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  1. Adult rat bones maintain distinct regionalized expression of markers associated with their development.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, Simon C F; McKay, Ian J; Ghuman, Mandeep; Wellmann, Claudia; Ryan, Paul; Prajaneh, Saengsome; Zaman, Gul; Hughes, Francis J; Kingsmill, Virginia J

    2009-12-21

    The incidence of limb bone fracture and subsequent morbidity and mortality due to excessive bone loss is increasing in the progressively ageing populations of both men and women. In contrast to bone loss in the weight-bearing limb, bone mass in the protective skull vault is maintained. One explanation for this could be anatomically diverse bone matrix characteristics generated by heterogeneous osteoblast populations. We have tested the hypothesis that adult bones demonstrate site-specific characteristics, and report differences at the organ, cell and transcriptome levels. Limb bones contain greater amounts of polysulphated glycosaminoglycan stained with Alcian Blue and have significantly higher osteocyte densities than skull bone. Site-specific patterns persist in cultured adult bone-derived cells both phenotypically (proliferation rate, response to estrogen and cell volumes), and at the level of specific gene expression (collagen triple helix repeat containing 1, reelin and ras-like and estrogen-regulated growth inhibitor). Based on genome-wide mRNA expression and cluster analysis, we demonstrate that bones and cultured adult bone-derived cells segregate according to site of derivation. We also find the differential expression of genes associated with embryological development (Skull: Zic, Dlx, Irx, Twist1 and Cart1; Limb: Hox, Shox2, and Tbx genes) in both adult bones and isolated adult bone-derived cells. Together, these site-specific differences support the view that, analogous to different muscle types (cardiac, smooth and skeletal), skull and limb bones represent separate classes of bone. We assign these differences, not to mode of primary ossification, but to the embryological cell lineage; the basis and implications of this division are discussed.

  2. Mitochondria Maintain Distinct Ca(2+) Pools in Cone Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Giarmarco, Michelle M; Cleghorn, Whitney M; Sloat, Stephanie R; Hurley, James B; Brockerhoff, Susan E

    2017-02-22

    Ca(2+) ions have distinct roles in the outer segment, cell body, and synaptic terminal of photoreceptors. We tested the hypothesis that distinct Ca(2+) domains are maintained by Ca(2+) uptake into mitochondria. Serial block face scanning electron microscopy of zebrafish cones revealed that nearly 100 mitochondria cluster at the apical side of the inner segment, directly below the outer segment. The endoplasmic reticulum surrounds the basal and lateral surfaces of this cluster, but does not reach the apical surface or penetrate into the cluster. Using genetically encoded Ca(2+) sensors, we found that mitochondria take up Ca(2+) when it accumulates either in the cone cell body or outer segment. Blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter activity compromises the ability of mitochondria to maintain distinct Ca(2+) domains. Together, our findings indicate that mitochondria can modulate subcellular functional specialization in photoreceptors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Ca(2+) homeostasis is essential for the survival and function of retinal photoreceptors. Separate pools of Ca(2+) regulate phototransduction in the outer segment, metabolism in the cell body, and neurotransmitter release at the synaptic terminal. We investigated the role of mitochondria in compartmentalization of Ca(2+) We found that mitochondria form a dense cluster that acts as a diffusion barrier between the outer segment and cell body. The cluster is surprisingly only partially surrounded by the endoplasmic reticulum, a key mediator of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Blocking the uptake of Ca(2+) by mitochondria causes redistribution of Ca(2+) throughout the cell. Our results show that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in photoreceptors is complex and plays an essential role in normal function. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/372061-12$15.00/0.

  3. Distinct Neural Substrates for Maintaining Locations and Spatial Relations in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Blacker, Kara J.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a distinction between maintenance of two types of spatial information in working memory (WM): spatial locations and spatial relations. While a body of work has investigated the neural mechanisms of sensory-based information like spatial locations, little is known about how spatial relations are maintained in WM. In two experiments, we used fMRI to investigate the involvement of early visual cortex in the maintenance of spatial relations in WM. In both experiments, we found less quadrant-specific BOLD activity in visual cortex when a single spatial relation, compared to a single spatial location, was held in WM. Also across both experiments, we found a consistent set of brain regions that were differentially activated during maintenance of locations vs. relations. Maintaining a location, compared to a relation, was associated with greater activity in typical spatial WM regions like posterior parietal cortex and prefrontal regions. Whereas maintaining a relation, compared to a location, was associated with greater activity in the parahippocampal gyrus and precuneus/retrosplenial cortex. Further, in Experiment 2 we manipulated WM load and included trials where participants had to maintain three spatial locations or relations. Under this high load condition, the regions sensitive to locations vs. relations were somewhat different than under low load. We also identified regions that were sensitive to load specifically for location or relation maintenance, as well as overlapping regions sensitive to load more generally. These results suggest that the neural substrates underlying WM maintenance of spatial locations and relations are distinct from one another and that the neural representations of these distinct types of spatial information change with load. PMID:27932963

  4. Maintaining Distinctiveness at Increased Speaking Rates: A Comparison between Congenitally Blind and Sighted Speakers.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Côté, Dominique; Trudeau-Fisette, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The effects of increased speaking rates on vowels have been well documented in sighted adults. It has been reported that in fast speech, vowels are less widely spaced acoustically than in their citation form. Vowel space compression has also been reported in congenitally blind speakers. The objective of the study was to investigate the interaction of vision and speaking rate in adult speakers. Contrast distances between vowels were examined in conversational and fast speech produced by 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted French-Canadian adults. Acoustic analyses were carried out. Compared with the sighted speakers, in the fast speaking condition, the blind speakers produced more vowels with contrast along the height, place of articulation, and rounding features located within the auditory target regions typical of French vowels. Blind speakers relied more heavily than sighted speakers on auditory properties of vowels to maintain perceptual distinctiveness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Maintaining a Distinction Between Possible and Impossible Topics of Conversation in the Outpatient Respiratory Medical Clinic.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lone Birgitte Skov; Larsen, Kristian; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to generate a grounded theory explaining patterns of behavior among health care professionals (HCPs) during interactions with patients in outpatient respiratory medical clinics. The findings suggest that the HCPs managed contradictory expectations to the interaction by maintaining a distinction between possible and impossible topics to counseling. Three subcategories explaining the effort that maintain the impossible and possible topics separated were identified: (a) an effort to maintain the diseased lungs as the main task in counseling, (b) navigating interactions to avoid strong emotions of suffering in patients to reveal, (c) avoiding the appearance of the non-alterable life circumstances of the patients. The HCPs' attitudes toward what patients could be offered generated a distance and a difficulty during counseling and created further suffering in the patients but likewise a discomfort and frustration among the HCPs.

  6. Maintaining a Distinction Between Possible and Impossible Topics of Conversation in the Outpatient Respiratory Medical Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Lone Birgitte Skov; Larsen, Kristian; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to generate a grounded theory explaining patterns of behavior among health care professionals (HCPs) during interactions with patients in outpatient respiratory medical clinics. The findings suggest that the HCPs managed contradictory expectations to the interaction by maintaining a distinction between possible and impossible topics to counseling. Three subcategories explaining the effort that maintain the impossible and possible topics separated were identified: (a) an effort to maintain the diseased lungs as the main task in counseling, (b) navigating interactions to avoid strong emotions of suffering in patients to reveal, (c) avoiding the appearance of the non-alterable life circumstances of the patients. The HCPs’ attitudes toward what patients could be offered generated a distance and a difficulty during counseling and created further suffering in the patients but likewise a discomfort and frustration among the HCPs. PMID:28462333

  7. The Epidermis Comprises Autonomous Compartments Maintained by Distinct Stem Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Page, Mahalia E.; Lombard, Patrick; Ng, Felicia; Göttgens, Berthold; Jensen, Kim B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The complex anatomy of the epidermis contains multiple adult stem cell populations, but the extent to which they functionally overlap during homeostasis, wound healing, and tumor initiation remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Lrig1+ve cells are highly proliferative epidermal stem cells. Long-term clonal analysis reveals that Lrig1+ve cells maintain the upper pilosebaceous unit, containing the infundibulum and sebaceous gland as independent compartments, but contribute to neither the hair follicle nor the interfollicular epidermis, which are maintained by distinct stem cell populations. In contrast, upon wounding, stem cell progeny from multiple compartments acquire lineage plasticity and make permanent contributions to regenerating tissue. We further show that oncogene activation in Lrig1+ve cells drives hyperplasia but requires auxiliary stimuli for tumor formation. In summary, our data demonstrate that epidermal stem cells are lineage restricted during homeostasis and suggest that compartmentalization may constitute a conserved mechanism underlying epithelial tissue maintenance. PMID:23954751

  8. Cluster analysis of the national weight control registry to identify distinct subgroups maintaining successful weight loss.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Lorraine G; Stroebele, Nanette; Wyatt, Holly R; Catenacci, Victoria A; Peters, John C; Stuht, Jennifer; Wing, Rena R; Hill, James O

    2012-10-01

    The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) is the largest ongoing study of individuals successful at maintaining weight loss; the registry enrolls individuals maintaining a weight loss of at least 13.6 kg (30 lb) for a minimum of 1 year. The current report uses multivariate latent class cluster analysis to identify unique clusters of individuals within the NWCR that have distinct experiences, strategies, and attitudes with respect to weight loss and weight loss maintenance. The cluster analysis considers weight and health history, weight control behaviors and strategies, effort and satisfaction with maintaining weight, and psychological and demographic characteristics. The analysis includes 2,228 participants enrolled between 1998 and 2002. Cluster 1 (50.5%) represents a weight-stable, healthy, exercise conscious group who are very satisfied with their current weight. Cluster 2 (26.9%) has continuously struggled with weight since childhood; they rely on the greatest number of resources and strategies to lose and maintain weight, and report higher levels of stress and depression. Cluster 3 (12.7%) represents a group successful at weight reduction on the first attempt; they were least likely to be overweight as children, are maintaining the longest duration of weight loss, and report the least difficulty maintaining weight. Cluster 4 (9.9%) represents a group less likely to use exercise to control weight; they tend to be older, eat fewer meals, and report more health problems. Further exploration of the unique characteristics of these clusters could be useful for tailoring future weight loss and weight maintenance programs to the specific characteristics of an individual.

  9. Semi-reciprocal polarization maintaining fibre coupler with distinctive transmission characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinyue; Thomas, Freya; Wang, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    Optical couplers are very important devices in optical communication systems and optical sensor systems. Several types of optical couplers with different materials or different transmission characteristics have been reported. Here we propose a semi-reciprocal polarization maintaining fibre coupler with unique transmission characteristics, which is distinct from conventional polarization maintaining fibre couplers and polarization beam splitters, and investigate the characteristics of the coupler theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results show that for circularly and elliptically polarized input light, the proposed coupler will act both as an in-line polariser and a conventional polarization maintaining fibre coupler. The output polarization extinction ratio of the transmission arm is 31.79 dB at a centre wavelength of 841 nm. For linearly polarized input light, the coupler will merely act as a conventional 3 dB polarization maintaining fibre coupler. The unique features of the proposed coupler enables the removal of polarisers from optical sensor systems and coherent optical communication systems, and reduces the insertion loss and production cost of the optical path. Therefore there is wide application for this device in optical sensor systems and optical communication systems. PMID:26611837

  10. The epidermis comprises autonomous compartments maintained by distinct stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Page, Mahalia E; Lombard, Patrick; Ng, Felicia; Göttgens, Berthold; Jensen, Kim B

    2013-10-03

    The complex anatomy of the epidermis contains multiple adult stem cell populations, but the extent to which they functionally overlap during homeostasis, wound healing, and tumor initiation remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Lrig1(+ve) cells are highly proliferative epidermal stem cells. Long-term clonal analysis reveals that Lrig1(+ve) cells maintain the upper pilosebaceous unit, containing the infundibulum and sebaceous gland as independent compartments, but contribute to neither the hair follicle nor the interfollicular epidermis, which are maintained by distinct stem cell populations. In contrast, upon wounding, stem cell progeny from multiple compartments acquire lineage plasticity and make permanent contributions to regenerating tissue. We further show that oncogene activation in Lrig1(+ve) cells drives hyperplasia but requires auxiliary stimuli for tumor formation. In summary, our data demonstrate that epidermal stem cells are lineage restricted during homeostasis and suggest that compartmentalization may constitute a conserved mechanism underlying epithelial tissue maintenance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Distinct Regulatory Mechanisms Act to Establish and Maintain Pax3 Expression in the Developing Neural Tube

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Steven; Ribes, Vanessa; Terriente, Javier; Wilkinson, David; Relaix, Frédéric; Briscoe, James

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation in developing tissues is driven by the interaction of extrinsic signals with intrinsic transcriptional networks that together establish spatially and temporally restricted profiles of gene expression. How this process is orchestrated at the molecular level by genomic cis-regulatory modules is one of the central questions in developmental biology. Here we have addressed this by analysing the regulation of Pax3 expression in the context of the developing spinal cord. Pax3 is induced early during neural development in progenitors of the dorsal spinal cord and is maintained as pattern is subsequently elaborated, resulting in the segregation of the tissue into dorsal and ventral subdivisions. We used a combination of comparative genomics and transgenic assays to define and dissect several functional cis-regulatory modules associated with the Pax3 locus. We provide evidence that the coordinated activity of two modules establishes and refines Pax3 expression during neural tube development. Mutational analyses of the initiating element revealed that in addition to Wnt signaling, Nkx family homeodomain repressors restrict Pax3 transcription to the presumptive dorsal neural tube. Subsequently, a second module mediates direct positive autoregulation and feedback to maintain Pax3 expression. Together, these data indicate a mechanism by which transient external signals are converted into a sustained expression domain by the activities of distinct regulatory elements. This transcriptional logic differs from the cross-repression that is responsible for the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression in the ventral neural tube, suggesting that a variety of circuits are deployed within the neural tube regulatory network to establish and elaborate pattern formation. PMID:24098141

  12. Your Divided Attention, Please! The Maintenance of Multiple Attentional Control Sets over Distinct Regions in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamo, Maha; Pun, Carson; Pratt, Jay; Ferber, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    When non-informative peripheral cues precede a target defined by a specific feature, cues that share the critical feature will capture attention while cues that do not will be effectively ignored. We tested whether different attentional control sets can be simultaneously maintained over distinct regions of space. Participants were instructed to…

  13. Your Divided Attention, Please! The Maintenance of Multiple Attentional Control Sets over Distinct Regions in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamo, Maha; Pun, Carson; Pratt, Jay; Ferber, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    When non-informative peripheral cues precede a target defined by a specific feature, cues that share the critical feature will capture attention while cues that do not will be effectively ignored. We tested whether different attentional control sets can be simultaneously maintained over distinct regions of space. Participants were instructed to…

  14. French-Dutch Bilinguals Do Not Maintain Obligatory Semantic Distinctions: Evidence from Placement Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alferink, Inge; Gullberg, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    It is often said that bilinguals are not the sum of two monolinguals but that bilingual systems represent a third pattern. This study explores the exact nature of this pattern. We ask whether there is evidence of a merged system when one language makes an obligatory distinction that the other one does not, namely in the case of placement verbs in…

  15. Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties Over 40 Million Years of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E. J.; Machone, Joshua F.; Patterson, Seantay D.; Price, Amber L.; Turner, Bryce A.; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K.; McCartha, Shannon R.; Walji, Tezin A.; Walker, Chelsea A.; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K.; Armstrong, Andrew R.; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J.; Barberi, Chelsea R.; Beck, Lauren R.; Blaker, Amanda L.; Blunden, Christopher E.; Brand, Jordan P.; Brock, Ethan J.; Brooks, Dana W.; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C.; Clark, Eric M.; Clark, Nicole B.; Collins, Ashley A.; Cotteleer, Rebecca J.; Cullimore, Peterson R.; Dawson, Seth G.; Docking, Carter T.; Dorsett, Sasha L.; Dougherty, Grace A.; Downey, Kaitlyn A.; Drake, Andrew P.; Earl, Erica K.; Floyd, Trevor G.; Forsyth, Joshua D.; Foust, Jonathan D.; Franchi, Spencer L.; Geary, James F.; Hanson, Cynthia K.; Harding, Taylor S.; Harris, Cameron B.; Heckman, Jonathan M.; Holderness, Heather L.; Howey, Nicole A.; Jacobs, Dontae A.; Jewell, Elizabeth S.; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A.; Kehoe, James L.; Koaches, Hannah C.; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J.; Kus, Jordan E.; Lammers, Jennifer A.; Leads, Rachel R.; Leatherman, Emily C.; Lippert, Rachel N.; Messenger, Gregory S.; Morrow, Adam T.; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J.; Potocny, Stephanie J.; Powers, Michelle K.; Reem, Rachel M.; Rennhack, Jonathan P.; Reynolds, Katherine R.; Reynolds, Lyndsey A.; Rhee, Dong K.; Rivard, Allyson B.; Ronk, Adam J.; Rooney, Meghan B.; Rubin, Lainey S.; Salbert, Luke R.; Saluja, Rasleen K.; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R.; Schulz, Robert W.; Smith, Karl E.; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R.; Tache, Melissa A.; Tewilliager, Ashley A.; Tilot, Amanda K.; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M.; Vylonis, Megan B.; Watson, David T.; Wurzler, Juliana A.; Wysocki, Lauren M.; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A.; Emerson, Julia A.; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J.; DiLorenzo, Lauren A.; Goeller, Katie L.; Macchi, Christopher R.; Muller, Sarah E.; Pasierb, Brittany D.; Sable, Joseph E.; Tucci, Jessica M.; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A.; Beken, Levent H.; Conturso, Alaina C.; Danner, Benjamin L.; DeMichele, Gabriella A.; Gonzales, Justin A.; Hammond, Maureen S.; Kelley, Colleen V.; Kelly, Elisabeth A.; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M.; McCabe, Nikie L.; Newman, Alyssa M.; Spaeder, Lindsay A.; Tumminello, Richard A.; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M.; Cristostomo, Michael C.; DaSilva, Paolo A.; Harker, Katherine S.; Jarrell, Jenifer N.; Jimenez, Luis A.; Katz, Brandon M.; Kennedy, William R.; Kolibas, Kimberly S.; LeBlanc, Mark T.; Nguyen, Trung T.; Nicolas, Daniel S.; Patao, Melissa D.; Patao, Shane M.; Rupley, Bryan J.; Sessions, Bridget J.; Weaver, Jennifer A.; Goodman, Anya L.; Alvendia, Erica L.; Baldassari, Shana M.; Brown, Ashley S.; Chase, Ian O.; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B.; Custer, Ashley F.; DiTommaso, Tia M.; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C.; Grove, Ryan A.; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S.; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L.; Hopkins, Barbara L.; Huerta, Vilma F.; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M.; Lee, Cassidy T.; Lewis, Benjamin M.; Lydon, Anniken M.; Maniaci, Brian J.; Mitchell, Ryan D.; Morlock, Elaine V.; Morris, William M.; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C.; Osterloh, Jeannette M.; Perez, Marcos A.; Presley, Jonathan D.; Randazzo, Matt J.; Regan, Melanie K.; Rossi, Franca G.; Smith, Melanie A.; Soliterman, Eugenia A.; Sparks, Ciani J.; Tran, Danny L.; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A.; Wong, Jeremy N.; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J.; Hoogewerf, Arlene J.; Ackerman, Cheri M.; Armistead, Isaac O.; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J.; Brouwer, Lindsay K.; Burkhart, Brandon J.; Bushhouse, Kelsey T.; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y. Y.; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M.; Darusz, Jess M.; Dauphin, Cory M.; Davis, Yelena P.; Diekema, Emily J.; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E. M.; Faber, Hayley M.; Faber, Katherine J.; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T.; Hammond, Brandy L.; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R.; Hilbrands, Julia A.; Howell, Emily J.; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A.; Jelsema, Timothy R.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Jones, Kelly K.; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D.; Menyes, Erika E.; Nollet, Eric A.; Plescher, Brittany E.; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L.; Schepers, Allison J.; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R.; Sterling, Allison M.; Tenney, Jenna C.; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E.; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P.; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K.; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A.; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E.; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R.; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I.; Boudoures, Anna L.; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S.; French, Kristin M.; Gill, Ishwar S.; Havill, Jessen T.; Johnson, Jaelyn L.; Keny, Lauren J.; Kerber, John M.; Klett, Bethany M.; Kufel, Christina N.; May, Francis J.; Mecoli, Jonathan P.; Merry, Callie R.; Meyer, Lauren R.; Miller, Emily G.; Mullen, Gregory J.; Palozola, Katherine C.; Pfeil, Jacob J.; Thomas, Jessica G.; Verbofsky, Evan M.; Spana, Eric P.; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I.N.; Fitzgibbons, John D.; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J.; Knouse, Kristin A.; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S.; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W.; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D.; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U.; Shuen, Jessica A.; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q.; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Burg, Martin G.; Adams, Stephanie J.; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E.; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Robertson, Gregory M.; Smith, Samuel I.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Sassu, Eric D.; Bhalla, Satish C.; Sharif, Karim A.; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S.; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Davis, Kristen C.; Dunham, Carrie A.; Grantham, Alaina J.; Hare, Amber N.; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Yu, Nicole S.; Kaehler, Marian M.; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A.; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Alica B.; Anderson, John E.; Barnett, Jason M.; Baumgardner, Jordan S.; Brown, Adam D.; Carney, Jordan E.; Chavez, Ramiro A.; Christgen, Shelbi L.; Christie, Jordan S.; Clary, Andrea N.; Conn, Michel A.; Cooper, Kristen M.; Crowley, Matt J.; Crowley, Samuel T.; Doty, Jennifer S.; Dow, Brian A.; Edwards, Curtis R.; Elder, Darcie D.; Fanning, John P.; Janssen, Bridget M.; Lambright, Anthony K.; Lane, Curtiss E.; Limle, Austin B.; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R.; McDonough, Alexa M.; Melton, Amy D.; Minnick, Phillip J.; Musick, Adam E.; Newhart, William H.; Noynaert, Joseph W.; Ogden, Bradley J.; Sandusky, Michael W.; Schmuecker, Samantha M.; Shipman, Anna L.; Smith, Anna L.; Thomsen, Kristen M.; Unzicker, Matthew R.; Vernon, William B.; Winn, Wesley W.; Woyski, Dustin S.; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J.; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M.; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R.; Johnson, Todd D.; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H.; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S.; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R.; Waggoner, Andrew W.; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K.; Hark, Amy T.; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E.; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E.; Smith, Mary A.; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C. P.; Johnson, Ashlee G.; White, Jackie X.; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Chau, Kim M.; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E. Gloria C.; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M.; Bahr, Thomas J.; Caesar, Nicole M.; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W.; Cognetti, Peter A.; English, Johnathan D.; Fadus, Matthew C.; Fick, Cameron N.; Freda, Philip J.; Hennessy, Bryan M.; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K.; King, Jessica E.; Knob, Christopher R.; Kraftmann, Karen J.; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N.; Minniti, Carl J.; Minton, Thomas F.; Moran, Joseph V.; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C.; Puetz, William J.; Robinson, Lauren M.; Rose, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Edward P.; Timko, Ashley S.; Paetkau, Don W.; Eisler, Heather L.; Aldrup, Megan E.; Bodenberg, Jessica M.; Cole, Mara G.; Deranek, Kelly M.; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M.; Eckardt, Alexandra K.; Ehret, Sharon C.; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D.; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L.; Light, Morgan R.; Meier, Anne C.; O’Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R.; Reilly, Mary T.; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L.; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M.; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R.; Herrick, Douglas A.; Khoury, Christopher B.; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A.; Lowell, Shannon M.; Reynolds, Thomas J.; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H.; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T.; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D.; Lopilato, Jane E.; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A.; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R.; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R.; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R.; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H.; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B.; Smith, Jonathan E.; Unruh, Anna K.; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E.; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J.; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T.; Moore, Zachary D.; Savell, Christopher D.; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M.; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F.; Horton, Lanor S.; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H.; Liu, James Z.; Mach, Sandy D.; Phan, Thu A.; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E.; Strelitz, Jean M.; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C.; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J.; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E.; Gross, Meleah J.; Gygi, Amber M.; Jackson, Lesley E.; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L.; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L.; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E.; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J. Devin; Stemler, Kristina M.; Throm, Allison A.; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T. Aaron; Williams, Mallory A.; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M.; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E.; Florian, Kayla A.; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S.; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W.; Pelchen, Carly E.; Yenerall, Paul M.; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R.; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M.; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G.; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V.; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O.; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O.; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J.; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J.; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M.; delValle, Frank R. 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    2015-01-01

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25–50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3–11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11–27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4–3.6 vs. 8.4–8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. PMID:25740935

  16. Drosophila muller f elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution.

    PubMed

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Braverman, John M; Bahr, Thomas J; Caesar, Nicole M; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W; Cognetti, Peter A; English, Johnathan D; Fadus, Matthew C; Fick, Cameron N; Freda, Philip J; Hennessy, Bryan M; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K; King, Jessica E; Knob, Christopher R; Kraftmann, Karen J; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N; Minniti, Carl J; Minton, Thomas F; Moran, Joseph V; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C; Puetz, William J; Robinson, Lauren M; Rose, Thomas J; Sweeney, Edward P; Timko, Ashley S; Paetkau, Don W; Eisler, Heather L; Aldrup, Megan E; Bodenberg, Jessica M; Cole, Mara G; Deranek, Kelly M; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M; Eckardt, Alexandra K; Ehret, Sharon C; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L; Light, Morgan R; Meier, Anne C; O'Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R; Reilly, Mary T; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R; Herrick, Douglas A; Khoury, Christopher B; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A; Lowell, Shannon M; Reynolds, Thomas J; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D; Lopilato, Jane E; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B; Smith, Jonathan E; Unruh, Anna K; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T; Moore, Zachary D; Savell, Christopher D; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F; Horton, Lanor S; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H; Liu, James Z; Mach, Sandy D; Phan, Thu A; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E; Strelitz, Jean M; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E; Gross, Meleah J; Gygi, Amber M; Jackson, Lesley E; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J Devin; Stemler, Kristina M; Throm, Allison A; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T Aaron; Williams, Mallory A; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E; Florian, Kayla A; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W; Pelchen, Carly E; Yenerall, Paul M; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M; delValle, Frank R Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A; Colón-Cruz, Luis R; Correa-Muller, Ana I; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L; Cruz-García, José M; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P; Torres-Castillo, José L; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L; Molleston, Jerome M; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W; Nagengast, Alexis A; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L; Adams, Ashley L; Barnard, Brianna K; Cheramie, Martin N; Eime, Anne M; Golden, Kathryn L; Hawkins, Allyson P; Hill, Jessica E; Kampmeier, Jessica A; Kern, Cody D; Magnuson, Emily E; Miller, Ashley R; Morrow, Cody M; Peairs, Julia C; Pickett, Gentry L; Popelka, Sarah A; Scott, Alexis J; Teepe, Emily J; TerMeer, Katie A; Watchinski, Carmen A; Watson, Lucas A; Weber, Rachel E; Woodard, Kate A; Barnard, Daron C; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M; McNeil, Gerard P; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2015-03-04

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25-50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3-11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11-27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4-3.6 vs. 8.4-8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu.

  17. Two functionally distinct NADP(+)-dependent ferredoxin oxidoreductases maintain the primary redox balance of Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diep M N; Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Poudel, Saroj; Lipscomb, Gina L; Adams, Leslie A; Dinsmore, Jessica T; Nixon, William J; Boyd, Eric S; Bothner, Brian; Peters, John W; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-09-01

    Electron bifurcation has recently gained acceptance as the third mechanism of energy conservation in which energy is conserved through the coupling of exergonic and endergonic reactions. A structure-based mechanism of bifurcation has been elucidated recently for the flavin-based enzyme NADH-dependent ferredoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase I (NfnI) from the hyperthermophillic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. NfnI is thought to be involved in maintaining the cellular redox balance, producing NADPH for biosynthesis by recycling the two other primary redox carriers, NADH and ferredoxin. The P. furiosus genome encodes an NfnI paralog termed NfnII, and the two are differentially expressed, depending on the growth conditions. In this study, we show that deletion of the genes encoding either NfnI or NfnII affects the cellular concentrations of NAD(P)H and particularly NADPH. This results in a moderate to severe growth phenotype in deletion mutants, demonstrating a key role for each enzyme in maintaining redox homeostasis. Despite their similarity in primary sequence and cofactor content, crystallographic, kinetic, and mass spectrometry analyses reveal that there are fundamental structural differences between the two enzymes, and NfnII does not catalyze the NfnI bifurcating reaction. Instead, it exhibits non-bifurcating ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase-type activity. NfnII is therefore proposed to be a bifunctional enzyme and also to catalyze a bifurcating reaction, although its third substrate, in addition to ferredoxin and NADP(H), is as yet unknown. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Local interneurons define functionally distinct regions within lobster olfactory glomeruli

    PubMed

    Wachowiak; Diebel; Ache

    1997-01-01

    Whole-cell recording coupled with biocytin injection revealed four types of interneurons intrinsic to the olfactory lobe (OL) of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. Each type of neuron had a distinct pattern of arborization within the three anatomically defined regions of OL glomeruli (cap, subcap and base). Type I interneurons innervated all three regions, while types II, III and IV branched only in the cap, subcap and base, respectively. Type I interneurons responded to electrical stimulation of the antennular (olfactory) nerve with a burst of 1­20 action potentials and a 1­10 s depolarization. Type II (cap) interneurons responded to the same input with a burst of 1­3 action potentials followed by a shorter hyperpolarization. Type III (subcap) interneurons responded with a burst of 1­6 action potentials followed by a delayed, 0.5­4 s depolarization. Type IV (base) interneurons responded with a brief depolarization or a burst of 1­3 action potentials followed by a 1 s hyperpolarization. The regionalized arborization and the different response properties of the type II, III and IV interneurons strongly imply that lobster olfactory glomeruli contain functionally distinct regions, a feature that should be useful in understanding the multiple synaptic pathways involved in processing olfactory input.

  19. Conditional Analysis of Dynamically Distinct Regions in Stratified Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portwood, Gavin; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen; Taylor, John; Salehipour, Hasem; Caulfield, Colm-Cille

    2016-11-01

    Stratified flows have been shown to exhibit broadly intermittent flow dynamics at large scales. In DNS of forced homogeneous stratified turbulence, we employ a conditional averaging technique to distinguish compositional flow regions which define the entire flow domain. Here, we condition on the vertical density gradient at inertial and buoyancy length scales to subdivide homogeneous stratified turbulence into three distinct regions that may be characterised by Gn ≡ ɛ / νN2 . We show that flows across the Fr-Re parameter space exhibit regions of (a) moderately 'quiescent' flow with few three-dimensional overturnings, (b) 'layered' turbulent regions which have constrained vertical length scales, and (c) three dimensional 'patches' of turbulence and that these regions may be characterised by Gn O (1) , Gn O (10) , and Gn O (100) , respectively. We conjecture that treating stratified turbulence as an instantaneous assemblage of these different regions in varying proportions may explain some of the apparently highly scattered flow dynamics and statistics previously reported in the literature. U.S. Office of Naval Research via Grant N00014-15-1-2248; U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Grant EP/K034529/1; U.S. DoD HPCMP Frontier Project FP-CFD-FY14-007.

  20. Distinct genetic regions modify specific muscle groups in muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Heydemann, Ahlke; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic expression in the muscular dystrophies is variable, even with the identical mutation, providing strong evidence that genetic modifiers influence outcome. To identify genetic modifier loci, we used quantitative trait locus mapping in two differentially affected mouse strains with muscular dystrophy. Using the Sgcg model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy that lacks the dystrophin-associated protein γ-sarcoglycan, we evaluated chromosomal regions that segregated with two distinct quantifiable characteristics of muscular dystrophy, membrane permeability and fibrosis. We previously identified a single major locus on murine chromosome 7 that influences both traits of membrane permeability and fibrosis in the quadriceps muscle. Using a larger cohort, we now found that this same interval strongly associated with both traits in all limb skeletal muscle groups studied, including the gastrocnemius/soleus, gluteus/hamstring, and triceps muscles. In contrast, the muscles of the trunk were modified by distinct genetic loci, possibly reflecting the embryological origins and physiological stressors unique to these muscle groups. A locus on chromosome 18 was identified that modified membrane permeability of the abdominal muscles, and a locus on chromosome 3 was found that regulated diaphragm and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Fibrosis in the heart associated with a region on chromosome 9 and likely reflects differential function between cardiac and skeletal muscle. These data underscore the complexity of inheritance and penetrance of single-gene disorders. PMID:20959497

  1. Mesothelium of the Murine Allantois Exhibits Distinct Regional Properties

    PubMed Central

    Daane, Jacob M.; Enders, Allen C.; Downs, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    The rodent allantois is thought to be unique amongst mammals in not having an endodermal component. Here, we have investigated the mesothelium, or outer surface, of murine umbilical precursor tissue, the allantois (~7.25–8.5 days postcoitum, dpc) to discover whether it exhibits the properties of an epithelium. A combination of morphology, challenge with biotinylated dextran amines (BDAs), and immunohistochemistry revealed that the mesothelium of the mouse allantois exhibits distinct regional properties. By headfold stages (~7.75–8.0 dpc), distal mesothelium was generally squamous in shape, and highly permeable to BDA challenge, whereas ventral proximal mesothelium, referred to as “ventral cuboidal mesothelium” (VCM) for the characteristic cuboidal shape of its cells, was relatively impermeable. Although “dorsal cuboidal mesothelium” (DCM) resembled the VCM in cell shape, its permeability to BDA was intermediate between the other two regions. Results of immunostaining for Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Epithelial-cadherin (E-cadherin), together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), suggested that impermeability in the VCM may be due to greater cellular contact area between cells and close packing rather than to maturity of tight junctions, the latter of which, by comparison with the visceral yolk sac, appeared to be rare or absent from the allantoic surface. Both VCM and DCM exhibited an ultrastructure more favorable for protein synthesis than did the distal squamous mesothelium; however, at most stages, VCM exhibited robust afadin (AF-6), whereas the DCM uniquely contained alpha-4-integrin. These observations demonstrate that the allantoic mesothelium is not a conventional epithelium but possesses regional ultrastructural, functional and molecular differences that may play important roles in the correct deployment of the umbilical cord and its associated vascular, hematopoietic, and other cell types. PMID:21284019

  2. Membrane Protein Profiling of Human Colon Reveals Distinct Regional Differences *

    PubMed Central

    van der Post, Sjoerd; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2014-01-01

    The colonic epithelium is a highly dynamic system important for the regulation of ion and water homeostasis via absorption and secretion and for the maintenance of a protective barrier between the outer milieu and the inside of the body. These processes are known to gradually change along the length of the colon, although a complete characterization at the protein level is lacking. We therefore analyzed the membrane proteome of isolated human (n = 4) colonic epithelial cells from biopsies obtained via routine colonoscopy for four segments along the large intestine: ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon. Label-free quantitative proteomic analyses using high-resolution mass spectrometry were performed on enriched membrane proteins. The results showed a stable level for the majority of membrane proteins but a distinct decrease in proteins associated with bacterial sensing, cation transport, and O-glycosylation in the proximal to distal regions. In contrast, proteins involved in microbial defense and anion transport showed an opposing gradient and increased toward the distal end. The gradient of ion-transporter proteins could be directly related to previously observed ion transport activities. All individual glycosyltransferases required for the O-glycosylation of the major colonic mucin MUC2 were observed and correlated with the known glycosylation variation along the colon axis. This is the first comprehensive quantitative dataset of membrane protein abundance along the human colon and will add to the knowledge of the physiological function of the different regions of the colonic mucosa. Mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000987. PMID:24889196

  3. Regional Differences in Seasonal Timing of Rainfall Discriminate between Genetically Distinct East African Giraffe Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Thomassen, Henri A.; Freedman, Adam H.; Brown, David M.; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  4. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Freedman, Adam H; Brown, David M; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  5. oskar RNA plays multiple noncoding roles to support oogenesis and maintain integrity of the germline/soma distinction

    PubMed Central

    Kanke, Matt; Jambor, Helena; Reich, John; Marches, Brittany; Gstir, Ronald; Ryu, Young Hee; Ephrussi, Anne; Macdonald, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila oskar (osk) mRNA is unusual in that it has both coding and noncoding functions. As an mRNA, osk encodes a protein required for embryonic patterning and germ cell formation. Independent of that function, the absence of osk mRNA disrupts formation of the karyosome and blocks progression through oogenesis. Here we show that loss of osk mRNA also affects the distribution of regulatory proteins, relaxing their association with large RNPs within the germline, and allowing them to accumulate in the somatic follicle cells. This and other noncoding functions of the osk mRNA are mediated by multiple sequence elements with distinct roles. One role, provided by numerous binding sites in two distinct regions of the osk 3′ UTR, is to sequester the translational regulator Bruno (Bru), which itself controls translation of osk mRNA. This defines a novel regulatory circuit, with Bru restricting the activity of osk, and osk in turn restricting the activity of Bru. Other functional elements, which do not bind Bru and are positioned close to the 3′ end of the RNA, act in the oocyte and are essential. Despite the different roles played by the different types of elements contributing to RNA function, mutation of any leads to accumulation of the germline regulatory factors in the follicle cells. PMID:25862242

  6. oskar RNA plays multiple noncoding roles to support oogenesis and maintain integrity of the germline/soma distinction.

    PubMed

    Kanke, Matt; Jambor, Helena; Reich, John; Marches, Brittany; Gstir, Ronald; Ryu, Young Hee; Ephrussi, Anne; Macdonald, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    The Drosophila oskar (osk) mRNA is unusual in that it has both coding and noncoding functions. As an mRNA, osk encodes a protein required for embryonic patterning and germ cell formation. Independent of that function, the absence of osk mRNA disrupts formation of the karyosome and blocks progression through oogenesis. Here we show that loss of osk mRNA also affects the distribution of regulatory proteins, relaxing their association with large RNPs within the germline, and allowing them to accumulate in the somatic follicle cells. This and other noncoding functions of the osk mRNA are mediated by multiple sequence elements with distinct roles. One role, provided by numerous binding sites in two distinct regions of the osk 3' UTR, is to sequester the translational regulator Bruno (Bru), which itself controls translation of osk mRNA. This defines a novel regulatory circuit, with Bru restricting the activity of osk, and osk in turn restricting the activity of Bru. Other functional elements, which do not bind Bru and are positioned close to the 3' end of the RNA, act in the oocyte and are essential. Despite the different roles played by the different types of elements contributing to RNA function, mutation of any leads to accumulation of the germline regulatory factors in the follicle cells.

  7. Abdominal wall reconstruction by a regionally distinct biocomposite of extracellular matrix digest and a biodegradable elastomer.

    PubMed

    Takanari, Keisuke; Hong, Yi; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Huber, Alexander; Amoroso, Nicholas J; D'Amore, Antonio; Badylak, Stephen F; Wagner, William R

    2016-09-01

    Current extracellular matrix (ECM) derived scaffolds offer promising regenerative responses in many settings, however in some applications there may be a desire for more robust and long lasting mechanical properties. A biohybrid composite material that offers both strength and bioactivity for optimal healing towards native tissue behavior may offer a solution to this problem. A regionally distinct biocomposite scaffold composed of a biodegradable elastomer (poly(ester urethane)urea) and porcine dermal ECM gel was generated to meet this need by a concurrent polymer electrospinning/ECM gel electrospraying technique where the electrosprayed component was varied temporally during the processing. A sandwich structure was achieved with polymer fiber rich upper and lower layers for structural support and an ECM-rich inner layer to encourage cell ingrowth. Increasing the upper and lower layer fiber content predictably increased tensile strength. In a rat full thickness abdominal wall defect model, the sandwich scaffold design maintained its thickness whereas control biohybrid scaffolds lacking the upper and lower fiber-rich regions failed at 8 weeks. Sandwich scaffold implants also showed higher collagen content 4 and 8 weeks after implantation, exhibited an increased M2 macrophage phenotype response at later times and developed biaxial mechanical properties better approximating native tissue. By employing a processing approach that creates a sheet-form scaffold with regionally distinct zones, it was possible to improve biological outcomes in body wall repair and provide the means for further tuning scaffold mechanical parameters when targeting other applications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Regional MBA: Distinct Segments, Wants, and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passyn, Kirsten; Diriker, Memo

    2011-01-01

    MBA Programs in top-tier school differ greatly from those in regional schools. A survey that aimed at assessing segmentation, pedagogy, and satisfaction in regional MBA programs was developed and administered in three universities of the Mid Atlantic, Midwest, and Southern regions. The results show four clearly distinguished segments that…

  9. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  10. Distinct orbitofrontal regions encode stimulus and choice valuation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, William A; Kesek, Amanda; Mowrer, Samantha M

    2009-10-01

    The weak axiom of revealed preferences suggests that the value of an object can be understood through the simple examination of choices. Although this axiom has driven economic theory, the assumption of equation between value and choice is often violated. fMRI was used to decouple the processes associated with evaluating stimuli from evaluating one's actions. Whereas activity in left posterior areas of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was associated with processing the objective value of stimuli, activity in medial anterior areas of the OFC was associated with accepting high value gambles and rejecting low value gambles; that is, making correct decisions. These data demonstrate that distinct areas of the OFC provide dissociated representations for use in adaptive decision-making and suggest an important processing distinction between the concepts of good/bad and right/wrong.

  11. Standard and Regional Standard Speech: Distinctions and Similarities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, J.; Jacobsen, M.

    1987-01-01

    Differential evaluations of speech usually occur along the standard-nonstandard dimension. Standard accent rates highly in regard to status and competence but low on the dimensions of integrity and attractiveness. In a Canadian context, however, a regional standard (mainland Nova Scotia) compared favorably or equally in all dimensions to other…

  12. Distinct binding properties of TIAR RRMs and linker region

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Henry S.; Headey, Stephen J.; Yoga, Yano M.K.; Scanlon, Martin J.; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Wilce, Jacqueline A.

    2013-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein TIAR is an mRNA-binding protein that acts as a translational repressor, particularly important under conditions of cellular stress. It binds to target mRNA and DNA via its RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains and is involved in both splicing regulation and translational repression via the formation of “stress granules.” TIAR has also been shown to bind ssDNA and play a role in the regulation of transcription. Here we show, using surface plasmon resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, specific roles of individual TIAR domains for high-affinity binding to RNA and DNA targets. We confirm that RRM2 of TIAR is the major RNA- and DNA-binding domain. However, the strong nanomolar affinity binding to U-rich RNA and T-rich DNA depends on the presence of the six amino acid residues found in the linker region C-terminal to RRM2. On its own, RRM1 shows preferred binding to DNA over RNA. We further characterize the interaction between RRM2 with the C-terminal extension and an AU-rich target RNA sequence using NMR spectroscopy to identify the amino acid residues involved in binding. We demonstrate that TIAR RRM2, together with its C-terminal extension, is the major contributor for the high-affinity (nM) interactions of TIAR with target RNA sequences. PMID:23603827

  13. Distinct binding properties of TIAR RRMs and linker region.

    PubMed

    Kim, Henry S; Headey, Stephen J; Yoga, Yano M K; Scanlon, Martin J; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Matthew C J; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2013-04-01

    The RNA-binding protein TIAR is an mRNA-binding protein that acts as a translational repressor, particularly important under conditions of cellular stress. It binds to target mRNA and DNA via its RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains and is involved in both splicing regulation and translational repression via the formation of "stress granules." TIAR has also been shown to bind ssDNA and play a role in the regulation of transcription. Here we show, using surface plasmon resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, specific roles of individual TIAR domains for high-affinity binding to RNA and DNA targets. We confirm that RRM2 of TIAR is the major RNA- and DNA-binding domain. However, the strong nanomolar affinity binding to U-rich RNA and T-rich DNA depends on the presence of the six amino acid residues found in the linker region C-terminal to RRM2. On its own, RRM1 shows preferred binding to DNA over RNA. We further characterize the interaction between RRM2 with the C-terminal extension and an AU-rich target RNA sequence using NMR spectroscopy to identify the amino acid residues involved in binding. We demonstrate that TIAR RRM2, together with its C-terminal extension, is the major contributor for the high-affinity (nM) interactions of TIAR with target RNA sequences.

  14. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed.

  15. Identifying regional key eco-space to maintain ecological security using GIS.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hualin; Yao, Guanrong; Wang, Peng

    2014-02-28

    Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm(2), accounting for 40% of the region's total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability.

  16. Distinct roles of left inferior frontal regions that explain individual differences in second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kuniyoshi L; Nauchi, Arihito; Tatsuno, Yoshinori; Hirano, Kazuyoshi; Muraishi, Yukimasa; Kimura, Masakazu; Bostwick, Mike; Yusa, Noriaki

    2009-08-01

    Second language (L2) acquisition is more susceptible to environmental and idiosyncratic factors than first language acquisition. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging for L2 learners of different ages of first exposure (mean: 12.6 and 5.6 years) in a formal school environment, and compared the cortical activations involved in processing English sentences containing either syntactic or spelling errors, where the testing ages and task performances of both groups were matched. We found novel activation patterns in two regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) that correlated differentially with the performances of the late and early learners. Specifically, activations of the dorsal and ventral triangular part (F3t) of the left IFG correlated positively with the accuracy of the syntactic task for the late learners, whereas activations of the left ventral F3t correlated negatively with the accuracy for the early learners. In contrast, other cortical regions exhibited differential correlation patterns with the reaction times (RTs) of the syntactic task. Namely, activations of the orbital part (F3O) of the left IFG, as well as those of the left angular gyrus, correlated positively with the RTs for the late learners, whereas those activations correlated negatively with the RTs for the early learners. Moreover, the task-selective activation of the left F3O was maintained for both the late and early learners. These results explain individual differences in L2 acquisition, such that the acquisition of linguistic knowledge in L2 is subserved by at least two distinct inferior frontal regions of the left F3t and F3O.

  17. Embryonic and adult-derived resident cardiac macrophages are maintained through distinct mechanisms at steady state and during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Epelman, Slava; Lavine, Kory J.; Beaudin, Anna E.; Sojka, Dorothy K.; Carrero, Javier A.; Calderon, Boris; Brija, Thaddeus; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Ivanov, Stoyan; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Schilling, Joel D.; Schwendener, Reto; Sergin, Ismail; Razani, Babak; Forsberg, E. Camilla; Yokoyama, Wayne; Unanue, Emil R.; Colonna, Marco; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cardiac macrophages are crucial for tissue repair after cardiac injury but have not been well characterized. Here we identify four populations of cardiac macrophages. At steady state, resident macrophages were primarily maintained through local proliferation. However, after macrophage depletion or during cardiac inflammation, Ly6chi monocytes contributed to all four macrophage populations, whereas resident macrophages also expanded numerically through proliferation. Genetic fate mapping revealed that yolk-sac and fetal monocyte progenitors gave rise to the majority of cardiac macrophages, and the heart was among a minority of organs in which substantial numbers of yolk-sac macrophages persisted in adulthood. CCR2 expression and dependence distinguished cardiac macrophages of adult monocyte versus embryonic origin. Transcriptional and functional data revealed that monocyte-derived macrophages coordinate cardiac inflammation, while playing redundant but lesser roles in antigen sampling and efferocytosis. These data highlight the presence of multiple cardiac macrophage subsets, with different functions, origins and strategies to regulate compartment. PMID:24439267

  18. Challenges of maintaining polio-free status of the European Region.

    PubMed

    Khetsuriani, Nino; Pfeifer, Dina; Deshevoi, Sergei; Gavrilin, Eugene; Shefer, Abigail; Butler, Robb; Jankovic, Dragan; Spataru, Roman; Emiroglu, Nedret; Martin, Rebecca

    2014-11-01

    The European region, certified as polio free in 2002, had recent wild poliovirus (WPV) introductions, resulting in a major outbreak in Central Asian countries and Russia in 2010 and in current widespread WPV type 1 circulation in Israel, which endangered the polio-free status of the region. We assessed the data on the major determinants of poliovirus transmission risk (population immunity, surveillance, and outbreak preparedness) and reviewed current threats and measures implemented in response to recent WPV introductions. Despite high regional vaccination coverage and functioning surveillance, several countries in the region are at high or intermediate risk of poliovirus transmission. Coverage remains suboptimal in some countries, subnational geographic areas, and population groups, and surveillance (acute flaccid paralysis, enterovirus, and environmental) needs further strengthening. Supplementary immunization activities, which were instrumental in the rapid interruption of WPV1 circulation in 2010, should be implemented in high-risk countries to close population immunity gaps. National polio outbreak preparedness plans need strengthening. Immunization efforts to interrupt WPV transmission in Israel should continue. The European region has successfully maintained its polio-free status since 2002, but numerous challenges remain. Staying polio free will require continued coordinated efforts, political commitment and financial support from all countries. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hualin; Yao, Guanrong; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability. PMID:24590051

  20. A Distinct Slow-Cycling Cancer Stem-like Subpopulation of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells is maintained in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dembinski, Jennifer L.; Krauss, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has the worst prognosis of any major malignancy, with <5% of patients surviving five years. This can be contributed to the often late diagnosis, lack of sufficient treatment and metastatic spread. Heterogeneity within tumors is increasingly becoming a focus in cancer research, as novel therapies are required to target the most aggressive subpopulations of cells that are frequently termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). In the current study, we describe the identification of a slow-cycling cancer stem-like population of cells in vivo in BxPC-3 and Panc03.27 xenografts. A distinct slow-cycling label-retaining population of cells (DiI+/SCC) was found both at the edge of tumors, and in small circumscribed areas within the tumors. DiI+/SCC in these areas display an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) fingerprint, including an upregulation of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and N-cadherin and a loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. DiI+/SCC also displayed a critical re-localization of beta-catenin from the membrane to the nucleus. Additionally, the DiI+/SCC population was found to express the developmental signaling molecule sonic hedgehog. This study represents a novel step in defining the biological activities of a tumorigenic subpopulation within the heterogeneous tumor microenvironment in vivo. Understanding the interactions and functions of a CSC population within the context of the tumor microenvironment is critical to design targeted therapeutics. PMID:24281215

  1. The segmentation of Thangka damaged regions based on the local distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuehui, Bi; Huaming, Liu; Xiuyou, Wang; Weilan, Wang; Yashuai, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Damaged regions must be segmented before digital repairing Thangka cultural relics. A new segmentation algorithm based on local distinction is proposed for segmenting damaged regions, taking into account some of the damaged area with a transition zone feature, as well as the difference between the damaged regions and their surrounding regions, combining local gray value, local complexity and local definition-complexity (LDC). Firstly, calculate the local complexity and normalized; secondly, calculate the local definition-complexity and normalized; thirdly, calculate the local distinction; finally, set the threshold to segment local distinction image, remove the over segmentation, and get the final segmentation result. The experimental results show that our algorithm is effective, and it can segment the damaged frescoes and natural image etc.

  2. Distinct regions of anterior cingulate cortex signal prediction and outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Andrew; Nee, Derek Evan; Alexander, William H; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-07-15

    A number of theories have been proposed to account for the role of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the broader medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in cognition. The recent Prediction of Response Outcome (PRO) computational model casts the mPFC in part as performing two theoretically distinct functions: learning to predict the various possible outcomes of actions, and then evaluating those predictions against the actual outcomes. Simulations have shown that this new model can account for an unprecedented range of known mPFC effects, but the central theory of distinct prediction and evaluation mechanisms within ACC remains untested. Using combined computational neural modeling and fMRI, we show here that prediction and evaluation signals are indeed each represented in the ACC, and furthermore, they are represented in distinct regions within ACC. Our task independently manipulated both the number of predicted outcomes and the degree to which outcomes violated expectancies, the former providing assessment of regions sensitive to prediction and the latter providing assessment of regions sensitive to evaluation. Using quantitative regressors derived from the PRO computational model, we show that prediction-based model signals load on a network including the posterior and perigenual ACC, but outcome evaluation model signals load on the mid-dorsal ACC. These findings are consistent with distinct prediction and evaluation signals as posited by the PRO model and provide new perspective on a large set of known effects within ACC.

  3. A minimal regulatory region maintains constitutive expression of the max gene.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, M A; Sollenberger, K G; Kao, T L; Taparowsky, E J

    1997-01-01

    Max is a basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper protein that forms heterodimers with the Myc family of proteins to promote cell growth and with the Mad/Mxi1 family of proteins to inhibit cell growth. The role of Max as the obligate binding partner for these two protein families necessitates the observed constitutive expression and relatively long half-life of the max mRNA under a variety of growth conditions. In this study, we have used the chicken max gene to map DNA elements maintaining max gene expression in vertebrate cells. We have identified a minimal regulatory region (MRR) that resides within 115 bp of the max translation initiation site and that possesses an overall structure typical of TATA-less promoters. Within the MRR are two consensus binding sites for Sp1, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that plays a role in the expression of many constitutive genes. Interestingly, we show that direct binding by Sp1 to these sites is not required for MRR-mediated transcription. Instead, the integrity of a 20-bp DNA element in the MRR is required for transcriptional activity, as is the interaction of this DNA element with a 90-kDa cellular protein. Our data suggest that it is the persistence of this 90-kDa protein in vertebrate cells which drives max gene expression, insulates the max promoter from the dramatic changes in transcription that accompany cell growth and development, and ensures that adequate levels of Max will be available to facilitate the function of the Myc, Mad, and Mxi1 families of proteins. PMID:9032230

  4. PAR-3 oligomerization may provide an actin-independent mechanism to maintain distinct par protein domains in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Adriana T; Munro, Edwin M

    2011-09-21

    Par proteins establish discrete intracellular spatial domains to polarize many different cell types. In the single-cell embryo of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the segregation of Par proteins is crucial for proper division and cell fate specification. Actomyosin-based cortical flows drive the initial formation of anterior and posterior Par domains, but cortical actin is not required for the maintenance of these domains. Here we develop a model of interactions between the Par proteins that includes both mutual inhibition and PAR-3 oligomerization. We show that this model gives rise to a bistable switch mechanism, allowing the Par proteins to occupy distinct anterior and posterior domains seen in the early C. elegans embryo, independent of dynamics or asymmetries in the actin cortex. The model predicts a sharp loss of cortical Par protein asymmetries during gradual depletion of the Par protein PAR-6, and we confirm this prediction experimentally. Together, these results suggest both mutual inhibition and PAR-3 oligomerization are sufficient to maintain distinct Par protein domains in the early C. elegans embryo.

  5. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region.

    PubMed

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-11-05

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis.

  6. Comparisons of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) Populations from Two Distinct Geographical Regions of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Fleming, D E; Roehrdanz, R L; Allen, K C; Musser, F R

    2015-06-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a major pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the state of Mississippi. Economic data indicate that L. lineolaris is a more serious pest of cotton in the Delta region of Mississippi than in the Hills region; however, little data exist comparing the two populations. Two experiments were undertaken to compare L. lineolaris from these two geographically distinct regions. In the first experiment, colonies of L. lineolaris from each region were reared in the laboratory under controlled conditions and measurements of development time, survivorship, fecundity, and hatch rate were compared. The geographic region of origin had no effect on any of the variables measured; however, the diet used for rearing had a significant effect on all variables except hatch rate. In the second experiment, part of the cox1 gene of the L. lineolaris mitochondrial genome was compared between the two populations to examine possible genetic differences between L. lineolaris from the two regions of Mississippi. Data revealed two cox1 clades in the Delta region and only one cox1 clade in the Hills region. Taken together, the data do not explain the reason for the differences in the severity of damage to cotton in the two regions.

  7. Identification and characterization of two distinct ligand binding regions of cubilin.

    PubMed

    Yammani, R R; Seetharam, S; Seetharam, B

    2001-11-30

    Using polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments of cubilin, an endocytic receptor of molecular mass 460 kDa, we have identified two distinct ligand binding regions. Region 1 of molecular mass 71 kDa, which included the 113-residue N terminus along with the eight epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and CUB domains 1 and 2, and region 2 of molecular mass 37 kDa consisting of CUB domains 6-8 bound both intrinsic factor-cobalamin (vitamin B(12); Cbl) (IF-Cbl) and albumin. Within these two regions, the binding of both ligands was confined to a 110-115-residue stretch that encompassed either the 113-residue N terminus or CUB domain 7 and 8. Ca(2+) dependence of ligand binding or the ability of cubilin antiserum to inhibit ligand binding to the 113-residue N terminus was 60-65%. However, a combination of CUB domains 7 and 8 or 6-8 was needed to demonstrate significant Ca(2+) dependence or inhibition of ligand binding by cubilin antiserum. Antiserum to EGF inhibited albumin but not IF-Cbl binding to the N-terminal cubilin fragment that included the eight EGF-like repeats. While the presence of excess albumin had no effect on binding to IF-Cbl, IF-Cbl in excess was able to inhibit albumin binding to both regions of cubilin. Reductive alkylation of the 113-residue N terminus or CUB 6-8, CUB 7, or CUB 8 domain resulted in the abolishment of ligand binding. These results indicate that (a) cubilin contains two distinct regions that bind both IF-Cbl and albumin and that (b) binding of both IF-Cbl and albumin to each of these regions can be distinguished and is regulated by the nonassisted formation of local disulfide bonds.

  8. Maintaining polio-free certification in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region for over a decade.

    PubMed

    Adams, Anthony; Boualam, Liliane; Diorditsa, Sergey; Gregory, Christopher; Jee, Youngmee; Mendoza-Aldana, Jorge; Roesel, Sigrun

    2014-11-01

    On 29 October 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication in the Western Pacific certified the WHO Western Pacific Region as free of indigenous wild poliovirus. This status has been maintained to date: wild poliovirus importations into Singapore (in 2006) and Australia (in 2007) did not lead to secondary cases, and an outbreak in China (in 2011) was rapidly controlled. Circulation of vaccine derived polioviruses in Cambodia, China and the Philippines was quickly interrupted. A robust acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system, including a multitiered polio laboratory network, has been maintained, forming the platform for integrating measles, neonatal tetanus, and other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance and their respective control goals. While polio elimination remains one of the most important achievements in public health in the Western Pacific Region, extended delays in global eradication have, however, led to shifting and competing public health priorities among member states and partners and have made the region increasingly vulnerable.

  9. Growth and gene expression are predominantly controlled by distinct regions of the human IL-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J J; McReynolds, L J; Keegan, A; Wang, L H; Garfein, E; Rothman, P; Nelms, K; Paul, W E

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 causes hematopoietic cells to proliferate and express a series of genes, including CD23. We examined whether IL-4-mediated growth, as measured by 4PS phosphorylation, and gene induction were similarly controlled. Studies of M12.4.1 cells expressing human IL-4R truncation mutants indicated that the region between amino acids 557-657 is necessary for full gene expression, which correlated with Stat6 DNA binding activity. This region was not required for 4PS phosphorylation. Tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutations in the interval between amino acids 557-657 revealed that as long as one tyrosine remained unmutated, CD23 was fully induced. When all three tyrosines were mutated, the receptor was unable to induce CD23. The results indicate that growth regulation and gene expression are principally controlled by distinct regions of IL-4R.

  10. Distinct Regions of Prefrontal Cortex Are Associated with the Controlled Retrieval and Selection of Social Information

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Badre, David; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Research in social neuroscience has uncovered a social knowledge network that is particularly attuned to making social judgments. However, the processes that are being performed by both regions within this network and those outside of this network that are nevertheless engaged in the service of making a social judgment remain unclear. To help address this, we drew upon research in semantic memory, which suggests that making a semantic judgment engages 2 distinct control processes: A controlled retrieval process, which aids in bringing goal-relevant information to mind from long-term stores, and a selection process, which aids in selecting the information that is goal-relevant from the information retrieved. In a neuroimaging study, we investigated whether controlled retrieval and selection for social information engage distinct portions of both the social knowledge network and regions outside this network. Controlled retrieval for social information engaged an anterior ventrolateral portion of the prefrontal cortex, whereas selection engaged both the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction within the social knowledge network. These results suggest that the social knowledge network may be more involved with the selection of social information than the controlled retrieval of it and incorporates lateral prefrontal regions in accessing memory for making social judgments. PMID:23300111

  11. Thalamic label patterns suggest primary and ventral auditory fields are distinct core regions.

    PubMed

    Storace, Douglas A; Higgins, Nathan C; Read, Heather L

    2010-05-15

    A hierarchical scheme proposed by Kaas and colleagues suggests that primate auditory cortex can be divided into core and belt regions based on anatomic connections with thalamus and distinctions among response properties. According to their model, core auditory cortex receives predominantly unimodal sensory input from the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body (MGBv); whereas belt cortex receives predominantly cross-modal sensory input from nuclei outside the MGBv. We previously characterized distinct response properties in rat primary (A1) versus ventral auditory field (VAF) cortex; however, it has been unclear whether VAF should be categorized as a core or belt auditory cortex. The current study employed high-resolution functional imaging to map intrinsic metabolic responses to tones and to guide retrograde tracer injections into A1 and VAF. The size and density of retrogradely labeled somas in the medial geniculate body (MGB) were examined as a function of their position along the caudal-to-rostral axis, subdivision of origin, and cortical projection target. A1 and VAF projecting neurons were found in the same subdivisions of the MGB but in rostral and caudal parts, respectively. Less than 3% of the cells projected to both regions. VAF projecting neurons were smaller than A1 projecting neurons located in dorsal (MGBd) and suprageniculate (SG) nuclei. Thus, soma size varied with both caudal-rostral position and cortical target. Finally, the majority (>70%) of A1 and VAF projecting neurons were located in MGBv. These MGB connection profiles suggest that rat auditory cortex, like primate auditory cortex, is made up of multiple distinct core regions. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Two Distinct Yersinia pestis Populations Causing Plague among Humans in the West Nile Region of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B; Yockey, Brook M; Acayo, Sarah; Kaggwa, John; Apangu, Titus; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Eisen, Rebecca J; Griffith, Kevin S; Mead, Paul S; Schriefer, Martin E; Petersen, Jeannine M

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a life-threatening disease caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Since the 1990s, Africa has accounted for the majority of reported human cases. In Uganda, plague cases occur in the West Nile region, near the border with Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite the ongoing risk of contracting plague in this region, little is known about Y. pestis genotypes causing human disease. During January 2004-December 2012, 1,092 suspect human plague cases were recorded in the West Nile region of Uganda. Sixty-one cases were culture-confirmed. Recovered Y. pestis isolates were analyzed using three typing methods, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiple variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and subpopulations analyzed in the context of associated geographic, temporal, and clinical data for source patients. All three methods separated the 61 isolates into two distinct 1.ANT lineages, which persisted throughout the 9 year period and were associated with differences in elevation and geographic distribution. We demonstrate that human cases of plague in the West Nile region of Uganda are caused by two distinct 1.ANT genetic subpopulations. Notably, all three typing methods used, SNPs, PFGE, and MLVA, identified the two genetic subpopulations, despite recognizing different mutation types in the Y. pestis genome. The geographic and elevation differences between the two subpopulations is suggestive of their maintenance in highly localized enzootic cycles, potentially with differing vector-host community composition. This improved understanding of Y. pestis subpopulations in the West Nile region will be useful for identifying ecologic and environmental factors associated with elevated plague risk.

  13. Neural dissociations in attitude strength: Distinct regions of cingulate cortex track ambivalence and certainty.

    PubMed

    Luttrell, Andrew; Stillman, Paul E; Hasinski, Adam E; Cunningham, William A

    2016-04-01

    People's behaviors are often guided by valenced responses to objects in the environment. Beyond positive and negative evaluations, attitudes research has documented the importance of attitude strength--qualities of an attitude that enhance or attenuate its impact and durability. Although neuroscience research has extensively investigated valence, little work exists on other related variables like metacognitive judgments about one's attitudes. It remains unclear, then, whether the various indicators of attitude strength represent a single underlying neural process or whether they reflect independent processes. To examine this, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify the neural correlates of attitude strength. Specifically, we focus on ambivalence and certainty, which represent metacognitive judgments that people can make about their evaluations. Although often correlated, prior neuroscience research suggests that these 2 attributes may have distinct neural underpinnings. We investigate this by having participants make evaluative judgments of visually presented words while undergoing fMRI. After scanning, participants rated the degree of ambivalence and certainty they felt regarding their attitudes toward each word. We found that these 2 judgments corresponded to distinct brain regions' activity during the process of evaluation. Ambivalence corresponded to activation in anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex. Certainty, however, corresponded to activation in unique areas of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These results support a model treating ambivalence and certainty as distinct, though related, attitude strength variables, and we discuss implications for both attitudes and neuroscience research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region

    PubMed Central

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis. PMID:26556349

  15. Mechanisms of Sound Localization in Two Functionally Distinct Regions of the Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Yarrow, Stuart; Brewton, Dustin

    2015-12-09

    The auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. The mechanisms that shape bicoordinate spatial representation in the auditory cortex remain unclear. Here, we addressed this issue by quantifying spatial receptive fields (SRFs) in two functionally distinct cortical regions in the pallid bat. The pallid bat uses echolocation for obstacle avoidance and listens to prey-generated noise to localize prey. Its cortex contains two segregated regions of response selectivity that serve echolocation and localization of prey-generated noise. The main aim of this study was to compare 2D SRFs between neurons in the noise-selective region (NSR) and the echolocation region [frequency-modulated sweep-selective region (FMSR)]. The data reveal the following major differences between these two regions: (1) compared with NSR neurons, SRF properties of FMSR neurons were more strongly dependent on sound level; (2) as a population, NSR neurons represent a broad region of contralateral space, while FMSR selectivity was focused near the midline at sound levels near threshold and expanded considerably with increasing sound levels; and (3) the SRF size and centroid elevation were correlated with the characteristic frequency in the NSR, but not the FMSR. These data suggest different mechanisms of sound localization for two different behaviors. Previously, we reported that azimuth is represented by predictable changes in the extent of activated cortex. The present data indicate how elevation constrains this activity pattern. These data suggest a novel model for bicoordinate spatial representation that is based on the extent of activated cortex resulting from the overlap of binaural and tonotopic maps. Unlike the visual and somatosensory systems, spatial information is not directly represented at the sensory receptor epithelium in the auditory system. Spatial locations are computed by integrating neural binaural properties and frequency-dependent pinna filtering, providing a useful model

  16. Gene expression profiles in anatomically and functionally distinct regions of the normal aged human brain

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Winnie S.; Dunckley, Travis; Beach, Thomas G.; Grover, Andrew; Mastroeni, Diego; Walker, Douglas G.; Caselli, Richard J.; Kukull, Walter A.; McKeel, Daniel; Morris, John C.; Hulette, Christine; Schmechel, Donald; Alexander, Gene E.; Reiman, Eric M.; Rogers, Joseph; Stephan, Dietrich A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we have characterized and compared gene expression profiles from laser capture microdissected neurons in six functionally and anatomically distinct regions from clinically and histopathologically normal aged human brains. These regions, which are also known to be differentially vulnerable to the histopathological and metabolic features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), include the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus (limbic and paralimbic areas vulnerable to early neurofibrillary tangle pathology in AD), posterior cingulate cortex (a paralimbic area vulnerable to early metabolic abnormalities in AD), temporal and prefrontal cortex (unimodal and heteromodal sensory association areas vulnerable to early neuritic plaque pathology in AD), and primary visual cortex (a primary sensory area relatively spared in early AD). These neuronal profiles will provide valuable reference information for future studies of the brain, in normal aging, AD and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:17077275

  17. Estimated costs of maintaining a recovered wolf population in agricultural regions of Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    The annual costs of maintaining Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus), now numbering about 2,500, under 2 plans are compared: (1) maintaining a population of about 1,400 primarily in the wilderness and semi-wilderness as recommended by the Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Plan, and (2) allowing wolves to continue colonizing agricultural areas for 5 years after removal from the endangered species list, as recommended by a consensus of wolf stakeholders (Minnesota Wolf Management Roundtable). Under the first plan, each year an estimated 27 farms would suffer livestock losses; wolves would kilt about 3 dogs; 36 wolves would be destroyed; and the cost per wolf in the total population would be $86. Under the second plan, conservative estimates are that by the year 2005, there would be an estimated 3,500 wolves; each year 94-171 farms would suffer damage; wolves would kill 8-52 dogs; 109-438 wolves would have to be killed for depredation control; and the annual cost averaged over the total population would be $86 for each of the 1,438 wolves living primarily in the wilderness and an additional $197 for each wolf outside the wilderness.

  18. Regional transport of a chemically distinctive dust: Gypsum from White Sands, New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Warren H.; Hyslop, Nicole P.; Trzepla, Krystyna; Yatkin, Sinan; Rarig, Randy S.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jin, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    The White Sands complex, a National Monument and adjoining Missile Range in southern New Mexico, occupies the dry bed of an ice-age lake where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the east and northeast. The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) operates long-term aerosol samplers at two sites east of the Sacramento range. In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at these sites, eclipsing the regional summer peak resulting from atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with much of the sulfur in coarse particles and concentrations of calcium and strontium above regional levels. The increase in these gypsiferous species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and the IMPROVE samplers together provide a natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiable at long-term observatories 100-200 km downwind.

  19. Common and distinct brain regions processing multisensory bodily signals for peripersonal space and body ownership.

    PubMed

    Grivaz, Petr; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    We take the feeling that our body belongs to us for granted. However, recent research has shown that it is possible to alter the subjective sensation of body ownership (BO) by manipulating multisensory bodily inputs. Several frontal and parietal regions are known to specifically process multisensory cues presented close to the body, i.e., within the peripersonal space (PPS). It has been proposed that these PPS fronto-parietal regions also underlie BO. However, most previous studies investigated the brain mechanisms of either BO or of PPS processing separately and by using a variety of paradigms. Here, we conducted an extensive meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to investigate PPS and BO processing in humans in order to: a) assess quantitatively where each one of these functions was individually processed in the brain; b) identify whether and where these processes shared common or engaged distinct brain mechanisms; c) characterize these areas in terms of whole-brain co-activation networks and functions, respectively. We identified (i) a bilateral PPS network including superior parietal, temporo-parietal and ventral premotor regions and (ii) a BO network including posterior parietal cortex (right intraparietal sulcus, IPS; and left IPS and superior parietal lobule, SPL), right ventral premotor cortex, and the left anterior insula. Co-activation maps related to both PPS and BO encompassed largely overlapping fronto-parietal networks, but whereas the PPS network was more frequently associated with sensorimotor tasks, the BO network was rather associated with attention and awareness tasks. Finally, the conjunction analysis showed that (iii) PPS and BO tasks anatomically overlapped only in two clusters located in the left parietal cortex (dorsally at the intersection between the SPL, the IPS and area 2 and ventrally between areas 2 and IPS). Distinct activations were located for PPS at the temporo-parietal junction and for BO in the anterior insula. These

  20. Differential production of reactive oxygen species in distinct brain regions of hypoglycemic mice.

    PubMed

    Amador-Alvarado, Leticia; Montiel, Teresa; Massieu, Lourdes

    2014-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a serious complication of insulin therapy in patients suffering from type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Severe hypoglycemia leading to coma (isoelectricity) induces massive neuronal death in vulnerable brain regions such as the hippocampus, the striatum and the cerebral cortex. It has been suggested that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is involved in hypoglycemic brain damage, and that ROS generation is stimulated by glucose reintroduction (GR) after the hypoglycemic coma. However, the distribution of ROS in discrete brain regions has not been studied in detail. Using the oxidation sensitive marker dihydroethidium (DHE) we have investigated the distribution of ROS in different regions of the mouse brain during prolonged severe hypoglycemia without isoelectricity, as well as the effect of GR on ROS levels. Results show that ROS generation increases in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex and the striatum after prolonged severe hypoglycemia before the coma. The hippocampus showed the largest increases in ROS levels. GR further stimulated ROS production in the hippocampus and the striatum while in the cerebral cortex, only the somatosensory and parietal areas were significantly affected by GR. Results suggest that ROS are differentially produced during the hypoglycemic insult and that a different response to GR is present among distinct brain regions.

  1. Relative vulnerability of public supply wells to VOC contamination in hydrologically distinct regional aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauffman, L.J.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    A process-based methodology was used to compare the vulnerability of public supply wells tapping seven study areas in four hydrologically distinct regional aquifers to volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. This method considers (1) contributing areas and travel times of groundwater flowpaths converging at individual supply wells, (2) the oxic and/or anoxic conditions encountered along each flowpath, and (3) the combined effects of hydrodynamic dispersion and contaminant- and oxic/anoxic-specific biodegradation. Contributing areas and travel times were assessed using particle tracks generated from calibrated regional groundwater flow models. These results were then used to estimate VOC concentrations relative to an unspecified initial concentration (C/C0) at individual public supply wells. The results show that the vulnerability of public supply wells to VOC contamination varies widely between different regional aquifers. Low-recharge rates, long travel times, and the predominantly oxic conditions characteristic of Basin and Range aquifers in the western United States leads to lower vulnerability to VOCs, particularly to petroleum hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene. On the other hand, high recharge rates and short residence times characteristic of the glacial aquifers of the eastern United States leads to greater vulnerability to VOCs. These differences lead to distinct patterns of C/C0 values estimated for public supply wells characteristic of each aquifer, information that can be used by resource managers to develop monitoring plans based on relative vulnerability, to locate new public supply wells, or to make land-use management decisions. Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  2. Regional functional connectivity predicts distinct cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease spectrum.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Hinkley, Leighton B; Beagle, Alexander J; Mizuiri, Danielle; Dowling, Anne F; Honma, Susanne M; Finucane, Mariel M; Scherling, Carole; Miller, Bruce L; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Vossel, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding neural network dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease is imperative to effectively develop network-modulating therapies. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive decline associates with deficits in resting-state functional connectivity of diffuse brain networks. The goal of the current study was to test whether specific cognitive impairments in AD spectrum correlate with reduced functional connectivity of distinct brain regions. We recorded resting-state functional connectivity of alpha-band activity in 27 patients with AD spectrum--22 patients with probable AD (5 logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, 7 posterior cortical atrophy, and 10 early-onset amnestic/dysexecutive AD) and 5 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. We used magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEGI) to perform an unbiased search for regions where patterns of functional connectivity correlated with disease severity and cognitive performance. Functional connectivity measured the strength of coherence between a given region and the rest of the brain. Decreased neural connectivity of multiple brain regions including the right posterior perisylvian region and left middle frontal cortex correlated with a higher degree of disease severity. Deficits in executive control and episodic memory correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex, whereas visuospatial impairments correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal cortex. Our findings indicate that reductions in region-specific alpha-band resting-state functional connectivity are strongly correlated with, and might contribute to, specific cognitive deficits in AD spectrum. In the future, MEGI functional connectivity could be an important biomarker to map and follow defective networks in the early stages of AD.

  3. Functionally distinct regions for spatial processing and sensory motor integration in the planum temporale.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, A Lisette; Vaden, Kenneth I; Saberi, Kourosh; Muftuler, L Tugan; Hickok, Gregory

    2012-10-01

    There has been much debate recently over the functional role played by the planum temporale (PT) within the context of the dorsal auditory processing stream. Some studies indicate that regions in the PT support spatial hearing and other auditory functions, whereas others demonstrate sensory-motor response properties. This multifunctionality has led to the claim that the PT is performing a common computational pattern matching operation, then routing the signals (spatial, object, sensory-motor) into an appropriate processing stream. An alternative possibility is that the PT is functionally subdivided with separate regions supporting various functions. We assess this possibility using a within subject fMRI block design. DTI data were also collected to examine connectivity. There were four auditory conditions: stationary noise, moving noise, listening to pseudowords, and shadowing pseudowords (covert repetition). Contrasting the shadow and listen conditions should activate regions specific to sensory-motor processes, while contrasting the stationary and moving noise conditions should activate regions involved in spatial hearing. Subjects (N = 16) showed greater activation for shadowing in left posterior PT, area Spt, when the shadow and listen conditions were contrasted. The motion vs. stationary noise contrast revealed greater activation in a more medial and anterior portion of left PT. Seeds from these two contrasts were then used to guide the DTI analysis in an examination of connectivity via streamline tractography, which revealed different patterns of connectivity. Findings support a heterogeneous model of the PT, with functionally distinct regions for sensory-motor integration and processes involved in auditory spatial perception. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Association of tetralogy of Fallot with a distinct region of del22q11.2.

    PubMed

    Kessler-Icekson, Gania; Birk, Einat; Weintraub, Ari Y; Barhum, Yael; Kotlyar, Violetta; Schlesinger, Hadassa; Rockah, Rivka; Vidne, Bernardo A; Frisch, Amos

    2002-02-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) appear in greater frequency among relatives of patients and in individuals with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) or velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). A majority of these patients and part of the apparently nonsyndromic CHD patients with conotruncal defects manifest hemizygous deletions within chromosome 22q11.2 (del22q11). We tested myocardial tissues of 31 CHD patients, 21 with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and 10 with a double-chamber right ventricle (DCRV). DNA isolated from tissues removed at corrective surgery was analyzed for homo- or heterozygosity of nine polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers along the 22q11.2 region. DNA from the blood of 45 healthy individuals represented the general population. Ten of the 21 TOF patients (48%) showed homozygosity for three or more consecutive markers, indicating deletions of various sizes. No such indication was found for DCRV patients. Heterozygosity for markers D22S1648, D22S941, and D22S944 was lower in the TOF group than in normal controls, defining a minimal critical region (MCR) for the deletion. Our findings support an association between TOF and hemizygosity in 22q11.2, suggesting a distinct region, between markers D22S1638 and COMT, that may harbor TOF susceptibility genes.

  5. Establishing the pre-placodal region and breaking it into placodes with distinct identities

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre; Moody, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Specialized sensory organs in the vertebrate head originate from thickenings in the embryonic ectoderm called cranial sensory placodes. These placodes, as well as the neural crest, arise from a zone of ectoderm that borders the neural plate. This zone separates into a precursor field for the neural crest that lies adjacent to the neural plate, and a precursor field for the placodes, called the pre-placodal region (PPR), that lies lateral to the neural crest. The neural crest domain and the PPR are established in response to signaling events mediated by BMPs, FGFs and Wnts, which differentially activate transcription factors in these territories. In the PPR, members of the Six and Eya families, act in part to repress neural crest specific transcription factors, thus solidifying a placode developmental program. Subsequently, in response to environmental cues the PPR is further subdivided into placodal territories with distinct characteristics, each expressing a specific repertoire of transcription factors that provides the necessary information for their progression to mature sensory organs. In this review we summarize recent advances in the characterization of the signaling molecules and transcriptional effectors that regulate PPR specification and its subdivision into placodal domains with distinct identities. PMID:24576539

  6. Global changes in processing of mRNA 3' untranslated regions characterize clinically distinct cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyam; Alley, Travis L; Wright, Sarah M; Kamdar, Sonya; Schott, William; Wilpan, Robert Y; Mills, Kevin D; Graber, Joel H

    2009-12-15

    Molecular cancer diagnostics are an important clinical advance in cancer management, but new methods are still needed. In this context, gene expression signatures obtained by microarray represent a useful molecular diagnostic. Here, we describe novel probe-level microarray analyses that reveal connections between mRNA processing and neoplasia in multiple tumor types, with diagnostic potential. We now show that characteristic differences in mRNA processing, primarily in the 3'-untranslated region, define molecular signatures that can distinguish similar tumor subtypes with different survival characteristics, with at least 74% accuracy. Using a mouse model of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma, we find that differences in transcript isoform abundance are likely due to both alternative polyadenylation (APA) and differential degradation. While truncation of the 3'-UTR is the most common observed pattern, genes with elongated transcripts were also observed, and distinct groups of affected genes are found in related but distinct tumor types. Genes with elongated transcripts are overrepresented in ontology categories related to cell-cell adhesion and morphology. Analysis of microarray data from human primary tumor samples revealed similar phenomena. Western blot analysis of selected proteins confirms that changes in the 3'-UTR can correlate with changes in protein expression. Our work suggests that alternative mRNA processing, particularly APA, can be a powerful molecular biomarker with prognostic potential. Finally, these findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of gene deregulation in tumorigenesis.

  7. Distinct characteristics of asymmetric magnetic reconnections: Observational results from the exhaust region at the dayside magnetopause

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the conversion of magnetic energy into the thermal and kinetic energy of plasma. On either side of the diffusion region in space plasma, the conditions for the occurrence of reconnections are usually not symmetric. Previous theoretical studies have predicted that reconnections under asymmetric conditions will bear different features compared with those of symmetric reconnections, and numerical simulations have verified these distinct features. However, to date, the features of asymmetric reconnections have not been thoroughly investigated using in situ observations; thus, some results from theoretical studies and simulations have not been tested with observations sufficiently well. Here, spacecraft observations are used in a statistical investigation of asymmetric magnetic reconnection exhaust at the dayside magnetopause. The resulting observational features are consistent with the theoretical predictions. The results presented here advance our understanding of the development of reconnections under asymmetric conditions. PMID:27270685

  8. Distinct characteristics of asymmetric magnetic reconnections: Observational results from the exhaust region at the dayside magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. C.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the conversion of magnetic energy into the thermal and kinetic energy of plasma. On either side of the diffusion region in space plasma, the conditions for the occurrence of reconnections are usually not symmetric. Previous theoretical studies have predicted that reconnections under asymmetric conditions will bear different features compared with those of symmetric reconnections, and numerical simulations have verified these distinct features. However, to date, the features of asymmetric reconnections have not been thoroughly investigated using in situ observations; thus, some results from theoretical studies and simulations have not been tested with observations sufficiently well. Here, spacecraft observations are used in a statistical investigation of asymmetric magnetic reconnection exhaust at the dayside magnetopause. The resulting observational features are consistent with the theoretical predictions. The results presented here advance our understanding of the development of reconnections under asymmetric conditions.

  9. Appetitive associative learning recruits a distinct network with cortical, striatal, and hypothalamic regions

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Sindy; Hobin, Michael P.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala, prefrontal cortex, striatum and other connected forebrain areas are important for reward-associated learning and subsequent behaviors. How these structurally and functionally dissociable regions are recruited during initial learning, however, is unclear. Recently, we showed amygdalar nuclei were differentially recruited across different stages of cue-food associations in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. Here, we systematically examined Fos induction in the forebrain, including areas associated with the amygdala, during early (day 1) and late (day 10) training sessions of cue-food conditioning. During training, rats in the conditioned group received tone-food pairings, while controls received presentations of the tone alone in the conditioning chamber followed by food delivery in their home cage. We found that a small subset of telencephalic and hypothalamic regions were differentially recruited during the early and late stages of training, suggesting evidence of learning induced plasticity. Initial tone-food pairings recruited solely the amygdala, while late tone-food pairings came to induce Fos in distinct areas within the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsal striatum, and the hypothalamus (lateral hypothalamus and paraventricular nucleus). Furthermore, within the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, tone-food pairings selectively recruited neurons that produce the orexigenic neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin. These data show a functional map of the forebrain areas recruited by appetitive associative learning and dependent on experience. These selectively activated regions include interconnected prefrontal, striatal, and hypothalamic regions that form a discrete but distributed network that is well placed to simultaneously inform cortical (cognitive) processing and behavioral (motivational) control during cue-food learning. PMID:25463526

  10. Distinct regions of medial rostral prefrontal cortex supporting social and nonsocial functions

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Iain D. M.; Dumontheil, Iroise; Simons, Jon S.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    While some recent neuroimaging studies have implicated medial rostral prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in ‘mentalizing’ and self-reflection, others have implicated this region in attention towards perceptual vs self-generated information. In order to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings, we used fMRI to investigate MPFC activity related to these two functions in a factorial design. Participants performed two separate tasks, each of which alternated between ‘stimulus-oriented phases’ (SO), where participants attended to task-relevant perceptual information, and ‘stimulus-independent phases’ (SI), where participants performed the same tasks in the absence of such information. In half of the blocks (‘mentalizing condition’), participants were instructed that they were performing these tasks in collaboration with an experimenter; in other blocks (‘non-mentalizing condition’), participants were instructed that the experimenter was not involved. In fact, the tasks were identical in these conditions. Neuroimaging data revealed adjacent but clearly distinct regions of activation within MPFC related to (i) mentalizing vs non-mentalizing conditions (relatively caudal/superior) and (ii) SO vs SI attention (relatively rostral/inferior). These results generalized from one task to the other, suggesting a new axis of functional organization within MPFC. PMID:18985143

  11. Genetic heterogeneity within the HLA region in three distinct clinical subgroups of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher; Hughes, Travis; Yilmaz, Vuslat; Durmus, Hacer; Adler, Adam; Alahgholi-Hajibehzad, Mahdi; Aysal, Fikret; Yentür, Sibel P; Akalin, Mehmet Ali; Dogan, Oner; Marx, Alexander; Gülsen-Parman, Yesim; Oflazer, Piraye; Deymeer, Feza; Sawalha, Amr H

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to investigate genetic susceptibility to early-onset and late-onset anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody positive myasthenia gravis (EOMG and LOMG) and anti-muscle specific kinase antibody positive MG (MuSK-MG) at genome-wide level in a single population. Using a custom-designed array and imputing additional variants and the classical HLA alleles in 398 patients, we detected distinct associations. In EOMG, rs113519545 in the HLA class I region (OR=5.71 [3.77-8.66], P=2.24×10(-16)), HLA-B*08:01 (OR=7.04 [3.95-12.52], P=3.34×10(-11)) and HLA-C*07:01 (OR=2.74 [1.97-3.81], P=2.07(-9)), in LOMG, rs111256513 in the HLA class II region (OR=2.22 [1.59-3.09], P=2.48×10(-6)) and in MuSK-MG, an intronic variant within HLA-DQB1 (rs68081734, OR=5.86, P=2.25×10(-14)) and HLA-DQB1*05:02 (OR=8.56, P=6.88×10(-13)) revealed the most significant associations for genome-wide significance. Differential genetic susceptibility within the HLA to EOMG, LOMG and MuSK-MG has been established in a population from Turkey. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies of meiosis disclose distinct roles of cohesion in the core centromere and pericentromeric regions.

    PubMed

    Sakuno, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    During meiosis, a single round of genome duplication is followed by two sequential rounds of chromosome segregation. Through this process, a diploid parent cell generates gametes with a haploid set of chromosomes. A characteristic of meiotic chromosome segregation is a stepwise loss of sister chromatid cohesion along chromosomal arms and at centromeres. Whereas arm cohesion plays an important role in ensuring homologue disjunction at meiosis I, persisting cohesion at pericentromeric regions throughout meiosis I is essential for the faithful equational segregation of sisters in the following meiosis II, similar to mitosis. A widely conserved pericentromeric protein called shugoshin, which associates with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), plays a critical role in this protection of cohesin. Another key aspect of meiosis I is the establishment of monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to spindle microtubules. Cohesion or physical linkage at the core centromeres, where kinetochores assemble, may conjoin sister kinetochores, leading to monopolar attachment. A meiosis-specific kinetochore factor such as fission yeast Moa1 or budding yeast monopolin contributes to this regulation. We propose that cohesion at the core centromere and pericentromeric regions plays distinct roles, especially in defining the orientation of kinetochores.

  13. Lizard tail regeneration: regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by Indian hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

    2015-03-15

    Lizards capable of caudal autotomy exhibit the remarkable ability to "drop" and then regenerate their tails. However, the regenerated lizard tail (RLT) is known as an "imperfect replicate" due to several key anatomical differences compared to the original tail. Most striking of these "imperfections" concerns the skeleton; instead of the vertebrae of the original tail, the skeleton of the RLT takes the form of an unsegmented cartilage tube (CT). Here we have performed the first detailed staging of skeletal development of the RLT CT, identifying two distinct mineralization events. CTs isolated from RLTs of various ages were analyzed by micro-computed tomography to characterize mineralization, and to correlate skeletal development with expression of endochondral ossification markers evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. During early tail regeneration, shortly after CT formation, the extreme proximal CT in direct contact with the most terminal vertebra of the original tail develops a growth plate-like region that undergoes endochondral ossification. Proximal CT chondrocytes enlarge, express hypertrophic markers, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), apoptose, and are replaced by bone. During later stages of tail regeneration, the distal CT mineralizes without endochondral ossification. The sub-perichondrium of the distal CT expresses Ihh, and the perichondrium directly calcifies without cartilage growth plate formation. The calcified CT perichondrium also contains a population of stem/progenitor cells that forms new cartilage in response to TGF-β stimulation. Treatment with the Ihh inhibitor cyclopamine inhibited both proximal CT ossification and distal CT calcification. Thus, while the two mineralization events are spatially, temporally, and mechanistically very different, they both involve Ihh. Taken together, these results suggest that Ihh regulates CT mineralization during two distinct stages of lizard tail regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. A Triad of Molecular Regions Contribute to the Formation of Two Distinct MHC Class II Conformers

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Lisa A.; Drake, James R.

    2016-01-01

    MHC class II molecules present antigen-derived peptides to CD4 T cells to drive the adaptive immune response. Previous work has established that class II αβ dimers can adopt two distinct conformations, driven by the differential pairing of transmembrane domain GxxxG dimerization motifs. These class II conformers differ in their ability to be loaded with antigen-derived peptide and to effectively engage CD4 T cells. Motif 1 (M1) paired I-Ak class II molecules are efficiently loaded with peptides derived from the processing of B cell receptor-bound antigen, have unique B cell signaling properties and high T cell stimulation activity. The 11-5.2 mAb selectively binds M1 paired I-Ak class II molecules. However, the molecular determinants of 11-5.2 binding are currently unclear. Here, we report the ability of a human class II transmembrane domain to drive both M1 and M2 class II conformer formation. Protease sensitivity analysis further strengthens the idea that there are conformational differences between the extracellular domains of M1 and M2 paired class II. Finally, MHC class II chain alignments and site directed mutagenesis reveals a triad of molecular regions that contributes to 11-5.2 mAb binding. In addition to transmembrane GxxxG motif domain pairing, 11-5.2 binding is influenced directly by α chain residue Glu-71 and indirectly by the region around the inter-chain salt bridge formed by α chain Arg-52 and β chain Glu-86. These findings provide insight into the complexity of 11-5.2 mAb recognition of the M1 paired I-Ak class II conformer and further highlight the molecular heterogeneity of peptide-MHC class II complexes that drive T cell antigen recognition. PMID:27148821

  15. DNAH11 Localization in the Proximal Region of Respiratory Cilia Defines Distinct Outer Dynein Arm Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Gerard W; Loges, Niki T; Klinkenbusch, Judith A; Olbrich, Heike; Pennekamp, Petra; Menchen, Tabea; Raidt, Johanna; Wallmeier, Julia; Werner, Claudius; Westermann, Cordula; Ruckert, Christian; Mirra, Virginia; Hjeij, Rim; Memari, Yasin; Durbin, Richard; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Praveen, Kavita; Kashef, Mohammad A; Kashef, Sara; Eghtedari, Fardin; Häffner, Karsten; Valmari, Pekka; Baktai, György; Aviram, Micha; Bentur, Lea; Amirav, Israel; Davis, Erica E; Katsanis, Nicholas; Brueckner, Martina; Shaposhnykov, Artem; Pigino, Gaia; Dworniczak, Bernd; Omran, Heymut

    2016-08-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a recessively inherited disease that leads to chronic respiratory disorders owing to impaired mucociliary clearance. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a diagnostic standard to identify ultrastructural defects in respiratory cilia but is not useful in approximately 30% of PCD cases, which have normal ciliary ultrastructure. DNAH11 mutations are a common cause of PCD with normal ciliary ultrastructure and hyperkinetic ciliary beating, but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We therefore characterized DNAH11 in human respiratory cilia by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) in the context of PCD. We used whole-exome and targeted next-generation sequence analysis as well as Sanger sequencing to identify and confirm eight novel loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations. We designed and validated a monoclonal antibody specific to DNAH11 and performed high-resolution IFM of both control and PCD-affected human respiratory cells, as well as samples from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-left-right dynein mice, to determine the ciliary localization of DNAH11. IFM analysis demonstrated native DNAH11 localization in only the proximal region of wild-type human respiratory cilia and loss of DNAH11 in individuals with PCD with certain loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations. GFP-left-right dynein mice confirmed proximal DNAH11 localization in tracheal cilia. DNAH11 retained proximal localization in respiratory cilia of individuals with PCD with distinct ultrastructural defects, such as the absence of outer dynein arms (ODAs). TEM tomography detected a partial reduction of ODAs in DNAH11-deficient cilia. DNAH11 mutations result in a subtle ODA defect in only the proximal region of respiratory cilia, which is detectable by IFM and TEM tomography.

  16. DNAH11 Localization in the Proximal Region of Respiratory Cilia Defines Distinct Outer Dynein Arm Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Gerard W.; Loges, Niki T.; Klinkenbusch, Judith A.; Olbrich, Heike; Pennekamp, Petra; Menchen, Tabea; Raidt, Johanna; Wallmeier, Julia; Werner, Claudius; Westermann, Cordula; Ruckert, Christian; Mirra, Virginia; Hjeij, Rim; Memari, Yasin; Durbin, Richard; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Praveen, Kavita; Kashef, Mohammad A.; Kashef, Sara; Eghtedari, Fardin; Häffner, Karsten; Valmari, Pekka; Baktai, György; Aviram, Micha; Bentur, Lea; Amirav, Israel; Davis, Erica E.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Brueckner, Martina; Shaposhnykov, Artem; Pigino, Gaia; Dworniczak, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a recessively inherited disease that leads to chronic respiratory disorders owing to impaired mucociliary clearance. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a diagnostic standard to identify ultrastructural defects in respiratory cilia but is not useful in approximately 30% of PCD cases, which have normal ciliary ultrastructure. DNAH11 mutations are a common cause of PCD with normal ciliary ultrastructure and hyperkinetic ciliary beating, but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We therefore characterized DNAH11 in human respiratory cilia by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) in the context of PCD. We used whole-exome and targeted next-generation sequence analysis as well as Sanger sequencing to identify and confirm eight novel loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations. We designed and validated a monoclonal antibody specific to DNAH11 and performed high-resolution IFM of both control and PCD-affected human respiratory cells, as well as samples from green fluorescent protein (GFP)–left–right dynein mice, to determine the ciliary localization of DNAH11. IFM analysis demonstrated native DNAH11 localization in only the proximal region of wild-type human respiratory cilia and loss of DNAH11 in individuals with PCD with certain loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations. GFP–left–right dynein mice confirmed proximal DNAH11 localization in tracheal cilia. DNAH11 retained proximal localization in respiratory cilia of individuals with PCD with distinct ultrastructural defects, such as the absence of outer dynein arms (ODAs). TEM tomography detected a partial reduction of ODAs in DNAH11-deficient cilia. DNAH11 mutations result in a subtle ODA defect in only the proximal region of respiratory cilia, which is detectable by IFM and TEM tomography. PMID:26909801

  17. Regionally distinct phasic dopamine release patterns in the striatum during reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Klanker, Marianne; Fellinger, Lisanne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Willuhn, Ingo; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-03-14

    Striatal dopamine (DA) plays a central role in reward-related learning and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Recent studies suggest that rather than being broadcast as a uniform signal throughout the entire region, DA release dynamics diverge between different striatal regions. In a previous study, we showed that phasic DA release patterns in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) rapidly adapt during reversal learning. However, it is unknown how DA dynamics in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) are modulated during such adaptive behavior. Here, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure phasic DA release in the DLS during spatial reversal learning. In the DLS, we observed minor DA release after the onset of a visual cue signaling reward availability, followed by more pronounced DA release during more proximal reward cues (e.g., lever extension) and execution of the operant response (i.e., lever press), both in rewarded and non-rewarded trials. These release dynamics (minor DA after onset of the predictive visual cue, prominent DA during the operant response) did not change significantly during or following a reversal of response-reward contingencies. Notably, the DA increase to the lever press did not reflect a general signal related to the initiation of any motivated motor response, as we did not observe DA release when rats initiated nose pokes into the food receptacle during inter-trial intervals. This suggests that DA release in the DLS occurs selectively during the initiation and execution of a learned operant response. Together with our previous results obtained in the VMS, these findings reveal distinct phasic DA release patterns during adaptation of established behavior in DLS and VMS. The VMS DA signal, which is highly sensitive to reversal of response-reward contingences, may provide a teaching signal to guide reward-related learning and facilitate behavioral adaptation, whereas DLS DA may reflect a 'response execution signal' largely

  18. Distinct regions of the interleukin-7 receptor regulate different Bcl2 family members.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiong; Li, Wen Qing; Hofmeister, Robert R; Young, Howard A; Hodge, David R; Keller, Jonathan R; Khaled, Annette R; Durum, Scott K

    2004-07-01

    The antiapoptotic function of the interleukin-7 (IL-7) receptor is related to regulation of three members of the Bcl2 family: synthesis of Bcl2, phosphorylation of Bad, and cytosolic retention of Bax. Here we show that, in an IL-7-dependent murine T-cell line, different regions of the IL-7 receptor initiate the signal transduction pathways that regulate these proteins. Both Box1 and Y449 are required to signal Bcl2 synthesis and Bax cytosolic retention. This suggests a sequential model in which Jak1, which binds to Box1, is first activated and then phosphorylates Y449, leading to Bcl2 and Bax regulation, accounting for approximately 90% of the survival function. Phosphorylation of Bad required Box1 but not Y449, suggesting that Jak1 also initiates an additional signaling cascade that accounts for approximately 10% of the survival function. Stat5 was activated from the Y449 site but only partially accounted for the survival signal. Proliferation required both Y449 and Box1. Thymocyte development in vivo showed that deletion of Y449 eliminated 90% of alphabeta T-cell development and completely eliminated gammadelta T-cell development, whereas deleting Box 1 completely eliminated both alphabeta and gammadelta T-cell development. Thus the IL-7 receptor controls at least two distinct pathways, in addition to Stat5, that are required for cell survival.

  19. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection.

    PubMed

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F

    2000-12-12

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  20. DISTINCT CHEMICAL REGIONS IN THE ''PRESTELLAR'' INFRARED DARK CLOUD G028.23-00.19

    SciTech Connect

    Sanhueza, Patricio; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Dirienzo, William J.; Pillai, Thushara

    2013-08-20

    We have observed the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.23-00.19 at 3.3 mm using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. In its center, the IRDC hosts one of the most massive ({approx}1520 M{sub Sun }) quiescent, cold (12 K) clumps known (MM1). The low temperature, high NH{sub 2}D abundance, narrow molecular line widths, and absence of embedded infrared sources (from 3.6 to 70 {mu}m) indicate that the clump is likely prestellar. Strong SiO emission with broad line widths (6-9 km s{sup -1}) and high abundances ((0.8-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}) is detected in the northern and southern regions of the IRDC, unassociated with MM1. We suggest that SiO is released to the gas phase from the dust grains through shocks produced by outflows from undetected intermediate-mass stars or clusters of low-mass stars deeply embedded in the IRDC. A weaker SiO component with narrow line widths ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) and low abundances (4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}) is detected in the center-west region, consistent with either a ''subcloud-subcloud'' collision or an unresolved population of a few low-mass stars. We report widespread CH{sub 3}OH emission throughout the whole IRDC and the first detection of extended narrow methanol emission ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) in a cold, massive prestellar clump (MM1). We suggest that the most likely mechanism releasing methanol into the gas phase in such a cold region is the exothermicity of grain-surface reactions. HN{sup 13}C reveals that the IRDC is actually composed of two distinct substructures ({sup s}ubclouds{sup )} separated in velocity space by {approx}1.4 km s{sup -1}. The narrow SiO component arises where the subclouds overlap. The spatial distribution of C{sub 2}H resembles that of NH{sub 2}D, which suggests that C{sub 2}H also traces cold gas in this IRDC.

  1. Voluntary Ethanol Intake Predicts κ-Opioid Receptor Supersensitivity and Regionally Distinct Dopaminergic Adaptations in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Calipari, Erin S.; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C.; Helms, Christa M.; Lovinger, David M.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    The dopaminergic projections from the ventral midbrain to the striatum have long been implicated in mediating motivated behaviors and addiction. Previously it was demonstrated that κ-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the striatum plays a critical role in the increased reinforcing efficacy of ethanol following ethanol vapor exposure in rodent models. Although rodents have been used extensively to determine the neurochemical consequences of chronic ethanol exposure, establishing high levels of voluntary drinking in these models has proven difficult. Conversely, nonhuman primates exhibit similar intake and pattern to humans in regard to drinking. Here we examine the effects of chronic voluntary ethanol self-administration on dopamine neurotransmission and the ability of KORs to regulate dopamine release in the dorsolateral caudate (DLC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. Using voltammetry in brain slices from cynomolgus macaques after 6 months of ad libitum ethanol drinking, we found increased KOR sensitivity in both the DLC and NAc. The magnitude of ethanol intake predicted increases in KOR sensitivity in the NAc core, but not the DLC. Additionally, ethanol drinking increased dopamine release and uptake in the NAc, but decreased both of these measures in the DLC. These data suggest that chronic daily drinking may result in regionally distinct disruptions of striatal outputs. In concert with previous reports showing increased KOR regulation of drinking behaviors induced by ethanol exposure, the strong relationship between KOR activity and voluntary ethanol intake observed here gives further support to the hypothesis that KORs may provide a promising pharmacotherapeutic target in the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:25878269

  2. Effects of rainfall on incidental and host-maintained leptospiral infections in cattle in a tropical region.

    PubMed

    Correia, Lucas; Loureiro, Ana Paula; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of rainfall on incidental and host-maintained leptospiral infections in cattle in a tropical region. Serum and urine specimens were collected from 582 bovines in a slaughterhouse. Seropositivity during rainy seasons was 43.6% (158/362) and during dry seasons was 31.8% (70/220; P = 0.0047). Positivity by urine PCR in rainy seasons was 42.3% (153/362) and 33.2% (73/220; P = 0.0296) in dry seasons. Additionally, increases in rainfall rates had different effects on host-adapted (serogroup Sejroe) and incidental (all other serogroups) leptospiral infections. There was a significant increase in the number of cattle shedding Leptospira during the rainy season (CI 1.04-2.09; P = 0.0296), suggesting temporary (transient) urinary shedding of incidental serogroups. Incidental and host-maintained Leptospira infections in cattle require different diagnostic techniques and control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PAR-2, LGL-1 and the CDC-42 GAP CHIN-1 act in distinct pathways to maintain polarity in the C. elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Alexander; Morton, Diane G; Kemphues, Kenneth

    2013-05-01

    In the one-cell C. elegans embryo, polarity is maintained by mutual antagonism between the anterior cortical proteins PAR-3, PKC-3, PAR-6 and CDC-42, and the posterior cortical proteins PAR-2 and LGL-1 on the posterior cortex. The mechanisms by which these proteins interact to maintain polarity are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the interplay among PAR-2, LGL-1, myosin, the anterior PAR proteins and CDC-42. We find that PAR-2 and LGL-1 affect cortical myosin accumulation by different mechanisms. LGL-1 does not directly antagonize the accumulation of cortical myosin and instead plays a role in regulating PAR-6 levels. By contrast, PAR-2 likely has separate roles in regulating cortical myosin accumulation and preventing the expansion of the anterior cortical domain. We also provide evidence that asymmetry of active CDC-42 can be maintained independently of LGL-1 and PAR-2 by a redundant pathway that includes the CDC-42 GAP CHIN-1. Finally, we show that, in addition to its primary role in regulating the size of the anterior cortical domain via its binding to PAR-6, CDC-42 has a secondary role in regulating cortical myosin that is not dependent on PAR-6.

  4. fMRI Reveals Distinct CNS Processing during Symptomatic and Recovered Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebel, A.; Becerra, L.; Wallin, D.; Moulton, E. A.; Morris, S.; Pendse, G.; Jasciewicz, J.; Stein, M.; Aiello-Lammens, M.; Grant, E.; Berde, C.; Borsook, D.

    2008-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in paediatric patients is clinically distinct from the adult condition in which there is often complete resolution of its signs and symptoms within several months to a few years. The ability to compare the symptomatic and asymptomatic condition in the same individuals makes this population interesting for the…

  5. fMRI Reveals Distinct CNS Processing during Symptomatic and Recovered Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebel, A.; Becerra, L.; Wallin, D.; Moulton, E. A.; Morris, S.; Pendse, G.; Jasciewicz, J.; Stein, M.; Aiello-Lammens, M.; Grant, E.; Berde, C.; Borsook, D.

    2008-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in paediatric patients is clinically distinct from the adult condition in which there is often complete resolution of its signs and symptoms within several months to a few years. The ability to compare the symptomatic and asymptomatic condition in the same individuals makes this population interesting for the…

  6. Phosphorus dynamics in biogeochemically distinct regions of the southeast subtropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhamel, Solange; Björkman, Karin M.; Repeta, Daniel J.; Karl, David M.

    2017-02-01

    The southeast subtropical Pacific Ocean was sampled along a zonal transect between the coasts of Chile and Easter Island. This remote area of the world's ocean presents strong gradients in physical (e.g., temperature, density and light), chemical (e.g., salinity and nutrient concentrations) and microbiological (e.g., cell abundances, biomass and specific growth rates) properties. The goal of this study was to describe the phosphorus (P) dynamics in three main ecosystems along this transect: the upwelling regime off the northern Chilean coast, the oligotrophic area associated with the southeast subtropical Pacific gyre and the transitional area in between these two biomes. We found that inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations were high and turnover times were long (>210 nmol l-1 and >31 d, respectively) in the upper water column, along the entire transect. Pi uptake rates in the gyre were low (euphotic layer integrated rates were 0.26 mmol m-2 d-1 in the gyre and 1.28 mmol m-2 d-1 in the upwelling region), yet not only driven by decreases in particle mass or cell abundance (particulate P- and cell- normalized Pi uptake rates in the euphotic layer were ∼1-4 times and ∼3-15 times lower in the gyre than in the upwelling, respectively). However these Pi uptake rates were at or near the maximum Pi uptake velocity (i.e., uptake rates in Pi amended samples were not significantly different from those at ambient concentration: 1.5 and 23.7 nmol l-1 d-1 at 50% PAR in the gyre and upwelling, respectively). Despite the apparent Pi replete conditions, selected dissolved organic P (DOP) compounds were readily hydrolyzed. Nucleotides were the most bioavailable of the DOP substrates tested. Microbes actively assimilated adenosine-5‧-triphosphate (ATP) leading to Pi and adenosine incorporation as well as Pi release to the environment. The southeast subtropical Pacific Ocean is a Pi-sufficient environment, yet DOP hydrolytic processes are maintained and contribute to P

  7. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N.A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E.; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    large population-based cohort (n = 602, 18–88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. Cognitive ability was influenced by the strength of connection within and between functional brain networks, and this positive relationship increased with age. In older adults, there was more rapid decay of intrinsic neuronal activity in multiple regions of the brain networks, which related to cognitive performance. Our data demonstrate increased reliance on network flexibility to maintain cognitive function, in the presence of more rapid decay of neural activity. These insights will facilitate the development of new strategies to maintain cognitive ability. PMID:26985024

  8. AtNUDT7, a negative regulator of basal immunity in Arabidopsis, modulates two distinct defense response pathways and is involved in maintaining redox homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Guo-Jing; Wang, Sheng-Bing; Zhu, Huifen; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Xun; Xia, Yiji

    2007-09-01

    Plants have evolved complicated regulatory systems to control immune responses. Both positive and negative signaling pathways interplay to coordinate development of a resistance response with the appropriate amplitude and duration. AtNUDT7, a Nudix domain-containing protein in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that hydrolyzes nucleotide derivatives, was found to be a negative regulator of the basal defense response, and its loss-of-function mutation results in enhanced resistance to infection by Pseudomonas syringae. The nudt7 mutation does not cause a strong constitutive disease resistance phenotype, but it leads to a heightened defense response, including accelerated activation of defense-related genes that can be triggered by pathogenic and nonpathogenic microorganisms. The nudt7 mutation enhances two distinct defense response pathways: one independent of and the other dependent on NPR1 and salicylic acid accumulation. In vitro enzymatic assays revealed that ADP-ribose and NADH are preferred substrates of NUDT7, and the hydrolysis activity of NUDT7 is essential for its biological function and is sensitive to inhibition by Ca(2+). Further analyses indicate that ADP-ribose is not likely the physiological substrate of NUDT7. However, the nudt7 mutation leads to perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis and a higher level of NADH in pathogen-challenged leaves. The study suggests that the alteration in cellular antioxidant status caused by the nudt7 mutation primes the cells for the amplified defense response and NUDT7 functions to modulate the defense response to prevent excessive stimulation.

  9. Genetic profiling of two phenotypically distinct outbred rats derived from a colony of the Zucker fatty rats maintained at Tokyo Medical University.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Yokoi, Norihide

    2017-05-03

    The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Lepr(fa) (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats. Among 27 SSLP marker loci, 24 loci (89%) were fixed for specific allele at each locus in Slc:ZF rats and 26 loci (96%) were fixed in Hos:ZFDM rats, respectively. This indicates the low genetic heterogeneity in both colonies of outbred rats. Nine loci (33%) showed different alleles between the two outbred rats, suggesting considerably different genetic profiles between the two outbred rats in spite of the same origin. Additional analysis using 72 SSLP markers further supported these results and clarified the profiles in detail. This study revealed that genetic profiles of the Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM outbred rats are different for about 30% of the SSLP marker loci, which is the underlying basis for the phenotypic difference between the two outbred rats.

  10. Distinct Ca2+ channels maintain a high motility state of the sperm that may be needed for penetration of egg jelly of the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tomoe; Kutsuzawa, Megumi; Shiba, Kogiku; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Inaba, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akihiko

    2013-09-01

    Activation state of sperm motility named "hyperactivation" enables mammalian sperm to progress through the oviductal matrix, although a similar state of sperm motility is unknown in non-mammalian vertebrates at fertilization. Here, we found a high motility state of the sperm in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. It was predominantly caused in egg jelly extract (JE) and characterized by a high wave velocity of the undulating membrane (UM) that was significantly higher at the posterior midpiece. An insemination assay suggested that the high motility state might be needed for sperm to penetrate the egg jelly, which is the accumulated oviductal matrix. Specific characteristics of the high motility state were completely abrogated by a high concentration of verapamil, which blocks the L-type and T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs). Mibefradil, a dominant blocker of T-type VDCCs, suppressed the wave of the UM at the posterior midpiece with separate wave propagation from both the anterior midpiece and the posterior principal piece. In addition, nitrendipine, a dominant L-type VDCC blocker, weakened the wave of the UM, especially in the anterior midpiece. Live Ca(2+) imaging showed that, compared with the intact sperm in the JE, the relative intracellular Ca(2+) level changed especially in the anterior and posterior ends of the midpiece of the blocker-treated sperm. These suggest that different types of Ca(2+) channels mediate the intracellular Ca(2+) level predominantly in the anterior and posterior ends of the midpiece to maintain the high motility state of the newt sperm.

  11. Maintaining yields and reducing nitrogen loss in rice-wheat rotation system in Taihu Lake region with proper fertilizer management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lihong; Yu, Yingliang; Yang, Linzhang

    2014-11-01

    total N and organic matter content showed a decrease after three continuous cropping years with inorganic fertilizer application alone, but there was an increase with the OCN treatment. N balance analysis showed a N surplus for FN treatment and a balanced N budget for OCN treatment. To reduce the environmental impact and maintain a high crop production, proper N reduction together with organic amendments could be sustainable in the rice-wheat rotation system in the Taihu Lake region for a long run.

  12. Comparisons of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations from two distinct geographical regions of Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a major pest of cotton in the state of Mississippi. Economic data indicates that L. lineolaris is a more serious pest of cotton in the Delta region of Mississippi than in the Hills region, however, little data exists comparing the two populations. Two experim...

  13. Complete mitochondrial control region sequences indicate a distinct variety of brown trout Salmo trutta in the Aral Sea.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, A M; Bright, D; Stevens, J R

    2009-04-01

    Complete sequencing of the mtDNA control region (CR) from five specimens of brown trout Salmo trutta from the Amu Darya River identified two novel haplotypes belonging to the Danubian lineage. This finding supports the long-standing hypothesis that brown trout in the Aral Sea represent a distinct genetic stock and also illustrates the benefits that complete sequencing of the CR can provide for elucidating phylogeographic relationships.

  14. Distinct patterns of functional and effective connectivity between perirhinal cortex and other cortical regions in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Edward B; Protzner, Andrea B; McCormick, Cornelia; McLean, D Adam; Poppenk, Jordan; Cate, Anthony D; Köhler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is thought to be dedicated to declarative memory. Recent evidence challenges this view, suggesting that perirhinal cortex (PrC), which interfaces the MTL with the ventral visual pathway, supports highly integrated object representations in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination. Even with comparable representational demands, perceptual and memory tasks differ in numerous task demands and the subjective experience they evoke. Here, we tested whether such differences are reflected in distinct patterns of connectivity between PrC and other cortical regions, including differential involvement of prefrontal control processes. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging data for closely matched perceptual and recognition memory tasks for faces that engaged right PrC equivalently. Multivariate seed analyses revealed distinct patterns of interactions: Right ventrolateral prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices exhibited stronger functional connectivity with PrC in recognition memory; fusiform regions were part of the pattern that displayed stronger functional connectivity with PrC in perceptual discrimination. Structural equation modeling revealed distinct patterns of effective connectivity that allowed us to constrain interpretation of these findings. Overall, they demonstrate that, even when MTL structures show similar involvement in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination, differential neural mechanisms are reflected in the interplay between the MTL and other cortical regions.

  15. Biogeography of Oenococcus oeni Reveals Distinctive but Nonspecific Populations in Wine-Producing Regions

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Mariette; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Salin, Franck; Guichoux, Erwan; Claisse, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the mechanisms behind the typicity of regional wines inevitably brings attention to microorganisms associated with their production. Oenococcus oeni is the main bacterial species involved in wine and cider making. It develops after the yeast-driven alcoholic fermentation and performs the malolactic fermentation, which improves the taste and aromatic complexity of most wines. Here, we have evaluated the diversity and specificity of O. oeni strains in six regions. A total of 235 wines and ciders were collected during spontaneous malolactic fermentations and used to isolate 3,212 bacterial colonies. They were typed by multilocus variable analysis, which disclosed a total of 514 O. oeni strains. Their phylogenetic relationships were evaluated by a second typing method based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Taken together, the results indicate that each region holds a high diversity of strains that constitute a unique population. However, strains present in each region belong to diverse phylogenetic groups, and the same groups can be detected in different regions, indicating that strains are not genetically adapted to regions. In contrast, greater strain identity was seen for cider, white wine, or red wine of Burgundy, suggesting that genetic adaptation to these products occurred. IMPORTANCE This study reports the isolation, genotyping, and geographic distribution analysis of the largest collection of O. oeni strains performed to date. It reveals that there is very high diversity of strains in each region, the majority of them being detected in a single region. The study also reports the development of an SNP genotyping method that is useful for analyzing the distribution of O. oeni phylogroups. The results show that strains are not genetically adapted to regions but to specific types of wines. They reveal new phylogroups of strains, particularly two phylogroups associated with white wines and red wines of Burgundy. Taken together

  16. DNMT 1 maintains hypermethylation of CAG promoter specific region and prevents expression of exogenous gene in fat-1 transgenic sheep.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunrong; Shang, Xueying; Cheng, Lei; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xuefei; Bai, Chunling; Wei, Zhuying; Hua, Jinlian; Li, Guangpeng

    2017-01-01

    Methylation is an important issue in gene expression regulation and also in the fields of genetics and reproduction. In this study, we created fat-1 transgenic sheep, investigated the fine-mapping and the modulatory mechanisms of promoter methylation. Sheep fetal fibroblasts were transfected by pCAG-fat1-IRES-EGFP. Monoclonal cell line was screened as nuclear donor and carried out nuclear transfer (441 transgenic cloned embryos, 52 synchronism recipient sheep). Six offsprings were obtained. Expressions of exogenous genes fat-1 and EGFP were detectable in 10 examined tissues and upregulated omega-3 fatty acid content. Interestingly, more or less EGFP negative cells were detectable in the positive transgenic fetal skin cells. EGFP negative and positive cells were sorted by flow cytometry, and their methylation status in the whole promoter region (1701 nt) were investigated by bisulphate sequencing. The fine-mapping of methylation in CAG promoter were proposed. The results suggested that exogenous gene expression was determined by the methylation status from 721-1346 nt and modulated by methylation levels at 101, 108 and 115 nt sites in CAG promoter. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of methylation, examination of four DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) demonstrated that hypermethylation of CAG promoter is mainly maintained by DNMT 1 in EGFP negative cells. Furthermore, investigation of the cell surface antigen CD34, CD45 and CD166 indicated that EGFP positive and negative cells belong to different types. The present study systematically clarified methylation status of CAG promoter in transgenic sheep and regulatory mechanism, which will provide research strategies for gene expression regulation in transgenic animals.

  17. DNMT 1 maintains hypermethylation of CAG promoter specific region and prevents expression of exogenous gene in fat-1 transgenic sheep

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunrong; Shang, Xueying; Cheng, Lei; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xuefei; Bai, Chunling; Wei, Zhuying; Hua, Jinlian; Li, Guangpeng

    2017-01-01

    Methylation is an important issue in gene expression regulation and also in the fields of genetics and reproduction. In this study, we created fat-1 transgenic sheep, investigated the fine-mapping and the modulatory mechanisms of promoter methylation. Sheep fetal fibroblasts were transfected by pCAG-fat1-IRES-EGFP. Monoclonal cell line was screened as nuclear donor and carried out nuclear transfer (441 transgenic cloned embryos, 52 synchronism recipient sheep). Six offsprings were obtained. Expressions of exogenous genes fat-1 and EGFP were detectable in 10 examined tissues and upregulated omega-3 fatty acid content. Interestingly, more or less EGFP negative cells were detectable in the positive transgenic fetal skin cells. EGFP negative and positive cells were sorted by flow cytometry, and their methylation status in the whole promoter region (1701 nt) were investigated by bisulphate sequencing. The fine-mapping of methylation in CAG promoter were proposed. The results suggested that exogenous gene expression was determined by the methylation status from 721–1346 nt and modulated by methylation levels at 101, 108 and 115 nt sites in CAG promoter. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of methylation, examination of four DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) demonstrated that hypermethylation of CAG promoter is mainly maintained by DNMT 1 in EGFP negative cells. Furthermore, investigation of the cell surface antigen CD34, CD45 and CD166 indicated that EGFP positive and negative cells belong to different types. The present study systematically clarified methylation status of CAG promoter in transgenic sheep and regulatory mechanism, which will provide research strategies for gene expression regulation in transgenic animals. PMID:28158319

  18. Distinct regions of the cerebellum show gray matter decreases in autism, ADHD, and developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Stoodley, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Differences in cerebellar structure have been identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and developmental dyslexia. However, it is not clear if different cerebellar regions are involved in each disorder, and thus whether cerebellar anatomical differences reflect a generic developmental vulnerability or disorder-specific characteristics. To clarify this, we conducted an anatomic likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies which compared ASD (17 studies), ADHD (10 studies), and dyslexic (10 studies) participants with age-matched typically-developing (TD) controls. A second ALE analysis included studies in which the cerebellum was a region of interest (ROI). There were no regions of significantly increased gray matter (GM) in the cerebellum in ASD, ADHD, or dyslexia. Data from ASD studies revealed reduced GM in the inferior cerebellar vermis (lobule IX), left lobule VIIIB, and right Crus I. In ADHD, significantly decreased GM was found bilaterally in lobule IX, whereas participants with developmental dyslexia showed GM decreases in left lobule VI. There was no overlap between the cerebellar clusters identified in each disorder. We evaluated the functional significance of the regions revealed in both whole-brain and cerebellar ROI ALE analyses using Buckner and colleagues' 7-network functional connectivity map available in the SUIT cerebellar atlas. The cerebellar regions identified in ASD showed functional connectivity with frontoparietal, default mode, somatomotor, and limbic networks; in ADHD, the clusters were part of dorsal and ventral attention networks; and in dyslexia, the clusters involved ventral attention, frontoparietal, and default mode networks. The results suggest that different cerebellar regions are affected in ASD, ADHD, and dyslexia, and these cerebellar regions participate in functional networks that are consistent with the characteristic symptoms of each

  19. Biogeography of Oenococcus oeni Reveals Distinctive but Nonspecific Populations in Wine-Producing Regions.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Mariette; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Salin, Franck; Guichoux, Erwan; Claisse, Olivier; Lucas, Patrick M

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind the typicity of regional wines inevitably brings attention to microorganisms associated with their production. Oenococcus oeni is the main bacterial species involved in wine and cider making. It develops after the yeast-driven alcoholic fermentation and performs the malolactic fermentation, which improves the taste and aromatic complexity of most wines. Here, we have evaluated the diversity and specificity of O. oeni strains in six regions. A total of 235 wines and ciders were collected during spontaneous malolactic fermentations and used to isolate 3,212 bacterial colonies. They were typed by multilocus variable analysis, which disclosed a total of 514 O. oeni strains. Their phylogenetic relationships were evaluated by a second typing method based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Taken together, the results indicate that each region holds a high diversity of strains that constitute a unique population. However, strains present in each region belong to diverse phylogenetic groups, and the same groups can be detected in different regions, indicating that strains are not genetically adapted to regions. In contrast, greater strain identity was seen for cider, white wine, or red wine of Burgundy, suggesting that genetic adaptation to these products occurred. This study reports the isolation, genotyping, and geographic distribution analysis of the largest collection of O. oeni strains performed to date. It reveals that there is very high diversity of strains in each region, the majority of them being detected in a single region. The study also reports the development of an SNP genotyping method that is useful for analyzing the distribution of O. oeni phylogroups. The results show that strains are not genetically adapted to regions but to specific types of wines. They reveal new phylogroups of strains, particularly two phylogroups associated with white wines and red wines of Burgundy. Taken together, the results shed

  20. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed.

  1. Distinctive proteomic profiles among different regions of human carotid plaques in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenzhao; Ward, Liam J.; Karlsson, Helen; Ljunggren, Stefan A.; Li, Wei; Lindahl, Mats; Yuan, Xi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity of atherosclerotic tissue has limited comprehension in proteomic and metabolomic analyses. To elucidate the functional implications, and differences between genders, of atherosclerotic lesion formation we investigated protein profiles from different regions of human carotid atherosclerotic arteries; internal control, fatty streak, plaque shoulder, plaque centre, and fibrous cap. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2-DE with MALDI-TOF, with validation using nLC-MS/MS. Protein mapping of 2-DE identified 52 unique proteins, including 15 previously unmapped proteins, of which 41 proteins were confirmed by nLC-MS/MS analysis. Expression levels of 18 proteins were significantly altered in plaque regions compared to the internal control region. Nine proteins showed site-specific alterations, irrespective of gender, with clear associations to extracellular matrix remodelling. Five proteins display gender-specific alterations with 2-DE, with two alterations validated by nLC-MS/MS. Gender differences in ferritin light chain and transthyretin were validated using both techniques. Validation of immunohistochemistry confirmed significantly higher levels of ferritin in plaques from male patients. Proteomic analysis of different plaque regions has reduced the effects of plaque heterogeneity, and significant differences in protein expression are determined in specific regions and between genders. These proteomes have functional implications in plaque progression and are of importance in understanding gender differences in atherosclerosis. PMID:27198765

  2. Long-term label retaining cells localize to distinct regions within the female reproductive epithelium.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Amanda L; Pru, James K

    2013-09-01

    distinct populations of epithelial cells that exhibit stem/progenitor cell qualities. Distinct stem/progenitor-like cells localize to the oviduct, endometrium, and cervix.

  3. Distinct regions of right temporo-parietal junction are selective for theory of mind and exogenous attention.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Jonathan; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Brown, Emery N; Saxe, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, a cortical region in the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ) is recruited when participants read stories about people's thoughts ('Theory of Mind'). Both fMRI and lesion studies suggest that a region near the RTPJ is associated with attentional reorienting in response to an unexpected stimulus. Do Theory of Mind and attentional reorienting recruit a single population of neurons, or are there two neighboring but distinct neural populations in the RTPJ? One recent study compared these activations, and found evidence consistent with a single common region. However, the apparent overlap may have been due to the low resolution of the previous technique. We tested this hypothesis using a high-resolution protocol, within-subjects analyses, and more powerful statistical methods. Strict conjunction analyses revealed that the area of overlap was small and on the periphery of each activation. In addition, a bootstrap analysis identified a reliable 6-10 mm spatial displacement between the peak activations of the two tasks; the same magnitude and direction of displacement was observed in within-subjects comparisons. In all, these results suggest that there are neighboring but distinct regions within the RTPJ implicated in Theory of Mind and orienting attention.

  4. Distinct Regions of Right Temporo-Parietal Junction Are Selective for Theory of Mind and Exogenous Attention

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Jonathan; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Brown, Emery N.; Saxe, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, a cortical region in the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ) is recruited when participants read stories about people's thoughts (‘Theory of Mind’). Both fMRI and lesion studies suggest that a region near the RTPJ is associated with attentional reorienting in response to an unexpected stimulus. Do Theory of Mind and attentional reorienting recruit a single population of neurons, or are there two neighboring but distinct neural populations in the RTPJ? One recent study compared these activations, and found evidence consistent with a single common region. However, the apparent overlap may have been due to the low resolution of the previous technique. We tested this hypothesis using a high-resolution protocol, within-subjects analyses, and more powerful statistical methods. Strict conjunction analyses revealed that the area of overlap was small and on the periphery of each activation. In addition, a bootstrap analysis identified a reliable 6–10 mm spatial displacement between the peak activations of the two tasks; the same magnitude and direction of displacement was observed in within-subjects comparisons. In all, these results suggest that there are neighboring but distinct regions within the RTPJ implicated in Theory of Mind and orienting attention. PMID:19290043

  5. A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Catherine A; Wang, Zhen; Li, Emma; Tran, Misha C; Logan, Catriona Y; Nusse, Roel; Pantalena-Filho, Luiz; Yang, George P; Kingsley, David M

    2015-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. Previous studies have shown that null mutations in the mouse Bmp5 gene alter the size, shape and number of multiple bone and cartilage structures during development. Bmp5 mutations also delay healing of rib fractures in adult mutants, suggesting that the same signals used to pattern embryonic bone and cartilage are also reused during skeletal regeneration and repair. Despite intense interest in BMPs as agents for stimulating bone formation in clinical applications, little is known about the regulatory elements that control developmental or injury-induced BMP expression. To compare the DNA sequences that activate gene expression during embryonic bone formation and following acute injuries in adult animals, we assayed regions surrounding the Bmp5 gene for their ability to stimulate lacZ reporter gene expression in transgenic mice. Multiple genomic fragments, distributed across the Bmp5 locus, collectively coordinate expression in discrete anatomic domains during normal development, including in embryonic ribs. In contrast, a distinct regulatory region activated expression following rib fracture in adult animals. The same injury control region triggered gene expression in mesenchymal cells following tibia fracture, in migrating keratinocytes following dorsal skin wounding, and in regenerating epithelial cells following lung injury. The Bmp5 gene thus contains an "injury response" control region that is distinct from embryonic enhancers, and that is activated by multiple types of injury in adult animals.

  6. Fat- and fiber-related diet behavior among type 2 diabetes patients from distinct regions.

    PubMed

    Hendrychova, Tereza; Vytrisalova, Magda; Alwarafi, Abdullah; Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Vankatova, Helena; Leal, Sandra; Kubena, Ales Antonin; Smahelova, Alena; Vlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Diet and eating habits are of key importance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this comparative study was to analyze fat- and fiber-related behavior (FFB) in patients with T2DM from distinct cultural areas. Observational study was carried out in the Czech Republic (CR) (n=200), the US (n=207), and Yemen (n=200). Patients completed the Fat- and Fiber-related Diet Behavior Questionnaire (FFBQ). Differences in all aspects of FFB among countries were found (P<0.05). The best fat-related behavior reported was from patients from the CR. Patients from the US showed the worst fat-related behavior in total. On the other hand, patients from the US reported the best fiber-related behavior. Patients from Yemen reached the worst scores in all fat-related domains. Patients from all studied countries reported the best results in the "modify meat" and "avoid fat as flavoring" and the worst in the "substitute high fiber" subscales. Professionals involved in the diet education of T2DM patients should be aware of the specificity of diet in their country when advising patients keeping general recommendations. We suggest them to be as specific as possible and concentrate on fiber-related behavior.

  7. Fat- and fiber-related diet behavior among type 2 diabetes patients from distinct regions

    PubMed Central

    Hendrychova, Tereza; Vytrisalova, Magda; Alwarafi, Abdullah; Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Vankatova, Helena; Leal, Sandra; Kubena, Ales Antonin; Smahelova, Alena; Vlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diet and eating habits are of key importance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this comparative study was to analyze fat- and fiber-related behavior (FFB) in patients with T2DM from distinct cultural areas. Patients and methods Observational study was carried out in the Czech Republic (CR) (n=200), the US (n=207), and Yemen (n=200). Patients completed the Fat- and Fiber-related Diet Behavior Questionnaire (FFBQ). Results Differences in all aspects of FFB among countries were found (P<0.05). The best fat-related behavior reported was from patients from the CR. Patients from the US showed the worst fat-related behavior in total. On the other hand, patients from the US reported the best fiber-related behavior. Patients from Yemen reached the worst scores in all fat-related domains. Patients from all studied countries reported the best results in the “modify meat” and “avoid fat as flavoring” and the worst in the “substitute high fiber” subscales. Conclusion Professionals involved in the diet education of T2DM patients should be aware of the specificity of diet in their country when advising patients keeping general recommendations. We suggest them to be as specific as possible and concentrate on fiber-related behavior. PMID:25737634

  8. The distinctive signatures of promoter regions and operon junctions across prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Janga, Sarath Chandra; Lamboy, Warren F.; Huerta, Araceli M.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Here we show that regions upstream of first transcribed genes have oligonucleotide signatures that distinguish them from regions upstream of genes in the middle of operons. Databases of experimentally confirmed transcription units do not exist for most genomes. Thus, to expand the analyses into genomes with no experimentally confirmed data, we used genes conserved adjacent in evolutionarily distant genomes as representatives of genes inside operons. Likewise, we used divergently transcribed genes as representative examples of first transcribed genes. In model organisms, the trinucleotide signatures of regions upstream of these representative genes allow for operon predictions with accuracies close to those obtained with known operon data (0.8). Signature-based operon predictions have more similar phylogenetic profiles and higher proportions of genes in the same pathways than predicted transcription unit boundaries (TUBs). These results confirm that we are separating genes with related functions, as expected for operons, from genes not necessarily related, as expected for genes in different transcription units. We also test the quality of the predictions using microarray data in six genomes and show that the signature-predicted operons tend to have high correlations of expression. Oligonucleotide signatures should expand the number of tools available to identify operons even in poorly characterized genomes. PMID:16914446

  9. Distinct Neural Properties in the Low-Frequency Region of the Chicken Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Topography in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) is represented as gradually increasing characteristic frequency (CF) along the caudolateral-to-rostromedial axis. In this study, we characterized the organization and cell biophysics of the caudolateral NM (NMc) in chickens (Gallus gallus). Examination of cellular and dendritic architecture first revealed that NMc contains small neurons and extensive dendritic processes, in contrast to adendritic, large neurons located more rostromedially. Individual dye-filling study further demonstrated that NMc is divided into two subregions, with NMc2 neurons having larger and more complex dendritic fields than NMc1. Axonal tract tracing studies confirmed that NMc1 and NMc2 neurons receive afferent inputs from the auditory nerve and the superior olivary nucleus, similar to the adendritic NM. However, the auditory axons synapse with NMc neurons via small bouton-like terminals, unlike the large end bulb synapses on adendritic NM neurons. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that most NMc2 neurons express cholecystokinin but not calretinin, distinct from NMc1 and adendritic NM neurons that are cholecystokinin negative and mostly calretinin positive. Finally, whole-cell current clamp recordings revealed that NMc neurons require significantly lower threshold current for action potential generation than adendritic NM neurons. Moreover, in contrast to adendritic NM neurons that generate a single-onset action potential, NMc neurons generate multiple action potentials to suprathreshold sustained depolarization. Taken together, our data indicate that NMc contains multiple neuron types that are structurally, connectively, molecularly, and physiologically different from traditionally defined NM neurons, emphasizing specialized neural properties for processing low-frequency sounds. PMID:28413822

  10. Coordination of Hepatitis C Virus Assembly by Distinct Regulatory Regions in Nonstructural Protein 5A

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Margarita; Long, Gang; Madan, Vanesa; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein (NS)5A is a RNA-binding protein composed of a N-terminal membrane anchor, a structured domain I (DI) and two intrinsically disordered domains (DII and DIII) interacting with viral and cellular proteins. While DI and DII are essential for RNA replication, DIII is required for assembly. How these processes are orchestrated by NS5A is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a highly conserved basic cluster (BC) at the N-terminus of DIII that is critical for particle assembly. We generated BC mutants and compared them with mutants that are blocked at different stages of the assembly process: a NS5A serine cluster (SC) mutant blocked in NS5A-core interaction and a mutant lacking the envelope glycoproteins (ΔE1E2). We found that BC mutations did not affect core-NS5A interaction, but strongly impaired core–RNA association as well as virus particle envelopment. Moreover, BC mutations impaired RNA-NS5A interaction arguing that the BC might be required for loading of core protein with viral RNA. Interestingly, RNA-core interaction was also reduced with the ΔE1E2 mutant, suggesting that nucleocapsid formation and envelopment are coupled. These findings argue for two NS5A DIII determinants regulating assembly at distinct, but closely linked steps: (i) SC-dependent recruitment of replication complexes to core protein and (ii) BC-dependent RNA genome delivery to core protein, triggering encapsidation that is tightly coupled to particle envelopment. These results provide a striking example how a single viral protein exerts multiple functions to coordinate the steps from RNA replication to the assembly of infectious virus particles. PMID:26727512

  11. Corpus callosum size is highly heritable in humans, and may reflect distinct genetic influences on ventral and rostral regions.

    PubMed

    Woldehawariat, Girma; Martinez, Pedro E; Hauser, Peter; Hoover, David M; Drevets, Wayne W C; McMahon, Francis J

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical differences in the corpus callosum have been found in various psychiatric disorders, but data on the genetic contributions to these differences have been limited. The current study used morphometric MRI data to assess the heritability of corpus callosum size and the genetic correlations among anatomical sub-regions of the corpus callosum among individuals with and without mood disorders. The corpus callosum (CC) was manually segmented at the mid-sagittal plane in 42 women (healthy, n = 14; major depressive disorder, n = 15; bipolar disorder, n = 13) and their 86 child or adolescent offspring. Four anatomical sub-regions (CC-genu, CC2, CC3 and CC-splenium) and total CC were measured and analyzed. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance components method, with adjustment for age, sex, diagnosis, and diagnosis x age, where appropriate. Significant heritability was found for several CC sub-regions (P<0.01), with estimated values ranging from 48% (splenium) to 67% (total CC). There were strong and significant genetic correlations among most sub regions. Correlations between the genu and mid-body, between the genu and total corpus callosum, and between anterior and mid body were all >90%, but no significant genetic correlations were detected between ventral and rostral regions in this sample. Genetic factors play an important role in corpus callosum size among individuals. Distinct genetic factors seem to be involved in caudal and rostral regions, consistent with the divergent functional specialization of these brain areas.

  12. Cbln family proteins promote synapse formation by regulating distinct neurexin signaling pathways in various brain regions.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Keiko; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2011-04-01

    Cbln1 (a.k.a. precerebellin) is a unique bidirectional synaptic organizer that plays an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses between granule cells and Purkinje cells in the mouse cerebellum. Cbln1 secreted from cerebellar granule cells directly induces presynaptic differentiation and indirectly serves as a postsynaptic organizer by binding to its receptor, the δ2 glutamate receptor. However, it remains unclear how Cbln1 binds to the presynaptic sites and interacts with other synaptic organizers. Furthermore, although Cbln1 and its family members Cbln2 and Cbln4 are expressed in brain regions other than the cerebellum, it is unknown whether they regulate synapse formation in these brain regions. In this study, we showed that Cbln1 and Cbln2, but not Cbln4, specifically bound to its presynaptic receptor -α and β isoforms of neurexin carrying the splice site 4 insert [NRXs(S4+)] - and induced synaptogenesis in cerebellar, hippocampal and cortical neurons in vitro. Cbln1 competed with synaptogenesis mediated by neuroligin 1, which lacks the splice sites A and B, but not leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein 2, possibly by sharing the presynaptic receptor NRXs(S4+). However, unlike neurexins/neuroligins or neurexins/leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins, the interaction between NRX1β(S4+) and Cbln1 was insensitive to extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. These findings revealed the unique and general roles of Cbln family proteins in mediating the formation and maintenance of synapses not only in the cerebellum but also in various other brain regions.

  13. Distinct gut microbiota of healthy children from two different geographic regions of Thailand.

    PubMed

    La-Ongkham, Orawan; Nakphaichit, Massalin; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Nitisinprasert, Sunee

    2015-05-01

    In Thailand, food consumption by people from each region is different. This can be an important environmental factor which shapes the gut microbiota further affecting their health. This study aimed to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the intestinal microbial community in 60 healthy children (aged 8-11 years) living in specific areas, namely central (CT) and northeastern (NE) Thailand where each region has its own typical food consumption. The children from NE had significantly higher consumption frequency of meat (chicken and beef), a wide variety of carbohydrate sources (noodle, fermented rice and sweet potato) including vegetables and fruit, while in CT, there was a significant preference for rice, breakfast cereal and cow milk. The qPCR analysis resulted in significantly higher abundance of lactobacilli, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium leptum, Prevotella and Bacteroides fragilis in children from the NE region. However, no significant difference in the count of Bifidobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and methanogens was observed. Considering the correlation of food sources and microbial groups, the consumption frequency of vegetables showed a moderately positive correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.34 to the Lactobacillus group (P = 0.001) and the Prevotella group (P = 0.008), respectively, while a diet of fish and beef showed a moderately negative correlation coefficient of -0.41 (P = 0.001) and -0.33 (P = 0.09) to Bifidobacterium spp., respectively. Our results suggested that high frequency consumption of varieties of carbohydrates, protein sources, fruits and vegetables by the NE children promoted a high abundance of bacterial species in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes.

  14. Evidence for distinct human auditory cortex regions for sound location versus identity processing

    PubMed Central

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Huang, Samantha; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Belliveau, John W.; Hung, An-Yi; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Rauschecker, Josef P.; Rossi, Stephanie; Tiitinen, Hannu; Raij, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiological animal models suggest that anterior auditory cortex (AC) areas process sound-identity information, whereas posterior ACs specialize in sound location processing. In humans, inconsistent neuroimaging results and insufficient causal evidence have challenged the existence of such parallel AC organization. Here we transiently inhibit bilateral anterior or posterior AC areas using MRI-guided paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while subjects listen to Reference/Probe sound pairs and perform either sound location or identity discrimination tasks. The targeting of TMS pulses, delivered 55–145 ms after Probes, is confirmed with individual-level cortical electric-field estimates. Our data show that TMS to posterior AC regions delays reaction times (RT) significantly more during sound location than identity discrimination, whereas TMS to anterior AC regions delays RTs significantly more during sound identity than location discrimination. This double dissociation provides direct causal support for parallel processing of sound identity features in anterior AC and sound location in posterior AC. PMID:24121634

  15. Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

  16. Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

  17. Different expression profiles of bioactive peptides in Pelophylax nigromaculatus from distinct regions.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuzhu; Ji, Senlin; Liu, Wa; Yu, Xuya; Meng, Qingxiong; Lai, Ren

    2013-01-01

    Amphibian skin is an abundant repository of bioactive peptides, important components of the defensive system. The variability of the bioactive peptide repertoires of individual species remains unclear. In this study, dark-spotted frogs were collected from Kunming in Yunnan Province, China and Guiyang in Guizhou Province, China to determine whether the bioactive peptides in amphibian skin differ between the two regions. Eight antimicrobial peptides and an antioxidant peptide were identified by screening of cDNA library. Among the identified peptides, three antimicrobial peptides (pelophylaxin-2GY, temporin-1GY, and temporin-1KM) and an antioxidant peptide (antioxidin-PN) are reported here for the first time. Nigrocin-1, nigrocin-2, and pelophylaxin-2 were expressed by frogs in both regions. Pelophylaxin-2GY and temporin-1GY were found only in the frogs from Guiyang, whereas antioxidin-PN, esculetin-1, esculetin-2, and temporin-1KM were found only in those from Kunming. This difference was confirmed by allele-specific RT-PCR. The bioactive peptides expressed clearly varied between these populations of the same species.

  18. An organelle-exclusion envelope assists mitosis and underlies distinct molecular crowding in the spindle region.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Nina; Pawar, Nisha; Weiss, Matthias; Maiato, Helder

    2015-08-31

    The mitotic spindle is a microtubular assembly required for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Additionally, a spindle matrix has long been proposed to assist this process, but its nature has remained elusive. By combining live-cell imaging with laser microsurgery, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we uncovered a microtubule-independent mechanism that underlies the accumulation of molecules in the spindle region. This mechanism relies on a membranous system surrounding the mitotic spindle that defines an organelle-exclusion zone that is conserved in human cells. Supported by mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that organelle exclusion by a membrane system causes spatio-temporal differences in molecular crowding states that are sufficient to drive accumulation of mitotic regulators, such as Mad2 and Megator/Tpr, as well as soluble tubulin, in the spindle region. This membranous "spindle envelope" confined spindle assembly, and its mechanical disruption compromised faithful chromosome segregation. Thus, cytoplasmic compartmentalization persists during early mitosis to promote spindle assembly and function. © 2015 Schweizer et al.

  19. Lipid droplets form from distinct regions of the cell in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DOE PAGES

    Meyers, Alex; del Rio, Zuania P.; Beaver, Rachael A.; ...

    2016-04-29

    Eukaryotic cells store cholesterol/sterol esters (SEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in lipid droplets, which form from the contiguous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. However, it is not known if droplets preferentially form from certain regions of the ER over others. Here, we used fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells where the nuclear and cortical/peripheral ER domains are distinguishable by light microscopy to show that SE-enriched lipid droplets form away from the nucleus at the cell tips, whereas TAG-enriched lipid droplets form around the nucleus. Sterols localize to the regions of the cells where droplets enriched in SEs are observed. TAG droplet formation aroundmore » the nucleus appears to be a strong function of diacylglycerol (DAG) homeostasis with Cpt1p, which coverts DAG into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine localized exclusively to the nuclear ER. Also, Dgk1p, which converts DAG into phosphatidic acid localized strongly to the nuclear ER over the cortical/peripheral ER. We also show that TAG more readily translocates from the ER to lipid droplets than do SEs. Lastly, the results augment the standard lipid droplet formation model, which has SEs and TAGs flowing into the same nascent lipid droplet regardless of its biogenesis point in the cell.« less

  20. Evidence for distinct human auditory cortex regions for sound location versus identity processing.

    PubMed

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Huang, Samantha; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Belliveau, John W; Hung, An-Yi; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Rauschecker, Josef P; Rossi, Stephanie; Tiitinen, Hannu; Raij, Tommi

    2013-01-01

    Neurophysiological animal models suggest that anterior auditory cortex (AC) areas process sound identity information, whereas posterior ACs specialize in sound location processing. In humans, inconsistent neuroimaging results and insufficient causal evidence have challenged the existence of such parallel AC organization. Here we transiently inhibit bilateral anterior or posterior AC areas using MRI-guided paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while subjects listen to Reference/Probe sound pairs and perform either sound location or identity discrimination tasks. The targeting of TMS pulses, delivered 55-145 ms after Probes, is confirmed with individual-level cortical electric-field estimates. Our data show that TMS to posterior AC regions delays reaction times (RT) significantly more during sound location than identity discrimination, whereas TMS to anterior AC regions delays RTs significantly more during sound identity than location discrimination. This double dissociation provides direct causal support for parallel processing of sound identity features in anterior AC and sound location in posterior AC.

  1. Face processing regions are sensitive to distinct aspects of temporal sequence in facial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reinl, Maren; Bartels, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Facial movement conveys important information for social interactions, yet its neural processing is poorly understood. Computational models propose that shape- and temporal sequence sensitive mechanisms interact in processing dynamic faces. While face processing regions are known to respond to facial movement, their sensitivity to particular temporal sequences has barely been studied. Here we used fMRI to examine the sensitivity of human face-processing regions to two aspects of directionality in facial movement trajectories. We presented genuine movie recordings of increasing and decreasing fear expressions, each of which were played in natural or reversed frame order. This two-by-two factorial design matched low-level visual properties, static content and motion energy within each factor, emotion-direction (increasing or decreasing emotion) and timeline (natural versus artificial). The results showed sensitivity for emotion-direction in FFA, which was timeline-dependent as it only occurred within the natural frame order, and sensitivity to timeline in the STS, which was emotion-direction-dependent as it only occurred for decreased fear. The occipital face area (OFA) was sensitive to the factor timeline. These findings reveal interacting temporal sequence sensitive mechanisms that are responsive to both ecological meaning and to prototypical unfolding of facial dynamics. These mechanisms are temporally directional, provide socially relevant information regarding emotional state or naturalness of behavior, and agree with predictions from modeling and predictive coding theory.

  2. Crystal Structure Analysis and the Identification of Distinctive Functional Regions of the Protein Elicitor Mohrip2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjie; Duan, Liangwei; Wang, Meifang; Zeng, Hongmei; Liu, Xinqi; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor MoHrip2, which was extracted from Magnaporthe oryzae as an exocrine protein, triggers the tobacco immune system and enhances blast resistance in rice. However, the detailed mechanisms by which MoHrip2 acts as an elicitor remain unclear. Here, we investigated the structure of MoHrip2 to elucidate its functions based on molecular structure. The three-dimensional structure of MoHrip2 was obtained. Overall, the crystal structure formed a β-barrel structure and showed high similarity to the pathogenesis-related (PR) thaumatin superfamily protein thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor (TL-XI). To investigate the functional regions responsible for MoHrip2 elicitor activities, the full length and eight truncated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were evaluated for elicitor activity in tobacco. Biological function analysis showed that MoHrip2 triggered the defense system against Botrytis cinerea in tobacco. Moreover, only MoHrip2M14 and other fragments containing the 14 amino acids residues in the middle region of the protein showed the elicitor activity of inducing a hypersensitive response and resistance related pathways, which were similar to that of full-length MoHrip2. These results revealed that the central 14 amino acid residues were essential for anti-pathogenic activity.

  3. Lipid Droplets Form from Distinct Regions of the Cell in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Alex; Del Rio, Zuania P; Beaver, Rachael A; Morris, Ryan M; Weiskittel, Taylor M; Alshibli, Amany K; Mannik, Jaana; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Dalhaimer, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells store cholesterol/sterol esters (SEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in lipid droplets, which form from the contiguous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. However, it is not known if droplets preferentially form from certain regions of the ER over others. Here, we used fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells where the nuclear and cortical/peripheral ER domains are distinguishable by light microscopy to show that SE-enriched lipid droplets form away from the nucleus at the cell tips, whereas TAG-enriched lipid droplets form around the nucleus. Sterols localize to the regions of the cells where droplets enriched in SEs are observed. TAG droplet formation around the nucleus appears to be a strong function of diacylglycerol (DAG) homeostasis with Cpt1p, which coverts DAG into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine localized exclusively to the nuclear ER. Also, Dgk1p, which converts DAG into phosphatidic acid localized strongly to the nuclear ER over the cortical/peripheral ER. We also show that TAG more readily translocates from the ER to lipid droplets than do SEs. The results augment the standard lipid droplet formation model, which has SEs and TAGs flowing into the same nascent lipid droplet regardless of its biogenesis point in the cell.

  4. Crystal Structure Analysis and the Identification of Distinctive Functional Regions of the Protein Elicitor Mohrip2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengjie; Duan, Liangwei; Wang, Meifang; Zeng, Hongmei; Liu, Xinqi; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor MoHrip2, which was extracted from Magnaporthe oryzae as an exocrine protein, triggers the tobacco immune system and enhances blast resistance in rice. However, the detailed mechanisms by which MoHrip2 acts as an elicitor remain unclear. Here, we investigated the structure of MoHrip2 to elucidate its functions based on molecular structure. The three-dimensional structure of MoHrip2 was obtained. Overall, the crystal structure formed a β-barrel structure and showed high similarity to the pathogenesis-related (PR) thaumatin superfamily protein thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor (TL-XI). To investigate the functional regions responsible for MoHrip2 elicitor activities, the full length and eight truncated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were evaluated for elicitor activity in tobacco. Biological function analysis showed that MoHrip2 triggered the defense system against Botrytis cinerea in tobacco. Moreover, only MoHrip2M14 and other fragments containing the 14 amino acids residues in the middle region of the protein showed the elicitor activity of inducing a hypersensitive response and resistance related pathways, which were similar to that of full-length MoHrip2. These results revealed that the central 14 amino acid residues were essential for anti-pathogenic activity. PMID:27507984

  5. Indices of methylation in sperm DNA from fertile men differ between distinct geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Consales, C; Leter, G; Bonde, J P E; Toft, G; Eleuteri, P; Moccia, T; Budillon, A; Jönsson, B A G; Giwercman, A; Pedersen, H S; Ludwicki, J K; Zviezdai, V; Heederik, D; Spanò, M

    2014-09-01

    Which are the main determinants, if any, of sperm DNA methylation levels? Geographical region resulted associated with the sperm methylation status assessed on genome-wide repetitive sequences. DNA methylation level, assessed on repetitive sequences from peripheral blood lymphocyte, can vary with age, gender, alcohol consumption and white blood cell counts. A cross-sectional study. Individual data were collected from 269 young healthy men of proven fertility living in three geographical regions: Inuits from Greenland, Caucasians from Warsaw (Poland) and Kharkiv (Ukraine). Semen samples were collected between May 2002 and February 2004 and aliquots were immediately frozen. We estimated sperm DNA global methylation level (DGML) in two ways. First DNA methylation in repetitive DNA sequences (LINE-1, Satα and Alu) was quantified by PCR pyrosequencing after bisulfite conversion and second by flow cytometry (FCM) using fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies anti-5-methylcytosine. We analyzed whether personal characteristics and habits, body mass index, semen quality parameters, sperm chromatin integrity, biomarkers of accessory gland function and the plasma concentration of reproductive hormones were associated with sperm DNA methylation levels in men. Associations were evaluated by analysis of variance and linear regression analyses. The geographical location emerged as the main determinant when using the methylation level in repetitive sequences. FCM DGML results were not associated with those from repetitive sequence analysis. No other consistent associations between methylation markers and the assessed variables were identified across countries. The methods used are only surrogates of the actual sperm methylome and the methylation levels at individual specific loci were not explored. Sperm DGML is relatively independent from semen quality parameters and is a new candidate biomarker for epidemiological studies of the impact of environmental contaminants on male

  6. Four Functionally Distinct Regions in the Left Supramarginal Gyrus Support Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, M.; Hope, T. M. H.; Seghier, M. L.; Parker Jones, O.; Prejawa, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J

    2016-01-01

    We used fMRI in 85 healthy participants to investigate whether different parts of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) are involved in processing phonological inputs and outputs. The experiment involved 2 tasks (speech production (SP) and one-back (OB) matching) on 8 different types of stimuli that systematically varied the demands on sensory processing (visual vs. auditory), sublexical phonological input (words and pseudowords vs. nonverbal stimuli), and semantic content (words and objects vs. pseudowords and meaningless baseline stimuli). In ventral SMG, we found an anterior subregion associated with articulatory sequencing (for SP > OB matching) and a posterior subregion associated with auditory short-term memory (for all auditory > visual stimuli and written words and pseudowords > objects). In dorsal SMG, a posterior subregion was most highly activated by words, indicating a role in the integration of sublexical and lexical cues. In anterior dorsal SMG, activation was higher for both pseudoword reading and object naming compared with word reading, which is more consistent with executive demands than phonological processing. The dissociation of these four “functionally-distinct” regions, all within left SMG, has implications for differentiating between different types of phonological processing, understanding the functional anatomy of language and predicting the effect of brain damage. PMID:27600852

  7. A distinct type of heterochromatin at the telomeric region of the Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sidney H; Nan, Ruth; Accardo, Maria C; Sentmanat, Monica; Dimitri, Patrizio; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin assembly and its associated phenotype, position effect variegation (PEV), provide an informative system to study chromatin structure and genome packaging. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the Y chromosome is entirely heterochromatic in all cell types except the male germline; as such, Y chromosome dosage is a potent modifier of PEV. However, neither Y heterochromatin composition, nor its assembly, has been carefully studied. Here, we report the mapping and characterization of eight reporter lines that show male-specific PEV. In all eight cases, the reporter insertion sites lie in the telomeric transposon array (HeT-A and TART-B2 homologous repeats) of the Y chromosome short arm (Ys). Investigations of the impact on the PEV phenotype of mutations in known heterochromatin proteins (i.e., modifiers of PEV) show that this Ys telomeric region is a unique heterochromatin domain: it displays sensitivity to mutations in HP1a, EGG and SU(VAR)3-9, but no sensitivity to Su(z)2 mutations. It appears that the endo-siRNA pathway plays a major targeting role for this domain. Interestingly, an ectopic copy of 1360 is sufficient to induce a piRNA targeting mechanism to further enhance silencing of a reporter cytologically localized to the Ys telomere. These results demonstrate the diversity of heterochromatin domains, and the corresponding variation in potential targeting mechanisms.

  8. The ExbD Periplasmic Domain Contains Distinct Functional Regions for Two Stages in TonB Energization

    PubMed Central

    Ollis, Anne A.; Kumar, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    The TonB system of Gram-negative bacteria energizes the active transport of diverse nutrients through high-affinity TonB-gated outer membrane transporters using energy derived from the cytoplasmic membrane proton motive force. Cytoplasmic membrane proteins ExbB and ExbD harness the proton gradient to energize TonB, which directly contacts and transmits this energy to ligand-loaded transporters. In Escherichia coli, the periplasmic domain of ExbD appears to transition from proton motive force-independent to proton motive force-dependent interactions with TonB, catalyzing the conformational changes of TonB. A 10-residue deletion scanning analysis showed that while all regions except the extreme amino terminus of ExbD were indispensable for function, distinct roles for the amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of the ExbD periplasmic domain were evident. Like residue D25 in the ExbD transmembrane domain, periplasmic residues 42 to 61 facilitated the conformational response of ExbD to proton motive force. This region appears to be important for transmitting signals between the ExbD transmembrane domain and carboxy terminus. The carboxy terminus, encompassing periplasmic residues 62 to 141, was required for initial assembly with the periplasmic domain of TonB, a stage of interaction required for ExbD to transmit its conformational response to proton motive force to TonB. Residues 92 to 121 were important for all three interactions previously observed for formaldehyde-cross-linked ExbD: ExbD homodimers, TonB-ExbD heterodimers, and ExbD-ExbB heterodimers. The distinct requirement of this ExbD region for interaction with ExbB raised the possibility of direct interaction with the few residues of ExbB known to occupy the periplasm. PMID:22493019

  9. The ExbD periplasmic domain contains distinct functional regions for two stages in TonB energization.

    PubMed

    Ollis, Anne A; Kumar, Aruna; Postle, Kathleen

    2012-06-01

    The TonB system of gram-negative bacteria energizes the active transport of diverse nutrients through high-affinity TonB-gated outer membrane transporters using energy derived from the cytoplasmic membrane proton motive force. Cytoplasmic membrane proteins ExbB and ExbD harness the proton gradient to energize TonB, which directly contacts and transmits this energy to ligand-loaded transporters. In Escherichia coli, the periplasmic domain of ExbD appears to transition from proton motive force-independent to proton motive force-dependent interactions with TonB, catalyzing the conformational changes of TonB. A 10-residue deletion scanning analysis showed that while all regions except the extreme amino terminus of ExbD were indispensable for function, distinct roles for the amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of the ExbD periplasmic domain were evident. Like residue D25 in the ExbD transmembrane domain, periplasmic residues 42 to 61 facilitated the conformational response of ExbD to proton motive force. This region appears to be important for transmitting signals between the ExbD transmembrane domain and carboxy terminus. The carboxy terminus, encompassing periplasmic residues 62 to 141, was required for initial assembly with the periplasmic domain of TonB, a stage of interaction required for ExbD to transmit its conformational response to proton motive force to TonB. Residues 92 to 121 were important for all three interactions previously observed for formaldehyde-cross-linked ExbD: ExbD homodimers, TonB-ExbD heterodimers, and ExbD-ExbB heterodimers. The distinct requirement of this ExbD region for interaction with ExbB raised the possibility of direct interaction with the few residues of ExbB known to occupy the periplasm.

  10. Distinct 3'-untranslated region elements regulate stage-specific mRNA accumulation and translation in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    McNicoll, François; Müller, Michaela; Cloutier, Serge; Boilard, Nathalie; Rochette, Annie; Dubé, Marthe; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2005-10-21

    We recently characterized a large developmentally regulated gene family in Leishmania encoding the amastin surface proteins. While studying the regulation of these genes, we identified a region of 770 nucleotides (nt) within the 2055-nt 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) that regulates stage-specific gene expression at the level of translation. An intriguing feature of this 3'-UTR regulatory region is the presence of a approximately 450-nt element that is highly conserved among several Leishmania mRNAs. Here we show, using a luciferase reporter system and polysome profiling experiments, that the 450-nt element stimulates translation initiation of the amastin mRNA in response to heat shock, which is the main environmental change that the parasite encounters upon its entry into the mammalian host. Deletional analyses depicted a second region of approximately 100 nucleotides located at the 3'-end of several amastin transcripts, which also activates translation in response to elevated temperature. Both 3'-UTR regulatory elements act in an additive manner to stimulate amastin mRNA translation. In addition, we show that acidic pH encountered in the phagolysosomes of macrophages, the location of parasitic differentiation, triggers the accumulation of amastin transcripts by a distinct mechanism that is independent of the 450-nt and 100-nt elements. Overall, these important findings support the notion that stage-specific post-transcriptional regulation of the amastin mRNAs in Leishmania is complex and involves the coordination of distinct mechanisms controlling mRNA stability and translation that are independently triggered by key environmental signals inducing differentiation of the parasite within macrophages.

  11. Identification and characterization of four novel peptide motifs that recognize distinct regions of the transcription factor CP2.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Chul; Chung, Bo Mee; Chae, Ji Hyung; Yang, Sung-Il; Kim, Chan Gil; Kim, Chul Geun

    2005-03-01

    Although ubiquitously expressed, the transcriptional factor CP2 also exhibits some tissue- or stage-specific activation toward certain genes such as globin in red blood cells and interleukin-4 in T helper cells. Because this specificity may be achieved by interaction with other proteins, we screened a peptide display library and identified four consensus motifs in numerous CP2-binding peptides: HXPR, PHL, ASR and PXHXH. Protein-database searching revealed that RE-1 silencing factor (REST), Yin-Yang1 (YY1) and five other proteins have one or two of these CP2-binding motifs. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that two HXPR motif-containing proteins REST and YY1 indeed were able to bind CP2. Importantly, this binding to CP2 was almost abolished when a double amino acid substitution was made on the HXPR sequence of REST and YY1 proteins. The suppressing effect of YY1 on CP2's transcriptional activity was lost by this point mutation on the HXPR sequence of YY1 and reduced by an HXPR-containing peptide, further supporting the interaction between CP2 and YY1 via the HXPR sequence. Mapping the sites on CP2 for interaction with the four distinct CP2-binding motifs revealed at least three different regions on CP2. This suggests that CP2 recognizes several distinct binding motifs by virtue of employing different regions, thus being able to interact with and regulate many cellular partners.

  12. Lunar mare volcanism: Mixing of distinct, mantle source regions with KREEP-like component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Mare basalts comprise less than 1% of the lunar crust, but they constitute our primary source of information on the moon's upper mantle. Compositional variations between mare basalt suites reflect variations in the mineralogical and geochemical composition of the lunar mantle which formed during early lunar differentiation (4.5-4.4 AE). Three broad suites of mare basalt are recognized: very low-Ti (VLT) basalts with TiO2 less than 1 wt%, low-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, and high-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 10-14 wt%. Important subgroups include the Apollo 12 ilmenite basalts (TiO2 = 5-6 wt%), aluminous low-Ti mare basalts (TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, Al2O3 = 10-14 wt%), and the newly discovered Very High potassium (VHK) aluminous low-Ti basalts, with K2O = 0.4-1.5 wt%. The mare basalt source region has geochemical characteristics complementary to the highlands crust and is generally thought to consist of mafic cumulates from the magma ocean which formed the felsic crust by feldspar flotation. The progressive enrichment of mare basalts in Fe/Mg, alkalis, and incompatible trace elements in the sequence VLT basalt yields low-Ti basalt yields high-Ti basalt is explained by the remelting of mafic cumulates formed at progressively shallower depths in the evolving magma ocean. This model is also consistent with the observed decrease in compatible element concentrations and the progressive increase in negative Eu anomalies.

  13. Sequential activation and distinct functions for distal and proximal modules within the IgH 3′ regulatory region

    PubMed Central

    Garot, Armand; Marquet, Marie; Saintamand, Alexis; Bender, Sébastien; Le Noir, Sandrine; Rouaud, Pauline; Carrion, Claire; Oruc, Zéliha; Bébin, Anne-Gaëlle; Moreau, Jeanne; Lebrigand, Kevin; Denizot, Yves; Alt, Frederick W.; Cogné, Michel; Pinaud, Eric

    2016-01-01

    As a master regulator of functional Ig heavy chain (IgH) expression, the IgH 3′ regulatory region (3′RR) controls multiple transcription events at various stages of B-cell ontogeny, from newly formed B cells until the ultimate plasma cell stage. The IgH 3′RR plays a pivotal role in early B-cell receptor expression, germ-line transcription preceding class switch recombination, interactions between targeted switch (S) regions, variable region transcription before somatic hypermutation, and antibody heavy chain production, but the functional ranking of its different elements is still inaccurate, especially that of its evolutionarily conserved quasi-palindromic structure. By comparing relevant previous knockout (KO) mouse models (3′RR KO and hs3b-4 KO) to a novel mutant devoid of the 3′RR quasi-palindromic region (3′PAL KO), we pinpointed common features and differences that specify two distinct regulatory entities acting sequentially during B-cell ontogeny. Independently of exogenous antigens, the 3′RR distal part, including hs4, fine-tuned B-cell receptor expression in newly formed and naïve B-cell subsets. At mature stages, the 3′RR portion including the quasi-palindrome dictated antigen-dependent locus remodeling (global somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination to major isotypes) in activated B cells and antibody production in plasma cells. PMID:26831080

  14. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Golarai, Golijeh; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearranged. Response amplitudes were reduced in the AMG and STS when subjects viewed stimuli whose configuration of parts were digitally rearranged, suggesting that these regions represent the 1st order configuration of face parts. In contrast, response amplitudes in the FFA showed little modulation whether face parts were rearranged or if the natural face parts were replaced with lines. Instead, FFA responses were reduced only when both configural and part information were reduced, revealing an interaction between these factors, suggesting distinct representation of 1st order face configuration and parts in the AMG and STS vs. the FFA. PMID:26594191

  15. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Golarai, Golijeh; Ghahremani, Dara G; Eberhardt, Jennifer L; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearranged. Response amplitudes were reduced in the AMG and STS when subjects viewed stimuli whose configuration of parts were digitally rearranged, suggesting that these regions represent the 1st order configuration of face parts. In contrast, response amplitudes in the FFA showed little modulation whether face parts were rearranged or if the natural face parts were replaced with lines. Instead, FFA responses were reduced only when both configural and part information were reduced, revealing an interaction between these factors, suggesting distinct representation of 1st order face configuration and parts in the AMG and STS vs. the FFA.

  16. Distinct endothelial phenotypes evoked by arterial waveforms derived from atherosclerosis-susceptible and -resistant regions of human vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Guohao; Kaazempur-Mofrad, Mohammad R.; Natarajan, Sripriya; Zhang, Yuzhi; Vaughn, Saran; Blackman, Brett R.; Kamm, Roger D.; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Gimbrone, Michael A., Jr.

    2004-10-01

    Atherosclerotic lesion localization to regions of disturbed flow within certain arterial geometries, in humans and experimental animals, suggests an important role for local hemodynamic forces in atherogenesis. To explore how endothelial cells (EC) acquire functional/dysfunctional phenotypes in response to vascular region-specific flow patterns, we have used an in vitro dynamic flow system to accurately reproduce arterial shear stress waveforms on cultured human EC and have examined the effects on EC gene expression by using a high-throughput transcriptional profiling approach. The flow patterns in the carotid artery bifurcations of several normal human subjects were characterized by using 3D flow analysis based on actual vascular geometries and blood flow profiles. Two prototypic arterial waveforms, "athero-prone" and "athero-protective," were defined as representative of the wall shear stresses in two distinct regions of the carotid artery (carotid sinus and distal internal carotid artery) that are typically "susceptible" or "resistant," respectively, to atherosclerotic lesion development. These two waveforms were applied to cultured EC, and cDNA microarrays were used to analyze the differential patterns of EC gene expression. In addition, the differential effects of athero-prone vs. athero-protective waveforms were further characterized on several parameters of EC structure and function, including actin cytoskeletal organization, expression and localization of junctional proteins, activation of the NF-B transcriptional pathway, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. These global gene expression patterns and functional data reveal a distinct phenotypic modulation in response to the wall shear stresses present in atherosclerosis-susceptible vs. atherosclerosis-resistant human arterial geometries.

  17. Distinct region-specific alpha-synuclein oligomers in A53T transgenic mice: implications for neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsika, Elpida; Moysidou, Maria; Guo, Jing; Cushman, Mimi; Gannon, Patrick; Sandaltzopoulos, Raphael; Giasson, Benoit I.; Krainc, Dimitri; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Mazzulli, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn), a process that generates oligomeric intermediates, is a common pathological feature of several neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the potential importance of the oligomeric α-syn intermediates in neuron function, their biochemical properties and pathobiological functions in vivo remain vastly unknown. Here we employed two-dimensional analytical separation and an array of biochemical and cell based assays to characterize α-syn oligomers that are present in the nervous system of A53T α-syn transgenic mice. The most prominent species identified were 53 Å detergent soluble oligomers, which preceded neurological symptom onset, and were found at equivalent amounts in regions containing α-syn inclusions as well as histologically unaffected regions. These oligomers were resistant to SDS, heat, and urea, but were sensitive to proteinase-K digestion. Even though the oligomers shared similar basic biochemical properties, those obtained from inclusion bearing regions were prominently reactive to antibodies that recognize oxidized α-syn oligomers, significantly accelerated aggregation of α-syn in vitro, and caused primary cortical neuron degeneration. In contrast, oligomers obtained from non-inclusion bearing regions were not toxic and delayed the in vitro formation of α-syn fibrils. These data indicate that specific conformations of α-syn oligomers are present in distinct brain regions of A53T α-syn transgenic mice. The contribution of these oligomers to the development of neuron dysfunction appears to be independent of their absolute quantities and basic biochemical properties, but is dictated by the composition and conformation of the intermediates as well as unrecognized brain-region specific intrinsic factors. PMID:20203200

  18. Physical map of the centromeric region of human chromosome 7: relationship between two distinct alpha satellite arrays.

    PubMed Central

    Wevrick, R; Willard, H F

    1991-01-01

    A long-range physical map of the centromeric region of human chromosome 7 has been constructed in order to define the region containing sequences with potential involvement in centromere function. The map is centered around alpha satellite DNA, a family of tandemly repeated DNA forming arrays of hundreds to thousands of kilobasepairs at the primary constriction of every human chromosome. Two distinct alpha satellite arrays (the loci D7Z1 and D7Z2) have previously been localized to chromosome 7. Detailed one- and two- locus maps of the chromosome 7 centromere have been constructed. Our data indicate that D7Z1 and D7Z2 arrays are not interspersed with each other but are both present on a common Mlu I restriction fragment estimated to be 3500 kb and 5500 kb on two different chromosome 7's investigated. These long-range maps, combined with previous measurements of the D7Z1 and D7Z2 array lengths, are used to construct a consensus map of the centromere of chromosome 7. The analysis used to construct the map provides, by extension, a framework for analysis of the structure of DNA in the centromeric regions of other human and mammalian chromosomes. Images PMID:2041770

  19. Distinct functions of the RNA polymerase σ subunit region 3.2 in RNA priming and promoter escape

    PubMed Central

    Pupov, Danil; Kuzin, Ivan; Bass, Irina; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The σ subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) has been implicated in all steps of transcription initiation, including promoter recognition and opening, priming of RNA synthesis, abortive initiation and promoter escape. The post-promoter-recognition σ functions were proposed to depend on its conserved region σ3.2 that directly contacts promoter DNA immediately upstream of the RNAP active centre and occupies the RNA exit path. Analysis of the transcription effects of substitutions and deletions in this region in Escherichia coli σ70 subunit, performed in this work, suggests that (i) individual residues in the σ3.2 finger collectively contribute to RNA priming by RNAP, likely by the positioning of the template DNA strand in the active centre, but are not critical to promoter escape; (ii) the physical presence of σ3.2 in the RNA exit channel is important for promoter escape; (iii) σ3.2 promotes σ dissociation during initiation and suppresses σ-dependent promoter-proximal pausing; (iv) σ3.2 contributes to allosteric inhibition of the initiating NTP binding by rifamycins. Thus, region σ3.2 performs distinct functions in transcription initiation and its inhibition by antibiotics. The B-reader element of eukaryotic factor TFIIB likely plays similar roles in RNAPII transcription, revealing common principles in transcription initiation in various domains of life. PMID:24452800

  20. Divergent Human Cortical Regions for Processing Distinct Acoustic-Semantic Categories of Natural Sounds: Animal Action Sounds vs. Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Paula J.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Frum, Chris A.; Still, Hayley N.; Ward, B. Douglas; Lewis, James W.

    2017-01-01

    A major gap in our understanding of natural sound processing is knowledge of where or how in a cortical hierarchy differential processing leads to categorical perception at a semantic level. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we sought to determine if and where cortical pathways in humans might diverge for processing action sounds vs. vocalizations as distinct acoustic-semantic categories of real-world sound when matched for duration and intensity. This was tested by using relatively less semantically complex natural sounds produced by non-conspecific animals rather than humans. Our results revealed a striking double-dissociation of activated networks bilaterally. This included a previously well described pathway preferential for processing vocalization signals directed laterally from functionally defined primary auditory cortices to the anterior superior temporal gyri, and a less well-described pathway preferential for processing animal action sounds directed medially to the posterior insulae. We additionally found that some of these regions and associated cortical networks showed parametric sensitivity to high-order quantifiable acoustic signal attributes and/or to perceptual features of the natural stimuli, such as the degree of perceived recognition or intentional understanding. Overall, these results supported a neurobiological theoretical framework for how the mammalian brain may be fundamentally organized to process acoustically and acoustic-semantically distinct categories of ethologically valid, real-world sounds. PMID:28111538

  1. The hippocampal CA3 region can generate two distinct types of sharp wave-ripple complexes, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Katharina T; Kandrács, Ágnes; Ulbert, István; Pál, Ildikó; Szabó, Csilla; Héja, László; Wittner, Lucia

    2015-02-01

    Hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SPW-Rs) occur during slow wave sleep and behavioral immobility and are thought to play an important role in memory formation. We investigated the cellular and network properties of SPW-Rs with simultaneous laminar multielectrode and intracellular recordings in a rat hippocampal slice model, using physiological bathing medium. Spontaneous SPW-Rs were generated in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1 regions. These events were characterized by a local field potential gradient (LFPg) transient, increased fast oscillatory activity and increased multiple unit activity (MUA). Two types of SPW-Rs were distinguished in the CA3 region based on their different LFPg and current source density (CSD) pattern. Type 1 (T1) displayed negative LFPg transient in the pyramidal cell layer, and the associated CSD sink was confined to the proximal dendrites. Type 2 (T2) SPW-Rs were characterized by positive LFPg transient in the cell layer, and showed CSD sinks involving both the apical and basal dendrites. In both types, consistent with the somatic CSD source, only a small subset of CA3 pyramidal cells fired, most pyramidal cells were hyperpolarized, while most interneurons increased firing rate before the LFPg peak. Different neuronal populations, with different proportions of pyramidal cells and distinct subsets of interneurons were activated during T1 and T2 SPW-Rs. Activation of specific inhibitory cell subsets-with the possible leading role of perisomatic interneurons-seems to be crucial to synchronize distinct ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells finally resulting in the expression of different SPW-R activities. This suggests that the hippocampus can generate dynamic changes in its activity stemming from the same excitatory and inhibitory circuits, and so, might provide the cellular and network basis for an input-specific and activity-dependent information transmission.

  2. Range-edge genetic diversity: locally poor extant southern patches maintain a regionally diverse hotspot in the seagrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Onno E; Serrão, Ester A

    2012-04-01

    Refugial populations at the rear edge are predicted to contain higher genetic diversity than those resulting from expansion, such as in post-glacial recolonizations. However, peripheral populations are also predicted to have decreased diversity compared to the centre of a species' distribution. We aim to test these predictions by comparing genetic diversity in populations at the limits of distribution of the seagrass Zostera marina, with populations in the species' previously described central diversity 'hotspot'. Zostera marina populations show decreased allelic richness, heterozygosity and genotypic richness in both the 'rear' edge and the 'leading' edge compared to the diversity 'hotspot' in the North Sea/Baltic region. However, when populations are pooled, genetic diversity at the southern range is as high as in the North Sea/Baltic region while the 'leading edge' remains low in genetic diversity. The decreased genetic diversity in these southern Iberian populations compared to more central populations is possibly the effect of drift because of small effective population size, as a result of reduced habitat, low sexual reproduction and low gene flow. However, when considering the whole southern edge of distribution rather than per population, diversity is as high as in the central 'hotspot' in the North Sea/Baltic region. We conclude that diversity patterns assessed per population can mask the real regional richness that is typical of rear edge populations, which have played a key role in the species biogeographical history and as marginal diversity hotspots have very high conservation value.

  3. Spatially distinct and regionally endemic Symbiodinium assemblages in the threatened Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Dustin W.; Thornhill, Daniel J.; Rotjan, Randi D.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Fitt, William K.; Schmidt, Gregory W.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata was listed as "threatened" under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite attention to this species' conservation, the extent of geographic variation within O. faveolata warrants further investigation. O. faveolata is unusual in that it can simultaneously harbor multiple genetically distinct and co-dominant species of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Here, we investigate the geographic and within-colony complexity of Symbiodinium- O. faveolata associations from Florida Keys, USA; Exuma Cays, Bahamas; Puerto Morelos, Mexico; and Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. We collected coral samples along intracolony axes, and Symbiodinium within O. faveolata samples was analyzed using the nuclear ITS2 region and chloroplast 23S rDNA genotyping. O. faveolata associated with species of Symbiodinium in clades A (type A3), B (B1 and B17), C (C3, C7, and C7a), and D (D1a/ Symbiodinium trenchii). Within-colony distributions of Symbiodinium species correlated with light availability, cardinal direction, and depth, resulting in distinct zonation patterns of endosymbionts within a host. Symbiodinium species from clades A and B occurred predominantly in the light-exposed tops, while species of clade C generally occurred in the shaded sides of colonies or in deeper-water habitats. Furthermore, geographic comparisons of host-symbiont associations revealed regional differences in Symbiodinium associations. Symbiodinium A3 was detected in Mesoamerican coral colonies, but not in colonies from the Florida Keys or Bahamas. Likewise, Symbiodinium B17 was unique to Mesoamerican O. faveolata, whereas Symbiodinium B1 was found at all localities sampled. However, using cp23S genotyping paired with ITS2 analysis revealed geographically endemic haplotypes among Symbiodinium clades A, B, and C. Since Symbiodinium spatial heterogeneity among this coral species is greater than most corals, a question arises as to whether all

  4. Regionally distinct cutaneous afferent populations contribute to reflex modulation evoked by stimulation of the tibial nerve during walking.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shinya; Futatsubashi, Genki; Ohtsuska, Hiroyuki; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A; Barss, Trevor S; Klarner, Taryn; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-07-01

    During walking, cutaneous reflexes in ankle flexor muscle [tibialis anterior (TA)] evoked by tibial nerve (TIB) stimulation are predominantly facilitatory at early swing phase but reverse to suppression at late swing phase. Although the TIB innervates a large portion of the skin of the foot sole, the extent to which specific foot-sole regions contribute to the reflex reversals during walking remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated regional cutaneous contributions from discrete portions of the foot sole on reflex reversal in TA following TIB stimulation during walking. Summation effects on reflex amplitudes, when applying combined stimulation from foot-sole regions with TIB, were examined. Middle latency responses (MLRs; 70-120 ms) after TIB stimulation were strongly facilitated during the late stance to mid-swing phases and reversed to suppression just before heel (HL) strike. Both forefoot-medial (f-M) and forefoot-lateral stimulation in the foot sole induced facilitation during stance-to-swing transition phases, but HL stimulation evoked suppression during the late stance to the end of swing phases. At the stance-to-swing transition, a summation of MLR amplitude occurred only for combined f-M&TIB stimulation. However, the same was not true for the combined HL&TIB stimulation. At the swing-to-stance transition, there was a suppressive reflex summation only for HL&TIB stimulation. In contrast, this summation was not observed for the f-M&TIB stimulation. Our results suggest that reflex reversals evoked by TIB stimulation arise from distinct reflex pathways to TA produced by separate afferent populations innervating specific regions of the foot sole. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Regionally distinct cutaneous afferent populations contribute to reflex modulation evoked by stimulation of the tibial nerve during walking

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shinya; Futatsubashi, Genki; Ohtsuska, Hiroyuki; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A.; Barss, Trevor S.; Klarner, Taryn; Zehr, E. Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    During walking, cutaneous reflexes in ankle flexor muscle [tibialis anterior (TA)] evoked by tibial nerve (TIB) stimulation are predominantly facilitatory at early swing phase but reverse to suppression at late swing phase. Although the TIB innervates a large portion of the skin of the foot sole, the extent to which specific foot-sole regions contribute to the reflex reversals during walking remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated regional cutaneous contributions from discrete portions of the foot sole on reflex reversal in TA following TIB stimulation during walking. Summation effects on reflex amplitudes, when applying combined stimulation from foot-sole regions with TIB, were examined. Middle latency responses (MLRs; 70–120 ms) after TIB stimulation were strongly facilitated during the late stance to mid-swing phases and reversed to suppression just before heel (HL) strike. Both forefoot-medial (f-M) and forefoot-lateral stimulation in the foot sole induced facilitation during stance-to-swing transition phases, but HL stimulation evoked suppression during the late stance to the end of swing phases. At the stance-to-swing transition, a summation of MLR amplitude occurred only for combined f-M&TIB stimulation. However, the same was not true for the combined HL&TIB stimulation. At the swing-to-stance transition, there was a suppressive reflex summation only for HL&TIB stimulation. In contrast, this summation was not observed for the f-M&TIB stimulation. Our results suggest that reflex reversals evoked by TIB stimulation arise from distinct reflex pathways to TA produced by separate afferent populations innervating specific regions of the foot sole. PMID:27075541

  6. Comparison of transcriptional expression patterns of carotenoid metabolism in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes from two regions with distinct climate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Kai; Yu, Ke-Ji; Liu, Bin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Sun, Run-Ze; Li, Qiang; He, Fei; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2017-03-09

    The downstream flux of carotenoid metabolism in grape berries includes the biosynthesis of norisoprenoids, a group of important aroma compounds, and the production of ABA, a well-known plant hormone. This study focused on the transcriptional profiling comparison of genes participating in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, norisoprenoids, and ABA in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes at pea size, veraison, and ripening stages. The grapes were obtained from Changli (CL, eastern China) and Gaotai (GT, western China) regions and analyzed using RNA-sequencing technology. The transcripts required for the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway showed a coordinated expression pattern, mainly expressing at green stage for CL and at veraison for GT, respectively. However, the carotenoid content evolution was not coincident with the timing and pattern of related gene expressions, since more carotenoids were accumulated at veraison in CL relative to two weeks before veraison in GT. Interestingly, norisoprenoid content was higher in GT than in CL, particularly at veraison and ripening, while the key gene encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, VvCCD1, showed an inverse relationship within the two regions. Higher flux was expected through the carotenoid pathway into ABA production in GT, based on the higher expression level of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and drought growing conditions. Most components involved in ABA and ethylene signaling showed distinct expression profiles in the two regions. These results revealed that downstream flux of carotenoid metabolism in grape berries showed regional differences. This study lays a foundation for future research to explore the molecular basis of climatic influences on carotenoid, norisoprenoid, and ABA biosynthesis.

  7. Evidence for a distinct region causing a cat-like cry in patients with 5p deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Gersh, M; Goodart, S A; Pasztor, L M; Harris, D J; Weiss, L; Overhauser, J

    1995-01-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth, which is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on four families in which patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry, with normal to mildly delayed development. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by FISH using lambda phage and cosmid clones. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to a chromosomal region that is implicated with the facial features and severe mental and developmental delay in the cri-du-chat syndrome. DNA clones mapping in the chromosomal region associated with the cat-like cry feature will be useful diagnostic tools. They will allow for the distinction between 5p deletions that will result in the severe delay observed in most cri-du-chat syndrome patients and those deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature, which is associated with a better prognosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7762563

  8. Evidence for a distinct region causing a cat-like cry in patients with 5p deletions.

    PubMed

    Gersh, M; Goodart, S A; Pasztor, L M; Harris, D J; Weiss, L; Overhauser, J

    1995-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth, which is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on four families in which patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry, with normal to mildly delayed development. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by FISH using lambda phage and cosmid clones. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to a chromosomal region that is implicated with the facial features and severe mental and developmental delay in the cri-du-chat syndrome. DNA clones mapping in the chromosomal region associated with the cat-like cry feature will be useful diagnostic tools. They will allow for the distinction between 5p deletions that will result in the severe delay observed in most cri-du-chat syndrome patients and those deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature, which is associated with a better prognosis.

  9. Evidence for a distinct region causing a cat-like cry in patients with 5p deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Goodart, S.A.; Overhauser, J.

    1995-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth, which is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on four families in which patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry, with normal to mildly delayed development. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by FISH using lambda phage and cosmic clones. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to a chromosomal region that is implicated with the facial features and severe mental and developmental delay in the cri-du-chat syndrome. DNA clones mapping in the chromosomal region associated with the cat-like cry feature will be useful diagnostic tools. They will allow for the distinction between 5p deletions that will result in the severe delay observed in most cri-du-chat syndrome patients and those deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature, which is associated with a better prognosis. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Thermally identified subgroups of marginal zone neurons project to distinct regions of the ventral posterior lateral nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xijing; Davidson, Steve; Giesler, Glenn J

    2006-05-10

    Spinal marginal zone (MZ) neurons play a crucial role in the transmission of nociceptive and thermoreceptive information to the brain. The precise areas to which physiologically characterized MZ neurons project in the ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus have not been clearly established. Here, we examine this projection in rats using the method of antidromic activation to map the axon terminals of neurons recorded from the MZ. Thirty-three neurons were antidromically activated using pulses of < or =30 microA in the contralateral VPL. In every case, the most rostral point from which the MZ neuron could be antidromically activated was surrounded by stimulating tracks in which large-amplitude current pulses failed to activate the examined neuron, indicating the termination of the spinothalamic tract (STT) axon. Each of 30 examined neurons responded to noxious but not innocuous mechanical stimuli applied to their cutaneous receptive fields, which ranged in size from two digits to the entire limb. Of 17 thermally tested neurons, 16 responded to innocuous or noxious thermal stimuli. Among STT neurons that responded to thermal stimuli, 50% responded to innocuous cooling as well as noxious heat and cold, 31% responded to noxious heat and cold, and 19% responded only to noxious heat. Axons from cells responsive to innocuous cooling terminated in the core region of VPL, significantly dorsal and medial relative to other thermally responsive subgroups. In rats, thermally responsive subgroups of MZ neurons project directly to distinct regions of VPL.

  11. Maintaining Regional Stability in the Asia-Pacific: United States Pacific Command Theater Security Cooperation Strategy with China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-04

    suggests China is on a “path of peaceful development” and is committed to a “harmonious world” based on cooperation and trust. Analysis indicates that a...China is on a “path of peaceful development” and is committed to a “harmonious world” based on cooperation and trust. Analysis indicates that a...destabilize the region. However, China’s National Defense in 2010 insinuates the country is on a “path of peaceful development” and is committed to

  12. Distinct regions of NLRP1B are required to respond to anthrax lethal toxin and metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Neiman-Zenevich, Jana; Liao, Kuo-Chieh; Mogridge, Jeremy

    2014-09-01

    Pattern recognition receptors monitor for signs of infection or cellular dysfunction and respond to these events by initiating an immune response. NLRP1B is a receptor that upon activation recruits multiple copies of procaspase-1, which promotes cytokine processing and a proinflammatory form of cell death termed pyroptosis. NLRP1B detects anthrax lethal toxin when the toxin cleaves an amino-terminal fragment from the protein. In addition, NLRP1B is activated when cells are deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors, but the mechanism by which the resulting reduction in cytosolic ATP is sensed by NLRP1B is unknown. Here, we addressed whether these two activating signals of NLRP1B converge on a common sensing system. We show that an NLRP1B mutant lacking the amino-terminal region exhibits some spontaneous activity and fails to be further activated by lethal toxin. This mutant was still activated in cells depleted of ATP, however, indicating that the amino-terminal region is not the sole sensing domain of NLRP1B. Mutagenesis of the leucine-rich repeat domain of NLRP1B provided evidence that this domain is involved in autoinhibition of the receptor, but none of the mutants tested was specifically defective at sensing activating signals. Comparison of two alleles of NLRP1B that differed in their response to metabolic inhibitors, but not to lethal toxin, led to the finding that a repeated sequence in the function to find domain (FIIND) that arose from exon duplication facilitated detection of ATP depletion. These results suggest that distinct regions of NLRP1B detect activating signals.

  13. Derivation of Apollo 14 High-Al Basalts from Distinct Source Regions at Discrete Times: New Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. R.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Kramer, G. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Apollo 14 basalts occur predominantly as clasts in breccias, but represent the oldest volcanic products that were returned from the Moon [1]. These basalts are relatively enriched in Al2O3 (11-16 wt%) compared to other mare basalts (7-11 wt%) and were originally classified into 5 compositional groups [2,3]. Neal et al. [4] proposed that a continuum of compositions existed. These were related through assimilation (of KREEP) and fractional crystallization (AFC). Age data, however, show that at least three volcanic episodes are recorded in the sample collection [1,5,6]. Recent work has demonstrated that there are three, possibly four groups of basalts in the Apollo 14 sample collection that were erupted from different source regions at different times [7]. This conclusion was based upon incompatible trace element (ITE) ratios of elements that should not be fractionated from one another during partial melting (Fig. 1). These groups are defined as Group A (Groups 4 & 5 of [3]), Group B (Groups 1 & 2 of [3]), and Group C (Group 3 of [3]). Basalt 14072 is distinct from Groups A-C.

  14. Comparison of tick-borne microorganism communities in Ixodes spp. of the Ixodes ricinus species complex at distinct geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Dubinina, Helen V; Sitnicova, Natalia; Bespyatova, Liubov; Uspenskaia, Inga; Efremova, Galina; Toderas, Ion; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing the tick-borne microorganism communities of Ixodes ricinus (sheep tick) and Ixodes persulcatus (taiga tick) from the I. ricinus species complex in distinct geographical regions of Eastern Europe and European Russia, we demonstrated differences between the two ticks. Taiga ticks were more frequently mono- and co-infected than sheep ticks: 24.4 % (45/184 tested ticks) versus 17.5 % (52/297) and 4.3 % (8/184) versus 3.4 % (10/297), respectively. Ginsberg co-infection index values were significant at the various sites. Diversity of the tick-borne microorganism communities was estimated by the Shannon index, reaching values of 1.71 ± 0.46 and 1.20 ± 0.15 at the sheep-tick and the taiga-tick harbored sites, respectively. Richness of the tick-borne microorganism community in the sheep tick collection sites was about twice the value of the taiga tick collection sites. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the peculiarities of the tick-borne microorganism communities among the ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex.

  15. The use of genomic coancestry matrices in the optimisation of contributions to maintain genetic diversity at specific regions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Romano, Fernando; Villanueva, Beatriz; Fernández, Jesús; Woolliams, John A; Pong-Wong, Ricardo

    2016-01-13

    Optimal contribution methods have proved to be very efficient for controlling the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and therefore, for maintaining genetic diversity. These methods have usually relied on pedigree information for estimating genetic relationships between animals. However, with the large amount of genomic information now available such as high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips that contain thousands of SNPs, it becomes possible to calculate more accurate estimates of relationships and to target specific regions in the genome where there is a particular interest in maximising genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using genomic coancestry matrices for: (1) minimising the loss of genetic variability at specific genomic regions while restricting the overall loss in the rest of the genome; or (2) maximising the overall genetic diversity while restricting the loss of diversity at specific genomic regions. Our study shows that the use of genomic coancestry was very successful at minimising the loss of diversity and outperformed the use of pedigree-based coancestry (genetic diversity even increased in some scenarios). The results also show that genomic information allows a targeted optimisation to maintain diversity at specific genomic regions, whether they are linked or not. The level of variability maintained increased when the targeted regions were closely linked. However, such targeted management leads to an important loss of diversity in the rest of the genome and, thus, it is necessary to take further actions to constrain this loss. Optimal contribution methods also proved to be effective at restricting the loss of diversity in the rest of the genome, although the resulting rate of coancestry was higher than the constraint imposed. The use of genomic matrices when optimising contributions permits the control of genetic diversity and inbreeding at specific regions of the

  16. Clinicopathological analysis of basal cell carcinoma of the anal region and its distinction from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patil, Deepa T; Goldblum, John R; Billings, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the anal region is rare and morphologically difficult to distinguish from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, particularly on biopsies. This distinction has therapeutic and prognostic implications. We reviewed morphological features of 9 basal cell carcinomas and 15 basaloid squamous cell carcinomas from the anal region diagnosed during 1993-2011 and determined the utility of Ber-EP4, BCL2, TP63, CK5/6, CDKN2A, and SOX2 as diagnostic tools. Immunostains were scored in a semi-quantitative manner (1+-1-10%, 2+-11-50%, 3+->50%). All basal cell carcinomas were located in the perianal region, while all basaloid squamous cell carcinomas originated in the anal canal/anorectum. Nodular subtype of basal cell carcinoma was the most common subtype. Retraction artifact was the only significant distinguishing histological feature of basal cell carcinoma compared with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (88% vs 26%; P=0.04). Atypical mitoses were more common in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (71% vs 11%; P=0.05). An in situ component was only present in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas, and was noted in 6/15 cases. Basal cell carcinomas had 2-3+ Ber-EP4 (basal cell carcinoma 100% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 40%; P<0.001) and BCL2 immunoreactivity (basal cell carcinomas 100% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 33%; P<0.001). Diffuse CDKN2A and SOX2 expression was seen only in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (basal cell carcinoma 0% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 93%; P<0.001). There was no difference in TP63 and CK5/6 expression. Perianal location, retraction artifact, and lack of atypical mitoses are histological features that help distinguish basal cell carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. An in situ component, when present, supports the diagnosis of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Immunostains are extremely helpful as diffuse Ber-EP4 and BCL2 expression is a feature of basal cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma

  17. Tracking wild sockeye salmon smolts to the ocean reveals distinct regions of nocturnal movement and high mortality.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy D; Furey, Nathan B; Rechisky, Erin L; Gale, Marika K; Jeffries, Ken M; Porter, Aswea D; Casselman, Matthew T; Lotto, Andrew G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Welch, David W; Hinch, Scott G

    2016-06-01

    Few estimates of migration rates or descriptions of behavior or survival exist for wild populations of out-migrating Pacific salmon smolts from natal freshwater rearing areas to the ocean. Using acoustic transmitters and fixed receiver arrays across four years (2010-2013), we tracked the migration of > 1850 wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts from Chilko Lake, British Columbia, to the coastal Pacific Ocean (> 1000 km distance). Cumulative survival to the ocean ranged 3-10% among years, although this may be slightly underestimated due to technical limitations at the final receiver array. Distinct spatial patterns in both behavior and survival were observed through all years. In small, clear, upper-river reaches, downstream migration largely occurred at night at speeds up to 50 km/d and coincided with poor survival. Among years, only 57-78% of smolts survived the first 80 km. Parallel laboratory experiments revealed excellent short-term survival and unhindered swimming performance of dummy-tagged smolts, suggesting that predators rather than tagging effects were responsible for the initial high mortality of acoustic-tagged smolts. Migration speeds increased in the Fraser River mainstem (~220 km/d in some years), diel movement patterns ceased, and smolt survival generally exceeded 90% in this segment. Marine movement rates and survival were variable across years, with among-year segment-specific survival being the most variable and lowest (19-61%) during the final (and longest, 240 km) marine migration segment. Osmoregulatory preparedness was not expected to influence marine survival, as smolts could maintain normal levels of plasma chloride when experimentally exposed to saltwater (30 ppt) immediately upon commencing their migration from Chilko Lake. Transportation of smolts downstream generally increased survival to the farthest marine array. The act of tagging may have affected smolts in the marine environment in some years as dummy-tagged fish had

  18. Absorption characteristics of aerosols over the northwestern region of India: Distinct seasonal signatures of biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Mukunda M.; Suresh Babu, S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Manoj, M. R.; Chaubey, Jai Prakash

    2013-07-01

    Continuous measurements of aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations made over a period of 3 years from a semi-arid, near-coastal, remote and sparsely inhabited location along with satellite-based data of aerosol absorption index, optical depth and extinction profiles in western India are used to characterize the distinct nature of aerosols near the surface and in the free troposphere and their seasonality. Despite being far remote and sparsely inhabited, significant levels of BC are observed in the ambient during winter (1.45 ± 0.71 μg m-3) attributed to biomass burning aerosols, advected to the site from the north and west; while during summer the concentrations are far reduced (0.23 ± 0.11 μg m-3) and represent the apparent background concentrations. The spectral absorption coefficients suggest the BC during summer be mostly of fossil fuel combustions. The strong convective boundary layer dynamics produces significant diurnal variation during winter and modulates to a lesser extent the seasonal variation. Examination of aerosol (absorption) index from OMI data for the study period showed a seasonal pattern that is almost opposite to that seen at the surface; with high aerosol index in summer, showing a significant difference between the surface and columnar aerosol types in summer. MISR and MODIS-derived columnar AOD follow the OMI pattern. Analysis of the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and volume depolarization ratio (VDR), derived from CALIPSO data indicates the presence of strong dust layers with VDR ˜ 0.3 in the altitude region 4-6 km, contributing to the high aerosol index in the OMI data, while the surface measurements show absorptive properties representing fossil fuel BC aerosols.

  19. Distinctive patterns of epigenetic marks are associated with promoter regions of mouse LINE-1 and LTR retrotransposons.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Danny

    2013-12-02

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and the non-LTR retrotransposons (LINE-1 or L1) make up more than one-third of the mouse genome. Because of their abundance, the retrotransposons are the major players in genomic structure and function. While much attention has been focused on the biology of retrotransposons, little is known about the chromatin structure of these elements or the potential role of epigenetic marks on the regulation of retrotransposon expression. Using sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we analyzed the cohabitation of several post-translational histone modifications in the promoter regions of mouse L1 and LTR retrotransposons. We show here that the variant histone H2A.Z selectively present in L1 promoters. Notably, H2A.Z and trimethylated histone H3 (H3K9me3) co-localize in the same genomic location of the L1 promoter along with heterochromatin-binding protein HP1α. In contrast, MmERV and intracisternal A-particle (IAP) classes of LTR promoters are enriched with core histone H2A and heterochromatic trimethylated histone H4 (H4K20me3). These distinctive patterns of chromatin modifications are relatively consistent irrespective of cell type. Chromatin structure regulates the expression of retrotransposons. LINE-1 elements are associated with H2A.Z and HP1α-containing constitutive heterochromatin, while the LTR elements are enriched with H2A and the H4K20me3-type of facultative heterochromatin. Our findings demonstrate that different epigenetic mechanisms operate in the mouse genome to silence different classes of retrotransposons.

  20. Distinct regions control transcriptional activation of the alpha1(VI) collagen promoter in different tissues of transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    To identify regions involved in tissue specific regulation of transcription of the alpha1(VI) collagen chain, transgenic mice were generated carrying various portions of the gene's 5'-flanking sequence fused to the E. coli beta-galactosidase gene. Analysis of the transgene expression pattern by X-gal staining of embryos revealed that: (a) The proximal 0.6 kb of promoter sequence activated transcription in mesenchymal cells at sites of insertion of superficial muscular aponeurosis into the skin; tendons were also faintly positive. (b) The region between -4.0 and -5.4 kb from the transcription start site was required for activation of the transgene in nerves. It also drove expression in joints, in intervertebral disks, and in subepidermal and vibrissae mesenchyme. (c) The fragment comprised within -6.2 and -7.5 kb was necessary for high level transcription in skeletal muscle and meninges. Positive cells in muscle were mostly mononuclear and probably included connective tissue elements, although staining of myoblasts was not ruled out. This fragment also activated expression in joints, in intervertebral disks, and in subepidermal and vibrissae mesenchyme. (d) beta-Galactosidase staining in vibrissae induced by the sequences -4.0 to -5.4 and -6.2 to -7.5 was not coincident: with the latter sequence labeled nuclei were found mainly in the ventral and posterior quadrant, and, histologically, in the outer layers of mesenchyme surrounding and between the follicles, whereas with the former the remaining quadrants were positive and expressing cells were mostly in the inner layers of the dermal sheath. (e) Other tissues, notably lung, adrenal gland, digestive tract, which produce high amounts of collagen type VI, did not stain for beta-galactosidase. (f) Central nervous system and retina, in which the endogenous gene is inactive, expressed the lacZ transgene in most lines. The data suggest that transcription of alpha1(VI) in different tissues is regulated by distinct sequence

  1. Cathepsin L coexists with Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Antigen-2 alpha in distinct regions of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Luziga, Claudius; Nga, Bui Thi To; Mbassa, Gabriel; Yamamoto, Yoshimi

    2016-09-01

    Cathepsins B and L are two prominent members of cystein proteases with broad substrate specificity and are known to be involved in the process of intra- and extra-cellular protein degradation and turnover. The propeptide region of cathepsin L is identical to Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2α (CTLA-2α) discovered in mouse activated T-cells and mast cells. CTLA-2α exhibits selective inhibitory activities against papain and cathepsin L. We previously demonstrated the distribution pattern of the CTLA-2α protein in mouse brain by immunohistochemistry, describing that it is preferentially localized within nerve fibre bundles than neuronal cell bodies. In the present study we report colocalization of cathepsin L and CTLA-2α by double labeling immunofluorescence analysis in the mouse brain. In the telencephalon, immunoreactivity was identified in cerebral cortex and subcortical structures, hippocampus and amygdala. Within the diencephalon intense colocalization was detected in stria medullaris of thalamus, mammillothalamic tract, medial habenular nucleus and choroid plexus. Colocalization signals in the mesencephalon were strong in the hypothalamus within supramammillary nucleus and lateroanterior hypothalamic nucleus while in the cerebellum was in the deep white matter, granule cell layer and Purkinje neurons but moderately in stellate, and basket cells of cerebellar cortex. The distribution pattern indicates that the fine equilibrium between synthesis and secretion of cathespin L and CTLA-2α is part of the brain processes to maintain normal growth and development. The functional implication of cathespin L coexistence with CTLA-2α in relation to learning, memory and disease mechanisms is discussed.

  2. Ligand-dependent responses of the silkworm prothoracicotropic hormone receptor, Torso, are maintained by unusual intermolecular disulfide bridges in the transmembrane region

    PubMed Central

    Konogami, Tadafumi; Yang, Yiwen; Ogihara, Mari H.; Hikiba, Juri; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    The insect membrane-protein, Torso, is a member of the receptor-tyrosine-kinase family, and is activated by its ligand, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Although PTTH is one of the most important regulators of insect development, the mechanism of Torso activation by the hormone has remained elusive. In this study, using heterologous expression in cultured Drosophila S2 cells, we detected ligand-independent dimerization of silkworm Torso, and found that the receptor molecules in the dimer were linked by intermolecular disulfide bridges. By examining the oligomerization states of several truncation and substitution mutants of Torso, atypical cysteine residues in the transmembrane region were identified as being responsible for the intermolecular linkage in the dimer. The replacement of all of the cysteines in the region with phenylalanines abolished the disulfide-bond-mediated dimerization; however, non-covalent dimerization of the mutant was detected using a cross-linking reagent, both with and without ligand stimulation. This non-covalent dimerization caused apparent receptor autophosphorylation independently of the ligand stimulation, but did not promote the ERK phosphorylation in the downstream signaling pathway. The unique Torso structure with the intermolecular disulfide bridges in the transmembrane region is necessary to maintain the ligand-dependent receptor functions of autophosphorylation and downstream activation. PMID:26928300

  3. Ligand-dependent responses of the silkworm prothoracicotropic hormone receptor, Torso, are maintained by unusual intermolecular disulfide bridges in the transmembrane region.

    PubMed

    Konogami, Tadafumi; Yang, Yiwen; Ogihara, Mari H; Hikiba, Juri; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-03-01

    The insect membrane-protein, Torso, is a member of the receptor-tyrosine-kinase family, and is activated by its ligand, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Although PTTH is one of the most important regulators of insect development, the mechanism of Torso activation by the hormone has remained elusive. In this study, using heterologous expression in cultured Drosophila S2 cells, we detected ligand-independent dimerization of silkworm Torso, and found that the receptor molecules in the dimer were linked by intermolecular disulfide bridges. By examining the oligomerization states of several truncation and substitution mutants of Torso, atypical cysteine residues in the transmembrane region were identified as being responsible for the intermolecular linkage in the dimer. The replacement of all of the cysteines in the region with phenylalanines abolished the disulfide-bond-mediated dimerization; however, non-covalent dimerization of the mutant was detected using a cross-linking reagent, both with and without ligand stimulation. This non-covalent dimerization caused apparent receptor autophosphorylation independently of the ligand stimulation, but did not promote the ERK phosphorylation in the downstream signaling pathway. The unique Torso structure with the intermolecular disulfide bridges in the transmembrane region is necessary to maintain the ligand-dependent receptor functions of autophosphorylation and downstream activation.

  4. Feed handling of lactating crossbred cows maintained in a semi-arid region during the hot season: physiological parameters, ingestive behavior and performance.

    PubMed

    de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Marcílio; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro; Urbano, Stela Antas; da Conceição, Maria Gabriela; de Lima Silva, Janaina

    2017-01-01

    The effects of time of feed delivery (14.00 hours; 14.00 and 20.00 hours; 16.00 and 18.00 hours) on the physiological parameters, ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and production of lactating cows maintained in a semi-arid region during the hot season were evaluated. Regardless of treatment, all animals received the first feeding supply at 06.00 hours. Eight cows with an average body weight of 600 kg, average milk yield of 20 kg/day and 80 days in milk were utilized. The rectal temperature, respiratory rate and sweating rate were not affected (P > 0.05), with average values of 38.5°C, 53.8 movements/min and 104 g/m(2) /h respectively. There was no effect (P > 0.05) on the eating time (314 min/day), ruminating time (564 min/day), drinking time (61 min/day) and idle time (502 min/day). Similarly, the intake of nutrients and performance of lactating cows were not affected (P > 0.05), with average dry matter intake of 19.8 kg/day, 4% fat-corrected milk of 20.6 kg/day and milk fat concentration of 4.03 g/100 g. Since the behavior and performance have not altered, any times of feed delivery evaluated could be used to crossbred Holstein × Zebu cows maintained on a feedlot in semi-arid regions during the hot season. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Distinct patterns of simple sequence repeats and GC distribution in intragenic and intergenic regions of primate genomes.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wen-Hua; Yan, Chao-Chao; Li, Wu-Jiao; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Li, Guang-Zhou; Zhang, Xiu-Yue; Hu, Ting-Zhang; Li, Jing; Yue, Bi-Song

    2016-09-16

    As the first systematic examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and guanine-cytosine (GC) distribution in intragenic and intergenic regions of ten primates, our study showed that SSRs and GC displayed nonrandom distribution for both intragenic and intergenic regions, suggesting that they have potential roles in transcriptional or translational regulation. Our results suggest that the majority of SSRs are distributed in non-coding regions, such as the introns, TEs, and intergenic regions. In these primates, trinucleotide perfect (P) SSRs were the most abundant repeats type in the 5'UTRs and CDSs, whereas, mononucleotide P-SSRs were the most in the intron, 3'UTRs, TEs, and intergenic regions. The GC-contents varied greatly among different intragenic and intergenic regions: 5'UTRs > CDSs > 3'UTRs > TEs > introns > intergenic regions, and high GC-content was frequently distributed in exon-rich regions. Our results also showed that in the same intragenic and intergenic regions, the distribution of GC-contents were great similarity in the different primates. Tri- and hexanucleotide P-SSRs had the most GC-contents in the 5'UTRs and CDSs, whereas mononucleotide P-SSRs had the least GC-contents in the six genomic regions of these primates. The most frequent motifs for different length varied obviously with the different genomic regions.

  6. Distinct patterns of simple sequence repeats and GC distribution in intragenic and intergenic regions of primate genomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wu-Jiao; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Li, Guang-Zhou; Zhang, Xiu-Yue; Hu, Ting-Zhang; Li, Jing; Yue, Bi-Song

    2016-01-01

    As the first systematic examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and guanine-cytosine (GC) distribution in intragenic and intergenic regions of ten primates, our study showed that SSRs and GC displayed nonrandom distribution for both intragenic and intergenic regions, suggesting that they have potential roles in transcriptional or translational regulation. Our results suggest that the majority of SSRs are distributed in non-coding regions, such as the introns, TEs, and intergenic regions. In these primates, trinucleotide perfect (P) SSRs were the most abundant repeats type in the 5′UTRs and CDSs, whereas, mononucleotide P-SSRs were the most in the intron, 3′UTRs, TEs, and intergenic regions. The GC-contents varied greatly among different intragenic and intergenic regions: 5′UTRs > CDSs > 3′UTRs > TEs > introns > intergenic regions, and high GC-content was frequently distributed in exon-rich regions. Our results also showed that in the same intragenic and intergenic regions, the distribution of GC-contents were great similarity in the different primates. Tri- and hexanucleotide P-SSRs had the most GC-contents in the 5′UTRs and CDSs, whereas mononucleotide P-SSRs had the least GC-contents in the six genomic regions of these primates. The most frequent motifs for different length varied obviously with the different genomic regions. PMID:27644032

  7. High-resolution functional MRI identified distinct global intrinsic functional networks of nociceptive posterior insula and S2 regions in squirrel monkey brain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruiqi; Wang, Feng; Yang, Pai-Feng; Chen, Li Min

    2017-07-15

    Numerous functional imaging and electrophysiological studies in humans and animals indicate that the two contiguous areas of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and posterior insula (pIns) are core regions in nociceptive processing and pain perception. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the S2-pIns connection serves as a hub for connecting distinct sensory and affective nociceptive processing networks in the squirrel monkey brain. At 9.4T, we first mapped the brain regions that respond to nociceptive heat stimuli with high-resolution fMRI, and then used seed-based resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) analysis to delineate and refine the global intrinsic functional connectivity circuits of the proximal S2 and pIns regions. In each subject, nociceptive (47.5°C) heat-evoked fMRI activations were detected in many brain regions, including primary somatosensory (S1), S2, pIns, area 7b, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), primary motor cortex, prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, thalamus, and caudate. Using the heat-evoked fMRI activation foci in S2 and pIns as the seeds, voxel-wise whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis revealed strong functional connections between contralateral S2 and pIns, as well as their corresponding regions in the ipsilateral hemisphere. Spatial similarity and overlap analysis identified each region as part of two distinct intrinsic functional networks with 7% overlap: sensory S2-S1-area 7b and affective pIns-ACC-PCC networks. Moreover, a high degree of overlap was observed between the combined rsFC maps of nociceptive S2 and pIns regions and the nociceptive heat-evoked activation map. In summary, our study provides evidence for the existence of two distinct intrinsic functional networks for S2 and pIns nociceptive regions, and these two networks are joined via the S2-pIns connection. Brain regions that are involved in processing nociceptive inputs are also highly interconnected at rest. The presence of robust

  8. Distinct cis-acting regions control six6 expression during eye field and optic cup stages of eye formation.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Kelley L; Martinez-De Luna, Reyna I; Theisen, Matthew A; Rawlins, Karisa D; Viczian, Andrea S; Zuber, Michael E

    2017-06-15

    The eye field transcription factor, Six6, is essential for both the early (specification and proliferative growth) phase of eye formation, as well as for normal retinal progenitor cell differentiation. While genomic regions driving six6 optic cup expression have been described, the sequences controlling eye field and optic vesicle expression are unknown. Two evolutionary conserved regions 5' and a third 3' to the six6 coding region were identified, and together they faithfully replicate the endogenous X. laevis six6 expression pattern. Transgenic lines were generated and used to determine the onset and expression patterns controlled by the regulatory regions. The conserved 3' region was necessary and sufficient for eye field and optic vesicle expression. In contrast, the two conserved enhancer regions located 5' of the coding sequence were required together for normal optic cup and mature retinal expression. Gain-of-function experiments indicate endogenous six6 and GFP expression in F1 transgenic embryos are similarly regulated in response to candidate trans-acting factors. Importantly, CRISPR/CAS9-mediated deletion of the 3' eye field/optic vesicle enhancer in X. laevis, resulted in a reduction in optic vesicle size. These results identify the cis-acting regions, demonstrate the modular nature of the elements controlling early versus late retinal expression, and identify potential regulators of six6 expression during the early stages of eye formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve exhibit distinct regional microrna signatures in mildly dilated ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Albinsson, Sebastian; Della Corte, Alessandro; Alajbegovic, Azra; Krawczyk, Katarzyna K; Bancone, Ciro; Galderisi, Umberto; Cipollaro, Marilena; De Feo, Marisa; Forte, Amalia

    2017-01-19

    MicroRNAs are able to modulate gene expression in a range of diseases. We focused on microRNAs as potential contributors to the pathogenesis of ascending aorta (AA) dilatation in patients with stenotic tricuspid (TAV) or bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Aortic specimens were collected from the 'concavity' and the 'convexity' of mildly dilated AAs and of normal AAs from heart transplant donors. Aortic RNA was analyzed through PCR arrays, profiling the expression of 84 microRNAs involved in cardiovascular disease. An in silico analysis identified the potential microRNA-mRNA interactions and the enriched KEGG pathways potentially affected by microRNA changes in dilated AAs. Distinct signatures of differentially expressed microRNAs are evident in TAV and BAV patients vs. donors, as well as differences between aortic concavity and convexity in patients only. MicroRNA changes suggest a switch of SMC phenotype, with particular reference to TAV concavity. MicroRNA changes potentially affecting mechanotransduction pathways exhibit a higher prevalence in BAV convexity and in TAV concavity, with particular reference to TGF-β1, Hippo, and PI3K/Akt/FoxO pathways. Actin cytoskeleton emerges as potentially affected by microRNA changes in BAV convexity only. MicroRNAs could play distinct roles in BAV and TAV aortopathy, with possible implications in diagnosis and therapy.

  10. Distinct Leishmania infantum Strains Circulate in Humans and Dogs in the Emilia-Romagna Region, Northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rugna, Gianluca; Carra, Elena; Corpus, Francesco; Calzolari, Mattia; Salvatore, Daniela; Bellini, Romeo; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Franceschini, Erica; Bruno, Antonella; Poglayen, Giovanni; Varani, Stefania; Vitale, Fabrizio; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Human leishmaniasis is an emerging problem in Italy and is on the increase in the Emilia-Romagna region, northeastern part of the country. Nevertheless, studies dealing with the molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. circulating in these areas are limited. In the present work, we explored the genetic polymorphism of Leishmania isolates from 28 cases of canine leishmaniasis and three cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which occurred in 2013-2014 in the Emilia-Romagna region. The characterization was carried out in comparison with nine human isolates of Leishmania from other VL endemic Italian regions and two reference strains. Nucleic acid from 31 Leishmania-positive phlebotomine sandfly pools, sampled in 2012-2013 in the Emilia-Romagna region, were also evaluated. DNA amplification and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 and of a repetitive nuclear region on chromosome 31 were carried out for genotyping. Two size polymorphic targets were also analyzed by PCR, the cpb E/F-gene and the k26-gene. Altogether, the analysis showed the circulation of different Leishmania infantum genotypes in the Emilia-Romagna region: two genotypes found in dogs from public kennels were similar to VL isolates from other Italian regions, whereas a third genotype was detected in VL cases of the Emilia-Romagna region and in all but one of the sandfly pools. The combined molecular tools applied in this study can constitute a helpful support for parasite tracking (e.g., in outbreak investigations) and for a better understanding of the epidemiological evolution of leishmaniasis in northeastern Italy.

  11. Distinct regions at the N-terminus of the Cucumber necrosis virus coat protein target chloroplasts and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hui, Elizabeth; Xiang, Yu; Rochon, D'Ann

    2010-10-01

    Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a spherical virus consisting of 180 identical coat protein (CP) subunits. The N-terminus of the CP subunit contains a 58aa RNA binding (R) domain and a 34aa arm that connects the R domain to the shell. These regions are known to play critical roles in virus assembly and disassembly. It has recently been shown that a region encompassing the arm can function as a chloroplast transit peptide (TP) in infected plants and that targeting may represent a means for virus particle disassembly. In this study, we further delineate the TP region and show that a 22aa sequence at the N-terminus of the shell enhances chloroplast targeting. We also demonstrate that R domain specifically co-localizes with mitochondria in agroinfiltrated plants. Deletion analyses show that the N-terminal 39 amino acids of the R domain are sufficient for mitochondrial targeting and that this region contains features typical of mitochondrial presequences. The R/arm region is found to be dually targeted to mitochondria and chloroplasts suggesting that this region of the CP plays a critical role in determining the fate of CP during the infection process. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Different sequence signatures in the upstream regions of plant and animal tRNA genes shape distinct modes of regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gong; Lukoszek, Radoslaw; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Ignatova, Zoya

    2011-04-01

    In eukaryotes, the transcription of tRNA genes is initiated by the concerted action of transcription factors IIIC (TFIIIC) and IIIB (TFIIIB) which direct the recruitment of polymerase III. While TFIIIC recognizes highly conserved, intragenic promoter elements, TFIIIB binds to the non-coding 5'-upstream regions of the tRNA genes. Using a systematic bioinformatic analysis of 11 multicellular eukaryotic genomes we identified a highly conserved TATA motif followed by a CAA-motif in the tRNA upstream regions of all plant genomes. Strikingly, the 5'-flanking tRNA regions of the animal genomes are highly heterogeneous and lack a common conserved sequence signature. Interestingly, in the animal genomes the tRNA species that read the same codon share conserved motifs in their upstream regions. Deep-sequencing analysis of 16 human tissues revealed multiple splicing variants of two of the TFIIIB subunits, Bdp1 and Brf1, with tissue-specific expression patterns. These multiple forms most likely modulate the TFIIIB-DNA interactions and explain the lack of a uniform signature motif in the tRNA upstream regions of animal genomes. The anticodon-dependent 5'-flanking motifs provide a possible mechanism for independent regulation of the tRNA transcription in various human tissues.

  13. Phenologically distinct phytoplankton regions on the Faroe Shelf - identified by satellite data, in-situ observations and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasen, Sólvá Káradóttir; Hátún, Hjálmar; Larsen, Karin Margretha H.; Hansen, Bogi; Rasmussen, Till Andreas S.

    2017-05-01

    Marked inter-annual fluctuations in the primary production on the Faroe shelf propagate to higher trophic levels and influence commercial fish stocks. This has previously been demonstrated based on weekly chlorophyll samples from a coastal station, dating back to 1997. However, the spatial extent, for which the coastal samples are representative, has not been well defined, and potential bio-geographical segregations of the shelf have not been considered. By integrating 18 years of chlorophyll satellite data, supplemented by in-situ, model, and meteorological reanalysis data, we identify three regions with unique characteristics with regards to surface chlorophyll and vertical structure - the Central Shelf, the Outer Shelf and the Eastern Banks. The observed difference in timing of the spring bloom in these regions helps explain different spawning patterns of important fish stocks, and the spatial division of the Faroe Shelf should be considered when studying biology and hydrography in these waters. A positive correlation between annual means on the outer Faroe Shelf and parts of the outer northwest Scottish Shelf indicates similarities between these neighbouring regions. We suggest that this similarity arises from the commonality in nutrient composition of the water masses shared by these neighbouring regions.

  14. Progeny of Osmia lignaria from distinct regions differ in developmental phenology and survival under a common thermal regime.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Cane, James H; Trostle, Glen

    2014-08-01

    Many insects, including some bees, have extensive subcontinental distributions that can differ in climatic conditions. Within and beyond these distributions, humans intentionally transport beneficial insects, including bees, to non-natal geographic locations. Insects also are experiencing unprecedented climatic change in their resident localities. For solitary bees, we know very little about the adaptive plasticity and geographic variation in developmental physiology that accommodates the different climates experienced within distributional ranges. Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a widely distributed North American spring-emerging bee being developed as a managed pollinator for tree fruit crops, including almonds. We examined the development and survival of O. lignaria progeny that were descended from populations sourced from southern California, western Washington, and northern Utah, and then were reared together under an hourly and weekly temperature regime simulating those of a California almond-growing region. We found that developmental physiologies of Washington and Utah progeny were generally similar. However, California progeny developed slower, were more metabolically active, and survived better under California conditions than did populations native to regions at higher latitudes. Regardless of geographic origin, cocooned adults managed under prescribed thermal regimes emerged faster and lived longer after wintering. Progeny of parents from different regions exhibited some acclimatory plasticity in developmental phenologies to a novel climatic regime, but overall their responses reflected their geographic origins. This outcome is consistent with their developmental phenologies being largely heritable adaptations to regional climates.

  15. Ischemic preconditioning maintains the immunoreactivities of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein in neurons of the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    CHO, YOUNG SHIN; CHO, JUN HWI; SHIN, BICH-NA; CHO, GEUM-SIL; KIM, IN HYE; PARK, JOON HA; AHN, JI HYEON; OHK, TAEK GEUN; CHO, BYUNG-RYUL; KIM, YOUNG-MYEONG; HONG, SEONGKWEON; WON, MOO-HO; LEE, JAE-CHUL

    2015-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) is involved in the control of blood glucose homeostasis. In the present study, the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the immunoreactivities of GK and its regulatory protein (GKRP) following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia was investigated in gerbils. The gerbils were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia-operated group). IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of ischemia, followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC+ischemia-operated group, the neurons in the SP were well protected. Following immunohistochemical investigation, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP were markedly decreased in the CA1, but not the CA2/3, from 2 days post-ischemia, and were almost undetectable in the SP 5 days post-ischemia. In the IPC + ischemia-operated group, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the SP of the CA1 were similar to those in the sham-group. In brief, the findings of the present study demonstrated that IPC notably maintained the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP of CA1 following ischemia-reperfusion. This indicated that GK and GKRP may be necessary for neuron survival against transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26134272

  16. Sequence variation of the ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer region in two spatially-distinct populations of Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Reichard, M V; Kocan, A A; Van Den Bussche, R A; Barker, R W; Wyckoff, J H; Ewing, S A

    2005-04-01

    Sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS 2) region in 2 spatially distinct populations of Amblyomma americanum (L.) revealed intraspecific variation. Nucleotide sequences from multiple DNA extractions and several polymerase chain reaction amplifications of eggs from mixed-parentage samples from both populations of ticks revealed that 12 of 1,145 (1.0%) sites varied. Three of the 12 sites of variation were distinct between the 2 A. americanum populations, which corresponded to a rate of 0.26%. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS 2 sequences provided strong support (i.e., bootstrap value of 80%) that wild A. americanum clustered into a distinguishable group separate from those derived from colony ticks.

  17. Simultaneous Observation of an Intraband Transition and Distinct Transient Species in the Infrared Region for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Narra, Sudhakar; Chung, Chih-Chun; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2016-07-07

    Solar cells based on organometal-halide perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 have emerged as a promising next-generation photovoltaic system, but the underlying photophysics and photochemistry remain to be established because of the limited availability of methods to implement the simultaneous and direct measurement of various charge carriers and ions that play a crucial role in the operating device. We used nanosecond time-resolved infrared (IR) spectroscopy to investigate, with high molecular specificity, distinct transient species that are formed in perovskite solar cells after photoexcitation. In CH3NH3PbI3 planar-heterojuction solar cells, we simultaneously observed infrared spectral signatures that are associated with an intraband transition of conduction-band electrons, Fano resonance, and the spiro-OMeTAD cation having an exceptionally short lifetime of 1.0 μs (at ∼1485 cm(-1)). The present results show that the time-resolved IR method offers a unique capability to elucidate these important transients in perovskite solar cells and their dynamic interplay in a comprehensive manner.

  18. Identifying distinct phytoplankton regions based on ocean colour data supplemented by in-situ and model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasen, Solva; Hátún, Hjálmar; Margretha Larsen, Karin; Hansen, Bogi

    2016-04-01

    The Faroe Shelf hosts a rich and diverse marine ecosystem, which sustains a large portion of the economy of the Islands. The primary production, even though often referred to as being important to the higher trophic levels, is still not thoroughly understood. A high resolution chlorophyll time series from coastal station S, dating back to 1997, has given valuable information about the phytoplankton concentrations on the central shelf, and interannual fluctuations (with a factor of 4-5) in this time series have been linked to several other biological indicators. However, with regards to phytoplankton and primary production farther off-shore, only CTD fluorescence observations from research cruises are available and a thorough analysis of these temporally and spatially scattered data is difficult to conduct and yet to be done. Thus, the spatial extent of the region, for which the station S phytoplankton concentrations are representative, is not well defined. In this study we compare satellite ocean colour data from 1998-2015 with in-situ data from station S and identify the region which station S represents. Moreover, we use the ocean colour data to identity biogeographical regions in which phytoplankton is uniquely and coherently varying and compare these with the breeding and feeding grounds of commercially important fish stocks. The surface chlorophyll pattern does not necessarily represent the primary production in the water column. We therefore supplement the results with hydrographic observations and model simulations and from these extract information about the total carbon production in the various regions. The ocean colour data are consistent with the in-situ observations and the results from combining these with the other data types have enhanced our understanding of timing and strength of the phytoplankton spring bloom farther off-shore and contribute to the understanding of the shelf ecosystem in general.

  19. Regional distribution of synaptic markers and APP correlate with distinct clinicopathological features in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Mitsuru; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Murray, Melissa E; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Baker, Matthew; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Rademakers, Rosa; Das, Pritam; Parisi, Joseph E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Dickson, Dennis W; Bu, Guojun

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that subcortical structures, including striatum, are vulnerable to amyloid-β accumulation and other neuropathological features in familial Alzheimer's disease due to autosomal dominant mutations. We explored differences between familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease that might shed light on their respective pathogenic mechanisms. To this end, we analysed 12 brain regions, including neocortical, limbic and subcortical areas, from post-mortem brains of familial Alzheimer's disease (n = 10; age at death: 50.0 ± 8.6 years) with mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) or presenilin 1 (PSEN1), sporadic Alzheimer's disease (n = 19; age at death: 84.7 ± 7.8 years), neurologically normal elderly without amyloid-β accumulation (normal ageing; n = 13, age at death: 82.9 ± 10.8 years) and neurologically normal elderly with extensive cortical amyloid-β deposits (pathological ageing; n = 15; age at death: 92.7 ± 5.9 years). The levels of amyloid-β₄₀, amyloid-β₄₂, APP, apolipoprotein E, the synaptic marker PSD95 (now known as DLG4), the astrocyte marker GFAP, other molecules related to amyloid-β metabolism, and tau were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We observed that familial Alzheimer's disease had disproportionate amyloid-β₄₂ accumulation in subcortical areas compared with sporadic Alzheimer's disease, whereas sporadic Alzheimer's disease had disproportionate amyloid-β₄₂ accumulation in cortical areas compared to familial Alzheimer's disease. Compared with normal ageing, the levels of several proteins involved in amyloid-β metabolism were significantly altered in both sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease; however, such changes were not present in pathological ageing. Among molecules related to amyloid-β metabolism, the regional distribution of PSD95 strongly correlated with the regional pattern of amyloid-β₄₂ accumulation in sporadic Alzheimer's disease and pathological ageing, whereas the

  20. Chronic stress and peripheral pain: Evidence for distinct, region-specific changes in visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gen; Hong, Shuangsong; Hayes, John M; Wiley, John W

    2015-11-01

    Chronic stress alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhances visceral and somatosensory pain perception. It is unresolved whether chronic stress has distinct effects on visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways. Previous studies reported that stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia is associated with reciprocal alterations of endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pain pathways in DRG neurons innervating the pelvic viscera. In this study, we compared somatosensory and visceral hyperalgesia with respect to differential responses of peripheral pain regulatory pathways in a rat model of chronic, intermittent stress. We found that chronic stress induced reciprocal changes in the endocannabinoid 2-AG (increased) and endocannabinoid degradation enzymes COX-2 and FAAH (decreased), associated with down-regulation of CB1 and up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in L6-S2 DRG but not L4-L5 DRG neurons. In contrast, sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 were up-regulated in L4-L5 but not L6-S2 DRGs in stressed rats, which was reproduced in control DRGs treated with corticosterone in vitro. The reciprocal changes of CB1, TRPV1 and sodium channels were cell-specific and observed in the sub-population of nociceptive neurons. Behavioral assessment showed that visceral hyperalgesia persisted, whereas somatosensory hyperalgesia and enhanced expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels in L4-L5 DRGs normalized 3 days after completion of the stress phase. These data indicate that chronic stress induces visceral and somatosensory hyperalgesia that involves differential changes in endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pathways, and sodium channels in DRGs innervating the pelvic viscera and lower extremities. These results suggest that chronic stress-induced visceral and lower extremity somatosensory hyperalgesia can be treated selectively at different levels of the spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of tumorigenesis driven by different Wnt proteins requires blockade of distinct ligand-binding regions by LRP6 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ettenberg, Seth A.; Charlat, Olga; Daley, Michael P.; Liu, Shanming; Vincent, Karen J.; Stuart, Darrin D.; Schuller, Alwin G.; Yuan, Jing; Ospina, Beatriz; Green, John; Yu, Qunyan; Walsh, Renee; Schmitz, Rita; Heine, Holger; Bilic, Sanela; Ostrom, Lance; Mosher, Rebecca; Hartlepp, K. Felix; Zhu, Zhenping; Fawell, Stephen; Yao, Yung-Mae; Stover, David; Finan, Peter M.; Porter, Jeffery A.; Sellers, William R.; Klagge, Ingo M.; Cong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Disregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been linked to various human diseases, including cancers. Inhibitors of oncogenic Wnt signaling are likely to have a therapeutic effect in cancers. LRP5 and LRP6 are closely related membrane coreceptors for Wnt proteins. Using a phage-display library, we identified anti-LRP6 antibodies that either inhibit or enhance Wnt signaling. Two classes of LRP6 antagonistic antibodies were discovered: one class specifically inhibits Wnt proteins represented by Wnt1, whereas the second class specifically inhibits Wnt proteins represented by Wnt3a. Epitope-mapping experiments indicated that Wnt1 class-specific antibodies bind to the first propeller and Wnt3a class-specific antibodies bind to the third propeller of LRP6, suggesting that Wnt1- and Wnt3a-class proteins interact with distinct LRP6 propeller domains. This conclusion is further supported by the structural functional analysis of LRP5/6 and the finding that the Wnt antagonist Sclerostin interacts with the first propeller of LRP5/6 and preferentially inhibits the Wnt1-class proteins. We also show that Wnt1 or Wnt3a class-specific anti-LRP6 antibodies specifically block growth of MMTV-Wnt1 or MMTV-Wnt3 xenografts in vivo. Therapeutic application of these antibodies could be limited without knowing the type of Wnt proteins expressed in cancers. This is further complicated by our finding that bivalent LRP6 antibodies sensitize cells to the nonblocked class of Wnt proteins. The generation of a biparatopic LRP6 antibody blocks both Wnt1- and Wnt3a-mediated signaling without showing agonistic activity. Our studies provide insights into Wnt-induced LRP5/6 activation and show the potential utility of LRP6 antibodies in Wnt-driven cancer. PMID:20713706

  2. Chronic Stress and Peripheral Pain: Evidence for Distinct, Region-specific Changes in Visceral and Somatosensory Pain Regulatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gen; Hong, Shuangsong; Hayes, John M; Wiley, John W

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhances visceral and somatosensory pain perception. It is unresolved whether chronic stress has distinct effects on visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways. Previous studies reported that stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia is associated with reciprocal alterations of endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pain pathways in DRG neurons innervating the pelvic viscera. In this study, we compared somatosensory and visceral hyperalgesia with respect to differential responses of peripheral pain regulatory pathways in a rat model of chronic, intermittent stress. We found that chronic stress induced reciprocal changes in the endocannabinoid 2-AG (increased) and endocannabinoid degradation enzymes COX-2 and FAAH (decreased), associated with down-regulation of CB1 and up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in L6-S2 DRG but not L4-L5 DRG neurons. In contrast, sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 were up-regulated in L4-L5 but not L6-S2 DRGs in stressed rats, which was reproduced in control L4-L5 DRGs treated with corticosterone in vitro. The reciprocal changes of CB1, TRPV1 and sodium channels were cell-specific and observed in the sub-population of nociceptive neurons. Behavioral assessment showed that visceral hyperalgesia persisted, whereas somatosensory hyperalgesia and enhanced expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels in L4-L5 DRGs normalized 3 days after completion of the stress phase. These data indicate that chronic stress induces visceral and somatosensory hyperalgesia that involves differential changes in endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pathways, and sodium channels in DRGs innervating the pelvic viscera and lower extremities. These results suggest that chronic stress-induced visceral and lower extremity somatosensory hyperalgesia can be treated selectively at different levels of the spinal cord. PMID:26408049

  3. Relationship of the South Asian Monsoon and Regional Drought with Distinct Equatorial Pacific SST Patterns on Interannual and Decadal Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, M.; Ummenhofer, C.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Asian monsoon system influences the lives of over 60% of the planet's population, with widespread socioeconomic effects resulting from weakening or failure of monsoon rains. Spatially broad and temporally extended drought episodes have been known to dramatically influence human history, including the Strange Parallels Drought in the mid-18th century. Here, we explore the dynamics of sustained monsoon failure using the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas - a high-resolution network of hydro-climatically sensitive tree-ring records - and a 1300-year pre-industrial control run of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Spatial drought patterns in the instrumental and model-based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) during years with extremely weakened South Asian monsoon are similar to those reconstructed during the Strange Parallels Drought in the MADA. We further explore how the large-scale Indo-Pacific climate during weakened South Asian monsoon differs between interannual and decadal timescales. The Strange Parallels Drought pattern is observed during March-April-May primarily over Southeast Asia, with decreased precipitation and reduced moisture fluxes, while anomalies in June-July-August are confined to the Indian subcontinent during both individual and decadal events. Individual years with anomalous drying exhibit canonical El Niño conditions over the eastern equatorial Pacific and associated shifts in the Walker circulation, while decadal events appear to be related to anomalous warming around the dateline in the equatorial Pacific, typical of El Niño Modoki events. The results suggest different dynamical processes influence drought at different time scales through distinct remote ocean influences.

  4. Nuclear pores and perinuclear expression sites of var and ribosomal DNA genes correspond to physically distinct regions in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Guizetti, Julien; Martins, Rafael Miyazawa; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Claes, Aurélie; Scherf, Artur

    2013-05-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum modifies the erythrocyte it infects by exporting variant proteins to the host cell surface. The var gene family that codes for a large, variant adhesive surface protein called P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) plays a particular role in this process, which is linked to pathogenesis and immune evasion. A single member of this gene family is highly transcribed while the other 59 members remain silenced. Importantly, var gene transcription occurs at a spatially restricted, but yet undefined, perinuclear site that is distinct from repressed var gene clusters. To advance our understanding of monoallelic expression, we investigated whether nuclear pores associate with the var gene expression site. To this end, we studied the nuclear pore organization during the asexual blood stage using a specific antibody directed against a subunit of the nuclear pore, P. falciparum Nup116 (PfNup116). Ring and schizont stage parasites showed highly polarized nuclear pore foci, whereas in trophozoite stage nuclear pores redistributed over the entire nuclear surface. Colocalization studies of var transcripts and anti-PfNup116 antibodies showed clear dissociation between nuclear pores and the var gene expression site in ring stage. Similar results were obtained for another differentially transcribed perinuclear gene family, the ribosomal DNA units. Furthermore, we show that in the poised state, the var gene locus is not physically linked to nuclear pores. Our results indicate that P. falciparum does form compartments of high transcriptional activity at the nuclear periphery which are, unlike the case in yeast, devoid of nuclear pores.

  5. Distinct Patterns of Neural Inputs and Outputs of the Juxtaparaventricular and Suprafornical Regions of the Lateral Hypothalamic Area in the Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Joel D.; Swanson, Larry W.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed at high resolution the neuroanatomical connections of the juxtaparaventricular region of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHAjp); as a control and comparison to this we also performed a preliminary analysis of a nearby LHA region that is dorsal to the fornix, namely the LHA suprafornical region (LHAs). The connections of these LHA regions were revealed with a coinjection tract-tracing technique involving a retrograde (cholera toxin B subunit) and anterograde (Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin) tracer. The LHAjp and LHAs together connect with almost every major division of the cerebrum and cerebrospinal trunk, but their connection profiles are markedly different and distinct. In simple terms the connections of the LHAjp indicate a possible primary role in the modulation of defensive behavior; for the LHAs a role in the modulation of ingestive behavior is suggested. However, the relation of the LHAjp and LHAs to potential modulation of these behaviors, as indicated by their neuroanatomical connections, appears to be highly integrative as it includes each of the major functional divisions of the nervous system that together determine behavior, i.e., cognitive, state, sensory, and motor. Furthermore, although a primary role is indicated for each region with respect to a particular mode of behavior, inter-mode modulation of behavior is also indicated. In summary, the extrinsic connections of the LHAjp and LHAs (so far as we have described them) suggest that these regions have a profoundly integrative role in which they may participate in the orchestrated modulation of elaborate behavioral repertoires. PMID:20170674

  6. Regionally distinct responses of microglia and glial progenitor cells to whole brain irradiation in adult and aging rats.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kun; Schindler, Matthew K; McQuail, Joseph A; Forbes, M Elizabeth; Riddle, David R

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but also occurs in adults and older individuals and in non-proliferative cell populations. To better understand radiation-induced normal tissue injury and how it may be affected by aging, we exposed young adult, middle-aged, and old rats to 10 Gy of whole brain irradiation and assessed in gray- and white matter the responses of microglia, the primary cellular mediators of radiation-induced neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain. We found that aging and/or irradiation caused only a few microglia to transition to the classically "activated" phenotype, e.g., enlarged cell body, few processes, and markers of phagocytosis, that is seen following more damaging neural insults. Microglial changes in response to aging and irradiation were relatively modest and three markers of reactivity - morphology, proliferation, and expression of the lysosomal marker CD68- were regulated largely independently within individual cells. Proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors did not appear to be altered during normal aging but increased following irradiation. The impacts of irradiation and aging on both microglia and oligodendrocyte precursors were heterogeneous between white- and gray matter and among regions of gray matter, indicating that there are regional regulators of the neural response to brain irradiation. By several measures, the CA3 region of the hippocampus appeared to be differentially sensitive to effects of aging and irradiation. The changes assessed here likely contribute to injury following inflammatory challenges like brain irradiation and

  7. Two distinct regions in the model protein Peb1 are critical for its heterologous transport out of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is frequently the first-choice host organism in expression of heterologous recombinant proteins in basic research as well as in production of commercial, therapeutic polypeptides. Especially the secretion of proteins into the culture medium of E. coli is advantageous compared to intracellular production due to the ease in recovery of the recombinant protein. Since E. coli naturally is a poor secretor of proteins, a few strategies for optimization of extracellular secretion have been described. We have previously reported efficient secretion of the diagnostically interesting model protein Peb1 of Campylobacter jejuni into the growth medium of Escherichia coli strain MKS12 (ΔfliCfliD). To generate a more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this interesting heterologous secretion system with biotechnological implications, we here analyzed further the transport of Peb1 in the E. coli host. Results When mature Peb1 was expressed without its SecA-YEG -dependent signal sequence and without the putative signal peptidase II recognition sequence in E. coli MKS111ΔHBB lacking the flagellar secretion complex, the protein was found in the periplasm and growth medium which indicated a flagellum-independent translocation. We assessed the Peb1 secretion proficiency by an exhaustive search for transport-affecting regions using a transposition-based scanning mutagenesis strategy. Strikingly, insertion mutagenesis of only two segments, called TAR1 (residues 42 and 43) and TAR2 (residues 173 to 180), prevented Peb1 secretion individually. We confirmed the importance of TAR regions by subsequent site-specific mutagenesis and verified that the secretion deficiency of Peb1 mutants was not due to insolubility or aggregation of the proteins in the cytoplasm. We found by cell fractionation that the mutant proteins were present in the periplasm as well as in the cytoplasm of MKS12. Hence, mutagenesis of TAR regions did not affect export of

  8. The first record of Orthocis casey (Coleoptera: Ciidae) from the Andean region, with the description of a distinctive new species.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2010-10-01

    Orthocis Casey is recorded for the first time from the Andean Region, with the description of O. elguetai sp. nov., for which diagnostic characters and details on the male genitalia and other external morphological structures are provided. One record of the new species, from Punta Espora (Chile, higher latitude than 52°S), constitutes the southernmost record of the family Ciidae in the world, and the first in the Subantarctic subregion. A brief discussion on morphological similarities to other species in the genus is also provided.

  9. Gamma oscillatory firing reveals distinct populations of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Senior, Timothy J; Huxter, John R; Allen, Kevin; O'Neill, Joseph; Csicsvari, Jozsef

    2008-02-27

    Hippocampal place cells that fire together within the same cycle of theta oscillations represent the sequence of positions (movement trajectory) that a rat traverses on a linear track. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the encoding of these and other types of temporal memory sequences is organized by gamma oscillations nested within theta oscillations. Here, we examined whether gamma-related firing of place cells permits such discrete temporal coding. We found that gamma-modulated CA1 pyramidal cells separated into two classes on the basis of gamma firing phases during waking theta periods. These groups also differed in terms of their spike waveforms, firing rates, and burst firing tendency. During gamma oscillations one group's firing became restricted to theta phases associated with the highest gamma power. Consequently, on the linear track, cells in this group often failed to fire early in theta-phase precession (as the rat entered the place field) if gamma oscillations were present. The second group fired throughout the theta cycle during gamma oscillations, and maintained gamma-modulated firing at different stages of theta-phase precession. Our results suggest that the two different pyramidal cell classes may support different types of population codes within a theta cycle: one in which spike sequences representing movement trajectories occur across subsequent gamma cycles nested within each theta cycle, and another in which firing in synchronized gamma discharges without temporal sequences encode a representation of location. We propose that gamma oscillations during theta-phase precession organize the mnemonic recall of population patterns representing places and movement paths.

  10. The Roles of Two Distinct Regions of PINCH-1 in the Regulation of Cell Attachment and Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Satoko; Takahara, Yuko; Hyodo, Toshinori; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Asano, Eri; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2010-01-01

    Cells attach to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrins to form focal adhesion complexes, and this process is followed by the extension of lamellipodia to enable cell spreading. PINCH-1, an adaptor protein essential for the regulation of cell–ECM adhesion, consists of five tandem LIM domains and a small C-terminal region. PINCH-1 is known to interact with integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and Ras suppressor protein 1 (Rsu-1); however, the precise mechanism by which this complex regulates cell–ECM adhesion is not fully understood. We report here that the LIM1 domain of PINCH-1, which associates with ILK to stabilize the expression of this protein, is sufficient for cell attachment but not for cell spreading. In contrast, the C-terminal region of PINCH-1, which binds to Rsu-1, plays a pivotal role in cell spreading but not in cell attachment. We also show that PINCH-1 associates with Rsu-1 to activate Rac1 and that Rac1 activation is necessary for cell spreading. Thus, these data reveal how specific domains of PINCH-1 direct two independent pathways: one utilizing ILK to allow cell attachment, and the other recruiting Rsu-1 to activate Rac1 in order to promote cell spreading. PMID:20926685

  11. The roles of two distinct regions of PINCH-1 in the regulation of cell attachment and spreading.

    PubMed

    Ito, Satoko; Takahara, Yuko; Hyodo, Toshinori; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Asano, Eri; Hamaguchi, Michinari; Senga, Takeshi

    2010-12-01

    Cells attach to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrins to form focal adhesion complexes, and this process is followed by the extension of lamellipodia to enable cell spreading. PINCH-1, an adaptor protein essential for the regulation of cell-ECM adhesion, consists of five tandem LIM domains and a small C-terminal region. PINCH-1 is known to interact with integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and Ras suppressor protein 1 (Rsu-1); however, the precise mechanism by which this complex regulates cell-ECM adhesion is not fully understood. We report here that the LIM1 domain of PINCH-1, which associates with ILK to stabilize the expression of this protein, is sufficient for cell attachment but not for cell spreading. In contrast, the C-terminal region of PINCH-1, which binds to Rsu-1, plays a pivotal role in cell spreading but not in cell attachment. We also show that PINCH-1 associates with Rsu-1 to activate Rac1 and that Rac1 activation is necessary for cell spreading. Thus, these data reveal how specific domains of PINCH-1 direct two independent pathways: one utilizing ILK to allow cell attachment, and the other recruiting Rsu-1 to activate Rac1 in order to promote cell spreading.

  12. Lipid droplets form from distinct regions of the cell in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Alex; del Rio, Zuania P.; Beaver, Rachael A.; Morris, Ryan M.; Weiskittel, Taylor M.; Alshibli, Amany K.; Mannik, Jaana; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Dalhaimer, Paul

    2016-04-29

    Eukaryotic cells store cholesterol/sterol esters (SEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in lipid droplets, which form from the contiguous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. However, it is not known if droplets preferentially form from certain regions of the ER over others. Here, we used fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells where the nuclear and cortical/peripheral ER domains are distinguishable by light microscopy to show that SE-enriched lipid droplets form away from the nucleus at the cell tips, whereas TAG-enriched lipid droplets form around the nucleus. Sterols localize to the regions of the cells where droplets enriched in SEs are observed. TAG droplet formation around the nucleus appears to be a strong function of diacylglycerol (DAG) homeostasis with Cpt1p, which coverts DAG into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine localized exclusively to the nuclear ER. Also, Dgk1p, which converts DAG into phosphatidic acid localized strongly to the nuclear ER over the cortical/peripheral ER. We also show that TAG more readily translocates from the ER to lipid droplets than do SEs. Lastly, the results augment the standard lipid droplet formation model, which has SEs and TAGs flowing into the same nascent lipid droplet regardless of its biogenesis point in the cell.

  13. Homomorphic ZW chromosomes in a wild strawberry show distinctive recombination heterogeneity but a small sex-determining region.

    PubMed

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-09-01

    Recombination in ancient, heteromorphic sex chromosomes is typically suppressed at the sex-determining region (SDR) and proportionally elevated in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). However, little is known about recombination dynamics of young, homomorphic plant sex chromosomes. We examine male and female function in crosses and unrelated samples of the dioecious octoploid strawberry Fragaria chiloensis in order to map the small and recently evolved SDR controlling both traits and to examine recombination patterns on the incipient ZW chromosome. The SDR of this ZW system is located within a 280 kb window, in which the maternal recombination rate is lower than the paternal one. In contrast to the SDR, the maternal PAR recombination rate is much higher than the rates of the paternal PAR or autosomes, culminating in an elevated chromosome-wide rate. W-specific divergence is elevated within the SDR and a single polymorphism is observed in high species-wide linkage disequilibrium with sex. Selection for recombination suppression within the small SDR may be weak, but fluctuating sex ratios could favor elevated recombination in the PAR to remove deleterious mutations on the W. The recombination dynamics of this nascent sex chromosome with a modestly diverged SDR may be typical of other dioecious plants.

  14. Lipid droplets form from distinct regions of the cell in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Alex; del Rio, Zuania P.; Beaver, Rachael A.; Morris, Ryan M.; Weiskittel, Taylor M.; Alshibli, Amany K.; Mannik, Jaana; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Dalhaimer, Paul

    2016-04-29

    Eukaryotic cells store cholesterol/sterol esters (SEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in lipid droplets, which form from the contiguous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. However, it is not known if droplets preferentially form from certain regions of the ER over others. Here, we used fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells where the nuclear and cortical/peripheral ER domains are distinguishable by light microscopy to show that SE-enriched lipid droplets form away from the nucleus at the cell tips, whereas TAG-enriched lipid droplets form around the nucleus. Sterols localize to the regions of the cells where droplets enriched in SEs are observed. TAG droplet formation around the nucleus appears to be a strong function of diacylglycerol (DAG) homeostasis with Cpt1p, which coverts DAG into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine localized exclusively to the nuclear ER. Also, Dgk1p, which converts DAG into phosphatidic acid localized strongly to the nuclear ER over the cortical/peripheral ER. We also show that TAG more readily translocates from the ER to lipid droplets than do SEs. Lastly, the results augment the standard lipid droplet formation model, which has SEs and TAGs flowing into the same nascent lipid droplet regardless of its biogenesis point in the cell.

  15. Distinct regions of the Phytophthora essential effector Avh238 determine its function in cell death activation and plant immunity suppression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Qunqing; Jing, Maofeng; Guo, Baodian; Wu, Jiawei; Wang, Haonan; Wang, Yang; Lin, Long; Wang, Yan; Ye, Wenwu; Dong, Suomeng; Wang, Yuanchao

    2017-04-01

    Phytophthora pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate host innate immunity, thus facilitating infection. Among the RXLR effectors highly induced during Phytophthora sojae infection, Avh238 not only contributes to pathogen virulence but also triggers plant cell death. However, the detailed molecular basis of Avh238 functions remains largely unknown. We mapped the regions responsible for Avh238 functions in pathogen virulence and plant cell death induction using a strategy that combines investigation of natural variation and large-scale mutagenesis assays. The correlation between cellular localization and Avh238 functions was also evaluated. We found that the 79(th) residue (histidine or leucine) of Avh238 determined its cell death-inducing activity, and that the 53 amino acids in its C-terminal region are responsible for promoting Phytophthora infection. Transient expression of Avh238 in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that nuclear localization is essential for triggering cell death, while Avh238-mediated suppression of INF1-triggered cell death requires cytoplasmic localization. Our results demonstrate that a representative example of an essential Phytophthora RXLR effector can evolve to escape recognition by the host by mutating one nucleotide site, and can also retain plant immunosuppressive activity to enhance pathogen virulence in planta.

  16. Tissue-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs with distinct 5' untranslated regions

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, J.C.; Rosen, K.M.; Humble, R.E.; Villa-Komaroff, L.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have used RNA from human hypothalamus as template for the production of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The prohormone coding sequence of brain IGF-II RNA is identical to that found in liver; however, the 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA has no homology to the 5' untranslated sequence of the previously reported liver cDNAs. By using hybridization to specific probes as well as a method based on the properties of RNase H, they found that the human IGF-II gene has at least three exons that encode alternative 5' untranslated regions and that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A probe specific to the brain cDNA 5' untranslated region hybridizes to a 6.0-kilobase transcript present in placenta, hypothalamus, adrenal gland, kidney, Wilms tumor, and a pheochromocytoma. The 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA does not hybridize to a 5.3-kilobase transcript found in liver or to a 5.0-kb transcript found in pheochromocytoma. By using RNase H to specifically fragment the IGF-II transcripts into 3' and 5' fragments, they found that the RNAs vary in size due to differences in the 5' end but not the 3' end.

  17. Identification of geographic clustering and regions spared by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in Texas using 2 distinct cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Rahme, Elham; Habel, Youssef; Risser, David R; Gangar, Pamela; Jennings, Michelle A; Pehr, Kevin; Prieto, Victor G; Sasseville, Denis; Duvic, Madeleine

    2015-06-15

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) (mycosis fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sezary syndrome) are rare malignancies. Reports of the occurrence of mycosis fungoides in married couples and families raise the possibility of an environmental trigger for this cancer. Although it has been suggested that CTCL arises from inappropriate T-cell stimulation, to the authors' knowledge no preventable trigger has been identified to date. Using region, zip code, age, sex, and ethnicity, the authors analyzed the demographic data of 1047 patients from Texas who were seen in a CTCL clinic at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center during 2000 through 2012 (the MDACC database) and 1990 patients who were recorded in the population-based Texas Cancer Registry between 1996 and 2010. Subsequently, data from both databases were cross-analyzed and compared. The current study findings, based on the MDACC database, documented geographic clustering of patients in 3 communities within the Houston metropolitan area, in which CTCL incidence rates were 5 to 20 times higher than the expected population rate. Analysis of the Texas Cancer Registry database defined the CTCL population rate for the state to be 5.8 cases per million individuals per year (95% confidence interval, 5.5-6.0 per million individuals per year), thus confirming the observations from the MDACC database and further highlighting additional areas of geographic clustering and regions spared from CTCL in Texas. The current study documented geographic clustering of CTCL cases in Texas and argued for the existence of yet unknown external causes/triggers for this rare malignancy. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  18. Bird and mammal species composition in distinct geographic regions and their relationships with environmental factors across multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Kent, Rafi; Bar-Massada, Avi; Carmel, Yohay

    2014-05-01

    Global patters of species distributions and their underlying mechanisms are a major question in ecology, and the need for multi-scale analyses has been recognized. Previous studies recognized climate, topography, habitat heterogeneity and disturbance as important variables affecting such patterns. Here we report on analyses of species composition - environment relationships among different taxonomic groups in two continents, and the components of such relationships, in the contiguous USA and Australia. We used partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis of occurrence records of mammals and breeding birds from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, to quantify relationships between species composition and environmental variables in remote geographic regions at multiple spatial scales, with extents ranging from 10(5) to 10(7) km(2) and sampling grids from 10 to 10,000 km(2). We evaluated the concept that two elements contribute to the impact of environmental variables on composition: the strength of species' affinity to an environmental variable, and the amount of variance in the variable. To disentangle these two elements, we analyzed correlations between resulting trends and the amount of variance contained in different environmental variables to isolate the mechanisms behind the observed relationships. We found that climate and land use-land cover are responsible for most explained variance in species composition, regardless of scale, taxonomic group and geographic region. However, the amount of variance in species composition attributed to land use / land cover (LULC) was closely related to the amount of intrinsic variability in LULC in the USA, but not in Australia, while the effect of climate on species composition was negatively correlated to the variability found in the climatic variables. The low variance in climate, compared to LULC, suggests that species in both taxonomic groups have strong affinity to climate, thus it has a strong effect on species

  19. Neurovirulence of H5N1 Infection in Ferrets Is Mediated by Multifocal Replication in Distinct Permissive Neuronal Cell Regions

    PubMed Central

    Plourde, Jennifer R.; Pyles, John A.; Layton, R. Colby; Vaughan, Sarah E.; Tipper, Jennifer L.; Harrod, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI), subtype H5N1, remains an emergent threat to the human population. While respiratory disease is a hallmark of influenza infection, H5N1 has a high incidence of neurological sequelae in many animal species and sporadically in humans. We elucidate the temporal/spatial infection of H5N1 in the brain of ferrets following a low dose, intranasal infection of two HPAI strains of varying neurovirulence and lethality. A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN1203) induced mortality in 100% of infected ferrets while A/Hong Kong/483/1997 (HK483) induced lethality in only 20% of ferrets, with death occurring significantly later following infection. Neurological signs were prominent in VN1203 infection, but not HK483, with seizures observed three days post challenge and torticollis or paresis at later time points. VN1203 and HK483 replication kinetics were similar in primary differentiated ferret nasal turbinate cells, and similar viral titers were measured in the nasal turbinates of infected ferrets. Pulmonary viral titers were not different between strains and pathological findings in the lungs were similar in severity. VN1203 replicated to high titers in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, and brain stem; whereas HK483 was not recovered in these tissues. VN1203 was identified adjacent to and within the olfactory nerve tract, and multifocal infection was observed throughout the frontal cortex and cerebrum. VN1203 was also detected throughout the cerebellum, specifically in Purkinje cells and regions that coordinate voluntary movements. These findings suggest the increased lethality of VN1203 in ferrets is due to increased replication in brain regions important in higher order function and explains the neurological signs observed during H5N1 neurovirulence. PMID:23056366

  20. A biochemically distinct form of cytochrome oxidase (COX) deficiency in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec.

    PubMed

    Merante, F; Petrova-Benedict, R; MacKay, N; Mitchell, G; Lambert, M; Morin, C; De Braekeleer, M; Laframboise, R; Gagné, R; Robinson, B H

    1993-08-01

    We report the results of biochemical and molecular investigations on a group of patients from the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec who have an unusual form of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and Leigh disease. This group can be distinguished from the classical presentation of cytochrome oxidase deficiency with Leigh disease, by the severity of the biochemical defect in different tissues. The activity in skin fibroblasts, amniocytes, and skeletal muscle of cytochrome oxidase is 50% of normal, while in kidney and heart it is close to normal values. Brain and liver, on the other hand, have very low activities. The defect in activity appears to result from a failure of assembly of the cytochrome oxidase complex in liver, but levels of mRNA for both mitochondrially encoded and nuclear-encoded subunits in liver and skin fibroblasts were found to be the same as those in controls. The cDNA sequence of the liver-specific cytochrome oxidase subunits VIa and VIIa were determined in samples from patient liver and skin fibroblasts and showed normal coding sequence.

  1. The mouse Igh-1a and Igh-1b H chain constant regions are derived from two distinct isotypic genes.

    PubMed

    Jouvin-Marche, E; Morgado, M G; Leguern, C; Voegtle, D; Bonhomme, F; Cazenave, P A

    1989-01-01

    Genetic and structural analyses of the mouse genes encoding constant region of immunoglobulin subclass (Igh-C) have shown that recombination is rare within this cluster which is inherited as a set designated the Igh haplotype. Recent molecular analyses have demonstrated that either DNA exchanges or gene duplications have probably occurred during the evolution of this set of genes. In order to assess the generality of the duplication processes, the presence and expression of two allelic forms of the Igh-1 (gamma 2a) gene (Igh-1a and Igh-1b) were examined in a large panel of wild mice belonging to Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus species. Our data indicate that certain M. m. domesticus animals and most animals in the M. m. musculus group coexpress the two allelic forms of Igh-1. Moreover, genetic studies show that these two immunoglobulin types are encoded by tandemly arranged genes. We propose that wild mice, from which laboratory mice are derived, carry three isotypic gamma 2 genes (Igh-1a, Igh-1b, Igh-3), and these have given rise to the two isotypes seen in laboratory strains by a deletion/insertion mechanism.

  2. Two distinct factors bind to the rabbit uteroglobin TATA-box region and are required for efficient transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Klug, J; Knapp, S; Castro, I; Beato, M

    1994-01-01

    The rabbit uteroglobin gene is expressed in a variety of epithelial cell types like the lung Clara cells and the glandular and luminal epithelial cells of the endometrium. Expression in Clara cells is on a high constitutive level, whereas expression in the rabbit endometrium is under tight hormonal control. One important element of the rabbit uteroglobin gene mediating its efficient transcription in two epithelial cell lines from human endometrium (Ishikawa) and lung (NCI-H441) is its noncanonical TATA box (TACA). Here, we show that two factors (TATA core factor [TCF] and TATA palindrome factor [TPF]) different from the TATA-box binding protein bind to the DNA major groove at two adjacent sites within the uteroglobin TATA-box region and that one of them (TCF) is specifically expressed in cell lines derived from uteroglobin-expressing tissues. The binding sites for TCF and TPF, respectively, are both required for efficient transcription in Ishikawa and NCI-H441 cells. Mutation of the TACA box, which we show is a poor TATA box in functional terms, to a canonical TATA motif does not affect TCF and TPF binding. Therefore, we suggest that the function of the unusual cytosine could be to reduce rabbit uteroglobin expression in cells lacking TCF and that the interaction of TATA-box binding protein with the weak TACA site is facilitated in TCF- and TPF-positive cells. Images PMID:8065353

  3. A gustatory second-order neuron that connects sucrose-sensitive primary neurons and a distinct region of the gnathal ganglion in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takaaki; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Ito, Kei; Lee, Chi-Hon; Stopfer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although the gustatory system provides animals with sensory cues important for food choice and other critical behaviors, little is known about neural circuitry immediately following gustatory sensory neurons (GSNs). Here, we identify and characterize a bilateral pair of gustatory second-order neurons (G2Ns) in Drosophila. Previous studies identified GSNs that relay taste information to distinct subregions of the primary gustatory center (PGC) in the gnathal ganglia (GNG). To identify candidate G2Ns, we screened ∼5,000 GAL4 driver strains for lines that label neural fibers innervating the PGC. We then combined GRASP (GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners) with presynaptic labeling to visualize potential synaptic contacts between the dendrites of the candidate G2Ns and the axonal terminals of Gr5a-expressing GSNs, which are known to respond to sucrose. Results of the GRASP analysis, followed by a single-cell analysis by FLP-out recombination, revealed a pair of neurons that contact Gr5a axon terminals in both brain hemispheres and send axonal arborizations to a distinct region outside the PGC but within the GNG. To characterize the input and output branches, respectively, we expressed fluorescence-tagged acetylcholine receptor subunit (Dα7) and active-zone marker (Brp) in the G2Ns. We found that G2N input sites overlaid GRASP-labeled synaptic contacts to Gr5a neurons, while presynaptic sites were broadly distributed throughout the neurons' arborizations. GRASP analysis and further tests with the Syb-GRASP method suggested that the identified G2Ns receive synaptic inputs from Gr5a-expressing GSNs, but not Gr66a-expressing GSNs, which respond to caffeine. The identified G2Ns relay information from Gr5a-expressing GSNs to distinct regions in the GNG, and are distinct from other, recently identified gustatory projection neurons, which relay information about sugars to a brain region called the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC). Our findings suggest

  4. Ephrin-B2 elicits differential growth cone collapse and axon retraction in retinal ganglion cells from distinct retinal regions

    PubMed Central

    Petros, Timothy J.; Bryson, J. Barney; Mason, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The circuit for binocular vision and stereopsis is established at the optic chiasm, where retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons diverge into the ipsilateral and contralateral optic tracts. In the mouse retina, ventrotemporal (VT) RGCs express the guidance receptor EphB1, which interacts with the repulsive guidance cue ephrin-B2 on radial glia at the optic chiasm to direct VT RGC axons ipsilaterally. RGCs in the ventral retina also express EphB2, which interacts with ephrin-B2, whereas dorsal RGCs express low levels of EphB receptors. To investigate how growth cones of RGCs from different retinal regions respond upon initial contact with ephrin-B2, we utilized time-lapse imaging to characterize the effects of ephrin-B2 on growth cone collapse and axon retraction in real time. We demonstrate that bath application of ephrin-B2 induces rapid and sustained growth cone collapse and axon retraction in VT RGC axons, whereas contralaterally-projecting dorsotemporal RGCs display moderate growth cone collapse and little axon retraction. Dose response curves reveal that contralaterally-projecting ventronasal axons are less sensitive to ephrin-B2 treatment compared to VT axons. Additionally, we uncovered a specific role for Rho kinase signaling in the retraction of VT RGC axons but not in growth cone collapse. The detailed characterization of growth cone behavior in this study comprises an assay for the study of Eph signaling in RGCs, and provides insight into the phenomena of growth cone collapse and axon retraction in general. PMID:20629048

  5. Distinct α-intercalated cell morphology and its modification by acidosis define regions of the collecting duct

    PubMed Central

    Purkerson, Jeffrey M.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Nakamori, Aya

    2015-01-01

    During metabolic acidosis, the cortical collecting duct (CCD) of the rabbit reverses the polarity of bicarbonate flux from net secretion to net absorption, and this is accomplished by increasing the proton secretory rate by α-intercalated cells (ICs) and decreasing bicarbonate secretion by β-ICs. To better characterize dynamic changes in H+-secreting α-ICs, we examined their morphology in collecting ducts microdissected from kidneys of normal, acidotic, and recovering rabbits. α-ICs in defined axial regions varied in number and basolateral anion exchanger (AE)1 morphology, which likely reflects their relative activity and function along the collecting duct. Upon transition from CCD to outer medullary collecting duct from the outer stripe to the inner stripe, the number of α-ICs increases from 11.0 ± 1.2 to 15.4 ± 1.11 and to 32.0 ± 1.3 cells/200 μm, respectively. In the CCD, the basolateral structure defined by AE1 typically exhibited a pyramidal or conical shape, whereas in the medulla the morphology was elongated and shallow, resulting in a more rectangular shape. Furthermore, acidosis reversibly induced α-ICs in the CCD to acquire a more rectangular morphology concomitant with a transition from diffusely cytoplasmic to increased basolateral surface distribution of AE1 and apical polarization of B1-V-ATPase. The latter results are consistent with the supposition that morphological adaptation from the pyramidal to rectangular shape reflects a transition toward a more “active” configuration. In addition, α-ICs in the outer medullary collecting duct from the outer stripe exhibited cellular morphology strikingly similar to dendritic cells that may reflect a newly defined ancillary function in immune defense of the kidney. PMID:26084929

  6. Impact of Regionally Distinct Agroecosystem Communities on the Potential for Autonomous Control of the Coffee Leaf Rust.

    PubMed

    Hajian-Forooshani, Zachary; Rivera Salinas, Iris Saraeny; Jiménez-Soto, Estelí; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2016-12-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that two ineffective control agents can provide effective biological control when coupled together. We explore the implications of this work with the system of coffee leaf rust (CLR), caused by the fungal agent Hemileiae vastatrix, and two of its natural enemies, a fungal pathogen (Lecanicillium lecanii) and a spore predator (Mycodiplosis hemileiae). Here we report on comparative surveys of the CLR and its two natural enemies in Mexico, where the CLR has been at epidemic status since 2012, and Puerto Rico, where the CLR is present but has not reached epidemic densities. We found that the densities of the two control agents per CLR lesion is higher in Puerto Rico than in Mexico, and we hypothesize that their joint presence at higher densities is contributing to the suppression of the CLR in Puerto Rico but not in Mexico. Furthermore, we found that the presence of Azteca sericeasur, a keystone ant species that occurs in Mexico but not Puerto Rico, significantly reduces the prevalence of M. hemileiae on coffee plants. Our work provides data that allows us to hypothesize that the joint presence of these two control agents may potentially provide control of the CLR and also highlights the importance of regionally specific communities within agroecosystems, and how variation in community composition may lead to varying outcomes for biological control. Additionally, this is the first report of the presence of a potentially important biological control agent, M. hemileiae, in Latin America and the Caribbean. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Impact of Regionally Distinct Agroecosystem Communities on the Potential for Autonomous Control of the Coffee Leaf Rust.

    PubMed

    Hajian-Forooshani, Zachary; Rivera Salinas, Iris Saraeny; Jiménez-Soto, Estelí; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2016-10-15

    Recent theoretical work suggests that two ineffective control agents can provide effective biological control when coupled together. We explore the implications of this work with the system of coffee leaf rust (CLR), caused by the fungal agent Hemileiae vastatrix, and two of its natural enemies, a fungal pathogen (Lecanicillium lecanii) and a spore predator (Mycodiplosis hemileiae). Here we report on comparative surveys of the CLR and its two natural enemies in Mexico, where the CLR has been at epidemic status since 2012, and Puerto Rico, where the CLR is present but has not reached epidemic densities. We found that the densities of the two control agents per CLR lesion is higher in Puerto Rico than in Mexico, and we hypothesize that their joint presence at higher densities is contributing to the suppression of the CLR in Puerto Rico but not in Mexico. Furthermore, we found that the presence of Azteca sericeasur, a keystone ant species that occurs in Mexico but not Puerto Rico, significantly reduces the prevalence of M. hemileiae on coffee plants. Our work provides data that allows us to hypothesize that the joint presence of these two control agents may potentially provide control of the CLR and also highlights the importance of regionally specific communities within agroecosystems, and how variation in community composition may lead to varying outcomes for biological control. Additionally, this is the first report of the presence of a potentially important biological control agent, M. hemileiae, in Latin America and the Caribbean. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Distinct populations of dendritic cells are present in the subepithelial dome and T cell regions of the murine Peyer's patch

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that the Peyer's patch (PP) is the primary site for antigen uptake in the intestine, the cellular basis of antigen handling after transport into the PP is poorly understood. We performed immunohistology of murine PPs using the dendritic cell (DC)-reactive monoclonal antibodies N418, NLDC-145, M342, and 2A1, as well as antibodies to other T cell, B cell, and macrophage markers. N418+, 2A1+, NLDC-145-, M342- cells form a dense layer of cells in the subepithelial dome (SED), just beneath the follicle epithelium, and are scattered throughout the follicle, sparing the germinal center. In contrast, N418+, 2A1+, NLDC-145+, and M342+ DCs are present in the interfollicular T cell regions (IFR). CD3+ and CD4+, but no CD8+ T cells were present in the SED and the follicle, including the germinal center, while CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells were present in the IFR. B cells and macrophages were poorly represented in the SED as no B220+ cells, only few Mac-1lo cells, and no F4/80+ cells were present at this site. In contrast, Mac-1hi cells were found in the IFR and lamina propria of intestinal villi, while F4/80+ cells were found only in the latter. In further phenotypic studies, we analyzed surface molecules of PP and spleen DCs by flow cytometry and found that these cells had similar fluorescence profiles when stained with N418, NLDC-145, and 33D1 DC-reactive antibodies, and antibodies to the costimulatory molecules B7-1 (1G10) and B7-2 (GL1). In contrast, PP DCs expressed 5- 10-fold higher levels of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens (IEk) than spleen DCs. Finally, in functional studies, we demonstrated that both PP and spleen DCs process soluble protein antigens during overnight culture and induce similar levels of proliferation in CD3+ T cells, and CD4+/Mel 14hi T cells from T cell receptor transgenic mice. The in vivo relevance of such presentation was shown by the fact that PP DCs isolated from Balb/c mice after being fed ovalbumin stimulated

  9. Common and distinct brain regions in both parietal and frontal cortex support symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing in humans: A functional neuroimaging meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, H Moriah; Fias, Wim; Mousa, Ahmad; Ansari, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, there has been substantial growth in neuroimaging studies investigating neural correlates of symbolic (e.g. Arabic numerals) and non-symbolic (e.g. dot arrays) number processing. At present it remains contested whether number is represented abstractly, or if number representations in the brain are format-dependent. In order to quantitatively evaluate the available neuroimaging evidence, we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct quantitative meta-analyses of the results reported in 57 neuroimaging papers. Consistent with the existence of an abstract representation of number in the brain, conjunction analyses revealed overlapping activation for symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers in frontal and parietal lobes. Consistent with the notion of format-dependent activation, contrast analyses demonstrated anatomically distinct fronto-parietal activation for symbolic and non-symbolic processing. Therefore, symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are subserved by format-dependent and abstract neural systems. Moreover, the present results suggest that regions across the parietal cortex, not just the intraparietal sulcus, are engaged in both symbolic and non-symbolic number processing, challenging the notion that the intraparietal sulcus is the key region for number processing. Additionally, our analyses indicate that regions in the frontal cortex subserve magnitude representations rather than non-numerical cognitive processes associated with number tasks, thereby highlighting the importance of considering both frontal and parietal regions as important for number processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of abdominal and pleural malignant mesothelioma with DNA arrays reveals both common and distinct regions of copy number alteration

    PubMed Central

    Borczuk, Alain C.; Pei, Jianming; Taub, Robert N.; Levy, Brynn; Nahum, Odelia; Chen, Jinli; Chen, Katherine; Testa, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor arising from mesothelial linings of the serosal cavities. Pleural space is the most common site, accounting for about 80% of cases, while peritoneum makes up the majority of the remaining 20%. While histologically similar, tumors from these sites are epidemiologically and clinically distinct and their attribution to asbestos exposure differs. We compared DNA array-based findings from 48 epithelioid peritoneal MMs and 41 epithelioid pleural MMs to identify similarities and differences in copy number alterations (CNAs). Losses in 3p (BAP1 gene), 9p (CDKN2A) and 22q (NF2) were seen in tumors from both tumor sites, although CDKN2A and NF2 losses were seen at a higher rate in pleural disease (p<0.01). Overall, regions of copy number gain were more common in peritoneal MM, whereas losses were more common in pleural MM, with regions of loss containing known tumor suppressor genes and regions of gain encompassing genes encoding receptor tyrosine kinase pathway members. Cases with known asbestos causation (n = 32 ) were compared with those linked to radiation exposure (n = 9 ). Deletions in 6q, 14q, 17p and 22q, and gain of 17q were seen in asbestos-associated but not radiation-related cases. As reported in post-radiation sarcoma, gains outnumbered losses in radiation-associated MM. The patterns of genomic imbalances suggest overlapping and distinct molecular pathways in MM of the pleura and peritoneum, and that differences in causation (i.e., asbestos vs. radiation) may account for some of these site-dependent differences PMID:26853494

  11. Distinct Domains within APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F Interact with Separate Regions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vif▿

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Rebecca A.; Smith, Jessica; Barr, Rebekah; Bhattacharyya, Darshana; Pathak, Vinay K.

    2009-01-01

    Human APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) inhibit the replication of Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 Vif overcomes these host restriction factors by binding to them and inducing their degradation. Thus, the Vif-A3G and Vif-A3F interactions are attractive targets for antiviral drug development, as inhibiting these interactions could allow the host defense mechanism to control HIV-1 replication. Recently, it has been reported that amino acids 105 to 156 of A3G are involved in the interaction with Vif; however, to date, the region of A3F involved in Vif binding has not been identified. Using our previously reported Vif mutants that are capable of binding to only A3G (3G binder) or only A3F (3F binder), in conjunction with a series of A3G-A3F chimeras, we have now mapped the APOBEC3-Vif interaction domains. We found that the A3G domain that interacts with the Vif YRHHY region is located between amino acids 126 and 132 of A3G, which is consistent with the conclusions reported in previous studies. The A3F domain that interacts with the Vif DRMR region did not occur in the homologous domain but instead was located between amino acids 283 and 300 of A3F. These studies are the first to identify the A3F domain that interacts with the Vif DRMR region and show that distinct domains of A3G and A3F interact with different Vif regions. Pharmacological inhibition of either or both of these Vif-A3 interactions should prevent the degradation of the APOBEC3 proteins and could be used as a therapy against HIV-1. PMID:19036809

  12. Development of PCR primers for specific amplification of two distinct regions of the genomes of San Miguel sea-lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses.

    PubMed

    Neill, J D; Seal, B S

    1995-02-01

    The San Miguel sea-lion viruses (SMSV) and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses (VESV) are members of the calicivirus family and aetiologic agents of vesicular disease in susceptible hosts. These two virus groups have been shown by several serological methods to be closely related antigenically. To further examine their relatedness, two sets of non-degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed for the specific amplification of two distinct regions of the SMSV and VESV genomes using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. The sequence of the primers were based on the nucleotide sequence of SMSV serotypes 1 and 4. The RNAs from a number of SMSV serotypes and a single VESV isolate were used as template in this study. These included SMSV serotypes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13 and 14 and VESV serotype A48. Also included in this study were Tillamook calicivirus (Bos-1 calicivirus, BCV) and a recently isolated skunk calicivirus (SCV). The first primer set amplified a 357-bp fragment from the 2C-like or RNA-helicase-encoding region (11 of 11 viruses) and the second set amplified a fragment from the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region (520 bp, 9 of 11 viruses). These primer sets did not amplify product from either feline calicivirus or mink calicivirus. The results of this study demonstrate the genetic relatedness of SMSV and VESV and the potential usefulness of RT-PCR to detect and identify these viruses in diagnostic and routine screening applications.

  13. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains

    PubMed Central

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  14. Changes in Time Spent Outdoors During the Daytime in Rural Populations in Four Geographically Distinct Regions in China: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Wang, Fang; Hu, Liwen; Yu, Jiaming; Liu, Rong; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Changes in time-activity patterns may influence personal exposure to various environmental factors and affect individual health. However, few studies have investigated the changes in patterns of time spent outdoors. To investigate the trends in outdoor activity in recent decades in China, a retrospective questionnaire was used to examine the amount and pattern of time spent outdoors during the day by 2076 subjects in four geographically distinct rural regions of China. Rural Chinese people spent less time outdoors than they used to because of the economic development, increase in education and changes in working conditions that occurred over time. Outdoor time was the shortest during the school stage of life (Sanya: 3.24-3.61; Shaoxing: 3.35-3.68; Lhasa: 4.37-4.54; Xiuyan: 2.94-3.26 h per day). Subjects in wealthy regions spent less time outdoors during their working stage of life. In the four regions in this study, the average daily times spent outdoors were 3-13% lower for subjects aged 40-59 years and 20-38% lower for those under 40 years compared to subjects aged 60 years and over. Certain health-related issues, such as vitamin D deficiency, will become more prominent in China if this trend continues.

  15. Mapping of four distinct BCR-related loci to chromosome region 22q11: order of BCR loci relative to chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Croce, C.M.; Huebner, K.; Isobe, M.; Fainstain, E.; Lifshitz, B.; Shtivelman, E.; Canaani, E.

    1987-10-01

    A probe derived from the 3' region of the BCR gene (breakpoint cluster region gene) detects four distinct loci in the human genome. One of the loci corresponds to the complete BCR gene, whereas the other contain a 3' segment of the gene. After HindIII cleavage of human DNA, these four loci are detected as 23-, 19-, 13-, and 9-kikobase-pair fragments, designated BCR4, BCR3, BCR2, and BCR1, respectively, with BCR1 deriving from the original complete BCR gene. All four BCR loci segregate 100% concordantly with human chromosome 22 in a rodent-human somatic cell hybrid panel and are located at chromosome region 22q11.2 by chromosomal in situ hybridization. The BCR2 and BCR4 loci are amplified in leukemia cell line K562 cells, indicating that they fall within the amplification unit that includes immunoglobulin lambda light chain locus (IGL) and ABL locus on the K562 Philadelphia chromosome (Ph/sup 1/). Similarly, in mouse-human hybrids retaining a Ph/sup 1/ chromosome derived from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia-in the absence of the 9q/sup +/ and 22, only BCR2 and BCR4 loci are retained. Thus, the order of loci on chromosome 22 is centromere ..-->.. BCR2, BCR4, and IGL ..-->.. BCR1 ..-->.. BCR3 ..-->.. SIS, possibly eliminating BCR2 and BCR4 loci as candidate targets for juxtaposition to the ABL gene in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia Ph/sup 1/ chromosome.

  16. Predicting distinct organization of transcription factor binding sites on the promoter regions: a new genome-based approach to expand human embryonic stem cell regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour, Batool; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Khosravi, Pegah; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2013-12-01

    Self-proliferation and differentiation into distinct cell types have been made stem cell as a promising target for regenerative medicine. Several key genes can regulate self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (hESCs). They work together and build a transcriptional hierarchy. Coexpression and coregulation of genes control by common regulatory elements on the promoter regions. Consequently, distinct organization and combination of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs modules) on promoter regions, in view of order and distance, lead to a common specific expression pattern within a set of genes. To gain insights into transcriptional regulation of hESCs, we selected promoter regions of eleven common expressed hESC genes including SOX2, LIN28, STAT3, NANOG, LEFTB, TDGF1, POU5F1, FOXD3, TERF1, REX1 and GDF3 to predict activating regulatory modules on promoters and discover key corresponding transcription factors. Then, promoter regions in human genome were explored for modules and 328 genes containing the same modules were detected. Using microarray data, we verified that 102 of 328 genes commonly upregulate in hESCs. Also, using output data of DNA-protein interaction assays, we found that 42 of all predicted genes are targets of SOX2, NANOG and POU5F1. Additionally, a protein interaction network of hESC genes was constructed based on biological processes, and interestingly, 126 downregulated genes along with upregulated ones identified by promoter analysis were predicted in the network. Based on the results, we suggest that the identified genes, coregulating with common hESC genes, represent a novel approach for gene discovery based on whole genome promoter analysis irrespective of gene expression. Altogether, promoter profiling can be used to expand hESC transcriptional regulatory circuitry by analysis of shared functional sequences between genes. This approach provides a clear image on underlying regulatory mechanism of gene expression profile and

  17. Close but Distinct Regions of Human Herpesvirus 8 Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen 1 Are Responsible for Nuclear Targeting and Binding to Human Mitotic Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Piolot, Tristan; Tramier, Marc; Coppey, Maité; Nicolas, Jean-Claude; Marechal, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 is associated with all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, AIDS-associated body cavity-based lymphomas, and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. Herpesvirus 8, like other gammaherpesviruses, can establish a latent infection in which viral genomes are stably maintained as multiple episomes. The latent nuclear antigen (LANA or LNAI) may play an essential role in the stable maintenance of latent episomes, notably by interacting concomitantly with the viral genomes and the metaphase chromosomes, thus ensuring an efficient transmission of the neoduplicated episomes to the daughter cells. To identify the regions responsible for its nuclear and subnuclear localization in interphase and mitotic cells, LNAI and various truncated forms were fused to a variant of green fluorescent protein. This enabled their localization and chromosome binding activity to be studied by low-light-level fluorescence microscopy in living HeLa cells. The results demonstrate that nuclear localization of LNAI is due to a unique signal, which maps between amino acids 24 and 30. Interestingly, this nuclear localization signal closely resembles those identified in EBNA1 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpesvirus papio. A region encompassing amino acids 5 to 22 was further proved to mediate the specific interaction of LNA1 with chromatin during interphase and the chromosomes during mitosis. The presence of putative phosphorylation sites in the chromosome binding sites of LNA1 and EBNA1 suggests that their activity may be regulated by specific cellular kinases. PMID:11264383

  18. Shared and Distinct Neuroanatomic Regions Critical for Tool-related Action Production and Recognition: Evidence from 131 Left-hemisphere Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Leyla Y; Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2015-12-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe have been characterized as human homologues of the monkey "mirror neuron" system, critical for both action production (AP) and action recognition (AR). However, data from brain lesion patients with selective impairment on only one of these tasks provide evidence of neural and cognitive dissociations. We sought to clarify the relationship between AP and AR, and their critical neural substrates, by directly comparing performance of 131 chronic left-hemisphere stroke patients on both tasks--to our knowledge, the largest lesion-based experimental investigation of action cognition to date. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, we found that lesions to primary motor and somatosensory cortices and inferior parietal lobule were associated with disproportionately impaired performance on AP, whereas lesions to lateral temporo-occipital cortex were associated with a relatively rare pattern of disproportionately impaired performance on AR. In contrast, damage to posterior middle temporal gyrus was associated with impairment on both AP and AR. The distinction between lateral temporo-occipital cortex, critical for recognition, and posterior middle temporal gyrus, important for both tasks, suggests a rough gradient from modality-specific to abstract representations in posterior temporal cortex, the first lesion-based evidence for this phenomenon. Overall, the results of this large patient study help to bring closure to a long-standing debate by showing that tool-related AP and AR critically depend on both common and distinct left hemisphere neural substrates, most of which are external to putative human mirror regions.

  19. Canine distemper virus infects canine keratinocytes and immune cells by using overlapping and distinct regions located on one side of the attachment protein.

    PubMed

    Langedijk, Johannes P M; Janda, Jozef; Origgi, Francesco C; Örvell, Claes; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    The morbilliviruses measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) both rely on two surface glycoproteins, the attachment (H) and fusion proteins, to promote fusion activity for viral cell entry. Growing evidence suggests that morbilliviruses infect multiple cell types by binding to distinct host cell surface receptors. Currently, the only known in vivo receptor used by morbilliviruses is CD150/SLAM, a molecule expressed in certain immune cells. Here we investigated the usage of multiple receptors by the highly virulent and demyelinating CDV strain A75/17. We based our study on the assumption that CDV-H may interact with receptors similar to those for MeV, and we conducted systematic alanine-scanning mutagenesis on CDV-H throughout one side of the β-propeller documented in MeV-H to contain multiple receptor-binding sites. Functional and biochemical assays performed with SLAM-expressing cells and primary canine epithelial keratinocytes identified 11 residues mutation of which selectively abrogated fusion in keratinocytes. Among these, four were identical to amino acids identified in MeV-H as residues contacting a putative receptor expressed in polarized epithelial cells. Strikingly, when mapped on a CDV-H structural model, all residues clustered in or around a recessed groove located on one side of CDV-H. In contrast, reported CDV-H mutants with SLAM-dependent fusion deficiencies were characterized by additional impairments to the promotion of fusion in keratinocytes. Furthermore, upon transfer of residues that selectively impaired fusion induction in keratinocytes into the CDV-H of the vaccine strain, fusion remained largely unaltered. Taken together, our results suggest that a restricted region on one side of CDV-H contains distinct and overlapping sites that control functional interaction with multiple receptors.

  20. Canine Distemper Virus Infects Canine Keratinocytes and Immune Cells by Using Overlapping and Distinct Regions Located on One Side of the Attachment Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Langedijk, Johannes P. M.; Janda, Jozef; Origgi, Francesco C.; Örvell, Claes; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The morbilliviruses measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) both rely on two surface glycoproteins, the attachment (H) and fusion proteins, to promote fusion activity for viral cell entry. Growing evidence suggests that morbilliviruses infect multiple cell types by binding to distinct host cell surface receptors. Currently, the only known in vivo receptor used by morbilliviruses is CD150/SLAM, a molecule expressed in certain immune cells. Here we investigated the usage of multiple receptors by the highly virulent and demyelinating CDV strain A75/17. We based our study on the assumption that CDV-H may interact with receptors similar to those for MeV, and we conducted systematic alanine-scanning mutagenesis on CDV-H throughout one side of the β-propeller documented in MeV-H to contain multiple receptor-binding sites. Functional and biochemical assays performed with SLAM-expressing cells and primary canine epithelial keratinocytes identified 11 residues mutation of which selectively abrogated fusion in keratinocytes. Among these, four were identical to amino acids identified in MeV-H as residues contacting a putative receptor expressed in polarized epithelial cells. Strikingly, when mapped on a CDV-H structural model, all residues clustered in or around a recessed groove located on one side of CDV-H. In contrast, reported CDV-H mutants with SLAM-dependent fusion deficiencies were characterized by additional impairments to the promotion of fusion in keratinocytes. Furthermore, upon transfer of residues that selectively impaired fusion induction in keratinocytes into the CDV-H of the vaccine strain, fusion remained largely unaltered. Taken together, our results suggest that a restricted region on one side of CDV-H contains distinct and overlapping sites that control functional interaction with multiple receptors. PMID:21849439

  1. Detection of a phylogenetically distinct IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase, IMP-35, in a CC235 Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Dutch-German border region (Euregio).

    PubMed

    Pournaras, Spyros; Köck, Robin; Mossialos, Dimitris; Mellmann, Alexander; Sakellaris, Viktoras; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Friedrich, Alexander W; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-06-01

    To characterize a highly divergent IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) variant detected in a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. P. aeruginosa isolate 1876 was recovered from an anal swab of an inpatient at a German hospital in the Dutch-German border region (Euregio), where cross-border patient healthcare occurs. MICs were determined by agar dilution and phenotypic screening for MBL production by Etest MBL. Typing was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing were employed for identification of bla gene types. The class 1 integron carrying the blaIMP-type gene was characterized by PCR mapping and sequencing using a set of specific primers. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the new blaIMP variant. Isolate 1876 was phenotypically positive for MBL production, exhibited resistance to carbapenems and harboured a new blaIMP-type gene, blaIMP-35. MLST showed that the allelic profile corresponded to ST622, which belongs to the prevalent international clonal complex CC235. The blaIMP-35 gene was located in a class 1 integron as the first gene cassette, followed by blaOXA-35, aacA6, qacEΔ1 and sul1, suggesting its recent integration. IMP-35 was highly divergent, possessing 33/246 (13.4%) different amino acid residues from its closest IMP variants (IMP-8 and IMP-12) and was phylogenetically distinct, representing a separate group in the phylogenetic tree of IMP proteins. The identification of this phylogenetically distinct IMP-type variant in a CC235 P. aeruginosa suggests the ongoing spread of new IMP-type carbapenemases as well as the potential of the blaIMP-35 gene to evolve in the hospital environment.

  2. Integrity of the midbrain region is required to maintain the diencephalic-mesencephalic boundary in zebrafish no isthmus/pax2.1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Scholpp, Steffen; Brand, Michael

    2003-11-01

    Initial anterior-posterior patterning of the neural tube into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain primordia occurs already during gastrulation, in response to signals patterning the gastrula embryo. After the initial establishment, further development within each brain part is thought to proceed largely independently of the others. However, mechanisms should exist that ensure proper delineation of brain subdivisions also at later stages; such mechanisms are, however, poorly understood. In zebrafish no isthmus mutant embryos, inactivation of the pax2.1 gene leads to a failure of the midbrain and isthmus primordium to develop normally from the gastrula stage onward (Lun and Brand [1998] Development 125:3049-3062). Here, we report that, after the initially correct establishment during gastrulation stages, the neighbouring forebrain primordium and, partially, the hindbrain primordium expand into the misspecified midbrain territory in no isthmus mutant embryos. The expansion is particularly evident for the posterior part of the diencephalon and less so for the first rhombomeric segment, the territories immediately abutting the midbrain/isthmus primordium. The nucleus of the posterior commissure is expanded in size, and marker genes of the forebrain and rhombomere 1 expand progressively into the misspecified midbrain primordium, eventually resulting in respecification of the midbrain primordium. We therefore suggest that the genetic program controlled by Pax2.1 is not only involved in initiating but also in maintaining the identity of midbrain and isthmus cells to prevent them from assuming a forebrain or hindbrain fate. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Differences in volatile profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in two distinct regions of China and their responses to weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Dong; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Volatile compounds are considered important for plants to communicate with each other and interact with their environments. Most wine-producing regions in China feature a continental monsoon climate with hot-wet summers and dry-cold winters, giving grapes markedly different growing environments compared to the Mediterranean or oceanic climates described in previous reports. This study focused on comparing the volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from two regions with distinct climate characteristics: Changli has a warm and semi-humid summer, and Gaotai has a cool-arid summer and a cold winter. The relationship between meteorological metrics and the concentrations of grape volatiles were also examined. In harvested grapes, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were more abundant in the Changli berries, while hexanal, heptanal, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, and (E)-β-damascenone presented higher levels in the Gaotai berries. The fluctuation in the accumulation of volatile compounds observed during berry development was closely correlated with variations in short-term weather (weather in a week), especially rainfall. The concentration of some volatiles, notably aliphatic aldehydes, was significantly related to diurnal temperature differences. The variability during berry development of concentrations for compounds such as C6 volatile compounds, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and (E)-β-damascenone strongly depended upon weather conditions. This work expands our knowledge about the influence of continental monsoon climates on volatile compounds in developing grape berries. It will also improve the comprehension of the plant response to their surrounding environments through the accumulation of volatiles. The results will help growers to alter viticultural practices according to local conditions to improve the aromatic quality of grapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Distinct Patterns of Association of Variants at 11q23.3 Chromosomal Region with Coronary Artery Disease and Dyslipidemia in the Population of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arramraju Sreenivas; Anuj, Kapadia; Vishnupriya, Satti

    2016-01-01

    In our attempt to comprehensively understand the nature of association of variants at 11q23.3 apolipoprotein gene cluster region, we genotyped a prioritized set of 96 informative SNPs using Fluidigm customized SNP genotyping platform in a sample of 508 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 516 controls. We found 12 SNPs as significantly associated with CAD at P <0.05, albeit only four (rs2849165, rs17440396, rs6589566 and rs633389) of these remained significant after Benjamin Hochberg correction. Of the four, while rs6589566 confers risk to CAD, the other three SNPs reduce risk for the disease. Interaction of variants that belong to regulatory genes BUD13 and ZPR1 with APOA5-APOA4 intergenic variants is also observed to significantly increase the risk towards CAD. Further, ROC analysis of the risk scores of the 12 significant SNPs suggests that our study has substantial power to confer these genetic variants as predictors of risk for CAD, as illustrated by AUC (0.763; 95% CI: 0.729–0.798, p = <0.0001). On the other hand, the protective SNPs of CAD are associated with elevated Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol levels, hence with dyslipidemia, in our sample of controls, which may suggest distinct effects of the variants at 11q23.3 chromosomal region towards CAD and dyslipidemia. It may be necessary to replicate these findings in the independent and ethnically heterogeneous Indian samples in order to establish this as an Indian pattern. However, only functional analysis of the significant variants identified in our study can provide more precise understanding of the mechanisms involved in the contrasting nature of their effects in manifesting dyslipidemia and CAD. PMID:27257688

  5. Identification of new TSGA10 transcript variants in human testis with conserved regulatory RNA elements in 5'untranslated region and distinct expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Salehipour, Pouya; Nematzadeh, Mahsa; Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom; Afsharpad, Mandana; Mansouri, Kamran; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Testis specific gene antigen 10 (TSGA10) is a cancer testis antigen involved in the process of spermatogenesis. TSGA10 could also play an important role in the inhibition of angiogenesis by preventing nuclear localization of HIF-1α. Although it has been shown that TSGA10 messenger RNA (mRNA) is mainly expressed in testis and some tumors, the transcription pattern and regulatory mechanisms of this gene remain largely unknown. Here, we report that human TSGA10 comprises at least 22 exons and generates four different transcript variants. It was identified that using two distinct promoters and splicing of exons 4 and 7 produced these transcript variants, which have the same coding sequence, but the sequence of 5'untanslated region (5'UTR) is different between them. This is significant because conserved regulatory RNA elements like upstream open reading frame (uORF) and putative internal ribosome entry site (IRES) were found in this region which have different combinations in each transcript variant and it may influence translational efficiency of them in normal or unusual environmental conditions like hypoxia. To indicate the transcription pattern of TSGA10 in breast cancer, expression of identified transcript variants was analyzed in 62 breast cancer samples. We found that TSGA10 tends to express variants with shorter 5'UTR and fewer uORF elements in breast cancer tissues. Our study demonstrates for the first time the expression of different TSGA10 transcript variants in testis and breast cancer tissues and provides a first clue to a role of TSGA10 5'UTR in regulation of translation in unusual environmental conditions like hypoxia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Targeted modulation of cell differentiation in distinct regions of the gastrointestinal tract via oral administration of differently PEG-PEI functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Diti; Prabhakar, Neeraj; Mamaeva, Veronika; Karaman, Didem Şen; Lähdeniemi, Iris AK; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of drugs is required to efficiently treat intestinal diseases such as colon cancer and inflammation. Nanoparticles could overcome challenges in oral administration caused by drug degradation at low pH and poor permeability through mucus layers, and offer targeted delivery to diseased cells in order to avoid adverse effects. Here, we demonstrate that functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) by polymeric surface grafts facilitates transport through the mucosal barrier and enhances cellular internalization. MSNs functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), and the targeting ligand folic acid in different combinations are internalized by epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo after oral gavage. Functionalized MSNs loaded with γ-secretase inhibitors of the Notch pathway, a key regulator of intestinal progenitor cells, colon cancer, and inflammation, demonstrated enhanced intestinal goblet cell differentiation as compared to free drug. Drug-loaded MSNs thus remained intact in vivo, further confirmed by exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in vitro. Drug targeting and efficacy in different parts of the intestine could be tuned by MSN surface modifications, with PEI coating exhibiting higher affinity for the small intestine and PEI–PEG coating for the colon. The data highlight the potential of nanomedicines for targeted delivery to distinct regions of the tissue for strict therapeutic control. PMID:26855569

  7. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  8. Signal transduction by the high-affinity GM-CSF receptor: two distinct cytoplasmic regions of the common beta subunit responsible for different signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, N; Sakamaki, K; Terada, N; Arai, K; Miyajima, A

    1993-01-01

    The high-affinity receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 3 (IL-3) and IL-5 consist of two subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunits are specific to each cytokine and the same beta subunit (beta c) is shared by these three receptors. Although none of these receptor subunits has intrinsic kinase activity, these cytokines induce protein tyrosine phosphorylation, activation of Ras, Raf-1 and MAP kinase, and transcriptional activation of nuclear proto-oncogenes such as c-myc, c-fos and c-jun. In this paper, we describe a detailed analysis of the signaling potential of the beta c subunit by using a series of cytoplasmic deletion mutants. The human beta c consists of 881 amino acid residues. A C-terminal deletion mutant of beta c at amino acid 763 (beta 763) induced phosphorylation of Shc and activation of Ras, Raf-1, MAP kinase and p70 S6 kinase, whereas a deletion at amino acid 626 (beta 626) induced none of these effects. The beta 763 mutant, as well as the full-length beta c, induced transcription of c-myc, c-fos and c-jun. Deletions at amino acid 517 (beta 517) and 626 (beta 626) induced c-myc and pim-1, but no induction of c-fos and c-jun was observed. GM-CSF increased phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3-K) activity in anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from cells expressing beta 763 as well as beta c, whereas it was only marginally increased from cells expressing beta 517 or beta 626. Thus, there are at least two distinct regions within the cytoplasmic domain of beta c that are responsible for different signals, i.e. a membrane proximal region of approximately 60 amino acid residues upstream of Glu517 is essential for induction of c-myc and pim-1, and a distal region of approximately 140 amino acid residues (between Leu626 and Ser763) is required for activation of Ras, Raf-1, MAP kinase and p70 S6 kinase, as well as induction of c-fos and c-jun. Images PMID:8223433

  9. Distinct parasite populations infect individuals identified through passive and active case detection in a region of declining malaria transmission in southern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Searle, Kelly M; Katowa, Ben; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Siame, Mwiche N S; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Carpi, Giovanna; Norris, Douglas E; Stevenson, Jennifer C; Thuma, Philip E; Moss, William J

    2017-04-19

    Substantial reductions in the burden of malaria have been documented in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, with elimination strategies and goals being formulated in some regions. Within this context, understanding the epidemiology of low-level malaria transmission is crucial to achieving and sustaining elimination. A 24 single-nucleotide-polymorphism Plasmodium falciparum molecular barcode was used to characterize parasite populations from infected individuals identified through passive and active case detection in an area approaching malaria elimination in southern Zambia. The study was conducted in the catchment area of Macha Hospital in Choma District, Southern Province, Zambia, where the parasite prevalence declined over the past decade, from 9.2% in 2008 to less than 1% in 2013. Parasite haplotypes from actively detected, P. falciparum-infected participants enrolled in a serial cross-sectional, community-based cohort study from 2008 to 2013 and from passively detected, P. falciparum-infected individuals enrolled at five rural health centres from 2012 to 2015 were compared. Changes in P. falciparum genetic relatedness, diversity and complexity were analysed as malaria transmission declined. Actively detected cases identified in the community were most commonly rapid diagnostic test negative, asymptomatic and had submicroscopic parasitaemia. Phylogenetic reconstruction using concatenated 24 SNP barcode revealed a separation of parasite haplotypes from passively and actively detected infections, consistent with two genetically distinct parasite populations. For passively detected infections identified at health centres, the proportion of detectable polyclonal infections was consistently low in all seasons, in contrast with actively detected infections in which the proportion of polyclonal infections was high. The mean genetic divergence for passively detected infections was 34.5% for the 2012-2013 transmission season, 37.8% for the 2013-2014 season, and 30.8% for the

  10. To explore and develop a model to maintain and build upon a dental clinic open for all in developing regions, with a primary focus on India

    PubMed Central

    Sugandhi, Ayushi; Mangal, Brijesh; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Sethia, Bhavna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study a service model that enables a clinic to be open to all members of the community, irrespective of their ability to pay. METHODS: Sampling methodology was used to gather information in two phases, with the city of Indore as the target region. In the first phase, dental professionals were surveyed to gather the cost of the facility, land and equipment and the cost of sustaining the practice. In the second phase, the residents of Indore were surveyed to collect information regarding their oral health problems and their expenditure for the same. Assessing the current situation, the questions to answer are related to the issues of dental health care access problems and the resources required, human and financial. RESULTS: (1) People younger than 20 years of age form a large proportion (43%) of the population of the city and also a large proportion (54%) of people who visit dental clinics; (2) Dental caries are commonly found in the population younger than 20 years of age and mobile teeth in those older than 50 years of age; (3) Dental caries and mobile teeth are almost equally found in people of the age group 20-50 years old; (4) A significantly large proportion of those older than 50 years old have had all their teeth extracted; and (5) A significantly large proportion of the 20-30 years of age group has had no teeth extracted. CONCLUSION: The model which we propose works well for low income patients; however, it places a lot of extra burden on the higher income group. A lot of effort can be put into generating revenue from other sources, including events and donations. PMID:25232547

  11. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of Calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus with multiple large non-coding regions and reshuffled gene order: Useful molecular markers for phylogenetic and population studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Copepods are highly diverse and abundant, resulting in extensive ecological radiation in marine ecosystems. Calanus sinicus dominates continental shelf waters in the northwest Pacific Ocean and plays an important role in the local ecosystem by linking primary production to higher trophic levels. A lack of effective molecular markers has hindered phylogenetic and population genetic studies concerning copepods. As they are genome-level informative, mitochondrial DNA sequences can be used as markers for population genetic studies and phylogenetic studies. Results The mitochondrial genome of C. sinicus is distinct from other arthropods owing to the concurrence of multiple non-coding regions and a reshuffled gene arrangement. Further particularities in the mitogenome of C. sinicus include low A + T-content, symmetrical nucleotide composition between strands, abbreviated stop codons for several PCGs and extended lengths of the genes atp6 and atp8 relative to other copepods. The monophyletic Copepoda should be placed within the Vericrustacea. The close affinity between Cyclopoida and Poecilostomatoida suggests reassigning the latter as subordinate to the former. Monophyly of Maxillopoda is rejected. Within the alignment of 11 C. sinicus mitogenomes, there are 397 variable sites harbouring three 'hotspot' variable sites and three microsatellite loci. Conclusion The occurrence of the circular subgenomic fragment during laboratory assays suggests that special caution should be taken when sequencing mitogenomes using long PCR. Such a phenomenon may provide additional evidence of mitochondrial DNA recombination, which appears to have been a prerequisite for shaping the present mitochondrial profile of C. sinicus during its evolution. The lack of synapomorphic gene arrangements among copepods has cast doubt on the utility of gene order as a useful molecular marker for deep phylogenetic analysis. However, mitochondrial genomic sequences have been valuable markers for

  12. Distinct synaptic properties of perisomatic inhibitory cell types and their different modulation by cholinergic receptor activation in the CA3 region of the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Gergely G; Holderith, Noémi; Gulyás, Attila I; Freund, Tamás F; Hájos, Norbert

    2010-06-01

    Perisomatic inhibition originates from three types of GABAergic interneurons in cortical structures, including parvalbumin-containing fast-spiking basket cells (FSBCs) and axo-axonic cells (AACs), as well as cholecystokinin-expressing regular-spiking basket cells (RSBCs). These interneurons may have significant impact in various cognitive processes, and are subjects of cholinergic modulation. However, it is largely unknown how cholinergic receptor activation modulates the function of perisomatic inhibitory cells. Therefore, we performed paired recordings from anatomically identified perisomatic interneurons and pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the mouse hippocampus. We determined the basic properties of unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) and found that they differed among cell types, e.g. GABA released from axon endings of AACs evoked uIPSCs with the largest amplitude and with the longest decay measured at room temperature. RSBCs could also release GABA asynchronously, the magnitude of the release increasing with the discharge frequency of the presynaptic interneuron. Cholinergic receptor activation by carbachol significantly decreased the uIPSC amplitude in all three types of cell pairs, but to different extents. M2-type muscarinic receptors were responsible for the reduction in uIPSC amplitudes in FSBC- and AAC-pyramidal cell pairs, while an antagonist of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors recovered the suppression in RSBC-pyramidal cell pairs. In addition, carbachol suppressed or even eliminated the short-term depression of uIPSCs in FSBC- and AAC-pyramidal cell pairs in a frequency-dependent manner. These findings suggest that not only are the basic synaptic properties of perisomatic inhibitory cells distinct, but acetylcholine can differentially control the impact of perisomatic inhibition from different sources.

  13. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  14. A Search for Institutional Distinctiveness. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The essays in this collection argue that community colleges have much to gain by seeking out and maintaining positive recognition of the features that distinguish them from other colleges in the region and state. In addition, the sourcebook contains articles discussing the process of conducting a search for institutional distinctiveness and ways…

  15. Distinct Functions of Regions 1.1 and 1.2 of RNA Polymerase σ Subunits from Escherichia coli and Thermus aquaticus in Transcription Initiation*

    PubMed Central

    Miropolskaya, Nataliya; Ignatov, Artem; Bass, Irina; Zhilina, Ekaterina; Pupov, Danil; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) from thermophilic Thermus aquaticus is characterized by higher temperature of promoter opening, lower promoter complex stability, and higher promoter escape efficiency than RNAP from mesophilic Escherichia coli. We demonstrate that these differences are in part explained by differences in the structures of the N-terminal regions 1.1 and 1.2 of the E. coli σ70 and T. aquaticus σA subunits. In particular, region 1.1 and, to a lesser extent, region 1.2 of the E. coli σ70 subunit determine higher promoter complex stability of E. coli RNAP. On the other hand, nonconserved amino acid substitutions in region 1.2, but not region 1.1, contribute to the differences in promoter opening between E. coli and T. aquaticus RNAPs, likely through affecting the σ subunit contacts with DNA nucleotides downstream of the −10 element. At the same time, substitutions in σ regions 1.1 and 1.2 do not affect promoter escape by E. coli and T. aquaticus RNAPs. Thus, evolutionary substitutions in various regions of the σ subunit modulate different steps of the open promoter complex formation pathway, with regions 1.1 and 1.2 affecting promoter complex stability and region 1.2 involved in DNA melting during initiation. PMID:22605342

  16. Maintaining DACUM Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    This document discusses the importance of maintaining the quality of DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analyses and presents a 2-page checklist detailing DACUM quality performance criteria. The introduction to the checklist discusses various "infractions" discovered during an analyses of some curriculum/program developers'…

  17. Diversity & Community: Maintaining Allegiances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Devon G.

    1990-01-01

    The quest for diversity must overcome the resistance of traditional White, male faculty to redefining the mission and curriculum of the liberal arts college. Change will be difficult, but it must occur if liberal arts colleges are to survive and maintain a central and relevant place in multicultural America. (MSE)

  18. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  19. Sequence Analysis of 96 Genomic Regions Identifies Distinct Evolutionary Lineages within CC156, the Largest Streptococcus pneumoniae Clonal Complex in the MLST Database

    PubMed Central

    Moschioni, Monica; Lo Sapio, Morena; Crisafulli, Giovanni; Torricelli, Giulia; Guidotti, Silvia; Muzzi, Alessandro; Barocchi, Michèle A.; Donati, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is based on the sequence of seven housekeeping gene fragments. The analysis of MLST allelic profiles by eBURST allows the grouping of genetically related strains into Clonal Complexes (CCs) including those genotypes with a common descent from a predicted ancestor. However, the increasing use of MLST to characterize S. pneumoniae strains has led to the identification of a large number of new Sequence Types (STs) causing the merger of formerly distinct lineages into larger CCs. An example of this is the CC156, displaying a high level of complexity and including strains with allelic profiles differing in all seven of the MLST loci, capsular type and the presence of the Pilus Islet-1 (PI-1). Detailed analysis of the CC156 indicates that the identification of new STs, such as ST4945, induced the merging of formerly distinct clonal complexes. In order to discriminate the strain diversity within CC156, a recently developed typing schema, 96-MLST, was used to analyse 66 strains representative of 41 different STs. Analysis of allelic profiles by hierarchical clustering and a minimum spanning tree identified ten genetically distinct evolutionary lineages. Similar results were obtained by phylogenetic analysis on the concatenated sequences with different methods. The identified lineages are homogenous in capsular type and PI-1 presence. ST4945 strains were unequivocally assigned to one of the lineages. In conclusion, the identification of new STs through an exhaustive analysis of pneumococcal strains from various laboratories has highlighted that potentially unrelated subgroups can be grouped into a single CC by eBURST. The analysis of additional loci, such as those included in the 96-MLST schema, will be necessary to accurately discriminate the clonal evolution of the pneumococcal population. PMID:23593373

  20. Rapid fixation of a distinctive sequence motif in the 3' noncoding region of the clade of West Nile virus invading North America.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L; Piontkivska, Helen; Foppa, Ivo

    2007-09-15

    Phylogenetic analysis of complete genomes of West Nile virus (WNV) by a variety of methods supported the hypothesis that North American isolates of WNV constitute a monophyletic group, together with an isolate from Israel and one from Hungary. We used ancestral sequence reconstruction in order to obtain evidence for evolutionary changes that might be correlated with increased virulence in this clade (designated the N.A. clade). There was one amino acid change (I-->T at residue 356 of the NS3 protein) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed. There were four changes in the upstream portion of the 3' noncoding region (the AT-enriched region) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed, changes predicted to alter RNA secondary structure. The AT-enriched region showed a higher rate of substitution in the branch ancestral to the N.A. clade, relative to polymorphism, than did the remainder of the noncoding regions, synonymous sites in coding regions, or nonsynonymous sites in coding regions. The high rate of occurrence of fixed nucleotide substitutions in this region suggests that positive Darwinian selection may have acted on this portion of the 3'NCR and that these fixed changes, possibly in concert with the amino acid change in NS3, may underlie phenotypic effects associated with increased virulence in North American WNV.

  1. Rab11-family interacting proteins define spatially and temporally distinct regions within the dynamic Rab11a-dependent recycling system.

    PubMed

    Baetz, Nicholas W; Goldenring, James R

    2013-03-01

    The Rab11-family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs) facilitate Rab11-dependent vesicle recycling. We hypothesized that Rab11-FIPs define discrete subdomains and carry out temporally distinct roles within the recycling system. We used live-cell deconvolution microscopy of HeLa cells expressing chimeric fluorescent Rab11-FIPs to examine Rab11-FIP localization, transferrin passage through Rab11-FIP-containing compartments, and overlap among Rab11-FIPs within the recycling system. FIP1A, FIP2, and FIP5 occupy widely distributed mobile tubules and vesicles, whereas FIP1B, FIP1C, and FIP3 localize to perinuclear tubules. Internalized transferrin entered Rab11-FIP-containing compartments within 5 min, reaching maximum colocalization with FIP1B and FIP2 early in the time course, whereas localization with FIP1A, FIP1C, FIP3, and FIP5 was delayed until 10 min or later. Whereas direct interactions with FIP1A were only observed for FIP1B and FIP1C, FIP1A also associated with membranes containing FIP3. Live-cell dual-expression studies of Rab11-FIPs revealed the tubular dynamics of Rab11-FIP-containing compartments and demonstrated a series of selective associations among Rab11-FIPs in real time. These findings suggest that Rab11-FIP1 proteins participate in spatially and temporally distinct steps of the recycling process along a complex and dynamic tubular network in which Rab11-FIPs occupy discrete domains.

  2. Rab11-family interacting proteins define spatially and temporally distinct regions within the dynamic Rab11a-dependent recycling system

    PubMed Central

    Baetz, Nicholas W.; Goldenring, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The Rab11-family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs) facilitate Rab11-dependent vesicle recycling. We hypothesized that Rab11-FIPs define discrete subdomains and carry out temporally distinct roles within the recycling system. We used live-cell deconvolution microscopy of HeLa cells expressing chimeric fluorescent Rab11-FIPs to examine Rab11-FIP localization, transferrin passage through Rab11-FIP–containing compartments, and overlap among Rab11-FIPs within the recycling system. FIP1A, FIP2, and FIP5 occupy widely distributed mobile tubules and vesicles, whereas FIP1B, FIP1C, and FIP3 localize to perinuclear tubules. Internalized transferrin entered Rab11-FIP–containing compartments within 5 min, reaching maximum colocalization with FIP1B and FIP2 early in the time course, whereas localization with FIP1A, FIP1C, FIP3, and FIP5 was delayed until 10 min or later. Whereas direct interactions with FIP1A were only observed for FIP1B and FIP1C, FIP1A also associated with membranes containing FIP3. Live-cell dual-expression studies of Rab11-FIPs revealed the tubular dynamics of Rab11-FIP–containing compartments and demonstrated a series of selective associations among Rab11-FIPs in real time. These findings suggest that Rab11-FIP1 proteins participate in spatially and temporally distinct steps of the recycling process along a complex and dynamic tubular network in which Rab11-FIPs occupy discrete domains. PMID:23283983

  3. Polarization-maintaining property of tapered polarization-maintaining fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhen; Niedermayer, Graeme; Lin, Ganbin; Lu, Ping; Wang, Baishi; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-03-10

    Distributed group birefringence of tapered polarization-maintaining fibers (PMFs) is measured by employing a high-resolution optical frequency-domain reflectometry system. Autocorrelation data processing reveals distributed mode coupling between the fast and slow modes and higher-order modes excited by the tapering process along the taper region. The polarization-maintaining property of a tapered PMF is examined by distributed group birefringence along the tapered PMF with a spatial resolution of ~1.25 cm and a polarization-extinction ratio at the fiber taper output over the wavelength range of 1510-1570 nm. With a waist diameter of 80 μm, the polarization state of the launched light is maintained and the birefringence of the tapered PMF is slightly reduced from 3.28×10(-4) to 2.89×10(-4) at the taper waist. For both the waist diameters of 60 and 40 μm, mode coupling is observed in the form of significantly decreased birefringence by a factor of ~10 at the taper waists.

  4. Rapid Fixation of a Distinctive Sequence Motif in the 3′Noncoding Region of the Clade of West Nile Virus Invading North America

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.; Piontkivska, Helen; Foppa, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of complete genomes of West Nile virus (WNV) by a variety of methods supported the hypothesis that North American isolates of WNV constitute a monophyletic group, together with an isolate from Israel and one from Hungary. We used ancestral sequence reconstruction in order to obtain evidence for evolutionary changes that might be correlated with increased virulence in this clade (designated the N.A. clade). There was one amino acid change (I→T at residue 356 of the NS3 protein) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed. There were four changes in the upstream portion of the 3′ noncoding region (the AT-enriched region) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed, changes predicted to alter RNA secondary structure. The AT-enriched region showed a higher rate of substitution in the branch ancestral to the N.A. clade, relative to polymorphism, than did the remainder of the non-coding regions, synonymous sites in coding regions, or nonsynonymous sites in coding regions. The high rate of occurrence of fixed nucleotide substitutions in this region suggests that positive Darwinian selection may have acted on this portion of the 3′NCR and that these fixed changes, possibly in concert with the amino acid change in NS3, may underlie phenotypic effects associated with increased virulence in North American WNV. PMID:17587514

  5. Distinct Roles of the Repeat-Containing Regions and Effector Domains of the Vibrio vulnificus Multifunctional-Autoprocessing Repeats-in-Toxin (MARTX) Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung Sik; Gavin, Hannah E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio vulnificus is a seafood-borne pathogen that destroys the intestinal epithelium, leading to rapid bacterial dissemination and death. The most important virulence factor is the multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin comprised of effector domains in the center region flanked by long repeat-containing regions which are well conserved among MARTX toxins and predicted to translocate effector domains. Here, we examined the role of the repeat-containing regions using a modified V. vulnificus MARTX (MARTXVv) toxin generated by replacing all the internal effector domains with β-lactamase (Bla). Bla activity was detected in secretions from the bacterium and also in the cytosol of intoxicated epithelial cells. The modified MARTXVv toxin without effector domains retained its necrotic activity but lost its cell-rounding activity. Further, deletion of the carboxyl-terminal repeat-containing region blocked toxin secretion from the bacterium. Deletion of the amino-terminal repeat-containing region had no effect on secretion but completely abolished translocation and necrosis. Neither secretion nor translocation was affected by enzymatically inactivating the cysteine protease domain of the toxin. These data demonstrate that the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal repeat-containing regions of the MARTXVv toxin are necessary and sufficient for the delivery of effector domains and epithelial cell lysis in vitro but that effector domains are required for other cytopathic functions. Furthermore, Ca2+-dependent secretion of the modified MARTXVv toxin suggests that nonclassical RTX-like repeats found in the carboxyl-terminal repeat-containing region are functionally similar to classical RTX repeats found in other RTX proteins. PMID:25827415

  6. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  7. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  8. Distinct accessory cell requirements define two types of rat T cell hybridomas specific for unique determinants in the encephalitogenic 68-86 region of myelin basic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mannie, M.D.; Paterson, P.Y.; Thomas, D.W.; Nairn, R. )

    1990-01-15

    Six clonotypically unique T cell hybridomas from Lewis rats were used to study accessory cell activities required for class II MHC restricted T cell responses to the 68-86 encephalitogenic sequence of myelin basic protein (MBP). T cell hybrids which were cultured with GP68-86 68-86 sequence of guinea pig MBP (GPMBP) and naive splenocytes (SPL) were induced to produce IL-2 as measured by the CTLL indicator cell line. The hybrids were categorized into two subsets (designated THYB-1 and THYB-2), because two distinct subset-specific pathways of communication between accessory cells and T cells were involved in GPMBP-induced IL-2 production. These pathways were distinguished by the following six observations. First, when the duration of a pulse of SPL with GPMBP was lengthened from 1 to 4 h, these SPL lost their ability to induce IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet nevertheless retained full stimulatory activity for THYB-1 hybrids. Second, paraformaldehyde fixation of GPMBP-pulsed SPL abrogated an activity necessary for Ag-induced IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids. These fixed SPL were nevertheless able to stimulate THYB-1 hybrids, albeit to a lesser extent than viable unfixed SPL. Third, the addition of either cycloheximide, cytochalasin B, or 2-deoxyglucose to an Ag pulse of SPL with GPMBP dramatically inhibited the subsequent responses of THYB-2 hybrids yet had little or no effect upon the reactivity of THYB-1 hybrids. Fourth, thymocytes lacked necessary activities for GPMBP evoked IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet strongly promoted THYB-1 hybrid responses. Fifth, exposure of SPL to as little as 500 rad of gamma-irradiation markedly attenuated THYB-2 hybrid response to GPMBP but did not affect THYB-1 responses. Sixth, anti-GPMBP responses by THYB-2 hybrids were observed only in the presence of both radioresistant adherent SPL and a distinct population of radiosensitive nonadherent SPL.

  9. Identification of distinct nisin leader peptide regions that determine interactions with the modification enzymes NisB and NisC.

    PubMed

    Khusainov, Rustem; Moll, Gert N; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2013-01-01

    Nisin is the most prominent and applied bacteriocin that serves as a model for class I lantibiotics. The nisin leader peptide importantly determines interactions between precursor nisin and its modification enzymes NisB and NisC that mature nisin posttranslationally. NisB dehydrates serines and threonines, while NisC catalyzes the subsequent coupling of the formed dehydroamino acids to form lanthionines. Currently, little is known about how the nisin leader interacts with NisB and even less is known about its interactions with NisC. To investigate the nisin leader peptide requirements for functional interaction with the modification enzymes NisB and NisC, we systematically replaced six regions, of 2-4 amino acids each, with all-alanine regions. By performing NisB and NisC co-purification studies with these mutant leader peptides, we demonstrate that the nisin leader regions STKD(-22-19), FNLD(-18-15) and PR(-2-1) importantly contribute to the interactions of precursor nisin with both NisB and NisC, whereas the nisin leader region LVSV(-14-11) additionally contributes to the interaction of precursor nisin with NisC.

  10. Transcriptome profiling analysis reveals region-distinctive changes of gene expression in the CNS in response to different moderate restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Xiang, Xiao-Hui; He, Fei; Lin, Li-Bo; Zhang, Rong; Ping, Xing-Jie; Han, Ji-Sheng; Guo, Ning; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Cui, Cai-Lian; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2010-06-01

    It is generally believed that temporary moderate stress to a living organism has protective and adaptive effects, but little is known about the responses of CNS to the moderate stresses at molecular level. This study aims to investigate the gene expression changes induced by moderate stress in CNS stress- and nociception-related regions of rats. Moderate restraint was applied to rats for 50 min and cDNA microarrays were used to detect the differential gene expression in different CNS regions. Transcriptome profiling analysis showed that at acute stage stress-related genes were up-regulated in arcuate nucleus; fight-or-flight behavior-related genes were up-regulated in periaqueductal gray, while nitric oxide and GABA signal transmission-related genes were up-regulated in spinal dorsal horn. In addition, immune-related genes were broadly regulated, especially at the late stage. These results suggested that specific genes of certain gene ontology categories were spatiotemporally regulated in specific CNS regions related to relevant functions under moderate external stimuli at acute stage, while immune response was broadly regulated at the late stage. The co-regulated genes among the three different CNS regions may play general roles in CNS when exposed to moderate stress. Furthermore, these results will help to elucidate the physiological processes involved in moderate stress in CNS.

  11. Regional distinctions in cortical bone mineral density measured by pQCT can predict alterations in material property at the tibial diaphysis of the Cynomolgus monkey.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kiichi; Fukuda, Satoshi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Ohya, Keiichi

    2006-02-01

    We examined whether regional differences in cortical bone mineral density (Ct.BMD) measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography is related to the heterogeneity of bone tissue and whether regional Ct.BMD is a better indicator of changes in bone material properties. Bilateral tibiae were obtained from 17 female adult Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; mean age 16.8 years). After determining that Ct.BMD was similar between the right and left tibiae, the left tibiae were used for bone histomorphometry and the right for a three-point bending test. The Ct.BMD in the posterior quadrant was significantly higher than that in the anterior quadrant. In the bone histomorphometric analysis, all parameters (i.e., average osteonal area, average osteonal bone area, osteon population density, percent osteonal area [%On.Ar], percent osteonal bone area [%On.B.Ar], percent osteonal area of initial remodeling [%Il.On.Ar], percent osteonal area of secondary remodeling [%Sd.On.Ar], porosity, and percent osteoid area in the posterior region) were significantly lower than those in the anterior region. The results indicated that in the same cross-section, bone tissue structure was heterogeneous. Both total- and posterior-Ct.BMD were positively correlated with breaking stress and negatively correlated with toughness, whereas anterior-Ct.BMD was positively correlated with elastic modulus. Backward stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that posterior-Ct.BMD and total-Ct.BMD were the best variables for predicting breaking stress and toughness, respectively, when age is taken into account. The %On.Ar, %On.B.Ar, and %Il.On.Ar in the posterior region were negatively correlated with elastic modulus. The %On.Ar, %On.B.Ar, and %Sd.On.Ar in the posterior region were positively correlated with toughness. These findings indicated that regional Ct.BMD measurement is useful to assess changes in the material properties of bone associated with the degree of mineralization. In

  12. Overlapping and distinct brain regions involved in estimating the spatial position of numerical and non-numerical magnitudes: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Stephan E; Grabner, Roland H; Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    How are numerical and non-numerical magnitudes processed in the brain? Brain imaging research, primarily using comparison paradigms (i.e. judging which of two magnitudes is larger), has provided strong evidence demonstrating that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a key region for processing both numerical (e.g. Arabic numerals, arrays of dots) and non-numerical magnitudes (e.g. height, brightness). These studies have suggested that there is both activation overlap and segregation in the brain regions involved in processing different dimensions of magnitude. In the present functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, we extended this line of investigation by probing the brain mechanisms underlying the mapping of numerical (Arabic numerals) and non-numerical magnitudes (brightness levels) onto a number line. Consistent with previous studies the present results revealed that number and brightness estimation was associated with overlapping activation within right lateralized areas of the posterior IPS. In addition, the contrast between number and brightness estimation revealed that bilateral anterior regions of the IPS are specifically involved in the process of estimating the position of symbolic numbers onto a number line. Furthermore, we found a significant influence of landmark reference points (0, 50 and 100) on brain activation in the right IPS for number estimation only. No regions were found to be specifically associated with brightness estimation. The results of this study reveal that the estimation of both numerical and non-numerical magnitude are associated with the engagement of a right lateralized magnitude system, but that symbolic number estimation is associated with additional engagement of bilateral regions of the anterior IPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity and SidJ-Mediated Suppression of Toxicity Require Distinct Regions in the SidE Family of Legionella pneumophila Effectors.

    PubMed

    Havey, James C; Roy, Craig R

    2015-09-01

    Intracellular bacteria use a variety of strategies to evade degradation and create a replicative niche. Legionella pneumophila is an intravacuolar pathogen that establishes a replicative niche through the secretion of more than 300 effector proteins. The function of most effectors remains to be determined. Toxicity in yeast has been used to identify functional domains and elucidate the biochemical function of effectors. A library of L. pneumophila effectors was screened using an expression plasmid that produces low levels of each protein. This screen identified the effector SdeA as a protein that confers a strong toxic phenotype that inhibits yeast replication. The toxicity of SdeA was suppressed in cells producing the effector SidJ. The effector SdeA is a member of the SidE family of L. pneumophila effector proteins. All SidE orthologs encoded by the Philadelphia isolate of Legionella pneumophila were toxic to yeast, and SidJ suppressed the toxicity of each. We identified a conserved central region in the SidE proteins that was sufficient to mediate yeast toxicity. Surprisingly, SidJ did not suppress toxicity when this central region was produced in yeast. We determined that the amino-terminal region of SidE was essential for SidJ-mediated suppression of toxicity. Thus, there is a genetic interaction that links the activity of SidJ and the amino-terminal region of SidE, which is required to modulate the toxic activity displayed by the central region of the SidE protein. This suggests a complex mechanism by which the L. pneumophila effector SidJ modulates the function of the SidE proteins after translocation into host cells.

  14. Gestures maintain spatial imagery.

    PubMed

    Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K

    2001-01-01

    Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.

  15. Distinct roles for the N- and C-terminal regions in the cytotoxicity of pierisin-1, a putative ADP-ribosylating toxin from cabbage butterfly, against mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Kono, Takuo; Tanaka, Noriaki; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2001-01-01

    Pierisin-1 is an 850-aa cytotoxic protein found in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and has been suggested to consist of an N-terminal region with ADP-ribosyltransferase domain and of a C-terminal region that might have a receptor-binding domain. To elucidate the role of each region, we investigated the functions of various fragments of pierisin-1. In vitro expressed polypeptide consisting of amino acid residues 1–233 or 234–850 of pierisin-1 alone did not show cytotoxicity against human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. However, the presence of both polypeptides in the culture medium showed some of the original cytotoxic activity. Introduction of the N-terminal polypeptide alone by electroporation also induced cell death in HeLa cells, and even in the mouse melanoma MEB4 cells insensitive to pierisin-1. Thus, the N-terminal region has a principal role in the cytotoxicity of pierisin-1 inside mammalian cells. Analyses of incorporated pierisin-1 indicated that the entire protein, regardless of whether it consisted of a single polypeptide or two separate N- and C-terminal polypeptides, was incorporated into HeLa cells. However, neither of the terminal polypeptides was incorporated when each polypeptide was present separately. These findings indicate that the C-terminal region is important for the incorporation of pierisin-1. Moreover, presence of receptor for pierisin-1 in the lipid fraction of cell membrane was suggested. The cytotoxic effects of pierisin-1 were enhanced by previous treatment with trypsin, producing “nicked” pierisin-1. Generation of the N-terminal fragment in HeLa cells was detected after application of intact entire molecule of pierisin-1. From the above observations, it is suggested that after incorporation of pierisin-1 into the cell by interaction of its C-terminal region with the receptor in the cell membrane, the entire protein is cleaved into the N- and C-terminal fragments with intracellular protease, and the N-terminal fragment

  16. Distinct structural neural patterns of trait physical and social anhedonia: evidence from cortical thickness, subcortical volumes and inter-regional correlations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Deng, Yi; Fung, Germaine; Liu, Wen-hua; Wei, Xin-hua; Jiang, Xin-qing; Lui, Simon S Y; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-30

    Anhedonia is an enduring trait accounting for the reduced capacity to experience pleasure. Few studies have investigated the brain structural features associated with trait anhedonia. In this study, the relationships between cortical thickness, volume of subcortical structures and scores on the Chapman physical and social anhedonia scales were examined in a non-clinical sample (n=72, 35 males). FreeSurfer was used to examine the cortical thickness and the volume of six identified subcortical structures related to trait anhedonia. We found that the cortical thickness of the superior frontal gyrus and the volume of the pallidum in the left hemisphere were correlated with anhedonia scores in both physical and social aspects. Specifically, positive correlations were found between levels of social anhedonia and the thickness of the postcentral and the inferior parietal gyri. Cortico-subcortical inter-correlations between these clusters were also observed. Our findings revealed distinct correlation patterns of neural substrates with trait physical and social anhedonia in a non-clinical sample. These findings contribute to the understanding of the pathologies underlying the anhedonia phenotype in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.

  17. Binding and Susceptibility to Postentry Restriction Factors in Monkey Cells Are Specified by Distinct Regions of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Christopher M.; Song, Byeongwoon; Perron, Michel J.; Yang, Peter C.; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In cells of Old World and some New World monkeys, dominant factors restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections after virus entry. The simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac is less susceptible to these restrictions, a property that is determined largely by the viral capsid protein. For this study, we altered exposed amino acid residues on the surface of the HIV-1 capsid, changing them to the corresponding residues found on the SIVmac capsid. We identified two distinct pathways of escape from early, postentry restriction in monkey cells. One set of mutants that were altered near the base of the cyclophilin A-binding loop of the N-terminal capsid domain or in the interdomain linker exhibited a decreased ability to bind the restricting factor(s). Consistent with the location of this putative factor-binding site, cyclophilin A and the restricting factor(s) cooperated to achieve the postentry block. A second set of mutants that were altered in the ridge formed by helices 3 and 6 of the N-terminal capsid domain efficiently bound the restricting factor(s) but were resistant to the consequences of factor binding. These results imply that binding of the simian restricting factor(s) is not sufficient to mediate the postentry block to HIV-1 and that SIVmac capsids escape the block by decreases in both factor binding and susceptibility to the effects of the factor(s). PMID:15113921

  18. Genetic variants of FOXP2 and KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in distinct language-related regions.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Philippe; Fauchereau, Fabien; Moreno, Antonio; Barbot, Alexis; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Le Bihan, Denis; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Bourgeron, Thomas; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2012-01-18

    Recent advances have been made in the genetics of two human communication skills: speaking and reading. Mutations of the FOXP2 gene cause a severe form of language impairment and orofacial dyspraxia, while single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within a KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 gene cluster and affecting the KIAA0319 gene expression are associated with reading disability. Neuroimaging studies of clinical populations point to partially distinct cerebral bases for language and reading impairments. However, alteration of FOXP2 and KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 polymorphisms on typically developed language networks has never been explored. Here, we genotyped and scanned 94 healthy subjects using fMRI during a reading task. We studied the correlation of genetic polymorphisms with interindividual variability in brain activation and functional asymmetry in frontal and temporal cortices. In FOXP2, SNPs rs6980093 and rs7799109 were associated with variations of activation in the left frontal cortex. In the KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 locus, rs17243157 was associated with asymmetry in functional activation of the superior temporal sulcus (STS). Interestingly, healthy subjects bearing the KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 variants previously identified as enhancing the risk of dyslexia showed a reduced left-hemispheric asymmetry of the STS. Our results confirm that both FOXP2 and KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 genes play an important role in human language development, but probably through different cerebral pathways. The observed cortical effects mirror previous fMRI results in developmental language and reading disorders, and suggest that a continuum may exist between these pathologies and normal interindividual variability.

  19. A distinct immunogenic region of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 is naturally processed and presented by human islet cells to cytotoxic CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Knight, R R; Dolton, G; Kronenberg-Versteeg, D; Eichmann, M; Zhao, M; Huang, G C; Beck, K; Cole, D K; Sewell, A K; Skowera, A; Peakman, M

    2015-01-01

    CD8 T cells specific for islet autoantigens are major effectors of β cell damage in type 1 diabetes, and measurement of their number and functional characteristics in blood represent potentially important disease biomarkers. CD8 T cell reactivity against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) in HLA-A*0201 subjects has been reported to focus on an immunogenic region 114–123 (VMNILLQYVV), with studies demonstrating both 114–123 and 114–122 epitopes being targeted. However, the fine specificity of this response is unclear and the key question as to which epitope(s) β cells naturally process and present and, therefore, the pathogenic potential of CD8 T cells with different specificities within this region has not been addressed. We generated human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201-restricted CD8 T cell clones recognizing either 114–122 alone or both 114–122 and 114–123. Both clone types show potent and comparable effector functions (cytokine and chemokine secretion) and killing of indicator target cells externally pulsed with cognate peptide. However, only clones recognizing 114–123 kill target cells transfected with HLA-A*0201 and GAD2 and HLA-A*0201+ human islet cells. We conclude that the endogenous pathway of antigen processing by HLA-A*0201-expressing cells generates GAD65114–123 as the predominant epitope in this region. These studies highlight the importance of understanding β cell epitope presentation in the design of immune monitoring for potentially pathogenic CD8 T cells. PMID:25112375

  20. Identification of geographic clustering and regions spared by the Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) in Texas using two distinct cancer registries

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Ivan V.; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Rahme, Elham; Habel, Youssef; Risser, David R.; Gangar, Pamela; Jennings, Michelle A.; Pehr, Kevin; Prieto, Victor G.; Sasseville, Denis; Duvic, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (Mycosis Fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sézary Syndrome) are rare malignancies. Reports of occurrence of Mycosis Fungoides in married couples and families raise the possibility of an environmental trigger for this cancer. While it was suggested that CTLC arises from inappropriate T cell stimulation, currently no preventable trigger has been identified. Methods We analyzed by region, zip code, age, sex and ethnicity the demographic data of 1047 patients from Texas, who were seen in a CTCL clinic at the MD Anderson Cancer Center during 2000-2012 (the MDACC database) and 1990 patients that were recorded in the population-based Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) between 1996-2010. Subsequently data from both databases was cross analyzed and compared. Results Our findings, based on the MDACC database, document geographic clustering of patients in three communities within the Houston metropolitan area, where CTCL incidence rates were 5-20 times higher than the expected population rate. Analysis of the TCR database defined the CTCL population rate for the state to be 5.8 [95% CI 5.5, 6.0] cases per million individuals per year, confirmed the observations from the MDACC database and further highlighted additional areas of geographic clustering and regions spared by CTCL in Texas. Conclusions Our study documents geographic clustering of CTCL cases in Texas and argues for the existence of yet unknown external causes/triggers for this rare malignancy. PMID:25728286

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of sandwiched ZnO@Ag@Cu₂O nanorod films: the distinct role of Ag NPs in the visible light and UV region.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shoutian; Zhao, Guoliang; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Benyang; Wang, Qiang

    2015-03-27

    Sandwiched ZnO@Ag@Cu2O nanorod films were synthesized by successive electrodeposition, magnetron sputtering and the second electrodeposition. The as-synthesized composites were characterized by x-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy, low- and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Their photocatalytic performance was estimated by the degradation of a methyl orange solution under UV or visible-light irradiation, respectively. In the visible region, due to localized surface plasmon resonance absorption of Ag NPs, ZnO@Ag@Cu2O showed a significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance. The enhancement factor of Ag NPs on the catalytic performance of ZnO@Ag@Cu2O was estimated as a function of the Cu2O deposition time, and the corresponding enhancement mechanism was also evaluated by the monochromatic photocatalytic experiment and discrete dipole approximation simulation. In the UV region, due to the formation of a Schottky junction (e.g. Ag/ZnO, Ag/Cu2O), a limited enhanced photocatalytic performance was also realized for ZnO@Ag@Cu2O photocatalysts.

  2. Gain-of-function Mutations Cluster in Distinct Regions Associated with the Signaling Pathway in the PAS Domain of the Aerotaxis Receptor, Aer

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Asharie J.; Watts, Kylie J.; Johnson, Mark S.; Taylor, Barry L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Aer receptor monitors internal energy (redox) levels in Escherichia coli with an FAD-containing PAS domain. Here, we randomly mutagenized the region encoding residues 14 to 119 of the PAS domain and found 72 aerotaxis-defective mutants, 24 of which were gain-of-function, signal-on mutants. The mutations were mapped onto an Aer homology model based on the structure of the PAS-FAD domain in NifL from Azotobacter vinlandii. Signal-on lesions clustered in the FAD binding pocket, the β-scaffolding and in the N-cap loop. We suggest that the signal-on lesions mimic the “signal-on” state of the PAS domain, and therefore may be markers for the signal-in and signal-out regions of this domain. We propose that the reduction of FAD rearranges the FAD binding pocket in a way that repositions the β-scaffolding and the N-cap loop. The resulting conformational changes are likely to be conveyed directly to the HAMP domain, and on to the kinase control module. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrated disulfide band formation between cysteines substituted at residues N98C or I114C in the PAS β-scaffold and residue Q248C in the HAMP AS-2 helix. PMID:20545849

  3. Fertilization in Discoglossus pictus (Anura). I. Sperm-egg interactions in distinct regions of the dimple and occurrence of a late stage of sperm penetration.

    PubMed

    Talevi, R; Campanella, C

    1988-12-01

    The heterogeneity of the egg surface with respect to receptivity to sperm was investigated in Discoglossus pictus; in this species fertilization occurs only in an indentation called the dimple, at the center of the animal hemisphere. Following insemination sperm are seen in the outermost jelly layers and in the lens-shaped jelly plug, converging to the dimple center, D1. A fertilization potential (FP) is recorded 30 sec following insemination. About 30 min after fertilization, when fertilization cones can be detected easily, immotile sperm are found at the center of the cone, where 10 min later they accomplish penetration. After 15 min the cone regresses and the second polar body is extruded. In eggs where the plug was experimentally displaced with respect to the dimple, spermatozoa contacted the sides of the dimple and simple protrusions formed but not cones. Spermatozoa do not elicit a normal FP in these regions but small step depolarizations which may be followed by a gradual rise to a positive plateau potential. Such eggs do not develop. In the protrusions, sperm may be only partially incorporated and the unpenetrated portion appears to degenerate. We conclude that at least two regions exist in the dimple: D1, where the FP is triggered, cones are formed, sperm penetration is fully accomplished and development is initiated; and D2 + D3 where the electrical response is not a normal FP, cones do not form, total sperm penetration does not occur, and development is not initiated.

  4. Integrative genomics identifies distinct molecular classes of neuroblastoma and shows that multiple genes are targeted by regional alterations in DNA copy number.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qun; Diskin, Sharon; Rappaport, Eric; Attiyeh, Edward; Mosse, Yael; Shue, Daniel; Seiser, Eric; Jagannathan, Jayanti; Shusterman, Suzanne; Bansal, Manisha; Khazi, Deepa; Winter, Cynthia; Okawa, Erin; Grant, Gregory; Cnaan, Avital; Zhao, Huaqing; Cheung, Nai-Kong; Gerald, William; London, Wendy; Matthay, Katherine K; Brodeur, Garrett M; Maris, John M

    2006-06-15

    Neuroblastoma is remarkable for its clinical heterogeneity and is characterized by genomic alterations that are strongly correlated with tumor behavior. The specific genes that influence neuroblastoma biology and are targeted by genomic alterations remain largely unknown. We quantified mRNA expression in a highly annotated series of 101 prospectively collected diagnostic neuroblastoma primary tumors using an oligonucleotide-based microarray. Genomic copy number status at the prognostically relevant loci 1p36, 2p24 (MYCN), 11q23, and 17q23 was determined by PCR and was aberrant in 26, 20, 40, and 38 cases, respectively. In addition, 72 diagnostic neuroblastoma primary tumors assayed in a different laboratory were used as an independent validation set. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed that gene expression was highly correlated with genomic alterations and clinical markers of tumor behavior. The vast majority of samples with MYCN amplification and 1p36 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) clustered together on a terminal node of the sample dendrogram, whereas the majority of samples with 11q deletion clustered separately and both of these were largely distinct from the copy number neutral group of tumors. Genes involved in neurodevelopment were broadly overrepresented in the more benign tumors, whereas genes involved in RNA processing and cellular proliferation were highly represented in the most malignant cases. By combining transcriptomic and genomic data, we showed that LOH at 1p and 11q was associated with significantly decreased expression of 122 (61%) and 88 (27%) of the genes mapping to 1p35-36 and all of 11q, respectively, suggesting that multiple genes may be targeted by LOH events. A total of 71 of the 1p35-36 genes were also differentially expressed in the independent validation data set, providing a prioritized list of candidate neuroblastoma suppressor genes. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypotheses that the neuroblastoma

  5. Clinical aspects of envenomation caused by Tityus obscurus (Gervais, 1843) in two distinct regions of Pará state, Brazilian Amazon basin: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, whose most dangerous cases are attributable to the genus Tityus. This study was designed to compare the clinical and demographic features of envenomations by Tityus obscurus in two areas of the state of Pará located in the Amazon basin. Were compared demographic findings, local and systemic signs and symptoms of human envenomations caused by T. obscurus that occurred in western and eastern areas of the state. Results Forty-eight patients with confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus were evaluated from January 2008 to July 2011. Most of them came from the eastern region, where male and female patients were present in similar numbers, while males predominated in the west. Median age groups were also similar in both areas. Most scorpion stings took place during the day and occurred significantly more frequently on the upper limbs. The time between the sting and admission to the health center was less than three hours in both areas. Most eastern patients had local manifestations while in the west, systemic manifestations predominated. Local symptoms were similar in both areas, but systemic signs and symptoms were more common in the west. Symptoms frequently observed at the sting site were local and radiating pain, paresthesia, edema, erythema, sweating, piloerection and burning. The systemic manifestations were significantly higher in patients from the west. Futhermore, neurological symptoms such as general paresthesia, ataxia, dysarthria, myoclonus, dysmetria, and electric shock-like sensations throughout the body were reported only by patients from the west. Conclusion The present study shows that two regions of Para state differ in the clinical manifestations and severity of confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus which suggests a toxicity variation resulting from the diversity of T. obscurus venom in different areas of the Brazilian Amazon basin, and that T. serrulatus antivenom can be

  6. High ploidy diversity and distinct patterns of cytotype distribution in a widespread species of Oxalis in the Greater Cape Floristic Region

    PubMed Central

    Krejčíková, Jana; Sudová, Radka; Lučanová, Magdalena; Trávníček, Pavel; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Kolano, Bożena; Oberlander, Kenneth; Dreyer, Leanne L.; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome duplication is widely acknowledged as a major force in the evolution of angiosperms, although the incidence of polyploidy in different floras may differ dramatically. The Greater Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and is considered depauperate in polyploids. To test this assumption, ploidy variation was assessed in a widespread member of the largest geophytic genus in the Cape flora: Oxalis obtusa. Methods DNA flow cytometry complemented by confirmatory chromosome counts was used to determine ploidy levels in 355 populations of O. obtusa (1014 individuals) across its entire distribution range. Ecological differentiation among cytotypes was tested by comparing sets of vegetation and climatic variables extracted for each locality. Key Results Three majority (2x, 4x, 6x) and three minority (3x, 5x, 8x) cytotypes were detected in situ, in addition to a heptaploid individual originating from a botanical garden. While single-cytotype populations predominate, 12 mixed-ploidy populations were also found. The overall pattern of ploidy level distribution is quite complex, but some ecological segregation was observed. Hexaploids are the most common cytotype and prevail in the Fynbos biome. In contrast, tetraploids dominate in the Succulent Karoo biome. Precipitation parameters were identified as the most important climatic variables associated with cytotype distribution. Conclusions Although it would be premature to make generalizations regarding the role of genome duplication in the genesis of hyperdiversity of the Cape flora, the substantial and unexpected ploidy diversity in Oxalis obtusa is unparalleled in comparison with any other cytologically known native Cape plant species. The results suggest that ploidy variation in the Greater Cape Floristic Region may be much greater than currently assumed, which, given the documented role of polyploidy in speciation, has direct implications for radiation

  7. Introduction of a novel 18S rDNA gene arrangement along with distinct ITS region in the saline water microalga Dunaliella.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Mohammad A; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Gharajeh, Nahid Hosseinzadeh; Hejazi, Mohammad S

    2010-04-08

    Comparison of 18S rDNA gene sequences is a very promising method for identification and classification of living organisms. Molecular identification and discrimination of different Dunaliella species were carried out based on the size of 18S rDNA gene and, number and position of introns in the gene. Three types of 18S rDNA structure have already been reported: the gene with a size of ~1770 bp lacking any intron, with a size of ~2170 bp consisting one intron near 5' terminus, and with a size of ~2570 bp harbouring two introns near 5' and 3' termini. Hereby, we report a new 18S rDNA gene arrangement in terms of intron localization and nucleotide sequence in a Dunaliella isolated from Iranian salt lakes (ABRIINW-M1/2). PCR amplification with genus-specific primers resulted in production of a ~2170 bp DNA band, which is similar to that of D. salina 18S rDNA gene containing only one intron near 5' terminus. Whilst, sequence composition of the gene revealed the lack of any intron near 5' terminus in our isolate. Furthermore, another alteration was observed due to the presence of a 440 bp DNA fragment near 3' terminus. Accordingly, 18S rDNA gene of the isolate is clearly different from those of D. salina and any other Dunaliella species reported so far. Moreover, analysis of ITS region sequence showed the diversity of this region compared to the previously reported species. 18S rDNA and ITS sequences of our isolate were submitted with accesion numbers of EU678868 and EU927373 in NCBI database, respectively. The optimum growth rate of this isolate occured at the salinity level of 1 M NaCl. The maximum carotenoid content under stress condition of intense light (400 mumol photon m-2 s-1), high salinity (4 M NaCl) and deficiency of nitrate and phosphate nutritions reached to 240 ng/cell after 15 days.

  8. Introduction of a novel 18S rDNA gene arrangement along with distinct ITS region in the saline water microalga Dunaliella

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of 18S rDNA gene sequences is a very promising method for identification and classification of living organisms. Molecular identification and discrimination of different Dunaliella species were carried out based on the size of 18S rDNA gene and, number and position of introns in the gene. Three types of 18S rDNA structure have already been reported: the gene with a size of ~1770 bp lacking any intron, with a size of ~2170 bp consisting one intron near 5' terminus, and with a size of ~2570 bp harbouring two introns near 5' and 3' termini. Hereby, we report a new 18S rDNA gene arrangement in terms of intron localization and nucleotide sequence in a Dunaliella isolated from Iranian salt lakes (ABRIINW-M1/2). PCR amplification with genus-specific primers resulted in production of a ~2170 bp DNA band, which is similar to that of D. salina 18S rDNA gene containing only one intron near 5' terminus. Whilst, sequence composition of the gene revealed the lack of any intron near 5' terminus in our isolate. Furthermore, another alteration was observed due to the presence of a 440 bp DNA fragment near 3' terminus. Accordingly, 18S rDNA gene of the isolate is clearly different from those of D. salina and any other Dunaliella species reported so far. Moreover, analysis of ITS region sequence showed the diversity of this region compared to the previously reported species. 18S rDNA and ITS sequences of our isolate were submitted with accesion numbers of EU678868 and EU927373 in NCBI database, respectively. The optimum growth rate of this isolate occured at the salinity level of 1 M NaCl. The maximum carotenoid content under stress condition of intense light (400 μmol photon m-2 s-1), high salinity (4 M NaCl) and deficiency of nitrate and phosphate nutritions reached to 240 ng/cell after 15 days. PMID:20377865

  9. Phenotypic characterization of two naturally occurring human Cytomegalovirus sequence polymorphisms located in a distinct region of ORF UL56 known to be involved in in vitro resistance to letermovir.

    PubMed

    Goldner, Thomas; Zimmermann, Holger; Lischka, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Letermovir is a new drug in Phase 3 clinical development for the prevention of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in hematopoietic-stem-cell transplant recipients (HSCT). In contrast to marketed anti-HCMV drugs which all target the viral DNA polymerase, letermovir's novel mode of action targets the UL56 subunit of the viral terminase complex. Consistently letermovir resistance has mapped in vitro to a distinct region within ORF UL56 (amino acid 230-370). Here we used marker transfer to demonstrate that two naturally occurring UL56 sequence variants within this region, located directly adjacent to sites known to mediate letermovir resistance in vitro (D242G and A327V) represent normal interstrain polymorphisms unrelated to drug-resistance.

  10. Effects of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A in diencephalic regions of the teleost fish Coris julis occur preferentially via distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Alo', Raffaella; Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Madeo, Maria; Giusi, Giuseppina; Carelli, Antonio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2005-04-15

    The xenoestrogen bisphenol A, a contaminant used in the manufacturing of polymers for many consumer products, has been shown to mimic estrogenic actions. This xenoestrogen regulates secretion and expression of pituitary lactotrophs plus morphological and structural features of estrogen target tissues in rodents. Recently, ecological hazards produced by bisphenol A have drawn interests towards the effects of this environmental chemical on neurobiological functions of aquatic vertebrates of which little is known. In this study, the effects of bisphenol A on the distribution of the biologically more active somatostatin receptor subtypes in diencephalic regions of the teleost fish Coris julis were assessed using nonpeptide agonists (L-779, 976 and L-817, 818) that are highly selective for subtype(2) and subtype(5), respectively. Bisphenol A proved to be responsible for highly significant increased binding levels of subtype(2) in hypothalamic areas, while markedly decreased levels of subtype(5) were found in these diencephalic areas, as well as in the medial preglomerular nucleus. The extensive distribution of somatostatin receptor subtype(2) and subtype(5) in the teleost diencephalic areas suggests that, like in mammals, this receptor system may not only be involved in enhanced hypophysiotropic neurohormonal functions but might also promote neuroplasticity events.

  11. Distinct Roles for the N- and C-terminal Regions of M-Sec in Plasma Membrane Deformation during Tunneling Nanotube Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Masami; Yamakami-Kimura, Megumi; Sato, Yusuke; Yamagata, Atsushi; Kobashigawa, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Amada, Takako; Hase, Koji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Fukai, Shuya

    2016-01-01

    The tunneling nanotube (TNT) is a structure used for intercellular communication, and is a thin membrane protrusion mediating transport of various signaling molecules and cellular components. M-Sec has potent membrane deformation ability and induces TNT formation in cooperation with the Ral/exocyst complex. Here, we show that the N-terminal polybasic region of M-Sec directly binds phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate for its localization to the plasma membrane during the initial stage of TNT formation. We further report a crystal structure of M-Sec, which consists of helix bundles arranged in a straight rod-like shape, similar to the membrane tethering complex subunits. A positively charged surface in the C-terminal domains is required for M-Sec interaction with active RalA to extend the plasma membrane protrusions. Our results suggest that the membrane-associated M-Sec recruits active RalA, which directs the exocyst complex to form TNTs. PMID:27629377

  12. Meiotic cohesin subunits RAD21L and REC8 are positioned at distinct regions between lateral elements and transverse filaments in the synaptonemal complex of mouse spermatocytes

    PubMed Central

    RONG, Mei; MATSUDA, Atsushi; HIRAOKA, Yasushi; LEE, Jibak

    2016-01-01

    Cohesins containing a meiosis-specific α-kleisin subunit, RAD21L or REC8, play roles in diverse aspects of meiotic chromosome dynamics including formation of axial elements (AEs), assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC), recombination of homologous chromosomes (homologs), and cohesion of sister chromatids. However, the exact functions of individual α-kleisins remain to be elucidated. Here, we examined the localization of RAD21L and REC8 within the SC by super-resolution microscopy, 3D-SIM. We found that both RAD21L and REC8 were localized at the connection sites between lateral elements (LEs) and transverse filaments (TFs) of pachynema with RAD21L locating interior to REC8 sites. RAD21L and REC8 were not symmetrical in terms of synaptic homologs, suggesting that the arrangement of different cohesins is not strictly fixed along all chromosome axes. Intriguingly, some RAD21L signals, but not REC8 signals, were observed between unsynapsed regions of AEs of zygonema as if they formed a bridge between homologs. Furthermore, the signals of recombination intermediates overlapped with those of RAD21L to a greater degree than with those of REC8. These results highlight the different properties of two meiotic α-kleisins, and strongly support the previous proposition that RAD21L is an atypical cohesin that establishes the association between homologs rather than sister chromatids. PMID:27665783

  13. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  14. Non - Vegetated Standard Bioretention Structure Hydrodynamic Soil Characterization For Ponding - Layer Optimum Thickness Determination With A Distinctive Urban - Region Rainfall Event In Bogota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Ávila, Frank; Acero Rivero, Germán Eduardo; Angulo Jaramillo, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    bioretention structures' operation condition retention time and outflow. A storage layer in the base of the structure, which is made up by rocks to settle an appropriate retention volume, was suggested after computing model results. A Hydrus-1D direct model was also made as an application example for an urban zone in Bogota in order to observe the structure's behaviour and the runoff - peak mitigation percentage under normal functioning conditions, using hydrological data from the study region given by the water and sewage - service provider in Bogota city.

  15. Maintaining the unmethylated state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA

  16. Distinctiveness in the face of gene flow: hybridization between specialist and generalist gartersnakes.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Placyk, John S; Niemiller, Matthew L; Casper, Gary S; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of divergence and polymorphism across hybrid zones can provide important clues as to their origin and maintenance. Unimodal hybrid zones or hybrid swarms are composed predominantly of recombinant individuals whose genomes are patchworks of alleles derived from each parental lineage. In contrast, bimodal hybrid zones contain few identifiable hybrids; most individuals fall within distinct genetic clusters. Distinguishing between hybrid swarms and bimodal hybrid zones can be important for taxonomic and conservation decisions regarding the status and value of hybrid populations. In addition, the causes of bimodality are important in understanding the generation and maintenance of biological diversity. For example, are distinct clusters mostly reproductively isolated and co-adapted gene complexes, or can distinctiveness be maintained by a few 'genomic islands' despite rampant gene flow across much of the genome? Here we focus on three patterns of distinctiveness in the face of gene flow between gartersnake taxa in the Great Lakes region of North America. Bimodality, the persistence of distinct clusters of genotypes, requires strong barriers to gene flow and supports recognition of distinct specialist (Thamnophis butleri) and generalist (Thamnophis radix) taxa. Concordance of DNA-based clusters with morphometrics supports the hypothesis that trophic morphology is a key component of divergence. Finally, disparity in the level of differentiation across molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphisms) indicates that distinctiveness is maintained by strong selection on a few traits despite high gene flow currently or in the recent past.

  17. Critical region in 2q31.2q32.3 deletion syndrome: Report of two phenotypically distinct patients, one with an additional deletion in Alagille syndrome region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Standard cytogenetic analysis has revealed to date more than 30 reported cases presenting interstitial deletions involving region 2q31-q32, but with poorly defined breakpoints. After the postulation of 2q31.2q32.3 deletion as a clinically recognizable disorder, more patients were reported with a critical region proposed and candidate genes pointed out. Results We report two female patients with de novo chromosome 2 cytogenetically visible deletions, one of them with an additional de novo deletion in chromosome 20p12.2p12.3. Patient I presents a 16.8 Mb deletion in 2q31.2q32.3 while patient II presents a smaller deletion of 7 Mb in 2q32.1q32.3, entirely contained within patient I deleted region, and a second 4 Mb deletion in Alagille syndrome region. Patient I clearly manifests symptoms associated with the 2q31.2q32.3 deletion syndrome, like the muscular phenotype and behavioral problems, while patient II phenotype is compatible with the 20p12 deletion since she manifests problems at the cardiac level, without significant dysmorphisms and an apparently normal psychomotor development. Conclusions Whereas Alagille syndrome is a well characterized condition mainly caused by haploinsufficiency of JAG1 gene, with manifestations that can range from slight clinical findings to major symptoms in different domains, the 2q31.2q32.3 deletion syndrome is still being delineated. The occurrence of both imbalances in reported patient II would be expected to cause a more severe phenotype compared to the individual phenotype associated with each imbalance, which is not the case, since there are no manifestations due to the 2q32 deletion. This, together with the fact that patient I deleted region overlaps previously reported cases and patient II deletion is outside this common region, reinforces the existence of a critical region in 2q31.3q32.1, between 181 to 185 Mb, responsible for the clinical phenotype. PMID:22550961

  18. Why have the peninsular "negritos" remained distinct?

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The primary focus of this article is on the so-called negritos of Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand, but attention is also paid to other parts of Southeast Asia. I present a survey of current views on the "negrito" phenotype--is it single or many? If the phenotype is many (as now seems likely), it must have resulted from parallel evolution in the several different regions where it has been claimed to exist. This would suggest (contrary to certain views that have been expressed on the basis of very partial genetic data) that the phenotype originated recently and by biologically well-authenticated processes from within the neighboring populations. Whole-genome and physical-anthropological research currently support this view. Regardless of whether the negrito phenotype is ancient or recent-and to the extent that it retains any valid biological reality (which is worth questioning)-explanations are still needed for its continued distinctiveness. In the Malay Peninsula, a distinctive "Semang" societal pattern followed by most, but not all, so-called negritos may have been responsible for this by shaping familial, breeding, and demographic patterns to suit the two main modes of environmental appropriation that they have followed, probably for some millennia: nomadic foraging in the forest, and facultative dependence on exchange or labor relations with neighboring populations. The known distribution of "negritos" in the Malay Peninsula is limited to areas within relatively easy reach of archaeologically authenticated premodern transpeninsular trading and portage routes, as well as of other non-negrito, Aslian-speaking populations engaged in swidden farming. This suggests that their continued distinctiveness has resulted from a wish to maintain a complementary advantage vis-à-vis other, less specialized populations. Nevertheless, a significant degree of discordance exists between the associated linguistic, societal-tradition, and biological patterns which suggests

  19. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV) is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep) and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR) led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in the non-coding region of

  20. Differential effects of chronic amphetamine and baclofen administration on cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB in distinct brain regions of wild type and monoamine oxidase B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsiang-Shu; Chen, Kevin; Kalpana, Sriram; Shih, Jean C

    2006-12-15

    Roles of GABA(B) transmission were explored in the action of amphetamine (Amph) on the brain. Adult male wild type (WT) and monoamine oxidase B-knocked out (MAOBKO) mice received i.p. injections of saline, d-Amph (5 mg/kg), plus baclofen (GABA(B) receptor agonist, 10 mg/kg), or baclofen and Amph, twice daily for 3 days and single treatments on day 4, followed by immuno-cyclic-AMP (cAMP) and immunoblotting assays on the brain tissue. The WT mice responded with higher levels of behavioral responses than the KO to the daily Amph injection; however, baclofen blocked the Amph-induced behavioral hyperactivity of both WT and KO mice. After the last treatment, levels of cAMP and phosphorylated (p) cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) were up-regulated in the striatum and somatosensory cortex of Amph-treated WT mice, while similar to the saline-controls in the baclofen+Amph-treated group, indicating the blockade by baclofen to Amph. Baclofen similarly suppressed the Amph-induced increases in pCREB levels of WT hippocampus and amygdala, and decreases of olfactory bulb and thalamus. For MAOBKO mice, baclofen hindered the Amph-generated increases in motor cortical cAMP and pCREB, and amygdaloid pCREB, and the decrease in olfactory bulb pCREB, whereas did not affect the Amph-raised hippocampal pCREB. Furthermore, the levels of CREB were variably modified in distinct regions by the drug exposures. The data reveal that the GABA(B)-mediated intracellular signaling differentially participates in mechanisms underlying Amph perturbation to various regions, and may thereby contribute explanations to the behavioral consequences. Moreover, MAOB is region-dependently involved in responses of the brain to Amph and baclofen, supporting interactions between GABA and monoamines.

  1. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  2. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Epstein, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity. PMID:26064615

  3. Living on the edge: how philopatry maintains adaptive potential

    PubMed Central

    Stiebens, Victor A.; Merino, Sonia E.; Roder, Christian; Chain, Frédéric J. J.; Lee, Patricia L. M.; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Without genetic variation, species cannot cope with changing environments, and evolution does not proceed. In endangered species, adaptive potential may be eroded by decreased population sizes and processes that further reduce gene flow such as philopatry and local adaptations. Here, we focused on the philopatric and endangered loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting in Cape Verde as a model system to investigate the link between adaptive potential and philopatry. We produced a dataset of three complementary genomic regions to investigate female philopatric behaviour (mitochondrial DNA), male-mediated gene flow (microsatellites) and adaptive potential (major histocompatibility complex, MHC). Results revealed genetically distinct nesting colonies, indicating remarkably small-scale philopatric behaviour of females. Furthermore, these colonies also harboured local pools of MHC alleles, especially at the margins of the population's distribution, which are therefore important reserves of additional diversity for the population. Meanwhile, directional male-mediated gene flow from the margins of distribution sustains the adaptive potential for the entire rookery. We therefore present the first evidence for a positive association between philopatry and locally adapted genomic regions. Contrary to expectation, we propose that philopatry conserves a high adaptive potential at the margins of a distribution, while asymmetric gene flow maintains genetic connectivity with the rest of the population. PMID:23720544

  4. A distinctly disorganised dwarf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-28

    Despite being less famous than their elliptical and spiral galactic cousins, irregular dwarf galaxies, such as the one captured in this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image, are actually one of the most common types of galaxy in the Universe. Known as UGC 4459, this dwarf galaxy is located approximately 11 million light-years away in the constellation of Ursa Major (The Great Bear), a constellation that is also home to the Pinwheel Galaxy (M101), the Owl Nebula (M97), Messier 81, Messier 82 and several other galaxies all part of the M81 group. UGC 4459’s diffused and disorganised appearance is characteristic of an irregular dwarf galaxy. Lacking a distinctive structure or shape, irregular dwarf galaxies are often chaotic in appearance, with neither a nuclear bulge — a huge, tightly packed central group of stars — nor any trace of spiral arms — regions of stars extending from the centre of the galaxy. Astronomers suspect that some irregular dwarf galaxies were once spiral or elliptical galaxies, but were later deformed by the gravitational pull of nearby objects. Rich with young blue stars and older red stars, UGC 4459 has a stellar population of several billion. Though seemingly impressive, this is small when compared to the 200 to 400 billion stars in the Milky Way! Observations with Hubble have shown that because of their low masses, star formation is very low compared to larger galaxies. Only very little of their original gas has been turned into stars. Thus, these small galaxies are interesting to study to better understand primordial environments and the star formation process.

  5. Human maternal heritage in Andalusia (Spain): its composition reveals high internal complexity and distinctive influences of mtDNA haplogroups U6 and L in the western and eastern side of region.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Candela L; Reales, Guillermo; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Novelletto, Andrea; Rodríguez, Juan Nicolás; Cuesta, Pedro; Calderón, Rosario

    2014-01-24

    The archeology and history of the ancient Mediterranean have shown that this sea has been a permeable obstacle to human migration. Multiple cultural exchanges around the Mediterranean have taken place with presumably population admixtures. A gravitational territory of those migrations has been the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the maternal gene pool, by means of control region sequencing and PCR-RFLP typing, of autochthonous Andalusians originating from the coastal provinces of Huelva and Granada, located respectively in the west and the east of the region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition of these two southern Spanish populations has revealed a wide spectrum of haplogroups from different geographical origins. The registered frequencies of Eurasian markers, together with the high incidence and diversification of African maternal lineages (15% of the total mitochondrial variability) among Huelva Andalusians when compared to its eastwards relatives of Granada and other Iberian populations, constitute relevant findings unknown up-to-date on the characteristics of mtDNA within Andalusia that testifies a female population substructure. Therefore, Andalusia must not be considered a single, unique population. The maternal legacy among Andalusians reflects distinctive local histories, pointing out the role of the westernmost territory of Peninsular Spain as a noticeable recipient of multiple and diverse human migrations. The obtained results underline the necessity of further research on genetic relationships in both sides of the western Mediterranean, using carefully collected samples from autochthonous individuals. Many studies have focused on recent North African gene flow towards Iberia, yet scientific attention should be now directed to thoroughly study the introduction of European genes in northwest Africa across the sea, in order to determine its magnitude, timescale and methods, and to compare them to those terrestrial movements

  6. Human maternal heritage in Andalusia (Spain): its composition reveals high internal complexity and distinctive influences of mtDNA haplogroups U6 and L in the western and eastern side of region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The archeology and history of the ancient Mediterranean have shown that this sea has been a permeable obstacle to human migration. Multiple cultural exchanges around the Mediterranean have taken place with presumably population admixtures. A gravitational territory of those migrations has been the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the maternal gene pool, by means of control region sequencing and PCR-RFLP typing, of autochthonous Andalusians originating from the coastal provinces of Huelva and Granada, located respectively in the west and the east of the region. Results The mtDNA haplogroup composition of these two southern Spanish populations has revealed a wide spectrum of haplogroups from different geographical origins. The registered frequencies of Eurasian markers, together with the high incidence and diversification of African maternal lineages (15% of the total mitochondrial variability) among Huelva Andalusians when compared to its eastwards relatives of Granada and other Iberian populations, constitute relevant findings unknown up-to-date on the characteristics of mtDNA within Andalusia that testifies a female population substructure. Therefore, Andalusia must not be considered a single, unique population. Conclusions The maternal legacy among Andalusians reflects distinctive local histories, pointing out the role of the westernmost territory of Peninsular Spain as a noticeable recipient of multiple and diverse human migrations. The obtained results underline the necessity of further research on genetic relationships in both sides of the western Mediterranean, using carefully collected samples from autochthonous individuals. Many studies have focused on recent North African gene flow towards Iberia, yet scientific attention should be now directed to thoroughly study the introduction of European genes in northwest Africa across the sea, in order to determine its magnitude, timescale and methods, and to compare them to

  7. 2q37.3 Deletion Syndrome: Two Cases with Highly Distinctive Facial Phenotype, Discordant Association with Schizophrenic Psychosis, and Shared Deletion Breakpoint Region on 2q37.3.

    PubMed

    Mehraein, Yasmin; Pfob, Martina; Steinlein, Ortrud; Aichinger, Eric; Eggert, Marlene; Bubendorff, Valerie; Mannhart, Adelina; Müller, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    2q37.3 deletion syndrome belongs to the chromosomal 2q37 deletion spectrum which clinically resembles Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) syndrome. It is is mainly characterized by short stature, obesity, round face, brachydactyly type E, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and variable intellectual deficits. Different from classical AHO syndrome, patients with 2q37 deletion syndrome lack renal parathyroid hormone resistance (pseudohypoparathyroidism) and soft tissue ossification. So far, deletion mapping or molecular breakpoint analyses of 2q37 have been performed in only few patients. Here, we report on 2 patients with 2q37.3 deletion syndrome. In both patients the breakpoint of the 5.5-Mb terminal microdeletion could be narrowed down to the same ∼ 200-kb interval on 2q37.3 by BAC-FISH and/or array-CGH. Flanking low-copy repeats may indicate a classical microdeletion syndrome genesis for the 2q37.3 microdeletion subgroup. Clinical evaluation revealed intellectual deficits and type E brachydactyly typical for classical AHO syndrome together with distinctive facial dysmorphisms not present in the former. Furthermore, one patient presented with schizophrenic psychosis, an observation that would be in accordance with previous reports about an association between schizophrenia susceptibility and an unknown gene within the chromosomal region 2q37.

  8. Lkb1 maintains Treg cell lineage identity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Luo, Yuechen; Guo, Wei; Niu, Qing; Xue, Ting; Yang, Fei; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Song; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jingru; Sun, Zhina; Zhao, Chunxiao; Huang, Huifang; Liao, Fang; Han, Zhongchao; Zhou, Dongming; Yang, Yongguang; Xu, Guogang; Cheng, Tao; Feng, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a distinct T-cell lineage characterized by sustained Foxp3 expression and potent suppressor function, but the upstream dominant factors that preserve Treg lineage-specific features are mostly unknown. Here, we show that Lkb1 maintains Treg cell lineage identity by stabilizing Foxp3 expression and enforcing suppressor function. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation Lkb1 protein expression is upregulated in Treg cells but not in conventional T cells. Mice with Treg cell-specific deletion of Lkb1 develop a fatal early-onset autoimmune disease, with no Foxp3 expression in most Treg cells. Lkb1 stabilizes Foxp3 expression by preventing STAT4-mediated methylation of the conserved noncoding sequence 2 (CNS2) in the Foxp3 locus. Independent of maintaining Foxp3 expression, Lkb1 programs the expression of a wide spectrum of immunosuppressive genes, through mechanisms involving the augmentation of TGF-β signalling. These findings identify a critical function of Lkb1 in maintaining Treg cell lineage identity. PMID:28621313

  9. Maintaining quality in online education.

    PubMed

    Moore, Janet C

    2007-01-01

    Higher education is adapting to new technologies and to the evolving pedagogies that accompany change. Maintaining quality begins with identifying purpose and assessing progress. Using the Sloan Consortium's quality framework, this article provides resources for measuring quality in online environments.

  10. The C-Terminal Region of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Nucleoprotein Contains Distinct and Segregable Functional Domains Involved in NP-Z Interaction and Counteraction of the Type I Interferon Response▿

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Riaño, Emilio; Cheng, Benson Yee Hin; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans that is associated with high morbidity and significant mortality. Arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP), the most abundant viral protein in infected cells and virions, encapsidates the viral genome RNA, and this NP-RNA complex, together with the viral L polymerase, forms the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) that directs viral RNA replication and gene transcription. Formation of infectious arenavirus progeny requires packaging of vRNPs into budding particles, a process in which arenavirus matrix-like protein (Z) plays a central role. In the present study, we have characterized the NP-Z interaction for the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The LCMV NP domain that interacted with Z overlapped with a previously documented C-terminal domain that counteracts the host type I interferon (IFN) response. However, we found that single amino acid mutations that affect the anti-IFN function of LCMV NP did not disrupt the NP-Z interaction, suggesting that within the C-terminal region of NP different amino acid residues critically contribute to these two distinct and segregable NP functions. A similar NP-Z interaction was confirmed for the HF arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV). Notably, LCMV NP interacted similarly with both LCMV Z and LASV Z, while LASV NP interacted only with LASV Z. Our results also suggest the presence of a conserved protein domain within NP but with specific amino acid residues playing key roles in determining the specificity of NP-Z interaction that may influence the viability of reassortant arenaviruses. In addition, this NP-Z interaction represents a potential target for the development of antiviral drugs to combat human-pathogenic arenaviruses. PMID:21976642

  11. Maintaining oral health after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Hazel

    Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.

  12. Strategies for Maintaining Community Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Fred

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…

  13. Maintaining COTS-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    12-1 Maintaining COTS-Based Systems Dr. Mark R. Vigder John Dean National Research Council of Canada Institute for Information Technology Ottawa...evluton destifyng cand s yste dff uresamng sets ongoingoperato n.ts devhoisg Configuration magement Tracking versions of different COTS products

  14. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  15. Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnagey, William J.

    This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

  16. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  17. Face-selective neurons maintain consistent visual responses across months.

    PubMed

    McMahon, David B T; Jones, Adam P; Bondar, Igor V; Leopold, David A

    2014-06-03

    Face perception in both humans and monkeys is thought to depend on neurons clustered in discrete, specialized brain regions. Because primates are frequently called upon to recognize and remember new individuals, the neuronal representation of faces in the brain might be expected to change over time. The functional properties of neurons in behaving animals are typically assessed over time periods ranging from minutes to hours, which amounts to a snapshot compared to a lifespan of a neuron. It therefore remains unclear how neuronal properties observed on a given day predict that same neuron's activity months or years later. Here we show that the macaque inferotemporal cortex contains face-selective cells that show virtually no change in their patterns of visual responses over time periods as long as one year. Using chronically implanted microwire electrodes guided by functional MRI targeting, we obtained distinct profiles of selectivity for face and nonface stimuli that served as fingerprints for individual neurons in the anterior fundus (AF) face patch within the superior temporal sulcus. Longitudinal tracking over a series of daily recording sessions revealed that face-selective neurons maintain consistent visual response profiles across months-long time spans despite the influence of ongoing daily experience. We propose that neurons in the AF face patch are specialized for aspects of face perception that demand stability as opposed to plasticity.

  18. Distinct functions for ERKs?

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Alison C

    2006-01-01

    The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is one of the best understood signal routes in cells. Recent studies add complexity to this cascade by indicating that the two ERK kinases, ERK1 (p44ERK1) and ERK2 (p42ERK2), may have distinct functions. PMID:16879721

  19. Developing Distinctive Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchild, Lester F.; Chambers, Crystal Renée; Freeman, Sydney, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding one's competitive stance in a globally competitive environment provides the requisite awareness to maintain both competitive edge and institutional responsiveness. In this chapter, three case studies are presented to provide examples of ways in which strategic scanning can enhance the academic program development process and how…

  20. Developing Distinctive Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchild, Lester F.; Chambers, Crystal Renée; Freeman, Sydney, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding one's competitive stance in a globally competitive environment provides the requisite awareness to maintain both competitive edge and institutional responsiveness. In this chapter, three case studies are presented to provide examples of ways in which strategic scanning can enhance the academic program development process and how…

  1. Can modular psychological concepts like affect and emotion be assigned to a distinct subset of regional neural circuits?. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    The proposed Quartet Theory of Human Emotions by Koelsch and co-workers [11] adumbrates evidence from various scientific sources to integrate and assign the psychological concepts of 'affect' and 'emotion' to four brain circuits or to four neuronal core systems for affect-processing in the brain. The authors differentiate between affect and emotion and assign several facultative, or to say modular, psychological domains and principles of information processing, such as learning and memory, antecedents of affective activity, emotion satiation, cognitive complexity, subjective quality feelings, degree of conscious appraisal, to different affect systems. Furthermore, they relate orbito-frontal brain structures to moral affects as uniquely human, and the hippocampus to attachment-related affects. An additional feature of the theory describes 'emotional effector-systems' for motor-related processes (e.g., emotion-related actions), physiological arousal, attention and memory that are assumed to be cross-linked with the four proposed affect systems. Thus, higher principles of emotional information processing, but also modular affect-related issues, such as moral and attachment related affects, are thought to be handled by these four different physiological sub-systems that are on the other side assumed to be highly interwoven at both physiological and functional levels. The authors also state that the proposed sub-systems have many features in common, such as the selection and modulation of biological processes related to behaviour, perception, attention and memory. The latter aspect challenges an ongoing discussion about the mind-body problem: To which degree do the proposed sub-systems 'sufficiently' cover the processing of complex modular or facultative emotional/affective and/or cognitive phenomena? There are current models and scientific positions that almost completely reject the idea that modular psychological phenomena are handled by a distinct selection of

  2. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  3. Maintaining the Defense Industrial Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-02

    34 43 Utilizing concurrent engineering , development times are reduced by up to 40%.44 Japan’s auto industry use of concurrent engineering is a factor in... Developing this prescription for maintaining the defense industrial base involves a two step process. First, it is important to establish the current...increased. The skills required to work with advanced aerospace composite materials are unique to the industry . Developing 8 -1777 profiiency in this

  4. The lincRNA HOTAIRM1, located in the HOXA genomic region, is expressed in acute myeloid leukemia, impacts prognosis in patients in the intermediate-risk cytogenetic category, and is associated with a distinctive microRNA signature.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Beyá, Marina; Brunet, Salut; Nomdedéu, Josep; Pratcorona, Marta; Cordeiro, Anna; Gallardo, David; Escoda, Lourdes; Tormo, Mar; Heras, Inmaculada; Ribera, Josep Maria; Duarte, Rafael; de Llano, María Paz Queipo; Bargay, Joan; Sampol, Antonia; Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Risueño, Ruth M; Hoyos, Montserrat; Sierra, Jorge; Monzo, Mariano; Navarro, Alfons; Esteve, Jordi

    2015-10-13

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are deregulated in several tumors, although their role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is mostly unknown.We have examined the expression of the lncRNA HOX antisense intergenic RNA myeloid 1 (HOTAIRM1) in 241 AML patients. We have correlated HOTAIRM1 expression with a miRNA expression profile. We have also analyzed the prognostic value of HOTAIRM1 expression in 215 intermediate-risk AML (IR-AML) patients.The lowest expression level was observed in acute promyelocytic leukemia (P < 0.001) and the highest in t(6;9) AML (P = 0.005). In 215 IR-AML patients, high HOTAIRM1 expression was independently associated with shorter overall survival (OR:2.04;P = 0.001), shorter leukemia-free survival (OR:2.56; P < 0.001) and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse (OR:1.67; P = 0.046). Moreover, HOTAIRM1 maintained its independent prognostic value within the favorable molecular subgroup (OR: 3.43; P = 0.009). Interestingly, HOTAIRM1 was overexpressed in NPM1-mutated AML (P < 0.001) and within this group retained its prognostic value (OR: 2.21; P = 0.01). Moreover, HOTAIRM1 expression was associated with a specific 33-microRNA signature that included miR-196b (P < 0.001). miR-196b is located in the HOX genomic region and has previously been reported to have an independent prognostic value in AML. miR-196b and HOTAIRM1 in combination as a prognostic factor can classify patients as high-, intermediate-, or low-risk (5-year OS: 24% vs 42% vs 70%; P = 0.004).Determination of HOTAIRM1 level at diagnosis provided relevant prognostic information in IR-AML and allowed refinement of risk stratification based on common molecular markers. The prognostic information provided by HOTAIRM1 was strengthened when combined with miR-196b expression. Furthermore, HOTAIRM1 correlated with a 33-miRNA signature.

  5. The lincRNA HOTAIRM1, located in the HOXA genomic region, is expressed in acute myeloid leukemia, impacts prognosis in patients in the intermediate-risk cytogenetic category, and is associated with a distinctive microRNA signature

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Beyá, Marina; Brunet, Salut; Nomdedéu, Josep; Pratcorona, Marta; Cordeiro, Anna; Gallardo, David; Escoda, Lourdes; Tormo, Mar; Heras, Inmaculada; Ribera, Josep Maria; Duarte, Rafael; de Llano, María Paz Queipo; Bargay, Joan; Sampol, Antonia; Nomdedeu, Mertixell; Risueño, Ruth M.; Hoyos, Montserrat; Sierra, Jorge; Monzo, Mariano; Navarro, Alfons; Esteve, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are deregulated in several tumors, although their role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is mostly unknown. We have examined the expression of the lncRNA HOX antisense intergenic RNA myeloid 1 (HOTAIRM1) in 241 AML patients. We have correlated HOTAIRM1 expression with a miRNA expression profile. We have also analyzed the prognostic value of HOTAIRM1 expression in 215 intermediate-risk AML (IR-AML) patients. The lowest expression level was observed in acute promyelocytic leukemia (P < 0.001) and the highest in t(6;9) AML (P = 0.005). In 215 IR-AML patients, high HOTAIRM1 expression was independently associated with shorter overall survival (OR:2.04;P = 0.001), shorter leukemia-free survival (OR:2.56; P < 0.001) and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse (OR:1.67; P = 0.046). Moreover, HOTAIRM1 maintained its independent prognostic value within the favorable molecular subgroup (OR: 3.43; P = 0.009). Interestingly, HOTAIRM1 was overexpressed in NPM1-mutated AML (P < 0.001) and within this group retained its prognostic value (OR: 2.21; P = 0.01). Moreover, HOTAIRM1 expression was associated with a specific 33- microRNA signature that included miR-196b (P < 0.001). miR-196b is located in the HOX genomic region and has previously been reported to have an independent prognostic value in AML. miR-196b and HOTAIRM1 in combination as a prognostic factor can classify patients as high-, intermediate-, or low-risk (5-year OS: 24% vs 42% vs 70%; P = 0.004). Determination of HOTAIRM1 level at diagnosis provided relevant prognostic information in IR-AML and allowed refinement of risk stratification based on common molecular markers. The prognostic information provided by HOTAIRM1 was strengthened when combined with miR-196b expression. Furthermore, HOTAIRM1 correlated with a 33-miRNA signature. PMID:26436590

  6. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  7. Spacecraft reliability/maintainability optimization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharmahd, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a procedure to develop a methodology to optimize man-serviced systems for reliability and maintainability. The spacecraft systems are analyzed using failure modes and effects analysis and maintenance analysis, component mean-time-between failure, duty cycle, type of redundancy, and cost information to develop parametric data on various time intervals. Included are crew time-to-repair, cost, weight, and volume effects of increasing subsystem reliability above the baseline. Results are presented for space systems using the existing data from a research and applications module. These results show the minimum cost of sustaining mission operations.

  8. How to maintain chain drives

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L. )

    1992-06-18

    Properly selected and maintained chain drives can be expected to give thousands of hours of reliable service. Selection is usually done just once. This paper reports on good maintenance which must be done regularly to keep the drive operating. An effective maintenance program for roller chain should include correct type and adequate amounts of lubrication, replacement of worn chains and sprockets, and elimination of drive interferences. It is important to set u a lubrication and inspection/correction schedule to ensure that all required maintenance is carried out.

  9. Temporal stability and representational distinctiveness: Key functions of orthographic working memory

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vanessa; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele; Rapp, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    A primary goal of working memory research has been to understand the mechanisms that permit working memory systems to effectively maintain the identity and order of the elements held in memory for sufficient time as to allow for their selection and transfer to subsequent processing stages. Based on the performance of two individuals with acquired dysgraphia affecting orthographic WM (the graphemic buffer) we present evidence of two distinct and dissociable functions of orthographic WM. One function is responsible for maintaining the temporal stability of letters held in orthographic WM, while the other is responsible for maintaining their representational distinctiveness. The failure to maintain temporal stability and representational distinctiveness give rise, respectively, to decay and interference effects that manifest themselves in distinctive error patterns, including distinct serial position effects. The findings we report have implications beyond our understanding of orthographic WM, as the need to maintain temporal stability and representational distinctiveness in WM is common across cognitive domains. PMID:22248210

  10. Vestibular thalamus: Two distinct graviceptive pathways.

    PubMed

    Baier, Bernhard; Conrad, Julian; Stephan, Thomas; Kirsch, Valerie; Vogt, Thomas; Wilting, Janine; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Dieterich, Marianne

    2016-01-12

    To determine whether there are distinct thalamic regions statistically associated with either contraversive or ipsiversive disturbance of verticality perception measured by subjective visual vertical (SVV). We used modern statistical lesion behavior mapping on a sample of 37 stroke patients with isolated thalamic lesions to clarify which thalamic regions are involved in graviceptive otolith processing and whether there are distinct regions associated with contraversive or ipsiversive SVV deviation. We found 2 distinct systems of graviceptive processing within the thalamus. Contraversive tilt of SVV was associated with lesions to the nuclei dorsomedialis, intralamellaris, centrales thalami, posterior thalami, ventrooralis internus, ventrointermedii, ventrocaudales and superior parts of the nuclei parafascicularis thalami. The regions associated with ipsiversive tilt of SVV were located in more inferior regions, involving structures such as the nuclei endymalis thalami, inferior parts of the nuclei parafascicularis thalami, and also small parts of the junction zone of the nuclei ruber tegmenti and brachium conjunctivum. Our data indicate that there are 2 anatomically distinct graviceptive signal processing mechanisms within the vestibular network in humans that lead, when damaged, to a vestibular tone imbalance either to the contraversive or to the ipsiversive side. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Long-term depression is differentially expressed in distinct lamina of hippocampal CA1 dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Binu; Ahmed, Saheeb; Dean, Camin

    2015-01-01

    Information storage in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons is compartmentalized in proximal vs. distal apical dendrites, cell bodies, and basal dendrites. This compartmentalization is thought to be essential for synaptic integration. Differences in the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) in each of these compartments have been described, but less is known regarding potential differences in long-term depression (LTD). Here, to directly compare LTD expression in each compartment and to bypass possible differences in input-specificity and stimulation of presynaptic inputs, we used global application of NMDA to induce LTD. We then examined LTD expression in each dendritic sub-region—proximal and distal apical, and basal dendrites—and in cell bodies. Interestingly, we found that distal apical dendrites exhibited the greatest magnitude of LTD of all areas tested and this LTD was maintained, whereas LTD in proximal apical dendrites was not maintained. In basal dendrites, LTD was also maintained, but the magnitude of LTD was less than in distal apical dendrites. Blockade of inhibition blocked LTD maintenance in both distal apical and basal dendrites. Population spikes recorded from the cell body layer correlated with apical dendrite field EPSP (fEPSP), where LTD was maintained in distal dendrites and decayed in proximal dendrites. On the other hand, LTD of basal dendrite fEPSPs was maintained but population spike responses were not. Thus E-S coupling was distinct in basal and apical dendrites. Our data demonstrate cell autonomous differential information processing in somas and dendritic sub-regions of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus, where LTD expression is intrinsic to distinct dendritic regions, and does not depend on the nature of stimulation and input specificity. PMID:25767434

  12. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  13. Oral rehabilitation to maintain independence.

    PubMed

    Tilman, H H

    1985-02-01

    A child born with missing or deformed upper extremities must learn to develop alternatives for the activities of daily living (ADL). To assure an independent existence, substitutes for nonfunctioning arms and hands must be developed. Teeth can replace hands for all activities that require pinch and grasp, as well as to support adaptive devices for turning pages, typing, drawing and painting. However, without carefully planned dental care, teeth, particularly incisors and canines, will show excessive wear if used for hands over the years. Loss of teeth threatens independence in self-care and in ADL, and loss of self-esteem. Oral health can be restored and retained to maintain function, independence, and esthetics. This case presentation illustrates a challenge and obligation of dentistry in rehabilitation.

  14. When to maintain centrifugal pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Karassik, I.J.

    1993-04-01

    Centrifugal pumps comprise critical maintenance equipment. The rationale of when to maintain them relates to a spreading tendency to contain costs in the face of tight money. Plant managers are thus entitled to a thorough analysis of whether reduced expenditures truly lower costs or actually hinder maintenance and increase costs. Absence of such an analysis hides the fact that proper and timely maintenance has a double effect: it not only reduces power consumption but also extends equipment life, and thus reduces the frequency of labor and material expenditures for scheduled or crisis maintenance. Centrifugal pump maintenance can demonstrate well the validity of this observation. The paper discusses: restoring internal clearances; real cost of renewing clearances; and monitoring clearances and pump performance.

  15. Installing and maintaining gear pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmire, K.

    1996-03-01

    While not as common as centrifugal pumps in the CPI, gear pumps play important roles in handling many of today`s more difficult-to-pump fluids. Because they operate at lower speeds -- generally, 900 rpm or less -- their seals and bearings tend to last longer than those of centrifugal models. In addition, unlike centrifugal pumps, gear pumps` flows are independent of their systems` pressure curves, and they can handle a wider range of viscosities. Although high-flow, low-head applications remain the domain of centrifugal pumps, the use of gear pumps is increasing in the chemical process industries (CPI). While some application boundaries between gears and centrifugals are blurring, there are some crucial differences between the way the two are operated and maintained -- for example, where pressure relief is concerned. This article provides a general summary of gear pump characteristics and applications, highlighting critical aspects of installation, operation and maintenance.

  16. Neuroimaging distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders†

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Nicolas A.; Scott, Jessica; Ellison-Wright, Ian; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear to what extent the traditional distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders reflects biological differences. Aims To examine neuroimaging evidence for the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders. Method We performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry studies reporting decreased grey matter in 14 neurological and 10 psychiatric disorders, and compared the regional and network-level alterations for these two classes of disease. In addition, we estimated neuroanatomical heterogeneity within and between the two classes. Results Basal ganglia, insula, sensorimotor and temporal cortex showed greater impairment in neurological disorders; whereas cingulate, medial frontal, superior frontal and occipital cortex showed greater impairment in psychiatric disorders. The two classes of disorders affected distinct functional networks. Similarity within classes was higher than between classes; furthermore, similarity within class was higher for neurological than psychiatric disorders. Conclusions From a neuroimaging perspective, neurological and psychiatric disorders represent two distinct classes of disorders. PMID:26045351

  17. Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C.; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant tridimensional associations among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal BM. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2+ pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated LepR+ cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2+ peri-arteriolar niches to LepR+ peri-sinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2+ cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in BM. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable to maintain HSC quiescence. PMID:24107994

  18. Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S

    2013-10-31

    Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant three-dimensional associations in the mouse bone marrow among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal bone marrow. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2 (also known as CSPG4)(+) pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated leptin receptor (LEPR)(+) cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of the HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2(+) periarteriolar niches to LEPR(+) perisinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2(+) cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in the bone marrow. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable for maintaining HSC quiescence.

  19. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    PubMed

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  20. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1) The...

  1. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1) The...

  2. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1) The...

  3. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1) The...

  4. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1) The...

  5. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.

  6. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  7. Does PKM(zeta) maintain memory?

    PubMed

    Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-06-01

    Work on the long-term stability of memory has identified a potentially critical role for protein kinase Mzeta (PKMζ) in maintaining established memory. PKMζ, an autonomously active isoform of PKC, is hypothesized to sustain those changes that occurred during memory formation in order to preserve the memory engram over time. Initial studies investigating the role of PKMζ were largely successful in demonstrating a role for the kinase in memory maintenance; disrupting PKMζ activity with ζ-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) was successful in disrupting a variety of established associations in a number of key brain regions. More recent work, however, has questioned both the role of PKMζ in memory maintenance and the effectiveness of ZIP as a specific inhibitor of PKMζ activity. Here, we outline the research both for and against the idea that PKMζ is a memory maintenance mechanism and discuss how these two lines of research can be reconciled. We conclude by proposing a number of studies that would help to clarify the role of PKMζ in memory and define other mechanisms the brain may use to maintain memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Foundations of Distinctive Feature Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.

    This treatise on the theoretical and historical foundations of distinctive feature theory traces the evolution of the distinctive features concept in the context of related notions current in linguistic theory, discusses the evolution of individual distinctive features, and criticizes certain acoustic and perceptual correlates attributed to these…

  9. Foundations of Distinctive Feature Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.

    This treatise on the theoretical and historical foundations of distinctive feature theory traces the evolution of the distinctive features concept in the context of related notions current in linguistic theory, discusses the evolution of individual distinctive features, and criticizes certain acoustic and perceptual correlates attributed to these…

  10. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  11. The Distinction between Epistemic and Non-Epistemic Values in the Natural Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pournari, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I examine the particular question of the meaning of the distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values in the natural sciences and, if this would make sense, the possibility to transcend this distinction. I claim that the distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values maintains its necessity as long as a certain sort…

  12. Breeding maintainer lines for hybrid rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maintainer lines are a component of 3-line hybrid rice production, necessary to perpetuate the male-sterile (MS) line. In practice, it is often the maintainer that is bred with an array of desirable traits, then male-sterility is transferred in through several backcrosses with the new maintainer to...

  13. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions: in silico peptide binding prediction identifies distinct functional clusters.

    PubMed

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie; Nijhof, Ard; Mazzoni, Camila J; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla; Awino, Elias; Olds, Cassandra; Jabbar, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African taurines in T. parva endemic areas is very limited. We utilized the multiplexing capabilities of 454 pyrosequencing to make an initial assessment of class I MHC allelic diversity in a population of Ankole cattle. We also typed a population of exotic Holstein cattle from an African ranch for class I MHC and investigated the extent, if any, that their peptide-binding motifs overlapped with those of Ankole cattle. We report the identification of 18 novel allelic sequences in Ankole cattle and provide evidence of positive selection for sequence diversity, including in residues that predominantly interact with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified in Holstein and Boran (Bos indicus) cattle breeds.

  14. Dephosphorylation of the linker regions of Smad1 and Smad2/3 by small C-terminal domain phosphatases has distinct outcomes for bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-beta pathways.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Gopal; Knockaert, Marie; Alarcón, Claudio; Montalvo, Ermelinda; Brivanlou, Ali H; Massagué, Joan

    2006-12-29

    Smad proteins transduce bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signals upon phosphorylation of their C-terminal SXS motif by receptor kinases. The activity of Smad1 in the BMP pathway and Smad2/3 in the TGFbeta pathway is restricted by pathway cross-talk and feedback through protein kinases, including MAPK, CDK2/4, p38MAPK, JNK, and others. These kinases phosphorylate Smads 1-3 at the region that links the N-terminal DNA-binding domain and the C-terminal transcriptional domain. Phosphatases that dephosphorylate the linker region are therefore likely to play an integral part in the regulation of Smad activity. We reported previously that small C-terminal domain phosphatases 1, 2, and 3 (SCP1-3) dephosphorylate Smad1 C-terminal tail, thereby attenuating BMP signaling. Here we provide evidence that SCP1-3 also dephosphorylate the linker regions of Smad1 and Smad2/3 in vitro, in mammalian cells and in Xenopus embryos. Overexpression of SCP 1, 2, or 3 decreased linker phosphorylation of Smads 1, 2 and 3. Moreover, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SCP1/2 increased the BMP-dependent phosphorylation of the Smad1 linker region as well as the C terminus. In contrast, SCP1/2 knockdown increased the TGFbeta-dependent linker phosphorylation of Smad2/3 but not the C-terminal phosphorylation. Consequently, SCP1/2 knockdown inhibited TGFbeta transcriptional responses, but it enhanced BMP transcriptional responses. Thus, by dephosphorylating Smad2/3 at the linker (inhibitory) but not the C-terminal (activating) site, the SCPs enhance TGFbeta signaling, and by dephosphorylating Smad1 at both sites, the SCPs reset Smad1 to the basal unphosphorylated state.

  15. Development of Distinctive Feature Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Peggy L.

    Since the beginning of man's awareness of his language capabilities and language structure, he has assumed that speech is composed of discrete entities. The linguist attempts to establish a model of the workings of these distinctive sounds in a language. Utilizing an historical basis for discussion, this general survey of the distinctive feature…

  16. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  17. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  18. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  19. "Mid-G" region sequences of the glycoprotein gene of Austrian infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus isolates form two lineages within European isolates and are distinct from American and Asian lineages.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Schachner, Oskar; Dürrwald, Ralf; Latif, Muna; Nowotny, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important pathogens of salmonid fish. In this study a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genetic evolution and variety of Austrian IHNV strains, as well as selected strains ensuring worldwide coverage, is presented. The phylogenetic investigation is based on sequences comprising the "mid-G" region of the G gene, and it includes all currently available IHNV sequences of the G gene with a length of at least 615 bp. Austrian IHNVs are located--together with other European IHNV isolates--in two clusters of genogroup M (M-Eur1 and M-Eur2) and are clearly separated from American and Asian lineages. The genetic clustering, however, could not be linked to certain clinical symptoms or significant differences in the mortality rates.

  20. “Mid-G” Region Sequences of the Glycoprotein Gene of Austrian Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Isolates Form Two Lineages within European Isolates and Are Distinct from American and Asian Lineages▿

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Schachner, Oskar; Dürrwald, Ralf; Latif, Muna; Nowotny, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important pathogens of salmonid fish. In this study a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genetic evolution and variety of Austrian IHNV strains, as well as selected strains ensuring worldwide coverage, is presented. The phylogenetic investigation is based on sequences comprising the “mid-G” region of the G gene, and it includes all currently available IHNV sequences of the G gene with a length of at least 615 bp. Austrian IHNVs are located—together with other European IHNV isolates—in two clusters of genogroup M (M-Eur1 and M-Eur2) and are clearly separated from American and Asian lineages. The genetic clustering, however, could not be linked to certain clinical symptoms or significant differences in the mortality rates. PMID:17977986

  1. Optimal Distinctiveness Signals Membership Trust.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Loyd, Denise Lewin

    2016-07-01

    According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests.

  2. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  3. 7 CFR 1429.113 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS ASPARAGUS REVENUE MARKET LOSS ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM § 1429.113 Maintaining records. Producers applying for payment through the Asparagus...

  4. 7 CFR 1429.113 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS ASPARAGUS REVENUE MARKET LOSS ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM § 1429.113 Maintaining records. Producers applying for payment through the Asparagus...

  5. 7 CFR 1429.113 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS ASPARAGUS REVENUE MARKET LOSS ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM § 1429.113 Maintaining records. Producers applying for payment through the Asparagus...

  6. Biological and immunological characterization of recombinant Yellow Fever 17D Viruses expressing a Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigote Surface Protein-2 CD8+ T cell epitope at two distinct regions of the genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The attenuated Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus is one of the safest and most effective viral vaccines administered to humans, in which it elicits a polyvalent immune response. Herein, we used the YF 17D backbone to express a Trypanosoma cruzi CD8+ T cell epitope from the Amastigote Surface Protein 2 (ASP-2) to provide further evidence for the potential of this virus to express foreign epitopes. The TEWETGQI CD8+ T cell epitope was cloned and expressed based on two different genomic insertion sites: in the fg loop of the viral Envelope protein and the protease cleavage site between the NS2B and NS3. We investigated whether the site of expression had any influence on immunogenicity of this model epitope. Results Recombinant viruses replicated similarly to vaccine virus YF 17D in cell culture and remained genetically stable after several serial passages in Vero cells. Immunogenicity studies revealed that both recombinant viruses elicited neutralizing antibodies to the YF virus as well as generated an antigen-specific gamma interferon mediated T-cell response in immunized mice. The recombinant viruses displayed a more attenuated phenotype than the YF 17DD vaccine counterpart in mice. Vaccination of a mouse lineage highly susceptible to infection by T. cruzi with a homologous prime-boost regimen of recombinant YF viruses elicited TEWETGQI specific CD8+ T cells which might be correlated with a delay in mouse mortality after a challenge with a lethal dose of T. cruzi. Conclusions We conclude that the YF 17D platform is useful to express T. cruzi (Protozoan) antigens at different functional regions of its genome with minimal reduction of vector fitness. In addition, the model T. cruzi epitope expressed at different regions of the YF 17D genome elicited a similar T cell-based immune response, suggesting that both expression sites are useful. However, the epitope as such is not protective and it remains to be seen whether expression of larger domains of ASP-2

  7. Biological and immunological characterization of recombinant Yellow Fever 17D viruses expressing a Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigote Surface Protein-2 CD8+ T cell epitope at two distinct regions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Raquel T; Nogueira, Alanderson R; Pereira, Mirian C S; Rodrigues, Maurício M; Galler, Ricardo; Bonaldo, Myrna C

    2011-03-18

    The attenuated Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus is one of the safest and most effective viral vaccines administered to humans, in which it elicits a polyvalent immune response. Herein, we used the YF 17D backbone to express a Trypanosoma cruzi CD8+ T cell epitope from the Amastigote Surface Protein 2 (ASP-2) to provide further evidence for the potential of this virus to express foreign epitopes. The TEWETGQI CD8+ T cell epitope was cloned and expressed based on two different genomic insertion sites: in the fg loop of the viral Envelope protein and the protease cleavage site between the NS2B and NS3. We investigated whether the site of expression had any influence on immunogenicity of this model epitope. Recombinant viruses replicated similarly to vaccine virus YF 17D in cell culture and remained genetically stable after several serial passages in Vero cells. Immunogenicity studies revealed that both recombinant viruses elicited neutralizing antibodies to the YF virus as well as generated an antigen-specific gamma interferon mediated T-cell response in immunized mice. The recombinant viruses displayed a more attenuated phenotype than the YF 17DD vaccine counterpart in mice. Vaccination of a mouse lineage highly susceptible to infection by T. cruzi with a homologous prime-boost regimen of recombinant YF viruses elicited TEWETGQI specific CD8+ T cells which might be correlated with a delay in mouse mortality after a challenge with a lethal dose of T. cruzi. We conclude that the YF 17D platform is useful to express T. cruzi (Protozoan) antigens at different functional regions of its genome with minimal reduction of vector fitness. In addition, the model T. cruzi epitope expressed at different regions of the YF 17D genome elicited a similar T cell-based immune response, suggesting that both expression sites are useful. However, the epitope as such is not protective and it remains to be seen whether expression of larger domains of ASP-2, which include the TEWETGQI

  8. Late Glacial, Early Holocene and Late Holocene life at the interface of a distinct landscape — relationship of humans and environments in the Sub-Carpathian region (N Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bácsmegi, Gábor; Sümegi, Pál; Törőcsik, Tünde

    2012-12-01

    Relationships between the communities and environment surrounding these communities can be disclosed by the application of different archeological, geological and environmental historical methods. This includes the deployment of numerous tools in scientific investigation including the application of chronological, sedimentological, geochemical and paleoecological analytical methods on sequences accumulated in historical catchment basins of peat-bog. The Nádas-tó at Nagybárkány is a small peatbog in the northern part of Hungary, on the Sub-Carpathian region. The formation of the lake can be traced back to the Late Glacial period. The sediments deposited in the lakebed provide a record of climatic and hydrologic changes. A higher water level could be demonstrated from the Late Glacial to the Mid-Holocene, when the reed-beds covered a small area only. This was followed by a hiatus spanning ca. 4400 years, caused by the deepening and cleaning of the lakebed during the Late Iron / Imperial Age, between 2100 - 1900 cal BP years. After this change the water level decreased and the water quality was more eutrophic. A reed-bed evolved around the lake. Paludification started with a bulrush floating mat phase at the close of the Middle Age, ca. 1500 cal AD years. The endowments and settlement pattern persisted from the Neolithic onwards until the terminal Modern Age, when measures aimed to ordain the area substantially altered the natural landscape. Although some anthropogenic disturbances can be reconstructed in the development of the peatland, some climatic effects and authogenic processes might be separated by paleoecological analyses.

  9. Quantum information sharing between topologically distinct platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chang-Yu; Refael, Gil; Shtengel, Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Can topological quantum entanglement between anyons in one topological medium "stray" into a different, topologically distinct medium? In other words, can quantum information encoded nonlocally in the combined state of non-Abelian anyons be shared between two distinct topological media? For one-dimensional topological superconductors with Majorana bound states at the end of system, the quantum information store in those Majorana bound states can be transfered by directly coupling nearby Majorana bound states. However, coupling of two one-dimensional Majorana states will produce a gap, indicating that distinct topological regions of one-dimensional wires unite into a single topological region through the information transfer process. In this paper, we consider a setup with two two-dimensional p -wave superconductors of opposite chirality adjacent to each other. Even two comoving chiral modes at the domain wall between them cannot be gapped through interactions; we demonstrate that information encoded in the fermionic parity of two Majorana zero modes, originally within the same superconducting domain, can be shared between the domains or moved entirely from one domain to another provided that vortices can tunnel between them in a controlled fashion.

  10. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  11. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  12. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining records. 1430.508 Section 1430.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under...

  13. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining records. 1430.508 Section 1430.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under...

  14. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  15. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records. 784.12 Section 784.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining...

  16. Andean flat subduction maintained by slab tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, Gerben; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Kosters, Martha; Boschman, Lydian; McQuarrie, Nadine; Spakman, Wim

    2016-04-01

    In two segments below the Andean mountain belt, the Nazca Plate is currently subducting sub-horizontally below South America over a distance of 200-300 km before the plate bends into the mantle. Such flat slab segments have pronounced effects on orogenesis and magmatism and are widely believed to be caused by the downgoing plate resisting subduction due to its local positive buoyancy. In contrast, here we show that flat slabs primarily result from a local resistance against rollback rather than against subduction. From a kinematic reconstruction of the Andean fold-thrust belt we determine up to ~390 km of shortening since ~50 Ma. During this time the South American Plate moved ~1400 km westward relative to the mantle, thus forcing ~1000 km of trench retreat. Importantly, since the 11-12 Ma onset of flat slab formation, ~1000 km of Nazca Plate subduction occurred, much more than the flat slab lengths, which leads to our main finding that the flat slabs, while being initiated by arrival of buoyant material at the trench, are primarily maintained by locally impeded rollback. We suggest that dynamic support of flat subduction comes from the formation of slab tunnels below segments with the most buoyant material. These tunnels trap mantle material until tearing of the tunnel wall provides an escape route. Fast subduction of this tear is followed by a continuous slab and the process can recur during ongoing rollback of the 7000 km wide Nazca slab at segments with the most buoyant subducting material, explaining the regional and transient character of flat slabs. Our study highlights the importance of studying subduction dynamics in absolute plate motion context.

  17. Thermally distinct ejecta blankets from Martian craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-06-01

    A study of Martian ejecta blankets is carried out using the high-resolution thermal IR/visible data from the Termoskan instrument aboard Phobos '88 mission. It is found that approximately 100 craters within the Termoskan data have an ejecta blanket distinct in the thermal infrared (EDITH). These features are examined by (1) a systematic examination of all Termoskan data using high-resolution image processing; (2) a study of the systematics of the data by compiling and analyzing a data base consisting of geographic, geologic, and mormphologic parameters for a significant fraction of the EDITH and nearby non-EDITH; and (3) qualitative and quantitative analyses of localized regions of interest. It is noted that thermally distinct ejecta blankets are excellent locations for future landers and remote sensing because of relatively dust-free surface exposures of material excavated from depth.

  18. Ability to maintain internal arousal and motivation modulates brain responses to emotions.

    PubMed

    Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Persistence (PS) is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS) subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC) and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala). Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression.

  19. Ability to Maintain Internal Arousal and Motivation Modulates Brain Responses to Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Persistence (PS) is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS) subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC) and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala). Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression. PMID:25438046

  20. Temporally variable environments maintain more beta-diversity in Mediterranean landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Beatriz; Ferrer, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    We examined the relationships between different environmental factors and the alpha and beta-diversity of terrestrial vertebrates (birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles) in a Mediterranean region at the landscape level. We investigated whether the mechanisms underlying alpha and beta-diversity patterns are influenced by energy availability, habitat heterogeneity and temporal variability and if the drivers of the diversity patterns differed between both components of diversity. We defined alpha-diversity as synonym of species richness whereas beta-diversity was measured as distinctiveness. We evaluated a total of 13 different predictors using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) analysis. Habitat spatial heterogeneity increased alpha-diversity, but contrastingly, it did not significantly affect beta-diversity among sites. Disturbed landscapes may show higher habitat spatial variation and higher alpha-diversity due to the contribution of highly generalist species that are wide-distributed and do not differ in composition (beta-diversity) among different sites within the region. Contrastingly, higher beta-diversity levels were negatively related to more stable sites in terms of temporal environmental variation. This negative relationship between environmental stability and beta-diversity levels is explained in terms of species adaptation to the local environmental conditions. Our study highlights the importance of temporal environmental variability in maintaining beta-diversity patterns under highly variable environmental conditions.

  1. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-05-06

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  2. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... requirements specified in this subpart and the pounds of milk marketed commercially during the fourth quarter...

  3. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... requirements specified in this subpart and the pounds of milk marketed commercially during the fourth quarter...

  4. An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the need to include studies of reliability and maintainability during the design of any system. Topic areas addressed include availability calculations, complex systems and standby redundancy, availability and malfunction levels, design techniques, fault trees, functional maintenance, and others. (DH)

  5. Treating problem behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Cipani, E; Spooner, F

    1997-01-01

    The examination of controlling contingencies in an analysis of problem behavior has been an important clinical topic of discussion in the field of developmental disabilities for many years. We know that problem behavior may be maintained by positive reinforcement or by negative reinforcement. From a clinical perspective, we seem to know more about behavioral techniques that are used when the problem behavior is maintained by positive reinforcement that we understand about those techniques that may be applied when a problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement. In this paper, we identify four treatment techniques that may be applied when problem; behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement: (a) functional communication training; (b) behavioral momentum; (c) differential reinforcement or an alternative escape behavior; and (d) errorless learning. Each of the four techniques will be defined, applications and guidelines for use delineated.

  6. Maintainability planning for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The planned NASA Space Station, which is expected to have many years of on-orbit operation, for the first time confronts spacecraft designers with major questions of maintainability in design. A Maintainability Guidelines Document has been distributed to all Space Station Definition and Preliminary Design personnel of the Space Station Program Office. Trade studies are being performed to determine the most economical balance between initial (reliability) cost and life cycle cost (crew time and replacement hardware) costs.

  7. Maintainability Program Requirements for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This document is established to provide common general requirements for all NASA programs to: design maintainability into all systems where maintenance is a factor in system operation and mission success; and ensure that maintainability characteristics are developed through the systems engineering process. These requirements are not new. Design for ease of maintenance and minimization of repair time have always been fundamental requirements of the systems engineering process. However, new or reusable orbital manned and in-flight maintainable unmanned space systems demand special emphasis on maintainability, and this document has been prepared to meet that need. Maintainability requirements on many NASA programs differ in phasing and task emphasis from requirements promulgated by other Government agencies. This difference is due to the research and development nature of NASA programs where quantities produced are generally small; therefore, the depth of logistics support typical of many programs is generally not warranted. The cost of excessive maintenance is very high due to the logistics problems associated with the space environment. The ability to provide timely maintenance often involves safety considerations for manned space flight applications. This document represents a basic set of requirements that will achieve a design for maintenance. These requirements are directed primarily at manned and unmanned orbital space systems. To be effective, maintainability requirements should be tailored to meet specific NASA program and project needs and constraints. NASA activities shall invoke the requirements of this document consistent with program planning in procurements or on inhouse development efforts.

  8. Distinct Orbitofrontal Regions Encode Stimulus and Choice Valuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William A.; Kesek, Amanda; Mowrer, Samantha M.

    2009-01-01

    The weak axiom of revealed preferences suggests that the value of an object can be understood through the simple examination of choices. Although this axiom has driven economic theory, the assumption of equation between value and choice is often violated. fMRI was used to decouple the processes associated with evaluating stimuli from evaluating…

  9. Distinct 5′ UTRs regulate XIAP expression under normal growth conditions and during cellular stress

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Alura; Jordan, Lindsay E.; Holcik, Martin

    2010-01-01

    X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis, XIAP, is cellular caspase inhibitor and a key regulator of apoptosis. We and others have previously shown that XIAP expression is regulated primarily at the level of protein synthesis; the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of XIAP mRNA contains an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) that supports cap-independent expression of XIAP protein during conditions of pathophysiological stress, such as serum deprivation or gamma irradiation. Here, we show that XIAP is encoded by two distinct mRNAs that differ in their 5′ UTRs. We further show that the dominant, shorter, 5′ UTR promotes a basal level of XIAP expression under normal growth conditions. In contrast, the less abundant longer 5′ UTR contains an IRES and supports cap-independent translation during stress. Our data suggest that the combination of alternate regulatory regions and distinct translational initiation modes is critical in maintaining XIAP levels in response to cellular stress and may represent a general mechanism of cellular adaptation. PMID:20385593

  10. Lakshmi Planum: A distinctive highland volcanic province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Kari M.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Lakshmi Planum, a broad smooth plain located in western Ishtar Terra and containing two large oval depressions (Colette and Sacajawea), has been interpreted as a highland plain of volcanic origin. Lakshmi is situated 3 to 5 km above the mean planetary radius and is surrounded on all sides by bands of mountains interpreted to be of compressional tectonic origin. Four primary characteristics distinguish Lakshmi from other volcanic regions known on the planet, such as Beta Regio: (1) high altitude, (2) plateau-like nature, (3) the presence of very large, low volcanic constructs with distinctive central calderas, and (4) its compressional tectonic surroundings. Building on the previous work of Pronin, the objective is to establish the detailed nature of the volcanic deposits on Lakshmi, interpret eruption styles and conditions, sketch out an eruption history, and determine the relationship between volcanism and the tectonic environment of the region.

  11. Acute jejunoileitis. A distinct entity?

    PubMed

    Levine, J; Schmidt, M H; Burrell, M I; Hopkins, M S

    1992-01-01

    A 44-year-old man with acute jejunoileitis of unknown etiology developed small bowel obstruction. Intermittent abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, ascites, and leukocytosis were prominent features. All stool cultures were negative. On steroid treatment, symptoms and radiographic features completely resolved. We suggest, in agreement with an earlier report, that acute jejunoileitis may be regarded as a distinct clinical entity.

  12. China English: Its Distinctive Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wei-dong; Dai, Wei-ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to expound that China English boasting its own distinctive features on the levels of phonology, words, sentences and discourse has been playing an irreplaceable role in intercultural activities, though still in its infancy and in the process of developing and perfecting itself, and it now makes every effort to move towards…

  13. Distinctiveness Maps for Image Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Tomasi, Carlo

    2000-01-01

    Stereo correspondence is hard because different image features can look alike. We propose a measure for the ambiguity of image points that allows matching distinctive points first and breaks down the matching task into smaller and separate subproblems. Experiments with an algorithm based on this measure demonstrate the ensuing efficiency and low likelihood of incorrect matches.

  14. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  15. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  16. Adaptive Traits Are Maintained on Steep Selective Gradients despite Gene Flow and Hybridization in the Intertidal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Canovas, Fernando; Ferreira Costa, Joana; Serrão, Ester A.; Pearson, Gareth A.

    2011-01-01

    Gene flow among hybridizing species with incomplete reproductive barriers blurs species boundaries, while selection under heterogeneous local ecological conditions or along strong gradients may counteract this tendency. Congeneric, externally-fertilizing fucoid brown algae occur as distinct morphotypes along intertidal exposure gradients despite gene flow. Combining analyses of genetic and phenotypic traits, we investigate the potential for physiological resilience to emersion stressors to act as an isolating mechanism in the face of gene flow. Along vertical exposure gradients in the intertidal zone of Northern Portugal and Northwest France, the mid-low shore species Fucus vesiculosus, the upper shore species Fucus spiralis, and an intermediate distinctive morphotype of F. spiralis var. platycarpus were morphologically characterized. Two diagnostic microsatellite loci recovered 3 genetic clusters consistent with prior morphological assignment. Phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 protein coding regions unambiguously resolved 3 clades; sympatric F. vesiculosus, F. spiralis, and the allopatric (in southern Iberia) population of F. spiralis var. platycarpus. In contrast, the sympatric F. spiralis var. platycarpus (from Northern Portugal) was distributed across the 3 clades, strongly suggesting hybridization/introgression with both other entities. Common garden experiments showed that physiological resilience following exposure to desiccation/heat stress differed significantly between the 3 sympatric genetic taxa; consistent with their respective vertical distribution on steep environmental clines in exposure time. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that F. spiralis var. platycarpus is a distinct entity in allopatry, but that extensive gene flow occurs with both higher and lower shore species in sympatry. Experimental results suggest that strong selection on physiological traits across steep intertidal exposure gradients acts to maintain

  17. Adaptive traits are maintained on steep selective gradients despite gene flow and hybridization in the intertidal zone.

    PubMed

    Zardi, Gerardo I; Nicastro, Katy R; Canovas, Fernando; Costa, Joana Ferreira; Serrão, Ester A; Pearson, Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Gene flow among hybridizing species with incomplete reproductive barriers blurs species boundaries, while selection under heterogeneous local ecological conditions or along strong gradients may counteract this tendency. Congeneric, externally-fertilizing fucoid brown algae occur as distinct morphotypes along intertidal exposure gradients despite gene flow. Combining analyses of genetic and phenotypic traits, we investigate the potential for physiological resilience to emersion stressors to act as an isolating mechanism in the face of gene flow. Along vertical exposure gradients in the intertidal zone of Northern Portugal and Northwest France, the mid-low shore species Fucus vesiculosus, the upper shore species Fucus spiralis, and an intermediate distinctive morphotype of F. spiralis var. platycarpus were morphologically characterized. Two diagnostic microsatellite loci recovered 3 genetic clusters consistent with prior morphological assignment. Phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 protein coding regions unambiguously resolved 3 clades; sympatric F. vesiculosus, F. spiralis, and the allopatric (in southern Iberia) population of F. spiralis var. platycarpus. In contrast, the sympatric F. spiralis var. platycarpus (from Northern Portugal) was distributed across the 3 clades, strongly suggesting hybridization/introgression with both other entities. Common garden experiments showed that physiological resilience following exposure to desiccation/heat stress differed significantly between the 3 sympatric genetic taxa; consistent with their respective vertical distribution on steep environmental clines in exposure time. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that F. spiralis var. platycarpus is a distinct entity in allopatry, but that extensive gene flow occurs with both higher and lower shore species in sympatry. Experimental results suggest that strong selection on physiological traits across steep intertidal exposure gradients acts to maintain

  18. Quantifying edge significance on maintaining global connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yuhua; Li, Yebin; Zhang, Min; Ma, Guoshuai; Lu, Furong

    2017-01-01

    Global connectivity is a quite important issue for networks. The failures of some key edges may lead to breakdown of the whole system. How to find them will provide a better understanding on system robustness. Based on topological information, we propose an approach named LE (link entropy) to quantify the edge significance on maintaining global connectivity. Then we compare the LE with the other six acknowledged indices on the edge significance: the edge betweenness centrality, degree product, bridgeness, diffusion importance, topological overlap and k-path edge centrality. Experimental results show that the LE approach outperforms in quantifying edge significance on maintaining global connectivity. PMID:28349923

  19. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  20. Fibromyalgia as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel

    2004-10-01

    Abnormal activity of the sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic pain syndromes. This article reviews the animal studies of sympathetically induced pain behavior, the controversy of sympathetically maintained pain in clinical practice, and the dysautonomic nature of fibromyalgia (FM). FM has neuropathic pain features (stimuli-independent pain state accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias). The proposal of FM as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome is based on the controlled studies showing that patients with FM display signs of relentless sympathetic hyperactivity and that the pain is submissive to sympathetic blockade and is rekindled by norepinephrine injections. Dysautonomia also may explain the multisystem features of FM.

  1. Determining system maintainability as a probability

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.; Atwood, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Maintainability has often been defined in principle as the probability that a system or component can be repaired in a specific time given that it is in a failed state, but presented in practice in terms of mean-time-to-repair. In this paper, formulas are developed for maintainability as a probability, analogous to those for reliability and availability. This formulation is expressed in terms of cut sets, and leads to a natural definition of unmaintainability importance for cut sets and basic events. 6 refs.

  2. Anatomizing the Ocean's role in maintaining the pacific decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia-Yuh; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-05-01

    The role of ocean dynamics in maintaining the Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) was investigated based on simulation results from the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean general circulation model developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A long-term control simulation of the LANL-POP model forced by a reconstructed coupled wind stress field over the period 1949-2001 showed that the ocean model not only simulates a reasonable climatology, but also produces a climate variability pattern very similar to observed PDV. In the Equatorial Pacific (EP) region, the decadal warming is confined in the thin surface layer. Beneath the surface, a strong compensating cooling, accompanied by a basin-wide-scale overturning circulation in opposition to the mean flow, occurs in the thermocline layer. In the North Pacific (NP) region, the decadal variability nonetheless exhibits a relatively monotonous pattern, characterized by the dominance of anomalous cooling and eastward flows. A term balance analysis of the perturbation heat budget equation was conducted to highlight the ocean's role in maintaining the PDV-like variability over the EP and NP regions. The analyses showed that strong oceanic adjustment must occur in the equatorial thermocline in association with the anomalous overturning circulation in order to maintain the PDV-like variability, including a flattening of the equatorial thermocline slpoe and an enhancement of the upper ocean's stratification (stability), as the climate shifts from a colder regime toward a warmer one. On the other hand, the oceanic response in the extratropical region seems to be confined to the surface layer, without much participation from the subsurface oceanic dynamics.

  3. Functional Diversification of Hsp40: Distinct J-Protein Functional Requirements for Two Prions Allow for Chaperone-Dependent Prion Selection

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Milan J.; Sporn, Zachary A.; Hines, Justin K.

    2014-01-01

    Yeast prions are heritable amyloid aggregates of functional yeast proteins; their propagation to subsequent cell generations is dependent upon fragmentation of prion protein aggregates by molecular chaperone proteins. Mounting evidence indicates the J-protein Sis1 may act as an amyloid specificity factor, recognizing prion and other amyloid aggregates and enabling Ssa and Hsp104 to act in prion fragmentation. Chaperone interactions with prions, however, can be affected by variations in amyloid-core structure resulting in distinct prion variants or ‘strains’. Our genetic analysis revealed that Sis1 domain requirements by distinct variants of [PSI +] are strongly dependent upon overall variant stability. Notably, multiple strong [PSI +] variants can be maintained by a minimal construct of Sis1 consisting of only the J-domain and glycine/phenylalanine-rich (G/F) region that was previously shown to be sufficient for cell viability and [RNQ +] prion propagation. In contrast, weak [PSI +] variants are lost under the same conditions but maintained by the expression of an Sis1 construct that lacks only the G/F region and cannot support [RNQ +] propagation, revealing mutually exclusive requirements for Sis1 function between these two prions. Prion loss is not due to [PSI +]-dependent toxicity or dependent upon a particular yeast genetic background. These observations necessitate that Sis1 must have at least two distinct functional roles that individual prions differentially require for propagation and which are localized to the glycine-rich domains of the Sis1. Based on these distinctions, Sis1 plasmid-shuffling in a [PSI +]/[RNQ +] strain permitted J-protein-dependent prion selection for either prion. We also found that, despite an initial report to the contrary, the human homolog of Sis1, Hdj1, is capable of [PSI +] prion propagation in place of Sis1. This conservation of function is also prion-variant dependent, indicating that only one of the two Sis1-prion

  4. Functional diversification of hsp40: distinct j-protein functional requirements for two prions allow for chaperone-dependent prion selection.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julia M; Nguyen, Phil P; Patel, Milan J; Sporn, Zachary A; Hines, Justin K

    2014-07-01

    Yeast prions are heritable amyloid aggregates of functional yeast proteins; their propagation to subsequent cell generations is dependent upon fragmentation of prion protein aggregates by molecular chaperone proteins. Mounting evidence indicates the J-protein Sis1 may act as an amyloid specificity factor, recognizing prion and other amyloid aggregates and enabling Ssa and Hsp104 to act in prion fragmentation. Chaperone interactions with prions, however, can be affected by variations in amyloid-core structure resulting in distinct prion variants or 'strains'. Our genetic analysis revealed that Sis1 domain requirements by distinct variants of [PSI+] are strongly dependent upon overall variant stability. Notably, multiple strong [PSI+] variants can be maintained by a minimal construct of Sis1 consisting of only the J-domain and glycine/phenylalanine-rich (G/F) region that was previously shown to be sufficient for cell viability and [RNQ+] prion propagation. In contrast, weak [PSI+] variants are lost under the same conditions but maintained by the expression of an Sis1 construct that lacks only the G/F region and cannot support [RNQ+] propagation, revealing mutually exclusive requirements for Sis1 function between these two prions. Prion loss is not due to [PSI+]-dependent toxicity or dependent upon a particular yeast genetic background. These observations necessitate that Sis1 must have at least two distinct functional roles that individual prions differentially require for propagation and which are localized to the glycine-rich domains of the Sis1. Based on these distinctions, Sis1 plasmid-shuffling in a [PSI+]/[RNQ+] strain permitted J-protein-dependent prion selection for either prion. We also found that, despite an initial report to the contrary, the human homolog of Sis1, Hdj1, is capable of [PSI+] prion propagation in place of Sis1. This conservation of function is also prion-variant dependent, indicating that only one of the two Sis1-prion functions may have

  5. Seed zones for maintaining adapted plant populations

    Treesearch

    J. Bradley St. Clair; G. Randy Johnson; Vicky J. Erickson; Richard C. Johnson; Nancy L. Shaw

    2007-01-01

    Seed zones delineate areas within which plant materials can be transferred with little risk that they will be poorly adapted to their new location. They ensure successful restoration and revegetation, and help maintain the integrity of natural genetic structure. The value of seed zones is recognized in numerous policy statements from federal and state agencies. Results...

  6. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  7. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  8. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  9. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  10. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  11. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  12. Maintaining Effective Classroom Control in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E., Ed.; McCracken, J. David

    This handbook is designed to assist vocational teachers in maintaining effective classroom and laboratory control. Following an introduction to the topic, the importance of effective control and teacher attitude are overviewed. The third section offers definitions of discipline and "in loco parentis", a perspective on discipline, and reasons for…

  13. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  14. Building and Maintaining Digital Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Joann M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services that provide subject expertise and information referral over the Internet to their users. Describes the history of digital reference, how digital reference services work, and explains a six-step process for building and maintaining digital reference services, including training, planning, and evaluating. (LRW)

  15. Reliability and maintainability seminar: summary of proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Beek, C. R.

    1981-04-01

    The following are described briefly: Overview of the Federal Reliability and Maintainability Program Plan, Summary of Proceedngs, Overview of Southern Solar Energy Center Programs, and Solar Domestic Hot Water Design Guidelines Handbook. Also included are the Seminar Agenda and the list of Seminar Attendees. (MHR)

  16. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  17. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  18. Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

  19. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  20. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  1. Maintaining and Repairing. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Booklet (Maintaining and Repairing) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations…

  2. Treating Problem Behaviors Maintained by Negative Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio; Spooner, Fred

    1997-01-01

    Identifies four treatment techniques that may be applied when problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement: (1) functional communication training; (2) behavioral momentum; (3) differential reinforcement or an alternative escape behavior; and (4) errorless learning. Each of the techniques is defined, and applications and guidelines for…

  3. How to Maintain a Social Reinforcement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkin, Ronald; And Others

    This manual presents methodology for maintaining a social reinforcement system after supervisors in industrial environments have been trained in behavior modification theory and application. The maintenance manual discusses monitoring, evaluation, and integration of a company's employee performance system with the social reinforcement system…

  4. Building and Maintaining Digital Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Joann M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services that provide subject expertise and information referral over the Internet to their users. Describes the history of digital reference, how digital reference services work, and explains a six-step process for building and maintaining digital reference services, including training, planning, and evaluating. (LRW)

  5. Grima: A Distinct Emotion Concept?

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Keil, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    People experience an unpleasant sensation when hearing a scratch on a board or plate. The present research focuses on this aversive experience known in Spanish as ‘grima’ with no equivalent term in English and German. We hypothesized that this aversive experience constitutes a distinctive, separate emotional concept. In Study 1, we found that the affective meaning of ‘grima’ was closer to disgust than to other emotion concepts. Thus, in Study 2 we explored the features of grima and compared them with disgust. As grima was reported to be predominantly elicited by certain auditory stimuli and associated with a distinctive physiological pattern, Study 3 used direct measures of physiological arousal to test the assumption of a distinctive pattern of physiological responses elicited by auditory stimuli of grima and disgust, and found different effects on heart rate but not on skin conductance. In Study 4, we hypothesized that only participants with an implementation intention geared toward down-regulating grima would be able to successfully weaken the grima- but not disgust- experience. Importantly, this effect was specific as it held true for the grima-eliciting sounds only, but did not affect disgust-related sounds. Finally, Study 5 found that English and German speakers lack a single accessible linguistic label for the pattern of aversive reactions termed by Spanish speaking individuals as ‘grima’, whereas the elicitors of other emotions were accessible and accurately identified by German, English, as well as Spanish speakers. PMID:28217102

  6. Grima: A Distinct Emotion Concept?

    PubMed

    Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Keil, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    People experience an unpleasant sensation when hearing a scratch on a board or plate. The present research focuses on this aversive experience known in Spanish as 'grima' with no equivalent term in English and German. We hypothesized that this aversive experience constitutes a distinctive, separate emotional concept. In Study 1, we found that the affective meaning of 'grima' was closer to disgust than to other emotion concepts. Thus, in Study 2 we explored the features of grima and compared them with disgust. As grima was reported to be predominantly elicited by certain auditory stimuli and associated with a distinctive physiological pattern, Study 3 used direct measures of physiological arousal to test the assumption of a distinctive pattern of physiological responses elicited by auditory stimuli of grima and disgust, and found different effects on heart rate but not on skin conductance. In Study 4, we hypothesized that only participants with an implementation intention geared toward down-regulating grima would be able to successfully weaken the grima- but not disgust- experience. Importantly, this effect was specific as it held true for the grima-eliciting sounds only, but did not affect disgust-related sounds. Finally, Study 5 found that English and German speakers lack a single accessible linguistic label for the pattern of aversive reactions termed by Spanish speaking individuals as 'grima', whereas the elicitors of other emotions were accessible and accurately identified by German, English, as well as Spanish speakers.

  7. BK Polyomavirus Genotypes Represent Distinct Serotypes with Distinct Entry Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Pastrana, Diana V.; Ray, Upasana; Magaldi, Thomas G.; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Çuburu, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKV) causes significant urinary tract pathogenesis in immunosuppressed individuals, including kidney and bone marrow transplant recipients. It is currently unclear whether BKV-neutralizing antibodies can moderate or prevent BKV disease. We developed reporter pseudoviruses based on seven divergent BKV isolates and performed neutralization assays on sera from healthy human subjects. The results demonstrate that BKV genotypes I, II, III, and IV are fully distinct serotypes. While nearly all healthy subjects had BKV genotype I-neutralizing antibodies, a majority of subjects did not detectably neutralize genotype III or IV. Surprisingly, BKV subgenotypes Ib1 and Ib2 can behave as fully distinct serotypes. This difference is governed by as few as two residues adjacent to the cellular glycan receptor-binding site on the virion surface. Serological analysis of mice given virus-like particle (VLP)-based BKV vaccines confirmed these findings. Mice administered a multivalent VLP vaccine showed high-titer serum antibody responses that potently cross-neutralized all tested BKV genotypes. Interestingly, each of the neutralization serotypes bound a distinct spectrum of cell surface receptors, suggesting a possible connection between escape from recognition by neutralizing antibodies and cellular attachment mechanisms. The finding implies that different BKV genotypes have different cellular tropisms and pathogenic potentials in vivo. Individuals who are infected with one BKV serotype may remain humorally vulnerable to other BKV serotypes after implementation of T cell immunosuppression. Thus, prevaccinating organ transplant recipients with a multivalent BKV VLP vaccine might reduce the risk of developing posttransplant BKV disease. PMID:23843634

  8. Local neutral networks help maintain inaccurately replicating ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2014-01-01

    The error threshold of replication limits the selectively maintainable genome size against recurrent deleterious mutations for most fitness landscapes. In the context of RNA replication a distinction between the genotypic and the phenotypic error threshold has been made; where the latter concerns the maintenance of secondary structure rather than sequence. RNA secondary structure is treated as a proxy for function. The phenotypic error threshold allows higher per digit mutation rates than its genotypic counterpart, and is known to increase with the frequency of neutral mutations in sequence space. Here we show that the degree of neutrality, i.e. the frequency of nearest-neighbour (one-step) neutral mutants is a remarkably accurate proxy for the overall frequency of such mutants in an experimentally verifiable formula for the phenotypic error threshold; this we achieve by the full numerical solution for the concentration of all sequences in mutation-selection balance up to length 16. We reinforce our previous result that currently known ribozymes could be selectively maintained by the accuracy known from the best available polymerase ribozymes. Furthermore, we show that in silico stabilizing selection can increase the mutational robustness of ribozymes due to the fact that they were produced by artificial directional selection in the first place. Our finding offers a better understanding of the error threshold and provides further insight into the plausibility of an ancient RNA world.

  9. DNA Topoisomerases Maintain Promoters in a State Competent for Transcriptional Activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Roedgaard, Morten; Andreasen, Lotte; Mundbjerg, Kamilla; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Brinch, Marie; Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Bjergbaek, Lotte; Andersen, Anni Hangaard

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of DNA topoisomerases in transcription, we have studied global gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient for topoisomerases I and II and performed single-gene analyses to support our findings. The genome-wide studies show a general transcriptional down-regulation upon lack of the enzymes, which correlates with gene activity but not gene length. Furthermore, our data reveal a distinct subclass of genes with a strong requirement for topoisomerases. These genes are characterized by high transcriptional plasticity, chromatin regulation, TATA box presence, and enrichment of a nucleosome at a critical position in the promoter region, in line with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation. Single-gene studies with a range of genes belonging to this group demonstrate that topoisomerases play an important role during activation of these genes. Subsequent in-depth analysis of the inducible PHO5 gene reveals that topoisomerases are essential for binding of the Pho4p transcription factor to the PHO5 promoter, which is required for promoter nucleosome removal during activation. In contrast, topoisomerases are dispensable for constitutive transcription initiation and elongation of PHO5, as well as the nuclear entrance of Pho4p. Finally, we provide evidence that topoisomerases are required to maintain the PHO5 promoter in a superhelical state, which is competent for proper activation. In conclusion, our results reveal a hitherto unknown function of topoisomerases during transcriptional activation of genes with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation. PMID:23284296

  10. Chd1 remodelers maintain open chromatin and regulate the epigenetics of differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, Jenna; Ekwall, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Eukaryotic DNA is packaged around octamers of histone proteins into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin. In addition to enabling meters of DNA to fit within the confines of a nucleus, the structure of chromatin has functional implications for cell identity. Covalent chemical modifications to the DNA and to histones, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, small noncoding RNAs and the level of chromatin compaction all contribute to chromosomal structure and to the activity or silencing of genes. These chromatin-level alterations are defined as epigenetic when they are heritable from mother to daughter cell. The great diversity of epigenomes that can arise from a single genome permits a single, totipotent cell to generate the hundreds of distinct cell types found in humans. Two recent studies in mouse and in fly have highlighted the importance of Chd1 chromatin remodelers for maintaining an open, active chromatin state. Based on evidence from fission yeast as a model system, we speculate that Chd1 remodelers are involved in the disassembly of nucleosomes at promoter regions, thus promoting active transcription and open chromatin. It is likely that these nucleosomes are specifically marked for disassembly by the histone variant H2A.Z.

  11. ECMO Maintains Cerebral Blood Flow During Endotoxic Shock in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Batts, Sherreen G.; Uyehara-Lock, Jane H.; Murata, Lee-Ann; Uyehara, Catherine F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrovascular injury while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be caused by excessive brain perfusion during hypoxemic reperfusion. Previous studies have postulated that the most vulnerable period of time for cerebrovascular injury is during the transfer period to ECMO. Therefore, our objective was to compare brain perfusion and hemodynamics in a piglet endotoxic shock ECMO model. The effect of ECMO flow on microcirculation of different brain regions was compared between 10 control pigs and six pigs (7–10 kg) administered IV endotoxin to achieve a drop in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of at least 30%. Cardiac output (CO), brain oxygen utilization, and microcirculatory blood flow (BF) were compared at baseline and 2 hours after ECMO stabilization. Matching ECMO delivery with baseline CO in control animals increased perfusion (p < 0.05) in all areas of the brain. In contrast, with endotoxin, ECMO returned perfusion closer to baseline levels in all regions of the brain and maintained brain tissue oxygen consumption. Both control and endotoxic pigs showed no evidence of acute neuronal necrosis in histologic cerebral cortical sections examined after 2 hours of ECMO. Results show that during endotoxic shock, transition to ECMO can maintain brain BF equally to all brain regions without causing overperfusion, and does not appear to cause brain tissue histopathologic changes (hemorrhage or necrosis) during the acute stabilization period after ECMO induction. PMID:27442858

  12. Anthropogenic disturbances are key to maintaining the biodiversity of grasslands.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z Y; Jiao, F; Li, Y H; Kallenbach, Robert L

    2016-02-23

    Although anthropogenic disturbances are often perceived as detrimental to plant biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance remains unclear. Opinions diverge on how natural diversity is generated and maintained. We conducted a large-scale investigation of a temperate grassland system in Inner Mongolia and assessed the richness-disturbance relationship using grazing intensity, the primary anthropogenic disturbance in the region. Vascular plant-species richness peaked at an intermediate level of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results support the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which provides a valid and useful measure of biodiversity at a metacommunity scale, indicating that anthropogenic disturbances are necessary to conserve the biodiversity of grassland systems.

  13. Anthropogenic disturbances are key to maintaining the biodiversity of grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Z. Y.; Jiao, F.; Li, Y. H.; Kallenbach, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Although anthropogenic disturbances are often perceived as detrimental to plant biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance remains unclear. Opinions diverge on how natural diversity is generated and maintained. We conducted a large-scale investigation of a temperate grassland system in Inner Mongolia and assessed the richness-disturbance relationship using grazing intensity, the primary anthropogenic disturbance in the region. Vascular plant-species richness peaked at an intermediate level of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results support the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which provides a valid and useful measure of biodiversity at a metacommunity scale, indicating that anthropogenic disturbances are necessary to conserve the biodiversity of grassland systems. PMID:26903041

  14. Anthropogenic disturbances are key to maintaining the biodiversity of grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z. Y.; Jiao, F.; Li, Y. H.; Kallenbach, Robert L.

    2016-02-01

    Although anthropogenic disturbances are often perceived as detrimental to plant biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance remains unclear. Opinions diverge on how natural diversity is generated and maintained. We conducted a large-scale investigation of a temperate grassland system in Inner Mongolia and assessed the richness-disturbance relationship using grazing intensity, the primary anthropogenic disturbance in the region. Vascular plant-species richness peaked at an intermediate level of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results support the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which provides a valid and useful measure of biodiversity at a metacommunity scale, indicating that anthropogenic disturbances are necessary to conserve the biodiversity of grassland systems.

  15. Autophagy maintains stemness by preventing senescence.

    PubMed

    García-Prat, Laura; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Ortet, Laura; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Rebollo, Elena; Ruiz-Bonilla, Vanessa; Gutarra, Susana; Ballestar, Esteban; Serrano, Antonio L; Sandri, Marco; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2016-01-07

    During ageing, muscle stem-cell regenerative function declines. At advanced geriatric age, this decline is maximal owing to transition from a normal quiescence into an irreversible senescence state. How satellite cells maintain quiescence and avoid senescence until advanced age remains unknown. Here we report that basal autophagy is essential to maintain the stem-cell quiescent state in mice. Failure of autophagy in physiologically aged satellite cells or genetic impairment of autophagy in young cells causes entry into senescence by loss of proteostasis, increased mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, resulting in a decline in the function and number of satellite cells. Re-establishment of autophagy reverses senescence and restores regenerative functions in geriatric satellite cells. As autophagy also declines in human geriatric satellite cells, our findings reveal autophagy to be a decisive stem-cell-fate regulator, with implications for fostering muscle regeneration in sarcopenia.

  16. Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya

    2013-08-01

    Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective.

  17. Workplace conversations: building and maintaining collaborative capital.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Glenda; Vickers, Margaret H; Mohan, Shantala; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Heavy, pressured workloads are a feature of health workplaces internationally, presenting challenges to communication and contributing to tension and negative emotions. This paper explores supportive and unsupportive workplace conversations between nurses and midwives and their colleagues. The findings focus on qualitative interviews of ten nurses and midwives that were audio-taped and analysed for perceptions about the role of workplace conversations. Conversations between colleagues were significant for building and maintaining collaborative capital, but unsupportive conversations also threatened it. Findings suggest the need for considering the impact of co-worker conversations on workplace culture. Nurse managers and management may play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining supportive conversations. Recognising the role and potential of workplace conversations for building capacities for support, conflict resolution, job satisfaction and the personal resilience of nurses and midwives can raise the collaborative capital of the workplace.

  18. Maintaining Levels of Lower Extremity Amputations.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Christopher; Ehrlich, David; Levin, L Scott; Kovach, Stephen J

    Patients who have undergone a lower extremity amputation may develop an unstable soft tissue envelope of the amputation stump. This envelope may result in pain that prohibits prosthetic use or may become chronically infected. Providing stable soft tissue coverage at the amputation site may provide relief from pain and cure of infection. Additionally, a stable amputation soft tissue envelope may assist with the ability of that patient to maintain his or her existing level of ambulation, overall sense of wellness, and ability to maintain social integration. Salvage of a lower extremity amputation level may significantly improve a patient's overall quality of life. Attempts to salvage an amputation level that is plagued by unstable wounds, pain, or infection are warranted in those patients who have the physiologic reserves to undergo salvage of their amputation level. This article presents an approach to the salvage of lower extremity amputations utilizing both local tissue rearrangements and free tissue transfer techniques.

  19. Maintaining balance for a long voyage.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Cherie L; Anthony, Na'alehu; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2007-03-01

    This article introduces cultural aspects of health, using Hokule'a, the voyaging canoe, as a model for maintaining balance on a long voyage through life. Maintaining balance encompasses physical, nutritional and mental health. This triangle is crucial for the well-being of a person. In the stress of the modern world we often disregard the basics in an effort to become more efficient and more productive, neglecting physical activity, eating fast foods instead of healthy meals, and forgetting our mental well-being. Eventually, this can lead to devastating co-morbidities. We discuss balanced nutrition, physical activity, and mental health, relating to living on the canoe, with lessons that can be applied to daily living.

  20. Maintaining Sanity in a Multilanguage World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Multilanguage World Val C. Kartchner 309 SMXG/MXDDA 22 CROSSTALK The Journal of Defense Software Engineering August 2006 package VString is type VString is...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maintaining Sanity in a Multilanguage World 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Multilanguage World parameter; a 1 is passed to the receiving subprogram. Passing by address means that the same thing happens as passing by

  1. Maintainability Prediction and Analysis Study. Revision A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    SS- 6b SECTION 1.0 INTRiODUCTION This document presents the results of a study to develop and document an improved maintainability prediction and...include operations on other RIs called out in the jth fault iscolation result . Tmujn Average time to perform the ruth corrective maintenance step for...of the study however, as the resulting time standards are used as Inputs In computing disassembly, interchange, and reassembly times for the

  2. Device Maintains Water At The Triple Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. W.; Burkett, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    Inexpensive device maintains water at 0.01 degree C for 10 weeks or longer. New device consists of four basic assemblies; small, commercial chest freezer containing insulated water tank; insulated copper cell holder; "ice switch" for cycling freezer compressor and externally-mounted air pump for circulation. Access hole in freezer lid allows triple point measurements without opening lid. Modified freezer used to calibrate standard platinum resistance thermomenters.

  3. Maintaining Multimedia Data in a Geospatial Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    ID (SRID). “The SRID is the spatial reference identification system. The SRID is part of a set of standards developed for cartography , surveying...in a GIS are stored in two-dimensional space, which adds to the complexities faced in simulating a databases’ workload when the data is three...benchmark testing. A. OVERVIEW In creating a GIS that maintains multimedia data, it is first important to note that the actual multimedia data is

  4. Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast Leonard Smith Pembroke College Oxford University St Aldates Oxford OX1 3LB England phone... Oxford University ,Pembroke College,St Aldates,Oxford OX1 3LB England, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...in my group. REFERENCES Clarke, L. (1999) Rogue Thermocouple Detection. MSc Thesis, Mathematical Institute, Oxford University . Hansen J. and L. A

  5. Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast Leonard Smith Pembroke College Oxford University St. Aldates Oxford OX1 1DW United Kingdom...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Pembroke College, Oxford University ,,St...evaluation: l-shadowing, probabilistic prediction and weather forecasting. D.Phil Thesis, Oxford University . Lorenz, E. (1995) Predictability-a Partially

  6. Device Maintains Water At The Triple Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. W.; Burkett, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    Inexpensive device maintains water at 0.01 degree C for 10 weeks or longer. New device consists of four basic assemblies; small, commercial chest freezer containing insulated water tank; insulated copper cell holder; "ice switch" for cycling freezer compressor and externally-mounted air pump for circulation. Access hole in freezer lid allows triple point measurements without opening lid. Modified freezer used to calibrate standard platinum resistance thermomenters.

  7. Interventions to Maintain Mobility: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lesley A.; Schmidt, Erica L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Mobility, in broad terms, includes everything from the ability to move within your immediate environment (e.g., get out of bed) to the ability to drive across the country. Mobility is essential to maintaining independence and wellbeing, particularly for older adults. This is highlighted by the large number of interventions developed for older adults with the goal of maintaining such mobility. The current paper reviews the state of the science with respect to mobility interventions. Inclusion criteria for the review were: (1) articles must have been peer-reviewed; (2) interventions were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); (3) studies included a mobility outcome such as lifespace, driving, or walking ability, (4) studies included a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults (e.g., not investigations of disease conditions); and (5) studies reported enough empirical data and detail such that results could potentially be replicated. Three main types of interventions were identified: cognitive training, educational interventions, and exercise interventions. A detailed summary and evaluation of each type of intervention, and the current evidence regarding its effectiveness in maintaining mobility, are discussed. Several interventions show clear evidence of effectiveness, and thus are prime areas for translation of results to the older population. Needs and issues for future intervention research are also detailed. PMID:23083492

  8. Maintaining extensivity in evolutionary multiplex networks

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the role of network topology on maintaining the extensive property of entropy. We study analytically and numerically how the topology contributes to maintaining extensivity of entropy in multiplex networks, i.e. networks of subnetworks (layers), by means of the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents, HKS, a quantity related to entropy. We show that extensivity relies not only on the interplay between the coupling strengths of the dynamics associated to the intra (short-range) and inter (long-range) interactions, but also on the sum of the intra-degrees of the nodes of the layers. For the analytically treated networks of size N, among several other results, we show that if the sum of the intra-degrees (and the sum of inter-degrees) scales as Nθ+1, θ > 0, extensivity can be maintained if the intra-coupling (and the inter-coupling) strength scales as N−θ, when evolution is driven by the maximisation of HKS. We then verify our analytical results by performing numerical simulations in multiplex networks formed by electrically and chemically coupled neurons. PMID:28403162

  9. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  10. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes. Key Points First multi-region seasonal velocity measurements show regional differences Seasonal velocity fluctuations on most glaciers appear meltwater controlled Seasonal development of efficient subglacial drainage geographically divided PMID:25821275

  11. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-05-09

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2's control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention.

  12. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity.

    PubMed

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika

    2014-10-28

    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes.

  13. Neuropsychological evidence for three distinct motion mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Vaina, Lucia M.; Dumoulin, Serge O.

    2012-01-01

    We describe psychophysical performance of two stroke patients with lesions in distinct cortical regions in the left hemisphere. Both patients were selectively impaired on direction discrimination in several local and global second-order but not first-order motion tasks. However, only patient FD was impaired on a specific bi-stable motion task where the direction of motion is biased by object similarity. We suggest that this bi-stable motion task may be mediated by a high-level attention or position based mechanism indicating a separate neurological substrate for a high-level attention or position-based mechanism. Therefore, these results provide evidence for the existence of at least three motion mechanisms in the human visual system: a low-level first-and second-order motion mechanism and a high-level attention or position-based mechanism. PMID:21440602

  14. Distinct Intervertebral Disc Cell Populations Adopt Similar Phenotypes in Three-Dimensional Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Alice I.; Reza, Anna T.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering strategies have the potential to improve upon current techniques for intervertebral disc repair. However, determining a suitable biomaterial scaffold for disc regeneration is difficult due to the complex fibrocartilaginous structure of the tissue. In this study, cells isolated from three distinct regions of the intervertebral disc, the outer and inner annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus, were expanded and seeded on resorbable polyester fiber meshes and encapsulated in calcium crosslinked alginate hydrogels, both chosen to approximate the native tissue architecture. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs were cultured for 14 days in vitro and evaluated histologically and quantitatively for gene expression and production of types I and II collagen and proteoglycans. During monolayer expansion, the cell populations maintained their distinct phenotypic morphology and gene expression profiles. However, after 14 days in 3D culture, there were no significant differences in morphology, gene expression, or protein production between all three cell populations grown in either alginate or polyester fiber meshes. The results of this study indicate that the culture environment may have a greater impact on cellular behavior than the intrinsic origin of the cells, and suggest that only a single-cell type may be required for intervertebral disc regenerative therapies. PMID:18636941

  15. Pollinator behaviour and plant speciation: can assortative mating and disruptive selection maintain distinct floral morphs in sympatry?

    PubMed

    Rymer, Paul D; Johnson, Steven D; Savolainen, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    • Pollinators, as gene flow vectors and selection agents, play a central role in the origin and maintenance of floral variation in natural populations. However, it is debatable whether pollination alone can complete the speciation process in sympatry. • Mating patterns and phenotypic selection on floral traits were characterized over two flowering seasons for sympatric corolla tube length morphs of the hawkmoth-pollinated iris Gladiolus longicollis. A mating model with genetic and spatial-temporal predictors was developed to identify seed paternity. A multivariate analysis was used to estimate selection on correlated floral traits based on maternal and paternal fitness. • Mating patterns among floral morphs were density dependent, resulting in assortative mating at low plant densities, and random mating among morphs at high densities. Weak disruptive selection on tube length was detected in one season for maternal fitness. Plant height was under opposing directional selection for maternal (+) and paternal (-) fitness functions. • These results indicate that G. longicollis morphs will introgress rather than diverge towards speciation. The lack of strong assortative mating, particularly at high densities, is predicted to result in the loss of rare morphs within populations, and indicates that spatial and temporal co-occurrences of floral morphs are evolutionarily unstable.

  16. Laboratory services: regaining and maintaining control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory staff, thereby safeguarding patient test results for their intended medical purpose. Design/methodology/approach - The authors address how quality can be maintained and if lost, how it can be regained. The methodology is based on the experience working in clinical laboratory diagnostics and is in accord with both international accreditation requirements and laboratory best practice guidelines. Findings - Monitoring test performance usually involves both prospective and retrospective IQC data analysis. The authors present a number of different approaches together with software tools currently available and emerging, that permit performance monitoring at the level of the individual analyser, across analysers and laboratories (networks). The authors make recommendations on the appropriate response to IQC rule warnings, failures and metrics that indicate analytical control loss, that either precludes further analysis, or signifies deteriorating performance and eventual unsuitability. The authors provide guidance on systematic troubleshooting, to identify undesirable performance and consider risk assessment preventive measures and continuous quality improvement initiatives; e.g., material acceptance procedures, as tools to help regain and maintain analytical control and minimise potential for patient harm. Practical implications - The authors provide a template for use by laboratory scientific personnel that ensures the optimal monitoring of analytical test performance and response when it changes undesirably. Originality/value - The proposed template has been designed to meet the International Organisation for Standardisation for medical laboratories ISO15189:2012 requirements and therefore includes the use of External Quality Assessment and patient results data, as an adjunct to IQC data.

  17. Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  18. Patients’ lived experiences regarding maintaining dignity

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Manookian, Arpi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of dignity is frequently emphasized as a basic patient’s right in national and international nursing codes of ethics and is indeed the essence and core of nursing care. It is therefore essential to explore the concept based on patients’ lived experiences in order to maintain and respect their dignity and consequently improve the quality of health services and patient satisfaction. The present study aimed to discover the lived experiences of Iranian patients regarding maintaining their dignity at the bedside. This qualitative study was conducted using an interpretive phenomenological approach. A total of 14 participants (9 women and 5 men) were purposefully selected, and data were collected through individual, semi-structured and deep interviews. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed by the Diekelman, Allen and Tanner approach. The findings of this study revealed three main themes and related subthemes regarding the meaning of preserving patients’ dignity. The first main theme was “exigency of preserving the innate human dignity” and comprised two subthemes: “respect for the intrinsic equality of all humans” and “treating the patient as a valued person, not an object”. The second theme was “service based on love and kindness” and included two subthemes: ‘being with the patient” and “inspiring the sense of being accepted and loved”. The third main theme emerged as “dignifying and transcendental professional service” and consisted of two subthemes: “professional commitment to uphold patients’ rights” and “enlightened practice”. This study revealed that the concept of maintaining patients’ dignity is related to health providers’ duty to preserve patients’ dignity and also their moral obligation to manifest the human love that is in their own as well as their patients’ nature. In conclusion, if nurses reflect on the transcendental nature of nursing care, they will value and prize their

  19. Maintainability Index Model Data Base Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-16

    28.0 37.3 +33 +31 (1) Reference 1 (2) 3-M Data from MSOD 4190.A2092-1 for Jan 79 - Sep 79. (3) Jan 75 - Dec 75 Data, F-8J phased out of service in...Maintenance Support Office Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: (a) Fleet Weapon System Reliability and Maintainability Statistical Summary Tabulation, MSOD ...4790.A2142-01, July 1970 through September 1979, (Reference 2). (b) Monthly 3-M Aviation Readiness Utilization Summary, MSOD 4790.A2092-01, July 1970

  20. Practical circular-polarization-maintaining optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Huang, H C

    1997-09-20

    The author describes a new idea for making circular-polarization-maintaining optical fiber with an existing fabrication technique. The method simply requires one to spin at a constant rate a special preform consisting of only one off-axis stress-applying element in addition to the on-axis core. Measurements taken with such a fiber specimen verify the existence of circular eigenmodes, the ease of joining or splicing two fiber segments, the tolerance to macrobending with a small radius, etc. Good agreement exists between the experimental data and the theoretical analysis. Prospective applications are discussed.

  1. The identification of distinct patterns in California temperature trends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Regional changes in California surface temperatures over the last 80 years are analyzed using station data from the US Historical Climate Network and the National Weather Service Cooperative Network. Statistical analyses using annual and seasonal temperature data over the last 80 years show distinct...

  2. Maintainability design of underground mining equipment. Volume 2. Maintainability design guidelines. Research report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, E.J.; Unger, R.

    1989-09-01

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) determine the extent to which maintainability design concepts and principles have been applied to the design of underground coal mining equipment, (2) try to assess its impact on productivity and personnel safety, and (3) develop maintainability guidelines to enhance the design of new or rebuilt equipment. An equipment design review was completed at ten operational coal mines. The purpose was to identify design approaches and features that enhanced and degraded the maintenance process. Mine management, safety, and maintenance personnel were also interviewed to identify machine specific design problems. Six original equipment manufacturers were visited and the procedures used to enhance the maintainability of their equipment discussed. Volume I of the Final Technical Report presents an overview of procedures and protocol used and a summary of the findings. Volume II includes the maintainability design guide for mobile underground mining equipment.

  3. Dementia: Continuum or Distinct Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2009-01-01

    The latent structure of dementia was examined in a group of 10,775 older adults with indicators derived from a neuropsychological test battery. Subjecting these data to taxometric analysis using mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum covariance (MAXCOV), and latent mode factor analysis (L-Mode) produced results more consistent with dementia as a dimensional (lying along a continuum) than categorical (representing a distinct entity) construct. A second study conducted on a group of 2375 21-to-64-year olds produced similar results. These findings denote that dementia, as measured by deficits in episodic memory, attention/concentration, executive function, and language, differs quantitatively rather than qualitatively from the cognitive status of non-demented adults. The implications of these results for classification, assessment, etiology, and prevention are discussed. PMID:20677881

  4. The N-DRC forms a conserved biochemical complex that maintains outer doublet alignment and limits microtubule sliding in motile axonemes

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; VanderWaal, Kristyn; Perrone, Catherine A.; Mueller, Joshua; Fox, Laura; Sale, Winfield S.; Porter, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    The nexin–dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) is proposed to coordinate dynein arm activity and interconnect doublet microtubules. Here we identify a conserved region in DRC4 critical for assembly of the N-DRC into the axoneme. At least 10 subunits associate with DRC4 to form a discrete complex distinct from other axonemal substructures. Transformation of drc4 mutants with epitope-tagged DRC4 rescues the motility defects and restores assembly of missing DRC subunits and associated inner-arm dyneins. Four new DRC subunits contain calcium-signaling motifs and/or AAA domains and are nearly ubiquitous in species with motile cilia. However, drc mutants are motile and maintain the 9 + 2 organization of the axoneme. To evaluate the function of the N-DRC, we analyzed ATP-induced reactivation of isolated axonemes. Rather than the reactivated bending observed with wild-type axonemes, ATP addition to drc-mutant axonemes resulted in splaying of doublets in the distal region, followed by oscillatory bending between pairs of doublets. Thus the N-DRC provides some but not all of the resistance to microtubule sliding and helps to maintain optimal alignment of doublets for productive flagellar motility. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that regulate motility and further highlight the importance of the proximal region of the axoneme in generating flagellar bending. PMID:23427265

  5. Design guidelines for remotely maintained equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, T.W.; Evans, J.H.; Peishel, F.L.; Schrock, S.L.; Smith, G.E.; Macdonald, D.

    1988-11-01

    The CFRP has pioneered and developed the concept of totally remote operation and maintenance of process equipment in spent fuel reprocessing, using force-reflecting master/slave servomanipulators, coupled with television viewing, to extend human capabilities effectively throughout an uninhabitable environment. This concept enhances safeguard control of nuclear materials, provides for low-exposure of personnel to radiation and reliable recovery from unplanned events, ensures high plant availability, and aids eventual decommissioning of the plant. The results of this experience have been organized in this document to enable designers to consider this technology, not only in spent fuel reprocessing, but among various other situations that may be hazardous to personnel. This document is an expanded and updated version of an earlier design guide that was specific to fuel reprocessing requirements. The guidelines identified in the present document suggest a general approach to the design of effective, reliable, safe, remotely operated and maintained facilities. This document may be used broadly to apply remotely maintained equipment in hostile environments based on proven techniques, equipment, and well-established practices. The concepts are particularly applicable to large plant facilities where economy of scale is important. The theme emphasizes utilization of ordinary commercial tools, equipment, and materials widely available. 5 refs., 51 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  7. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  8. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  9. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE).

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M; Brick, Timothy R; Pritikin, Joshua N; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D; Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant's personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual's data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies.

  10. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE)

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.; Brick, Timothy R.; Pritikin, Joshua N.; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D.; Maes, Hermine H.; Neale, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly-impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participants’ personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual’s data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  11. [Trace elements maintaining the vital functions].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yasuaki

    2016-07-01

    In a healthy condition, trace elements constituting the living body are regulated and maintained their balance of each other and their range of physiological optimum concentration in order to maintain the normal vital functions. When the optimum conditions of their balance and their homeostasis, however, are broken down by deficiency or excess of certain trace element, an excess accumulation or deficiency of specified element is induced and it follows that peculiar disease is caused according to function of each specified element. Generally, the disturbance of major elements such as O, C, H, N, Ca, P will induce a nutrition lesion and electrolytic abnormality, and the disturbance of 10 trace elements such as Fe, F, Si, Zn, Sr, Rb, Br, Pb, Mn, Cu being at ppm order and 14 ultra-trace elements such as Al, Cd, Sn, Ba, Hg, Se, I, Mo, Ni, B, Cr, As, Co, V being at ppb order will give rise to functional disorder of enzyme and physiological active substance in living body.

  12. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2’s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 PMID:27159240

  13. Distinctive features of internally driven magnetotail reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Merkin, V. G.; Pritchett, P. L.; Swisdak, M.

    2017-04-01

    Onset of reconnection in a tail-like equilibrium with a finite Bz magnetic field component is studied using 3-D explicit particle-in-cell simulations. Due to a region of a tailward Bz gradient the onset develops spontaneously as the magnetic flux release instability with dominant earthward ion flows. The instability drives the change of magnetic field topology internally, without any external forcing. The distinctive features of this regime are: previously unreported Hall magnetic field patterns; energy conversion near the dipolarization front prior to the X line formation; asymmetry of the energy conversion, plasma heating, and anisotropy relative to the X line, with regions of ion and electron heating out of phase both along and across the tail. These features distinguish the internally driven reconnection regime from similar processes in antiparallel magnetic field configurations as well as interchange and externally driven magnetotail reconnection regimes and can be used to identify the different regimes in upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission tail season observations.

  14. Distinct molecular profile of diffuse cerebellar gliomas.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masashi; Mukasa, Akitake; Nagae, Genta; Yamamoto, Shogo; Tatsuno, Kenji; Ueda, Hiroki; Fukuda, Shiro; Umeda, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Tomonari; Otani, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Shota; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Nejo, Takahide; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ichimura, Koichi; Nakamura, Taishi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Narita, Yoshitaka; Nagane, Motoo; Ueki, Keisuke; Nishikawa, Ryo; Shibahara, Junji; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Saito, Nobuhito

    2017-08-29

    Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor-driving alterations are often different among gliomas that originated from different brain regions and have underscored the importance of analyzing molecular characteristics of gliomas stratified by brain region. Therefore, to elucidate molecular characteristics of diffuse cerebellar gliomas (DCGs), 27 adult, mostly glioblastoma cases were analyzed. Comprehensive analysis using whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and Infinium methylation array (n = 17) demonstrated their distinct molecular profile compared to gliomas in other brain regions. Frequent mutations in chromatin-modifier genes were identified including, noticeably, a truncating mutation in SETD2 (n = 4), which resulted in loss of H3K36 trimethylation and was mutually exclusive with H3F3A K27M mutation (n = 3), suggesting that epigenetic dysregulation may lead to DCG tumorigenesis. Alterations that cause loss of p53 function including TP53 mutation (n = 9), PPM1D mutation (n = 2), and a novel type of PPM1D fusion (n = 1), were also frequent. On the other hand, mutations and copy number changes commonly observed in cerebral gliomas were infrequent. DNA methylation profile analysis demonstrated that all DCGs except for those with H3F3A mutations were categorized in the "RTK I (PDGFRA)" group, and those DCGs had a gene expression signature that was highly associated with PDGFRA. Furthermore, compared with the data of 315 gliomas derived from different brain regions, promoter methylation of transcription factors genes associated with glial development showed a characteristic pattern presumably reflecting their tumor origin. Notably, SOX10, a key transcription factor associated with oligodendroglial differentiation and PDGFRA regulation, was up-regulated in both DCG and H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline glioma, suggesting their developmental and biological commonality. In contrast, SOX10 was silenced by promoter methylation in most cerebral gliomas. These

  15. Building and maintaining the axon initial segment

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Matthew S.; Burrone, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The axon initial segment is a unique neuronal subregion involved in the initiation of action potentials and in the control of axonal identity. Recent work has helped our understanding of how this specialised structure develops, not least in identifying possible mechanisms leading to the localisation of the AIS’s master organiser protein, ankyrin-G. The most exciting current work, however, focuses on later aspects of AIS function and plasticity. Recent studies have shown that the AIS is subdivided into distinct structural and functional domains, have demonstrated how the AIS acts as a cytoplasmic barrier for axonal transport, and have discovered that the AIS can be surprisingly plastic in its responses to alterations in neuronal activity. PMID:20537529

  16. Balancing selection maintains polymorphisms at neurogenetic loci in field experiments.

    PubMed

    Lonn, Eija; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Mokkonen, Mikael; Sims, Angela M; Watts, Phillip C

    2017-04-04

    Most variation in behavior has a genetic basis, but the processes determining the level of diversity at behavioral loci are largely unknown for natural populations. Expression of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (Avpr1a) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) in specific regions of the brain regulates diverse social and reproductive behaviors in mammals, including humans. That these genes have important fitness consequences and that natural populations contain extensive diversity at these loci implies the action of balancing selection. In Myodes glareolus, Avpr1a and Oxtr each contain a polymorphic microsatellite locus located in their 5' regulatory region (the regulatory region-associated microsatellite, RRAM) that likely regulates gene expression. To test the hypothesis that balancing selection maintains diversity at behavioral loci, we released artificially bred females and males with different RRAM allele lengths into field enclosures that differed in population density. The length of Avpr1a and Oxtr RRAMs was associated with reproductive success, but population density and the sex interacted to determine the optimal genotype. In general, longer Avpr1a RRAMs were more beneficial for males, and shorter RRAMs were more beneficial for females; the opposite was true for Oxtr RRAMs. Moreover, Avpr1a RRAM allele length is correlated with the reproductive success of the sexes during different phases of reproduction; for males, RRAM length correlated with the numbers of newborn offspring, but for females selection was evident on the number of weaned offspring. This report of density-dependence and sexual antagonism acting on loci within the arginine vasopressin-oxytocin pathway explains how genetic diversity at Avpr1a and Oxtr could be maintained in natural populations.

  17. Do Coinfections Maintain Genetic Variation in Parasites?

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Jokela, Jukka

    2016-12-01

    Host individuals are often infected with multiple, potentially interacting parasite species and genotypes. Such coinfections have consequences for epidemiology, disease severity, and evolution of parasite virulence. As fitness effects of coinfection can be specific to interacting parasite genotypes, coinfections may induce high fitness variation among parasite genotypes. We argue that such interactions can be an important mechanism maintaining genetic variation in parasite traits such as infectivity and virulence. We also argue that such interactions may slow coevolutionary dynamics between hosts and parasites. This is because, instead of depending only on host genotype, parasite fitness may be determined by average infection success across all coinfection scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maintaining the Telescope Bibliography at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.

    2010-10-01

    The library profession benefits tremendously from ever-changing web technologies. In maintaining a telescope bibliography, web-publishing revolutionized the way librarians track relevant publications. Thanks to the search abilities provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, arXiv, publishers, as well as Google Scholar, and other such resources, online searching for Gemini-based publications has replaced the tedious perusing of print journals. However, we should keep in mind that online searching is neither flawless nor simple — different content providers require different search strategies. Sometimes the retrievals are not as complete as one expects. Information providers should be constantly improving their searching abilities in order to make the task of electronic publication tracking more reliable and efficient.

  19. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  20. How homologous recombination maintains telomere integrity.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, Eliana M C; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes against loss of genetic information and inappropriate processing as damaged DNA and are therefore crucial to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. In addition to providing a pathway for genome-wide DNA repair, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in telomere replication and capping. Consistent with this, the genomic instability characteristic of HR-deficient cells and tumours is driven in part by telomere dysfunction. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which HR modulates the response to intrinsic cellular challenges that arise during telomere replication, as well as its impact on the assembly of telomere protective structures. How normal and tumour cells differ in their ability to maintain telomeres is deeply relevant to the search for treatments that would selectively eliminate cells whose capacity for HR-mediated repair has been compromised.

  1. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    PubMed

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  2. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  3. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  4. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  5. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    PubMed

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use.

  6. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworth