onset among High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.; And Others

    While data on the onset of cigarette smoking among younger adolescents has been investigated extensively, it is less clear whether the same social factors influence older adolescents. To examine these social factors, as well as the influence of personality and beliefs, 1,977 high school participants in an anti-smoking study completed a…

  11. Adolescent smoking experimentation as a predictor of daily cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Gabrielli, Joy; Budney, Alan; Soneji, Samir; Wills, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    The utility of studying substance use during early adolescence depends on how well indicies of lower-level experimentation predict the development of substance use problems. We examined associations between experimental cigarette use at T1, recanting of use 8 months later (T2), and daily smoking at 2 years (T4). Longitudinal telephone survey of 6522 US youth aged 10-14, examining lifetime cigarette smoking (none, just puffing, 1-19, 20-100, >100) and recanting (i.e., reporting lifetime use at T1, denying ever using at T2) as predictors of T4 daily smoking using multivariable logistic regression. Covariates included sociodemographics, friend/family smoking, school performance, and personality characteristics. The sample was 51% male, 18% Black, 17% Hispanic, with 70% retained at T2. At T1, 407 (8.9%) adolescents reported some smoking, of whom 85 (20.9%) recanted at T2. At T4, 970 reported any smoking, of whom 88 (9.1%) were daily smokers. Any T1 experimentation identified two-thirds of T4 daily smokers (sensitivity=66.7%) with a false positive rate of 7.8%. T1 lifetime smoking categories were associated with the following adjusted odds ratios for T4 daily smoking (vs. never smokers): 2.7 for recanters (95% confidence interval 0.82, 8.5), 3.5 for few puffs (1.7, 7.0), 9.6 for 1-19 cigarettes (4.1, 22.3), 3.8 for 20-100 cigarettes (1.0, 14.3), and 30.1 for >100 cigarettes (8.1, 111). In this sample experimentation with cigarettes predicted future daily smoking with high utility. The findings provide a rationale for monitoring and reporting any experimentation cigarettes as a tobacco surveillance outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke.

  13. Cigarette smoking and leukocyte subpopulations in men.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D S; Flanders, W D; Barboriak, J J; Malarcher, A M; Gates, L

    1996-07-01

    Because of previously reported associations among the total leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease, we examined the relation of cigarette smoking to various leukocyte subpopulations among 3467 men aged 31 to 45 years. The median total leukocyte count was 36% higher (7840 vs. 5760 cells/mL) among current cigarette smokers than among men who had never smoked, and both stratification and regression analyses were used to examine independent associations with leukocyte subpopulations. At equivalent counts of other subpopulations, CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils were the cell types most strongly associated with cigarette smoking; each standard deviation change in counts of these subpopulations increased the odds of current (vs. never) smoking by approximately threefold. Furthermore, whereas 15% of the 238 men with relatively low (< 25 percentile) counts of both neutrophils and CD4+ lymphocytes were cigarette smokers, 96% of the 249 men with relatively high counts of both subpopulations were current smokers. Counts of T lymphocytes also tended to be higher among the 32 men with self-reported ischemic heart disease than among other men. These results, along with previous reports of immunologically active T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic plaques, suggest that this subpopulation may be of particular interest in studies examining the relation of leukocytes to cardiovascular disease.

  14. Cigarette smoke chemistry market maps under Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions.

    PubMed

    Morton, Michael J; Laffoon, Susan W

    2008-06-01

    This study extends the market mapping concept introduced by Counts et al. (Counts, M.E., Hsu, F.S., Tewes, F.J., 2006. Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46, 225-242) to include both temporal cigarette and testing variation and also machine smoking with more intense puffing parameters, as defined by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH). The study was conducted over a two year period and involved a total of 23 different commercial cigarette brands from the U.S. marketplace. Market mapping prediction intervals were developed for 40 mainstream cigarette smoke constituents and the potential utility of the market map as a comparison tool for new brands was demonstrated. The over-time character of the data allowed for the variance structure of the smoke constituents to be more completely characterized than is possible with one-time sample data. The variance was partitioned among brand-to-brand differences, temporal differences, and the remaining residual variation using a mixed random and fixed effects model. It was shown that a conventional weighted least squares model typically gave similar prediction intervals to those of the more complicated mixed model. For most constituents there was less difference in the prediction intervals calculated from over-time samples and those calculated from one-time samples than had been anticipated. One-time sample maps may be adequate for many purposes if the user is aware of their limitations. Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, ammonia, chlorogenic acid, and reducing sugars. The filler information was used to improve predicting relationships for several of the smoke constituents, and it was concluded that the effects of filler chemistry on smoke chemistry were partial explanations of the observed brand-to-brand variation.

  15. Overview of the pharmacogenomics of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Ho, M K; Tyndale, R F

    2007-04-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of numerous health problems, including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders, making smoking the leading cause of preventable death in the world. Nicotine is primarily responsible for the highly addictive properties of cigarettes. Although the majority of smokers express a desire to quit, few are successful in doing so. Twin and family studies have indicated substantial genetic contributions to smoking behaviors. One major research focus has been to elucidate the specific genes involved; this has been accomplished primarily through genome-wide linkage analyses and candidate gene association studies. Much attention has focused on genes involved in the neurotransmitter pathways for the brain reward system and genes altering nicotine metabolism. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge for genetic factors implicated in smoking behaviors, and examines how genetic variations may affect therapeutic outcomes for drugs used to assist smoking cessation.

  16. Smoking bans, cigarette prices and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Odermatt, Reto; Stutzer, Alois

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of tobacco control policies for individual welfare are difficult to assess, even more so when related consumption choices challenge people's willpower. We therefore evaluate the impact of smoking bans and cigarette prices on subjective well-being by analyzing data for 40 European countries and regions between 1990 and 2011. We exploit the staggered introduction of bans and apply an imputation strategy to study the effect of anti-smoking policies on people with different propensities to smoke. We find that higher cigarette prices reduce the life satisfaction of likely smokers. Overall, smoking bans are barely related to subjective well-being, but increase the life satisfaction of smokers who would like to quit smoking. The latter finding is consistent with cue-triggered models of addiction and the idea of bans as self-control devices.

  17. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal (< 3 months, 3-6 months, and > 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajectories. Of participants endorsing smoking post-rape, a two-class solution was identified, with the majority of participants (74.6%) evidencing moderate smoking with a slight decrease over time and remaining participants showing heavy smoking with a slight increase over time. Having sustained an injury, minority status, and post-exam distress all predicted subsequent smoking trajectory. PMID:19370699

  18. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    EPA Science Inventory

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  19. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    EPA Science Inventory

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  20. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Begh, Rachna; Stead, Lindsay F; Hajek, Peter

    2016-09-14

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are electronic devices that heat a liquid into an aerosol for inhalation. The liquid usually comprises propylene glycol and glycerol, with or without nicotine and flavours, and stored in disposable or refillable cartridges or a reservoir. Since ECs appeared on the market in 2006 there has been a steady growth in sales. Smokers report using ECs to reduce risks of smoking, but some healthcare organizations, tobacco control advocacy groups and policy makers have been reluctant to encourage smokers to switch to ECs, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. Smokers, healthcare providers and regulators are interested to know if these devices can help smokers quit and if they are safe to use for this purpose. This review is an update of a review first published in 2014. To evaluate the safety and effect of using ECs to help people who smoke achieve long-term smoking abstinence. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant records from 2004 to January 2016, together with reference checking and contact with study authors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which current smokers (motivated or unmotivated to quit) were randomized to EC or a control condition, and which measured abstinence rates at six months or longer. As the field of EC research is new, we also included cohort follow-up studies with at least six months follow-up. We included randomized cross-over trials, RCTs and cohort follow-up studies that included at least one week of EC use for assessment of adverse events (AEs). We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up, and we used the most rigorous definition available (continuous, biochemically validated, longest follow-up). We used a fixed-effect Mantel

  1. Reduced toxicological activity of cigarette smoke by the addition of ammonia magnesium phosphate to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette: subchronic inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    Moennikes, O; Vanscheeuwijck, P M; Friedrichs, B; Anskeit, E; Patskan, G J

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex chemical mixture that causes a variety of diseases, such as lung cancer. With the electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), temperatures are applied to the tobacco below those found in conventional cigarettes, resulting in less combustion, reduced yields of some smoke constituents, and decreased activity in some standard toxicological tests. The first generation of electrically heated cigarettes (EHC) also resulted in increased formaldehyde yields; therefore, a second generation of EHC was developed with ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) in the cigarette paper in part to address this increase. The toxicological activity of mainstream smoke from these two generations of EHC and of a conventional reference cigarette was investigated in two studies in rats: a standard 90-day inhalation toxicity study and a 35-day inhalation study focusing on lung inflammation. Many of the typical smoke exposure-related changes were found to be less pronounced after exposure to smoke from the second-generation EHC with AMP than to smoke from the first-generation EHC or the conventional reference cigarette, when compared on a particulate matter or nicotine basis. Differences between the EHC without AMP and the conventional reference cigarette were not as prominent. Overall, AMP incorporated in the EHC cigarette paper reduced the inhalation toxicity of the EHCSS more than expected based on the observed reduction in aldehyde yields.

  2. Smoking and reproduction: The oviduct as a target of cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Prue; Riveles, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The oviduct is an exquisitely designed organ that functions in picking-up ovulated oocytes, transporting gametes in opposite directions to the site of fertilization, providing a suitable environment for fertilization and early development, and transporting preimplantation embryos to the uterus. A variety of biological processes can be studied in oviducts making them an excellent model for toxicological studies. This review considers the role of the oviduct in oocyte pick-up and embryo transport and the evidence that chemicals in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke impair these oviductal functions. Epidemiological data have repeatedly shown that women who smoke are at increased risk for a variety of reproductive problems, including ectopic pregnancy, delay to conception, and infertility. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate the oviduct is targeted by smoke components in a manner that could explain some of the epidemiological data. Comparisons between the toxicity of smoke from different types of cigarettes, including harm reduction cigarettes, are discussed, and the chemicals in smoke that impair oviductal functioning are reviewed. PMID:16191196

  3. Induction of alopecia in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    D'Agostini, F; Balansky, R; Pesce, C; Fiallo, P; Lubet, R A; Kelloff, G J; De Flora, S

    2000-04-03

    Besides being responsible for a high proportion of those chronic degenerative diseases that are the leading causes of death in the population, tobacco smoking has been associated with skin diseases. Smoke genotoxicants are metabolized in hair follicle cells, where they form DNA adducts and cause DNA damage. The suspicion was raised that, in humans, a link may exist between smoking and both premature grey hair and hair loss. In order to check this hypothesis, we carried out a study in C57BL/6 mice exposed whole-body to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke. After 3 months exposure, most mice developed areas of alopecia and grey hair, while no such lesions occurred either in sham-exposed mice or in smoke-exposed mice receiving the chemopreventive agent N-acetylcysteine with drinking water. Cell apoptosis occurred massively in the hair bulbs at the edge of alopecia areas. Smoke-exposed mice had extensive atrophy of the epidermis, reduced thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, and scarcity of hair follicles. On the whole, exposure to smoke genotoxic components appears to alter the hair cycle with a dystrophic anagen pattern. Although this mechanism is different from that of genotoxic cytostatic drugs, N-acetylcysteine appears to exert protective effects in both conditions.

  4. Electron Microscopic Analysis of Silicate and Calcium Particles in Cigarette Smoke Tar

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, R. Steven; Halstead, Mary M.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) supplies information that is complementary to those data traditionally obtained using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for analysis of inorganic tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents. The SEM-EDS approach was used to identify select inorganic constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke “tar.” The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for microstructural analyses as it provides information relevant to inorganic constituents that could result from exposure to combusted tobacco products. Our analyses show that aluminum silicates, silica, and calcium compounds were common constituents of cigarette mainstream smoke “tar.” Identifying inorganic tobacco smoke constituents is important because inhalation of fine inorganic particles could lead to inflammatory responses in the lung and systemic inflammatory responses. As cigarette smoking causes chronic inflammation in the respiratory tract, information on inorganic particulate in mainstream smoke informs efforts to determine causative agents associated with increased morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. PMID:27158665

  5. Cigarette smoking in a periodontal practice.

    PubMed

    Haber, J; Kent, R L

    1992-02-01

    This case-control study compares the prevalence of cigarette smoking among patients in a periodontal practice (cases) with that of patients in referring general dental practices (controls). Smoking histories of patients (age greater than or equal to 25 years) in a periodontal practice and five general dental practices were obtained by questionnaire. From the general practices, only patients reporting negative histories for periodontitis were studied. Periodontal status of the periodontal practice patients was based on bone loss from full mouth radiographic surveys and gingival pocket depths. Patients were stratified by age (25 to 40, 41 to 55, and greater than 55 years) and sex. The combined frequency of current or former cigarette smoking reported by 196 periodontal practice patients with moderate or advanced periodontitis (M-A perio group) was higher than that reported by 209 general dental practice patients (gen prac group) in all age and sex categories. The age and sex adjusted summary odds ratio for a positive smoking history among M-A perio subjects relative to gen prac subjects was 2.6 (P less than 0.001). Separate corresponding odds ratios (age and sex adjusted) for current smoking versus never smoking in the two groups were 3.3 (P less than 0.001) and for former smoking versus never smoking 2.1 (P less than 0.004). Among current smokers, patients in the M-A perio group reported heavy smoking (greater than 10 cigarettes/day) relatively more often than control subjects (adjusted R.O. = 5.7; P less than 0.001). In the M-A perio group the frequency of current smoking increased with disease severity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Influence of smoking charcoal filter tipped cigarettes on various biomarkers of exposure.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Gerhard; Urban, Michael; Engl, Johannes; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Riedel, Kirsten

    2006-09-01

    Charcoal (CC) filters of cigarettes are known to significantly reduce a series of volatile constituents in mainstream smoke, including reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein and crotonaldehyde. We performed a randomized, crossover, 2-wk brand-switching study with 39 smokers. Twenty of the subjects smoked cellulose acetate (CA) filter tipped cigarettes during wk 1 of the study; the remaining 19 subjects smoked CC filter tipped cigarettes during wk 1. In wk 2, the subjects switched to the corresponding brand with the other filter type, with similar smoking machine-derived tar and nicotine yields. Daily cigarette consumption, carbon monoxide in exhaled breath, salivary cotinine, and urinary nicotine equivalents (molar sum of nicotine plus five major metabolites) did not change significantly when switching to the cigarettes with the other filter type. Urinary excretion rates of 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (metabolite of crotonaldehyde), monohydroxybutenylmercapturic acid (metabolite of 1,3-butadiene), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (metabolite of benzene) were significantly lower when smoking CC compared to CA filter tipped cigarettes. The reduction in amount of 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (metabolite of acrolein) was of borderline significance. Other mercapturic acids and thioethers (the latter is a summary parameter that indicates the exposure to electrophilic compounds) were not or were only slightly reduced upon smoking CC filter tipped cigarettes. We conclude that smoking CC filter tipped cigarettes does not change the uptake of carbon monoxide and nicotine when compared to CA filter tipped cigarettes with similar tar and nicotine yields, but significantly reduces the exposure to toxicologically relevant smoke constituents such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and benzene.

  7. Determination of hydrogen cyanide concentration in mainstream smoke of tobacco products by polarography.

    PubMed

    Mahernia, Shabnam; Amanlou, Arash; Kiaee, Gita; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    There has been a worldwide concern for the health risks of cigarette smoking and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) considered as one of the hazardous tobacco compounds which is needed to be determined in order to reduce the dose related to smoke disease risk. In this study, we prepare the experimental procedure to entrap the HCN from mainstream smoke of different brands of Tehran cigarette, through simulating human inhalation and determine its concentration applying polarography. The HCN level of the 50 commonly consumed tobacco products (47 cigarettes and 3 cigars) obtained from local store is ranged between 17.56 ± 1.02 and 1553.98 ± 0.56 μg per stick, this acquired amount is more than FDA approval (10 μg per stick), so the harmful effects of smoking is indicative. The comparative study of the results shows that the price and the weight of each product do not indicate HCN level. As can be seen, R(2) value which is a statistical measure of how close the data are to the fitted regression line is low (R(2) < 0.2). So it should not be deceived by names such as ultra light or infinite gravity to suck, because this names or the price haven(')t effect on the amount of HCN and its destructive effects.

  8. Association between Peer Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Smoking among Adolescent Nonsmokers: A National Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and peer cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 65,753 nonsmokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. A total of 3.8% of the Korean adolescents were ‘ever e-cigarette’ users and 1.2% were current users. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for current and ever e-cigarette use compared to those whose closest friends were non-smokers ranged from 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82–2.30) to 5.50 (95% CI, 4.77–6.34), and from 2.23 (95% CI, 1.77–2.81) to 7.82 (95% CI, 5.97–10.25) for those who had ‘some’ close friends to ‘most/all’ friends who smoked, respectively. The slopes of the adjusted ORs for e-cigarette use in ‘never smokers’ were more than twice as steep as those in ‘former smokers’, showing a significant interaction effect between the proportion of smoking closest friends and cigarette smoking status (never or former smokers) (p<0.001 for interaction). Peer cigarette smoking had a significant association with e-cigarette use in adolescent nonsmokers, and this association was greater on never smokers than former smokers. PMID:27695093

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  10. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  11. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. Methods. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. Results. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends’ cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Conclusions. Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking. PMID:26066954

  12. Differential effects of cigarette price changes on adult smoking behaviours.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Chaloupka, Frank J; Luke, Douglas A; Waterman, Brian; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-03-01

    Raising cigarette prices through taxation is an important policy approach to reduce smoking. Yet, cigarette price increases may not be equally effective in all subpopulations of smokers. To examine differing effects of state cigarette price changes with individual changes in smoking among smokers of different intensity levels. Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults originally interviewed in 2001-2002 (Wave 1) and re-interviewed in 2004-2005 (Wave 2): 34 653 were re-interviewed in Wave 2, and 7068 smokers defined at Wave 1 were included in our study. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to assess whether the effects of changes in state cigarette prices on changes in daily smoking behaviour differed by level of daily smoking. In the multivariable model, there was a significant interaction between change in price per pack of cigarettes from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p=0.044). The more cigarettes smoked per day at baseline, the more responsive the smokers were to increases in price per pack of cigarettes (ie, number of cigarettes smoked per day was reduced in response to price increases). Our findings that heavier smokers successfully and substantially reduced their cigarette smoking behaviours in response to state cigarette price increases provide fresh insight to the evidence on the effectiveness of higher cigarette prices in reducing smoking.

  13. UHPLC separation with MS analysis for eight carbonyl compounds in mainstream tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Miller, John H; Gardner, William P; Gonzalez, Ricardo R

    2010-01-01

    A method to quantify eight carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke is presented using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The combination of UHPLC and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) dramatically reduces analysis times as compared to the current in-house high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. In addition, improved detector selectivity and peak resolution are observed. Sample analysis times are reduced from 47 min with HPLC-UV to less than 5 min using this improved method. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, atmospheric pressure photo ionization, and electrospray ionization are directly compared to evaluate ionization potential and linear response range for the carbonyl 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives. Smoke extracts from three standard smoking protocols are analyzed by both UHPLC-MS and HPLC-UV for method comparison purposes.

  14. Cigarette smoke radioactivity and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; White, Celia; Sayre, James; Norman, Amos

    2012-01-01

    To determine the tobacco industry's policy and action with respect to radioactive polonium 210 ((210)Po) in cigarette smoke and to assess the long-term risk of lung cancer caused by alpha particle deposits in the lungs of regular smokers. Analysis of major tobacco industries' internal secret documents on cigarette radioactivity made available online by the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. The documents show that the industry was well aware of the presence of a radioactive substance in tobacco as early as 1959. Furthermore, the industry was not only cognizant of the potential "cancerous growth" in the lungs of regular smokers but also did quantitative radiobiological calculations to estimate the long-term (25 years) lung radiation absorption dose (rad) of ionizing alpha particles emitted from the cigarette smoke. Our own calculations of lung rad of alpha particles match closely the rad estimated by the industry. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the industry's and our estimate of long-term lung rad of alpha particles causes 120-138 lung cancer deaths per year per 1,000 regular smokers. Acid wash was discovered in 1980 to be highly effectively in removing (210)Po from the tobacco leaves; however, the industry avoided its use for concerns that acid media would ionize nicotine converting it into a poorly absorbable form into the brain of smokers thus depriving them of the much sought after instant "nicotine kick" sensation. The evidence of lung cancer risk caused by cigarette smoke radioactivity is compelling enough to warrant its removal.

  15. Exposure of bronchial epithelial cells to whole cigarette smoke: assessment of cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jeremy; Kluss, Bruno; Richter, Audrey; Massey, Eian

    2005-06-01

    Cigarette smoke is composed of approximately 5% particulate phase and 95% vapour phase by weight. However, routine in vitro toxicological testing of smoke normally only measures the activity of the particulate phase. This study describes a new system for exposing cells at an air-liquid interface to serial dilutions of gaseous smoke. Confluent monolayers of NCI-H292 human lung epithelial cells on semipermeable membranes were placed in a purpose-designed Perspex chamber at an air-liquid interface. The cells were exposed to dilute whole mainstream cigarette smoke for 30 minutes, followed by a 20-hour recovery period. Firstly, high and low delivery cigarettes were compared, and cytotoxicity was determined by using the neutral red uptake assay. Clear differential cytotoxic responses were observed with the two cigarette types, which correlated positively with the concentrations of components in smoke, and particularly compounds in the vapour phase, such as aldehydes. Secondly, low doses of smoke were found to up-regulate mRNA levels of the secreted mucin, MUC5AC, and to stimulate the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and matrix-metalloprotease-1, but had no effect on growth-related oncogene alpha. This system will facilitate further investigations into the toxicological mechanisms of cigarette smoke components, and may be useful for studying other gaseous mixtures or aerosols.

  16. Cigarette smoke induces methylation of the tumor suppressor gene NISCH

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, Kimberly Laskie; Michalidi, Christina; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Hoque, Mohammad O.; Greenberg, Alissa; Rom, William; Sidransky, David

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified a putative tumor suppressor gene, NISCH, whose promoter is methylated in lung tumor tissue as well as in plasma obtained from lung cancer patients. NISCH was observed to be more frequently methylated in smoker lung cancer patients than in non-smoker lung cancer patients. Here, we investigated the effect of tobacco smoke exposure on methylation of the NISCH gene. We tested methylation of NISCH after oral keratinocytes were exposed to mainstream and side stream cigarette smoke extract in culture. Methylation of the promoter region of the NISCH gene was also evaluated in plasma obtained from lifetime non-smokers and light smokers (< 20 pack/year), with and without lung tumors, and heavy smokers (20+ pack/year) without disease. Promoter methylation of NISCH was tested by quantitative fluorogenic real-time PCR in all samples. Promoter methylation of NISCH occurred after exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke as well as to side stream tobacco smoke in normal oral keratinocyte cell lines. NISCH methylation was also detected in 68% of high-risk, heavy smokers without detectable tumors. Interestingly, in light smokers, NISCH methylation was present in 69% of patients with lung cancer and absent in those without disease. Our pilot study indicates that tobacco smoke induces methylation changes in the NISCH gene promoter before any detectable cancer. Methylation of the NISCH gene was also found in lung cancer patients’ plasma samples. After confirming these findings in longitudinally collected plasma samples from high-risk populations (such as heavy smokers), examining patients for hypermethylation of the NISCH gene may aid in identifying those who should undergo additional screening for lung cancer. PMID:23503203

  17. Psychiatric aspects of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Levine, D J; Johnson, R W

    1985-01-01

    Smoking has been viewed in divergent ways throughout history. While for some cultures it has been considered a crime, for others it has been invested with magical powers and even medicinal potential. In our century, society has come to realize the health risks associated with smoking. This has led to controversies between government and the tobacco industry as well as between physician and patient. In spite of their knowledge of its deadly consequences, many individuals are unable to stop smoking. The tenacity of this habit can be explained in terms of the various psychological motivations for smoking in combination with the physiologic addiction to nicotine. While some people are able to stop the habit, many relapse in spite of a variety of quitting methods. These range from the doctor's advice to stop, education programs, group and individual psychotherapies, behavioral techniques, hypnosis, and the use of nicotine gum. With a growing understanding of what distinguishes categories of smokers and with a new appreciation for the role of nicotine in addiction to smoking, more effective antismoking strategies can be fashioned to meet the specific needs of the potential quitter.

  18. Cigarette smoking and health. American Thoracic Society.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    Cigarette smoking remains the primary cause of preventable death and morbidity in the United States. Smoking causes lung cancer, COPD, and CHD and contributes significantly to mortality from other conditions such as stroke. Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes low birthweight and perinatal mortality, and it may have lasting impact on the child's physical and cognitive growth. Passive exposure to ETS causes lung cancer and poses particular danger to the respiratory health of young children. Smoking cessation strategies are important, but the should be supplemented by community and policy-level interventions. Workplace or community smoking bans, statewide taxes on tobacco, and antismoking media campaigns may be effective adjuncts to individual cessation strategies. These strategies may be an even more important disincentive to smoking initiation. The expanding horizon of health consequences of smoking and its costs to American society should again challenge public health agencies to develop and implement effective strategies to prevent smoking acquisition by young people. These health effects should also motivate health professionals in other countries where smoking prevalence is increasing, rather than decreasing, to initiate more effective efforts to reverse this trend and minimize the excess morbidity and death that accompany this dangerous habit.

  19. Flavored Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2016-12-01

    Flavored electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are not prohibited in the United States, and e-cigarette flavors proliferate on the market. This study sought to examine flavored e-cigarette use and its association with smoking among youth. Estimates of flavored e-cigarette use from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey were investigated. A logistic regression model was used to assess whether flavored e-cigarette use was associated with (1) intention to initiate cigarette use among never-smoking youth (n = 16 471), (2) intention to quit tobacco use among current-smoking youth (n = 1338), and (3) perception of tobacco's danger among all respondents (n = 21 491). A total of 2017 respondents reported using e-cigarettes in the last 30 days, of whom 1228 (60.9%) reported using flavored e-cigarettes. Among never-smoking youth, 55.6% (288) of current e-cigarette users reported using flavored e-cigarettes. Among current smokers, 68.4% (495) of current e-cigarette users reported using flavored e-cigarettes. Compared with not using e-cigarettes in the past 30 days, using flavored e-cigarettes was associated with higher odds of intention to initiate cigarette use among never-smoking youth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.7; P < .0001), lower odds of intention to quit tobacco use among current-smoking youth (aOR = 0.6; P = .006), and a lower prevalence of perception of tobacco's danger among all respondents (aOR = 0.5; P < .0001). Flavored e-cigarette use is associated with increased risks of smoking among youth. Comprehensive tobacco control and prevention strategies that address flavored e-cigarette products are critically needed to reduce tobacco use among youth. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. [E-cigarette use in university students and its relationship to cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Rakotozandry, T; Stenger, N; Burel, C; Penna, L; Ramadour, M; Disdier, P; Charpin, D

    2016-03-01

    There is concern that e-cigarette use could be a risk factor for subsequent cigarette smoking. This survey included a group of 1220 students at Aix-Marseille University who attended a check-up visit and volunteered to participate to the survey. They answered a standardized questionnaire relating to e-cigarette use, smoking habits and the relationship between both habits. Mean age of participants was 19.9 years and 56% of them were female. All students invited to the check-up examination attended and agreed to participate in the survey. 13.3% of students answered they had already used e-cigarettes, a higher proportion of boys (17.5%) than girls (10.0%), starting at a mean age equal to 19.2 years. Forty-six percent of them had already smoked cigarettes, more girls (55.0%) than boys (45.0%). Among current cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use had induced giving up smoking in 12.6% and a decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked in 30.1%. Twenty percent said they begun to smoke cigarettes after using e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is much less prevalent than smoking conventional tobacco cigarettes. There is a strong link between both. E-cigarette use had allowed a cessation or reduction in tobacco smoking in half of users. E-cigarette users may go on to start tobacco smoking but prospective surveys are needed to know how this will evolve over time. E-cigarette use could also be a means to prevent or postpone cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A.

    1997-09-01

    Formaldehdye is considered a hazardous air pollutant with numerous sources that include environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). With the increasing interest regarding ETS and public health the measurement of formaldehyde readily lends itself to a laboratory experiment comparing methods of analysis. This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode). Reasonable agreement among the methods was obtained by lab demonstrators with spike recoveries yielding 94.7 + 6.8 (n=5) and 89.2 (n = 4) % for NPD and FPD, respectively while HPLC spiked recoveries were 83.6 + 3.2 (n = 5) %; mean class spike recoveries ranged from 80-100%. Student results (in mg/cigarette) from smoke samples were similar to literature values with 163.2 + 69.2 (n = 7) and 149.4 (n = 7) % for NPD and FPD, respectively; the HPLC result was significantly lower at 45.1 + 23.7(n = 7) with losses presumably due to hydrazone precipitating from the smoke extracted solution. Students particularly benefited from the "real world" nature of the analysis and the experience evaluating disparate methods of determining a common analyte.

  2. Cigarette Smoking and Pancreatic Cancer Survival.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chen; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Babic, Ana; Clish, Clary B; Kraft, Peter; Bao, Ying; Qian, Zhi Rong; Rubinson, Douglas A; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ogino, Shuji; Stampfer, Meir J; Gaziano, John Michael; Sesso, Howard D; Cochrane, Barbara B; Manson, JoAnn E; Fuchs, Charles S; Wolpin, Brian M

    2017-03-30

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated with increased incidence of pancreatic cancer. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the association of smoking with patient survival. Patients and Methods We analyzed survival by smoking status among 1,037 patients from two large US prospective cohort studies diagnosed from 1986 to 2013. Among 485 patients from four prospective US cohorts, we also evaluated survival by prediagnostic circulating levels of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine that is proportional to tobacco smoke exposure. On the basis of prediagnosis cotinine levels, we classified patients as nonsmokers (< 3.1 ng/mL), light smokers (3.1-20.9 ng/mL), or heavy smokers (≥ 21.0 ng/mL). We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for death by using Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes status, diagnosis year, and cancer stage. Results The multivariable-adjusted HR for death was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.69) comparing current smokers with never smokers ( P = .003). A statistically significant negative trend in survival was observed for increasing pack-years of smoking ( Ptrend = .008), with HR for death of 1.49 (95% CI, 1.05 to 2.10) for > 60 pack-years of smoking versus never smoking. Survival among former smokers was similar to that for never smokers, regardless of time since quitting. Heavy smokers defined by prediagnostic circulating cotinine levels had a multivariable-adjusted HR for death of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.23 to 2.51) compared with nonsmokers. Among patients with circulating cotinine levels measured within 5 years before diagnosis, heavy smokers had a multivariable-adjusted HR for death of 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24 to 4.92) compared with nonsmokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking was associated with a reduction in survival among patients with pancreatic cancer.

  3. How does electronic cigarette access affect adolescent smoking?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Abigail S

    2015-12-01

    Understanding electronic cigarettes' effect on tobacco smoking is a central economic and policy issue. This paper examines the causal impact of e-cigarette access on conventional cigarette use by adolescents. Regression analyses consider how state bans on e-cigarette sales to minors influence smoking rates among 12 to 17 year olds. Such bans yield a statistically significant 0.9 percentage point increase in recent smoking in this age group, relative to states without such bans. Results are robust to multiple specifications as well as several falsification and placebo checks. This effect is both consistent with e-cigarette access reducing smoking among minors, and large: banning electronic cigarette sales to minors counteracts 70 percent of the downward pre-trend in teen cigarette smoking for a given two-year period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cigarette Smoking among Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juon, Hee-Soon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines prevalence of cigarette smoking and explores its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45 percent. Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Perceived peer use, academic stress, grade, and type of school were associated with…

  5. Chemical analysis of smoke of Indian cigarettes, bidis and other indigenous forms of smoking--levels of steam-volatile phenol, hydrogen cyanide and benzo(a)pyrene.

    PubMed

    Pakhale, S S; Jayant, K; Bhide, S V

    1990-01-01

    Levels of steam-volatile phenol, hydrogen cyanide and benzo(a)pyrene in various types of tobacco smoking products marketed in the country have been determined for the first time. Steam-volatile phenol levels in six popular brands of Indian cigarettes varied from 118 to 226 micrograms, and in six popular brands of bidis, from 129 to 273 micrograms. Cheroot and cigarillos yielded 400 micrograms and 333 micrograms steam-volatile phenol respectively. The hydrogen cyanide levels in the mainstream smoke of five popular brands of Indian cigarettes varied from 366 to 638 micrograms and in the mainstream smoke of four popular brands of bidis from 688 to 904 micrograms. Cheroot and cigarillos yielded 588 micrograms and 1119 micrograms hydrogen cyanide respectively. The values of benzo(a)pyrene content in Indian cigarettes varied from 85 to 114 ng and in bidis from 108 to 144 ng. Herbal bidi and cheroot had 1315 ng and 2519 ng benzo(a)pyrene respectively. Cigarettes were smoked as per international standard smoking conditions and the levels of noxious agent were found to be higher than in currently marketed western cigarettes. However, these levels in all the indigenous products including bidis cannot be directly compared with those of cigarettes as they were smoked under modified conditions.

  6. Using E-Cigarettes in the Home to Reduce Smoking and Secondhand Smoke: Disadvantaged Parents' Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are subject to considerable public health debate. Most public health experts agree that for smokers who find it particularly challenging to quit, e-cigarettes may reduce harm. E-cigarette use in the home may also reduce children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, although e-cigarette vapour may pose risks. This…

  7. Iron pentacarbonyl detection limits in the cigarette smoke matrix using FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Milton E.; Plunkett, Susan E.; Harward, Charles N.

    2005-11-01

    Endogenous metals present in tobacco from agricultural practices have been purported to generate metal carbonyls in cigarette smoke. Transition metal catalysts, such as iron oxide, have been investigated for the reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) in cigarette smoke. These studies motivated the development of an analytical method to determine if iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO) 5] is present in mainstream smoke from cigarette models having cigarette paper made with iron oxide. An FT-IR puff-by-puff method was developed and the detection limit was determined using two primary reference spectra from different sources to estimate the amount of Fe(CO) 5 present in a high-pressure steel cylinder of CO. We do not detect Fe(CO) 5 in a single 35 mL puff from reference cigarettes or from those cigarette models having cigarette paper made with iron oxide, with a 30-ppbV limit of detection (LOD). Also, it was shown that a filter containing activated carbon would remove Fe(CO) 5.

  8. Comparison of Biological Responses in Rats Under Various Cigarette Smoke Exposure Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuura, Daiki; Nishino, Tomoki; Lee, K Monica; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    A variety of exposure regimens of cigarette smoke have been used in animal models of lung diseases. In this study, we compared biological responses of smoke exposure in rats, using different smoke concentrations (wet total particulate matter [WTPM]), daily exposure durations, and total days of exposure. As a range-finding acute study, we first compared pulmonary responses between SD and F344 strains after a single nose-only exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke or LPS. Secondly, F344 rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 or 13 weeks under the comparable daily exposure dose (WTPM concentration x daily exposure duration; according to Haber’s rule) but at a different WTPM concentration or daily exposure duration. Blood carboxylhemoglobin was increased linearly to the WTPM concentration, while urinary nicotine plus cotinine value was higher for the longer daily exposure than the corresponding shorter exposure groups. Gamma glutamyl transferase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was increased dose dependently after 2 and 13 weeks of cigarette smoke exposure, while the neutrophil content in BALF was not increased notably. Smoke-exposed groups showed reduced body weight gain and increased relative lung and heart weights. While BALF parameters and the relative lung weights suggest pulmonary responses, histopathological examination showed epithelial lesions mainly in the upper respiratory organs (nose and larynx). Collectively, the results indicate that, under the employed study design, the equivalent daily exposure dose (exposure concentration x duration) induces equivalent pulmonary responses in rats. PMID:23914058

  9. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking among middle and high school e-cigarette users in Canada.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Baskerville, Neill Bruce; Foley, Kristie

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing concern that the historic reductions in tobacco consumption witnessed in the past decades may be undermined by the rapid increase in e-cigarette use. This study examined the association between e-cigarette use and future intention to smoke cigarettes among middle and high school students who had never smoked cigarettes. Data were drawn from the 2014-2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (n=25,637). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between e-cigarette use and susceptibility to cigarette smoking. In addition, an inverse probability of treatment weighted regression adjustment method (doubly robust estimator), which models both the susceptibility to smoking and the probability of e-cigarette use, was conducted. About 10% of the students had ever tried an e-cigarette. There were higher rates of ever e-cigarette use among students in grades 10-12 (12.5%) than those in grades 7-9 (7.3%). Students who had ever tried an e-cigarette had higher odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio=2.16, 95% confidence interval=1.80-2.58) compared to those that had never tried an e-cigarette. Current use of an e-cigarette was associated with higher odds of smoking susceptibility (adjusted odds ratio=2.02, 95% confidence interval=1.43-2.84). Similar results were obtained from the doubly robust estimation. Among students who had never smoked cigarettes, e-cigarette use was associated with a higher susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nicotine Replacement, Topography, and Smoking Phenotypes of E-cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Kaufmann, Amanda; Blazekovic, Sonja; Leone, Frank; Benowitz, Neal L.; Schnoll, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the degree of nicotine replacement across first-generation e-cigarette brands, how e-cigarettes are used, and if there is variation across brands in relevant smoking phenotypes. The objective of this project was to collect data that are critical to better understanding, use, and exposure when using e-cigarettes, which may then inform clinical trials and tobacco regulatory policy. Methods Twenty-eight cigarette smokers were randomized to use one of 5 popular brands of e-cigarettes for a 10-day study. Day 1 (own cigarette brand) data established baseline levels for cotinine, carbon monoxide (CO), topography, cigarette liking, withdrawal, and craving. Participants returned on Days 5 and 10 to reassess these measures while exclusively using e-cigarettes. Results Compared to cigarette smoking, e-cigarettes provided significantly lower nicotine levels (25%-50%), reduced CO exposure, and lower ratings of liking (p < .05). Topography significantly differed between cigarette and e-cigarette sessions (p < .05). All brands significantly reduced withdrawal and craving (p < .05). There were no significant brand differences in outcome measures associated with exposure or use. Conclusions E-cigarettes are not liked as much as cigarettes, provide significantly lower nicotine replacement, reduce CO exposure, and mitigate withdrawal and craving. The patterns of use significantly differ compared to cigarette smoking. PMID:27942543

  11. Cigarette smoking and lifetime medical expenditures.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, T A

    1992-01-01

    The cumulative impact of excess medical care required by smokers at all ages while alive outweighs shorter life expectancy, and smokers incur higher expenditures for medical care over their lifetimes than never-smokers. This accords with the findings by Manning et al. (1989) of positive lifetime medical care costs per pack of cigarettes, but disagrees with the results found by Leu and Schaub (1983, 1985) for Swiss males. The contradictory conclusions of the analyses are undoubtedly due to a large difference in the amount of medical care used by smokers relative to neversmokers in the United States and Swiss data. Excess expenditures increase with the amount smoked among males and females so that lifetime medical costs of male heavy smokers are 47 percent higher than for neversmokers when discounted at 3 percent. Each year more than one million young people start to smoke and add an extra $9 to $10 billion (in 1990 dollars discounted at 3 percent) to the nation's health care bill over their lifetimes. Given the smoking behavior, medical care utilization and costs of care, and population size embedded in the data used in this analysis, I have concluded that in the first five years from baseline the population of smokers aged 25 and over incurs excess medical expenditures totaling $187 billion, which is $2,324 per smoker. The excess cost of medical care associated with cigarette smoking is 18 percent of expenditures for hospital care, physicians' services, and nursing-home care required by all persons (smokers and neversmokers) aged 25 and over. In the absence of large and rapid changes in the values of the underlying parameters, $187 billion, 18 percent of medical expenditures, can be taken as the premium currently being paid every five years to provide medical care for the excess disease suffered by smokers. Even without the addition of any new smokers, the present value of the bill that will be incurred for excess medical care required by the current population of

  12. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  13. Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke exposure before pregnancy on diabetic rats and their offspring development. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and cigarette smoke exposure was conducted by mainstream smoke generated by a mechanical smoking device and delivered into a chamber. Diabetic female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in four experimental groups (n minimum = 13/group): nondiabetic (ND) and diabetic rats exposed to filtered air (D), diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and into the pregnancy period (DS) and diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy period (DSPP). At day 21 of pregnancy, rats were killed for maternal biochemical determination and reproductive outcomes. Results The association of diabetes and cigarette smoke in DSPP group caused altered glycemia at term, reduced number of implantation and live fetuses, decreased litter and maternal weight, increased pre and postimplantation loss rates, reduced triglyceride and VLDL-c concentrations, increased levels of thiol groups and MDA. Besides, these dams presented increased SOD and GSH-Px activities. However, the increased antioxidant status was not sufficient to prevent the lipid peroxidation observed in these animals. Conclusion Despite the benefits stemming from smoking interruption during the pregnancy of diabetic rats, such improvement was insufficient to avoid metabolic alterations and provide an adequate intrauterine environment for embryofetal development. Therefore, these results suggest that it is necessary to cease smoking extensive time before planning pregnancy, since stopping smoking only when pregnancy is detected may not contribute effectively to fully adequate embryofetal development. PMID:21851636

  14. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    PubMed

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking.

  15. E-Cigarettes Lead to 'Real' Smoking by Teens: Review

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166899.html E-Cigarettes Lead to 'Real' Smoking by Teens: Review But one ... at the highest risk for smoking," said study lead author Samir Soneji. "This increased risk may counter ...

  16. Cigarette access and pupil smoking rates: a circular relationship?

    PubMed

    Turner, Katrina M; Gordon, Jacki; Young, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Adolescents obtain cigarettes from both commercial and social sources. While the relationship between commercial access and adolescent smoking has been researched, no one has considered in detail whether rates of peer smoking affect cigarette availability. In two relatively deprived Scottish schools that differed in their pupil smoking rates, we assess pupil access to cigarettes. 896 13 and 15 year olds were surveyed, and 25 single-sex discussion groups held with a sub-sample of the 13 year olds. Smokers in both schools obtained cigarettes from shops, food vans and other pupils. However, pupils in the 'high' smoking school perceived greater access to both commercial and social sources, and had access to an active 'peer market'. These findings suggest that variations in cigarette access may contribute to school differences in pupil smoking rates, and that the relationship between access and adolescent smoking is circular, with greater availability increasing rates, and higher rates enhancing access.

  17. Composition and emissions of VOCs in main- and side-stream smoke of research cigarettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Simone M.; Batterman, S. A.; Jia, Chunrong

    It is well known that mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke contains a vast number of chemical substances. Previous studies have emphasized SS smoke rather than MS smoke to which smokers are exposed, and most have used chamber tests that have several disadvantages such as wall losses. Emissions from standard research cigarettes have been measured, but relatively few constituents have been reported, and only the 1R4F (low nicotine) cigarette type has been tested. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of total, MS and SS smoke emissions for the 1R5F (ultra low nicotine), 2R4F (low nicotine), and 1R3F (standard nicotine) research cigarettes research cigarettes, including emission factors for a number of toxic compounds (e.g., benzene) and tobacco smoke tracers (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl furan). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) are quantified using a dynamic dilution emission measurement system that is shown to produce accurate, rapid and reproducible results for over 30 VOCs and PM. SS and MS emissions were accurately apportioned based on a mass balance of total emissions. As expected, SS emissions greatly exceeded MS emissions. The ultra low nicotine cigarette had lower emissions of most VOCs compared to low and standard nicotine cigarettes, which had similar emissions. Across the three types of cigarettes, emissions of benzene (296-535 μg cig -1), toluene (541-1003 μg cig -1), styrene (90-162 μg cig -1), 2-dimethyl furan (71-244 μg cig -1), naphthalene (15-18 μg cig -1) and other VOCs were generally comparable to or somewhat higher than literature estimates using chamber tests.

  18. Forbidden Fruit and the Prediction of Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    SUSSMAN, STEVE; GRANA, RACHEL; POKHREL, PALLAV; ROHRBACH, LOUISE A.; SUN, PING

    2011-01-01

    The concept of “forbidden fruit” has been popularly associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in the US. However, only a few empirical studies have been conducted to investigate how this construct operates among adolescents. We examined the concurrent and prospective relationships between two related concepts of forbidden fruit and adolescent cigarette smoking behavior and intention. We found some support for forbidden fruit attitudes as concurrent and longitudinal predictors of smoking and intention to smoke. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20590380

  19. Native, discount, or premium brand cigarettes: what types of cigarettes are Canadian youth currently smoking?

    PubMed

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Burkhalter, Robin

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the brand distribution of premium, discount, and native cigarette brands and to identify the factors associated with smoking these brands among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth smokers. Data from 3,137 current smokers in Grades 9-12 participating in the 2008-2009 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine the prevalence and factors associated with different cigarette brand preferences. The most prevalent brand of cigarette smoked was premium cigarettes (44.7%), followed by discount cigarettes (33.7%), and to be native cigarettes (7.3%). There was significant variability in brand preference by province with the majority of youth in Atlantic Canada and Quebec smoking a discount brand of cigarettes and higher prevalence rates of native cigarette use in Ontario and Quebec. Respondents were more likely to smoke discount cigarettes if they were female, daily smokers, or if they only had $1-20 a week in spending money. Respondents were more likely to smoke native cigarettes if they were Aboriginal, heavier smokers, or if they reported having no weekly spending money. A significant proportion of students from Grade 9 to 12 in Canada smoke cigarettes that are more affordable than premium brands and it appears that the market share for these more affordable cigarette options has increased in recent years. Given that the price of cigarettes is an important determinant in youth smoking behavior, it is critical to develop and continue to enforce tobacco control strategies designed to eliminate access to cheaper sources of cigarettes among youth populations.

  20. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  1. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  2. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  3. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors.

    PubMed

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke.Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m(3) Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde.We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  4. Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and lead in smoke from tobacco products other than cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Guirguis, G; Kim, I S; Garbin, O; Fracchia, M; Flessel, C P; Kizer, K W; Book, S A; Warriner, T E

    1990-01-01

    Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and lead in mainstream smoke from cigars, roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette and pipe tobaccos were sampled to evaluate their potential health significance. Results with reference cigarettes were consistent with published values, providing support for the methodology employed. The emissions of benzene and BaP, expressed as mass emitted per gram of tobacco consumed, were similar for all products evaluated; for benzene, the mean values for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos were 156 +/- 52, 68 +/- 11, and 242 +/- 126 micrograms/g, respectively. Mean values for BaP were 42 +/- 7 and 48 +/- 4 ng/g for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco, respectively. Lead values were below the limit of reliable quantitation in all cases. The mean benzene concentrations in a puff ranged from 1 to 2 x 10(5) micrograms/m3 for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos. For BaP, the puff concentration averaged about 60 micrograms/m3 for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco. The results suggest that smoking cigars, pipes or RYO cigarettes leads to potential exposures which exceed the No Significant Risk levels of benzene and BaP set pursuant to California's Proposition 65. These tobacco products are now required to bear a health hazard warning when sold in California. We recommend that this be adopted as national policy. PMID:2327532

  5. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    PubMed

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  6. E-Cigarettes Not a Smoking Deterrent for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163191.html E-Cigarettes Not a Smoking Deterrent for Kids Study finds ' ... 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There's no evidence that e-cigarettes are driving down teen smoking -- and, in fact, ...

  7. Transient Compensatory Smoking in Response to Placebo Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, David A.; Heckman, Bryan W.; Blank, Melissa D.; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale To address the public health problems caused by smoking, researchers have suggested a gradual reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes. There remain concerns, however, about the potential for smokers to compensate for reductions in nicotine content by altering their smoking behavior. Such compensatory behaviors may negate any potential cessation and/or harm reduction benefits. Objective The purpose of this study was to quantify smoking behavior (e.g., puff number, volume, duration, inter-puff interval, and peak flow) in response to cigarettes varying only in nicotine content, administered repeatedly. Methods Sixty-seven dependent smokers participated in this two session, within-subject study. Moderate nicotine content and placebo cigarettes (Quest© brand) were administered in a double-blind and counterbalanced manner. Each session required 12-hours of tobacco abstinence, and included four ad lib smoking bouts of the condition-assigned cigarette with 40 minutes separating each bout. Results Placebo cigarettes produced increases in total puff volume and duration and decreases in total inter-puff interval relative to cigarettes with moderate nicotine content. Differences in total puff volume and duration generally dissipated across smoking bouts, with differences in total puff volume non-existent by the 3rd and 4th bouts. Conclusions Placebo cigarettes produce compensatory smoking during initial exposures; however, these effects appear to be short lived. These findings are consistent with previous work where smoking compensation has been observed in response to a single cigarette but not over several days of smoking. PMID:22427021

  8. Effects of electronic cigarette smoking on human health.

    PubMed

    Meo, S A; Al Asiri, S A

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarette smoking is gaining dramatic popularity and is steadily spreading among the adolescents, high income, urban population around the world. The aim of this study is to highlight the hazards of e-cigarette smoking on human health. In this study, we identified 38 published studies through a systematic database searches including ISI-web of science and pub-med. We searched the related literature by using the key words including Electronic cigarette, E-cigarette, E-vapers, incidence, hazards. Studies in which electronic cigarette smoking hazards was investigated were included in the study. No limitations on publication status, study design of publication were implemented. Finally we included 28 publications and remaining 10 were excluded. E-smoking can cause, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, choking, burn injuries, upper respiratory tract irritation, dry cough, dryness of the eyes and mucous membrane, release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators, allergic airway inflammation, decreased exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) synthesis in the lungs, change in bronchial gene expression and risk of lung cancer. Electronic cigarettes are swiftly promoted as an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking, although its use is highly controversial. Electronic cigarettes are not a smoking cessation product. Non-scientific claims about e-cigarettes are creating confusion in public perception about e-cigarette and people believe that e-cigarettes are safe and less addictive, but its use is unsafe and hazardous to human health. E-cigarette smoking should be regulated in the same way as traditional cigarettes and must be prohibited to children and adolescents.

  9. Smoking behavior of adolescents exposed to cigarette advertising.

    PubMed Central

    Botvin, G J; Goldberg, C J; Botvin, E M; Dusenbury, L

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between the exposure of adolescents in the seventh and eighth grades to cigarette advertising and their being smokers. A survey questionnaire given to 602 adolescents assessed their exposure to cigarette advertising and provided measures of their smoking behavior, demographic characteristics, and some psychosocial variables. The results indicated that exposure to cigarette advertising and having friends who smoked were predictive of current smoking status. Adolescents with high exposure to cigarette advertising were significantly more likely to be smokers, according to several measures of smoking behavior, than were those with low exposure to cigarette advertising. The findings extend previous research identifying factors that may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of smoking among adolescents. PMID:8464979

  10. Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effect of cigarette smoke on airway epithelial ion transport, the electrical properties and transepithelial Na and Cl fluxes were measured in canine tracheal epithelium. In vivo, the inhalation of the smoke from one cigarette acutely and reversibly decreased the electrical potential difference across the tracheal epithelium. In vitro, exposure of the mucosal surface of the epithelium to cigarette smoke decreased the short circuit current and transepithelial resistance. The decrease in short circuit current was due to an inhibition of the rate of Cl secretion with minimal effect on the rate of Na absorption. The effect of cigarette smoke was reversible, was not observed upon exposure of the submucosal surface to smoke, and was most pronounced when secretion was stimulated. The particulate phase of smoke was largely responsible for the inhibitory effect, since filtering the smoke minimized the effect. The effect of cigarette smoke was not prevented by addition of antioxidants to the bathing solutions, suggesting that the inhibition of Cl secretion cannot be entirely attributed to an oxidant mechanism. These results indicate that cigarette smoke acutely inhibits active ion transport by tracheal epithelium, both in vivo and in vitro. This effect may explain, in part, both the abnormal mucociliary clearance and the airway disease observed in cigarette smokers.

  11. Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe use and cigarette smoking must be compared directly. The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=31; M=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (M=5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (M=9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes, or a single cigarette. Outcome measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session's end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2009. On average, CO increased by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe use (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette smoking (SD=1.8), while peak waterpipe COHb levels (M=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for cigarette smoking (M=1.3%, SD=0.5; p's<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (waterpipe M=10.2 ng/mL, SD=7.0; cigarette M=10.6 ng/mL, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at 5-minute intervals during the waterpipe session (p's<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 L for waterpipe use as compared to 1.0 L for cigarette smoking (p<0.001). Relative to cigarette smoking, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco-smoking methods likely share

  12. The use of a novel tobacco-substitute sheet and smoke dilution to reduce toxicant yields in cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    McAdam, K G; Gregg, E O; Liu, C; Dittrich, D J; Duke, M G; Proctor, C J

    2011-08-01

    The Institute of Medicine encouraged the pursuit and development of potential reduced-exposure products, tobacco products that substantially reduce exposure to one or more tobacco toxicants and can reasonably be expected to reduce the risk of one or more specific diseases or other adverse health effects. One approach to reducing smoke toxicant yields is to dilute the smoke with glycerol. We report chemical, biological and human exposure data related to experimental cigarettes containing up to 60% of a novel glycerol containing "tobacco-substitute" sheet. Analysis of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes showed reductions in yields of most measured constituents, other than some volatile species. In vitro toxicological tests showed reductions in the activity of smoke particulates in proportion to their glycerol content. Human exposure to nicotine was reduced by a mean of 18% as determined by filter studies and by 14% using 24h urinary biomarker analysis. Smoke particulate exposures were reduced by a mean of 29% in filter studies and NNK exposure by similar amounts based on urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol concentrations. These results show that reducing exposure to some smoke toxicants is possible using a tobacco-substitute sheet, although some smoke toxicants, and the sensory attributes of the smoke, remain as technical challenges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Symbolic Interaction Approach to Cigarette Smoking: Smoking Frequency and the Desire to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzes, Donald C.; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person’s desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking. PMID:23869112

  14. Volatile aldehydes in the mainstream smoke of the narghile waterpipe

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, M. Al; Shihadeh, A.; Saliba, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about the quality and quantity of toxicants yielded by the narghile, a subject of increasing importance as this method of tobacco smoking has become popular all over the world. This study is concerned with the identification and quantification of volatile aldehydes in the gas and particle phases of mainstream narghile smoke generated using a popular type of flavored ma’ssel tobacco mixture. These compounds were analyzed based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency compendium method TO-11A. Using a standardized smoking machine protocol consisting of 171 puffs, 2.6 s puff duration and 17 s inter puff interval, the average yields of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde and methacrolein were 630, 2520, 892, 403, and 106 μg/smoking session, respectively. The results showed that none of the aldehydes identified in this study are found in the particulate phase of the smoke, except for formaldehyde for which the partitioning coefficient was estimated as Kp = 3.3 × 10-8 μg/m3. Given previously reported lung absorption fractions of circa 90% for volatile aldehydes, the yields measured in this study are sufficient to induce various diseases depending on the extent of exposure, and on the breathing patterns of the smokers. PMID:18834915

  15. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes.

  16. A comparison of in vitro toxicities of cigarette smoke condensate from Eclipse cigarettes and four commercially available ultra low-"tar" cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Foy, J W D; Bombick, B R; Bombick, D W; Doolittle, D J; Mosberg, A T; Swauger, J E

    2004-02-01

    Eclipse is a cigarette that primarily heats rather than burns tobacco. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJRT) has previously reported the results of in vitro toxicity studies comparing Eclipse with University of Kentucky 1R5F and 1R4F reference cigarettes. To characterize the differences between Eclipse and very low yielding/ultra low-"tar" (vULT) tobacco-burning cigarettes, RJRT conducted a comparative evaluation of the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of mainstream cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from Eclipse and three vULT tobacco-burning cigarettes (Now 83 Box, Merit Ultima and Carlton Soft Pack) as well as the leading ultra low-"tar" (ULT) brandstyle (Marlboro Ultra Lights) under four smoking regimens: (1) FTC-35 ml puff volume every 60 s for a 2 s duration (35/60/2); (2) 50/30/2, 0% vents blocked; (3) Massachusetts-45/30/2, 50% vents blocked; (4) Canadian-55/30/2, 100% vents blocked. Ames testing indicated that Eclipse CSC was less (P<0.05) mutagenic than CSC from the four cigarettes under all smoking regimens when compared on a revertants per mg Total Particulate Matter (TPM) basis. When mutagenicity was calculated on a revertants per cigarette basis the mutagenicity of Eclipse CSC was lower (P<0.05) than the mutagenicity of Merit Ultima, Carlton Soft Pack, and Marlboro Ultra Lights, regardless of the puffing regimen. On a per cigarette basis, the calculated mutagenicity of Eclipse was higher (P<0.05) than Now 83 Box cigarettes in the FTC and 50/30/2 regimens but lower (P<0.05) in the Massachusetts and Canadian regimens. Eclipse CSC was less (P<0.05) cytotoxic as measured in the neutral red assay (based on EC(50) values-microg TPM/ml media) than the CSC from the four test cigarettes regardless of the regimen used. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the toxicity of CSC from Eclipse is significantly reduced relative to the activity of CSC from the tested vULT cigarettes and the Marlboro Ultra Lights.

  17. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-05-03

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86-2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I² = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  18. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  19. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  20. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  1. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    PubMed

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  2. Methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Vansickel, Andrea R.; Stoops, William W.; Glaser, Paul E. A.; Poole, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) is commonly prescribed for behavioral problems associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results of previous studies suggest that methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants without psychiatric diagnoses. Whether methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants diagnosed with ADHD is unknown. Objective In this within-subjects, repeated measures experiment, the acute effects of a range of doses of methylphenidate (10, 20, and 40 mg) and placebo were assessed in nine cigarette smokers who were not attempting to quit and met diagnostic criteria for ADHD but no other Axis I psychiatric disorders other than nicotine dependence. Methods Each dose of methylphenidate was tested once while placebo was tested twice. One hour after ingesting drug, participants were allowed to smoke ad libitum for 4 h. Measures of smoking included total cigarettes smoked, total puffs, and carbon monoxide levels. Snacks and decaffeinated drinks were available ad libitum; caloric intake during the 4-h smoking session was calculated. Results Methylphenidate increased the total number of cigarettes smoked, total number of puffs, and carbon monoxide levels. Methylphenidate decreased the number of food items consumed and caloric intake. Conclusions The results of this experiment suggest that acutely administered methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants with ADHD, which is concordant with findings from previous studies that tested healthy young adults. These data indicate that clinicians may need to consider non-stimulant options or counsel their patients before starting methylphenidate when managing ADHD-diagnosed individuals who smoke. PMID:21590284

  3. Methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vansickel, Andrea R; Stoops, William W; Glaser, Paul E A; Poole, Megan M; Rush, Craig R

    2011-11-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) is commonly prescribed for behavioral problems associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results of previous studies suggest that methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants without psychiatric diagnoses. Whether methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants diagnosed with ADHD is unknown. In this within-subjects, repeated measures experiment, the acute effects of a range of doses of methylphenidate (10, 20, and 40 mg) and placebo were assessed in nine cigarette smokers who were not attempting to quit and met diagnostic criteria for ADHD but no other Axis I psychiatric disorders other than nicotine dependence. Each dose of methylphenidate was tested once while placebo was tested twice. One hour after ingesting drug, participants were allowed to smoke ad libitum for 4 h. Measures of smoking included total cigarettes smoked, total puffs, and carbon monoxide levels. Snacks and decaffeinated drinks were available ad libitum; caloric intake during the 4-h smoking session was calculated. Methylphenidate increased the total number of cigarettes smoked, total number of puffs, and carbon monoxide levels. Methylphenidate decreased the number of food items consumed and caloric intake. The results of this experiment suggest that acutely administered methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants with ADHD, which is concordant with findings from previous studies that tested healthy young adults. These data indicate that clinicians may need to consider non-stimulant options or counsel their patients before starting methylphenidate when managing ADHD-diagnosed individuals who smoke.

  4. Ceramides mediate cigarette smoke-induced metabolic disruption in mice.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Mikayla O; Tippetts, Trevor S; Nelson, Michael B; Swensen, Adam C; Winden, Duane R; Hansen, Melissa E; Anderson, Madeline C; Johnson, Ian E; Porter, James P; Reynolds, Paul R; Bikman, Benjamin T

    2014-11-15

    Cigarette smoke exposure increases lung ceramide biosynthesis and alters metabolic function. We hypothesized that ceramides are released from the lung during cigarette smoke exposure and result in elevated skeletal muscle ceramide levels, resulting in insulin resistance and altered mitochondrial respiration. Employing cell and animal models, we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on muscle cell insulin signaling and mitochondrial respiration. Muscle cells were treated with conditioned medium from cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed lung cells, followed by analysis of ceramides and assessment of insulin signaling and mitochondrial function. Mice were exposed to daily cigarette smoke and a high-fat, high-sugar (HFHS) diet with myriocin injections to inhibit ceramide synthesis. Comparisons were conducted between these mice and control animals on standard diets in the absence of smoke exposure and myriocin injections. Muscle cells treated with CSE-exposed conditioned medium were completely unresponsive to insulin stimulation, and mitochondrial respiration was severely blunted. These effects were mitigated when lung cells were treated with the ceramide inhibitor myriocin prior to and during CSE exposure. In mice, daily cigarette smoke exposure and HFHS diet resulted in insulin resistance, which correlated with elevated ceramides. Although myriocin injection was protective against insulin resistance with either smoke or HFHS, it was insufficient to prevent insulin resistance with combined CS and HFHS. However, myriocin injection restored muscle mitochondrial respiration in all treatments. Ceramide inhibition prevents metabolic disruption in muscle cells with smoke exposure and may explain whole body insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

  5. CSEO – the Cigarette Smoke Exposure Ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past years, significant progress has been made to develop and use experimental settings for extensive data collection on tobacco smoke exposure and tobacco smoke exposure-associated diseases. Due to the growing number of such data, there is a need for domain-specific standard ontologies to facilitate the integration of tobacco exposure data. Results The CSEO (version 1.0) is composed of 20091 concepts. The ontology in its current form is able to capture a wide range of cigarette smoke exposure concepts within the knowledge domain of exposure science with a reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, it showed a promising performance when used to answer domain expert questions. The CSEO complies with standard upper-level ontologies and is freely accessible to the scientific community through a dedicated wiki at https://publicwiki-01.fraunhofer.de/CSEO-Wiki/index.php/Main_Page. Conclusions The CSEO has potential to become a widely used standard within the academic and industrial community. Mainly because of the emerging need of systems toxicology to controlled vocabularies and also the lack of suitable ontologies for this domain, the CSEO prepares the ground for integrative systems-based research in the exposure science. PMID:25093069

  6. Cigarette smoking effect on human cochlea responses

    PubMed Central

    Rogha, Mehrdad; Hashemi, Mostafa; Askari, Narges; Abtahi, Seyed Hamidreza; Sepehrnejad, Mahsa; Nilforoush, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is one of the most important risk factor in increasing of non-communicable disorders, especially chronic diseases such as cancer, stroke, heart and respiratory diseases. Cigarette smoking could damage the cochlea and causing hearing loss. The otoacoustic emission (OAE) is a source of information for determining cochlear responses to sound stimuli and how to change the response of the auditory system in some diseases. OAE test was sensitive to outer hair cells (OHCs) activity. Materials and Methods: In this study, tried to evaluate a hearing threshold of the smoker group versus non-smoker ones through pure tone audiometery, transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests. Results: The results indicated that significant decrement of 8000 Hz threshold, reduced DPOAE/TEOAE amplitude in the smoker group than non-smoker one (P < 0.05). DPOAE amplitudes decline reflects the cochlear damage caused by smoking. Conclusion: OAEs test was clinically non-invasive, accurate, and objective evaluation of the performance of cochlear OHCs. PMID:26380233

  7. Cigarette smoke and carbon monoxide do not have equivalent effects upon development of arteriosclerotic lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, A.; Butler, J.; Snyder, C.; Albert, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were performed to test whether exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke, without any diet modification, was sufficient to exacerbate arteriosclerotic lesion development in cockerels. Additionally, the experiments were designed to test whether any such effect could be attributed solely to carbon monoxide (CO) in the smoke. Three groups of cockerels (7/group) were exposed 5 days/week in standard inhalation chambers. Each day, one group (smoke) was exposed to smoke produced from the combustion of two packs of cigarettes. A second group (CO) was exposed to CO at levels equivalent to those produced during the combustion of two packs of cigarettes. A third group was sham-exposed. Following sacrifice, the abdominal aorta of each animal was cut into 5 mm segments and the extent of arteriosclerotic lesion development was measured. In smoke animals, compared to those in either of the other two groups, there were more aortic segments with measurable lesions present and the cross-sectional areas of these segments were greater. On a comparative basis, the smoke lesions were three times larger than in either of the other two groups, despite the fact that blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were the same in CO and smoke animals. The location of the lesions and their histological appearance were very similar to those previously described for spontaneous and carcinogen-associated lesions in the cockerel. These results demonstrate that as little as four months of daily exposure to cigarette smoke, in the absence of a cholesterol supplemented diet, can help accelerate arteriosclerotic lesion development. Further, this accelerated development cannot be attributed solely to CO in the smoke.

  8. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Inhaled Toxicants from Waterpipe and Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Mary V.; Weiss, Patricia M.; Shihadeh, Alan L.; Shensa, Ariel; Farley, Steven T.; Fine, Michael J.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Nayak, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging trend worldwide. To inform public health policy and educational programming, we systematically reviewed the biomedical literature to compute the inhaled smoke volume, nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide (CO) associated with a single WTS session and a single cigarette. Methods We searched seven biomedical bibliographic databases for controlled laboratory or natural environment studies designed to mimic human tobacco consumption. Included studies quantified the mainstream smoke of a single cigarette and/or single WTS session for smoke volume, nicotine, tar, and/or CO. We conducted meta-analyses to calculate summary estimates for the inhalation of each unique substance for each mode of tobacco consumption. We assessed between-study heterogeneity using chi-squared and I-squared statistics. Results Sufficient data from 17 studies were available to derive pooled estimates for inhalation of each exposure via each smoking method. Two researchers working independently abstracted measurement of smoke volume in liters, and nicotine, tar, and CO in milligrams. All numbers included in meta-analyses matched precisely between the two researchers (100% agreement, Cohen's k=1.00). Whereas one WTS session was associated with 74.1 liters of smoke inhalation (95% confidence interval [CI] 38.2, 110.0), one cigarette was associated with 0.6 liters of smoke (95% CI 0.5, 0.7). One WTS session was also associated with higher levels of nicotine, tar, and CO. Conclusions One WTS session consistently exposed users to larger smoke volumes and higher levels of tobacco toxicants compared with one cigarette. These computed estimates may be valuable to emphasize in prevention programming. PMID:26843673

  9. The composition of cigarette smoke: a retrospective, with emphasis on polycyclic components.

    PubMed

    Rodgman, A; Smith, C J; Perfetti, T A

    2000-10-01

    The difficulties encountered in extrapolating biological activity from cigarette smoke composition provide generally applicable lessons as they are representative of the problems encountered with other complex mixtures. Researchers attempting to assess risk are faced with attempting to interpret data from a number of areas including: tobacco science; smoke/aerosol chemistry specific to tobacco; sophisticated analytical chemistry applications and techniques for trapping, collecting, separating, and quantifying very specific compounds at nanogram to picogram levels; numerous biological testing methodologies; and animal models of tumors and carcinogenesis. Numerous hypotheses have been developed over the past five decades and tested with the technology of the day in attempts to interpret the biological activity of cigarette smoke in relation to the chemistry of this complex mixture. These hypotheses fall into several categories discussed in this review: mechanisms of pyrogenesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tobacco smoke; levels of PAHs in cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) and its tumorigenicity in mouse skin-painting experiments; control of PAH levels in MS; chemical indicators of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) tumorigenicity; control of levels of MS components partitioned between the vapor phase and particulate phase of MS; tumorigenic threshold limits of CSC and many of its components; tumorigenic aza-arenes in tobacco smoke; MS components reported to be ciliastatic to smokers' respiratory tract cilia; anticarcinogenic tobacco-smoke components. Of 52 hypotheses reviewed in this paper, 15 have excellent data supporting the hypothesis based on today's technology. The remaining 37 hypotheses, although originally plausible, have since become insupportable in light of new and contradictory data generated over the years. Such data were generated sometimes by the original authors of the hypotheses and sometimes by other investigators. The hypotheses

  10. Snuffing out cigarette sales and the smoking deaths epidemic.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Murray

    2007-06-15

    Smokers need new products and policies to escape smoking's risks. And the next generation needs policies that will better protect them from becoming smokers. Low-nitrosamine tobacco snuff (hereafter termed 'snuff') is 20 times less dangerous than cigarette smoking. Its sale as nasal snuff raises the question as to how long cigarettes, including cigars and pipe tobacco, should continue to be sold and allowed to hasten the deaths of 4000 New Zealanders annually. Oral snuff has helped to reduce smoking to unusually low levels in Swedish men, is much less dangerous than smoking, and does not cause lung or mouth cancer. Moreover, smokeless tobacco (which includes snuff) could reduce smoking-caused health inequity for Maori. Snuff can improve population health, and more so if more smokers switch to it. Continued bans on snuff are now regarded by some experts as unsound public policy. Added to the mountain of evidence against cigarettes, sufficient evidence now exists for Government to use snuff to create safer tobacco choices for smokers, end cigarette sales altogether, and thus end the cigarette smoking deaths epidemic--in which 200,000 New Zealanders have died so far. The New Zealand Government can: Fund media campaigns to inform smokers of their new choices, and to urge them to quit smoking. (The 2007 Budget commits an extra $11 million per year for 4 years, an excellent start.) Regulate for warnings on snuff cans stating that snuff is "addictive but much safer than smoking", and regulate imports to only permit reduced-risk low-nitrosamine products. Tax each class of tobacco products proportionate to the respective risks of each. (Tax cigarettes at 20 times the snuff rate, instead of at the same rate.) Legislate, to expand the Smoke-free Environments Act's aims to include ending the sale of cigarettes and ending smoking deaths--i.e: Allow oral snuff to compete with cigarettes for market share (and for the smoker's nicotine receptors). Reduce addiction to smoking, by

  11. A Wearable Sensor System for Monitoring Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Tiffany, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Available methods of smoking assessment (e.g., self-report, portable puff-topography instruments) do not permit the collection of accurate measures of smoking behavior while minimizing reactivity to the assessment procedure. This article suggests a new method for monitoring cigarette smoking based on a wearable sensor system (Personal Automatic Cigarette Tracker [PACT]) that is completely transparent to the end user and does not require any conscious effort to achieve reliable monitoring of smoking in free-living individuals. Method: The proposed sensor system consists of a respiratory inductance plethysmograph for monitoring of breathing and a hand gesture sensor for detecting a cigarette at the mouth. The wearable sensor system was tested in a laboratory study of 20 individuals who performed 12 different activities including cigarette smoking. Signal processing was applied to evaluate the uniqueness of breathing patterns and their correlation with hand gestures. Results: The results indicate that smoking manifests unique breathing patterns that are highly correlated with hand-to-mouth cigarette gestures and suggest that these signals can potentially be used to identify and characterize individual smoke inhalations. Conclusions: With the future development of signal processing and pattern-recognition methods, PACT can be used to automatically assess the frequency of smoking and inhalation patterns (such as depth of inhalation and smoke holding) throughout the day and provide an objective method of assessing the effectiveness of behavioral and pharmacological smoking interventions. PMID:24172124

  12. Menthol vs nonmenthol cigarettes: effects on smoking behavior.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, W J; Caskey, N H; Jarvik, M E; Gross, T M; Rosenblatt, M R; Carpenter, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine intraindividual differences in smoking behavior between smoking regular and mentholated cigarettes. METHODS. Healthy male smokers (n = 29) smoked either a regular or a mentholated cigarette in two separate sessions 1 week apart. Commercial brands with comparable tar, nicotine, and CO content were used. Smoking behavior was constrained by fixed 15-second interpuff intervals, but puff volume and number of puffs were unconstrained. RESULTS. When smoking the non-mentholated brand of cigarettes, participants smoked 22% more puffs and had 13% higher mean volumes per puff than they did when smoking the mentholated brand of cigarettes. The aggregate 39% excess exposure to cigarette smoke in the regular-cigarette condition was not accompanied by commensurate excesses in expired carbon monoxide or in physiological measures normally correlated with nicotine exposure. CONCLUSIONS. These findings parallel differences in physiological correlates of exposure to nicotine found in cross-sectional comparisons of African-American and White smokers and are consistent with the results of emerging laboratory investigations. PMID:7832264

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Respiratory System Diseases in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saracen, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory system diseases are common in youngsters, smoking being one of the main cause of them. In this article, results are presented of a survey-type study on smoking and respiratory malady conducted in 3108 high school students from the Mazovian Region in Poland. The questionnaire made for this study contained questions concerning the health status, chronic diseases, and the cigarette smoking habit. The subjects were high school student aged 15-19. Overall, 1694 males and 1414 females were enrolled in the study. Regarding males, 66.4 % of them were non-smokers, 18.1 % smoked up to 20 cigarettes daily, and 15.5 % smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily; 12.5 % of all smokers smoked longer than one year. Overall, 38.5 % of males reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis. When stratified by the smoking habit, chronic bronchitis was reported by 21 % of non-smokers and 71 % of all smokers. Regarding females, 77 % of them were non-smokers, 16 % smoked up to 20 cigarettes daily, and 7 % more than 20 cigarettes daily; 8 % of all smokers smoked longer than one year. Overall, 35 % females reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis. When stratified by the smoking habit, chronic bronchitis was reported by 23 % of non-smokers and 75 % of smokers. Bronchial asthma was reported by 22 (0.7 %) subjects, none of them was a smoker. In conclusion, males more often than females smoked cigarettes. The number of persons complaining of symptoms of chronic bronchitis was markedly higher in the group of smokers. The study shows that smoking is a key cause of chronic bronchitis in adolescents. That implies a need for enhanced educational activity on the adverse effects of smoking and undertaking active anti-smoking campaigns at the level of high school.

  14. 76 FR 57008 - Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 252 RIN 2105-AE06 Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft AGENCY... (NPRM). SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is proposing to amend its existing airline smoking... they pose in an aircraft. The Department is also considering whether to extend the ban on smoking...

  15. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed.

  16. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  17. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  18. Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland--an update.

    PubMed

    Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Gutaj, Paweł; Sowiński, Jerzy; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Brązert, Jacek; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that cigarette smoking exerts multiple effects on the thyroid gland. Smoking seems to induce changes in thyroid function tests, like decrease in TSH and increase in thyroid hormones. However, these alterations are usually mild. In addition, tobacco smoking may also play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Many studies have confirmed a significant influence of smoking on Graves' hyperthyroidism and particularly on Graves' orbitopathy. Here, smoking may increase the risk of disease development, may reduce the effectiveness of treatment, and eventually induce relapse. The role of smoking in Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not as well established as in Graves' disease. Nonetheless, lower prevalence of thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroperoxidase antibodies and hypothyroidism were found in smokers. These findings contrast with a study that reported increased risk of hypothyroidism in smokers with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, cigarette smoking increases the incidence of multinodular goitre, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Some studies have examined cigarette smoking in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer. Interestingly, many of them have shown that smoking may reduce the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Furthermore, both active and passive smoking during pregnancy might modify maternal and foetal thyroid function. This review evaluates the current data concerning the influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland, including hormonal changes, autoimmunity and selected diseases. These findings, however, in our opinion, should be carefully evaluated and some of them are not totally evidence-based. Further studies are required to explain the effects of smoking upon thyroid pathophysiology.

  19. Behavioral Control of Cigarette Smoking: A Comprehensive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Gail; Horan, John

    1977-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been a behavioral enigma. Single treatment techniques, when successful, are usually plagued by high recidivism rates and "practical" insignificance. Two recent developments, rapid smoking and comprehensive behavioral programming, hold promise for the eventual behavioral control of smoking. This study describes one such…

  20. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm(2)) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm(2)), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products.

  1. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  2. Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    McAuley, T R; Hopke, P K; Zhao, J; Babaian, S

    2012-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-cigarettes and standard tobacco cigarettes. Four different high nicotine e-liquids were vaporized in two sets of experiments by generic 2-piece e-cigarettes to collect emissions and assess indoor air concentrations of common tobacco smoke by products. Tobacco cigarette smoke tests were conducted for comparison. Comparisons of pollutant concentrations were made between e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke samples. Pollutants included VOCs, carbonyls, PAHs, nicotine, TSNAs, and glycols. From these results, risk analyses were conducted based on dilution into a 40 m³ room and standard toxicological data. Non-cancer risk analysis revealed "No Significant Risk" of harm to human health for vapor samples from e-liquids (A-D). In contrast, for tobacco smoke most findings markedly exceeded risk limits indicating a condition of "Significant Risk" of harm to human health. With regard to cancer risk analysis, no vapor sample from e-liquids A-D exceeded the risk limit for either children or adults. The tobacco smoke sample approached the risk limits for adult exposure. For all byproducts measured, electronic cigarettes produce very small exposures relative to tobacco cigarettes. The study indicates no apparent risk to human health from e-cigarette emissions based on the compounds analyzed.

  3. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from multiethnic 1988 current daily smokers [M age = 45.1 (SD = 13.0); 51.3% Women] who had made an average lifetime quit attempts of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, “immediate reinforcement,” a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness, was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and “concerns about health” was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative “smoking” experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. PMID:25180551

  4. Receipt and redemption of cigarette coupons, perceptions of cigarette companies and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kelvin; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Forster, Jean L; Moilanen, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Although it is known that cigarette companies use cigarette coupons to market their products, little is known about the characteristics of those who receive these coupons. The influence of receipt and redemption of these coupons is also unknown. Participants of the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey Cohort Study who were smokers in 2008, completed surveys in 2008 and 2009, and had smoked for at least 6 months between those surveys, were included. In 2009, participants reported whether they had received cigarette coupons in the past 12 months, and whether they had used the coupons. They also reported their perceptions of cigarette companies and their smoking status. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess associations between receiving and redeeming coupons, perceptions of cigarette companies, and smoking status. Overall, 49.4% of the sample reported receiving cigarette coupons, and 39.9% redeemed them (80.1% of those who received these coupons). Female, younger and heavier smokers were more likely to report receiving these coupons (p<0.05). Smokers who received these coupons were more likely to agree that cigarette companies care about their health and do the best they can to make cigarettes safe, and less likely to agree that cigarette companies lie (p<0.05). Smokers who used these coupons were less likely to quit smoking (p<0.05). Our findings suggest a negative association between cigarette coupons and smoking cessation. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish whether cigarette coupons influence smoking behaviour to inform the necessity for policies to prohibit the use of these coupons to assist smokers to quit smoking.

  5. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes Part 6: the impact of ingredients added to kretek cigarettes on smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Hirter, J; Deger Evans, A; Weber, S; Ode, A; Wittke, S; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    Mainstream smoke (MS) from experimental kretek cigarettes with three ingredient mixes at low (typical use level) and high (2.5 or 3 times that level) inclusion rates was compared to a control kretek cigarette of identical construction (cloves and humectants), but without the addition of ingredients. 350 ingredients, commonly used in various combinations and in a limited number in a given brand in the manufacture of marketed kretek cigarettes were assessed. The MS composition of the kretek cigarettes was characterized by a comprehensive set of analytes (55 smoke constituents). Furthermore, the smoke was assessed in vitro for its cytotoxicity in the Neutral Red Uptake assay (particle phase and gas/vapor phase separately) in mouse embryo BALB/c 3T3 cells, and for mutagenicity/genotoxicity in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay and the mammalian cell mouse lymphoma TK assay in L5178Y cells, the latter with and without metabolic activation. There were some statistically significant differences in the yield of smoke constituents (increases as well as decreases, nearly all of them less than ± 20%) as a result of the addition of the ingredient mixes. However, the addition of the three different mixes of ingredients to the experimental kreteks did not change the in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity/genotoxicity of the smoke, when compared to the control kretek cigarette.

  6. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods

  7. Chemical analysis of cigarette smoke particulate generated in the MSB-01 in vitro whole smoke exposure system.

    PubMed

    Scian, Mariano J; Oldham, Michael J; Miller, John H; Kane, David B; Edmiston, Jeffery S; McKinney, Willie J

    2009-10-01

    Cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) is a dynamic aerosol consisting of a gas-vapor phase and a particulate phase. In recent years, novel in vitro whole smoke exposure systems have been developed to expose cells directly to whole MS. One such system is the Burghart Mimic Smoker-01 (MSB-01). Our previous data using the MSB-01 indicated that a 50 +/- 10% loss of particulate matter occurred prior to MS delivery into the exposure chamber. Additionally, a change in aerosol particle diameter was also measured, suggesting that the chemical composition of MS might be changing within the system. In this study, we have expanded on our previous work and compared the particulate phase chemical composition of undiluted and diluted MS generated by the instrument and that of the MS delivered into the exposure chamber. The average percent delivery of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) detected for all the measured chemical constituents was 35 +/- 13% for undiluted MS and 23 +/- 8% for 1:1 diluted MS. The data also indicate that under our experimental conditions, incomplete mixing of the freshly generated MS occurs during its dilution by the system. Taken together, the data presented here show that significant chemical changes occur between the generation of MS by the system and its delivery into the exposure chamber. This indicates that due to the dynamic nature of cigarette smoke, it is important to characterize the exposure conditions in order to gain the best insight and accurately correlate exposure with biological endpoints.

  8. Genetic effects of fresh cigarette smoke in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gairola, C

    1982-09-01

    Ability of fresh cigarette smoke from University of Kentucky reference cigarette 2R1 to induce gene conversion, reverse mutation and mitotic crossing-over in strain D7 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. A closed cell suspension-recycle system using 2 peristaltic pumps interconnected to a single-port reverse-phase smoking machine was developed to provide complete exposure of cells to smoke within 0.2--10 sec of its generation. The exposed cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of all the 3 genetic endpoints examined. Cell age was an important factor with younger cells being more sensitive than older. Filtration studies showed that the gas phase possessed as much as 25% of the total whole-smoke activity. Activated charcoal reduced the activity of smoke in direct proportion to its amount in the filter. Acetate filter did not appreciably alter the activity. A comparison of whole smoke from various cigarettes showed that: (1) the nicotine content of a cigarette does not affect the genetic activity of smoke; (2) burley and flue-cured tobaccos have differential activity in gene conversion and reverse mutation systems; and (3) the genetic effects of whole smoke are not peculiar to tobacco pyrolysis because similar effects are produced by smokes from lettuce and other non-tobacco cigarettes. It is concluded that the yeast D7 system can be used effectively for the quantitative evaluation of genetic effects of smoke from different cigarettes, and both whole cigarette smoke and its gas phase possess mutagenic as well as recombinogenic activity that can be modified by the use of filters.

  9. Cigarette smoke increases cardiomyocyte ceramide accumulation and inhibits mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Tippetts, Trevor S; Winden, Duane R; Swensen, Adam C; Nelson, Michael B; Thatcher, Mikayla O; Saito, Rex R; Condie, Tyler B; Simmons, Kurtis J; Judd, Allan M; Reynolds, Paul R; Bikman, Benjamin T

    2014-11-22

    Cigarette smoking is a common and lethal worldwide habit, with considerable mortality stemming from its deleterious effects on heart function. While current theories posit altered blood lipids and fibrinogen metabolism as likely mediators, none have explored the role of the sphingolipid ceramide in exacerbating heart function with smoke exposure. Ceramide production is a consequence of cigarette smoke in the lung, and considering ceramide's harmful effects on mitochondrial function, we sought to elucidate the role of ceramide in mediating smoke-induced altered heart mitochondrial respiration. Lung cells (A549) were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and heart cells (H9C2) were exposed to the lung-cell conditioned medium. Adult male mice were exposed sidestream cigarette smoke for 8 wk with dietary intervention and ceramide inhibition. Ceramides and heart cell or myocardial mitochondrial respiration were determined. Lung cell cultures revealed a robust response to cigarette smoke extract in both production and secretion of ceramides. Heart cells incubated with lung-cell conditioned medium revealed a pronounced inhibition of myocardial mitochondrial respiration, though this effect was mitigated with ceramide inhibition via myriocin. In vivo, heart ceramides increased roughly 600% in adult mice with long-term sidestream cigarette smoke exposure. This resulted in a significant ceramide-dependent reduction in left myocardial mitochondrial respiration, as heart mitochondria from the mice exposed to both smoke and myriocin injections respired normally. These results suggest ceramide to be an important mediator of altered myocardial mitochondrial function with cigarette smoke exposure. Thus, anti-ceramide therapies might be considered in the future to protect heart mitochondrial function with smoke exposure.

  10. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking.

  11. Cigarette smoking in China: public health, science, and policy.

    PubMed

    Au, William W; Su, Daisy; Yuan, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, cigarette smoking is a habit that causes serious health, economic, and social problems. Therefore, many countries have taken an active role to control and to ban smoking. The chronic smoking problem in China is particularly acute because China has the largest population of smokers in the world, over 300 million currently. If 30% of these smokers were to die of smoke-related diseases in the next 20 years, the impact from the more than 90 million premature deaths could be damaging to China. In addition, numerous non-smokers also experience health problems from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. China's efforts to reduce or to ban smoking in certain public places have not been well-coordinated or enforced compared with those in other countries. Therefore, success has been minimal. Consequently, leaders in China should not be complacent about combating the serious national health problem. A multiprong approach in combination with the MPOWER policy from the World Health Organization that targets different levels of acquisition of the smoking habit must be used. Examples may include the government's reduced reliance on profits from the sale of cigarettes, the elimination of advertisements that encourage smoking among young individuals, the presentation of more graphic illustration of harmful effects from smoking on every pack of cigarettes, higher taxes/prices on cigarettes, and the implementation of enforceable bans on smoking in public places. As shown in other countries, such coordinated effort can be highly effective in the reduction of smoking and can have healthy consequences.

  12. Cigarette smoke inhibits brain mitochondrial adaptations of exercised mice.

    PubMed

    Speck, Ana Elisa; Fraga, Daiane; Soares, Priscila; Scheffer, Débora L; Silva, Luciano A; Aguiar, Aderbal S; Estreck, Emílio L; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2011-06-01

    Physical exercise and smoking are environmental factors that generally cause opposite health-promoting adaptations. Both physical exercise and smoking converge on mitochondrial adaptations in various tissues, including the pro-oxidant nervous system. Here, we analyzed the impact of cigarette smoking on exercise-induced brain mitochondrial adaptations in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex of adult mice. The animals were exposed to chronic cigarette smoke followed by 8 weeks of moderate-intensity physical exercise that increased mitochondrial activity in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex in the non-smoker mice. However, mice previously exposed to cigarette smoke did not present these exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations. Our results suggest that smoking can inhibit some brain health-promoting changes induced by physical exercise.

  13. Associations Between Cigarette Smoking and Pain Among Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with chronic pain often report using cigarettes to cope, and smoking and chronic pain appear prevalent among US veterans. Pain may be a barrier to cigarette cessation and abstinence in this population. Because of physiological effects, smoking cigarettes may also interfere with pain management. A better understanding of how cigarette use relates to pain may assist in veteran cigarette cessation and pain management efforts. To assist these efforts, we searched the literature using keywords, such as “pain,” “smoking,” and “veteran,” to identify 23 journal articles published from 1993 to 2013 that reported on studies examining pain and smoking variables among military or veteran populations. Studies found that veterans reported using cigarettes to cope with pain, there was greater occurrence of pain and disability among smokers in the military, and smoking increased the odds of veterans receiving an opioid prescription for pain and misusing opioids. Studies also found increased odds of pain and smoking among Veterans Health Administration patients with post-traumatic stress disorder when compared with those without post-traumatic stress disorder. Studies support an interaction between pain and smoking among veterans. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Future studies focused on this interaction would benefit veteran populations. PMID:25595170

  14. Cigarette smoking and short-term addiction treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Harrell, P T; Montoya, I D; Preston, K L; Juliano, L M; Gorelick, D A

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among patients in cocaine and opioid dependence treatment, and may influence treatment outcome. We addressed this issue in a secondary analysis of data from an outpatient clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment for concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence (13 weeks, N=200). The association between cigarette smoking (lifetime cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day prior to study entry) and short-term treatment outcome (% of urine samples positive for cocaine or opioids, treatment retention) was evaluated with analysis of covariance, bivariate correlations, and multivariate linear regression. Nicotine-dependent smokers (66% of participants) had a significantly higher percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples than non-smokers (12% of participants) (76% vs. 62%), but did not differ in percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. Number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline was positively associated with percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples, even after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and drug use characteristics, but was not significantly associated with percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. These results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with poorer short-term outcome of outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence, but perhaps not of concurrent opioid dependence, and support the importance of offering smoking cessation treatment to cocaine-dependent patients.

  15. Measurement of nitrogen dioxide in cigarette smoke using quantum cascade tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorter, Joanne H.; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Parrish, Milton E.; Crawford, Danielle R.; Gee, Diane L.

    2006-04-01

    Although nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) has been previously reported to be present in cigarette smoke, the concentration estimates were derived from kinetic calculations or from measurements of aged smoke, where NO 2 was formed some time after the puff was taken. The objective of this work was to use tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) equipped with a quantum cascade (QC) laser to determine if NO 2 could be detected and quantified in a fresh puff of cigarette smoke. A temporal resolution of ˜0.16 s allowed measurements to be taken directly as the NO 2 was formed during the puff. Sidestream cigarette smoke was sampled to determine if NO 2 could be detected using TILDAS. Experiments were conducted using 2R4F Kentucky Reference cigarettes with and without a Cambridge filter pad. NO 2 was detected only in the lighting puff of whole mainstream smoke (without a Cambridge filter pad), with no NO 2 detected in the subsequent puffs. The measurement precision was ˜1.0 ppbV Hz -1/2, which allows a detection limit of ˜0.2 ng in a 35 ml puff volume. More NO 2 was generated in the lighting puff using a match or blue flame lighter (29 ± 21 ng) than when using an electric lighter (9 ± 3 ng). In the presence of a Cambridge filter pad, NO 2 was observed in the gas phase mainstream smoke for every puff (total of 200 ± 30 ng/cigarette) and is most likely due to smoke chemistry taking place on the Cambridge filter pad during the smoke collection process. Nitrogen dioxide was observed continuously in the sidestream smoke starting with the lighting puff.

  16. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 1: Non-clinical and clinical insights.

    PubMed

    Schorp, Matthias K; Tricker, Anthony R; Dempsey, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    The following series of papers presents an extensive assessment of the Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System EHCSS series-K cigarette vs. conventional lit-end cigarettes (CC) as an example for an extended testing strategy for evaluation of reduced exposure. The EHCSS produces smoke through electrical heating of tobacco. The EHCSS series-K heater was designed for exclusive use with EHCSS cigarettes, and cannot be used to smoke (CC). Compared to the University of Kentucky Reference Research cigarette 2R4F and a series of commercial CC, mainstream cigarette smoke of both the non-menthol and menthol-flavored EHCSS cigarettes showed a reduced delivery of a series of selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC), mutagenic activity determined using the Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation (Ames) assay, and cytotoxicity in the Neutral Red Uptake Assay. Clinical evaluations confirmed reduced exposure to HPHC and excretion of mutagenic material under controlled clinical conditions. Reductions in HPHC exposure were confirmed in a real-world ambulatory clinical study. Potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk were also reduced under real-world ambulatory conditions. A modeling approach, 'nicotine bridging', was developed based on the determination of nicotine exposure in clinical evaluations which indicated that exposure to HPHC for which biomarkers of exposure do not exist would also be reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Menthol Cigarette Smoking among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. Purpose To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January–April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Results Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). Conclusions These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. PMID:25245795

  18. Menthol cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults.

    PubMed

    Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J; King, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Data were obtained from the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January-April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of smoking and price of cigarettes — a comment *

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, A. B.; Skegg, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A recent paper by Russell concluded that sharp annual increases in the price of cigarettes should be an essential part of any programme aiming to reduce cigarette smoking by men in the United Kingdom. The present paper reports results of research indicating, however, that men in this country respond very little to changes in price of cigarettes but have been more influenced, albeit temporarily, by antismoking propaganda. PMID:4816587

  20. Organ specificity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Arashidani, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kodama, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Biotransformation of many chemicals found in cigarette smoke, such as PAHs and nitrosamines, is generally considered essential for the mutagenic, carcinogenic effects of these xenobiotics. In fact, the genotic action of these premutagens or precarcinogens is dependent on metabolic activation catalyzed by microsomal monooxygenases. The first enzymatic reaction of the PAHs metabolic pathway is catalyzed by a cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase, the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH). AHH leads to the formation of reactive arene oxides, which are further metabolized by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reaction into many metabolites. AHH induction in laboratory animals exposed to cigarette smoke has also been reported, and the data show that this response is highly dependent on species and tissues. Exposure of small laboratory animals to cigarette smoke generally induces AHH in the kidney and lung, while the effect of cigarette smoke on the hepatic AHH activity appears variable.

  1. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals.

  2. Explaining Cigarette Smoking: An Endogenous-Exogenous Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, Jack

    Kruglanski's endogenous-exogenous partition, when applied to reasons given by smokers for smoking cigarettes, distinguishes two types of actions: (1) endogenous reasons implying that the behavior of consuming the cigarette is the goal of the action and the actor is positive toward the behavior, and (2) exogenous reasons implying that the behavior…

  3. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 4: Eight-day randomized clinical trial in Korea.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Jang, In-Jin; Martin Leroy, Claire; Lindner, Dirk; Dempsey, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    A randomized, controlled, open-label parallel-group, single-center study to determine biomarkers of exposure to 12 selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in cigarette smoke and urinary excretion of mutagenic material in 72 male and female Korean subjects smoking Lark One cigarettes (1.0mg tar, 0.1mg nicotine, and 1.5mg CO) at baseline. Subjects were randomized to continue smoking Lark One cigarettes, or switch to an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System (EHCSS) and EHCSS-K3 cigarette (3mg tar, 0.2mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg CO), or to no-smoking. The mean decreases from baseline to Day 8 were statistically significant (all p<0.05) for 10 of 12 HPHC in mainstream cigarette smoke including CO (the primary objective) in the EHCSS-K3 group (range: -1.5% to -74.2%). Exposure to the other determined HPHC was not significantly different. In the Lark One group, the mean exposure to 6 of 12 HPHC in cigarette smoke was significantly (all p<0.05) decreased; however, exposure to CO was significantly increased. The largest mean reductions in biomarkers of exposure to HPHC occurred in smokers who switched to no-smoking (-3.4% to -98.9%). The mean excretion of mutagenic material was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the EHCSS-K3 and no-smoking groups (-31.8% and -45.3%, respectively), and increased in the Lark One group (+31.5%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conditioning arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Payne, T J; Etscheidt, M; Corrigan, S A

    1990-01-01

    This study represents an attempt to classically condition arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake. A smoker either smoked or mock-smoked a cigarette in two discriminative contexts for 20 sessions. The contingencies were reversed during an additional last two sessions. Measures of heart rate, skin temperature, and puff duration were monitored during all sessions. Results suggested that both manipulations of smoke delivery and context cues were related to puff duration. The pattern of psychophysiological reactivity was mixed and not easily interpreted. This experimental paradigm may be useful in the investigation of conditioning factors underlying addictive behaviors.

  5. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Frulloni, L; Di Francesco, V; Vaona, B; Bovo, P; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Pederzoli, P; Cavallini, G

    1996-03-01

    It is not known whether cigarette smoking plays a role as a risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to compare drinking and smoking habits in three groups of male subjects with an alcohol intake in excess of 40 g/day: (i) 67 patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis, without other known potential causative agents; (ii) 396 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis; and (iii) 265 control subjects randomly selected from the Verona polling lists and submitted to a complete medical checkup. The variables considered were age at onset of disease, years of drinking and smoking, daily alcohol intake in grams, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and body mass index (BMI). Cases differed from controls in daily grams of alcohol, number of cigarettes smoked and BMI (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.00001 for each comparison). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, comparing acute and chronic cases, respectively, versus controls, revealed an increased relative risk of pancreatitis in the two comparisons, associated in both cases with a higher alcohol intake (p < 0.00001) and cigarette smoking (p < 0.00001). No significant interaction between alcohol and smoking was noted, indicating that the two risks are independent. In conclusion, in males a higher number of cigarettes smoked daily seems to be a distinct risk factor in acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.

  6. Effects of cigarette smoking on metabolic events in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, S.

    1987-06-01

    Nicotine and cigarette smoke extract show acute physiological effects: increasing tracheal pressure (P/sub TR/), pulmonary artery pressure (P/sub PA/), systemic blood pressure (P/sub SYST/), and left atrium pressure (P/sub LA/); and decreasing cardiac output (Q/sub AORTA/) and blood flow to the left lower lobe (Q/sub LLL/). In addition, cigarette smoking induces bronchoconstriction, thus decreasing peak flow, FVC, and FEV/sub 1.0/ in healthy subjects. It has also been demonstrated that cigarette smoking caused temporary slowing of mucociliary clearance in the lung and that cigarette smoke increases the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase which metabolizes benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene. The authors demonstrated that serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity showed a significant increase immediately after smoking and returned to the control level 20 min after smoking. They also demonstrated that plasma histamine levels showed a marked decrease after smoking. Furthermore, the effects of cigarette smoke and related substances on prostaglandin, thromboxane, testosterone, cyclic nucleotides metabolism, and protein synthesis were also investigated.

  7. Impact of cigarette smoking in type 2 diabetes development.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi-tao; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Wakui, Makoto

    2009-06-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are at risk for micro and macro vascular complications, which could be observed in heavy smokers. Cigarette smoking increases the risk for type 2 diabetes incidence. Nicotine, acknowledged as the major pharmacologically active chemical in tobacco, is responsible for the association between cigarette smoking and development of diabetes. This minireview summarized recent studies on nicotine effects on insulin action and insulin secretion, indicating the impact of nicotine on type 2 diabetes development.

  8. Side-stream cigarette smoke accentuates immunomodulation during murine AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Du Ester, En-Jie; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2002-05-01

    Side-stream cigarette smoke has become a hotly debated social, political, and scientific health and safety issue for nonsmokers. The harmful influences of side-stream cigarette smoke on human health are its adverse effects on the immune system, especially when already compromised by other agents. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a clinical disorder caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To facilitate studies, murine AIDS was induced in C57BL/6 mice by LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus infection, which mimics human AIDS. After 2 weeks of retroviral infection, the mice were exposed to side-stream cigarette smoke for 30 min, 5 days/week for 12 weeks using a side-stream cigarette smoke exposure system. Murine retrovirus infection reduced the in vitro proliferation of T lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A, increased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), increased the hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased the alpha-tocopherol levels in liver, lung and heart. Concomitant side-stream cigarette smoke exposure for 12 weeks further inhibited the proliferation of T cells, increased the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 cytokines and enhanced the hepatic lipid peroxidation from retrovirus infected mice. The loss of alpha-tocopherol was also further enhanced by side-stream cigarette smoke exposure during retrovirus infection. Our conclusions are that side-stream cigarette smoke induced increasing oxidative stress, reducing nutrient concentrations and suppressing immune function could make mice with murine AIDS more susceptible to opportunistic infections, potentially accelerating murine AIDS progression. Thus, the reduction of side-stream cigarette smoke exposure is an important health issue in AIDS patients to improve the quality and quantity of their lives.

  9. Greater reductions in nicotine exposure while smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes predict smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Donny, Eric C; Hertsgaard, Louise A; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2015-11-01

    Reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes is a potential regulatory strategy that may enable cessation. The present study investigated the effect of nicotine exposure while smoking very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes on cessation outcomes. The roles of possible sources of nicotine were also explored, including the VLNC cigarette and co-use of cigarettes with normal nicotine content. A secondary data analysis of two analogous randomised trials of treatment seeking, adult daily smokers (n=112) who were instructed to smoke VLNC cigarettes for 6 weeks and then make a quit attempt. Controlling for baseline demographic and smoking features, the association between reductions in nicotine exposure during the 6-week trial, assessed by urinary total cotinine and biomarker-confirmed smoking abstinence 1 month later, was tested. Subsequent analyses controlled for the effects of the frequency of VLNC and normal nicotine content cigarette use and the nicotine yield of the VLNC cigarette (0.05 vs 0.09 mg). Greater reductions in nicotine exposure while smoking VLNC cigarettes predicted abstinence independent of individual differences in baseline smoking, cotinine, dependence, gender and study. Nicotine reduction was largest among individuals who were assigned to smoke a VLNC cigarette with lower nicotine yield and who smoked fewer normal nicotine content and VLNC cigarettes. In the context of nicotine regulations and corresponding research, factors that undermine nicotine reduction must be addressed, including the availability and use of cigarettes with normal nicotine content and not sufficiently reducing the nicotine yield of cigarettes. Maximising nicotine reduction may facilitate smoking cessation. NCT 01050569 and NCT 00777569. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Interactions between ethanol and cigarette smoke in a mouse lung carcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Nikolov, Manasi; La Maestra, S; Micale, Rosanna T; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

    2016-12-12

    Both ethanol and cigarette smoke are classified as human carcinogens. They can synergize, especially in tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract that are targeted by both agents. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of ethanol and smoke in the respiratory tract, either following transplacental exposure and/or postnatal exposure. We designed two consecutive studies in mouse models by exposing Swiss H mice to oral ethanol and/or inhaled mainstream cigarette smoke for up to 4 months, at various prenatal and postnatal life stages. Clastogenic effects and histopathological alterations were evaluated after 4 and 8 months, respectively. Ethanol was per se devoid of clastogenic effects in mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. However, especially in mice exposed both transplacentally throughout pregnancy and in the postnatal life, ethanol administration was associated not only with liver damage but also with pro-angiogenetic effects in the lung by stimulating the proliferation of blood vessels. In addition, these mice developed pulmonary emphysema, alveolar epithelial hyperplasias, microadenomas, and benign tumors. On the other hand, ethanol interfered in the lung carcinogenesis process resulting from the concomitant exposure of mice to smoke. In fact, ethanol significantly attenuated some smoke-related preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the respiratory tract, such as alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, microadenomas, and even malignant tumors. In addition, ethanol attenuated cigarette smoke clastogenicity. In conclusion, preclinical studies provide evidence that, in spite of its pulmonary toxicity, ethanol may mitigate some noxious effects of cigarette smoke in the respiratory tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. E-cigarettes: online survey of UK smoking cessation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz; McEwen, Andy; Murray, Susan; Arnott, Deborah; Dockrell, Martin; Bauld, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Use of e-cigarettes (inhalable vapour producing battery powered devices that aim to simulate tobacco cigarettes), is rising in a number of countries, but as yet none of these products are regulated as medicinal devices or available as smoking cessation treatments. Smokers seeking support from health professionals to stop smoking are interested in e-cigarettes and may be buying them to aid a quit attempt. Determining what smokers are asking, and what health professionals think about these products may have implications for smoking treatment services in a number of countries. Stop smoking service advisors, managers and commissioners in the United Kingdom were asked to take part in two surveys on e-cigarettes. Data was analysed from 587 practitioners who completed a survey in 2011 and 705 practitioners who completed a repeat survey in 2013. Responses to multiple choice questions and free text comments were analysed. Responding practitioners reported that interest in, and use of, e-cigarettes is growing among adults seeking help to stop smoking in the UK. In 2013 91% of respondents reported that interest in e-cigarettes had grown in the past year and whilst in 2011, 2% of respondents reported a 'quarter to a half' of their clients saying that they were regularly using e-cigarettes, by 2013 this had increased to 23.5% (p < .001). Responding practitioners' views towards e-cigarettes became more positive between the first and second surveys (15% strongly agreed/agreed in 2011 that 'e-cigarettes are a good thing' rising to 26% in 2013). However, they continued to have concerns about the products. In particular, analysis of free text responses suggested practitioners were unsure about safety or efficacy for smoking cessation, and were worried that smokers may become dependent on the products. Practitioners were also aware of the potential of e-cigarettes to undermine smokers' willingness to use evidence-based methods to stop, and to challenge policies aiming to

  12. Cigarette smoking; knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R; Cravioto, P; de la Rosa, B; Galván, F; García-de la Torre, G; Kuri, P

    1997-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3,568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993) was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98%) surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily), 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p < 0.05). Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  13. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J; Whitmill, Jennifer; Babb, Stephen D; Graffunder, Corinne M

    2016-11-11

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults (1,2). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU1.1),* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 15.1% in 2015, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 11.4%. However, disparities in cigarette smoking persist. In 2015, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male; were aged 25-44 years; were American Indian/Alaska Native; had a General Education Development certificate (GED); lived below the federal poverty level; lived in the Midwest; were insured through Medicaid or were uninsured; had a disability/limitation; were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; or who had serious psychological distress. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and medications, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (3).

  14. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; O'Connor, Erin; Babb, Stephen D; Caraballo, Ralph S; Singh, Tushar; Hu, S Sean; King, Brian A

    2015-11-13

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0%,* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2014. Among daily cigarette smokers, declines were observed in the percentage who smoked 20–29 cigarettes per day (from 34.9% to 27.4%) or ≥30 cigarettes per day (from 12.7% to 6.9%). In 2014, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among males, adults aged 25–44 years, multiracial persons and American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons who have a General Education Development certificate, live below the federal poverty level, live in the Midwest, are insured through Medicaid or are uninsured, have a disability or limitation, or are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high impact mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to quitting assistance, are critical to reduce cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults.

  15. Why Is Cigarette Smoking So Addicting? An Overview of Smoking as a Chemical and Process Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christen, Arden G.; Christen, Joan A.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the addictive nature of cigarette smoking and the pharmacologic, psychological, and sociocultural parameters of tobacco use. The dynamic combination of related factors makes cigarette smoking extremely resistant to long-term extinction. The article suggests the use of active support systems during nicotine addiction recovery. (SM)

  16. Why Is Cigarette Smoking So Addicting? An Overview of Smoking as a Chemical and Process Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christen, Arden G.; Christen, Joan A.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the addictive nature of cigarette smoking and the pharmacologic, psychological, and sociocultural parameters of tobacco use. The dynamic combination of related factors makes cigarette smoking extremely resistant to long-term extinction. The article suggests the use of active support systems during nicotine addiction recovery. (SM)

  17. Does Switching to Reduced Ignition Propensity Cigarettes Alter Smoking Behavior or Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents?

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Norton, Kaila J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa; Li, Zheng; June, Kristie M.; Giovino, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, several jurisdictions have mandated that cigarettes show reduced ignition propensity (RIP) in laboratory testing. RIP cigarettes may limit fires caused by smoldering cigarettes, reducing fire-related deaths and injury. However, some evidence suggests that RIP cigarettes emit more carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and smokers may alter their smoking patterns in response to RIP cigarettes. Both of these could increase smokers’ exposures to harmful constituents in cigarettes. Methods: An 18-day switching study with a comparison group was conducted in Boston, MA (N = 77), and Buffalo, NY (N = 83), in 2006–2007. Current daily smokers completed 4 laboratory visits and two 48-hr field data collections. After a 4-day baseline, Boston participants switched to RIP cigarettes for 14 days, whereas Buffalo participants smoked RIP cigarettes throughout. Outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day; smoking topography; salivary cotinine; breath CO; and hydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene. Because the groups differed demographically, analyses adjusted for race, age, and sex. Results: We observed no significant changes in smoking topography or CO exposure among participants who switched to RIP cigarettes. Cigarette use decreased significantly in the switched group (37.7 cigarettes/48 hr vs. 32.6 cigarettes/48 hr, p = .031), while hydroxyphenanthrenes increased significantly (555 ng/g creatinine vs. 669 ng/g creatinine, p = .007). No other biomarkers were significantly affected. Discussion: Small increases in exposure to phenanthrene among smokers who switched to RIP versions were observed, while other exposures and smoking topography were not significantly affected. Toxicological implications of these findings are unclear. These findings should be weighed against the potential public health benefits of adopting RIP design standards for cigarette products. PMID:20805292

  18. The mutagenic assessment of an electronic-cigarette and reference cigarette smoke using the Ames assay in strains TA98 and TA100.

    PubMed

    Thorne, D; Crooks, I; Hollings, M; Seymour, A; Meredith, C; Gaca, M

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were used to assess the mutagenic potential of the aerosol from a commercially available, rechargeable, closed system electronic-cigarette. Results obtained were compared to those for the mainstream smoke from a Kentucky reference (3R4F) cigarette. Two different test matrices were assessed. Aerosol generated from the e-cigarette was trapped on a Cambridge filter pad, eluted in DMSO and compared to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), which was generated in the same manner for mutagenicity assessment in the Salmonella assay. Fresh e-cigarette and cigarette smoke aerosols were generated on the Vitrocell(®) VC 10 smoking robot and compared using a modified scaled-down 35mm air agar interface (AAI) methodology. E-cigarette aerosol collected matter (ACM) was found to be non-mutagenic in the 85mm plate incorporation Ames assay in strains TA98 and TA100 conducted in accordance with OECD 471, when tested up to 2400μg/plate. Freshly generated e-cigarette aerosol was also found to be negative in both strains after an AAI aerosol exposure, when tested up to a 1L/min dilution for up to 3h. Positive control responses were observed in both strains, using benzo[a]pyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, sodium azide and 2-aminoanthracene in TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of metabolic activation respectively. In contrast, cigarette smoke TPM and aerosol from 3R4F reference cigarettes were found to be mutagenic in both tester strains, under comparable test conditions to that of e-cigarette exposure. Limited information exists on the mutagenic activity of captured e-cigarette particulates and whole aerosol AAI approaches. With the lower toxicant burden of e-cigarette aerosols compared to cigarette smoke, it is clear that a more comprehensive Ames package of data should be generated when assessing e-cigarettes, consisting of the standard OECD-five, TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 (or TA97) and E. coli (or TA102). In addition, TA104

  19. Active and passive smoking - New insights on the molecular composition of different cigarette smoke aerosols by LDI-FTICRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Sébastien; Carré, Vincent; Scheffler, Jean-Luc; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2014-08-01

    The aerosol generated when a cigarette is smoked is a significant indoor contaminant. Both smokers and non-smokers can be exposed to this class of pollutants. Nevertheless, they are not exposed to the same kind of smoke. The active smoker breathes in the mainstream smoke (MSS) during a puff, whereas the passive smoker inhales not only the smoke generated by the lit cigarette between two puffs (SSS) but also the smoke exhaled by active smokers (EXS). The aerosol fraction of EXS has until now been poorly documented; its composition is expected to be different from MSS. This study aims to investigate the complex composition of aerosol from EXS to better understand the difference in exposure between active and passive smokers. To address this, the in-situ laser desorption ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (LDI-FTICRMS) was used to characterise the aerosol composition of EXS from two different smokers. Results clearly indicated many similarities between EXS samples but also significant differences with MSS and SSS aerosol. The comparison of MSS and EXS aerosol allowed the chemicals retained by the active smoker's lungs to be identified, whereas the convolution of the EXS and SSS aerosol compositions were considered relevant to the exposition of a passive smoker. As a consequence, active smokers are thought to be mainly exposed to polar and poorly unsaturated oxygenated and nitrogenated organics, compared with poorly oxygenated but highly unsaturated compounds in passive smokers.

  20. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  1. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  2. Do electronic cigarettes increase cigarette smoking in UK adolescents? Evidence from a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Conner, Mark; Grogan, Sarah; Simms-Ellis, Ruth; Flett, Keira; Sykes-Muskett, Bianca; Cowap, Lisa; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Christopher J; Meads, David; Torgerson, Carole; West, Robert; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2017-08-17

    In cross-sectional surveys, increasing numbers of adolescents report using both electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and cigarettes. This study assessed whether adolescent e-cigarette use was associated prospectively with initiation or escalation of cigarette use. Data were from 2836 adolescents (aged 13-14 years at baseline) in 20 schools in England. At baseline, breath carbon monoxide levels, self-reported e-cigarette and cigarette use, sex, age, friends and family smoking, beliefs about cigarette use and percentage receiving free school meals (measure of socioeconomic status) were assessed. At 12-month follow-up, self-reported cigarette use was assessed and validated by breath carbon monoxide levels. At baseline, 34.2% of adolescents reported ever using e-cigarettes (16.0% used only e-cigarettes). Baseline ever use of e-cigarettes was strongly associated with subsequent initiation (n=1726; OR 5.38, 95% CI 4.02 to 7.22; controlling for covariates, OR 4.06, 95% CI 2.94 to 5.60) and escalation (n=318; OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.21; controlling for covariates, this effect became non-significant, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.82) of cigarette use. This is the first study to report prospective relationships between ever use of e-cigarettes and initiation and escalation of cigarette use among UK adolescents. Ever use of e-cigarettes was robustly associated with initiation but more modestly related to escalation of cigarette use. Further research with longer follow-up in a broader age range of adolescents is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures associated with cigarette smoking: implications for risk assessment of food and flavoring workers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Abelmann, Anders; Spicer, Lauren J; Adams, Rebecca E; Finley, Brent L

    2014-05-01

    Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione inhalation have been suggested as causes of severe respiratory disease, including bronchiolitis obliterans, in food/flavoring manufacturing workers. Both compounds are present in many food items, tobacco, and other consumer products, but estimates of exposures associated with the use of these goods are scant. A study was conducted to characterize exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with cigarette smoking. The yields (μg/cigarette) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke were evaluated for six tobacco products under three smoking regimens (ISO, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, and Health Canada Intense) using a standard smoking machine. Mean diacetyl concentrations in MS smoke ranged from 250 to 361 ppm for all tobacco products and smoking regimens, and mean cumulative exposures associated with 1 pack-year ranged from 1.1 to 1.9 ppm-years. Mean 2,3-pentanedione concentrations in MS smoke ranged from 32.2 to 50.1 ppm, and mean cumulative exposures associated with 1 pack-year ranged from 0.14 to 0.26 ppm-years. We found that diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures from cigarette smoking far exceed occupational exposures for most food/flavoring workers who smoke. This suggests that previous claims of a significant exposure-response relationship between diacetyl inhalation and respiratory disease in food/flavoring workers were confounded, because none of the investigations considered or quantified the non-occupational diacetyl exposure from cigarette smoke, yet all of the cohorts evaluated had considerable smoking histories. Further, because smoking has not been shown to be a risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans, our findings are inconsistent with claims that diacetyl and/or 2,3-pentanedione exposure are risk factors for this disease.

  4. Particulate Matter in Second-Hand Smoke Emitted from Different Cigarette Sizes and Types of the Brand Vogue Mainly Smoked by Women.

    PubMed

    Kant, Nora; Müller, Ruth; Braun, Markus; Gerber, Alexander; Groneberg, David

    2016-08-08

    Indoor air pollution with harmful particulate matter (PM) is mainly caused by cigarette smoke. Super-Slim-Size-Cigarettes (SSL) are considered a less harmful alternative to King-Size-Cigarettes (KSC) due to longer filters and relatively low contents. We ask if "Combined Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke" (CMSS)-associated PM levels of SSL are lower than of KSC and thus are potentially less harmful. PM concentrations in CMSS (PM10, PM2.5, and PM₁) are measured from four cigarette types of the brand Vogue, using an "automatic-environmental-tobacco-smoke-emitter" (AETSE) and laser aerosol spectrometry: SSL-BLEUE, -MENTHE, -LILAS and KSC-La Cigarette and -3R4F reference. This analysis shows that SSL MENTHE emitted the highest amount of PM, and KSC-La Cigarette the lowest. 3R4F reference emitted PM in the middle range, exceeding SSL BLEUE and falling slightly below SSL LILAS. It emerged that PM₁ constituted the biggest proportion of PM emission. The outcome shows significant type-specific differences for emitted PM concentrations. Our results indicate that SSL are potentially more harmful for passive smokers than the respective KSC. However, this study cannot give precise statements about the general influence of the size of a cigarette on PM. Alarming is that PM₁ is responsible for the biggest proportion of PM pollution, since smaller particles cause more harmful effects.

  5. Ad lib smoking of Black & Mild cigarillos and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Lacy A; Canlas, Lauren L; Potts, Jennifer; Pickworth, Wallace B

    2012-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a tripling in the consumption of small cigars and cigarillos, with further increases expected because cigar products are not subject to Food and Drug Administration regulations. Acute toxin exposure from cigar smoking is difficult to assess because unlike cigarettes, cigars vary widely in size, design, composition, and in the smoking behavior of their consumers. For example, a recent practice among urban youth is to remove the paper liner (i.e., "freaking") of a small cigar in the belief that it is this paper liner that leads to addiction and cancer. We examined acute exposure (CO and nicotine boosts) and puffing behavior in 12 participants (10 men) who smoked (ad lib) their usual conventional cigarette, a Black & Mild cigar (B&M) and a B&M without the paper liner (i.e., "freaked" [B&Mf]). All products (cigarettes, B&M, and B&Mf) significantly increased heart rate and CO with a trend for plasma nicotine. Nicotine boost was significantly higher after cigarette smoking than both B&M and B&Mf, while CO boost was significantly greater after B&M and B&Mf than cigarettes. The CO boost after B&M was larger than after B&Mf. These findings suggest that small cigar smoking is associated with smoke inhalation that leads to significant exposure to nicotine, CO, and presumably other components of tobacco smoke and that removing the inner liner does not substantially reduce toxin exposure.

  6. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle related.

    PubMed

    Sangani, Rahul G; Ghio, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    The specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking are yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure to and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2) the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 μg particulate matter; this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles, and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress, which is associated with a series of reactions, including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and comorbidity (eg, emphysema and carcinogenesis) after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.

  7. Menthol pharmacology and its potential impact on cigarette smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ahijevych, Karen; Garrett, Bridgette E

    2004-02-01

    Menthol is the only tobacco additive promoted and advertised by the tobacco industry. Although a considerable body of research has examined the effects of menthol when it is administered alone and unburned, the effects of menthol when burned in cigarette smoke are more complex because it is administered in a matrix of more than 4,000 substances. Therefore, it is difficult to isolate potential pharmacological and toxic effects of menthol when it is administered in a smoke mixture. Menthol properties include cooling and local anesthesia, as well as effects on drug absorption and metabolism, bronchodilation and respiration changes, and electrophysiology. Subjective effects of smoothness and less harshness have been identified as reasons for menthol cigarette smoking, but findings have been inconclusive regarding the effect of menthol on carbon monoxide exposure and smoking topography parameters. Gaps in the research literature and future research areas include the following: (a) What is the role of menthol in tobacco reinforcement and addiction? (b) In the absence of nicotine, is menthol reinforcing? (c) Are the pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol mediated by a menthol-specific receptor or some other central nervous system-mediated action? (d) What are the influences of menthol and menthol metabolism on the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens in tobacco smoke? and (e) Do differences exist in cigarette smoking topography in relation to the interaction of ethnicity, gender, and menthol cigarette preference? Answers to these questions will help to elucidate the function of menthol in cigarettes and its impact on smoking behavior.

  8. The effects of cigarette smoking on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Khanna, Abhinav; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the main causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, has a multitude of well-known side effects. The relationship between cigarette smoking and infertility has been studied for decades; however, large-scale, population-wide prospective studies are lacking. The majority of the current literature is in the form of retrospective studies focused on the effects of smoking on semen analyses. This article discusses the results of these studies and reviews the postulated mechanisms. The effects of smoking on assisted reproduction and in vitro fertilization outcomes are noted. The consequences of smoking while pregnant on future fertility as well as the outcomes of second-hand smoke are analyzed. The current evidence suggests that men should be advised to abstain from smoking in order to improve reproductive outcomes.

  9. Cigarette smoke-induced DNA adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory tissues of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gairola, C.G.; Gupta, R.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Formation of DNA adducts is regarded as an essential initial step in the process of chemical carcinogenesis. To determine how chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the distribution of DNA adducts in selected respiratory and nonrespiratory tissues. The authors exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats daily to fresh mainstream smoke from the Univ. of Kentucky reference cigarettes (2R1) in a nose-only exposure system for 32 weeks. Blood carboxyhemoglobin, total particulate matter (TPM) intake, and pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase values indicated effective exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. DNA was extracted from three respiratory (larynx, trachea, and lung) and three nonrespiratory (liver, heart, and bladder) tissues and analyzed for DNA adducts by the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay under conditions capable of detecting low levels of diverse aromatic/hydrophobic adducts. Data showed that the total DNA adducts in the lung, heart, and trachea, and larynx were increased by 10- to 20-fold in the smoke-exposed group. These data suggest selective formation of DNA adducts in the tissues.

  10. Cigarette smoking by adolescent females: implications for health and behavior.

    PubMed

    Gritz, E R

    1984-01-01

    Cigarette smoking rates among teenage females have risen progressively since 1968 until surpassing teenage males in 1979. Psychosocial factors underlying the initiation of smoking include peer pressure, adult role modeling and prosmoking messages in advertising, with smoking potentially representing a desired set of personality characteristics. Regular smoking leads to the development of a dependence process, with cessation often difficult to achieve and maintain. Preventing smoking onset is a responsibility of health professionals and educators. Social psychological approaches teaching social skills and techniques for resisting smoking have been effective in reducing rates of initiation in JHS experimental programs.

  11. Adolescent smoking behaviour and cigarette brand preference in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Y; Tanihata, T; Ohida, T; Minowa, M; Wada, K; Suzuki, K; Kaetsu, A; Okamoto, M; Kishimoto, T

    2006-01-01

    Objectives As part of efforts to develop a smoking control strategy for Japanese adolescents, the results of two nationwide surveys on adolescent smoking behaviour were compared. Design Descriptive study on smoking behaviour among high school students was conducted. Self‐reporting anonymous questionnaires were administered to 115 814 students in 1996 and 106 297 in 2000 through randomly sampled junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Main outcome measures Smoking prevalence, proportion of smokers by usual sources of cigarettes, national estimated cigarettes consumed by minors, share of cigarette brands smoked by high school students. Results The experiment rate among junior high school boys decreased in 2000 compared with that in 1996, whereas current and daily smoking rates did not. Although prevalence among Japanese girls was much lower than that among boys, prevalence among girls increased in 2000. The main source of cigarettes among high school smokers was vending machines. The proportion of smokers who usually purchased cigarettes from vending machines increased in 2000, in spite of the 1998 introduction of restrictions on night‐time operations. Japanese adolescents were more likely than adults to smoke American cigarette brands, and the adolescent market share of American brands has increased rapidly, especially for menthol brands. Conclusions This survey revealed the seriousness of the problem of smoking behaviour among Japanese high school students, and suggested that this behaviour may be influenced by social environmental factors, including the marketing strategies of the tobacco industry. Action should be taken to reduce the prevalence and impact of pro‐tobacco marketing messages and to abolish cigarette vending machines. PMID:16728747

  12. Adolescent smoking behaviour and cigarette brand preference in Japan.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Y; Tanihata, T; Ohida, T; Minowa, M; Wada, K; Suzuki, K; Kaetsu, A; Okamoto, M; Kishimoto, T

    2006-06-01

    As part of efforts to develop a smoking control strategy for Japanese adolescents, the results of two nationwide surveys on adolescent smoking behaviour were compared. Descriptive study on smoking behaviour among high school students was conducted. Self-reporting anonymous questionnaires were administered to 115,814 students in 1996 and 106,297 in 2000 through randomly sampled junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Smoking prevalence, proportion of smokers by usual sources of cigarettes, national estimated cigarettes consumed by minors, share of cigarette brands smoked by high school students. The experiment rate among junior high school boys decreased in 2000 compared with that in 1996, whereas current and daily smoking rates did not. Although prevalence among Japanese girls was much lower than that among boys, prevalence among girls increased in 2000. The main source of cigarettes among high school smokers was vending machines. The proportion of smokers who usually purchased cigarettes from vending machines increased in 2000, in spite of the 1998 introduction of restrictions on night-time operations. Japanese adolescents were more likely than adults to smoke American cigarette brands, and the adolescent market share of American brands has increased rapidly, especially for menthol brands. This survey revealed the seriousness of the problem of smoking behaviour among Japanese high school students, and suggested that this behaviour may be influenced by social environmental factors, including the marketing strategies of the tobacco industry. Action should be taken to reduce the prevalence and impact of pro-tobacco marketing messages and to abolish cigarette vending machines.

  13. Comparison of the toxicity of smoke from conventional and harm reduction cigarettes using human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Weng, Jo-Hao; Talbot, Prue

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that smoke from harm reduction cigarettes impedes attachment and proliferation of H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Smoke from three harm reduction brands was compared with smoke from a conventional brand. Doses of smoke were measured in puff equivalents (PE) (1 PE = the amount of smoke in one puff that dissolves in 1 ml of medium). Cytotoxic doses were determined using morphological criteria and trypan blue staining, and apoptosis was confirmed using Magic Red staining. Attachment and proliferation of hESC were followed at a noncytotoxic dose in time-lapse videos collected using BioStation technology. Data were mined from videos either manually or using video bioinformatics subroutines developed with CL-Quant software. Mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke from conventional and harm reduction cigarettes induced apoptosis in hESC colonies at 1 PE. At 0.1 PE (noncytotoxic), SS smoke from all brands inhibited attachment of hESC colonies to Matrigel with the strongest inhibition occurring in harm reduction brands. At 0.1 PE, SS smoke, but not MS smoke, from all brands inhibited hESC growth, and two harm reduction brands were more potent than the conventional brand. In general, hESC appeared more sensitive to smoke than their mouse ESC counterparts. Although harm reduction cigarettes are often marketed as safer than conventional brands, our assays show that SS smoke from harm reduction cigarettes was at least as potent or in some cases more potent than smoke from a conventional brand and that SS smoke was more inhibitory than MS smoke in all assays.

  14. Comparison of the Toxicity of Smoke from Conventional and Harm Reduction Cigarettes Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fonteno, Shawn; Weng, Jo-Hao; Talbot, Prue

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that smoke from harm reduction cigarettes impedes attachment and proliferation of H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Smoke from three harm reduction brands was compared with smoke from a conventional brand. Doses of smoke were measured in puff equivalents (PE) (1 PE = the amount of smoke in one puff that dissolves in 1 ml of medium). Cytotoxic doses were determined using morphological criteria and trypan blue staining, and apoptosis was confirmed using Magic Red staining. Attachment and proliferation of hESC were followed at a noncytotoxic dose in time-lapse videos collected using BioStation technology. Data were mined from videos either manually or using video bioinformatics subroutines developed with CL-Quant software. Mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke from conventional and harm reduction cigarettes induced apoptosis in hESC colonies at 1 PE. At 0.1 PE (noncytotoxic), SS smoke from all brands inhibited attachment of hESC colonies to Matrigel with the strongest inhibition occurring in harm reduction brands. At 0.1 PE, SS smoke, but not MS smoke, from all brands inhibited hESC growth, and two harm reduction brands were more potent than the conventional brand. In general, hESC appeared more sensitive to smoke than their mouse ESC counterparts. Although harm reduction cigarettes are often marketed as safer than conventional brands, our assays show that SS smoke from harm reduction cigarettes was at least as potent or in some cases more potent than smoke from a conventional brand and that SS smoke was more inhibitory than MS smoke in all assays. PMID:20702591

  15. Effects of prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke on offspring tumor susceptibility and associated immune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sheung P; Silverstone, Allen E; Lai, Zhi-Wei; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to intact (unfractionated) cigarette smoke (CS) increases the incidence of cancer in the offspring. A toxicology study was carried out to examine the effects and underlying mechanisms of prenatal exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) on offspring resistance to tumor challenge and surveillance mechanisms critical for the recognition and destruction of tumors. Pregnant B6C3F1 mice were exposed by inhalation to MCS for 5 days/week (4 h/day from gestational day 4 to parturition). Smoke-induced effects on offspring-host resistance to transplanted tumor cells; natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity; cytokine levels; lymphoid organ immune cell subpopulations; and histology-were examined in 5-, 10- and 20-week-old male and female offspring. At a concentration of smoke roughly equivalent to smoking <1 pack of cigarettes/day, prenatally exposed male offspring challenged at 5 week of age with EL4 lymphoma cells demonstrated a greater than two-fold increase in tumor incidence (relative to age-/gender-matched air-exposed offspring); tumors in prenatally smoke-exposed pups also grew significantly faster. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in the smoke-exposed 5- and 10-week-old male pups was significantly less than that of the age- and gender-matched controls. No effects of prenatal CS exposure were observed on offspring NK activity, cytokine levels, lymphoid organ histology, or immune cell subpopulations. Results demonstrated that exposure of pregnant mice to a relevant dose of MCS decreased offspring resistance against transplanted tumor cells and persistently reduced CTL activity in prenatally exposed pups. This study provides biological plausibility for the epidemiologic data indicating that children of mothers who smoke during pregnancy have a greater risk of developing cancer in later life.

  16. The role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Lutey, Barbara A; Suzuki, Yoko; Toennies, Holly M; Kelley, Diane G; Kobayashi, Dale K; Ijem, Whitney G; Deslee, Gaetan; Moore, Carla H; Jacobs, M Eileen; Conradi, Susan H; Gierada, David S; Pierce, Richard A; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Senior, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 is an elastolytic endopeptidase produced by activated macrophages that may be involved in the development of human pulmonary emphysema and could be inhibited with existing compounds. Mouse models have demonstrated that excess MMP-9 production can result in permanent alveolar destruction. To determine if MMP-9 causes cigarette smoke-induced emphysema using MMP-9 knockout mice and human samples. Mouse lungs were analyzed for inflammation and airspace enlargement using a mainstream smoke-exposure model. Human macrophage mRNA was isolated from subjects with emphysema by laser capture microdissection. Human blood monocyte mRNA was isolated from subjects with greater than 30 pack-year smoking history. Human gene expression was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared with emphysema severity determined by automated computed tomography analysis. Plasma Clara cell secretory protein and surfactant protein-D were quantified to measure ongoing lung injury. Mice deficient in MMP-9 develop the same degree of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and airspace enlargement as strain-matched controls. Macrophages are the predominant source of MMP-9 production in human emphysema specimens and similar quantities of macrophage MMP-9 mRNA is present in areas of lung with and without emphysema. Circulating monocytes produce more MMP-9 in individuals with advanced emphysema severity despite no correlation of MMP-9 with markers of ongoing lung damage. These results suggest that MMP-9 in humans who smoke is similar to smoke-exposed mice, where MMP-9 is present in emphysematous lung but not correlated with the emphysema. To the degree that the mechanisms of emphysema in humans who smoke resemble the mouse model, these data suggest specific inhibition of MMP-9 is unlikely to be an effective therapy for cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00757120).

  17. Waterpipe Use and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Never-Smoking Youth.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Pbert, Lori

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm decision against smoking, is a strong predictor of regular smoking and addiction. Several modifiable risk factors have been identified among never cigarette smokers, and one potential factor of interest is waterpipe use. The purpose of this study is to determine the association of waterpipe use with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-smoking youth. In a pooled analysis of 17 Arab nations with nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted during 2002-2011, tobacco-related information was obtained from 30,711 never-smoking adolescents representing 4,962,872 youth. Study outcome was susceptibility to cigarette smoking, and primary exposure was waterpipe use. Data were analyzed in 2014 using weighted logistic regression models, including stratified models by gender, to determine the odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking with waterpipe use, adjusting for confounders. Overall, 20% of never-smoking youth were susceptible to cigarette smoking, ranging from 13.1% in Oman to 32.6% in Somalia; 5.2% currently used waterpipe, ranging from 0.3% in Morocco to 23.5% in Kuwait. The estimated odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking were 2.5 (95% CI=1.9, 3.4) times higher for adolescents who used waterpipe in the past month compared with those who did not, controlling for confounders. Estimates were similar when stratified by gender. Waterpipe use is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Study findings identify a novel risk factor for never smokers to initiate smoking and will help the public health community develop and implement policies around waterpipe use prevention. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  19. Constituents in tobacco and smoke emissions from Canadian cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D; O'Connor, R J

    2008-09-01

    There is relatively little information available about the chemical constituents of tobacco and individual toxic emissions from cigarettes and other tobacco products. To characterise 21 constituents in whole tobacco and 41 constituents in the smoke emissions of Canadian cigarettes, as well as to compare differences between domestic and imported brands. All data were released as part of Canada's Tobacco Reporting Regulations. Data are reported for 247 brands tested in 2004. The results indicate significant differences in the constituent levels of domestic and imported cigarette tobacco. Levels of ammonia compounds were significantly higher in imported "US blended" tobacco compared to domestically manufactured brands. Toxic emissions for tobacco-specific nitrosamines were significantly higher for imported cigarettes under both the ISO and Canadian Intense testing methods; however domestic cigarettes had higher levels of other toxic constituents, including benzo[a]pyrene. The findings also highlight the extent to which nicotine, heavy metals and tobacco-specific nitrosamines are "transferred" from the whole tobacco to the smoke. The findings illustrate important differences between domestically manufactured Virginia flue-cured cigarettes and imported US blended cigarettes. Although the findings suggest that domestic cigarettes had lower levels of constituents such as ammonia, which are associated with increased "additives", Canadian cigarettes were by no means "additive-free." Overall, these findings provide important benchmarks for making historical and international comparisons across brands on key constituents.

  20. Assessing Discrimination of Nicotine in Humans Via Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Kunkle, Nicole; Michael, Valerie C; Karelitz, Joshua L; Donny, Eric C

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine's interoceptive stimulus effects likely help explain smoking's reinforcing efficacy, but human studies have been limited by difficulties controlling dosing via tobacco inhalation. Our objective was to describe a procedure to study nicotine discrimination via smoking. Dependent smokers abstinent overnight (>12 hours) were first "trained" to discriminate between two cigarettes differing in nicotine content, based on four puffs of exposure, and then tested on whether they successfully acquired that discrimination. After piloting with Quest brand commercial cigarettes, 29 subjects engaged in the main study with cigarettes available through NIDA (Spectrum; 16mg vs. 0.4mg nicotine content). Discrimination training first involved two trials, one with each cigarette, prior to six testing trials. Due to results with the first 20 subjects, the remaining nine received two training trials with each cigarette (four total). Subjective perceptions were also assessed during each testing trial, and puff choice between the two cigarettes available concurrently was assessed after testing, on the last two trials. All five pilot subjects successfully discriminated Quest 1 versus Quest 3 (defined by at least five out of six trials correct, ie, >80%). Yet, only 10 of 20 subjects (50%) were able to discriminate the two Spectrum cigarettes based on two training trials. After changing to four training trials, eight of nine subjects were able to discriminate (89%). Subjective perceptions and puff choice differed between cigarettes more in those able versus unable to discriminate them. With sufficient training exposures, smokers can discriminate nicotine between cigarettes differing in nicotine contents. The interoceptive stimulus effects of nicotine are critical to understanding reinforcement from cigarette smoking behavior. Because of the very recent availability of Spectrum research cigarettes from NIDA, with specific known amounts of nicotine content, the study of nicotine

  1. Cigarette smoking and adult leukemia. A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brownson, R C; Novotny, T E; Perry, M C

    1993-02-22

    Increasing evidence suggests that certain forms of adult leukemia may be related to cigarette smoking. To evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and adult leukemia, we conducted a meta-analysis of available studies. Data were identified through an English-language MEDLINE search for the period 1970 through 1992 and through our knowledge of ongoing and unpublished studies. Among the studies identified, the meta-analysis included seven prospective studies and eight case-control studies. The US Surgeon General's criteria were used to assess the evidence for causality. A positive association between smoking and certain histologic types of leukemia was found in both prospective and case-control studies. The summary smoking-related risk derived from prospective studies (relative risk, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.4) was greater than that based on case-control data (relative risk, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.2). Prospective data suggested an elevated risk of myeloid leukemia associated with cigarette smoking (relative risk, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 1.6). Pooled case-control data showed increased smoking-associated risk for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (relative risk, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.5). Risk of leukemia increased according to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Population-attributable risk calculations suggested that approximately 14% of all US leukemia cases (including 17% of myeloid and 14% of acute nonlymphocytic leukemias) may be due to cigarette smoking. The consistency, temporality, and biologic plausibility of this relationship augment our findings, which support a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and certain forms of adult leukemia. Further studies are needed to examine risk among women, dose-response effects, and variation in risk by histologic type.

  2. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Daniel N.; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A.; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities.— Willis, D. N., Liu, B., Ha, M. A., Jordt, S.-E., Morris, J. B. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. PMID:21903934

  3. Psychosocial Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Rong; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Jing; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Hongshia; Chen, Xinguang

    2009-01-01

    The objectives are to examine the smoking practice and intention among Chinese college students and to explore the association between cigarette smoking and individual and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1874 students from 19 college campuses in Jiangsu province, China. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were…

  4. Psychosocial Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Rong; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Jing; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Hongshia; Chen, Xinguang

    2009-01-01

    The objectives are to examine the smoking practice and intention among Chinese college students and to explore the association between cigarette smoking and individual and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1874 students from 19 college campuses in Jiangsu province, China. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were…

  5. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  6. [Airway deposition of nanoparticles from second hand cigarette smoke].

    PubMed

    Becquemin, M-H; Bertholon, J-F; Attoui, M; Ledur, D; Roy, F; Roy, M; Dautzenberg, B

    2010-05-01

    Second hand cigarette smoke consists predominantly of nanoparticles (with two dimensions less than 100 nanometres). The aim of this study was to examine the aerosol of cigarette smoke suspended in the air of a smoking room, its disappearance over the course of time, and its retention in the airways of passive smokers, as these processes remain poorly characterised. A smoking machine produced cigarette smoke in a room. A low pressure electrostatic impactor with 13 plates, measured the size distribution and the concentration of the smallest particle sizes in the room air. Healthy adult volunteers (n=14) inhaled and exhaled this air through a nasal mask, allowing calculation of the retention of nanometric particles. The tobacco smoke aerosol was composed of 75% of nanometric particles. The half-life of these particles in the air was 18min. After 2h, 3% of the tobacco smoke particles remained suspended in the air. In passive smokers, the measured airway retention was on average 20%. This work shows that 75% of second hand cigarette smoke aerosol is made up of nanoparticles. When non-smokers inhale this passively, 20% of the particles are retained in their respiratory tract. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  8. Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Rebecca E; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Coleman, Blair N; Dube, Shanta R; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  10. Training and cardiovascular responses from cigarette smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Felipe Gonçalves Dos Santos; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Sant'Ana, Paula Grippa; da Cunha, Márcia Regina Holanda; Marocolo, Moacir; Castardeli, Edson

    2014-12-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the early effect of the endurance training (ET) on systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure-product (RPP) after acute cigarette smoke exposure. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TEx; n = 10) and control (CEx; n = 10), exposed to smoke. TEx rats undertook ET during 2 weeks (swimming, 5 days/week; 1 h/session) and CEx group was kept in sedentary lifestyle. After ET protocol both groups were exposed to cigarette smoke only once (total 1 h; 2 × 30 min with interval of 10 min between exposures; rate of 10 cigarettes/30 min). SBP, HR and RPP were measured after 2 weeks and just after (5 min) acute cigarette smoke (tail plethysmograph). All parameters did not differ (P > 0.05) between TEx (RPP = 45018 ± 1970 mmHg/bpm) and CEx (43695 ± 2579 mmHg/bpm) after ET protocol. However, all cardiovascular parameters increased (P < 0.05) only for CEx just after the cigarette smoke exposure. We concluded that ET can attenuate the aggression from acute smoking to cardiovascular system, with a few days of training and even with no chronic effect on these parameters at basal condition.

  11. Cigarette smoking and its possible effects on sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikauskas, V.; Blaustein, D.; Ablin, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The possible effects of cigarette smoking on sperm were evaluated by comparison of the quality of sperm from 103 smokers and 135 nonsmokers in a blind study. Smokers were found to possess significantly decreased density (number) and motility of their sperm than nonsmokers. Morphologic abnormalities, particularly bicephalia, although prevalent among individual smokers, did not differ significantly when a comparison of smokers versus nonsmokers was made as a whole. Based on these observations and those of others demonstrating the presence of the mutagenic properties of smoke condensates, the authors suggest that decreases in sperm density and motility in cigarette smokers may be reflective of smoke condensate-induced mutagenic spermatogenital alterations.

  12. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-15

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.

  13. Tunable Diode Laser Applications To Cigarette Smoke Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcins, Gunars; Harward, Charles N.; Parrish, Milton E.; Forrest, Gary T.

    1983-11-01

    High resolution infrared tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDL) has been applied to the study of cigarette smoke for qualitative and quantitative determinations involved in tobacco blend and cigarette filter developments. As examples of the different types of application of this work, several TDL studies are presented. The measurements of smoke components on a puff-by-puff basis in confined sample chambers and flowing streams were used to study the smoke component deliveries and the effects of filter dilution. The study of isotopes generated during combustion of chemically treated tobaccos was another application of the TDL system to complex gas mixtures without prior separation of compo-nents. The application of the TDL to the study of cigarette filters and smoke delivery simultaneously was demonstrated by using two well resolved absorption lines of two different gases which occur on a single TDL wavelength scan.

  14. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers.

    PubMed

    Blanc, P D; Golden, J A; Gamsu, G; Aberle, D R; Gold, W M

    1988-01-15

    We studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.

  15. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  16. [Smoking cigarettes and pain--implications for the postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Billert, Hanna; Gaca, Michał; Adamski, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes poses a number of relevant medical and social problems. Impact of smoking on pain threshold and tolerance may be of significance for surgical patients, who are prompted to abstain from cigarettes before operation. Association between smoking and pain perception is complex. Experimental data bring evidence for analgesic action of nicotine and tobacco smoke acting via nicotinic acetylochline receptors (nAChR). However, clinical studies are unequivocal. Smoking is connected with some pain syndromes. Smokers take much more analgesics than non-smokers and probability of developing opioid dependence is increased in this group of patients. Smokers also present with altered mechanism of stress-induced analgesia and both gender and pain modalities influence their pain perception. Some studies demonstrate increased requirements for postoperative opioid analgesia in smoking patients. Strategies for postoperative pain treatment in smokers should involve regional techniques and clonidine.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS).

    PubMed

    Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Zedler, Barbara K; Liang, Qiwei; Roethig, Hans J

    2008-11-01

    This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and ETS markers including solanesol-related particulate matter (Sol-PM), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP) were measured in a ventilated, furnished conference room over a 2-h period on separate occasions for each smoking condition. When the EHCSS was used, concentrations of CO and most ETS markers were in the same range as during no-smoking. Concentrations of ammonia were reduced by 41% and concentrations of other selected constituents of ETS were reduced by 87-99% in the air of a room in which EHCSS cigarettes were smoked as compared to concentrations in the same room when conventional cigarettes were smoked. Switching from conventional cigarette smoking to the EHCSS resulted in substantial reductions in concentrations of several markers of environmental tobacco smoke.

  18. Cigarette Smoking, Field-Dependence and Contrast Sensitivity,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    This study examined the separate and combined effects of cigarette smoking and field- dependence on contrast sensitivity. No previous research on...smokers were tested for field- dependence and measured for contrast sensitivity (Nicolet CS 20000 Testing System) under carefully controlled...deprived of smoking for at least 90 min. Habitual smoking and field- dependence were found to be separately and interactively related to contrast

  19. Vascular effects of cigarette smoke in isolated pig lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, M.J.; Sylvester, J.T.; Kennedy, T.P.; Menkes, H.A.; Traystman, R.J.

    1981-11-01

    To determine the local effects of cigarette smoke on the pulmonary vasculature, we measured pulmonary artery pressure--flow curves in isolated, blood-perfused pig lungs before and after 4 exposures to cigarette smoke. During each exposure, smoke was administered into the trachea for 3 to 4 min at a rate of 20 to 25 puffs/min and a puff volume of 35 to 50 ml with a smoking machine. During hypoxia (inspired PO2, 50 mmHg), when baseline vasomotor tone was high, cigarette smoke caused an acute transient vasodilation. During control (inspired PO2, 200 mmHg), when baseline tone was low, no significant effect was observed. In addition to this acute effect, cigarette smoke caused a depression of the pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia, which developed gradually during the course of the experiment. Indomethacin, at perfusate concentrations of 20 and 100 micrograms/ml, did not significantly alter the acute vasodilating effect of smoking, suggesting that prostaglandins synthesized by cyclooxygenase were not the mediators of this response. Indomethacin did, however, prevent the gradual depression of the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia.

  20. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  1. Acetyl Radical Generation in Cigarette Smoke: Quantification and Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10–150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commerial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass filber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acealdehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke. PMID:25253993

  2. E-Cigarette Use Among Never-Smoking California Students.

    PubMed

    Bostean, Georgiana; Trinidad, Dennis R; McCarthy, William J

    2015-12-01

    We determined the extent to which adolescents who have never used tobacco try e-cigarettes. Data on the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among 482,179 California middle and high school students are from the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey. Overall, 24.4% had ever used e-cigarettes (13.4% have never used tobacco and 11.0% have used tobacco), and 12.9% were current e-cigarette users (5.9% have never used tobacco). Among those who have never used tobacco, males and older students were more likely to use e-cigarettes than females and younger students. Hispanics (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; confidence interval [CI] = 1.53, 1.67) and those of other races (OR = 1.24; CI = 1.19, 1.29) were more likely than Whites to have ever used e-cigarettes, but only among those who had never used smokeless tobacco and never smoked a whole cigarette. E-cigarette use is very prevalent among California students who have never smoked tobacco, especially among Hispanic and other race students, males, and older students.

  3. Damage to the insula disrupts addiction to cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Rudrauf, David; Damasio, Hanna; Bechara, Antoine

    2007-01-26

    A number of brain systems have been implicated in addictive behavior, but none have yet been shown to be necessary for maintaining the addiction to cigarette smoking. We found that smokers with brain damage involving the insula, a region implicated in conscious urges, were more likely than smokers with brain damage not involving the insula to undergo a disruption of smoking addiction, characterized by the ability to quit smoking easily, immediately, without relapse, and without persistence of the urge to smoke. This result suggests that the insula is a critical neural substrate in the addiction to smoking.

  4. Damage to the Insula Disrupts Addiction to Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Nasir H.; Rudrauf, David; Damasio, Hanna; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    A number of brain systems have been implicated in addictive behavior, but none have yet been shown to be necessary for maintaining the addiction to cigarette smoking. We found that smokers with brain damage involving the insula, a region implicated in conscious urges, were more likely than smokers with brain damage not involving the insula to undergo a disruption of smoking addiction, characterized by the ability to quit smoking easily, immediately, without relapse, and without persistence of the urge to smoke. This result suggests that the insula is a critical neural substrate in the addiction to smoking. PMID:17255515

  5. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Vani, G.; Anbarasi, K.; Shyamaladevi, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA) on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke. PMID:26413118

  6. Is Smoking Shisha Safer than Cigarettes: Comparison of Health Effects of Shisha and Cigarette Smoking among Young Adults in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Husain, Hamid; Al-Fadhli, Fahed; Al-Olaimi, Fatima; Al-Duraie, Alshouq; Qureshi, Ammar; Al-Kandari, Waleed; Mitra, Amal K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the health effects of shisha smoking with cigarette smoking among male college students in Kuwait. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 525 male students in Kuwait from September to October 2013. A pretested questionnaire was used for information on demographics and health complaints. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured using a portable peak flow meter. The outcome variables of health status were compared between smoking shisha, cigarettes, or both, and nonsmoking. The prevalence of current smoking was 243 of the 525 students (46%); of them, 52 (10%) were shisha smokers, 69 were (13%) cigarette smokers and 122 (23%) were both shisha and cigarette smokers. There were significantly fewer shisha smokers than cigarette smokers with symptoms of persistent cough (4 vs. 13% or 2/52 vs. 15/69; p = 0.007), chest pain (4 vs. 23% or 2/52 vs. 16/69; p = 0.004) and rapid heart rate (12 vs. 28% or 6/52 vs. 19/69; p = 0.04). Other complaints, including asthma, respiratory infections, shortness of breath, high blood pressure, increased blood sugar levels and sleep disturbances were similar in the 2 groups. Values of PEFR for shisha smokers and cigarette smokers were not significantly different. This study produced evidence suggesting that shisha smoking is not safer than cigarette smoking except with regard to complaints such as cough, chest pain and rapid heart rate, and that people who smoke both experience worse health effects in terms of frequent symptoms of respiratory infections, persistent cough, rapid heartbeat and sleep disturbances. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. ISE Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guofeng; Polk, Brian J.; Meazell, Liz A.; Hatchett, David W.

    2000-08-01

    Many advanced undergraduate analytical laboratory courses focus on exposing students to various modern instruments. However, students rarely have the opportunity to construct their own analytical tools for solving practical problems. We designed an experiment in which students are required to build their own analytical module, a potentiometric device composed of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a Ag/Ag2S ion selective electrode (ISE), and a pH meter used as voltmeter, to determine the amount of hydrogen sulfide in cigarette smoke. Very simple techniques were developed for constructing these electrodes. Cigarette smoke is collected by a gas washing bottle into a 0.1 M NaOH solution. The amount of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution is analyzed by standard addition of sulfide solution while monitoring the response of the Ag/Ag2S ISE. The collected data are further evaluated using the Gran plot technique to determine the concentration of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution. The experiment has been successfully incorporated into the lab course Instrumental Analysis at Georgia Institute of Technology. Students enjoy the idea of constructing an analytical tool themselves and applying their classroom knowledge to solve real-life problems. And while learning electrochemistry they also get a chance to visualize the health hazard imposed by cigarette smoking.

  8. Cigarette smoking causes epigenetic changes associated with cardiorenal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Christopher A; Crotty Alexander, Laura E; Haller, Steven T; Fan, Xiaoming; Xie, Jeffrey X; Kennedy, David J; Liu, Jiang; Yan, Yanling; Hernandez, Dawn-Alita; Mathew, Denzil P; Cooper, Christopher J; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tian, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Clinical studies indicate that smoking combustible cigarettes promotes progression of renal and cardiac injury, leading to functional decline in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, basic studies using in vivo small animal models that mimic clinical pathology of CKD are lacking. To address this issue, we evaluated renal and cardiac injury progression and functional changes induced by 4 wk of daily combustible cigarette smoke exposure in the 5/6th partial nephrectomy (PNx) CKD model. Molecular evaluations revealed that cigarette smoke significantly (P < 0.05) decreased renal and cardiac expression of the antifibrotic microRNA miR-29b-3 and increased expression of molecular fibrosis markers. In terms of cardiac and renal organ structure and function, exposure to cigarette smoke led to significantly increased systolic blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac and renal fibrosis, and decreased renal function. These data indicate that decreased expression of miR-29b-3p is a novel mechanism wherein cigarette smoke promotes accelerated cardiac and renal tissue injury in CKD. (155 words).

  9. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-03-14

    The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13-18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of

  10. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette

  11. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Felicia; Nandy, Karabi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians. PMID:21695023

  12. Patterns of Water-Pipe and Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Schoolchildren: Irbid Longitudinal Smoking Study

    PubMed Central

    Khader, Yousef; Eissenberg, Thomas; Al Ali, Radwan; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use remains a major public health problem worldwide. Water-pipe smoking is spreading rapidly and threatening to undermine the successes achieved in tobacco control. Methods: A school-based longitudinal study in the city of Irbid, Jordan, was performed from 2008 to 2010. All seventh-grade students in 19 randomly selected schools, out of a total of 60 schools in the city, were enrolled at baseline and surveyed annually. Results: Of the 1781 students enrolled at baseline 1,701 (95.5%) were still in the study at the end of the second year of follow-up (869 boys, median age at baseline 13 years). Ever and current water-pipe smoking were higher than those of cigarette smoking at baseline (ever smoking: 25.9% vs. 17.6% and current smoking: 13.3% vs. 5.3% for water-pipe and cigarette smoking, respectively; p < .01 for both) but cigarette smoking caught up by the second year of follow-up (ever smoking: 46.4% vs. 44.7%; p = .32 and current smoking: 18.9% vs. 14.9%; p < .01). Water pipe–only smokers at baseline were twice as likely to become current cigarette smokers after 2 years compared with never smokers (relative risk (RR) = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.4). A similar pattern was observed for cigarette-only smokers at baseline (RR = 2.0; 95% CI = 0.9, 4.8). Conclusions: Prevalence of water-pipe and cigarette smoking increased dramatically over the 2-year follow-up period with similar patterns in boys and girls, although girls had lower prevalence in all categories. Water-pipe smoking at baseline predicted the progress to cigarette smoking in the future and vice versa. PMID:22140149

  13. Particulate Matter in Second-Hand Smoke Emitted from Different Cigarette Sizes and Types of the Brand Vogue Mainly Smoked by Women

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Nora; Müller, Ruth; Braun, Markus; Gerber, Alexander; Groneberg, David

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air pollution with harmful particulate matter (PM) is mainly caused by cigarette smoke. Super-Slim-Size-Cigarettes (SSL) are considered a less harmful alternative to King-Size-Cigarettes (KSC) due to longer filters and relatively low contents. We ask if “Combined Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke” (CMSS)-associated PM levels of SSL are lower than of KSC and thus are potentially less harmful. PM concentrations in CMSS (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) are measured from four cigarette types of the brand Vogue, using an “automatic-environmental-tobacco-smoke-emitter” (AETSE) and laser aerosol spectrometry: SSL-BLEUE, -MENTHE, -LILAS and KSC-La Cigarette and -3R4F reference. This analysis shows that SSL MENTHE emitted the highest amount of PM, and KSC-La Cigarette the lowest. 3R4F reference emitted PM in the middle range, exceeding SSL BLEUE and falling slightly below SSL LILAS. It emerged that PM1 constituted the biggest proportion of PM emission. The outcome shows significant type-specific differences for emitted PM concentrations. Our results indicate that SSL are potentially more harmful for passive smokers than the respective KSC. However, this study cannot give precise statements about the general influence of the size of a cigarette on PM. Alarming is that PM1 is responsible for the biggest proportion of PM pollution, since smaller particles cause more harmful effects. PMID:27509517

  14. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on pattern electroretinogram.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, Fatih C; Durukan, A Hakan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Sobaci, Gungor; Bayraktar, M Zeki

    2006-09-01

    In this study, acute effects of cigarette smoking on the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) were investigated. First, variability of the PERG was studied in a group of young male smokers (26 right eyes of 26 subjects). Then PERGs were investigated in a group of habitual smokers (17 right eyes of 17 subjects) in separate real smoking and sham smoking sessions. On each session PERGs were recorded pre-smoking (PS), immediately after smoking (IAS) and 5 min after smoking (5th) conditions. Real smoking significantly increased P50 amplitudes and decreased N95 latencies. Regarding P50 amplitudes in the real smoking sessions, the differences were significant between PS and IAS (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5 muV, IAS: 3.7 +/- 0.7microV, P = 0.015) and between PS-5th (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5microV, 5th: 4.1 +/- 0.9microV, P = 0.039). There was significant difference (P = 0.024) between N95 latencies of PS (98.5 +/- 6.9 ms) and IAS (94.7 +/- 5.1 ms) in the real smoking sessions. No statistically significant difference was observed in sham smoking sessions. Our results indicated, for the first time, that cigarette smoking may influence PERG amplitude and latency significantly in habitual smokers.

  15. Medicalisation, smoking and e-cigarettes: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-30

    There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit. We argue that the medicalisation of smoking will have limited impact due to the emphasis on population-based interventions in tobacco control, the ambiguous place of nicotine among other drugs and the modest efficacy of current pharmacotherapies. These factors, as well as lay understandings of smoking that emphasise willpower, personal choice and responsibility, have contributed to the limited success of medical approaches to smoking cessation. While the rapid uptake of e-cigarettes in some countries has provided an option for those who reject medical treatments for smoking cessation, current regulatory developments could limit the potential of e-cigarettes to provide non-therapeutic nicotine for those who currently smoke tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Gas/particle partitioning of two acid-base active compounds in mainstream tobacco smoke: nicotine and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cai; Pankow, James F

    2009-04-08

    Gas/particle (G/P) partitioning constant (Kp) values are reported for nicotine and ammonia for mainstream tobacco smoke (MTS) for a selection of cigarettes, "little cigars", and biddies. As K(p)(nic) decreases as a result of the increasing basicity in the MTS, there is an increase in volatility of nicotine from the smoke particulate matter. The "little cigars" and biddies exhibited generally lower K(p)(nic) values and higher unbound ammonia levels than most of the cigarettes, suggesting a correlation between the two parameters. However, within just the cigarettes, there was little correlation. The water content of MTS particulate matter was found to affect both K(p)(nic) and K(p)(amm). Unbound ammonia is actual NH3/NH4+; bound ammonia is comprised of compounds such as amides of ammonia; total ammonia is unbound + bound. Most historical studies of ammonia in MTS have not accurately measured either unbound or total ammonia: the acidic solutions historically employed to determine ammonia in MTS will release ammonia from bound forms by hydrolysis, and the release in those studies may not have been complete. This study concludes that a thorough examination of unbound and bound ammonia in MTS will be required before the role of ammonia in affecting volatility of nicotine in MTS can be understood.

  17. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and cognitive performance in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kafouri, S; Leonard, G; Perron, M; Richer, L; Séguin, J R; Veillette, S; Pausova, Z; Paus, T

    2009-02-01

    The incidence of cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains high. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is known to be associated with cognitive and behavioural sequelae in childhood and adolescence. We assessed the relationship between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and cognitive abilities in adolescent offspring (n = 503, 12- to 18-years old) using an extensive 6-h battery of tests. Non-exposed adolescents (controls) were matched to exposed adolescents (cases) by maternal education and school attended. Cognitive abilities were evaluated using a neuropsychological battery consisting of 33 tasks measuring verbal abilities, visuo-spatial skills, verbal and visual memory, processing speed, resistance to interference and motor dexterity. We found no differences between cases and controls in any of the cognitive domains whether potential confounders were included in the model or not. In addition to maternal smoking during pregnancy, we also evaluated the effect of sex and age on the various cognitive abilities in this large adolescent sample and found that most of the abilities continue to improve during adolescence to the same extent in girls and boys, with several age-independent sex differences. We found no effect of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy on cognitive abilities of the adolescent offspring when matching cases and controls by maternal education, the most common confounder of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

  18. Carbon monoxide fractions in cigarette and hookah (hubble bubble) smoke.

    PubMed

    Sajid, K M; Akhter, M; Malik, G Q

    1993-09-01

    We studied the carbon monoxide (CO) fractions in hookah and cigarette smoke, using a carbon monoxide micro smokerlyzer (model EC50, BEDFONT, U.K.). Mean carbon monoxide fractions (% by volume) of hookah smoke, using domestic charcoal were 0.38 +/- 0.07 (large hookah; unfiltered); 1.40 +/- 0.43 (small hookah; unfiltered); 0.34 +/- 0.06 (large hookah; filtered); 1.36 +/- 0.35 (small hookah; filtered) and 0.41 +/- 0.08 (cigarette smoke). The highest fractions were obtained with small size hookah and increase in size of hookah (i.e., volume of air in water base, fire bowl volume, pipe length, etc.) reduced the CO fraction significantly (P < 0.001). The fractions of cigarette lie between large and small hookah. The fractions vary slightly with different varieties of tobacco, e.g., CO fractions with Dera wala tobacco are significantly low (P < 0.05). Use of commercial charcoal gives significant rise in CO fractions (P < 0.001). Comparison of filtered and unfiltered smoke shows no significant difference in values. We conclude that the CO hazard is as high with hookah smoking as with cigarette smoking.

  19. "Smoking revolution": a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites.

    PubMed

    Grana, Rachel A; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%); increased social status (44%); enhanced social activity (32%); romance (31%); and use by celebrities (22%). Health claims and smoking-cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  1. Cigarette smoking and adolescents: messages they see and hear.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of mortality and morbidity in the US. But in the mid-1990s, more than one-third of US teenagers were smokers, despite their awareness of the health risks and negative consequences of tobacco use. In 1996, as part of a three-year qualitative study to explore differences in adolescent smoking by gender and ethnicity, members of the Tobacco Control Network examined messages that teens receive about cigarette smoking. Consisting of 178 focus groups with 1,175 teenagers covering all levels of smoking experience, the study included teens from five ethnic groups, stratified by gender and ethnicity, from urban and rural areas across the US. The authors reviewed the sources and content of messages that teens reported were most influential in their decisions to smoke or not smoke cigarettes. Family and peers, school, television, and movies were the primary sources for both pro- and anti-smoking messages. The authors conclude that a lack of clear, consistent antismoking messages leaves teens vulnerable to the influences of pro-smoking messages from a variety of sources. Interventions need to be culture- and gender-specific. Family-based interventions appear to be needed and efficacious, but resource intensive. Building self-esteem may prove to be a promising intervention. PMID:11889286

  2. Cigarette Smoke, Bacteria, Mold, Microbial Toxins, and Chronic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, John L.; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with cigarette smoke fosters malignant transformation and tumor cell proliferation and promotes certain nonneoplastic pulmonary diseases. The question arises as to whether chronic inflammation and/or colonization of the airway can be attributed, at least in part, to tobacco-associated microbes (bacteria, fungi, and spores) and/or microbial toxins (endotoxins and mycotoxins) in tobacco. To address this question, a literature search of documents in various databases was performed. The databases included PubMed, Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and US Patents. This investigation documents that tobacco companies have identified and quantified bacteria, fungi, and microbial toxins at harvest, throughout fermentation, and during storage. Also characterized was the microbial flora of diverse smoking and smokeless tobacco articles. Evidence-based health concerns expressed in investigations of microbes and microbial toxins in cigarettes, cigarette smoke, and smokeless tobacco products are reasonable; they warrant review by regulatory authorities and, if necessary, additional investigation to address scientific gaps. PMID:21772847

  3. Cigarette smoke and ozone effect on murine inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Gardi, Concetta; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution has been associated with many different diseases, such as cancer, and respiratory, cardiovascular, and cutaneous chronic diseases. These effects are enhanced in people exposed to combined air pollutants, such as ozone and cigarette smoke. Chronic exposure to these pollutants causes an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation and has been associated with an increase in pulmonary diseases and mortality. Clinical and epidemiological studies reported interindividual variability in the adverse health effects of air pollutants, suggesting a genetic predisposition. The identification of subgroups of the population who are particularly vulnerable to air pollution is, therefore, of importance. Mouse models are a useful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying different susceptibility, as they show differences in strain responses to both ozone and cigarette smoke. This review analyses the role of inflammation and the influence of genetic factors on the mechanisms of lung injury caused by ozone and cigarette smoke.

  4. Cigarette smoke, bacteria, mold, microbial toxins, and chronic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pauly, John L; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with cigarette smoke fosters malignant transformation and tumor cell proliferation and promotes certain nonneoplastic pulmonary diseases. The question arises as to whether chronic inflammation and/or colonization of the airway can be attributed, at least in part, to tobacco-associated microbes (bacteria, fungi, and spores) and/or microbial toxins (endotoxins and mycotoxins) in tobacco. To address this question, a literature search of documents in various databases was performed. The databases included PubMed, Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and US Patents. This investigation documents that tobacco companies have identified and quantified bacteria, fungi, and microbial toxins at harvest, throughout fermentation, and during storage. Also characterized was the microbial flora of diverse smoking and smokeless tobacco articles. Evidence-based health concerns expressed in investigations of microbes and microbial toxins in cigarettes, cigarette smoke, and smokeless tobacco products are reasonable; they warrant review by regulatory authorities and, if necessary, additional investigation to address scientific gaps.

  5. Longitudinal study of e-cigarette use and onset of cigarette smoking among high school students in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Knight, Rebecca; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Pagano, Ian; Williams, Rebecca J

    2017-01-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is prevalent among adolescents, but there is little knowledge about the consequences of their use. We examined, longitudinally, how e-cigarette use among adolescents is related to subsequent smoking behaviour. Longitudinal school-based survey with a baseline sample of 2338 students (9th and 10th graders, mean age 14.7 years) in Hawaii surveyed in 2013 (time 1, T1) and followed up 1 year later (time 2, T2). We assessed e-cigarette use, tobacco cigarette use, and psychosocial covariates (demographics, parental support and monitoring, and sensation seeking and rebelliousness). Regression analyses including the covariates tested whether e-cigarette use was related to the onset of smoking among youth who had never smoked cigarettes, and to change in smoking frequency among youth who had previously smoked cigarettes. Among T1 never-smokers, those who had used e-cigarettes at T1 were more likely to have smoked cigarettes at T2; for a complete-case analysis, adjusted OR=2.87, 95% CI 2.03 to 4.05, p<0.0001. Among ever-smokers at T1, using e-cigarettes was not related to significant change in their frequency of smoking at T2. Uptake of e-cigarette use among T1 never-users of either product was predicted by age, Caucasian or Native Hawaiian (vs Asian-American) ethnicity, lower parental education and parental support, higher rebelliousness, and perception of e-cigarettes as healthier. Adolescents who use e-cigarettes are more likely to start smoking cigarettes. This result together with other findings suggests that policies restricting adolescents' access to e-cigarettes may have a rationale from a public health standpoint. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

  7. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Kim

    2011-05-01

    To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers.

  8. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Acrylic Resin Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Seema S.; M.R., Dhakshaini; Gujjari, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The discolouration of artificial teeth, which hampers aesthetics, is one of the negative effects of cigarette smoking. Therefore, the effect of cigarette smoke on the colour stability of commercially available acrylic resin teeth needs to be evaluated for clinical success and to ascertain as to which brand has superior properties. Material and Methods: Three commercially available acrylic teeth were evaluated, after division into Group A (Premadent), Group B (Astra), and Group C (Sanyo- Dent). Selected brands were subdivided as study group and control group. Each set of acrylic resin teeth were stored in artificial saliva at 37±1°C for 24 hours. After 24 hours of immersion, the colour measurement of each tooth (T0) was performed. Second colour measurements were done after 21 days (T21) of exposure to cigarette smoke for study group and after immersion in artificial saliva for control group. All data was statistically analyzed by using Repeated Measures ANOVA and Two-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Results: Group A showed least total colour change on exposure to cigarette smoke, followed by Group B and Group C had the highest total colour change. In control group, after immersion in artificial saliva, a slight increase in total colour change was observed for all groups, which was clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Group A (crosslinked acrylic resin teeth) was more colour stable and more resistant to the discolouration which was caused by cigarette smoke, followed by Group B (crosslinked acrylic resin teeth). Group C (Non-crosslinked acrylic resin teeth) was least colour stable and most susceptible to discolouration which was caused by cigarette smoke. PMID:24179942

  9. High Throughput Determination of Mercury in Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke from Little Cigars

    PubMed Central

    Fresquez, Mark R.; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Watson, Clifford H.; Pappas, R. Steven

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed that utilizes a platinum trap for mercury from mainstream tobacco smoke which represents an improvement over traditional approaches that require impingers and long sample preparation procedures. In this approach, the trapped mercury is directly released for analysis by heating the trap in a direct mercury analyzer. The method was applied to the analysis of mercury in the mainstream smoke of little cigars. The mercury levels in little cigar smoke obtained under Health Canada Intense smoking machine conditions ranged from 7.1 × 10−3 mg/m3 to 1.2 × 10−2 mg/m3. These air mercury levels exceed the chronic inhalation Minimal Risk Level corrected for intermittent exposure to metallic mercury (e.g., 1 or 2 hours per day, 5 days per week) determined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to assess associations between mercury levels and little cigar physical design properties. Filter ventilation was identified as the principal physical parameter influencing mercury concentrations in mainstream little cigar smoke generated under ISO machine smoking conditions. With filter ventilation blocked under Health Canada Intense smoking conditions, mercury concentrations in tobacco and puff number (smoke volume) were the primary physical parameters that influenced mainstream smoke mercury concentrations. PMID:26051388

  10. High-Throughput Determination of Mercury in Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke from Little Cigars.

    PubMed

    Fresquez, Mark R; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2015-09-01

    A method was developed that utilizes a platinum trap for mercury from mainstream tobacco smoke, which represents an improvement over traditional approaches that require impingers and long sample preparation procedures. In this approach, the trapped mercury is directly released for analysis by heating the trap in a direct mercury analyzer. The method was applied to the analysis of mercury in the mainstream smoke of little cigars. The mercury levels in little cigar smoke obtained under Health Canada Intense smoking machine conditions ranged from 7.1 × 10(-3) to 1.2 × 10(-2) mg/m(3). These air mercury levels exceed the chronic inhalation minimal risk level corrected for intermittent exposure to metallic mercury (e.g., 1 or 2 h per day, 5 days per week) determined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to assess associations between mercury levels and little cigar physical design properties. Filter ventilation was identified as the principal physical parameter influencing mercury concentrations in mainstream little cigar smoke generated under ISO machine smoking conditions. With filter ventilation blocked under Health Canada Intense smoking conditions, mercury concentrations in tobacco and puff number (smoke volume) were the primary physical parameters that influenced mainstream smoke mercury concentrations.

  11. Particulate matter in cigarette smoke alters iron homeostasis to produce a biological effect.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline G; Dailey, Lisa A; Carter, Jacqueline D; Richards, Judy H; Crissman, Kay M; Foronjy, Robert F; Uyeminami, Dale L; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2008-12-01

    Lung injury after cigarette smoking is related to particle retention. Iron accumulates with the deposition of these particles. We tested the postulate that (1) injury after smoking correlates with exposure to the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, (2) these particles alter iron homeostasis, triggering metal accumulation, and (3) this alteration in iron homeostasis affects oxidative stress and inflammation. Rats and human respiratory epithelial cells were exposed to cigarette smoke, filtered cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke condensate (the particulate fraction of smoke), and indices of iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory injury were determined. Comparable measures were also evaluated in nonsmokers and smokers. After exposure of rats to cigarette smoke, increased lavage concentrations of iron and ferritin, serum ferritin levels, and nonheme iron concentrations in the lung and liver tissue all increased. Lavage ascorbate concentrations were decreased, supporting an oxidative stress. After filtering of the cigarette smoke to remove particles, most of these changes were reversed. Exposure of cultured respiratory epithelial cells to cigarette smoke condensate caused a similar accumulation of iron, metal-dependent oxidative stress, and increased IL-8 release. Lavage samples in healthy smokers and smoking patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease revealed elevated concentrations of both iron and ferritin relative to healthy nonsmokers. Lavage ascorbate decreased with cigarette smoking. Serum iron and ferritin levels among smokers were increased, supporting systemic accumulation of this metal after cigarette smoke exposure. We conclude that cigarette smoke particles alter iron homeostasis, both in the lung and systemically.

  12. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Waterpipe use and cognitive susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-cigarette smoking Jordanian youth: analysis of the 2009 Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Kheirallah, Khalid A; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Ward, Kenneth D

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as lack of a firm decision to not initiate smoking, predicts youth smoking initiation and experimentation and is a first step in the transition to regular smoking. This study investigated whether waterpipe (WP) smoking, an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use among Arab adolescents, was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking. A secondary analysis of the 2009 Jordan Global Youth Tobacco Survey was conducted to assess the association between WP use and cigarette susceptibility, after adjusting for important confounders. A total of 1,476 youth aged 13-15 years old who had never smoked cigarettes were identified and represented 166,593 never-cigarette smoking Jordanian youth. We found 40% of boys and 29% of girls were susceptible to cigarette smoking, and both boys (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-1.54) and girls (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.83-2.04) who had ever smoked WP were more susceptible to cigarette smoking than those who never smoked WP. This is the first study to report that WP use may increase youth's susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Smoking and electronic cigarettes in France].

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    France is one of the developed countries where the prevalence of tobacco use is the highest. The reduction of incidence and prevalence of tobacco use in the near future would considerably decrease tobacco associated mortality and morbidity. The electronic cigarette, a consumer product that delivers pharmacologically active substances, is used by several millions of persons in France. The benefit-risk ratio of electronic cigarette use is unknown, as of today.

  15. Prevalence and social environment of cigarette smoking in Cyprus youth.

    PubMed

    Christophi, Costas A; Kolokotroni, Ourania; Alpert, Hillel R; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Demokritou, Philip; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-06-02

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Limited data exist regarding the extent of the problem among Cyprus youth. We use the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among middle and high school students as well as the social environment in which this is taking place. The survey was conducted by the Cyprus International Institute for the Environment and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to select a representative sample of students from middle and high schools registered with the Republic of Cyprus in 2005-2006. The study questionnaire consisted of 99 questions and participation in the survey was voluntary. Statistical analyses were performed taking into consideration the specific design of the study and the sample weights associated with each completed questionnaire. The prevalence of current smoking, defined as having smoked cigarettes on one or more days of the past 30 days, is 13% among boys and 7% among girls in middle schools, and 36% among boys and 23% among girls in high schools. Furthermore, 16% of middle school students and more than 24% of high school students that had never smoked indicated that they are likely to initiate smoking within the next year. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is also very high with 91% of students reporting being exposed to smoke in places outside home. In addition, more than 95% of current smokers reported that they had bought cigarettes in a store during the past month and were not refused cigarettes because of their age. Smoking prevalence among Cyprus middle and high school students is high and there are indications of an increase in the prevalence of smoking among girls over the last few years. Susceptibility rates, exposure to second-hand smoke, and access to and availability of cigarettes to youth are also high and concerning. The present survey indicates that

  16. Dealing with an innovative industry: a look at flavored cigarettes promoted by mainstream brands.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M Jane; Wackowski, Olivia

    2006-02-01

    Product and marketing innovation is key to the tobacco industry's success. One recent innovation was the development and marketing of flavored cigarettes as line extensions of 3 popular brands (Camel, Salem, and Kool). These products have distinctive blends and marketing as well as innovative packaging and have raised concerns in the public health community that they are targeted at youths. Several policy initiatives have aimed at banning or limiting these types of products on that basis. We describe examples of the products and their marketing and discuss their potential implications (including increased smoking experimentation, consumption, and "someday smoking"), as well as their potential impact on young adults.

  17. CIGARETTE SMOKING AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kessides, Maria C.; Wheless, Lee; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Clipp, Sandra; Alani, Rhoda M.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several previous studies have reported inverse associations between cigarette smoking and melanoma. Often these studies have not adjusted for ultraviolet (UV) exposure history, skin type, or number of blistering sunburns, which could confound the observed associations between cigarette smoking and melanoma. Objective To assess whether this reported inverse association persists after adjusting for UV exposure, skin type, and number of blistering sunburns. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study (82 melanoma cases, 164 controls). Two controls were matched to each case by age, sex, race, and skin type. Conditional logistic regression models were fit to assess the association between cigarette smoking history and melanoma, with additional adjustments for UV exposure and sunburns. Results Compared to never smokers, both former (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.18–1.04) and current (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.19–2.24) smoking were inversely associated with melanoma, but the associations were not statistically significant. Limitations The number of cutaneous nevi was not assessed in this study. Additionally, the relatively small number of cases limits the statistical precision of the observed associations. Conclusions After matching for age, sex, race, and skin type, and further adjusting for UV exposure and number of sunburns, cigarette smoking was not statistically significantly associated with melanoma risk, but the results were consistent with previous observations of an inverse association. PMID:20334951

  18. Cigarette Smoking Predicts Differential Benefit from Naltrexone for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fucito, Lisa M.; Park, Aesoon; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Mattson, Margaret E.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza V.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying factors that modify responsiveness to pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence is important for treatment planning. Cigarette smoking predicts more severe alcohol dependence and poorer treatment response in general. Nevertheless, there is limited research on cigarette smoking as a potential predictor of differential response to pharmacological treatment of alcoholism. Methods We examined the association between cigarette smoking and drinking outcomes in the COMBINE study, a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled 16-week trial comparing combinations of medications (i.e., acamprosate and naltrexone) and behavioral interventions (i.e., medical management (MM), combined behavioral therapy (CBI)) in 1383 alcohol dependent individuals. Results Smokers (i.e., more than half the sample) significantly differed from nonsmokers on several demographic and drinking-related variables at baseline and generally had poorer treatment outcomes than nonsmokers. However, smokers who received naltrexone had better drinking outcomes than smokers who received placebo, whereas alcohol use among nonsmokers did not vary by naltrexone assignment. This pattern of findings occurred independent of whether patients received CBI or MM and remained after controlling for alcoholism typology and baseline demographic differences. Approximately 9% of smokers quit smoking and an additional 10% reduced their cigarette intake during treatment. Reductions in smoking did not vary by treatment assignment. Conclusions These results suggest that naltrexone may be particularly beneficial for improving alcohol use outcomes in alcohol dependent smokers. Trial Registration The COMBINE Study, NCT000626, http://www.cscc.unc.edu/combine/. PMID:22541040

  19. Cellular transformation by cigarette smoke extract involves alteration of glycolysis and mitochondrial function in esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung Sook; Huang, Yiping; Lee, Juna; Zhong, Xiaoli; Jiang, Wei-Wen; Ratovitski, Edward A; Sidransky, David

    2010-07-15

    Cigarette-smoking increases the risk of developing various types of human cancers including esophageal cancers. To test the effects of chronic cigarette smoke exposure directly on esophageal epithelium, cellular resistance to mainstream extract (MSE), or sidestream smoke extract (SSE) was developed in chronically exposed nonmalignant Het-1A cells. Anchorage-independent growth, in vitro invasion capacity and proliferation of the resistant cells increased compared with the unexposed, sensitive cells. An epithelial marker E-cadherin was down-regulated and mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin were up-regulated in the resistant cells. Het-1A cells resistant to MSE or SSE consumed more glucose, and produced more lactate than the sensitive cells. The increased anchorage-independent cell growth of the resistant cells was suppressed by a glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, indicating that these cells are highly dependent on the glycolytic pathway for survival. Decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in the resistant cells indicate the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by chronic exposure of cigarette smoke extract. Increased expression of nuclear genes in the glycolytic pathway and decreased levels of mitochondrial genes in the resistant cells support the notion that cigarette smoking significantly contributes to the transformation of nonmalignant esophageal epithelial cells into a tumorigenic phenotype.

  20. Impulsivity and the reinforcing value of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Cohen, Lee

    2007-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that impulsivity would predict perceptions of positive and negative reinforcement from smoking. The secondary hypothesis was that the relationship between impulsivity and smoking reinforcement expectations would be mediated by the character trait of self-directedness. College students (n=202) who reported smoking cigarettes participated in the survey study. Hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that impulsivity predicted expectations about positive (beta=.22, p=.001) and negative (beta=.25, p=.001) reinforcement from smoking. These relationships were also mediated by self-directedness. Results suggest that impulsive smokers in the early stages of dependence may smoke because they expect smoking to be extremely pleasurable as well as to help dispel bouts with negative affect. Furthermore, their elevated expectations about smoking may be related to difficulties adapting to challenging environments and working toward long-term goals.

  1. Predicting the Cytotoxic Potency of Cigarette Smoke by Assessing the Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitory Capacity of Cigarette Smoke Extract.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longjie; Ning, Min; Xu, Yingbo; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Guangshan; Cao, Qingqing; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-03-21

    The present study investigated the influence of the cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity. TrxR is a selenoenzyme with a selenocysteine (Sec) residue exposed on the enzyme's surface. This unique Sec residue is particularly susceptible to modification by numerous types of electrophiles, leading to inactivation of TrxR and consequent cytotoxicity. Cigarette smoke contains various electrophiles, and the present study showed that CSE could inhibit intracellular TrxR through causing crosslinking and alkylation of TrxR1. TrxR inhibitory capacities of various CSEs were evaluated by using mouse-liver homogenate. Among the CSEs prepared from 18 commercial cigarette brands, TrxR inhibitory capacities of the maximum and the minimum had a 2.5-fold difference. Importantly, CSE's inhibitory capacity greatly paralleled its cytotoxic potency in all cell lines used. Compared to cytotoxic assays, which have been widely used for evaluating cigarette toxicity but are not suitable for simultaneously examining a large number of cigarette samples, the present method was simple and rapid with a high-throughput feature and thus could be used as an auxiliary means to predict the cytotoxicity of a large number of cigarette samples, making it possible to extensively screen numerous agricultural and industrial measures that potentially affect cigarette safety.

  2. The application of profluorescent nitroxides to detect reactive oxygen species derived from combustion-generated particulate matter: Cigarette smoke - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljevic, B.; Fairfull-Smith, K. E.; Bottle, S. E.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2010-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related free radicals are considered to be key factors underpinning the various adverse health effects associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter. Therefore, measurement of ROS is a crucial factor for assessing the potential toxicity of particles. In this work, a novel profluorescent nitroxide, BPEAnit, was investigated as a probe for detecting particle-derived ROS. BPEAnit has a very low fluorescence emission due to inherent quenching by the nitroxide group, but upon radical trapping or redox activity, a strong fluorescence is observed. BPEAnit was tested for detection of ROS present in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke. In the case of mainstream cigarette smoke, there was a linear increase in fluorescence intensity with an increasing number of cigarette puffs, equivalent to an average of 101 nmol ROS per cigarette based on the number of moles of the probe reacted. Sidestream cigarette smoke sampled from an environmental chamber exposed BPEAnit to much lower concentrations of particles, but still resulted in a clearly detectible increase in fluorescence intensity with sampling time. It was calculated that the amount of ROS was equivalent to 50 ± 2 nmol per mg of particulate matter; however, this value decreased with ageing of the particles in the chamber. Overall, BPEAnit was shown to provide a sensitive response related to the oxidative capacity of the particulate matter. These findings present a good basis for employing the new BPEAnit probe for the investigation of particle-related ROS generated from cigarette smoke as well as from other combustion sources.

  3. Make your own cigarettes: toxicant exposure, smoking topography, and subjective effects.

    PubMed

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Rosenberry, Zachary R; Viray, Lauren C; Potts, Jennifer L; Pickworth, Wallace B

    2014-09-01

    Despite considerable use of make your own (MYO) cigarettes worldwide and increasing use in the United States, relatively little is known about how these cigarettes are smoked and the resultant toxicant exposure. In a laboratory study, we compared two types of MYO cigarettes-roll your own (RYO) and personal machine made (PMM)-with factory-made (FM) cigarettes in three groups of smokers who exclusively used RYO (n = 34), PMM (n = 23), or FM (n = 20). Within each group, cigarettes were smoked in three conditions: (i) after confirmed overnight tobacco abstinence; (ii) in an intense smoking paradigm; and (iii) without restrictions. All cigarettes were smoked ad lib through a smoking topography unit. Plasma nicotine significantly increased after cigarettes in all conditions except PMM in the intense smoking paradigm. Puff volume, puff duration, total puff volume, and puff velocity did not differ between cigarette types but the puffs per cigarette and time to smoke were significantly smaller for RYO compared with PMM and FM. Regardless of the cigarette, participants consumed the first three puffs more vigorously than the last three puffs. Despite the belief of many of their consumers, smoking MYO cigarettes is not a safe alternative to FM cigarettes. Like FM, MYO cigarettes expose their users to harmful constituents of tobacco smoke. Despite differences in size and design their puffing profiles are remarkably similar. These data are relevant to health and regulatory considerations on the MYO cigarettes. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Make Your Own Cigarettes: Toxicant Exposure, Smoking Topography, and Subjective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Rosenberry, Zachary R.; Viray, Lauren C.; Potts, Jennifer L.; Pickworth, Wallace B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite considerable use of make your own (MYO) cigarettes worldwide and increasing use in the United States, relatively little is known about how these cigarettes are smoked and the resultant toxicant exposure. Methods In a laboratory study, we compared two types of MYO cigarettes – roll your own (RYO) and personal machine made (PMM) – with factory made (FM) cigarettes in three groups of smokers who exclusively used RYO (n=34), PMM (n=23) or FM (n=20). Within each group, cigarettes were smoked in three conditions: 1) after confirmed overnight tobacco abstinence; 2) in an intense smoking paradigm; 3) and without restrictions. All cigarettes were smoked ad lib through a smoking topography unit. Results Plasma nicotine significantly increased after cigarettes in all conditions except PMM in the intense smoking paradigm. Puff volume, puff duration, total puff volume and puff velocity did not differ between cigarette types but the puffs per cigarette and time to smoke were significantly smaller for RYO compared to PMM and FM. Regardless of the cigarette, participants consumed the first three puffs more vigorously than the last three puffs. Conclusions Despite the belief of many of their consumers smoking MYO cigarettes are not a safe alternative to consumption of FM cigarettes. Like FM, MYO cigarettes expose their users to harmful constituents of tobacco smoke and despite differences in size and design their puffing profiles are remarkably similar. Impact These data are relevant to health and regulatory considerations on the MYO cigarettes. PMID:24925675

  5. Nature and fate of insecticide residues inhaled by rats in cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Atallah, Y H; Dorough, H W; Thorstenson, J H

    1975-01-01

    Radioactive carbaryl, carbofuran, parathion, leptophos, and DDT were added to cigarettes and the mainstream smoke was directed to the lungs of rats via the trachea. Total radiocarbon transfer to the lungs ranged from 9 to 15% of that in the tobacco burned during a smoking process involving eight 5-ml puffs. Exhalation of 14C residues during this time was 24 to 30% of that inhaled with all insecticides except carbofuran, of which 42% of the residues was exhaled. After 5 hr, total exhalation of the consumed radiocarbon was 35% for parathion, 65% for carbofuran, and approximately 50% for the other products. The nature of the 14C residues inhaled, their urinary and fecal excretion, and their deposition in and dissipation from various organs and tissues are presented.

  6. Cigarette smoking and oral health among healthcare students.

    PubMed

    Komu, P; Dimba, E A O; Macigo, F G; Ogwell, A E O

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge, attitudes and practices of cigarette smoking and health risks among health workers has been found to be predictive of their efficiency as agents for tobacco cessation campaigns. To describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cigarette smoking and oral health risks among healthcare professional students. A cross sectional multi-level study. College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Two hundred and eighty one students. Thirty four (12.1%) of the students were current smokers, 174 (61.95%) had never smoked, while 73 (26%) were former smokers. Seventy nine point four per cent of the current smokers were males and 20.6% were females. Pharmacy students had the highest smoking prevalence at 11 (32.4%), while dental and nursing students had the lowest percentages of current smokers. Differences observed in smoking status of students in the constituent schools of the College of Health Sciences were statistically significant (p = 0.008). Apart from knowledge levels on the association between tobacco consumption and lung cancer (p = 0.142), there were statistically significant differences in the awareness of the severe oral and systemic effects of smoking amongst the four student groups. There is a need for harmonisation of teaching of oral and systemic effects of smoking so as to impact on the smoking habits and effectiveness of healthcare professional students as agents of smoking cessation programmes.

  7. Hierarchical Composites to Reduce N-Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Yan; Cao, Yi; Yue, Ming Bo; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Jian Hua

    2015-03-20

    In order to reduce the harmful constituents in cigarette smoke, two hierarchical composites were synthesized. Based on, zeolites HZSM-5 or NaY fragments were introduced into the synthetic system of mesoporous silica SBA-15 or MCM-41 and assembled with the mesoporous materials. These porous composites combine the advantages of micro- and mesoporous materials, and exhibit higher effects than activated carbon on reducing tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and some vapor phase compounds in smoke.

  8. Cigarette smoke detection from captured image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Kentaro; Inoue, Hironori; Matsubara, Toru; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a detection of smoke from captured image sequences. We propose to address the following two problems in order to attain this goal. The first problem is to estimate candidate areas of smoke. The second problem is to judge if smoke exists in the scene. To solve the first problem, we apply the previously proposed framework where image sequences are divided into some small blocks and the smoke detection is done in each small block. In this framework, we propose to use color and edge information of the scene. To solve the second problem, we propose a method for judging if smoke exists in the scene by using the areas of smoke obtained in the last step part. We propose some feature values for judging if smoke exists in the scene. Then, by simulation we find the best combination of feature values. In addition, we study the effect of normalization, which provide better performance in recognition.

  9. Effect of exposure to ceramic fibres and cigarette smoke on antioxidant status of the lung.

    PubMed

    Kováciková, Zuzana; Hurbánková, Marta; Cerná, Silvia; Tátrai, Erzsébet; Beno, Milan; Wimmerová, Sona

    2006-12-01

    The programmes of asbestos replacement brought the need to use other fibres for insulation or reinforcement of material. The aim of the presented study was to follow the effect of refractory ceramic fibres (RCF3) alone or in combination with cigarette smoke (CS) on antioxidant status of the lung in experiment on animals. As free radicals are supposed to play a role in pathogenesis of lung diseases and the toxicity of particles has been associated with production of reactive oxygen species, the antioxidant status may serve as marker of lung injury. Our hypothesis was that the effect of combined exposure to RCF3 and CS will be additive or synergic. Scheme of experiment: Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups per 6 animals: control, intratracheal exposure to 4 mg of RCF3, inhalatory exposure to mainstream of cigarette smoke from 8 standard research 1R1 cigarettes per day, and both intratracheal exposure to RCF3 and inhalatory to CS. The exposure lasted 6 months, the inhalatory exposure was performed 5 times per week. After finishing the exposure bronchoalveolar lavage of lungs was performed and ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were determined in lung tissue and cell free fraction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The results showed that the most sensitive indicator of changes in antioxidant status was glutathione, which was changed in all groups both in BALF and lung tissue homogenate.

  10. Cigarette smoking and panic: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Knuts, Inge J E; Abrams, Kenneth; Griez, Eric J L; Schruers, Koen R J

    2010-05-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia's emerging. Although the cause of this comorbidity remains controversial, the main explanations are that (1) cigarette smoking promotes panic by inducing respiratory abnormalities/lung disease or by increasing potentially fear-producing bodily sensations, (2) nicotine produces physiologic effects characteristic of panic by releasing norepinephrine, (3) panic disorder promotes cigarette smoking as self-medication, and (4) a shared vulnerability promotes both conditions. The aim of this review was to survey the literature in order to determine the validity of these explanatory models. Studies were identified by searching English language articles published from 1960 to November 27, 2008, in MEDLINE using the key words: nicotine AND panic, tobacco AND panic, and smoking AND panic. Twenty-four studies were reviewed and selected according to the following criteria: panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and nicotine dependence, when used, diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, Fourth Edition, or Fourth Edition, Text Revision; no additional comorbidity or, if present, adjustment for it in the statistical analyses; use of adult or adolescent samples; comparison with a nonclinical control group or application of a crossover design. Non-significant results or trends only were reported as no difference. Data on anxiety disorders or substance abuse in general were not included. Panic and cigarette smoking each appear to have the capacity to serve as a causal factor/facilitator in the development of the other. Although the temporal pattern and the pathogenetic explanations of such a co-occurrence are still being discussed, cigarette smoking tends to precede the onset of panic and to promote panic itself. Additional studies are strongly recommended. ©Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Why Do Undergraduates Smoke? Subjective Effects of Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Jilda; Srebro, Karen; Authier, Charlene; Chambliss, Catherine

    Several personal and social factors thought to influence college students' smoking were investigated by surveying a sample of college students who smoke (n=56) and do not smoke (n=160). Personal motivating factors examined were relaxation effects, image effects, competence effects, and stimulant effects. These personal reasons for smoking were…

  12. Urine Menthol as a Biomarker of Mentholated Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Menthol cigarettes are smoked by 27% of U.S. smokers, and there are concerns that menthol might enhance toxicity of cigarette smoking by increasing systemic absorption of smoke toxins. We measured urine menthol concentrations in relation to biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens. Methods Concentrations of menthol glucuronide (using a novel analytical method), nicotine plus metabolites (nicotine equivalents, NE), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were measured in the urine of 60 menthol and 67 regular cigarette smokers. Results Urine menthol was measurable in 82% of menthol and 54% in regular cigarette smokers. Among menthol smokers urine menthol was highly correlated with NE, NNAL and PAHs. In a multiple regression model NE but not menthol was significantly associated with NNAL and PAHs. Conclusions Urine menthol concentration is a novel biomarker of exposure in menthol cigarette smokers, and is highly correlated with exposure to nicotine and carcinogens. Menthol is not independently associated with carcinogen exposure when nicotine intake is considered. PMID:20962297

  13. Analysis of metals leached from smoked cigarette litter.

    PubMed

    Moerman, J W; Potts, G E

    2011-05-01

    Littered cigarette butts represent potential point sources for environmental contamination. In areas with substantial amounts of cigarette litter, environmental hazards may arise as chemical components are leached from the filters and smoked tobacco. The three main aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the amount of Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sr, Ti and Zn leached from cigarette butts, (2) to determine the relationship between the pH of the aqueous soaking solution and metal concentration leached and (3) to determine the relationship between the period of soaking in aqueous solution and metal concentration leached. Smoked cigarette butts and unsmoked cigarettes were added to phials containing aqueous solutions of pH 4.00, 5.00 and 6.00 (± 0.05). The metal concentration of the resultant leachates was measured via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) 1 day, 7 days and 34 days after sample addition. All metals were detected in leachates 1 day after sample addition (with the exception of Cd) and were released at varying rates. No clear relationship between pH within the range typical of precipitation and metal concentration leached was observed. Based on the gradual release of multiple metals over the full 34-day study period, cigarette litter was found to be a point source for metal contamination. The apparent rapid leaching of other metals may increase the risk of acute harm to local organisms.

  14. Rat subchronic inhalation study of smoke from cigarettes containing flue-cured tobacco cured either by direct-fired or heat-exchanger curing processes.

    PubMed

    Kinsler, Steven; Pence, Deborah H; Shreve, W Keith; Mosberg, Arnold T; Ayres, Paul H; Sagartz, John W

    2003-07-01

    A subchronic, nose-only inhalation study compared the effects of mainstream smoke from a cigarette containing 100% flue-cured tobacco cured by a direct-fired process to that of a cigarette containing 100% flue-cured tobacco cured by a heat exchanger process. The tobaccos and mainstream smoke from tobaccos cured by the heat exchanger process have been shown to have significantly lower levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines than tobaccos cured by a direct-fired process. Male and female rats were exposed for 1 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 13 wk to mainstream smoke at 0, 0.06, 0.20, or 0.80 mg wet total particulate matter per liter of air. Clinical signs, body and organ weights, clinical chemistry, hematology, carboxyhemoglobin, serum nicotine, plethysmography, gross pathology, and histopathology were determined. When histologic changes resulting from exposure to smoke from the two types of cigarettes were compared, the only significant difference was increased epithelial hyperplasia of the anterior nasal cavity in males in the high-exposure group for the heat-exchanger cigarette. At the end of the exposure period, subsets of rats from each group were maintained without smoke exposures for an additional 13 wk (recovery period). At the end of the recovery period, there were no statistically significant differences in histopathological findings observed between the heat-exchanger-cured tobacco cigarette when compared to the direct-fired cured tobacco cigarette. The complete toxicological assessment in this study of heat exchanger and direct-fired tobaccos suggests no overall biologically significant differences between the two cigarettes.

  15. Associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jodie B; Ameringer, Katherine J; Trujillo, Michael A; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve; Brightman, Molly; Pitts, Stephanie R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cigarette smoking has been difficult because of PTSD's symptomatic heterogeneity. This study examined common and unique lifetime cross-sectional relationships between PTSD symptom clusters [Re-experiencing (intrusive thoughts and nightmares about the trauma), Avoidance (avoidance of trauma-associated memories or stimuli), Emotional Numbing (loss of interest, interpersonal detachment, restricted positive affect), and Hyperarousal (irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, insomnia)] and three indicators of smoking behavior: (1) smoking status; (2) cigarettes per day; and (3) nicotine dependence. Participants were adult respondents in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions with a trauma history (n = 23,635). All four symptom clusters associated with each smoking outcome in single-predictor models (ps <. 0001). In multivariate models including all of the symptom clusters as simultaneous predictors, Emotional Numbing was the only cluster to retain a significant association with lifetime smoking over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.30, p < .01). While Avoidance uniquely associated with smoking status and nicotine dependence in multivariate models, these relations fell below significance after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity. No clusters uniquely associated with cigarettes per day. Hyperarousal uniquely related with nicotine dependence over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.51, p < .001). These results suggest the following: (a) common variance across PTSD symptom clusters contribute to PTSD's linkage with smoking in the American population; and (b) certain PTSD symptom clusters may uniquely associate with particular indicators of smoking behavior. These findings may clarify the underpinnings of PTSD-smoking comorbidity and inform smoking interventions for

  16. What can we do in secondary prevention of cigarette smoking?

    PubMed

    Haustein, Knut-Olaf

    2003-12-01

    Cigarette smoking kills about six million smokers per year worldwide, and the cigarette has become a symbol of threat to mankind, particularly in industrialized countries. Tobacco smoking causes signs of addiction due to nicotine, but it is the inhaled and exhaled smoke that causes damage to health if cigarette smoking is continued for one or more decades. It is very difficult to attain a high efficacy of stopping smoking using methods of primary prevention in children and young adults. Secondary and tertiary prevention methods use medical and psychological support to the smoker (behavioural and aversion therapy) as well as medical advice in combination with drugs such as nicotine replacement or bupropion. Using a combination of these methods can increase effectiveness up to 45%. Use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in combination with medical advice is the method of smoking cessation recommended by the World Health Organization. Bupropion causes several severe side effects which are not observed with NRT. This article reviews various NRT formulations, including chewing gum, patch, nasal spray, tablet and inhaler, and our experience of using NRT in medical practice, such as adverse events, withdrawal symptoms and the efficacy of NRT in patients with coronary heart disease (angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, etc.), are briefly mentioned. Overall, we need greater efforts in practising primary and secondary prevention among current and future physicians to solve the health problems associated with tobacco use in many nations.

  17. Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy: Do Complete Abstinence and Low Level Cigarette Smoking Have Similar Impact on Birth Weight?

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Jacob, Nelly; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Heishman, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    Despite awareness of negative health outcomes associated with smoking, pregnant smokers might reduce their tobacco consumption thinking that a low smoking rate reduces smoking-related negative birth outcomes. We aimed to assess in a clinical sample whether there is a smoking rate that would not impact on birth weight (BW). Pregnant smokers ≥18 years, gestational age of 9-20 weeks of amenorrhea, motivated to quit smoking, smoking ≥5 cigarettes/day (cpd) and their newborns (381 singleton, live births) were included in this secondary analysis of a French smoking cessation trial. The mean BW when the mother quit smoking was 3417 g (95 % CI: 3098-3738 g); when smoking >0<5 cpd, 3081g (3003-3159 g); when smoking 5-9 cpd, 3043 g (2930-3157 g); and when smoking ≥10 cpd, 2831 g (2596-3157 g) (p = .006). The corresponding effect sizes ranged from medium to large (Cohen's d for BW: 0.54, 0.57 and 0.85) compared to BW when the mother quit. In the multivariable analysis, adjusted for all significant confounders, when the mother smoked on average >0<5 cpd, the loss in BW was 228 g; when smoking 5-9 cpd, 251 g; and when smoking ≥10 cpd, 262 g (all p ≤ .02) compared to newborns' BW of mothers who stopped smoking since quit date. Even low cigarette consumption during pregnancy is associated with BW loss. All efforts should be made to help pregnant smokers quit completely during their pregnancy. As an alternative to quitting smoking, pregnant smokers reduce their smoking rate thinking that this diminishes smoking-related negative health outcomes. No study has established whether low smoking rate (more than 0 but less than 5 cpd) during pregnancy impacts BW compared to abstinence from smoking. Among treatment-seeking pregnant smokers BW of newborns of mothers who smoked even less than 5 cpd was significantly lower than of those whose mothers quit; effect sizes of different consumption levels on BW ranged from moderate (>0<5 cpd) to large (≥10 cpd). Even low smoking rate