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Sample records for maintain distinct regionalized

  1. Semi-reciprocal polarization maintaining fibre coupler with distinctive transmission characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyue; Thomas, Freya; Wang, Ziyu

    2015-11-01

    Optical couplers are very important devices in optical communication systems and optical sensor systems. Several types of optical couplers with different materials or different transmission characteristics have been reported. Here we propose a semi-reciprocal polarization maintaining fibre coupler with unique transmission characteristics, which is distinct from conventional polarization maintaining fibre couplers and polarization beam splitters, and investigate the characteristics of the coupler theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results show that for circularly and elliptically polarized input light, the proposed coupler will act both as an in-line polariser and a conventional polarization maintaining fibre coupler. The output polarization extinction ratio of the transmission arm is 31.79 dB at a centre wavelength of 841 nm. For linearly polarized input light, the coupler will merely act as a conventional 3 dB polarization maintaining fibre coupler. The unique features of the proposed coupler enables the removal of polarisers from optical sensor systems and coherent optical communication systems, and reduces the insertion loss and production cost of the optical path. Therefore there is wide application for this device in optical sensor systems and optical communication systems.

  2. Semi-reciprocal polarization maintaining fibre coupler with distinctive transmission characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinyue; Thomas, Freya; Wang, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    Optical couplers are very important devices in optical communication systems and optical sensor systems. Several types of optical couplers with different materials or different transmission characteristics have been reported. Here we propose a semi-reciprocal polarization maintaining fibre coupler with unique transmission characteristics, which is distinct from conventional polarization maintaining fibre couplers and polarization beam splitters, and investigate the characteristics of the coupler theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results show that for circularly and elliptically polarized input light, the proposed coupler will act both as an in-line polariser and a conventional polarization maintaining fibre coupler. The output polarization extinction ratio of the transmission arm is 31.79 dB at a centre wavelength of 841 nm. For linearly polarized input light, the coupler will merely act as a conventional 3 dB polarization maintaining fibre coupler. The unique features of the proposed coupler enables the removal of polarisers from optical sensor systems and coherent optical communication systems, and reduces the insertion loss and production cost of the optical path. Therefore there is wide application for this device in optical sensor systems and optical communication systems. PMID:26611837

  3. Distinct regulatory mechanisms act to establish and maintain Pax3 expression in the developing neural tube.

    PubMed

    Moore, Steven; Ribes, Vanessa; Terriente, Javier; Wilkinson, David; Relaix, Frédéric; Briscoe, James

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation in developing tissues is driven by the interaction of extrinsic signals with intrinsic transcriptional networks that together establish spatially and temporally restricted profiles of gene expression. How this process is orchestrated at the molecular level by genomic cis-regulatory modules is one of the central questions in developmental biology. Here we have addressed this by analysing the regulation of Pax3 expression in the context of the developing spinal cord. Pax3 is induced early during neural development in progenitors of the dorsal spinal cord and is maintained as pattern is subsequently elaborated, resulting in the segregation of the tissue into dorsal and ventral subdivisions. We used a combination of comparative genomics and transgenic assays to define and dissect several functional cis-regulatory modules associated with the Pax3 locus. We provide evidence that the coordinated activity of two modules establishes and refines Pax3 expression during neural tube development. Mutational analyses of the initiating element revealed that in addition to Wnt signaling, Nkx family homeodomain repressors restrict Pax3 transcription to the presumptive dorsal neural tube. Subsequently, a second module mediates direct positive autoregulation and feedback to maintain Pax3 expression. Together, these data indicate a mechanism by which transient external signals are converted into a sustained expression domain by the activities of distinct regulatory elements. This transcriptional logic differs from the cross-repression that is responsible for the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression in the ventral neural tube, suggesting that a variety of circuits are deployed within the neural tube regulatory network to establish and elaborate pattern formation.

  4. French-Dutch Bilinguals Do Not Maintain Obligatory Semantic Distinctions: Evidence from Placement Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alferink, Inge; Gullberg, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    It is often said that bilinguals are not the sum of two monolinguals but that bilingual systems represent a third pattern. This study explores the exact nature of this pattern. We ask whether there is evidence of a merged system when one language makes an obligatory distinction that the other one does not, namely in the case of placement verbs in…

  5. Drosophila muller f elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Reed, Laura K; Smith, Sheryl T; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E J; Machone, Joshua F; Patterson, Seantay D; Price, Amber L; Turner, Bryce A; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K; McCartha, Shannon R; Walji, Tezin A; Walker, Chelsea A; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K; Armstrong, Andrew R; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J; Barberi, Chelsea R; Beck, Lauren R; Blaker, Amanda L; Blunden, Christopher E; Brand, Jordan P; Brock, Ethan J; Brooks, Dana W; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C; Clark, Eric M; Clark, Nicole B; Collins, Ashley A; Cotteleer, Rebecca J; Cullimore, Peterson R; Dawson, Seth G; Docking, Carter T; Dorsett, Sasha L; Dougherty, Grace A; Downey, Kaitlyn A; Drake, Andrew P; Earl, Erica K; Floyd, Trevor G; Forsyth, Joshua D; Foust, Jonathan D; Franchi, Spencer L; Geary, James F; Hanson, Cynthia K; Harding, Taylor S; Harris, Cameron B; Heckman, Jonathan M; Holderness, Heather L; Howey, Nicole A; Jacobs, Dontae A; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A; Kehoe, James L; Koaches, Hannah C; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J; Kus, Jordan E; Lammers, Jennifer A; Leads, Rachel R; Leatherman, Emily C; Lippert, Rachel N; Messenger, Gregory S; Morrow, Adam T; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J; Potocny, Stephanie J; Powers, Michelle K; Reem, Rachel M; Rennhack, Jonathan P; Reynolds, Katherine R; Reynolds, Lyndsey A; Rhee, Dong K; Rivard, Allyson B; Ronk, Adam J; Rooney, Meghan B; Rubin, Lainey S; Salbert, Luke R; Saluja, Rasleen K; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R; Schulz, Robert W; Smith, Karl E; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R; Tache, Melissa A; Tewilliager, Ashley A; Tilot, Amanda K; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M; Vylonis, Megan B; Watson, David T; Wurzler, Juliana A; Wysocki, Lauren M; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A; Emerson, Julia A; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J; DiLorenzo, Lauren A; Goeller, Katie L; Macchi, Christopher R; Muller, Sarah E; Pasierb, Brittany D; Sable, Joseph E; Tucci, Jessica M; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A; Beken, Levent H; Conturso, Alaina C; Danner, Benjamin L; DeMichele, Gabriella A; Gonzales, Justin A; Hammond, Maureen S; Kelley, Colleen V; Kelly, Elisabeth A; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M; McCabe, Nikie L; Newman, Alyssa M; Spaeder, Lindsay A; Tumminello, Richard A; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M; Cristostomo, Michael C; DaSilva, Paolo A; Harker, Katherine S; Jarrell, Jenifer N; Jimenez, Luis A; Katz, Brandon M; Kennedy, William R; Kolibas, Kimberly S; LeBlanc, Mark T; Nguyen, Trung T; Nicolas, Daniel S; Patao, Melissa D; Patao, Shane M; Rupley, Bryan J; Sessions, Bridget J; Weaver, Jennifer A; Goodman, Anya L; Alvendia, Erica L; Baldassari, Shana M; Brown, Ashley S; Chase, Ian O; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B; Custer, Ashley F; DiTommaso, Tia M; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C; Grove, Ryan A; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L; Hopkins, Barbara L; Huerta, Vilma F; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M; Lee, Cassidy T; Lewis, Benjamin M; Lydon, Anniken M; Maniaci, Brian J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Morlock, Elaine V; Morris, William M; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C; Osterloh, Jeannette M; Perez, Marcos A; Presley, Jonathan D; Randazzo, Matt J; Regan, Melanie K; Rossi, Franca G; Smith, Melanie A; Soliterman, Eugenia A; Sparks, Ciani J; Tran, Danny L; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A; Wong, Jeremy N; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J; Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Ackerman, Cheri M; Armistead, Isaac O; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J; Brouwer, Lindsay K; Burkhart, Brandon J; Bushhouse, Kelsey T; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y Y; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M; Darusz, Jess M; Dauphin, Cory M; Davis, Yelena P; Diekema, Emily J; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E M; Faber, Hayley M; Faber, Katherine J; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T; Hammond, Brandy L; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R; Hilbrands, Julia A; Howell, Emily J; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A; Jelsema, Timothy R; Johnson, Benjamin K; Jones, Kelly K; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D; Menyes, Erika E; Nollet, Eric A; Plescher, Brittany E; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L; Schepers, Allison J; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R; Sterling, Allison M; Tenney, Jenna C; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I; Boudoures, Anna L; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S; French, Kristin M; Gill, Ishwar S; Havill, Jessen T; Johnson, Jaelyn L; Keny, Lauren J; Kerber, John M; Klett, Bethany M; Kufel, Christina N; May, Francis J; Mecoli, Jonathan P; Merry, Callie R; Meyer, Lauren R; Miller, Emily G; Mullen, Gregory J; Palozola, Katherine C; Pfeil, Jacob J; Thomas, Jessica G; Verbofsky, Evan M; Spana, Eric P; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I N; Fitzgibbons, John D; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J; Knouse, Kristin A; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U; Shuen, Jessica A; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G; Burg, Martin G; Adams, Stephanie J; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J; Robertson, Gregory M; Smith, Samuel I; DiAngelo, Justin R; Sassu, Eric D; Bhalla, Satish C; Sharif, Karim A; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E; Alvarez, Consuelo J; Davis, Kristen C; Dunham, Carrie A; Grantham, Alaina J; Hare, Amber N; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W; Kuleck, Gary A; Yu, Nicole S; Kaehler, Marian M; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques Dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T; Poet, Jeffrey L; Allen, Alica B; Anderson, John E; Barnett, Jason M; Baumgardner, Jordan S; Brown, Adam D; Carney, Jordan E; Chavez, Ramiro A; Christgen, Shelbi L; Christie, Jordan S; Clary, Andrea N; Conn, Michel A; Cooper, Kristen M; Crowley, Matt J; Crowley, Samuel T; Doty, Jennifer S; Dow, Brian A; Edwards, Curtis R; Elder, Darcie D; Fanning, John P; Janssen, Bridget M; Lambright, Anthony K; Lane, Curtiss E; Limle, Austin B; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R; McDonough, Alexa M; Melton, Amy D; Minnick, Phillip J; Musick, Adam E; Newhart, William H; Noynaert, Joseph W; Ogden, Bradley J; Sandusky, Michael W; Schmuecker, Samantha M; Shipman, Anna L; Smith, Anna L; Thomsen, Kristen M; Unzicker, Matthew R; Vernon, William B; Winn, Wesley W; Woyski, Dustin S; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R; Johnson, Todd D; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R; Waggoner, Andrew W; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K; Hark, Amy T; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E; Smith, Mary A; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C P; Johnson, Ashlee G; White, Jackie X; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L M; Chau, Kim M; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E Gloria C; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M; Bahr, Thomas J; Caesar, Nicole M; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W; Cognetti, Peter A; English, Johnathan D; Fadus, Matthew C; Fick, Cameron N; Freda, Philip J; Hennessy, Bryan M; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K; King, Jessica E; Knob, Christopher R; Kraftmann, Karen J; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N; Minniti, Carl J; Minton, Thomas F; Moran, Joseph V; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C; Puetz, William J; Robinson, Lauren M; Rose, Thomas J; Sweeney, Edward P; Timko, Ashley S; Paetkau, Don W; Eisler, Heather L; Aldrup, Megan E; Bodenberg, Jessica M; Cole, Mara G; Deranek, Kelly M; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M; Eckardt, Alexandra K; Ehret, Sharon C; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L; Light, Morgan R; Meier, Anne C; O'Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R; Reilly, Mary T; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R; Herrick, Douglas A; Khoury, Christopher B; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A; Lowell, Shannon M; Reynolds, Thomas J; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D; Lopilato, Jane E; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B; Smith, Jonathan E; Unruh, Anna K; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T; Moore, Zachary D; Savell, Christopher D; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F; Horton, Lanor S; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H; Liu, James Z; Mach, Sandy D; Phan, Thu A; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E; Strelitz, Jean M; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E; Gross, Meleah J; Gygi, Amber M; Jackson, Lesley E; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J Devin; Stemler, Kristina M; Throm, Allison A; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T Aaron; Williams, Mallory A; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E; Florian, Kayla A; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W; Pelchen, Carly E; Yenerall, Paul M; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M; delValle, Frank R Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A; Colón-Cruz, Luis R; Correa-Muller, Ana I; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L; Cruz-García, José M; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P; Torres-Castillo, José L; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L; Molleston, Jerome M; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W; Nagengast, Alexis A; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L; Adams, Ashley L; Barnard, Brianna K; Cheramie, Martin N; Eime, Anne M; Golden, Kathryn L; Hawkins, Allyson P; Hill, Jessica E; Kampmeier, Jessica A; Kern, Cody D; Magnuson, Emily E; Miller, Ashley R; Morrow, Cody M; Peairs, Julia C; Pickett, Gentry L; Popelka, Sarah A; Scott, Alexis J; Teepe, Emily J; TerMeer, Katie A; Watchinski, Carmen A; Watson, Lucas A; Weber, Rachel E; Woodard, Kate A; Barnard, Daron C; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M; McNeil, Gerard P; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2015-03-04

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25-50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3-11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11-27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4-3.6 vs. 8.4-8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu.

  6. Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties Over 40 Million Years of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E. J.; Machone, Joshua F.; Patterson, Seantay D.; Price, Amber L.; Turner, Bryce A.; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K.; McCartha, Shannon R.; Walji, Tezin A.; Walker, Chelsea A.; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K.; Armstrong, Andrew R.; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J.; Barberi, Chelsea R.; Beck, Lauren R.; Blaker, Amanda L.; Blunden, Christopher E.; Brand, Jordan P.; Brock, Ethan J.; Brooks, Dana W.; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C.; Clark, Eric M.; Clark, Nicole B.; Collins, Ashley A.; Cotteleer, Rebecca J.; Cullimore, Peterson R.; Dawson, Seth G.; Docking, Carter T.; Dorsett, Sasha L.; Dougherty, Grace A.; Downey, Kaitlyn A.; Drake, Andrew P.; Earl, Erica K.; Floyd, Trevor G.; Forsyth, Joshua D.; Foust, Jonathan D.; Franchi, Spencer L.; Geary, James F.; Hanson, Cynthia K.; Harding, Taylor S.; Harris, Cameron B.; Heckman, Jonathan M.; Holderness, Heather L.; Howey, Nicole A.; Jacobs, Dontae A.; Jewell, Elizabeth S.; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A.; Kehoe, James L.; Koaches, Hannah C.; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J.; Kus, Jordan E.; Lammers, Jennifer A.; Leads, Rachel R.; Leatherman, Emily C.; Lippert, Rachel N.; Messenger, Gregory S.; Morrow, Adam T.; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J.; Potocny, Stephanie J.; Powers, Michelle K.; Reem, Rachel M.; Rennhack, Jonathan P.; Reynolds, Katherine R.; Reynolds, Lyndsey A.; Rhee, Dong K.; Rivard, Allyson B.; Ronk, Adam J.; Rooney, Meghan B.; Rubin, Lainey S.; Salbert, Luke R.; Saluja, Rasleen K.; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R.; Schulz, Robert W.; Smith, Karl E.; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R.; Tache, Melissa A.; Tewilliager, Ashley A.; Tilot, Amanda K.; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M.; Vylonis, Megan B.; Watson, David T.; Wurzler, Juliana A.; Wysocki, Lauren M.; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A.; Emerson, Julia A.; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J.; DiLorenzo, Lauren A.; Goeller, Katie L.; Macchi, Christopher R.; Muller, Sarah E.; Pasierb, Brittany D.; Sable, Joseph E.; Tucci, Jessica M.; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A.; Beken, Levent H.; Conturso, Alaina C.; Danner, Benjamin L.; DeMichele, Gabriella A.; Gonzales, Justin A.; Hammond, Maureen S.; Kelley, Colleen V.; Kelly, Elisabeth A.; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M.; McCabe, Nikie L.; Newman, Alyssa M.; Spaeder, Lindsay A.; Tumminello, Richard A.; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M.; Cristostomo, Michael C.; DaSilva, Paolo A.; Harker, Katherine S.; Jarrell, Jenifer N.; Jimenez, Luis A.; Katz, Brandon M.; Kennedy, William R.; Kolibas, Kimberly S.; LeBlanc, Mark T.; Nguyen, Trung T.; Nicolas, Daniel S.; Patao, Melissa D.; Patao, Shane M.; Rupley, Bryan J.; Sessions, Bridget J.; Weaver, Jennifer A.; Goodman, Anya L.; Alvendia, Erica L.; Baldassari, Shana M.; Brown, Ashley S.; Chase, Ian O.; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B.; Custer, Ashley F.; DiTommaso, Tia M.; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C.; Grove, Ryan A.; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S.; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L.; Hopkins, Barbara L.; Huerta, Vilma F.; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M.; Lee, Cassidy T.; Lewis, Benjamin M.; Lydon, Anniken M.; Maniaci, Brian J.; Mitchell, Ryan D.; Morlock, Elaine V.; Morris, William M.; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C.; Osterloh, Jeannette M.; Perez, Marcos A.; Presley, Jonathan D.; Randazzo, Matt J.; Regan, Melanie K.; Rossi, Franca G.; Smith, Melanie A.; Soliterman, Eugenia A.; Sparks, Ciani J.; Tran, Danny L.; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A.; Wong, Jeremy N.; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J.; Hoogewerf, Arlene J.; Ackerman, Cheri M.; Armistead, Isaac O.; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J.; Brouwer, Lindsay K.; Burkhart, Brandon J.; Bushhouse, Kelsey T.; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y. Y.; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M.; Darusz, Jess M.; Dauphin, Cory M.; Davis, Yelena P.; Diekema, Emily J.; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E. M.; Faber, Hayley M.; Faber, Katherine J.; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T.; Hammond, Brandy L.; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R.; Hilbrands, Julia A.; Howell, Emily J.; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A.; Jelsema, Timothy R.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Jones, Kelly K.; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D.; Menyes, Erika E.; Nollet, Eric A.; Plescher, Brittany E.; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L.; Schepers, Allison J.; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R.; Sterling, Allison M.; Tenney, Jenna C.; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E.; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P.; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K.; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A.; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E.; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R.; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I.; Boudoures, Anna L.; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S.; French, Kristin M.; Gill, Ishwar S.; Havill, Jessen T.; Johnson, Jaelyn L.; Keny, Lauren J.; Kerber, John M.; Klett, Bethany M.; Kufel, Christina N.; May, Francis J.; Mecoli, Jonathan P.; Merry, Callie R.; Meyer, Lauren R.; Miller, Emily G.; Mullen, Gregory J.; Palozola, Katherine C.; Pfeil, Jacob J.; Thomas, Jessica G.; Verbofsky, Evan M.; Spana, Eric P.; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I.N.; Fitzgibbons, John D.; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J.; Knouse, Kristin A.; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S.; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W.; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D.; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U.; Shuen, Jessica A.; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q.; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Burg, Martin G.; Adams, Stephanie J.; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E.; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Robertson, Gregory M.; Smith, Samuel I.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Sassu, Eric D.; Bhalla, Satish C.; Sharif, Karim A.; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S.; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Davis, Kristen C.; Dunham, Carrie A.; Grantham, Alaina J.; Hare, Amber N.; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Yu, Nicole S.; Kaehler, Marian M.; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A.; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Alica B.; Anderson, John E.; Barnett, Jason M.; Baumgardner, Jordan S.; Brown, Adam D.; Carney, Jordan E.; Chavez, Ramiro A.; Christgen, Shelbi L.; Christie, Jordan S.; Clary, Andrea N.; Conn, Michel A.; Cooper, Kristen M.; Crowley, Matt J.; Crowley, Samuel T.; Doty, Jennifer S.; Dow, Brian A.; Edwards, Curtis R.; Elder, Darcie D.; Fanning, John P.; Janssen, Bridget M.; Lambright, Anthony K.; Lane, Curtiss E.; Limle, Austin B.; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R.; McDonough, Alexa M.; Melton, Amy D.; Minnick, Phillip J.; Musick, Adam E.; Newhart, William H.; Noynaert, Joseph W.; Ogden, Bradley J.; Sandusky, Michael W.; Schmuecker, Samantha M.; Shipman, Anna L.; Smith, Anna L.; Thomsen, Kristen M.; Unzicker, Matthew R.; Vernon, William B.; Winn, Wesley W.; Woyski, Dustin S.; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J.; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M.; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R.; Johnson, Todd D.; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H.; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S.; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R.; Waggoner, Andrew W.; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K.; Hark, Amy T.; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E.; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E.; Smith, Mary A.; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C. P.; Johnson, Ashlee G.; White, Jackie X.; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Chau, Kim M.; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E. Gloria C.; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M.; Bahr, Thomas J.; Caesar, Nicole M.; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W.; Cognetti, Peter A.; English, Johnathan D.; Fadus, Matthew C.; Fick, Cameron N.; Freda, Philip J.; Hennessy, Bryan M.; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K.; King, Jessica E.; Knob, Christopher R.; Kraftmann, Karen J.; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N.; Minniti, Carl J.; Minton, Thomas F.; Moran, Joseph V.; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C.; Puetz, William J.; Robinson, Lauren M.; Rose, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Edward P.; Timko, Ashley S.; Paetkau, Don W.; Eisler, Heather L.; Aldrup, Megan E.; Bodenberg, Jessica M.; Cole, Mara G.; Deranek, Kelly M.; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M.; Eckardt, Alexandra K.; Ehret, Sharon C.; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D.; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L.; Light, Morgan R.; Meier, Anne C.; O’Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R.; Reilly, Mary T.; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L.; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M.; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R.; Herrick, Douglas A.; Khoury, Christopher B.; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A.; Lowell, Shannon M.; Reynolds, Thomas J.; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H.; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T.; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D.; Lopilato, Jane E.; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A.; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R.; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R.; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R.; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H.; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B.; Smith, Jonathan E.; Unruh, Anna K.; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E.; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J.; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T.; Moore, Zachary D.; Savell, Christopher D.; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M.; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F.; Horton, Lanor S.; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H.; Liu, James Z.; Mach, Sandy D.; Phan, Thu A.; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E.; Strelitz, Jean M.; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C.; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J.; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E.; Gross, Meleah J.; Gygi, Amber M.; Jackson, Lesley E.; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L.; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L.; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E.; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J. 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    2015-01-01

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25–50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3–11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11–27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4–3.6 vs. 8.4–8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. PMID:25740935

  7. Drosophila muller f elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Reed, Laura K; Smith, Sheryl T; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E J; Machone, Joshua F; Patterson, Seantay D; Price, Amber L; Turner, Bryce A; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K; McCartha, Shannon R; Walji, Tezin A; Walker, Chelsea A; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K; Armstrong, Andrew R; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J; Barberi, Chelsea R; Beck, Lauren R; Blaker, Amanda L; Blunden, Christopher E; Brand, Jordan P; Brock, Ethan J; Brooks, Dana W; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C; Clark, Eric M; Clark, Nicole B; Collins, Ashley A; Cotteleer, Rebecca J; Cullimore, Peterson R; Dawson, Seth G; Docking, Carter T; Dorsett, Sasha L; Dougherty, Grace A; Downey, Kaitlyn A; Drake, Andrew P; Earl, Erica K; Floyd, Trevor G; Forsyth, Joshua D; Foust, Jonathan D; Franchi, Spencer L; Geary, James F; Hanson, Cynthia K; Harding, Taylor S; Harris, Cameron B; Heckman, Jonathan M; Holderness, Heather L; Howey, Nicole A; Jacobs, Dontae A; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A; Kehoe, James L; Koaches, Hannah C; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J; Kus, Jordan E; Lammers, Jennifer A; Leads, Rachel R; Leatherman, Emily C; Lippert, Rachel N; Messenger, Gregory S; Morrow, Adam T; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J; Potocny, Stephanie J; Powers, Michelle K; Reem, Rachel M; Rennhack, Jonathan P; Reynolds, Katherine R; Reynolds, Lyndsey A; Rhee, Dong K; Rivard, Allyson B; Ronk, Adam J; Rooney, Meghan B; Rubin, Lainey S; Salbert, Luke R; Saluja, Rasleen K; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R; Schulz, Robert W; Smith, Karl E; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R; Tache, Melissa A; Tewilliager, Ashley A; Tilot, Amanda K; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M; Vylonis, Megan B; Watson, David T; Wurzler, Juliana A; Wysocki, Lauren M; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A; Emerson, Julia A; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J; DiLorenzo, Lauren A; Goeller, Katie L; Macchi, Christopher R; Muller, Sarah E; Pasierb, Brittany D; Sable, Joseph E; Tucci, Jessica M; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A; Beken, Levent H; Conturso, Alaina C; Danner, Benjamin L; DeMichele, Gabriella A; Gonzales, Justin A; Hammond, Maureen S; Kelley, Colleen V; Kelly, Elisabeth A; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M; McCabe, Nikie L; Newman, Alyssa M; Spaeder, Lindsay A; Tumminello, Richard A; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M; Cristostomo, Michael C; DaSilva, Paolo A; Harker, Katherine S; Jarrell, Jenifer N; Jimenez, Luis A; Katz, Brandon M; Kennedy, William R; Kolibas, Kimberly S; LeBlanc, Mark T; Nguyen, Trung T; Nicolas, Daniel S; Patao, Melissa D; Patao, Shane M; Rupley, Bryan J; Sessions, Bridget J; Weaver, Jennifer A; Goodman, Anya L; Alvendia, Erica L; Baldassari, Shana M; Brown, Ashley S; Chase, Ian O; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B; Custer, Ashley F; DiTommaso, Tia M; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C; Grove, Ryan A; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L; Hopkins, Barbara L; Huerta, Vilma F; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M; Lee, Cassidy T; Lewis, Benjamin M; Lydon, Anniken M; Maniaci, Brian J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Morlock, Elaine V; Morris, William M; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C; Osterloh, Jeannette M; Perez, Marcos A; Presley, Jonathan D; Randazzo, Matt J; Regan, Melanie K; Rossi, Franca G; Smith, Melanie A; Soliterman, Eugenia A; Sparks, Ciani J; Tran, Danny L; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A; Wong, Jeremy N; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J; Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Ackerman, Cheri M; Armistead, Isaac O; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J; Brouwer, Lindsay K; Burkhart, Brandon J; Bushhouse, Kelsey T; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y Y; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M; Darusz, Jess M; Dauphin, Cory M; Davis, Yelena P; Diekema, Emily J; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E M; Faber, Hayley M; Faber, Katherine J; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T; Hammond, Brandy L; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R; Hilbrands, Julia A; Howell, Emily J; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A; Jelsema, Timothy R; Johnson, Benjamin K; Jones, Kelly K; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D; Menyes, Erika E; Nollet, Eric A; Plescher, Brittany E; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L; Schepers, Allison J; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R; Sterling, Allison M; Tenney, Jenna C; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I; Boudoures, Anna L; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S; French, Kristin M; Gill, Ishwar S; Havill, Jessen T; Johnson, Jaelyn L; Keny, Lauren J; Kerber, John M; Klett, Bethany M; Kufel, Christina N; May, Francis J; Mecoli, Jonathan P; Merry, Callie R; Meyer, Lauren R; Miller, Emily G; Mullen, Gregory J; Palozola, Katherine C; Pfeil, Jacob J; Thomas, Jessica G; Verbofsky, Evan M; Spana, Eric P; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I N; Fitzgibbons, John D; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J; Knouse, Kristin A; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U; Shuen, Jessica A; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G; Burg, Martin G; Adams, Stephanie J; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J; Robertson, Gregory M; Smith, Samuel I; DiAngelo, Justin R; Sassu, Eric D; Bhalla, Satish C; Sharif, Karim A; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E; Alvarez, Consuelo J; Davis, Kristen C; Dunham, Carrie A; Grantham, Alaina J; Hare, Amber N; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W; Kuleck, Gary A; Yu, Nicole S; Kaehler, Marian M; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques Dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T; Poet, Jeffrey L; Allen, Alica B; Anderson, John E; Barnett, Jason M; Baumgardner, Jordan S; Brown, Adam D; Carney, Jordan E; Chavez, Ramiro A; Christgen, Shelbi L; Christie, Jordan S; Clary, Andrea N; Conn, Michel A; Cooper, Kristen M; Crowley, Matt J; Crowley, Samuel T; Doty, Jennifer S; Dow, Brian A; Edwards, Curtis R; Elder, Darcie D; Fanning, John P; Janssen, Bridget M; Lambright, Anthony K; Lane, Curtiss E; Limle, Austin B; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R; McDonough, Alexa M; Melton, Amy D; Minnick, Phillip J; Musick, Adam E; Newhart, William H; Noynaert, Joseph W; Ogden, Bradley J; Sandusky, Michael W; Schmuecker, Samantha M; Shipman, Anna L; Smith, Anna L; Thomsen, Kristen M; Unzicker, Matthew R; Vernon, William B; Winn, Wesley W; Woyski, Dustin S; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R; Johnson, Todd D; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R; Waggoner, Andrew W; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K; Hark, Amy T; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E; Smith, Mary A; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C P; Johnson, Ashlee G; White, Jackie X; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L M; Chau, Kim M; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E Gloria C; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M; Bahr, Thomas J; Caesar, Nicole M; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W; Cognetti, Peter A; English, Johnathan D; Fadus, Matthew C; Fick, Cameron N; Freda, Philip J; Hennessy, Bryan M; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K; King, Jessica E; Knob, Christopher R; Kraftmann, Karen J; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N; Minniti, Carl J; Minton, Thomas F; Moran, Joseph V; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C; Puetz, William J; Robinson, Lauren M; Rose, Thomas J; Sweeney, Edward P; Timko, Ashley S; Paetkau, Don W; Eisler, Heather L; Aldrup, Megan E; Bodenberg, Jessica M; Cole, Mara G; Deranek, Kelly M; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M; Eckardt, Alexandra K; Ehret, Sharon C; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L; Light, Morgan R; Meier, Anne C; O'Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R; Reilly, Mary T; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R; Herrick, Douglas A; Khoury, Christopher B; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A; Lowell, Shannon M; Reynolds, Thomas J; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D; Lopilato, Jane E; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B; Smith, Jonathan E; Unruh, Anna K; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T; Moore, Zachary D; Savell, Christopher D; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F; Horton, Lanor S; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H; Liu, James Z; Mach, Sandy D; Phan, Thu A; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E; Strelitz, Jean M; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E; Gross, Meleah J; Gygi, Amber M; Jackson, Lesley E; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J Devin; Stemler, Kristina M; Throm, Allison A; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T Aaron; Williams, Mallory A; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E; Florian, Kayla A; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W; Pelchen, Carly E; Yenerall, Paul M; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M; delValle, Frank R Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A; Colón-Cruz, Luis R; Correa-Muller, Ana I; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L; Cruz-García, José M; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P; Torres-Castillo, José L; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L; Molleston, Jerome M; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W; Nagengast, Alexis A; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L; Adams, Ashley L; Barnard, Brianna K; Cheramie, Martin N; Eime, Anne M; Golden, Kathryn L; Hawkins, Allyson P; Hill, Jessica E; Kampmeier, Jessica A; Kern, Cody D; Magnuson, Emily E; Miller, Ashley R; Morrow, Cody M; Peairs, Julia C; Pickett, Gentry L; Popelka, Sarah A; Scott, Alexis J; Teepe, Emily J; TerMeer, Katie A; Watchinski, Carmen A; Watson, Lucas A; Weber, Rachel E; Woodard, Kate A; Barnard, Daron C; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M; McNeil, Gerard P; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2015-05-01

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25-50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3-11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11-27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4-3.6 vs. 8.4-8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. PMID:25740935

  8. Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region: A Distinct Molecular Entity.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stephanie; Sill, Martin; Jones, David T W; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Jouvet, Anne; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Wesseling, Pieter; Beschorner, Rudi; Mittelbronn, Michel; Kohlhof, Patricia; Hovestadt, Volker; Johann, Pascal; Kool, Marcel; Pajtler, Kristian W; Korshunov, Andrey; Ruland, Vincent; Sperveslage, Jan; Thomas, Christian; Witt, Hendrik; von Deimling, Andreas; Paulus, Werner; Pfister, Stefan M; Capper, David; Hasselblatt, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a neuroepithelial brain tumor, which might pose diagnostic difficulties and recurs often. Little is known about underlying molecular alterations. We therefore investigated chromosomal copy number alterations, DNA methylation patterns and mRNA expression profiles in a series of 24 PTPRs. Losses of chromosome 10 were identified in all 13 PTPRs examined. Losses of chromosomes 3 and 22q (54%) as well as gains of chromosomes 8p (62%) and 12 (46%) were also common. DNA methylation profiling using Illumina 450k arrays reliably distinguished PTPR from ependymomas and pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation. PTPR could be divided into two subgroups based on methylation pattern, PTPR group 2 showing higher global methylation and a tendency toward shorter progression-free survival (P = 0.06). Genes overexpressed in PTPR as compared with ependymal tumors included SPDEF, known to be expressed in the rodent subcommissural organ. Notable SPDEF protein expression was encountered in 15/19 PTPRs as compared with only 2/36 ependymal tumors, 2/19 choroid plexus tumors and 0/23 samples of other central nervous system (CNS) tumor entities. In conclusion, PTPRs show typical chromosomal alterations as well as distinct DNA methylation and expression profiles, which might serve as useful diagnostic tools.

  9. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Freedman, Adam H; Brown, David M; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  10. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Freedman, Adam H; Brown, David M; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  11. Hydrological and Ecological Problems of Karst Regions: Hydrological actions on limestone regions cause distinctive ecological problems.

    PubMed

    Legrand, H E

    1973-03-01

    Climate exerts a universal dominant influence on ecology, but processes of karstification have an equally high ecological influence in carbonate rock regions. Development of karst features depends greatly on the degree to which water containing carbon dioxide has been able to move on and through carbonate rocks and to remove some of the rock in solution. Distinctive features of many karst terranes include scarcity of soils, scarcity of surface streams, and rugged topography; less distinctive are the highly permeable and cavernous rocks, especially at the shallow depths. This high permeability gives rise to many practical problems, including (i) scarcity and poor predictability of groundwater supplies, (ii) scarcity of surface streams, (iii) instability of the ground, (iv) leakage of surface reservoirs, and (v) an unreliable waste-disposal environment. Natural karst processes in some carbonate rock regions have caused a greater restriction in the development of biota than man can ever be suspected of causing.

  12. The Regional MBA: Distinct Segments, Wants, and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passyn, Kirsten; Diriker, Memo

    2011-01-01

    MBA Programs in top-tier school differ greatly from those in regional schools. A survey that aimed at assessing segmentation, pedagogy, and satisfaction in regional MBA programs was developed and administered in three universities of the Mid Atlantic, Midwest, and Southern regions. The results show four clearly distinguished segments that…

  13. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  14. Distinct orbitofrontal regions encode stimulus and choice valuation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, William A; Kesek, Amanda; Mowrer, Samantha M

    2009-10-01

    The weak axiom of revealed preferences suggests that the value of an object can be understood through the simple examination of choices. Although this axiom has driven economic theory, the assumption of equation between value and choice is often violated. fMRI was used to decouple the processes associated with evaluating stimuli from evaluating one's actions. Whereas activity in left posterior areas of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was associated with processing the objective value of stimuli, activity in medial anterior areas of the OFC was associated with accepting high value gambles and rejecting low value gambles; that is, making correct decisions. These data demonstrate that distinct areas of the OFC provide dissociated representations for use in adaptive decision-making and suggest an important processing distinction between the concepts of good/bad and right/wrong.

  15. Intestinal infection with Trichinella spiralis induces distinct, regional immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Blum, L.K.; Mohanan, S.; Fabre, M.V.; Yafawi, R.E.; Appleton, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between the small and large intestines (SI and LI) with regard to colonization and immunity during infection with Trichinella spiralis. In orally infected C57BL/6 mice, the gender ratios of worms differed among the SI, cecum, and LI. Mucosal mastocytosis developed in the SI but not in the LI, consistent with reduced IL-9 and IL-13 production by explants from the LI. Despite these differences, worms were cleared at the same rate from both sites. Furthermore, IL-10 production was reduced in the LI, yet it was instrumental in limiting local inflammation. Finally, passive immunization of rat pups with tyvelose-specific antibodies effectively cleared fist-stage larvae from all intestinal regions. We conclude that despite regional differences in immune responsiveness and colonization, immune mechanisms that clear T. spiralis operate effectively throughout the intestinal tract. PMID:23465441

  16. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed. PMID:24131397

  17. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed.

  18. Embryonic and adult-derived resident cardiac macrophages are maintained through distinct mechanisms at steady state and during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Slava; Lavine, Kory J; Beaudin, Anna E; Sojka, Dorothy K; Carrero, Javier A; Calderon, Boris; Brija, Thaddeus; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Ivanov, Stoyan; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Schilling, Joel D; Schwendener, Reto; Sergin, Ismail; Razani, Babak; Forsberg, E Camilla; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Unanue, Emil R; Colonna, Marco; Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Mann, Douglas L

    2014-01-16

    Cardiac macrophages are crucial for tissue repair after cardiac injury but are not well characterized. Here we identify four populations of cardiac macrophages. At steady state, resident macrophages were primarily maintained through local proliferation. However, after macrophage depletion or during cardiac inflammation, Ly6c(hi) monocytes contributed to all four macrophage populations, whereas resident macrophages also expanded numerically through proliferation. Genetic fate mapping revealed that yolk-sac and fetal monocyte progenitors gave rise to the majority of cardiac macrophages, and the heart was among a minority of organs in which substantial numbers of yolk-sac macrophages persisted in adulthood. CCR2 expression and dependence distinguished cardiac macrophages of adult monocyte versus embryonic origin. Transcriptional and functional data revealed that monocyte-derived macrophages coordinate cardiac inflammation, while playing redundant but lesser roles in antigen sampling and efferocytosis. These data highlight the presence of multiple cardiac macrophage subsets, with different functions, origins, and strategies to regulate compartment size.

  19. Distinct roles of left inferior frontal regions that explain individual differences in second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kuniyoshi L; Nauchi, Arihito; Tatsuno, Yoshinori; Hirano, Kazuyoshi; Muraishi, Yukimasa; Kimura, Masakazu; Bostwick, Mike; Yusa, Noriaki

    2009-08-01

    Second language (L2) acquisition is more susceptible to environmental and idiosyncratic factors than first language acquisition. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging for L2 learners of different ages of first exposure (mean: 12.6 and 5.6 years) in a formal school environment, and compared the cortical activations involved in processing English sentences containing either syntactic or spelling errors, where the testing ages and task performances of both groups were matched. We found novel activation patterns in two regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) that correlated differentially with the performances of the late and early learners. Specifically, activations of the dorsal and ventral triangular part (F3t) of the left IFG correlated positively with the accuracy of the syntactic task for the late learners, whereas activations of the left ventral F3t correlated negatively with the accuracy for the early learners. In contrast, other cortical regions exhibited differential correlation patterns with the reaction times (RTs) of the syntactic task. Namely, activations of the orbital part (F3O) of the left IFG, as well as those of the left angular gyrus, correlated positively with the RTs for the late learners, whereas those activations correlated negatively with the RTs for the early learners. Moreover, the task-selective activation of the left F3O was maintained for both the late and early learners. These results explain individual differences in L2 acquisition, such that the acquisition of linguistic knowledge in L2 is subserved by at least two distinct inferior frontal regions of the left F3t and F3O.

  20. Identifying regional key eco-space to maintain ecological security using GIS.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hualin; Yao, Guanrong; Wang, Peng

    2014-02-28

    Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm(2), accounting for 40% of the region's total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability.

  1. Identifying regional key eco-space to maintain ecological security using GIS.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hualin; Yao, Guanrong; Wang, Peng

    2014-03-01

    Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm(2), accounting for 40% of the region's total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability. PMID:24590051

  2. Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hualin; Yao, Guanrong; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability. PMID:24590051

  3. Differences in virulence and sporulation of Phytophthora kernoviae isolates originating from two distinct geographical regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora kernoviae has only been isolated from the United Kingdom (U.K.) and New Zealand. To understand what differences may exist between isolates from these two distinct geographical regions, virulence studies on three host plants and sporulation on host leaves were conducted on select isolat...

  4. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region.

    PubMed

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-11-05

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis.

  5. A minimal regulatory region maintains constitutive expression of the max gene.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, M A; Sollenberger, K G; Kao, T L; Taparowsky, E J

    1997-01-01

    Max is a basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper protein that forms heterodimers with the Myc family of proteins to promote cell growth and with the Mad/Mxi1 family of proteins to inhibit cell growth. The role of Max as the obligate binding partner for these two protein families necessitates the observed constitutive expression and relatively long half-life of the max mRNA under a variety of growth conditions. In this study, we have used the chicken max gene to map DNA elements maintaining max gene expression in vertebrate cells. We have identified a minimal regulatory region (MRR) that resides within 115 bp of the max translation initiation site and that possesses an overall structure typical of TATA-less promoters. Within the MRR are two consensus binding sites for Sp1, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that plays a role in the expression of many constitutive genes. Interestingly, we show that direct binding by Sp1 to these sites is not required for MRR-mediated transcription. Instead, the integrity of a 20-bp DNA element in the MRR is required for transcriptional activity, as is the interaction of this DNA element with a 90-kDa cellular protein. Our data suggest that it is the persistence of this 90-kDa protein in vertebrate cells which drives max gene expression, insulates the max promoter from the dramatic changes in transcription that accompany cell growth and development, and ensures that adequate levels of Max will be available to facilitate the function of the Myc, Mad, and Mxi1 families of proteins. PMID:9032230

  6. Growth and gene expression are predominantly controlled by distinct regions of the human IL-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J J; McReynolds, L J; Keegan, A; Wang, L H; Garfein, E; Rothman, P; Nelms, K; Paul, W E

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 causes hematopoietic cells to proliferate and express a series of genes, including CD23. We examined whether IL-4-mediated growth, as measured by 4PS phosphorylation, and gene induction were similarly controlled. Studies of M12.4.1 cells expressing human IL-4R truncation mutants indicated that the region between amino acids 557-657 is necessary for full gene expression, which correlated with Stat6 DNA binding activity. This region was not required for 4PS phosphorylation. Tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutations in the interval between amino acids 557-657 revealed that as long as one tyrosine remained unmutated, CD23 was fully induced. When all three tyrosines were mutated, the receptor was unable to induce CD23. The results indicate that growth regulation and gene expression are principally controlled by distinct regions of IL-4R.

  7. Antiparallel protocadherin homodimers use distinct affinity- and specificity-mediating regions in cadherin repeats 1-4.

    PubMed

    Nicoludis, John M; Vogt, Bennett E; Green, Anna G; Schärfe, Charlotta Pi; Marks, Debora S; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are cell adhesion and signaling proteins used by neurons to develop and maintain neuronal networks, relying on trans homophilic interactions between their extracellular cadherin (EC) repeat domains. We present the structure of the antiparallel EC1-4 homodimer of human PcdhγB3, a member of the γ subfamily of clustered Pcdhs. Structure and sequence comparisons of α, β, and γ clustered Pcdh isoforms illustrate that subfamilies encode specificity in distinct ways through diversification of loop region structure and composition in EC2 and EC3, which contains isoform-specific conservation of primarily polar residues. In contrast, the EC1/EC4 interface comprises hydrophobic interactions that provide non-selective dimerization affinity. Using sequence coevolution analysis, we found evidence for a similar antiparallel EC1-4 interaction in non-clustered Pcdh families. We thus deduce that the EC1-4 antiparallel homodimer is a general interaction strategy that evolved before the divergence of these distinct protocadherin families. PMID:27472898

  8. Antiparallel protocadherin homodimers use distinct affinity- and specificity-mediating regions in cadherin repeats 1-4

    PubMed Central

    Nicoludis, John M; Vogt, Bennett E; Green, Anna G; Schärfe, Charlotta PI; Marks, Debora S; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are cell adhesion and signaling proteins used by neurons to develop and maintain neuronal networks, relying on trans homophilic interactions between their extracellular cadherin (EC) repeat domains. We present the structure of the antiparallel EC1-4 homodimer of human PcdhγB3, a member of the γ subfamily of clustered Pcdhs. Structure and sequence comparisons of α, β, and γ clustered Pcdh isoforms illustrate that subfamilies encode specificity in distinct ways through diversification of loop region structure and composition in EC2 and EC3, which contains isoform-specific conservation of primarily polar residues. In contrast, the EC1/EC4 interface comprises hydrophobic interactions that provide non-selective dimerization affinity. Using sequence coevolution analysis, we found evidence for a similar antiparallel EC1-4 interaction in non-clustered Pcdh families. We thus deduce that the EC1-4 antiparallel homodimer is a general interaction strategy that evolved before the divergence of these distinct protocadherin families. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18449.001 PMID:27472898

  9. Distinct regions of prefrontal cortex are associated with the controlled retrieval and selection of social information.

    PubMed

    Satpute, Ajay B; Badre, David; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2014-05-01

    Research in social neuroscience has uncovered a social knowledge network that is particularly attuned to making social judgments. However, the processes that are being performed by both regions within this network and those outside of this network that are nevertheless engaged in the service of making a social judgment remain unclear. To help address this, we drew upon research in semantic memory, which suggests that making a semantic judgment engages 2 distinct control processes: A controlled retrieval process, which aids in bringing goal-relevant information to mind from long-term stores, and a selection process, which aids in selecting the information that is goal-relevant from the information retrieved. In a neuroimaging study, we investigated whether controlled retrieval and selection for social information engage distinct portions of both the social knowledge network and regions outside this network. Controlled retrieval for social information engaged an anterior ventrolateral portion of the prefrontal cortex, whereas selection engaged both the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction within the social knowledge network. These results suggest that the social knowledge network may be more involved with the selection of social information than the controlled retrieval of it and incorporates lateral prefrontal regions in accessing memory for making social judgments.

  10. Quantitative Expression Profile of Distinct Functional Regions in the Adult Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Mamoru; Uno, Kenichiro D.; Tsujino, Kaori; Hanashima, Carina; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-01-01

    The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B*) project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ∼50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/) for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems. PMID:21858037

  11. Two Distinct Yersinia pestis Populations Causing Plague among Humans in the West Nile Region of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B.; Yockey, Brook M.; Acayo, Sarah; Kaggwa, John; Apangu, Titus; Kugeler, Kiersten J.; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Petersen, Jeannine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Plague is a life-threatening disease caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Since the 1990s, Africa has accounted for the majority of reported human cases. In Uganda, plague cases occur in the West Nile region, near the border with Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite the ongoing risk of contracting plague in this region, little is known about Y. pestis genotypes causing human disease. Methodology/Principal Findings During January 2004–December 2012, 1,092 suspect human plague cases were recorded in the West Nile region of Uganda. Sixty-one cases were culture-confirmed. Recovered Y. pestis isolates were analyzed using three typing methods, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiple variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and subpopulations analyzed in the context of associated geographic, temporal, and clinical data for source patients. All three methods separated the 61 isolates into two distinct 1.ANT lineages, which persisted throughout the 9 year period and were associated with differences in elevation and geographic distribution. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that human cases of plague in the West Nile region of Uganda are caused by two distinct 1.ANT genetic subpopulations. Notably, all three typing methods used, SNPs, PFGE, and MLVA, identified the two genetic subpopulations, despite recognizing different mutation types in the Y. pestis genome. The geographic and elevation differences between the two subpopulations is suggestive of their maintenance in highly localized enzootic cycles, potentially with differing vector-host community composition. This improved understanding of Y. pestis subpopulations in the West Nile region will be useful for identifying ecologic and environmental factors associated with elevated plague risk. PMID:26866815

  12. A neurophysiological comparison of three distinct regions of the primate frontal lobe.

    PubMed

    di Pellegrino, G; Wise, S P

    1991-04-01

    We examined whether reported physiological distinctions between prefrontal (PF) and premotor (PM) areas reflect true dissimilarity or instead result from technical considerations such as differences among species, individuals, or behavioural, physiological and anatomical techniques. A Rhesus monkey performed a task involving 2 stimulus events on each trial: the first stimulus appeared briefly, then after a delay period, 2 peripheral stimuli appeared simultaneously. The monkey had to delay responding for an additional, self-timed instructed delay period, then contact a touch pad beneath the peripheral stimulus of the colour matching the first stimulus. PM and PF cortex differ in several respects. More PF than PM neurons discharge during the presentation of the first stimulus, and only PF neurons show phasic bursts of activity shortly after that stimulus disappears. During the instructed delay period, cells in PF begin activity earlier than PM neurons, whereas PM neurons continue their activity longer. Similarly, PF cells show greater discharge modulation early in the instructed delay period compared with PM cells, which discharge more intensely later. Cells with apparent selectivity for stimulus characteristics appear only in PF. Thus our results support the view that PM and PF have distinctive physiological properties that cannot be accounted for by technical considerations alone. In addition, we describe the activity cells in a cortical region, here termed the dorsomedial frontal cortex, which has a distinctive dysgranular cytoarchitecture and has physiological properties that ally it with PF. PMID:2043959

  13. Regional transport of a chemically distinctive dust: Gypsum from White Sands, New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Warren H.; Hyslop, Nicole P.; Trzepla, Krystyna; Yatkin, Sinan; Rarig, Randy S.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jin, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    The White Sands complex, a National Monument and adjoining Missile Range in southern New Mexico, occupies the dry bed of an ice-age lake where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the east and northeast. The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) operates long-term aerosol samplers at two sites east of the Sacramento range. In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at these sites, eclipsing the regional summer peak resulting from atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with much of the sulfur in coarse particles and concentrations of calcium and strontium above regional levels. The increase in these gypsiferous species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and the IMPROVE samplers together provide a natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiable at long-term observatories 100-200 km downwind.

  14. Differential production of reactive oxygen species in distinct brain regions of hypoglycemic mice.

    PubMed

    Amador-Alvarado, Leticia; Montiel, Teresa; Massieu, Lourdes

    2014-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a serious complication of insulin therapy in patients suffering from type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Severe hypoglycemia leading to coma (isoelectricity) induces massive neuronal death in vulnerable brain regions such as the hippocampus, the striatum and the cerebral cortex. It has been suggested that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is involved in hypoglycemic brain damage, and that ROS generation is stimulated by glucose reintroduction (GR) after the hypoglycemic coma. However, the distribution of ROS in discrete brain regions has not been studied in detail. Using the oxidation sensitive marker dihydroethidium (DHE) we have investigated the distribution of ROS in different regions of the mouse brain during prolonged severe hypoglycemia without isoelectricity, as well as the effect of GR on ROS levels. Results show that ROS generation increases in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex and the striatum after prolonged severe hypoglycemia before the coma. The hippocampus showed the largest increases in ROS levels. GR further stimulated ROS production in the hippocampus and the striatum while in the cerebral cortex, only the somatosensory and parietal areas were significantly affected by GR. Results suggest that ROS are differentially produced during the hypoglycemic insult and that a different response to GR is present among distinct brain regions.

  15. Estimated costs of maintaining a recovered wolf population in agricultural regions of Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    The annual costs of maintaining Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus), now numbering about 2,500, under 2 plans are compared: (1) maintaining a population of about 1,400 primarily in the wilderness and semi-wilderness as recommended by the Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Plan, and (2) allowing wolves to continue colonizing agricultural areas for 5 years after removal from the endangered species list, as recommended by a consensus of wolf stakeholders (Minnesota Wolf Management Roundtable). Under the first plan, each year an estimated 27 farms would suffer livestock losses; wolves would kilt about 3 dogs; 36 wolves would be destroyed; and the cost per wolf in the total population would be $86. Under the second plan, conservative estimates are that by the year 2005, there would be an estimated 3,500 wolves; each year 94-171 farms would suffer damage; wolves would kill 8-52 dogs; 109-438 wolves would have to be killed for depredation control; and the annual cost averaged over the total population would be $86 for each of the 1,438 wolves living primarily in the wilderness and an additional $197 for each wolf outside the wilderness.

  16. Relative vulnerability of public supply wells to VOC contamination in hydrologically distinct regional aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauffman, L.J.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    A process-based methodology was used to compare the vulnerability of public supply wells tapping seven study areas in four hydrologically distinct regional aquifers to volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. This method considers (1) contributing areas and travel times of groundwater flowpaths converging at individual supply wells, (2) the oxic and/or anoxic conditions encountered along each flowpath, and (3) the combined effects of hydrodynamic dispersion and contaminant- and oxic/anoxic-specific biodegradation. Contributing areas and travel times were assessed using particle tracks generated from calibrated regional groundwater flow models. These results were then used to estimate VOC concentrations relative to an unspecified initial concentration (C/C0) at individual public supply wells. The results show that the vulnerability of public supply wells to VOC contamination varies widely between different regional aquifers. Low-recharge rates, long travel times, and the predominantly oxic conditions characteristic of Basin and Range aquifers in the western United States leads to lower vulnerability to VOCs, particularly to petroleum hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene. On the other hand, high recharge rates and short residence times characteristic of the glacial aquifers of the eastern United States leads to greater vulnerability to VOCs. These differences lead to distinct patterns of C/C0 values estimated for public supply wells characteristic of each aquifer, information that can be used by resource managers to develop monitoring plans based on relative vulnerability, to locate new public supply wells, or to make land-use management decisions. Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  17. Effectiveness of traditional climatic responses in the central Texas region in maintaining thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, D.; Chabannes, G.

    1982-01-01

    Traditional building responses to the Central Texas climate are compared and evaluated in a parametric study. Building parameters of size, shape, orientation, capacitance and resistance values of materials, ceiling height, porch chading devices, and ventilation strategies are simulated using the DEROB computer code. Unassisted thermal comfort parameters of air temperature and mean radiant surface temperature are tabulated by hour into temperature bins to allow comparison of the relative effect of each response. Results indicate that high capacitance materials are more effective in maintaining thermal comfort in winter, and high resistance materials are more effective in summer. Building elongation improves summer performance, but reduces winter performance. Increased ceiling height provides marginal improvement in both winter and summer performance of traditional structures. The presence of a porch shading device improves summer performance slightly, but degrades winter performance by a similar degree. Ventilation strategies also show an improvement in summer building performance.

  18. Establishing the pre-placodal region and breaking it into placodes with distinct identities

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre; Moody, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Specialized sensory organs in the vertebrate head originate from thickenings in the embryonic ectoderm called cranial sensory placodes. These placodes, as well as the neural crest, arise from a zone of ectoderm that borders the neural plate. This zone separates into a precursor field for the neural crest that lies adjacent to the neural plate, and a precursor field for the placodes, called the pre-placodal region (PPR), that lies lateral to the neural crest. The neural crest domain and the PPR are established in response to signaling events mediated by BMPs, FGFs and Wnts, which differentially activate transcription factors in these territories. In the PPR, members of the Six and Eya families, act in part to repress neural crest specific transcription factors, thus solidifying a placode developmental program. Subsequently, in response to environmental cues the PPR is further subdivided into placodal territories with distinct characteristics, each expressing a specific repertoire of transcription factors that provides the necessary information for their progression to mature sensory organs. In this review we summarize recent advances in the characterization of the signaling molecules and transcriptional effectors that regulate PPR specification and its subdivision into placodal domains with distinct identities. PMID:24576539

  19. Distinct characteristics of asymmetric magnetic reconnections: Observational results from the exhaust region at the dayside magnetopause.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y C

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the conversion of magnetic energy into the thermal and kinetic energy of plasma. On either side of the diffusion region in space plasma, the conditions for the occurrence of reconnections are usually not symmetric. Previous theoretical studies have predicted that reconnections under asymmetric conditions will bear different features compared with those of symmetric reconnections, and numerical simulations have verified these distinct features. However, to date, the features of asymmetric reconnections have not been thoroughly investigated using in situ observations; thus, some results from theoretical studies and simulations have not been tested with observations sufficiently well. Here, spacecraft observations are used in a statistical investigation of asymmetric magnetic reconnection exhaust at the dayside magnetopause. The resulting observational features are consistent with the theoretical predictions. The results presented here advance our understanding of the development of reconnections under asymmetric conditions. PMID:27270685

  20. Distinct characteristics of asymmetric magnetic reconnections: Observational results from the exhaust region at the dayside magnetopause

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the conversion of magnetic energy into the thermal and kinetic energy of plasma. On either side of the diffusion region in space plasma, the conditions for the occurrence of reconnections are usually not symmetric. Previous theoretical studies have predicted that reconnections under asymmetric conditions will bear different features compared with those of symmetric reconnections, and numerical simulations have verified these distinct features. However, to date, the features of asymmetric reconnections have not been thoroughly investigated using in situ observations; thus, some results from theoretical studies and simulations have not been tested with observations sufficiently well. Here, spacecraft observations are used in a statistical investigation of asymmetric magnetic reconnection exhaust at the dayside magnetopause. The resulting observational features are consistent with the theoretical predictions. The results presented here advance our understanding of the development of reconnections under asymmetric conditions. PMID:27270685

  1. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Fabbio, Gianfranco; Merlo, Maurizio; Tosi, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    Outstanding features of Mediterranean forest area are highlighted with a special reference to biodiversity and connections with forest management. The naturally originated and anthropogenic progress of the mosaic-like evolution, as well as the man-induced factors and natural constraints are described. The past and present close linkages between management and biodiversity are then analysed by means of a few, outstanding cases typical of the geographical region. The management shift on increasing economically marginal forest area (abandonment) appears to be the major force currently driving connections with inherent and associated biodiversity. The goals following the new-established environmental roles of forests have shifted towards adaptive management, namely the implementation of locally tailored rules in accordance with prominent forest functions. Key priorities to face up to the new scenarios are then discussed. Economic and policy implications are addressed with reference to multipurpose forestry and the related annual flow of outputs. It is shown the role of water-related services, as well the provision of various non-wood forest products and public goods in addition to wood and other traditional forest outputs. Reference is also made to the dualism between the Northern and the South-Eastern Mediterranean countries due to different level of economic development (and pressure of forest resources) together with very different institutional structures, i.e. public ownership in Southern and South-Eastern Mediterranean countries. Nevertheless, the situation is going to become more harmonious in the medium run by growing economic development, the affirmation of local rights on forest resources, globalisation and, above all, rural out migration and exchanges of peoples confirming the traditional role of the Mediterranean Region at cross road of South-North and Eastern-Western cultures.

  2. Maintaining polio-free certification in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region for over a decade.

    PubMed

    Adams, Anthony; Boualam, Liliane; Diorditsa, Sergey; Gregory, Christopher; Jee, Youngmee; Mendoza-Aldana, Jorge; Roesel, Sigrun

    2014-11-01

    On 29 October 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication in the Western Pacific certified the WHO Western Pacific Region as free of indigenous wild poliovirus. This status has been maintained to date: wild poliovirus importations into Singapore (in 2006) and Australia (in 2007) did not lead to secondary cases, and an outbreak in China (in 2011) was rapidly controlled. Circulation of vaccine derived polioviruses in Cambodia, China and the Philippines was quickly interrupted. A robust acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system, including a multitiered polio laboratory network, has been maintained, forming the platform for integrating measles, neonatal tetanus, and other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance and their respective control goals. While polio elimination remains one of the most important achievements in public health in the Western Pacific Region, extended delays in global eradication have, however, led to shifting and competing public health priorities among member states and partners and have made the region increasingly vulnerable. PMID:25316844

  3. Lizard tail regeneration: regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by Indian hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

    2015-03-15

    Lizards capable of caudal autotomy exhibit the remarkable ability to "drop" and then regenerate their tails. However, the regenerated lizard tail (RLT) is known as an "imperfect replicate" due to several key anatomical differences compared to the original tail. Most striking of these "imperfections" concerns the skeleton; instead of the vertebrae of the original tail, the skeleton of the RLT takes the form of an unsegmented cartilage tube (CT). Here we have performed the first detailed staging of skeletal development of the RLT CT, identifying two distinct mineralization events. CTs isolated from RLTs of various ages were analyzed by micro-computed tomography to characterize mineralization, and to correlate skeletal development with expression of endochondral ossification markers evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. During early tail regeneration, shortly after CT formation, the extreme proximal CT in direct contact with the most terminal vertebra of the original tail develops a growth plate-like region that undergoes endochondral ossification. Proximal CT chondrocytes enlarge, express hypertrophic markers, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), apoptose, and are replaced by bone. During later stages of tail regeneration, the distal CT mineralizes without endochondral ossification. The sub-perichondrium of the distal CT expresses Ihh, and the perichondrium directly calcifies without cartilage growth plate formation. The calcified CT perichondrium also contains a population of stem/progenitor cells that forms new cartilage in response to TGF-β stimulation. Treatment with the Ihh inhibitor cyclopamine inhibited both proximal CT ossification and distal CT calcification. Thus, while the two mineralization events are spatially, temporally, and mechanistically very different, they both involve Ihh. Taken together, these results suggest that Ihh regulates CT mineralization during two distinct stages of lizard tail regeneration. PMID:25596336

  4. Lizard tail regeneration: regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by Indian hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

    2015-03-15

    Lizards capable of caudal autotomy exhibit the remarkable ability to "drop" and then regenerate their tails. However, the regenerated lizard tail (RLT) is known as an "imperfect replicate" due to several key anatomical differences compared to the original tail. Most striking of these "imperfections" concerns the skeleton; instead of the vertebrae of the original tail, the skeleton of the RLT takes the form of an unsegmented cartilage tube (CT). Here we have performed the first detailed staging of skeletal development of the RLT CT, identifying two distinct mineralization events. CTs isolated from RLTs of various ages were analyzed by micro-computed tomography to characterize mineralization, and to correlate skeletal development with expression of endochondral ossification markers evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. During early tail regeneration, shortly after CT formation, the extreme proximal CT in direct contact with the most terminal vertebra of the original tail develops a growth plate-like region that undergoes endochondral ossification. Proximal CT chondrocytes enlarge, express hypertrophic markers, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), apoptose, and are replaced by bone. During later stages of tail regeneration, the distal CT mineralizes without endochondral ossification. The sub-perichondrium of the distal CT expresses Ihh, and the perichondrium directly calcifies without cartilage growth plate formation. The calcified CT perichondrium also contains a population of stem/progenitor cells that forms new cartilage in response to TGF-β stimulation. Treatment with the Ihh inhibitor cyclopamine inhibited both proximal CT ossification and distal CT calcification. Thus, while the two mineralization events are spatially, temporally, and mechanistically very different, they both involve Ihh. Taken together, these results suggest that Ihh regulates CT mineralization during two distinct stages of lizard tail regeneration.

  5. DNAH11 Localization in the Proximal Region of Respiratory Cilia Defines Distinct Outer Dynein Arm Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Gerard W; Loges, Niki T; Klinkenbusch, Judith A; Olbrich, Heike; Pennekamp, Petra; Menchen, Tabea; Raidt, Johanna; Wallmeier, Julia; Werner, Claudius; Westermann, Cordula; Ruckert, Christian; Mirra, Virginia; Hjeij, Rim; Memari, Yasin; Durbin, Richard; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Praveen, Kavita; Kashef, Mohammad A; Kashef, Sara; Eghtedari, Fardin; Häffner, Karsten; Valmari, Pekka; Baktai, György; Aviram, Micha; Bentur, Lea; Amirav, Israel; Davis, Erica E; Katsanis, Nicholas; Brueckner, Martina; Shaposhnykov, Artem; Pigino, Gaia; Dworniczak, Bernd; Omran, Heymut

    2016-08-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a recessively inherited disease that leads to chronic respiratory disorders owing to impaired mucociliary clearance. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a diagnostic standard to identify ultrastructural defects in respiratory cilia but is not useful in approximately 30% of PCD cases, which have normal ciliary ultrastructure. DNAH11 mutations are a common cause of PCD with normal ciliary ultrastructure and hyperkinetic ciliary beating, but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We therefore characterized DNAH11 in human respiratory cilia by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) in the context of PCD. We used whole-exome and targeted next-generation sequence analysis as well as Sanger sequencing to identify and confirm eight novel loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations. We designed and validated a monoclonal antibody specific to DNAH11 and performed high-resolution IFM of both control and PCD-affected human respiratory cells, as well as samples from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-left-right dynein mice, to determine the ciliary localization of DNAH11. IFM analysis demonstrated native DNAH11 localization in only the proximal region of wild-type human respiratory cilia and loss of DNAH11 in individuals with PCD with certain loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations. GFP-left-right dynein mice confirmed proximal DNAH11 localization in tracheal cilia. DNAH11 retained proximal localization in respiratory cilia of individuals with PCD with distinct ultrastructural defects, such as the absence of outer dynein arms (ODAs). TEM tomography detected a partial reduction of ODAs in DNAH11-deficient cilia. DNAH11 mutations result in a subtle ODA defect in only the proximal region of respiratory cilia, which is detectable by IFM and TEM tomography.

  6. DNAH11 Localization in the Proximal Region of Respiratory Cilia Defines Distinct Outer Dynein Arm Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Gerard W; Loges, Niki T; Klinkenbusch, Judith A; Olbrich, Heike; Pennekamp, Petra; Menchen, Tabea; Raidt, Johanna; Wallmeier, Julia; Werner, Claudius; Westermann, Cordula; Ruckert, Christian; Mirra, Virginia; Hjeij, Rim; Memari, Yasin; Durbin, Richard; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Praveen, Kavita; Kashef, Mohammad A; Kashef, Sara; Eghtedari, Fardin; Häffner, Karsten; Valmari, Pekka; Baktai, György; Aviram, Micha; Bentur, Lea; Amirav, Israel; Davis, Erica E; Katsanis, Nicholas; Brueckner, Martina; Shaposhnykov, Artem; Pigino, Gaia; Dworniczak, Bernd; Omran, Heymut

    2016-08-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a recessively inherited disease that leads to chronic respiratory disorders owing to impaired mucociliary clearance. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a diagnostic standard to identify ultrastructural defects in respiratory cilia but is not useful in approximately 30% of PCD cases, which have normal ciliary ultrastructure. DNAH11 mutations are a common cause of PCD with normal ciliary ultrastructure and hyperkinetic ciliary beating, but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We therefore characterized DNAH11 in human respiratory cilia by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) in the context of PCD. We used whole-exome and targeted next-generation sequence analysis as well as Sanger sequencing to identify and confirm eight novel loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations. We designed and validated a monoclonal antibody specific to DNAH11 and performed high-resolution IFM of both control and PCD-affected human respiratory cells, as well as samples from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-left-right dynein mice, to determine the ciliary localization of DNAH11. IFM analysis demonstrated native DNAH11 localization in only the proximal region of wild-type human respiratory cilia and loss of DNAH11 in individuals with PCD with certain loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations. GFP-left-right dynein mice confirmed proximal DNAH11 localization in tracheal cilia. DNAH11 retained proximal localization in respiratory cilia of individuals with PCD with distinct ultrastructural defects, such as the absence of outer dynein arms (ODAs). TEM tomography detected a partial reduction of ODAs in DNAH11-deficient cilia. DNAH11 mutations result in a subtle ODA defect in only the proximal region of respiratory cilia, which is detectable by IFM and TEM tomography. PMID:26909801

  7. DISTINCT CHEMICAL REGIONS IN THE ''PRESTELLAR'' INFRARED DARK CLOUD G028.23-00.19

    SciTech Connect

    Sanhueza, Patricio; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Dirienzo, William J.; Pillai, Thushara

    2013-08-20

    We have observed the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.23-00.19 at 3.3 mm using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. In its center, the IRDC hosts one of the most massive ({approx}1520 M{sub Sun }) quiescent, cold (12 K) clumps known (MM1). The low temperature, high NH{sub 2}D abundance, narrow molecular line widths, and absence of embedded infrared sources (from 3.6 to 70 {mu}m) indicate that the clump is likely prestellar. Strong SiO emission with broad line widths (6-9 km s{sup -1}) and high abundances ((0.8-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}) is detected in the northern and southern regions of the IRDC, unassociated with MM1. We suggest that SiO is released to the gas phase from the dust grains through shocks produced by outflows from undetected intermediate-mass stars or clusters of low-mass stars deeply embedded in the IRDC. A weaker SiO component with narrow line widths ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) and low abundances (4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}) is detected in the center-west region, consistent with either a ''subcloud-subcloud'' collision or an unresolved population of a few low-mass stars. We report widespread CH{sub 3}OH emission throughout the whole IRDC and the first detection of extended narrow methanol emission ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) in a cold, massive prestellar clump (MM1). We suggest that the most likely mechanism releasing methanol into the gas phase in such a cold region is the exothermicity of grain-surface reactions. HN{sup 13}C reveals that the IRDC is actually composed of two distinct substructures ({sup s}ubclouds{sup )} separated in velocity space by {approx}1.4 km s{sup -1}. The narrow SiO component arises where the subclouds overlap. The spatial distribution of C{sub 2}H resembles that of NH{sub 2}D, which suggests that C{sub 2}H also traces cold gas in this IRDC.

  8. PAR-2, LGL-1 and the CDC-42 GAP CHIN-1 act in distinct pathways to maintain polarity in the C. elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Alexander; Morton, Diane G; Kemphues, Kenneth

    2013-05-01

    In the one-cell C. elegans embryo, polarity is maintained by mutual antagonism between the anterior cortical proteins PAR-3, PKC-3, PAR-6 and CDC-42, and the posterior cortical proteins PAR-2 and LGL-1 on the posterior cortex. The mechanisms by which these proteins interact to maintain polarity are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the interplay among PAR-2, LGL-1, myosin, the anterior PAR proteins and CDC-42. We find that PAR-2 and LGL-1 affect cortical myosin accumulation by different mechanisms. LGL-1 does not directly antagonize the accumulation of cortical myosin and instead plays a role in regulating PAR-6 levels. By contrast, PAR-2 likely has separate roles in regulating cortical myosin accumulation and preventing the expansion of the anterior cortical domain. We also provide evidence that asymmetry of active CDC-42 can be maintained independently of LGL-1 and PAR-2 by a redundant pathway that includes the CDC-42 GAP CHIN-1. Finally, we show that, in addition to its primary role in regulating the size of the anterior cortical domain via its binding to PAR-6, CDC-42 has a secondary role in regulating cortical myosin that is not dependent on PAR-6.

  9. fMRI Reveals Distinct CNS Processing during Symptomatic and Recovered Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebel, A.; Becerra, L.; Wallin, D.; Moulton, E. A.; Morris, S.; Pendse, G.; Jasciewicz, J.; Stein, M.; Aiello-Lammens, M.; Grant, E.; Berde, C.; Borsook, D.

    2008-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in paediatric patients is clinically distinct from the adult condition in which there is often complete resolution of its signs and symptoms within several months to a few years. The ability to compare the symptomatic and asymptomatic condition in the same individuals makes this population interesting for the…

  10. Histone H3 Acetylation and H3 K4 Methylation Define Distinct Chromatin Regions Permissive for Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chunhong; Boyd, Douglas D.

    2006-01-01

    Histone modifications are associated with distinct transcription states and serve as heritable epigenetic markers for chromatin structure and function. While H3 K9 methylation defines condensed heterochromatin that is able to silence a nearby gene, how gene silencing within euchromatin regions is achieved remains elusive. We report here that histone H3 K4 methylation or K9/K14 acetylation defines distinct chromatin regions permissive or nonpermissive for transgene expression. A permissive chromatin region is enriched in H3 K4 methylation and H3 acetylation, while a nonpermissive region is poor in or depleted of these two histone modifications. The histone modification states of the permissive chromatin can spread to transgenic promoters. However, de novo histone H3 acetylation and H3 K4 methylation at a transgenic promoter in a nonpermissive chromatin region are stochastic, leading to variegated transgene expression. Moreover, nonpermissive chromatin progressively silences a transgene, an event that is accompanied by the reduction of H3 K4 methylation and H3 acetylation levels at the transgenic promoter. These repressive effects of nonpermissive chromatin cannot be completely countered by strong transcription activators, indicating the dominance of the chromatin effects. We therefore propose a model in which histone H3 acetylation and H3 K4 methylation localized to discrete sites in the mammalian genome mark distinct chromatin functions that dictate transgene expression or silencing. PMID:16914722

  11. The preferential codon usages in variable and constant regions of immunoglobulin genes are quite distinct from each other.

    PubMed

    Miyata, T; Hayashida, H; Yasunaga, T; Hasegawa, M

    1979-12-20

    The pattern of codon utilization in the variable and constant regions of immunoglobulin genes are compared. It is shown that, in these regions, codon utilizations are quite distinct from one another: For most degenerate codons, there is a selective bias that prefers C and/or G ending codons to U and/or A ending codons in the constant region compared with the bias in the variable region. This would strongly suggest that, in immunoglobulin genes, the bias in code word usage is determined by other factors than those concerning with the translational mechanism such as tRNA availability and codon-anticodon interaction. A possibility is also suggested that this differance of code word usage between them is due to the existence of secondary structure in the constant region but not in the variable region.

  12. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N.A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E.; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    large population-based cohort (n = 602, 18–88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. Cognitive ability was influenced by the strength of connection within and between functional brain networks, and this positive relationship increased with age. In older adults, there was more rapid decay of intrinsic neuronal activity in multiple regions of the brain networks, which related to cognitive performance. Our data demonstrate increased reliance on network flexibility to maintain cognitive function, in the presence of more rapid decay of neural activity. These insights will facilitate the development of new strategies to maintain cognitive ability. PMID:26985024

  13. Distinct Pools of Non-Glycolytic Substrates Differentiate Brain Regions and Prime Region-Specific Responses of Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Virginia; Budworth, Helen; Canaria, Christie A.; McMurray, Cynthia T.

    2013-01-01

    Many hereditary diseases are characterized by region-specific toxicity, despite the fact that disease-linked proteins are generally ubiquitously expressed. The underlying basis of the region-specific vulnerability remains enigmatic. Here, we evaluate the fundamental features of mitochondrial and glucose metabolism in synaptosomes from four brain regions in basal and stressed states. Although the brain has an absolute need for glucose in vivo, we find that synaptosomes prefer to respire on non-glycolytic substrates, even when glucose is present. Moreover, glucose is metabolized differently in each brain region, resulting in region-specific “signature” pools of non-glycolytic substrates. The use of non-glycolytic resources increases and dominates during energy crisis, and triggers a marked region-specific metabolic response. We envision that disease-linked proteins confer stress on all relevant brain cells, but region-specific susceptibility stems from metabolism of non-glycolytic substrates, which limits how and to what extent neurons respond to the stress. PMID:23874783

  14. Distinct patterns of functional and effective connectivity between perirhinal cortex and other cortical regions in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Edward B; Protzner, Andrea B; McCormick, Cornelia; McLean, D Adam; Poppenk, Jordan; Cate, Anthony D; Köhler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is thought to be dedicated to declarative memory. Recent evidence challenges this view, suggesting that perirhinal cortex (PrC), which interfaces the MTL with the ventral visual pathway, supports highly integrated object representations in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination. Even with comparable representational demands, perceptual and memory tasks differ in numerous task demands and the subjective experience they evoke. Here, we tested whether such differences are reflected in distinct patterns of connectivity between PrC and other cortical regions, including differential involvement of prefrontal control processes. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging data for closely matched perceptual and recognition memory tasks for faces that engaged right PrC equivalently. Multivariate seed analyses revealed distinct patterns of interactions: Right ventrolateral prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices exhibited stronger functional connectivity with PrC in recognition memory; fusiform regions were part of the pattern that displayed stronger functional connectivity with PrC in perceptual discrimination. Structural equation modeling revealed distinct patterns of effective connectivity that allowed us to constrain interpretation of these findings. Overall, they demonstrate that, even when MTL structures show similar involvement in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination, differential neural mechanisms are reflected in the interplay between the MTL and other cortical regions.

  15. Maintaining yields and reducing nitrogen loss in rice-wheat rotation system in Taihu Lake region with proper fertilizer management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lihong; Yu, Yingliang; Yang, Linzhang

    2014-11-01

    total N and organic matter content showed a decrease after three continuous cropping years with inorganic fertilizer application alone, but there was an increase with the OCN treatment. N balance analysis showed a N surplus for FN treatment and a balanced N budget for OCN treatment. To reduce the environmental impact and maintain a high crop production, proper N reduction together with organic amendments could be sustainable in the rice-wheat rotation system in the Taihu Lake region for a long run.

  16. Distinct preference for spatial frequency content in ventral stream regions underlying the recognition of scenes, faces, bodies and other objects.

    PubMed

    Canário, Nádia; Jorge, Lília; Loureiro Silva, M F; Alberto Soares, Mário; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The ventral visual pathway receives both inputs from parvocellular and magnocellular pathways, and combines information from distinct high and low spatial frequency channels (HSF and LSF). Using a random effects region of interest general linear model approach (n=21), we aimed to compare the selectivity to different spatial frequency channels in eight key areas involved in visual object recognition: FFA, OFA, and STS, for face processing; FBA, and EBA as body selective regions; (dorsal and ventral) LOC for object perception; PPA for processing information of places and VWFA as a region which responds to written verbal material. We found that face and body selective regions had significantly higher response to LSF, suggesting an important contribution of holistic processing favoring LSF channels, while other object responsive regions had a higher response to HSF, suggesting a more important role for detailed component processing. Both FBA and VWFA failed to reveal a preference to SF content. These findings apply in general to the preferred category, with the notable exception of PPA, which revealed a higher response to HSF for all categories of stimuli. Our results suggest that areas along the ventral stream have distinct spatial frequency preferences that seem to reflect both the nature of visual objects being processed, their position in the visual hierarchy, task demands and the relevance of holistic versus detailed processing. PMID:27180002

  17. Gene expression in distinct regions of rat tendons in response to jump training combined with anabolic androgenic steroid administration.

    PubMed

    Marqueti, Rita Cássia; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Durigan, João Luiz Quaglioti; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo; Schjerling, Peter; Kjaer, Michael; Carvalho, Hernandes Faustino; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of key genes responsible for tendon remodeling of the proximal and distal regions of calcaneal tendon (CT), intermediate and distal region of superficial flexor tendon (SFT) and proximal, intermediate and distal region of deep flexor tendon (DFT) submitted to 7 weeks of jumping water load exercise in combination with AAS administration. Wistar male rats were grouped as follows: sedentary (S), trained (jumping water load exercise) (T), sedentary animals treated with AAS (5 mg/kg, twice a week) and animals treated with AAS and trained (AAST). mRNA levels of COL1A1, COL3A1, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, IGF-IEa, GAPDH, CTGF and TGF-β-1 were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Our main results indicated that mRNA levels alter in different regions in each tendon of sedentary animals. The training did not alter the expression of COL1A1, COL3A, IGF-IEa and MMP-2 genes, while AAS administration or its combination with training reduced their expression. This study indicated that exercise did not alter the expression of collagen and related growth factors in different regions of rat tendon. Moreover, the pattern of gene expression was distinct in the different tendon regions of sedentary animals. Although, the RNA yield levels of CT, SFT and DFT were not distinct in each region, these regions possess not only the structural and biochemical difference, but also divergence in the expression of key genes involved in tendon adaptation.

  18. Gene expression in distinct regions of rat tendons in response to jump training combined with anabolic androgenic steroid administration.

    PubMed

    Marqueti, Rita Cássia; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Durigan, João Luiz Quaglioti; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo; Schjerling, Peter; Kjaer, Michael; Carvalho, Hernandes Faustino; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of key genes responsible for tendon remodeling of the proximal and distal regions of calcaneal tendon (CT), intermediate and distal region of superficial flexor tendon (SFT) and proximal, intermediate and distal region of deep flexor tendon (DFT) submitted to 7 weeks of jumping water load exercise in combination with AAS administration. Wistar male rats were grouped as follows: sedentary (S), trained (jumping water load exercise) (T), sedentary animals treated with AAS (5 mg/kg, twice a week) and animals treated with AAS and trained (AAST). mRNA levels of COL1A1, COL3A1, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, IGF-IEa, GAPDH, CTGF and TGF-β-1 were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Our main results indicated that mRNA levels alter in different regions in each tendon of sedentary animals. The training did not alter the expression of COL1A1, COL3A, IGF-IEa and MMP-2 genes, while AAS administration or its combination with training reduced their expression. This study indicated that exercise did not alter the expression of collagen and related growth factors in different regions of rat tendon. Moreover, the pattern of gene expression was distinct in the different tendon regions of sedentary animals. Although, the RNA yield levels of CT, SFT and DFT were not distinct in each region, these regions possess not only the structural and biochemical difference, but also divergence in the expression of key genes involved in tendon adaptation. PMID:21842416

  19. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed.

  20. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed. PMID:25605407

  1. Distinctive proteomic profiles among different regions of human carotid plaques in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenzhao; Ward, Liam J.; Karlsson, Helen; Ljunggren, Stefan A.; Li, Wei; Lindahl, Mats; Yuan, Xi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity of atherosclerotic tissue has limited comprehension in proteomic and metabolomic analyses. To elucidate the functional implications, and differences between genders, of atherosclerotic lesion formation we investigated protein profiles from different regions of human carotid atherosclerotic arteries; internal control, fatty streak, plaque shoulder, plaque centre, and fibrous cap. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2-DE with MALDI-TOF, with validation using nLC-MS/MS. Protein mapping of 2-DE identified 52 unique proteins, including 15 previously unmapped proteins, of which 41 proteins were confirmed by nLC-MS/MS analysis. Expression levels of 18 proteins were significantly altered in plaque regions compared to the internal control region. Nine proteins showed site-specific alterations, irrespective of gender, with clear associations to extracellular matrix remodelling. Five proteins display gender-specific alterations with 2-DE, with two alterations validated by nLC-MS/MS. Gender differences in ferritin light chain and transthyretin were validated using both techniques. Validation of immunohistochemistry confirmed significantly higher levels of ferritin in plaques from male patients. Proteomic analysis of different plaque regions has reduced the effects of plaque heterogeneity, and significant differences in protein expression are determined in specific regions and between genders. These proteomes have functional implications in plaque progression and are of importance in understanding gender differences in atherosclerosis. PMID:27198765

  2. Coordination of Hepatitis C Virus Assembly by Distinct Regulatory Regions in Nonstructural Protein 5A

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Margarita; Long, Gang; Madan, Vanesa; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein (NS)5A is a RNA-binding protein composed of a N-terminal membrane anchor, a structured domain I (DI) and two intrinsically disordered domains (DII and DIII) interacting with viral and cellular proteins. While DI and DII are essential for RNA replication, DIII is required for assembly. How these processes are orchestrated by NS5A is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a highly conserved basic cluster (BC) at the N-terminus of DIII that is critical for particle assembly. We generated BC mutants and compared them with mutants that are blocked at different stages of the assembly process: a NS5A serine cluster (SC) mutant blocked in NS5A-core interaction and a mutant lacking the envelope glycoproteins (ΔE1E2). We found that BC mutations did not affect core-NS5A interaction, but strongly impaired core–RNA association as well as virus particle envelopment. Moreover, BC mutations impaired RNA-NS5A interaction arguing that the BC might be required for loading of core protein with viral RNA. Interestingly, RNA-core interaction was also reduced with the ΔE1E2 mutant, suggesting that nucleocapsid formation and envelopment are coupled. These findings argue for two NS5A DIII determinants regulating assembly at distinct, but closely linked steps: (i) SC-dependent recruitment of replication complexes to core protein and (ii) BC-dependent RNA genome delivery to core protein, triggering encapsidation that is tightly coupled to particle envelopment. These results provide a striking example how a single viral protein exerts multiple functions to coordinate the steps from RNA replication to the assembly of infectious virus particles. PMID:26727512

  3. Interaction Between Two Distinct Mesoscale Circulations During Summer in the Coastal Region of Eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Aaron P.; Raman, Sethu

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of two phenomena, a sea-breeze front and a thermally-driven local circulation, is investigated during the summer season. The sea-breeze circulation in the coastal Carolinas (USA) can be quite strong and the sea-breeze front often propagates well inland. The Sandhills, an area of sandy soils, is oriented roughly parallel to the coast and is located approximately 180 km inland. Differential heating is a strong driving force for convective development in this coastal region and the Sandhills front develops from the thermally-driven circulation caused by the differential heating of differing soil types. The sea-breeze and the Sandhills circulations have been previously studied independently, however, the interaction of these two phenomena is not well known. A combination of remote sensing, in situ observations, and numerical simulations is used to examine the interaction of these two fronts with remote sensing and in situ observations revealing the differential heating that occurs along the Sandhills region. Radar reflectivity is used to identify the two frontal features that converge and result in enhanced convection. A modelling simulation reveals the vertical structure of the frontal features, their propagation, and interaction, highlighting the interaction of the two fronts that results in enhanced convection between the Sandhills and the coast. Over the Sandhills region, differential heating triggers convective storms. Radar reflectivity and numerical simulation indicate the outflows from these convective storms to produce a shallow Sandhills front that in turn propagates toward the coast. As the two opposing fronts, the Sandhills front and the sea-breeze front, converge and interact, intense convection occurs resulting in additional storms.

  4. Distinct gut microbiota of healthy children from two different geographic regions of Thailand.

    PubMed

    La-Ongkham, Orawan; Nakphaichit, Massalin; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Nitisinprasert, Sunee

    2015-05-01

    In Thailand, food consumption by people from each region is different. This can be an important environmental factor which shapes the gut microbiota further affecting their health. This study aimed to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the intestinal microbial community in 60 healthy children (aged 8-11 years) living in specific areas, namely central (CT) and northeastern (NE) Thailand where each region has its own typical food consumption. The children from NE had significantly higher consumption frequency of meat (chicken and beef), a wide variety of carbohydrate sources (noodle, fermented rice and sweet potato) including vegetables and fruit, while in CT, there was a significant preference for rice, breakfast cereal and cow milk. The qPCR analysis resulted in significantly higher abundance of lactobacilli, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium leptum, Prevotella and Bacteroides fragilis in children from the NE region. However, no significant difference in the count of Bifidobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and methanogens was observed. Considering the correlation of food sources and microbial groups, the consumption frequency of vegetables showed a moderately positive correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.34 to the Lactobacillus group (P = 0.001) and the Prevotella group (P = 0.008), respectively, while a diet of fish and beef showed a moderately negative correlation coefficient of -0.41 (P = 0.001) and -0.33 (P = 0.09) to Bifidobacterium spp., respectively. Our results suggested that high frequency consumption of varieties of carbohydrates, protein sources, fruits and vegetables by the NE children promoted a high abundance of bacterial species in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. PMID:25644242

  5. Face processing regions are sensitive to distinct aspects of temporal sequence in facial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reinl, Maren; Bartels, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Facial movement conveys important information for social interactions, yet its neural processing is poorly understood. Computational models propose that shape- and temporal sequence sensitive mechanisms interact in processing dynamic faces. While face processing regions are known to respond to facial movement, their sensitivity to particular temporal sequences has barely been studied. Here we used fMRI to examine the sensitivity of human face-processing regions to two aspects of directionality in facial movement trajectories. We presented genuine movie recordings of increasing and decreasing fear expressions, each of which were played in natural or reversed frame order. This two-by-two factorial design matched low-level visual properties, static content and motion energy within each factor, emotion-direction (increasing or decreasing emotion) and timeline (natural versus artificial). The results showed sensitivity for emotion-direction in FFA, which was timeline-dependent as it only occurred within the natural frame order, and sensitivity to timeline in the STS, which was emotion-direction-dependent as it only occurred for decreased fear. The occipital face area (OFA) was sensitive to the factor timeline. These findings reveal interacting temporal sequence sensitive mechanisms that are responsive to both ecological meaning and to prototypical unfolding of facial dynamics. These mechanisms are temporally directional, provide socially relevant information regarding emotional state or naturalness of behavior, and agree with predictions from modeling and predictive coding theory. PMID:25132020

  6. Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

  7. Lipid droplets form from distinct regions of the cell in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DOE PAGES

    Meyers, Alex; del Rio, Zuania P.; Beaver, Rachael A.; Morris, Ryan M.; Weiskittel, Taylor M.; Alshibli, Amany K.; Mannik, Jaana; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Dalhaimer, Paul

    2016-04-29

    Eukaryotic cells store cholesterol/sterol esters (SEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in lipid droplets, which form from the contiguous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. However, it is not known if droplets preferentially form from certain regions of the ER over others. Here, we used fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells where the nuclear and cortical/peripheral ER domains are distinguishable by light microscopy to show that SE-enriched lipid droplets form away from the nucleus at the cell tips, whereas TAG-enriched lipid droplets form around the nucleus. Sterols localize to the regions of the cells where droplets enriched in SEs are observed. TAG droplet formation aroundmore » the nucleus appears to be a strong function of diacylglycerol (DAG) homeostasis with Cpt1p, which coverts DAG into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine localized exclusively to the nuclear ER. Also, Dgk1p, which converts DAG into phosphatidic acid localized strongly to the nuclear ER over the cortical/peripheral ER. We also show that TAG more readily translocates from the ER to lipid droplets than do SEs. Lastly, the results augment the standard lipid droplet formation model, which has SEs and TAGs flowing into the same nascent lipid droplet regardless of its biogenesis point in the cell.« less

  8. Lipid Droplets Form from Distinct Regions of the Cell in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Alex; Del Rio, Zuania P; Beaver, Rachael A; Morris, Ryan M; Weiskittel, Taylor M; Alshibli, Amany K; Mannik, Jaana; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Dalhaimer, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells store cholesterol/sterol esters (SEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in lipid droplets, which form from the contiguous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. However, it is not known if droplets preferentially form from certain regions of the ER over others. Here, we used fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells where the nuclear and cortical/peripheral ER domains are distinguishable by light microscopy to show that SE-enriched lipid droplets form away from the nucleus at the cell tips, whereas TAG-enriched lipid droplets form around the nucleus. Sterols localize to the regions of the cells where droplets enriched in SEs are observed. TAG droplet formation around the nucleus appears to be a strong function of diacylglycerol (DAG) homeostasis with Cpt1p, which coverts DAG into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine localized exclusively to the nuclear ER. Also, Dgk1p, which converts DAG into phosphatidic acid localized strongly to the nuclear ER over the cortical/peripheral ER. We also show that TAG more readily translocates from the ER to lipid droplets than do SEs. The results augment the standard lipid droplet formation model, which has SEs and TAGs flowing into the same nascent lipid droplet regardless of its biogenesis point in the cell.

  9. An organelle-exclusion envelope assists mitosis and underlies distinct molecular crowding in the spindle region.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Nina; Pawar, Nisha; Weiss, Matthias; Maiato, Helder

    2015-08-31

    The mitotic spindle is a microtubular assembly required for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Additionally, a spindle matrix has long been proposed to assist this process, but its nature has remained elusive. By combining live-cell imaging with laser microsurgery, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we uncovered a microtubule-independent mechanism that underlies the accumulation of molecules in the spindle region. This mechanism relies on a membranous system surrounding the mitotic spindle that defines an organelle-exclusion zone that is conserved in human cells. Supported by mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that organelle exclusion by a membrane system causes spatio-temporal differences in molecular crowding states that are sufficient to drive accumulation of mitotic regulators, such as Mad2 and Megator/Tpr, as well as soluble tubulin, in the spindle region. This membranous "spindle envelope" confined spindle assembly, and its mechanical disruption compromised faithful chromosome segregation. Thus, cytoplasmic compartmentalization persists during early mitosis to promote spindle assembly and function.

  10. An organelle-exclusion envelope assists mitosis and underlies distinct molecular crowding in the spindle region

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Nina; Pawar, Nisha; Weiss, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The mitotic spindle is a microtubular assembly required for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Additionally, a spindle matrix has long been proposed to assist this process, but its nature has remained elusive. By combining live-cell imaging with laser microsurgery, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we uncovered a microtubule-independent mechanism that underlies the accumulation of molecules in the spindle region. This mechanism relies on a membranous system surrounding the mitotic spindle that defines an organelle-exclusion zone that is conserved in human cells. Supported by mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that organelle exclusion by a membrane system causes spatio-temporal differences in molecular crowding states that are sufficient to drive accumulation of mitotic regulators, such as Mad2 and Megator/Tpr, as well as soluble tubulin, in the spindle region. This membranous “spindle envelope” confined spindle assembly, and its mechanical disruption compromised faithful chromosome segregation. Thus, cytoplasmic compartmentalization persists during early mitosis to promote spindle assembly and function. PMID:26304726

  11. Crystal Structure Analysis and the Identification of Distinctive Functional Regions of the Protein Elicitor Mohrip2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengjie; Duan, Liangwei; Wang, Meifang; Zeng, Hongmei; Liu, Xinqi; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor MoHrip2, which was extracted from Magnaporthe oryzae as an exocrine protein, triggers the tobacco immune system and enhances blast resistance in rice. However, the detailed mechanisms by which MoHrip2 acts as an elicitor remain unclear. Here, we investigated the structure of MoHrip2 to elucidate its functions based on molecular structure. The three-dimensional structure of MoHrip2 was obtained. Overall, the crystal structure formed a β-barrel structure and showed high similarity to the pathogenesis-related (PR) thaumatin superfamily protein thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor (TL-XI). To investigate the functional regions responsible for MoHrip2 elicitor activities, the full length and eight truncated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were evaluated for elicitor activity in tobacco. Biological function analysis showed that MoHrip2 triggered the defense system against Botrytis cinerea in tobacco. Moreover, only MoHrip2M14 and other fragments containing the 14 amino acids residues in the middle region of the protein showed the elicitor activity of inducing a hypersensitive response and resistance related pathways, which were similar to that of full-length MoHrip2. These results revealed that the central 14 amino acid residues were essential for anti-pathogenic activity. PMID:27507984

  12. Crystal Structure Analysis and the Identification of Distinctive Functional Regions of the Protein Elicitor Mohrip2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjie; Duan, Liangwei; Wang, Meifang; Zeng, Hongmei; Liu, Xinqi; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor MoHrip2, which was extracted from Magnaporthe oryzae as an exocrine protein, triggers the tobacco immune system and enhances blast resistance in rice. However, the detailed mechanisms by which MoHrip2 acts as an elicitor remain unclear. Here, we investigated the structure of MoHrip2 to elucidate its functions based on molecular structure. The three-dimensional structure of MoHrip2 was obtained. Overall, the crystal structure formed a β-barrel structure and showed high similarity to the pathogenesis-related (PR) thaumatin superfamily protein thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor (TL-XI). To investigate the functional regions responsible for MoHrip2 elicitor activities, the full length and eight truncated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were evaluated for elicitor activity in tobacco. Biological function analysis showed that MoHrip2 triggered the defense system against Botrytis cinerea in tobacco. Moreover, only MoHrip2M14 and other fragments containing the 14 amino acids residues in the middle region of the protein showed the elicitor activity of inducing a hypersensitive response and resistance related pathways, which were similar to that of full-length MoHrip2. These results revealed that the central 14 amino acid residues were essential for anti-pathogenic activity. PMID:27507984

  13. Distinctive properties of the 5'-untranslated region of human hsp70 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Maria P; Sizova, Daria V; Dmitriev, Sergei E; Ivanov, Dmitri S; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Shatsky, Ivan N

    2003-06-20

    A relaxed cap-dependence of translation of the mRNA-encoding mammalian heat shock protein Hsp70 may suggest that its 5'-untranslated region (UTR) possesses an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, this possibility has been tested in transfected cells using plasmids that express dicistronic mRNAs. Using a reporter gene construct, Renilla luciferase/Photinus pyralis luciferase, we show that the 216-nt long 5'-UTR of Hsp70 mRNA acts as an IRES that directs ribosomes to the downstream start codon by a cap-independent mechanism. The relative activity of this IRES (100-fold over the empty vector) is similar to that of the classical picornaviral IRESs. Additional controls indicate that this high expression of the downstream reporter is not due to readthrough from the upstream cistron, nor is it due to translation of cryptic monocistronic transcripts. The effect of small deletions within the 5'-UTR of Hsp70 mRNA on the IRES activity varies in dependence on their position within the 5'-UTR sequence. With the exception of deletion of nt 33-50, it is small for the 5'-terminal half of the 5'-UTR and rather strong for the 3'-terminal section. However, neither of these small deletions abolishes the IRES activity completely. Excision of larger sections (>50 nt) by truncation of the 5'-UTR from the 5'-end or by internal deleting results in a dramatic impairment of the IRES function. Taken together, these data suggest that the IRES activity of the 5'-UTR of Hsp70 mRNA requires integrity of almost the entire sequence of the 5'-UTR. The data are discussed in terms of a model that allows a three-dimensional rather than linear mode of selection of the initiation region surrounding the start codon of Hsp70 mRNA.

  14. A distinct type of heterochromatin at the telomeric region of the Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sidney H; Nan, Ruth; Accardo, Maria C; Sentmanat, Monica; Dimitri, Patrizio; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin assembly and its associated phenotype, position effect variegation (PEV), provide an informative system to study chromatin structure and genome packaging. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the Y chromosome is entirely heterochromatic in all cell types except the male germline; as such, Y chromosome dosage is a potent modifier of PEV. However, neither Y heterochromatin composition, nor its assembly, has been carefully studied. Here, we report the mapping and characterization of eight reporter lines that show male-specific PEV. In all eight cases, the reporter insertion sites lie in the telomeric transposon array (HeT-A and TART-B2 homologous repeats) of the Y chromosome short arm (Ys). Investigations of the impact on the PEV phenotype of mutations in known heterochromatin proteins (i.e., modifiers of PEV) show that this Ys telomeric region is a unique heterochromatin domain: it displays sensitivity to mutations in HP1a, EGG and SU(VAR)3-9, but no sensitivity to Su(z)2 mutations. It appears that the endo-siRNA pathway plays a major targeting role for this domain. Interestingly, an ectopic copy of 1360 is sufficient to induce a piRNA targeting mechanism to further enhance silencing of a reporter cytologically localized to the Ys telomere. These results demonstrate the diversity of heterochromatin domains, and the corresponding variation in potential targeting mechanisms.

  15. Four Functionally Distinct Regions in the Left Supramarginal Gyrus Support Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, M.; Hope, T. M. H.; Seghier, M. L.; Parker Jones, O.; Prejawa, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J

    2016-01-01

    We used fMRI in 85 healthy participants to investigate whether different parts of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) are involved in processing phonological inputs and outputs. The experiment involved 2 tasks (speech production (SP) and one-back (OB) matching) on 8 different types of stimuli that systematically varied the demands on sensory processing (visual vs. auditory), sublexical phonological input (words and pseudowords vs. nonverbal stimuli), and semantic content (words and objects vs. pseudowords and meaningless baseline stimuli). In ventral SMG, we found an anterior subregion associated with articulatory sequencing (for SP > OB matching) and a posterior subregion associated with auditory short-term memory (for all auditory > visual stimuli and written words and pseudowords > objects). In dorsal SMG, a posterior subregion was most highly activated by words, indicating a role in the integration of sublexical and lexical cues. In anterior dorsal SMG, activation was higher for both pseudoword reading and object naming compared with word reading, which is more consistent with executive demands than phonological processing. The dissociation of these four “functionally-distinct” regions, all within left SMG, has implications for differentiating between different types of phonological processing, understanding the functional anatomy of language and predicting the effect of brain damage. PMID:27600852

  16. [Comparative analysis methods of haze distinction over Yangtze River Delta Region ].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-hui; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jin-hui; Zhang En-hong; Wang, Hong-lei; Chen, Ye-xin; Wang, Shu

    2014-09-01

    It is crucial to compare the difference and applicability of different haze discrimination methods and its criteria in haze study. Due to the requirement of methods and limitation of data, 4 common methods in two views of regional and temporal in one site are analyzed and studied. Based on the meteorological data from 38 observatories from 1980-2009, haze-day and haze-hour number are both counted for each station, employing Method 1 and 2 (with daily mean observation) and Method 3 (with 14:00 observation). The characteristics and applicability of these three methods are also compared and summarized. Statistical results via these methods are all capable to represent the long-term trend of haze, but haze-day numbers counted via these methods show differences, which become less remarkable with decadal changes. Haze days are the most by using Method 1. Method 3 considering the weather phenomenon is more reasonable than Method 1 and 2. According to the data of visibility, relative humidity and PM2.5 concentration in northern Nanjing from May, 2012 to April, 2013, employing 4 haze discrimination methods including the additional one (QX/T 113-2010, i. e. Method 4) , haze-day and haze-hour numbers are counted and compared. The result shows that: the haze-day number obtained employing Method 3 is less than others, while the haze-day number obtained employing Method 4 is between those with Method 1 and 3; using all Methods but Method 3 can distinguish the severity of haze significantly.

  17. Lunar mare volcanism: Mixing of distinct, mantle source regions with KREEP-like component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Mare basalts comprise less than 1% of the lunar crust, but they constitute our primary source of information on the moon's upper mantle. Compositional variations between mare basalt suites reflect variations in the mineralogical and geochemical composition of the lunar mantle which formed during early lunar differentiation (4.5-4.4 AE). Three broad suites of mare basalt are recognized: very low-Ti (VLT) basalts with TiO2 less than 1 wt%, low-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, and high-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 10-14 wt%. Important subgroups include the Apollo 12 ilmenite basalts (TiO2 = 5-6 wt%), aluminous low-Ti mare basalts (TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, Al2O3 = 10-14 wt%), and the newly discovered Very High potassium (VHK) aluminous low-Ti basalts, with K2O = 0.4-1.5 wt%. The mare basalt source region has geochemical characteristics complementary to the highlands crust and is generally thought to consist of mafic cumulates from the magma ocean which formed the felsic crust by feldspar flotation. The progressive enrichment of mare basalts in Fe/Mg, alkalis, and incompatible trace elements in the sequence VLT basalt yields low-Ti basalt yields high-Ti basalt is explained by the remelting of mafic cumulates formed at progressively shallower depths in the evolving magma ocean. This model is also consistent with the observed decrease in compatible element concentrations and the progressive increase in negative Eu anomalies.

  18. Lunar mare volcanism: Mixing of distinct, mantle source regions with KREEP-like component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-05-01

    Mare basalts comprise less than 1% of the lunar crust, but they constitute our primary source of information on the moon's upper mantle. Compositional variations between mare basalt suites reflect variations in the mineralogical and geochemical composition of the lunar mantle which formed during early lunar differentiation (4.5-4.4 AE). Three broad suites of mare basalt are recognized: very low-Ti (VLT) basalts with TiO2 less than 1 wt%, low-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, and high-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 10-14 wt%. Important subgroups include the Apollo 12 ilmenite basalts (TiO2 = 5-6 wt%), aluminous low-Ti mare basalts (TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, Al2O3 = 10-14 wt%), and the newly discovered Very High potassium (VHK) aluminous low-Ti basalts, with K2O = 0.4-1.5 wt%. The mare basalt source region has geochemical characteristics complementary to the highlands crust and is generally thought to consist of mafic cumulates from the magma ocean which formed the felsic crust by feldspar flotation. The progressive enrichment of mare basalts in Fe/Mg, alkalis, and incompatible trace elements in the sequence VLT basalt yields low-Ti basalt yields high-Ti basalt is explained by the remelting of mafic cumulates formed at progressively shallower depths in the evolving magma ocean. This model is also consistent with the observed decrease in compatible element concentrations and the progressive increase in negative Eu anomalies.

  19. Common and distinct regions of defective-interfering RNAs of Sindbis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, S S; Schlesinger, S

    1984-01-01

    Defective-interfering (DI) particles are helper-dependent deletion mutants which interfere specifically with the replication of the homologous standard virus. Serial passaging of alphaviruses in cultured cells leads to the accumulation of DI particles whose genomic RNAs are heterogeneous in size and sequence composition. In an effort to examine the sequence organization of an individual DI RNA species generated from Sindbis virus, we isolated and sequenced a representative cDNA clone derived from a Sindbis DI RNA population. Our data showed that: (i) the 3' end of the DI RNA template was identical to the 50 nucleotides at the 3' end of the standard RNA; (ii) the majority (75%) of the DI RNA template was derived from the 1,200 5'-terminal nucleotides of the standard RNA and included repeats of these sequences; and (iii) the 5' end of the DI RNA template was not derived from the standard RNA, but is nearly identical to a cellular tRNAAsp (S. S. Monroe and S. Schlesinger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:3279-3283, 1983). We have also utilized restriction fragments from cloned DNAs to probe by blot hybridization for the presence of conserved sequences in several independently derived DI RNA populations. These studies indicated that: (i) a 51-nucleotide conserved sequence located close to the 5' end of several alphavirus RNAs was most likely retained in the DI RNAs; (ii) the junction region containing the 5' end of the subgenomic 26S mRNA was deleted from the DI RNAs; and (iii) the presence of tRNAAsp sequences was a common occurrence in Sindbis virus DI RNAs derived by passaging in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Images PMID:6699940

  20. Maintaining Relevancy in Programs of Agriculture. Proceedings: Southern Regional Meeting, Land Grant College and University Presidents and Administrators of Agriculture (Atlanta, Georgia, April 20-21, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Inst. for Higher Educational Opportunity.

    Recommendations for maintaining relevant programs which resulted from this meeting of college and university presidents and administrators are applicable to all colleges and universities offering programs of agriculture in the region. Given in this report are two major presentations entitled "The Integration of Knowledge in a Specialized Society"…

  1. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Golarai, Golijeh; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearranged. Response amplitudes were reduced in the AMG and STS when subjects viewed stimuli whose configuration of parts were digitally rearranged, suggesting that these regions represent the 1st order configuration of face parts. In contrast, response amplitudes in the FFA showed little modulation whether face parts were rearranged or if the natural face parts were replaced with lines. Instead, FFA responses were reduced only when both configural and part information were reduced, revealing an interaction between these factors, suggesting distinct representation of 1st order face configuration and parts in the AMG and STS vs. the FFA. PMID:26594191

  2. Regional inactivations of primate ventral prefrontal cortex reveal two distinct mechanisms underlying negative bias in decision making

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Hannah F.; Horst, Nicole K.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices is implicated in anxiety and mood disorders, but the specific contributions of each region are unknown, including how they gate the impact of threat on decision making. To address this, the effects of GABAergic inactivation of these regions were studied in marmoset monkeys performing an instrumental approach–avoidance decision-making task that is sensitive to changes in anxiety. Inactivation of either region induced a negative bias away from punishment that could be ameliorated with anxiolytic treatment. However, whereas the effects of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex inactivation on punishment avoidance were seen immediately, those of orbitofrontal cortex inactivation were delayed and their expression was dependent upon an amygdala–anterior hippocampal circuit. We propose that these negative biases result from deficits in attentional control and punishment prediction, respectively, and that they provide the basis for understanding how distinct regional prefrontal dysregulation contributes to the heterogeneity of anxiety disorders with implications for cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies. PMID:25775597

  3. Sequential activation and distinct functions for distal and proximal modules within the IgH 3′ regulatory region

    PubMed Central

    Garot, Armand; Marquet, Marie; Saintamand, Alexis; Bender, Sébastien; Le Noir, Sandrine; Rouaud, Pauline; Carrion, Claire; Oruc, Zéliha; Bébin, Anne-Gaëlle; Moreau, Jeanne; Lebrigand, Kevin; Denizot, Yves; Alt, Frederick W.; Cogné, Michel; Pinaud, Eric

    2016-01-01

    As a master regulator of functional Ig heavy chain (IgH) expression, the IgH 3′ regulatory region (3′RR) controls multiple transcription events at various stages of B-cell ontogeny, from newly formed B cells until the ultimate plasma cell stage. The IgH 3′RR plays a pivotal role in early B-cell receptor expression, germ-line transcription preceding class switch recombination, interactions between targeted switch (S) regions, variable region transcription before somatic hypermutation, and antibody heavy chain production, but the functional ranking of its different elements is still inaccurate, especially that of its evolutionarily conserved quasi-palindromic structure. By comparing relevant previous knockout (KO) mouse models (3′RR KO and hs3b-4 KO) to a novel mutant devoid of the 3′RR quasi-palindromic region (3′PAL KO), we pinpointed common features and differences that specify two distinct regulatory entities acting sequentially during B-cell ontogeny. Independently of exogenous antigens, the 3′RR distal part, including hs4, fine-tuned B-cell receptor expression in newly formed and naïve B-cell subsets. At mature stages, the 3′RR portion including the quasi-palindrome dictated antigen-dependent locus remodeling (global somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination to major isotypes) in activated B cells and antibody production in plasma cells. PMID:26831080

  4. Distinct endothelial phenotypes evoked by arterial waveforms derived from atherosclerosis-susceptible and -resistant regions of human vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Guohao; Kaazempur-Mofrad, Mohammad R.; Natarajan, Sripriya; Zhang, Yuzhi; Vaughn, Saran; Blackman, Brett R.; Kamm, Roger D.; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Gimbrone, Michael A., Jr.

    2004-10-01

    Atherosclerotic lesion localization to regions of disturbed flow within certain arterial geometries, in humans and experimental animals, suggests an important role for local hemodynamic forces in atherogenesis. To explore how endothelial cells (EC) acquire functional/dysfunctional phenotypes in response to vascular region-specific flow patterns, we have used an in vitro dynamic flow system to accurately reproduce arterial shear stress waveforms on cultured human EC and have examined the effects on EC gene expression by using a high-throughput transcriptional profiling approach. The flow patterns in the carotid artery bifurcations of several normal human subjects were characterized by using 3D flow analysis based on actual vascular geometries and blood flow profiles. Two prototypic arterial waveforms, "athero-prone" and "athero-protective," were defined as representative of the wall shear stresses in two distinct regions of the carotid artery (carotid sinus and distal internal carotid artery) that are typically "susceptible" or "resistant," respectively, to atherosclerotic lesion development. These two waveforms were applied to cultured EC, and cDNA microarrays were used to analyze the differential patterns of EC gene expression. In addition, the differential effects of athero-prone vs. athero-protective waveforms were further characterized on several parameters of EC structure and function, including actin cytoskeletal organization, expression and localization of junctional proteins, activation of the NF-B transcriptional pathway, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. These global gene expression patterns and functional data reveal a distinct phenotypic modulation in response to the wall shear stresses present in atherosclerosis-susceptible vs. atherosclerosis-resistant human arterial geometries.

  5. Corpus callosum size is highly heritable in humans, and may reflect distinct genetic influences on ventral and rostral regions.

    PubMed

    Woldehawariat, Girma; Martinez, Pedro E; Hauser, Peter; Hoover, David M; Drevets, Wayne W C; McMahon, Francis J

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical differences in the corpus callosum have been found in various psychiatric disorders, but data on the genetic contributions to these differences have been limited. The current study used morphometric MRI data to assess the heritability of corpus callosum size and the genetic correlations among anatomical sub-regions of the corpus callosum among individuals with and without mood disorders. The corpus callosum (CC) was manually segmented at the mid-sagittal plane in 42 women (healthy, n = 14; major depressive disorder, n = 15; bipolar disorder, n = 13) and their 86 child or adolescent offspring. Four anatomical sub-regions (CC-genu, CC2, CC3 and CC-splenium) and total CC were measured and analyzed. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance components method, with adjustment for age, sex, diagnosis, and diagnosis x age, where appropriate. Significant heritability was found for several CC sub-regions (P<0.01), with estimated values ranging from 48% (splenium) to 67% (total CC). There were strong and significant genetic correlations among most sub regions. Correlations between the genu and mid-body, between the genu and total corpus callosum, and between anterior and mid body were all >90%, but no significant genetic correlations were detected between ventral and rostral regions in this sample. Genetic factors play an important role in corpus callosum size among individuals. Distinct genetic factors seem to be involved in caudal and rostral regions, consistent with the divergent functional specialization of these brain areas. PMID:24968245

  6. Distinct BK polyomavirus non-coding control region (NCCR) variants in oral fluids of HIV- associated Salivary Gland Disease patients.

    PubMed

    Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Ramsey, Kathy J; Dolittle-Hall, Janet M; Seaman, William T; Jeffers-Francis, Liesl K; Tesfu, Daniel; Nickeleit, Volker; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    HIV-associated Salivary Gland Disease (HIVSGD) is among the most common salivary gland-associated complications in HIV positive individuals and was associated with the small DNA tumorvirus BK polyomavirus (BKPyV). The BKPyV non-coding control region (NCCR) is the main determinant of viral replication and rearranges readily. This study analyzed the BKPyV NCCR architecture and viral loads of 35 immunosuppressed individuals. Throatwash samples from subjects diagnosed with HIVSGD and urine samples from transplant patients were BKPyV positive and yielded BKPyV NCCR sequences. 94.7% of the BKPyV HIVSGD NCCRs carried a rearranged OPQPQQS block arrangement, suggesting a distinct architecture among this sample set. BKPyV from HIV positive individuals without HIVSGD harbored NCCR block sequences that were distinct from OPQPQQS. Cloned HIVSGD BKPyV isolates displayed active promoters and efficient replication capability in human salivary gland cells. The unique HIVSGD NCCR architecture may represent a potentially significant oral-tropic BKPyV substrain.

  7. The hippocampal CA3 region can generate two distinct types of sharp wave-ripple complexes, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Katharina T; Kandrács, Ágnes; Ulbert, István; Pál, Ildikó; Szabó, Csilla; Héja, László; Wittner, Lucia

    2015-02-01

    Hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SPW-Rs) occur during slow wave sleep and behavioral immobility and are thought to play an important role in memory formation. We investigated the cellular and network properties of SPW-Rs with simultaneous laminar multielectrode and intracellular recordings in a rat hippocampal slice model, using physiological bathing medium. Spontaneous SPW-Rs were generated in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1 regions. These events were characterized by a local field potential gradient (LFPg) transient, increased fast oscillatory activity and increased multiple unit activity (MUA). Two types of SPW-Rs were distinguished in the CA3 region based on their different LFPg and current source density (CSD) pattern. Type 1 (T1) displayed negative LFPg transient in the pyramidal cell layer, and the associated CSD sink was confined to the proximal dendrites. Type 2 (T2) SPW-Rs were characterized by positive LFPg transient in the cell layer, and showed CSD sinks involving both the apical and basal dendrites. In both types, consistent with the somatic CSD source, only a small subset of CA3 pyramidal cells fired, most pyramidal cells were hyperpolarized, while most interneurons increased firing rate before the LFPg peak. Different neuronal populations, with different proportions of pyramidal cells and distinct subsets of interneurons were activated during T1 and T2 SPW-Rs. Activation of specific inhibitory cell subsets-with the possible leading role of perisomatic interneurons-seems to be crucial to synchronize distinct ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells finally resulting in the expression of different SPW-R activities. This suggests that the hippocampus can generate dynamic changes in its activity stemming from the same excitatory and inhibitory circuits, and so, might provide the cellular and network basis for an input-specific and activity-dependent information transmission. PMID:25209976

  8. Spatially distinct and regionally endemic Symbiodinium assemblages in the threatened Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Dustin W.; Thornhill, Daniel J.; Rotjan, Randi D.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Fitt, William K.; Schmidt, Gregory W.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata was listed as "threatened" under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite attention to this species' conservation, the extent of geographic variation within O. faveolata warrants further investigation. O. faveolata is unusual in that it can simultaneously harbor multiple genetically distinct and co-dominant species of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Here, we investigate the geographic and within-colony complexity of Symbiodinium- O. faveolata associations from Florida Keys, USA; Exuma Cays, Bahamas; Puerto Morelos, Mexico; and Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. We collected coral samples along intracolony axes, and Symbiodinium within O. faveolata samples was analyzed using the nuclear ITS2 region and chloroplast 23S rDNA genotyping. O. faveolata associated with species of Symbiodinium in clades A (type A3), B (B1 and B17), C (C3, C7, and C7a), and D (D1a/ Symbiodinium trenchii). Within-colony distributions of Symbiodinium species correlated with light availability, cardinal direction, and depth, resulting in distinct zonation patterns of endosymbionts within a host. Symbiodinium species from clades A and B occurred predominantly in the light-exposed tops, while species of clade C generally occurred in the shaded sides of colonies or in deeper-water habitats. Furthermore, geographic comparisons of host-symbiont associations revealed regional differences in Symbiodinium associations. Symbiodinium A3 was detected in Mesoamerican coral colonies, but not in colonies from the Florida Keys or Bahamas. Likewise, Symbiodinium B17 was unique to Mesoamerican O. faveolata, whereas Symbiodinium B1 was found at all localities sampled. However, using cp23S genotyping paired with ITS2 analysis revealed geographically endemic haplotypes among Symbiodinium clades A, B, and C. Since Symbiodinium spatial heterogeneity among this coral species is greater than most corals, a question arises as to whether all

  9. Maintaining Transparency

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The lens and cornea are transparent and usually avascular. Controlling nutrient supply while maintaining transparency is a physiological challenge for both tissues. During sleep and with contact lens wear the endothelial layer of the cornea may become hypoxic, compromising its ability to maintain corneal transparency. The mechanism responsible for establishing the avascular nature of the corneal stroma is unknown. In several pathological conditions, the stroma can be invaded by abnormal, leaky vessels, leading to opacification. Several molecules that are likely to help maintain the avascular nature of the corneal stroma have been identified, although their relative contributions remain to be demonstrated. The mammalian lens is surrounded by capillaries early in life. After the fetal vasculature regresses, the lens resides in a hypoxic environment. Hypoxia is likely to be required to maintain lens transparency. The vitreous body may help to maintain the low oxygen level around the lens. The hypothesis is presented that many aspects of the aging of the lens, including increased hardening, loss of accommodation (presbyopia), and opacification of the lens nucleus, are caused by exposure to oxygen. Testing this hypothesis may lead to prevention for nuclear cataract and insight into the mechanisms of lens aging. Although they are both transparent, corneal pathology is associated with an insufficient supply of oxygen, while lens pathology may involve excessive exposure to oxygen. PMID:17920963

  10. Evidence for a distinct region causing a cat-like cry in patients with 5p deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Goodart, S.A.; Overhauser, J.

    1995-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth, which is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on four families in which patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry, with normal to mildly delayed development. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by FISH using lambda phage and cosmic clones. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to a chromosomal region that is implicated with the facial features and severe mental and developmental delay in the cri-du-chat syndrome. DNA clones mapping in the chromosomal region associated with the cat-like cry feature will be useful diagnostic tools. They will allow for the distinction between 5p deletions that will result in the severe delay observed in most cri-du-chat syndrome patients and those deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature, which is associated with a better prognosis. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Duplication of the Rubinstein-Taybi region on 16p13.3 is associated with a distinctive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Marangi, Giuseppe; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Orteschi, Daniela; Grimaldi, Maria E; Lecce, Rosetta; Neri, Giovanni; Zollino, Marcella

    2008-09-15

    We report on a 16-year-old girl with a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation condition, in which a 1.7 Mb tandem duplication of chromosome region 16p13.3 was detected by array-CGH. Mental retardation was moderate (IQ 45), with very limited speech. She had tall stature with relative microcephaly. Clinical manifestations included distinctive facial appearance with deep set eyes, narrow palpebral fissures, wide nasal bridge, long philtrum, rounded nasal tip, thin upper lip, protruding mandible and abnormal auricles, hand and foot anomalies. The causal 16p13.3 duplication is one of the smallest reported so far, and includes the CBP gene, whose haploinsufficiency is responsible for the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. By comparing clinical manifestations of our patient with those of patients carrying similar rearrangements, we could infer that 16p13.3 microduplications encompassing the Rubinstein-Taybi region result in a recognizable clinical condition, most likely representing a single gene disorder.

  12. Novel polymorphisms in the promoter region of the perforin gene among distinct Brazilian populations and their functional impact.

    PubMed

    Garcia, F B; Kashima, S; Rodrigues, E S; Silva, I T; Malta, T M; Nicolete, L D de Figueiredo; Haddad, R; Moraes-Souza, H; Covas, D T

    2014-06-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells play a crucial role in eliminating tumour and virus-infected cells. The perforin is a key part of the arsenal that these cells use to destroy their targets. In this study, we characterized single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the promoter region of the perforin gene among distinct Brazilian ethnic groups. The study was carried out by sequencing this region in three groups: European, African and Asian descents. We demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of three new polymorphisms in the promoter region of gene PRF1: 494A/G (rs78058707), 720G/A (rs75925789) and 1176C/T (rs75183511). Three other SNPs already described in the literature 63A/G (rs35401316), 112A/G (rs10999428) and 1012C/T (rs35069510) were also detected. The SNPs are distributed differently in the ethnic groups studied. The 112G allele was observed at high frequency, especially among Asian descents (48.1%). The 1012T allele was detected only among European descents, the 494G allele only among Asian descents and 1176T allele only in African descents. Based on the association between the polymorphisms described, ten new haplotypes were originated. In functional analysis, we noticed that SNPs present in most common haplotypes cannot induce significant differences in expression levels of perforin alone. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time the existence of three new polymorphisms in perforin promoter and, contrary to what was stated, the presence of these SNPs does not alter the levels of protein expression.

  13. Genetically distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes populations in the Lake Kyoga region of Uganda and its relevance for human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Echodu, Richard; Sistrom, Mark; Hyseni, Chaz; Enyaru, John; Okedi, Loyce; Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei--the agent of human (HAT) and animal (AAT) trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) is the main vector species in Uganda--the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense) occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations.

  14. Comparison of tick-borne microorganism communities in Ixodes spp. of the Ixodes ricinus species complex at distinct geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Dubinina, Helen V; Sitnicova, Natalia; Bespyatova, Liubov; Uspenskaia, Inga; Efremova, Galina; Toderas, Ion; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing the tick-borne microorganism communities of Ixodes ricinus (sheep tick) and Ixodes persulcatus (taiga tick) from the I. ricinus species complex in distinct geographical regions of Eastern Europe and European Russia, we demonstrated differences between the two ticks. Taiga ticks were more frequently mono- and co-infected than sheep ticks: 24.4 % (45/184 tested ticks) versus 17.5 % (52/297) and 4.3 % (8/184) versus 3.4 % (10/297), respectively. Ginsberg co-infection index values were significant at the various sites. Diversity of the tick-borne microorganism communities was estimated by the Shannon index, reaching values of 1.71 ± 0.46 and 1.20 ± 0.15 at the sheep-tick and the taiga-tick harbored sites, respectively. Richness of the tick-borne microorganism community in the sheep tick collection sites was about twice the value of the taiga tick collection sites. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the peculiarities of the tick-borne microorganism communities among the ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex.

  15. Derivation of Apollo 14 High-Al Basalts from Distinct Source Regions at Discrete Times: New Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. R.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Kramer, G. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Apollo 14 basalts occur predominantly as clasts in breccias, but represent the oldest volcanic products that were returned from the Moon [1]. These basalts are relatively enriched in Al2O3 (11-16 wt%) compared to other mare basalts (7-11 wt%) and were originally classified into 5 compositional groups [2,3]. Neal et al. [4] proposed that a continuum of compositions existed. These were related through assimilation (of KREEP) and fractional crystallization (AFC). Age data, however, show that at least three volcanic episodes are recorded in the sample collection [1,5,6]. Recent work has demonstrated that there are three, possibly four groups of basalts in the Apollo 14 sample collection that were erupted from different source regions at different times [7]. This conclusion was based upon incompatible trace element (ITE) ratios of elements that should not be fractionated from one another during partial melting (Fig. 1). These groups are defined as Group A (Groups 4 & 5 of [3]), Group B (Groups 1 & 2 of [3]), and Group C (Group 3 of [3]). Basalt 14072 is distinct from Groups A-C.

  16. Genetically Distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Populations in the Lake Kyoga Region of Uganda and Its Relevance for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Echodu, Richard; Sistrom, Mark; Hyseni, Chaz; Enyaru, John; Okedi, Loyce; Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei—the agent of human (HAT) and animal (AAT) trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) is the main vector species in Uganda—the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense) occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations. PMID:24199195

  17. Maintaining a clear line of sight through regional climate change analysis: the importance of distinguishing knowledge and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetton, P.

    2014-12-01

    Developing, or choosing, appropriate climate projections for use in a particular context is challenging. To help with this, it is useful to distinguish between two types of climate projection information. First there is scientific knowledge about the range of plausible climate change. Such knowledge can synthesise a range of relevant evidence, may convey messages in qualitative terms only, and may also have attached confidence (e.g. as in IPCC assessments).This knowledge can be used in context setting but may also be sufficient information for qualitative impact applications aimed at narrative development. Secondly, there are projection data sets tailored for use in technical risk assessments. Although these two products draw on similar source material (primarily global and regional climate model output), the information they can contain about future climate can be quite different. Often in meeting user needs, only a subset of the range of plausible future climate is considered in application-ready products. This may be due to user needs for downscaled information which comes from limited models, or their need to work with a small number of multivariate scenarios which are best provided by the outputs of single climate models. In the push to create sophisticated datasets that meet demanding technical needs, the larger perspective of representativeness can go by the wayside, and there is a risk that data users will tacitly believe their data are representative of future change when in fact they may not be. Thus a key challenge for risk assessment is for projection providers and users to work in unison to ensure that the two aspects of knowledge and data are as harmonised as possible. These concepts will be illustrated using projection products from the Australian context, including a range of new national climate projection products developed recently to support applications in natural resources management planning.

  18. The 3' untranslated region of the hsp 70 genes maintains the level of steady state mRNA in Trypanosoma brucei upon heat shock.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M G

    1998-01-01

    An increase in the transcriptional efficiency at elevated temperatures is a characteristic of transcription of heat shock protein (hsp) coding genes in most eukaryotes analyzed to date. The regulatory mechanism for hsp 70 genes expression in Trypanosoma brucei does not follow the conventional transcriptional induction mechanism. The hsp 70 locus of T.brucei appears in a permanently activated state, and transcriptional induction of hsp 70 genes by heat shock does not occur in this organism. Therefore, the differential expression of the hsp 70 genes in trypanosomes is, to a large extent, post-transcriptionally controlled. Mechanisms of post-transcriptional control of the hsp 70 gene expression were investigated. Procyclic trypanosomes were normally maintained at approximately 25 degreesC. Incubation of procyclic trypanosomes at 41 degreesC drastically reduced the steady state mRNA levels of many protein coding genes. In contrast, the expression of the hsp 70 genes is either maintained at a high level or is up-regulated. The hsp 70 intergenic region promoter together with its 3' splice acceptor sites and the 5' untranslated region (UTR) are not sufficient to maintain or up-regulate the mRNA level of a reporter gene upon heat shock. However, addition of the 3' UTR of hsp 70 genes to a reporter gene, driven by different promoters, maintained a high level expression of the mRNA during heat shock. These results suggested that the 3' UTR of the hsp 70 genes is primarily responsible for the maintenance of mRNA level during heat shock, while mRNA containing the 3' UTR from many other genes may be rapidly degraded by heat shock induced processes. PMID:9705515

  19. Tracking wild sockeye salmon smolts to the ocean reveals distinct regions of nocturnal movement and high mortality.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy D; Furey, Nathan B; Rechisky, Erin L; Gale, Marika K; Jeffries, Ken M; Porter, Aswea D; Casselman, Matthew T; Lotto, Andrew G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Welch, David W; Hinch, Scott G

    2016-06-01

    Few estimates of migration rates or descriptions of behavior or survival exist for wild populations of out-migrating Pacific salmon smolts from natal freshwater rearing areas to the ocean. Using acoustic transmitters and fixed receiver arrays across four years (2010-2013), we tracked the migration of > 1850 wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts from Chilko Lake, British Columbia, to the coastal Pacific Ocean (> 1000 km distance). Cumulative survival to the ocean ranged 3-10% among years, although this may be slightly underestimated due to technical limitations at the final receiver array. Distinct spatial patterns in both behavior and survival were observed through all years. In small, clear, upper-river reaches, downstream migration largely occurred at night at speeds up to 50 km/d and coincided with poor survival. Among years, only 57-78% of smolts survived the first 80 km. Parallel laboratory experiments revealed excellent short-term survival and unhindered swimming performance of dummy-tagged smolts, suggesting that predators rather than tagging effects were responsible for the initial high mortality of acoustic-tagged smolts. Migration speeds increased in the Fraser River mainstem (~220 km/d in some years), diel movement patterns ceased, and smolt survival generally exceeded 90% in this segment. Marine movement rates and survival were variable across years, with among-year segment-specific survival being the most variable and lowest (19-61%) during the final (and longest, 240 km) marine migration segment. Osmoregulatory preparedness was not expected to influence marine survival, as smolts could maintain normal levels of plasma chloride when experimentally exposed to saltwater (30 ppt) immediately upon commencing their migration from Chilko Lake. Transportation of smolts downstream generally increased survival to the farthest marine array. The act of tagging may have affected smolts in the marine environment in some years as dummy-tagged fish had

  20. Tracking wild sockeye salmon smolts to the ocean reveals distinct regions of nocturnal movement and high mortality.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy D; Furey, Nathan B; Rechisky, Erin L; Gale, Marika K; Jeffries, Ken M; Porter, Aswea D; Casselman, Matthew T; Lotto, Andrew G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Welch, David W; Hinch, Scott G

    2016-06-01

    Few estimates of migration rates or descriptions of behavior or survival exist for wild populations of out-migrating Pacific salmon smolts from natal freshwater rearing areas to the ocean. Using acoustic transmitters and fixed receiver arrays across four years (2010-2013), we tracked the migration of > 1850 wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts from Chilko Lake, British Columbia, to the coastal Pacific Ocean (> 1000 km distance). Cumulative survival to the ocean ranged 3-10% among years, although this may be slightly underestimated due to technical limitations at the final receiver array. Distinct spatial patterns in both behavior and survival were observed through all years. In small, clear, upper-river reaches, downstream migration largely occurred at night at speeds up to 50 km/d and coincided with poor survival. Among years, only 57-78% of smolts survived the first 80 km. Parallel laboratory experiments revealed excellent short-term survival and unhindered swimming performance of dummy-tagged smolts, suggesting that predators rather than tagging effects were responsible for the initial high mortality of acoustic-tagged smolts. Migration speeds increased in the Fraser River mainstem (~220 km/d in some years), diel movement patterns ceased, and smolt survival generally exceeded 90% in this segment. Marine movement rates and survival were variable across years, with among-year segment-specific survival being the most variable and lowest (19-61%) during the final (and longest, 240 km) marine migration segment. Osmoregulatory preparedness was not expected to influence marine survival, as smolts could maintain normal levels of plasma chloride when experimentally exposed to saltwater (30 ppt) immediately upon commencing their migration from Chilko Lake. Transportation of smolts downstream generally increased survival to the farthest marine array. The act of tagging may have affected smolts in the marine environment in some years as dummy-tagged fish had

  1. Distinct ontogenic and regional expressions of newly identified Cajal-Retzius cell-specific genes during neocorticogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Mariko; Takamatsu, Masako; Tanabe, Yasuto; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2004-10-01

    Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells are early-generated transient neurons and are important in the regulation of cortical neuronal migration and cortical laminar formation. Molecular entities characterizing the CR cell identity, however, remain largely elusive. We purified mouse cortical CR cells expressing GFP to homogeneity by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and examined a genome-wide expression profile of cortical CR cells at embryonic and postnatal periods. We identified 49 genes that exceeded hybridization signals by >10-fold in CR cells compared with non-CR cells at embryonic day 13.5, postnatal day 2, or both. Among these CR cell-specific genes, 25 genes, including the CR cell marker genes such as the reelin and calretinin genes, are selectively and highly expressed in both embryonic and postnatal CR cells. These genes, which encode generic properties of CR cell specificity, are eminently characterized as modulatory composites of voltage-dependent calcium channels and sets of functionally related cellular components involved in cell migration, adhesion, and neurite extension. Five genes are highly expressed in CR cells at the early embryonic period and are rapidly down-regulated thereafter. Furthermore, some of these genes have been shown to mark two distinctly different focal regions corresponding to the CR cell origins. At the late prenatal and postnatal periods, 19 genes are selectively up-regulated in CR cells. These genes include functional molecules implicated in synaptic transmission and modulation. CR cells thus strikingly change their cellular phenotypes during cortical development and play a pivotal role in both corticogenesis and cortical circuit maturation.

  2. Distinct ontogenic and regional expressions of newly identified Cajal-Retzius cell-specific genes during neocorticogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Mariko; Takamatsu, Masako; Tanabe, Yasuto; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2004-01-01

    Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells are early-generated transient neurons and are important in the regulation of cortical neuronal migration and cortical laminar formation. Molecular entities characterizing the CR cell identity, however, remain largely elusive. We purified mouse cortical CR cells expressing GFP to homogeneity by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and examined a genomewide expression profile of cortical CR cells at embryonic and postnatal periods. We identified 49 genes that exceeded hybridization signals by >10-fold in CR cells compared with non-CR cells at embryonic day 13.5, postnatal day 2, or both. Among these CR cell-specific genes, 25 genes, including the CR cell marker genes such as the reelin and calretinin genes, are selectively and highly expressed in both embryonic and postnatal CR cells. These genes, which encode generic properties of CR cell specificity, are eminently characterized as modulatory composites of voltage-dependent calcium channels and sets of functionally related cellular components involved in cell migration, adhesion, and neurite extension. Five genes are highly expressed in CR cells at the early embryonic period and are rapidly down-regulated thereafter. Furthermore, some of these genes have been shown to mark two distinctly different focal regions corresponding to the CR cell origins. At the late prenatal and postnatal periods, 19 genes are selectively up-regulated in CR cells. These genes include functional molecules implicated in synaptic transmission and modulation. CR cells thus strikingly change their cellular phenotypes during cortical development and play a pivotal role in both corticogenesis and cortical circuit maturation. PMID:15452350

  3. Distinct Assemblages of Lunar Anorthosites: Implications for the Lunar Magma Ocean, and the Source Regions of Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, J.; Treiman, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    - 90 (like a mixture of Mg- and ferroan anorthosites). These distinct assemblages of anorthosites are unexpected, and may not be consistent with predictions of the LMO model (i.e., that lunar anorthosites are consistent across the 'ocean'); the LMO model may need revision. In addition, the grouping of anorthosites compared to each other and to returned samples seems to be a promising tool, in combination with orbital remote sensing, to place constraints on possible source regions of meteorites.

  4. Ligand-dependent responses of the silkworm prothoracicotropic hormone receptor, Torso, are maintained by unusual intermolecular disulfide bridges in the transmembrane region.

    PubMed

    Konogami, Tadafumi; Yang, Yiwen; Ogihara, Mari H; Hikiba, Juri; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-03-01

    The insect membrane-protein, Torso, is a member of the receptor-tyrosine-kinase family, and is activated by its ligand, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Although PTTH is one of the most important regulators of insect development, the mechanism of Torso activation by the hormone has remained elusive. In this study, using heterologous expression in cultured Drosophila S2 cells, we detected ligand-independent dimerization of silkworm Torso, and found that the receptor molecules in the dimer were linked by intermolecular disulfide bridges. By examining the oligomerization states of several truncation and substitution mutants of Torso, atypical cysteine residues in the transmembrane region were identified as being responsible for the intermolecular linkage in the dimer. The replacement of all of the cysteines in the region with phenylalanines abolished the disulfide-bond-mediated dimerization; however, non-covalent dimerization of the mutant was detected using a cross-linking reagent, both with and without ligand stimulation. This non-covalent dimerization caused apparent receptor autophosphorylation independently of the ligand stimulation, but did not promote the ERK phosphorylation in the downstream signaling pathway. The unique Torso structure with the intermolecular disulfide bridges in the transmembrane region is necessary to maintain the ligand-dependent receptor functions of autophosphorylation and downstream activation.

  5. Different epitope structures select distinct mutant forms of an antibody variable region for expression during the immune response

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Antibody variable (V) regions that initially differ from one another by only single amino acid residues at VH-D and D-JH segment junctions (termed canonical V regions) can be elicited in strain A/J mice by three different haptens. Among such V regions an amino acid substitution due to somatic mutation is recurrently observed at VH CDR2 position 58, regardless of which of these haptens is used for immunization. This substitution confers upon a canonical V region a generic increase in affinity for all the haptens. Conversely, the type of amino acid substitution at VH position 59 resulting from somatic mutation that is recurrently observed among such V regions changes with the eliciting hapten, in a manner that correlates directly with the cognate affinity increases (or decreases) for hapten conferred by the observed substitutions. This small subregion of VH CDR2 therefore plays a major role in determining both affinity and specificity for antigen. The data confirm that affinity for antigen is of pivotal importance in determining the degree of selection of different mutant forms of a V region. Moreover, during an immune response a sufficiently diverse mutant repertoire can be generated from a single canonical V region to allow adaptation to increase affinity for three different epitopes. PMID:1705280

  6. Distinct regional anatomic and functional correlates of neurodegenerative apraxia of speech and aphasia: an MRI and FDG-PET study.

    PubMed

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Xia, Rong; Mandrekar, Jay; Machulda, Mary M; Senjem, Matthew L; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-06-01

    Progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) can result from neurodegenerative disease and can occur in isolation or in the presence of agrammatic aphasia. We aimed to determine the neuroanatomical and metabolic correlates of progressive AOS and aphasia. Thirty-six prospectively recruited subjects with progressive AOS or agrammatic aphasia, or both, underwent the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and Token Test to assess aphasia, an AOS rating scale (ASRS), 3T MRI and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Correlations between clinical measures and imaging were assessed. The only region that correlated to ASRS was left superior premotor volume. In contrast, WAB and Token Test correlated with hypometabolism and volume of a network of left hemisphere regions, including pars triangularis, pars opercularis, pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Progressive agrammatic aphasia and AOS have non-overlapping regional correlations, suggesting that these are dissociable clinical features that have different neuroanatomical underpinnings. PMID:23542727

  7. Simultaneous Observation of an Intraband Transition and Distinct Transient Species in the Infrared Region for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Narra, Sudhakar; Chung, Chih-Chun; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2016-07-01

    Solar cells based on organometal-halide perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 have emerged as a promising next-generation photovoltaic system, but the underlying photophysics and photochemistry remain to be established because of the limited availability of methods to implement the simultaneous and direct measurement of various charge carriers and ions that play a crucial role in the operating device. We used nanosecond time-resolved infrared (IR) spectroscopy to investigate, with high molecular specificity, distinct transient species that are formed in perovskite solar cells after photoexcitation. In CH3NH3PbI3 planar-heterojuction solar cells, we simultaneously observed infrared spectral signatures that are associated with an intraband transition of conduction-band electrons, Fano resonance, and the spiro-OMeTAD cation having an exceptionally short lifetime of 1.0 μs (at ∼1485 cm(-1)). The present results show that the time-resolved IR method offers a unique capability to elucidate these important transients in perovskite solar cells and their dynamic interplay in a comprehensive manner.

  8. Simultaneous Observation of an Intraband Transition and Distinct Transient Species in the Infrared Region for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Narra, Sudhakar; Chung, Chih-Chun; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2016-07-01

    Solar cells based on organometal-halide perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 have emerged as a promising next-generation photovoltaic system, but the underlying photophysics and photochemistry remain to be established because of the limited availability of methods to implement the simultaneous and direct measurement of various charge carriers and ions that play a crucial role in the operating device. We used nanosecond time-resolved infrared (IR) spectroscopy to investigate, with high molecular specificity, distinct transient species that are formed in perovskite solar cells after photoexcitation. In CH3NH3PbI3 planar-heterojuction solar cells, we simultaneously observed infrared spectral signatures that are associated with an intraband transition of conduction-band electrons, Fano resonance, and the spiro-OMeTAD cation having an exceptionally short lifetime of 1.0 μs (at ∼1485 cm(-1)). The present results show that the time-resolved IR method offers a unique capability to elucidate these important transients in perovskite solar cells and their dynamic interplay in a comprehensive manner. PMID:27302315

  9. Identifying distinct phytoplankton regions based on ocean colour data supplemented by in-situ and model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasen, Solva; Hátún, Hjálmar; Margretha Larsen, Karin; Hansen, Bogi

    2016-04-01

    The Faroe Shelf hosts a rich and diverse marine ecosystem, which sustains a large portion of the economy of the Islands. The primary production, even though often referred to as being important to the higher trophic levels, is still not thoroughly understood. A high resolution chlorophyll time series from coastal station S, dating back to 1997, has given valuable information about the phytoplankton concentrations on the central shelf, and interannual fluctuations (with a factor of 4-5) in this time series have been linked to several other biological indicators. However, with regards to phytoplankton and primary production farther off-shore, only CTD fluorescence observations from research cruises are available and a thorough analysis of these temporally and spatially scattered data is difficult to conduct and yet to be done. Thus, the spatial extent of the region, for which the station S phytoplankton concentrations are representative, is not well defined. In this study we compare satellite ocean colour data from 1998-2015 with in-situ data from station S and identify the region which station S represents. Moreover, we use the ocean colour data to identity biogeographical regions in which phytoplankton is uniquely and coherently varying and compare these with the breeding and feeding grounds of commercially important fish stocks. The surface chlorophyll pattern does not necessarily represent the primary production in the water column. We therefore supplement the results with hydrographic observations and model simulations and from these extract information about the total carbon production in the various regions. The ocean colour data are consistent with the in-situ observations and the results from combining these with the other data types have enhanced our understanding of timing and strength of the phytoplankton spring bloom farther off-shore and contribute to the understanding of the shelf ecosystem in general.

  10. Distinct regions of triadin are required for targeting and retention at the junctional domain of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Daniela; Bencini, Cristina; Maritati, Marina; Benini, Francesca; Lorenzini, Stefania; Pierantozzi, Enrico; Scarcella, Angela Maria; Paolini, Cecilia; Protasi, Feliciano; Sorrentino, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    Ca2+ release, which is necessary for muscle contraction, occurs at the j-SR (junctional domain of the sarcoplasmic reticulum). It requires the assembly of a large multiprotein complex containing the RyR (ryanodine receptor) and additional proteins, including triadin and calsequestrin. The signals which drive these proteins to the j-SR and how they assemble to form this multiprotein complex are poorly understood. To address aspects of these questions we studied the localization, dynamic properties and molecular interactions of triadin. We identified three regions, named TR1 (targeting region 1), TR2 and TR3, that contribute to the localization of triadin at the j-SR. FRAP experiments showed that triadin is stably associated with the j-SR and that this association is mediated by TR3. Protein pull-down experiments indicated that TR3 contains binding sites for calsequestrin-1 and that triadin clustering can be enhanced by binding to calsequestrin-1. These findings were confirmed by FRET experiments. Interestingly, the stable association of triadin to the j-SR was significantly decreased in myotubes from calsequestrin-1 knockout mice. Taken together, these results identify three regions in triadin that mediate targeting to the j-SR and reveal a role for calsequestrin-1 in promoting the stable association of triadin to the multiprotein complex associated with RyR. PMID:24325401

  11. Chronic stress and peripheral pain: Evidence for distinct, region-specific changes in visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gen; Hong, Shuangsong; Hayes, John M; Wiley, John W

    2015-11-01

    Chronic stress alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhances visceral and somatosensory pain perception. It is unresolved whether chronic stress has distinct effects on visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways. Previous studies reported that stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia is associated with reciprocal alterations of endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pain pathways in DRG neurons innervating the pelvic viscera. In this study, we compared somatosensory and visceral hyperalgesia with respect to differential responses of peripheral pain regulatory pathways in a rat model of chronic, intermittent stress. We found that chronic stress induced reciprocal changes in the endocannabinoid 2-AG (increased) and endocannabinoid degradation enzymes COX-2 and FAAH (decreased), associated with down-regulation of CB1 and up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in L6-S2 DRG but not L4-L5 DRG neurons. In contrast, sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 were up-regulated in L4-L5 but not L6-S2 DRGs in stressed rats, which was reproduced in control DRGs treated with corticosterone in vitro. The reciprocal changes of CB1, TRPV1 and sodium channels were cell-specific and observed in the sub-population of nociceptive neurons. Behavioral assessment showed that visceral hyperalgesia persisted, whereas somatosensory hyperalgesia and enhanced expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels in L4-L5 DRGs normalized 3 days after completion of the stress phase. These data indicate that chronic stress induces visceral and somatosensory hyperalgesia that involves differential changes in endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pathways, and sodium channels in DRGs innervating the pelvic viscera and lower extremities. These results suggest that chronic stress-induced visceral and lower extremity somatosensory hyperalgesia can be treated selectively at different levels of the spinal cord. PMID:26408049

  12. The catalytic region and PEST domain of PTPN18 distinctly regulate the HER2 phosphorylation and ubiquitination barcodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Xu, Yun-Fei; Ning, Shang-Lei; Yang, Du-Xiao; Li, Yi; Du, Yu-Jie; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Ya; Liang, Nan; Yao, Wei; Zhang, Ling-Li; Gu, Li-Chuan; Gao, Cheng-Jiang; Pang, Qi; Chen, Yu-Xin; Xiao, Kun-Hong; Ma, Rong; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2014-09-01

    The tyrosine phosphorylation barcode encoded in C-terminus of HER2 and its ubiquitination regulate diverse HER2 functions. PTPN18 was reported as a HER2 phosphatase; however, the exact mechanism by which it defines HER2 signaling is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that PTPN18 regulates HER2-mediated cellular functions through defining both its phosphorylation and ubiquitination barcodes. Enzymologic characterization and three crystal structures of PTPN18 in complex with HER2 phospho-peptides revealed the molecular basis for the recognition between PTPN18 and specific HER2 phosphorylation sites, which assumes two distinct conformations. Unique structural properties of PTPN18 contribute to the regulation of sub-cellular phosphorylation networks downstream of HER2, which are required for inhibition of HER2-mediated cell growth and migration. Whereas the catalytic domain of PTPN18 blocks lysosomal routing and delays the degradation of HER2 by dephosphorylation of HER2 on pY(1112), the PEST domain of PTPN18 promotes K48-linked HER2 ubiquitination and its rapid destruction via the proteasome pathway and an HER2 negative feedback loop. In agreement with the negative regulatory role of PTPN18 in HER2 signaling, the HER2/PTPN18 ratio was correlated with breast cancer stage. Taken together, our study presents a structural basis for selective HER2 dephosphorylation, a previously uncharacterized mechanism for HER2 degradation and a novel function for the PTPN18 PEST domain. The new regulatory role of the PEST domain in the ubiquitination pathway will broaden our understanding of the functions of other important PEST domain-containing phosphatases, such as LYP and PTPN12. PMID:25081058

  13. PET imaging reveals distinctive roles for different regional adipose tissue depots in systemic glucose metabolism in nonobese humans.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason M; Azuma, Koichiro; Kelley, Carol; Pencek, Richard; Radikova, Zofia; Laymon, Charles; Price, Julie; Goodpaster, Bret H; Kelley, David E

    2012-11-01

    Excess amounts of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue (AT) are associated with insulin resistance, even in normal-weight subjects. In contrast, gluteal-femoral AT (GFAT) is hypothesized to offer protection against insulin resistance. Dynamic PET imaging studies were undertaken to examine the contributions of both metabolic activity and size (volume) of these depots in systemic glucose metabolism. Nonobese, healthy volunteers (n = 15) underwent dynamic PET imaging uptake of [¹⁸F]FDG at a steady-state (20 mU·m⁻²·min⁻¹) insulin infusion. PET images of tissue [¹⁸F]FDG activity were coregistered with MRI to derive K values for insulin-stimulated rates of fractional glucose uptake within tissue. Adipose tissue volume was calculated from DEXA and MRI. VAT had significantly higher rates of fractional glucose uptake per volume than SAT (P < 0.05) or GFAT (P < 0.01). K(GFAT) correlated positively (r = 0.67, P < 0.01) with systemic insulin sensitivity [glucose disappearance rate (R(d))] and negatively with insulin-suppressed FFA (r = -0.71, P < 0.01). SAT (r = -0.70, P < 0.01) and VAT mass (r = -0.55, P < 0.05) correlated negatively with R(d), but GFAT mass did not. We conclude that rates of fractional glucose uptake within GFAT and VAT are significantly and positively associated with systemic insulin sensitivity in nonobese subjects. Furthermore, whereas SAT and VAT amounts are confirmed to relate to systemic insulin resistance, GFAT amount is not associated with insulin resistance. These dynamic PET imaging studies indicate that both quantity and quality of specific AT depots have distinct roles in systemic insulin resistance and may help explain the metabolically obese but normal-weight phenotype. PMID:22967498

  14. Relationship of the South Asian Monsoon and Regional Drought with Distinct Equatorial Pacific SST Patterns on Interannual and Decadal Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, M.; Ummenhofer, C.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Asian monsoon system influences the lives of over 60% of the planet's population, with widespread socioeconomic effects resulting from weakening or failure of monsoon rains. Spatially broad and temporally extended drought episodes have been known to dramatically influence human history, including the Strange Parallels Drought in the mid-18th century. Here, we explore the dynamics of sustained monsoon failure using the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas - a high-resolution network of hydro-climatically sensitive tree-ring records - and a 1300-year pre-industrial control run of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Spatial drought patterns in the instrumental and model-based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) during years with extremely weakened South Asian monsoon are similar to those reconstructed during the Strange Parallels Drought in the MADA. We further explore how the large-scale Indo-Pacific climate during weakened South Asian monsoon differs between interannual and decadal timescales. The Strange Parallels Drought pattern is observed during March-April-May primarily over Southeast Asia, with decreased precipitation and reduced moisture fluxes, while anomalies in June-July-August are confined to the Indian subcontinent during both individual and decadal events. Individual years with anomalous drying exhibit canonical El Niño conditions over the eastern equatorial Pacific and associated shifts in the Walker circulation, while decadal events appear to be related to anomalous warming around the dateline in the equatorial Pacific, typical of El Niño Modoki events. The results suggest different dynamical processes influence drought at different time scales through distinct remote ocean influences.

  15. Chronic Stress and Peripheral Pain: Evidence for Distinct, Region-specific Changes in Visceral and Somatosensory Pain Regulatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gen; Hong, Shuangsong; Hayes, John M; Wiley, John W

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhances visceral and somatosensory pain perception. It is unresolved whether chronic stress has distinct effects on visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways. Previous studies reported that stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia is associated with reciprocal alterations of endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pain pathways in DRG neurons innervating the pelvic viscera. In this study, we compared somatosensory and visceral hyperalgesia with respect to differential responses of peripheral pain regulatory pathways in a rat model of chronic, intermittent stress. We found that chronic stress induced reciprocal changes in the endocannabinoid 2-AG (increased) and endocannabinoid degradation enzymes COX-2 and FAAH (decreased), associated with down-regulation of CB1 and up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in L6-S2 DRG but not L4-L5 DRG neurons. In contrast, sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 were up-regulated in L4-L5 but not L6-S2 DRGs in stressed rats, which was reproduced in control L4-L5 DRGs treated with corticosterone in vitro. The reciprocal changes of CB1, TRPV1 and sodium channels were cell-specific and observed in the sub-population of nociceptive neurons. Behavioral assessment showed that visceral hyperalgesia persisted, whereas somatosensory hyperalgesia and enhanced expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels in L4-L5 DRGs normalized 3 days after completion of the stress phase. These data indicate that chronic stress induces visceral and somatosensory hyperalgesia that involves differential changes in endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pathways, and sodium channels in DRGs innervating the pelvic viscera and lower extremities. These results suggest that chronic stress-induced visceral and lower extremity somatosensory hyperalgesia can be treated selectively at different levels of the spinal cord. PMID:26408049

  16. Early exclusion of hand1-deficient cells from distinct regions of the left ventricular myocardium in chimeric mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Riley, P R; Gertsenstein, M; Dawson, K; Cross, J C

    2000-11-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene Hand1 has been implicated in development of the heart. However, the early lethality of Hand1-null mutant mouse embryos has precluded a precise understanding of its function. In this study, we have generated Hand1 homozygous mutant ES cells and performed in vitro differentiation experiments and chimeric analysis to study the role of Hand1 function during cardiac development. Hand1-null ES cells were able to differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes in vitro that expressed cardiac myosin and several cardiac-specific transcripts including Nkx2-5, alpha-cardiac actin, and the myofilament genes myosin light chain 2a and 2v. In chimeras derived from Hand1-null ES cells and ROSA26 embryos, mutant cells were underrepresented in the left caudal region of the linear heart tube at E8.0. By E9.5, after cardiac looping, mutant cells were underrepresented in the anterior region of the outer curvature of the left ventricular myocardium, but did contribute to other parts of the left ventricle and to other cardiac chambers. These results imply that Hand1 is not essential for differentiation of ventricular cardiomyocytes. Hand1-null cells were also underrepresented in several other regions of later embryos, including the rhombencephalic neural tube that was associated with a deficiency of mutant cells in the neural crest cell-derived cardiac outflow tract and first branchial arch. In summary, Hand1 has cell-autonomous functions during cardiac morphogenesis in both mesodermal and neural crest derivatives.

  17. Regionally distinct responses of microglia and glial progenitor cells to whole brain irradiation in adult and aging rats.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kun; Schindler, Matthew K; McQuail, Joseph A; Forbes, M Elizabeth; Riddle, David R

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but also occurs in adults and older individuals and in non-proliferative cell populations. To better understand radiation-induced normal tissue injury and how it may be affected by aging, we exposed young adult, middle-aged, and old rats to 10 Gy of whole brain irradiation and assessed in gray- and white matter the responses of microglia, the primary cellular mediators of radiation-induced neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain. We found that aging and/or irradiation caused only a few microglia to transition to the classically "activated" phenotype, e.g., enlarged cell body, few processes, and markers of phagocytosis, that is seen following more damaging neural insults. Microglial changes in response to aging and irradiation were relatively modest and three markers of reactivity - morphology, proliferation, and expression of the lysosomal marker CD68- were regulated largely independently within individual cells. Proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors did not appear to be altered during normal aging but increased following irradiation. The impacts of irradiation and aging on both microglia and oligodendrocyte precursors were heterogeneous between white- and gray matter and among regions of gray matter, indicating that there are regional regulators of the neural response to brain irradiation. By several measures, the CA3 region of the hippocampus appeared to be differentially sensitive to effects of aging and irradiation. The changes assessed here likely contribute to injury following inflammatory challenges like brain irradiation and

  18. Tissue-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs with distinct 5' untranslated regions

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, J.C.; Rosen, K.M.; Humble, R.E.; Villa-Komaroff, L.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have used RNA from human hypothalamus as template for the production of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The prohormone coding sequence of brain IGF-II RNA is identical to that found in liver; however, the 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA has no homology to the 5' untranslated sequence of the previously reported liver cDNAs. By using hybridization to specific probes as well as a method based on the properties of RNase H, they found that the human IGF-II gene has at least three exons that encode alternative 5' untranslated regions and that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A probe specific to the brain cDNA 5' untranslated region hybridizes to a 6.0-kilobase transcript present in placenta, hypothalamus, adrenal gland, kidney, Wilms tumor, and a pheochromocytoma. The 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA does not hybridize to a 5.3-kilobase transcript found in liver or to a 5.0-kb transcript found in pheochromocytoma. By using RNase H to specifically fragment the IGF-II transcripts into 3' and 5' fragments, they found that the RNAs vary in size due to differences in the 5' end but not the 3' end.

  19. Homomorphic ZW chromosomes in a wild strawberry show distinctive recombination heterogeneity but a small sex-determining region.

    PubMed

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-09-01

    Recombination in ancient, heteromorphic sex chromosomes is typically suppressed at the sex-determining region (SDR) and proportionally elevated in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). However, little is known about recombination dynamics of young, homomorphic plant sex chromosomes. We examine male and female function in crosses and unrelated samples of the dioecious octoploid strawberry Fragaria chiloensis in order to map the small and recently evolved SDR controlling both traits and to examine recombination patterns on the incipient ZW chromosome. The SDR of this ZW system is located within a 280 kb window, in which the maternal recombination rate is lower than the paternal one. In contrast to the SDR, the maternal PAR recombination rate is much higher than the rates of the paternal PAR or autosomes, culminating in an elevated chromosome-wide rate. W-specific divergence is elevated within the SDR and a single polymorphism is observed in high species-wide linkage disequilibrium with sex. Selection for recombination suppression within the small SDR may be weak, but fluctuating sex ratios could favor elevated recombination in the PAR to remove deleterious mutations on the W. The recombination dynamics of this nascent sex chromosome with a modestly diverged SDR may be typical of other dioecious plants.

  20. Kinetic and Motor Functions Mediated by Distinct Regions of the Regulatory Light Chain of Smooth Muscle Myosin1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Shaowei; Hong, Feng; Brewer, Paul D.; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Onishi, Hirofumi; Baker, Jonathan E.; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2009-01-01

    To understand the importance of selected regions of the regulatory light chain (RLC) for phosphorylation-dependent regulation of smooth muscle myosin (SMM), we expressed three heavy meromyosins (HMMs) containing the following RLC mutants; K12E in a critical region of the phosphorylation domain, GTDP95-98/AAAA in the central hinge, and R160C a putative binding residue for phosphorylated S19. Single-turnover actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase (Vmax and Katpase) and in vitro actin sliding velocities were examined for both unphosphorylated (up-) and phosphorylated (p-) states. Turnover rates for the upstate (0.007-0.030 s-1) and velocities (no motion) for all constructs were not significantly different from the up-wild type (WT) indicating that they were completely turned off. The apparent binding constants for actin in the presence of ATP (Katpase) were too weak to measure as expected for fully regulated constructs. For p-HMM containing GTDP/AAAA, we found that both ATPase and motility were normal. The data suggest that the native sequence in the central hinge between the two lobes of the RLC is not required for turning the HMM off and on both kinetically and mechanically. For p-HMM containing R160C, all parameters were normal, suggesting that R160C is not involved in coordination of the phosphorylated S19. For p-HMM containing K12E, the Vmax was 64% and actin sliding velocity was ∼50% of WT, suggesting that K12 is an important residue for the ability to sense or to promote the conformational changes required for kinetic and mechanical activation. PMID:19635597

  1. Two distinct factors bind to the rabbit uteroglobin TATA-box region and are required for efficient transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Klug, J; Knapp, S; Castro, I; Beato, M

    1994-01-01

    The rabbit uteroglobin gene is expressed in a variety of epithelial cell types like the lung Clara cells and the glandular and luminal epithelial cells of the endometrium. Expression in Clara cells is on a high constitutive level, whereas expression in the rabbit endometrium is under tight hormonal control. One important element of the rabbit uteroglobin gene mediating its efficient transcription in two epithelial cell lines from human endometrium (Ishikawa) and lung (NCI-H441) is its noncanonical TATA box (TACA). Here, we show that two factors (TATA core factor [TCF] and TATA palindrome factor [TPF]) different from the TATA-box binding protein bind to the DNA major groove at two adjacent sites within the uteroglobin TATA-box region and that one of them (TCF) is specifically expressed in cell lines derived from uteroglobin-expressing tissues. The binding sites for TCF and TPF, respectively, are both required for efficient transcription in Ishikawa and NCI-H441 cells. Mutation of the TACA box, which we show is a poor TATA box in functional terms, to a canonical TATA motif does not affect TCF and TPF binding. Therefore, we suggest that the function of the unusual cytosine could be to reduce rabbit uteroglobin expression in cells lacking TCF and that the interaction of TATA-box binding protein with the weak TACA site is facilitated in TCF- and TPF-positive cells. Images PMID:8065353

  2. A gustatory second-order neuron that connects sucrose-sensitive primary neurons and a distinct region of the gnathal ganglion in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Takaaki; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Ito, Kei; Lee, Chi-Hon; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Although the gustatory system provides animals with sensory cues important for food choice and other critical behaviors, little is known about neural circuitry immediately following gustatory sensory neurons (GSNs). Here, we identify and characterize a bilateral pair of gustatory second-order neurons in Drosophila. Previous studies identified GSNs that relay taste information to distinct subregions of the primary gustatory center (PGC) in the gnathal ganglia (GNG). To identify candidate gustatory second-order neurons (G2Ns) we screened ~5,000 GAL4 driver strains for lines that label neural fibers innervating the PGC. We then combined GRASP (GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners) with presynaptic labeling to visualize potential synaptic contacts between the dendrites of the candidate G2Ns and the axonal terminals of Gr5a-expressing GSNs, which are known to respond to sucrose. Results of the GRASP analysis, followed by a single cell analysis by FLPout recombination, revealed a pair of neurons that contact Gr5a axon terminals in both brain hemispheres, and send axonal arborizations to a distinct region outside the PGC but within the GNG. To characterize the input and output branches, respectively, we expressed fluorescence-tagged acetylcholine receptor subunit (Dα7) and active-zone marker (Brp) in the G2Ns. We found that G2N input sites overlaid GRASP-labeled synaptic contacts to Gr5a neurons, while presynaptic sites were broadly distributed throughout the neurons’ arborizations. GRASP analysis and further tests with the Syb-GRASP method suggested that the identified G2Ns receive synaptic inputs from Gr5a-expressing GSNs, but not Gr66a-expressing GSNs, which respond to caffeine. The identified G2Ns relay information from Gr5a-expressing GSNs to distinct regions in the GNG, and are distinct from other, recently identified gustatory projection neurons, which relay information about sugars to a brain region called the antennal mechanosensory and motor center

  3. Ephrin-B2 elicits differential growth cone collapse and axon retraction in retinal ganglion cells from distinct retinal regions

    PubMed Central

    Petros, Timothy J.; Bryson, J. Barney; Mason, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The circuit for binocular vision and stereopsis is established at the optic chiasm, where retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons diverge into the ipsilateral and contralateral optic tracts. In the mouse retina, ventrotemporal (VT) RGCs express the guidance receptor EphB1, which interacts with the repulsive guidance cue ephrin-B2 on radial glia at the optic chiasm to direct VT RGC axons ipsilaterally. RGCs in the ventral retina also express EphB2, which interacts with ephrin-B2, whereas dorsal RGCs express low levels of EphB receptors. To investigate how growth cones of RGCs from different retinal regions respond upon initial contact with ephrin-B2, we utilized time-lapse imaging to characterize the effects of ephrin-B2 on growth cone collapse and axon retraction in real time. We demonstrate that bath application of ephrin-B2 induces rapid and sustained growth cone collapse and axon retraction in VT RGC axons, whereas contralaterally-projecting dorsotemporal RGCs display moderate growth cone collapse and little axon retraction. Dose response curves reveal that contralaterally-projecting ventronasal axons are less sensitive to ephrin-B2 treatment compared to VT axons. Additionally, we uncovered a specific role for Rho kinase signaling in the retraction of VT RGC axons but not in growth cone collapse. The detailed characterization of growth cone behavior in this study comprises an assay for the study of Eph signaling in RGCs, and provides insight into the phenomena of growth cone collapse and axon retraction in general. PMID:20629048

  4. Distinct populations of dendritic cells are present in the subepithelial dome and T cell regions of the murine Peyer's patch

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that the Peyer's patch (PP) is the primary site for antigen uptake in the intestine, the cellular basis of antigen handling after transport into the PP is poorly understood. We performed immunohistology of murine PPs using the dendritic cell (DC)-reactive monoclonal antibodies N418, NLDC-145, M342, and 2A1, as well as antibodies to other T cell, B cell, and macrophage markers. N418+, 2A1+, NLDC-145-, M342- cells form a dense layer of cells in the subepithelial dome (SED), just beneath the follicle epithelium, and are scattered throughout the follicle, sparing the germinal center. In contrast, N418+, 2A1+, NLDC-145+, and M342+ DCs are present in the interfollicular T cell regions (IFR). CD3+ and CD4+, but no CD8+ T cells were present in the SED and the follicle, including the germinal center, while CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells were present in the IFR. B cells and macrophages were poorly represented in the SED as no B220+ cells, only few Mac-1lo cells, and no F4/80+ cells were present at this site. In contrast, Mac-1hi cells were found in the IFR and lamina propria of intestinal villi, while F4/80+ cells were found only in the latter. In further phenotypic studies, we analyzed surface molecules of PP and spleen DCs by flow cytometry and found that these cells had similar fluorescence profiles when stained with N418, NLDC-145, and 33D1 DC-reactive antibodies, and antibodies to the costimulatory molecules B7-1 (1G10) and B7-2 (GL1). In contrast, PP DCs expressed 5- 10-fold higher levels of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens (IEk) than spleen DCs. Finally, in functional studies, we demonstrated that both PP and spleen DCs process soluble protein antigens during overnight culture and induce similar levels of proliferation in CD3+ T cells, and CD4+/Mel 14hi T cells from T cell receptor transgenic mice. The in vivo relevance of such presentation was shown by the fact that PP DCs isolated from Balb/c mice after being fed ovalbumin stimulated

  5. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains.

    PubMed

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2015-12-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  6. Distinct regions of right temporal cortex are associated with biological and human-agent motion: functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological evidence.

    PubMed

    Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao; Chen, Jing; Chen, Quanjing; He, Yong; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2013-09-25

    In human lateral temporal cortex, some regions show specific sensitivity to human motion. Here we examine whether such effects reflect a general biological-nonbiological organizational principle or a process specific to human-agent processing by comparing processing of human, animal, and tool motion in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with healthy participants and a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) study of patients with brain damage (77 stroke patients). The fMRI experiment revealed that in the lateral temporal cortex, the posterior superior temporal sulcus shows a preference for human and animal motion, whereas the middle part of the right superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (mSTS/STG) shows a preference for human and functional tool motion. VLSM analyses also revealed that damage to this right mSTS/STG region led to more severe impairment in the recognition of human and functional tool motion relative to animal motion, indicating the causal role of this brain area in human-agent motion processing. The findings for the right mSTS/STG cannot be reduced to a preference for articulated motion or processing of social variables since neither factor is involved in functional tool motion recognition. We conclude that a unidimensional biological-nonbiological distinction cannot fully explain the visual motion effects in lateral temporal cortex. Instead, the results suggest the existence of distinct components in right posterior temporal cortex and mSTS/STG that are associated, respectively, with biological motion and human-agent motion processing.

  7. The Bel1 protein of human foamy virus contains one positive and two negative control regions which regulate a distinct activation domain of 30 amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C W; Chang, J; Lee, K J; Sung, Y C

    1994-01-01

    The Bel1 transactivator is essential for the replication of human foamy virus (HFV). To define the functional domains of HFV Bel1, we generated random missense mutations throughout the entire coding sequence of Bel1. Functional analyses of 24 missense mutations have revealed the presence of at least two functional domains in Bel1. One domain corresponds to a basic amino acid-rich motif which acts as a bipartite nuclear targeting sequence. A second, central domain corresponds to a presumed effector region which, when mutated, leads to dominant-negative mutants and/or lacks transactivating ability. In addition, deletion analyses and domain-swapping experiments further showed that Bel1 protein contains a strong carboxy-terminal activation domain. The activating region is also capable of functioning as a transcription-activating domain in yeast cells, although it does not bear any significant sequence homology to the well-characterized acidic activation domain which is known to function only in yeast and mammalian cells. We also demonstrated that the regions of Bel1 from residues 1 to 76 and from residues 153 to 225 repressed transcriptional activation exerted by the Bel1 activation domain. In contrast, the region from residues 82 to 150 appears to overcome an inhibitory effect. These results indicate that Bel1 contains one positive and two negative regulatory domains that modulate a distinct activation domain of Bel1. These regulatory domains of Bel1 cannot affect the function of the VP16 activation domain, suggesting that these domains specifically regulate the activation domain of Bel1. Furthermore, in vivo competition experiments showed that the positive regulatory domain acts in trans. Thus, our results demonstrate that Bel1-mediated transactivation appears to undergo a complex regulatory pathway which provides a novel mode of regulation for a transcriptional activation domain. Images PMID:8139046

  8. Distinct regions of ATF/CREB proteins Atf1 and Pcr1 control recombination hotspot ade6–M26 and the osmotic stress response

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Davidson, Mari K.; Wahls, Wayne P.

    2008-01-01

    The Atf1 protein of Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains a bZIP (DNA-binding/protein dimerization) domain characteristic of ATF/CREB proteins, but no other functional domains or clear homologs have been reported. Atf1-containing, bZIP protein dimers bind to CRE-like DNA sites, regulate numerous stress responses, and activate meiotic recombination at hotspots like ade6–M26. We defined systematically the organization of Atf1 and its heterodimer partner Pcr1, which is required for a subset of Atf1-dependent functions. Surprisingly, only the bZIP domain of Pcr1 is required for hotspot activity and tethering of Atf1 to ade6 promotes recombination in the absence of its bZIP domain and the Pcr1 protein. Therefore the recombination–activation domain of Atf1-Pcr1 heterodimer resides exclusively in Atf1, and Pcr1 confers DNA-binding site specificity in vivo. Atf1 has a modular organization in which distinct regions affect differentially the osmotic stress response (OSA) and meiotic recombination (HRA, HRR). The HRA and HRR regions are necessary and sufficient to activate and repress recombination, respectively. Moreover, Atf1 defines a family of conserved proteins with discrete sequence motifs in the functional domains (OSA, HRA, HRR, bZIP). These findings reveal the functional organization of Atf1 and Pcr1, and illustrate several mechanisms by which bZIP proteins can regulate multiple, seemingly disparate activities. PMID:18375981

  9. Distinct regions of ATF/CREB proteins Atf1 and Pcr1 control recombination hotspot ade6-M26 and the osmotic stress response.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Davidson, Mari K; Wahls, Wayne P

    2008-05-01

    The Atf1 protein of Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains a bZIP (DNA-binding/protein dimerization) domain characteristic of ATF/CREB proteins, but no other functional domains or clear homologs have been reported. Atf1-containing, bZIP protein dimers bind to CRE-like DNA sites, regulate numerous stress responses, and activate meiotic recombination at hotspots like ade6-M26. We defined systematically the organization of Atf1 and its heterodimer partner Pcr1, which is required for a subset of Atf1-dependent functions. Surprisingly, only the bZIP domain of Pcr1 is required for hotspot activity and tethering of Atf1 to ade6 promotes recombination in the absence of its bZIP domain and the Pcr1 protein. Therefore the recombination-activation domain of Atf1-Pcr1 heterodimer resides exclusively in Atf1, and Pcr1 confers DNA-binding site specificity in vivo. Atf1 has a modular organization in which distinct regions affect differentially the osmotic stress response (OSA) and meiotic recombination (HRA, HRR). The HRA and HRR regions are necessary and sufficient to activate and repress recombination, respectively. Moreover, Atf1 defines a family of conserved proteins with discrete sequence motifs in the functional domains (OSA, HRA, HRR, bZIP). These findings reveal the functional organization of Atf1 and Pcr1, and illustrate several mechanisms by which bZIP proteins can regulate multiple, seemingly disparate activities. PMID:18375981

  10. Individual differences in the effects of cannabinoids on motor activity, dopaminergic activity and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in distinct regions of the brain.

    PubMed

    Polissidis, Alexia; Chouliara, Olga; Galanopoulos, Andreas; Rentesi, Georgia; Dosi, Maria; Hyphantis, Thomas; Marselos, Marios; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Nomikos, George G; Spyraki, Christina; Tzavara, Eleni T; Antoniou, Katerina

    2010-10-01

    This study explored the behavioural, neurochemical and molecular effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) and WIN55,212-2, in two rat phenotypes, distinguished on the basis of their vertical activity upon exposure to a novel environment, as high responders (HR) and low responders (LR). Motor effects were assessed under habituated vs. non-habituated conditions. Dopaminergic activity and DARPP-32 phosphorylation were measured in the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex and amygdala. These cannabinoids influenced motor activity in a biphasic manner, i.e. low doses stimulated, whereas high doses suppressed motor activity. Dopamine (DA) biosynthesis was increased in most brain regions studied following Delta9-THC administration mainly in HR rats, and low-dose WIN55,212-2 increased DA biosynthesis in HR rats only. Both high and low doses of Delta9-THC increased DARPP-32 phosphorylation in most brain regions studied in both phenotypes, an effect that was also observed following high-dose WIN55,212-2 administration only in the striatum. The present results provide further support for a key role of cannabinoids in the regulation of motoric responses and elements of dopaminergic neurotransmission and reveal their complex differential effects in distinct rat phenotypes, as seen with other drugs of abuse.

  11. Digital pattern recognition-based image analysis quantifies immune infiltrates in distinct tissue regions of colorectal cancer and identifies a metastatic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Angell, H K; Gray, N; Womack, C; Pritchard, D I; Wilkinson, R W; Cumberbatch, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in colorectal cancer (CRC) indicate a relationship between tumour immune infiltrates and clinical outcome. We tested the utility of a digital pattern recognition-based image analysis (DPRIA) system to segregate tissue regions and facilitate automated quantification of immune infiltrates in CRC. Methods: Primary CRC with matched hepatic metastatic (n=7), primary CRC alone (n=18) and primary CRC with matched normal (n=40) tissue were analysed immunohistochemically. Genie pattern recognition software was used to segregate distinct tissue regions in combination with image analysis algorithms to quantify immune cells. Results: Immune infiltrates were observed predominately at the invasive margin. Quantitative image analysis revealed a significant increase in the prevalence of Foxp3 (P<0.0001), CD8 (P<0.0001), CD68 (<0.0001) and CD31 (<0.0001) positive cells in the stroma of primary and metastatic CRC, compared with tumour cell mass. A direct comparison between non-metastatic primary CRC (MET−) and primary CRC that resulted in metastasis (MET+) showed an immunosuppressive phenotype, with elevated Foxp3 (P<0.05) and reduced numbers of CD8 (P<0.05) cells in the stroma of MET+ compared with MET− samples. Conclusion: By combining immunohistochemistry with DPRIA, we demonstrate a potential metastatic phenotype in CRC. Our study accelerates wider acceptance and use of automated systems as an adjunct to traditional histopathological techniques. PMID:23963148

  12. Glial fibrillary acidic protein gene promoter is differently modulated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in astrocytes from distinct brain regions.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vivian de Oliveira; Romão, Luciana; Neto, Vivaldo Moura; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara

    2004-04-01

    The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate filament protein of mature astrocytes, is regulated under developmental and pathological conditions. Recently, we have investigated GFAP gene modulation by using a transgenic mouse bearing part of the GFAP gene promoter linked to the beta-galactosidase reporter gene. We demonstrated that cerebral cortex neurons activate the GFAP gene promoter, inducing transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) secretion by astrocytes. Here, we report that cortical neurons or conditioned medium derived from them do not activate the GFAP gene promoter of transgenic astrocytes derived from midbrain and cerebellum suggesting a neuroanatomical regional specificity of this phenomenon. Surprisingly, they do induce synthesis of TGF-beta 1 by these cells. Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays revealed wild distribution of TGF receptor in all subpopulations of astrocytes and expression of TGF-beta 1 in neurons derived from all regions, thus indicating that the unresponsiveness of the cerebellar and midbrain GFAP gene to TGF-beta 1 is not due to a defect in TGF-beta 1 signalling. Together, our data highlight the great complexity of neuron-glia interactions and might suggest a distinct mechanism underlying modulation of the GFAP gene in the heterogeneous population of astrocytes throughout the central nervous system.

  13. A local insult of okadaic acid in wild-type mice induces tau phosphorylation and protein aggregation in anatomically distinct brain regions.

    PubMed

    Baker, Siân; Götz, Jürgen

    2016-03-31

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the distribution and density of neurofibrillary tangles, a histological hallmark comprised predominately of phosphorylated tau protein, follows a distinct pattern through anatomically connected brain regions. Studies in transgenic mice engineered to regionally confine tau expression have suggested spreading of tau within neural networks. Furthermore, injection of protein lysates isolated from brains of transgenic mice or patients with tauopathies, including AD, were shown to behave like seeds, accelerating tau pathology and tangle formation in predisposed mice. However, it remains unclear how the initiation of primary aggregation events occurs and what triggers further dissemination throughout the neural system. To consolidate these findings, we pursued an alternative approach to assess the spreading of endogenous phosphorylated tau. To generate endogenous seeds, 130 nl of 100 μM protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) was injected unilaterally into the amygdala of 8-month-old C57Bl/6 wild-type mice. OA was detected in brain tissue by ELISA, and found to be restricted to the injected hemispheric quadrant, where it remained detectable a week post-injection. OA injection induced tau phosphorylation that was observed not only at the injection site but also in anatomically distinct areas across both hemispheres, including the cortex and hippocampus 24 h post-injection. An increase in insoluble tau was also observed in both hemispheres of injected brains by 7 days. Furthermore, thioflavin-S detected protein aggregation at the injection site and in the cortex of both injected and contralateral hemispheres. OA injection induced no thioflavin-positivity in tau knock-out mice. The data demonstrates that a local OA insult can rapidly initiate changes in protein phosphorylation, solubility and aggregation at anatomically distant sites. This model suggests that tau phosphorylation can be both a primary response to an insult, and a

  14. Canine Distemper Virus Infects Canine Keratinocytes and Immune Cells by Using Overlapping and Distinct Regions Located on One Side of the Attachment Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Langedijk, Johannes P. M.; Janda, Jozef; Origgi, Francesco C.; Örvell, Claes; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The morbilliviruses measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) both rely on two surface glycoproteins, the attachment (H) and fusion proteins, to promote fusion activity for viral cell entry. Growing evidence suggests that morbilliviruses infect multiple cell types by binding to distinct host cell surface receptors. Currently, the only known in vivo receptor used by morbilliviruses is CD150/SLAM, a molecule expressed in certain immune cells. Here we investigated the usage of multiple receptors by the highly virulent and demyelinating CDV strain A75/17. We based our study on the assumption that CDV-H may interact with receptors similar to those for MeV, and we conducted systematic alanine-scanning mutagenesis on CDV-H throughout one side of the β-propeller documented in MeV-H to contain multiple receptor-binding sites. Functional and biochemical assays performed with SLAM-expressing cells and primary canine epithelial keratinocytes identified 11 residues mutation of which selectively abrogated fusion in keratinocytes. Among these, four were identical to amino acids identified in MeV-H as residues contacting a putative receptor expressed in polarized epithelial cells. Strikingly, when mapped on a CDV-H structural model, all residues clustered in or around a recessed groove located on one side of CDV-H. In contrast, reported CDV-H mutants with SLAM-dependent fusion deficiencies were characterized by additional impairments to the promotion of fusion in keratinocytes. Furthermore, upon transfer of residues that selectively impaired fusion induction in keratinocytes into the CDV-H of the vaccine strain, fusion remained largely unaltered. Taken together, our results suggest that a restricted region on one side of CDV-H contains distinct and overlapping sites that control functional interaction with multiple receptors. PMID:21849439

  15. Shared and Distinct Neuroanatomic Regions Critical for Tool-related Action Production and Recognition: Evidence from 131 Left-hemisphere Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Leyla Y; Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2015-12-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe have been characterized as human homologues of the monkey "mirror neuron" system, critical for both action production (AP) and action recognition (AR). However, data from brain lesion patients with selective impairment on only one of these tasks provide evidence of neural and cognitive dissociations. We sought to clarify the relationship between AP and AR, and their critical neural substrates, by directly comparing performance of 131 chronic left-hemisphere stroke patients on both tasks--to our knowledge, the largest lesion-based experimental investigation of action cognition to date. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, we found that lesions to primary motor and somatosensory cortices and inferior parietal lobule were associated with disproportionately impaired performance on AP, whereas lesions to lateral temporo-occipital cortex were associated with a relatively rare pattern of disproportionately impaired performance on AR. In contrast, damage to posterior middle temporal gyrus was associated with impairment on both AP and AR. The distinction between lateral temporo-occipital cortex, critical for recognition, and posterior middle temporal gyrus, important for both tasks, suggests a rough gradient from modality-specific to abstract representations in posterior temporal cortex, the first lesion-based evidence for this phenomenon. Overall, the results of this large patient study help to bring closure to a long-standing debate by showing that tool-related AP and AR critically depend on both common and distinct left hemisphere neural substrates, most of which are external to putative human mirror regions. PMID:26351989

  16. EphB2 tyrosine kinase-dependent forward signaling in migration of neuronal progenitors that populate and form a distinct region of the dentate niche.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Timothy; Henkemeyer, Mark

    2011-08-10

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is one of two areas in the mature brain where stem cells reside to continuously produce new neurons throughout adulthood. While much research has focused on the DG for its roles in adult neurogenesis, little is known regarding how this key region of the brain initially develops to form its distinct architecture. We show here that the murine EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase is critical for embryonic/postnatal development of a specific region of the DG known as the lateral suprapyramidal blade (LSB). Intracellular truncation and point mutants demonstrate that EphB2 catalytic activity is essential for LSB formation. This is consistent with expression of EphB2 in nestin-positive neural progenitor cells that migrate medially from the lateral ventricle dentate notch neuroepithelium to populate the tertiary matrix and form the DG near the midline of the brain. Animals lacking ephrin-B1 recapitulate loss of the receptor and show that this molecule acts as the ligand to stimulate EphB2 forward signaling and direct migration of the neural progenitors into the dorsal compartment of the tertiary matrix and form the LSB. Immunoreactivity against the extracellular matrix protein Reelin in a region directly above the developing LSB is dramatically reduced when EphB2 forward signaling is disrupted. Together, these results indicate ephrin-B1 interacting with EphB2 controls the migration of dentate progenitor cells into the dorsal half of the developing DG, perhaps in part by affecting Reelin expression in a key compartment directly above the LSB.

  17. Distinct Patterns of Association of Variants at 11q23.3 Chromosomal Region with Coronary Artery Disease and Dyslipidemia in the Population of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arramraju Sreenivas; Anuj, Kapadia; Vishnupriya, Satti

    2016-01-01

    In our attempt to comprehensively understand the nature of association of variants at 11q23.3 apolipoprotein gene cluster region, we genotyped a prioritized set of 96 informative SNPs using Fluidigm customized SNP genotyping platform in a sample of 508 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 516 controls. We found 12 SNPs as significantly associated with CAD at P <0.05, albeit only four (rs2849165, rs17440396, rs6589566 and rs633389) of these remained significant after Benjamin Hochberg correction. Of the four, while rs6589566 confers risk to CAD, the other three SNPs reduce risk for the disease. Interaction of variants that belong to regulatory genes BUD13 and ZPR1 with APOA5-APOA4 intergenic variants is also observed to significantly increase the risk towards CAD. Further, ROC analysis of the risk scores of the 12 significant SNPs suggests that our study has substantial power to confer these genetic variants as predictors of risk for CAD, as illustrated by AUC (0.763; 95% CI: 0.729–0.798, p = <0.0001). On the other hand, the protective SNPs of CAD are associated with elevated Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol levels, hence with dyslipidemia, in our sample of controls, which may suggest distinct effects of the variants at 11q23.3 chromosomal region towards CAD and dyslipidemia. It may be necessary to replicate these findings in the independent and ethnically heterogeneous Indian samples in order to establish this as an Indian pattern. However, only functional analysis of the significant variants identified in our study can provide more precise understanding of the mechanisms involved in the contrasting nature of their effects in manifesting dyslipidemia and CAD. PMID:27257688

  18. Differences in volatile profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in two distinct regions of China and their responses to weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Dong; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Volatile compounds are considered important for plants to communicate with each other and interact with their environments. Most wine-producing regions in China feature a continental monsoon climate with hot-wet summers and dry-cold winters, giving grapes markedly different growing environments compared to the Mediterranean or oceanic climates described in previous reports. This study focused on comparing the volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from two regions with distinct climate characteristics: Changli has a warm and semi-humid summer, and Gaotai has a cool-arid summer and a cold winter. The relationship between meteorological metrics and the concentrations of grape volatiles were also examined. In harvested grapes, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were more abundant in the Changli berries, while hexanal, heptanal, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, and (E)-β-damascenone presented higher levels in the Gaotai berries. The fluctuation in the accumulation of volatile compounds observed during berry development was closely correlated with variations in short-term weather (weather in a week), especially rainfall. The concentration of some volatiles, notably aliphatic aldehydes, was significantly related to diurnal temperature differences. The variability during berry development of concentrations for compounds such as C6 volatile compounds, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and (E)-β-damascenone strongly depended upon weather conditions. This work expands our knowledge about the influence of continental monsoon climates on volatile compounds in developing grape berries. It will also improve the comprehension of the plant response to their surrounding environments through the accumulation of volatiles. The results will help growers to alter viticultural practices according to local conditions to improve the aromatic quality of grapes. PMID:25769137

  19. Differences in volatile profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in two distinct regions of China and their responses to weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Dong; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Volatile compounds are considered important for plants to communicate with each other and interact with their environments. Most wine-producing regions in China feature a continental monsoon climate with hot-wet summers and dry-cold winters, giving grapes markedly different growing environments compared to the Mediterranean or oceanic climates described in previous reports. This study focused on comparing the volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from two regions with distinct climate characteristics: Changli has a warm and semi-humid summer, and Gaotai has a cool-arid summer and a cold winter. The relationship between meteorological metrics and the concentrations of grape volatiles were also examined. In harvested grapes, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were more abundant in the Changli berries, while hexanal, heptanal, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, and (E)-β-damascenone presented higher levels in the Gaotai berries. The fluctuation in the accumulation of volatile compounds observed during berry development was closely correlated with variations in short-term weather (weather in a week), especially rainfall. The concentration of some volatiles, notably aliphatic aldehydes, was significantly related to diurnal temperature differences. The variability during berry development of concentrations for compounds such as C6 volatile compounds, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and (E)-β-damascenone strongly depended upon weather conditions. This work expands our knowledge about the influence of continental monsoon climates on volatile compounds in developing grape berries. It will also improve the comprehension of the plant response to their surrounding environments through the accumulation of volatiles. The results will help growers to alter viticultural practices according to local conditions to improve the aromatic quality of grapes.

  20. Targeted modulation of cell differentiation in distinct regions of the gastrointestinal tract via oral administration of differently PEG-PEI functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Diti; Prabhakar, Neeraj; Mamaeva, Veronika; Karaman, Didem Şen; Lähdeniemi, Iris AK; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of drugs is required to efficiently treat intestinal diseases such as colon cancer and inflammation. Nanoparticles could overcome challenges in oral administration caused by drug degradation at low pH and poor permeability through mucus layers, and offer targeted delivery to diseased cells in order to avoid adverse effects. Here, we demonstrate that functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) by polymeric surface grafts facilitates transport through the mucosal barrier and enhances cellular internalization. MSNs functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), and the targeting ligand folic acid in different combinations are internalized by epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo after oral gavage. Functionalized MSNs loaded with γ-secretase inhibitors of the Notch pathway, a key regulator of intestinal progenitor cells, colon cancer, and inflammation, demonstrated enhanced intestinal goblet cell differentiation as compared to free drug. Drug-loaded MSNs thus remained intact in vivo, further confirmed by exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in vitro. Drug targeting and efficacy in different parts of the intestine could be tuned by MSN surface modifications, with PEI coating exhibiting higher affinity for the small intestine and PEI–PEG coating for the colon. The data highlight the potential of nanomedicines for targeted delivery to distinct regions of the tissue for strict therapeutic control. PMID:26855569

  1. Two genetically distinct lineages of the sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japanese islands: comparison of mitochondrial D-loop region sequences.

    PubMed

    Nagata, J; Masuda, R; Tamate, H B; Hamasaki, S i; Ochiai, K; Asada, M; Tatsuzawa, S; Suda, K; Tado, H; Yoshida, M C

    1999-12-01

    To investigate genetic diversity among populations of the sika deer, Cervus nippon, nucleotide sequences (705-824 bases) of the mitochondrial D-loop regions were determined in animals from 13 localities in the Japanese islands. Phylogenetic trees constructed by the sequences indicated that the Japanese sika deer is separated into two distinct lineages: the northern Japan group (the Hokkaido island and most of the Honshu mainland) and the southern Japan group (a part of the southern Honshu mainland, the Kyushu island, and small islands around the Kyushu island). All sika deer examined in this study shared four to seven units of repetitive sequences (37 to 40 bases each) within the D-loop sequences. The number of tandem repeats was different among the populations, and it was specific to each population. Six or seven repeats occurred in populations of the northern Japan group, while four or five repeats occurred in populations of the southern Japan group. Each repeat unit included several nucleotide substitutions, compared with others, and 26 types were identified from 31 animals. Sequences of the first, second, and third units in arrays were clearly different between the northern and the southern groups. Based on these D-loop data, colonization and separation of the sika deer populations in the Japanese islands were estimated to have occurred less than 0.5 million years before present. Our results provide an invaluable insight into better understanding the evolutionary history, phylogeny, taxonomy, and population genetics of the sika deer. PMID:10620409

  2. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  3. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228. PMID:25709309

  4. Simple fixed functional space maintainer.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228.

  5. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of Calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus with multiple large non-coding regions and reshuffled gene order: Useful molecular markers for phylogenetic and population studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Copepods are highly diverse and abundant, resulting in extensive ecological radiation in marine ecosystems. Calanus sinicus dominates continental shelf waters in the northwest Pacific Ocean and plays an important role in the local ecosystem by linking primary production to higher trophic levels. A lack of effective molecular markers has hindered phylogenetic and population genetic studies concerning copepods. As they are genome-level informative, mitochondrial DNA sequences can be used as markers for population genetic studies and phylogenetic studies. Results The mitochondrial genome of C. sinicus is distinct from other arthropods owing to the concurrence of multiple non-coding regions and a reshuffled gene arrangement. Further particularities in the mitogenome of C. sinicus include low A + T-content, symmetrical nucleotide composition between strands, abbreviated stop codons for several PCGs and extended lengths of the genes atp6 and atp8 relative to other copepods. The monophyletic Copepoda should be placed within the Vericrustacea. The close affinity between Cyclopoida and Poecilostomatoida suggests reassigning the latter as subordinate to the former. Monophyly of Maxillopoda is rejected. Within the alignment of 11 C. sinicus mitogenomes, there are 397 variable sites harbouring three 'hotspot' variable sites and three microsatellite loci. Conclusion The occurrence of the circular subgenomic fragment during laboratory assays suggests that special caution should be taken when sequencing mitogenomes using long PCR. Such a phenomenon may provide additional evidence of mitochondrial DNA recombination, which appears to have been a prerequisite for shaping the present mitochondrial profile of C. sinicus during its evolution. The lack of synapomorphic gene arrangements among copepods has cast doubt on the utility of gene order as a useful molecular marker for deep phylogenetic analysis. However, mitochondrial genomic sequences have been valuable markers for

  6. Recruitment of CBP/p300, TATA-binding protein, and S8 to distinct regions at the N terminus of adenovirus E1A.

    PubMed

    Rasti, Mozhgan; Grand, Roger J A; Mymryk, Joe S; Gallimore, Phillip H; Turnell, Andrew S

    2005-05-01

    The N-terminal region of the adenovirus (Ad) 12S E1A gene product targets several cellular proteins that are essential for the induction of S phase, cellular immortalization, cellular transformation, transcriptional repression, and transcriptional activation. The precise binding sites for these proteins, however, remain to be resolved. We therefore undertook an extensive site-directed mutagenesis approach to generate specific point mutants and to precisely map the binding sites for CBP, p300, TATA-binding protein (TBP), S4, S8, hGcn5, P/CAF, and Ran within the first 30 amino acids of the Ad5 12S E1A protein. We determined that although common residues within the N-terminal region can form partial binding sites for these proteins, point mutants were also generated that could discriminate between binding sites. These data indicate that AdE1A can target each of these proteins individually through distinct binding sites. It was evident, however, that the mutation of specific hydrophobic residues typically had the greatest effect upon AdE1A's ability to bind individual partners. Indeed, the mutation of L at positions 19 and 20 eliminated the ability of AdE1A to interact with any of the N-terminal binding proteins studied here. Interestingly, although TBP and S8 or CBP/p300 can exist as functional complexes, RNA interference revealed that the recruitment of either TBP, S8, or CBP/p300 to AdE1A was not dependent upon the expression of the other proteins. These data further indicate that AdE1A can target individual partner proteins in vivo and that it does not necessarily recruit these proteins indirectly as components of larger macromolecular complexes. Finally, we took advantage of the fine-mapping data to ascertain which proteins were targeted during the transformation process. Consistent with previous studies, CBP/p300 was found to be targeted by AdE1A during this process, although our data suggest that binding to other N-terminal proteins is also important for

  7. To explore and develop a model to maintain and build upon a dental clinic open for all in developing regions, with a primary focus on India

    PubMed Central

    Sugandhi, Ayushi; Mangal, Brijesh; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Sethia, Bhavna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study a service model that enables a clinic to be open to all members of the community, irrespective of their ability to pay. METHODS: Sampling methodology was used to gather information in two phases, with the city of Indore as the target region. In the first phase, dental professionals were surveyed to gather the cost of the facility, land and equipment and the cost of sustaining the practice. In the second phase, the residents of Indore were surveyed to collect information regarding their oral health problems and their expenditure for the same. Assessing the current situation, the questions to answer are related to the issues of dental health care access problems and the resources required, human and financial. RESULTS: (1) People younger than 20 years of age form a large proportion (43%) of the population of the city and also a large proportion (54%) of people who visit dental clinics; (2) Dental caries are commonly found in the population younger than 20 years of age and mobile teeth in those older than 50 years of age; (3) Dental caries and mobile teeth are almost equally found in people of the age group 20-50 years old; (4) A significantly large proportion of those older than 50 years old have had all their teeth extracted; and (5) A significantly large proportion of the 20-30 years of age group has had no teeth extracted. CONCLUSION: The model which we propose works well for low income patients; however, it places a lot of extra burden on the higher income group. A lot of effort can be put into generating revenue from other sources, including events and donations. PMID:25232547

  8. A Search for Institutional Distinctiveness. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The essays in this collection argue that community colleges have much to gain by seeking out and maintaining positive recognition of the features that distinguish them from other colleges in the region and state. In addition, the sourcebook contains articles discussing the process of conducting a search for institutional distinctiveness and ways…

  9. Sequence analysis of 96 genomic regions identifies distinct evolutionary lineages within CC156, the largest Streptococcus pneumoniae clonal complex in the MLST database.

    PubMed

    Moschioni, Monica; Lo Sapio, Morena; Crisafulli, Giovanni; Torricelli, Giulia; Guidotti, Silvia; Muzzi, Alessandro; Barocchi, Michèle A; Donati, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is based on the sequence of seven housekeeping gene fragments. The analysis of MLST allelic profiles by eBURST allows the grouping of genetically related strains into Clonal Complexes (CCs) including those genotypes with a common descent from a predicted ancestor. However, the increasing use of MLST to characterize S. pneumoniae strains has led to the identification of a large number of new Sequence Types (STs) causing the merger of formerly distinct lineages into larger CCs. An example of this is the CC156, displaying a high level of complexity and including strains with allelic profiles differing in all seven of the MLST loci, capsular type and the presence of the Pilus Islet-1 (PI-1). Detailed analysis of the CC156 indicates that the identification of new STs, such as ST4945, induced the merging of formerly distinct clonal complexes. In order to discriminate the strain diversity within CC156, a recently developed typing schema, 96-MLST, was used to analyse 66 strains representative of 41 different STs. Analysis of allelic profiles by hierarchical clustering and a minimum spanning tree identified ten genetically distinct evolutionary lineages. Similar results were obtained by phylogenetic analysis on the concatenated sequences with different methods. The identified lineages are homogenous in capsular type and PI-1 presence. ST4945 strains were unequivocally assigned to one of the lineages. In conclusion, the identification of new STs through an exhaustive analysis of pneumococcal strains from various laboratories has highlighted that potentially unrelated subgroups can be grouped into a single CC by eBURST. The analysis of additional loci, such as those included in the 96-MLST schema, will be necessary to accurately discriminate the clonal evolution of the pneumococcal population. PMID:23593373

  10. Maintaining Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... center but can also be done in nursing facilities, hospitals, or at home. Book a PFF Ambassador for your event. Call 844.TalkPFF > Life with PF About PF Treatment Options Clinical Trials Maintaining Your Health Find Medical Care Support Groups PFF ...

  11. Distinct Roles of the Repeat-Containing Regions and Effector Domains of the Vibrio vulnificus Multifunctional-Autoprocessing Repeats-in-Toxin (MARTX) Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung Sik; Gavin, Hannah E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio vulnificus is a seafood-borne pathogen that destroys the intestinal epithelium, leading to rapid bacterial dissemination and death. The most important virulence factor is the multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin comprised of effector domains in the center region flanked by long repeat-containing regions which are well conserved among MARTX toxins and predicted to translocate effector domains. Here, we examined the role of the repeat-containing regions using a modified V. vulnificus MARTX (MARTXVv) toxin generated by replacing all the internal effector domains with β-lactamase (Bla). Bla activity was detected in secretions from the bacterium and also in the cytosol of intoxicated epithelial cells. The modified MARTXVv toxin without effector domains retained its necrotic activity but lost its cell-rounding activity. Further, deletion of the carboxyl-terminal repeat-containing region blocked toxin secretion from the bacterium. Deletion of the amino-terminal repeat-containing region had no effect on secretion but completely abolished translocation and necrosis. Neither secretion nor translocation was affected by enzymatically inactivating the cysteine protease domain of the toxin. These data demonstrate that the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal repeat-containing regions of the MARTXVv toxin are necessary and sufficient for the delivery of effector domains and epithelial cell lysis in vitro but that effector domains are required for other cytopathic functions. Furthermore, Ca2+-dependent secretion of the modified MARTXVv toxin suggests that nonclassical RTX-like repeats found in the carboxyl-terminal repeat-containing region are functionally similar to classical RTX repeats found in other RTX proteins. PMID:25827415

  12. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  13. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  14. Acoustic Levitator Maintains Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Transducer loading characteristics allow resonance tracked at high temperature. Acoustic-levitation chamber length automatically adjusted to maintain resonance at constant acoustic frequency as temperature changes. Developed for containerless processing of materials at high temperatures, system does not rely on microphones as resonance sensors, since microphones are difficult to fabricate for use at temperatures above 500 degrees C. Instead, system uses acoustic transducer itself as sensor.

  15. Direct bonded space maintainers.

    PubMed

    Santos, V L; Almeida, M A; Mello, H S; Keith, O

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically a bonded space maintainer, which would reduce chair-side time and cost. Sixty appliances were fabricated from 0.7 mm stainless steel round wire and bonded using light-cured composite to the two teeth adjacent to the site of extraction of a posterior primary tooth. Twenty males and sixteen females (age range 5-9-years-old) were selected from the Pedodontic clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro. The sixty space maintainers were divided into two groups according to the site in which they were placed: a) absent first primary molar and b) absent second primary molar. Impressions and study models were obtained prior to and 6 months after bonding the appliances. During this period only 8.3% of failures were observed, most of them from occlusal or facial trauma. Student t-test did not show statistically significant alterations in the sizes of the maintained spaces during the trial period.

  16. Identification of distinct nisin leader peptide regions that determine interactions with the modification enzymes NisB and NisC.

    PubMed

    Khusainov, Rustem; Moll, Gert N; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2013-01-01

    Nisin is the most prominent and applied bacteriocin that serves as a model for class I lantibiotics. The nisin leader peptide importantly determines interactions between precursor nisin and its modification enzymes NisB and NisC that mature nisin posttranslationally. NisB dehydrates serines and threonines, while NisC catalyzes the subsequent coupling of the formed dehydroamino acids to form lanthionines. Currently, little is known about how the nisin leader interacts with NisB and even less is known about its interactions with NisC. To investigate the nisin leader peptide requirements for functional interaction with the modification enzymes NisB and NisC, we systematically replaced six regions, of 2-4 amino acids each, with all-alanine regions. By performing NisB and NisC co-purification studies with these mutant leader peptides, we demonstrate that the nisin leader regions STKD(-22-19), FNLD(-18-15) and PR(-2-1) importantly contribute to the interactions of precursor nisin with both NisB and NisC, whereas the nisin leader region LVSV(-14-11) additionally contributes to the interaction of precursor nisin with NisC.

  17. Mutational analysis of the Verticillium dahliae protein elicitor PevD1 identifies distinctive regions responsible for hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxian; Zeng, Hongmei; Liu, Zhipeng; Yang, Xiufen; Guo, Lihua; Qiu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study, PevD1 was characterized as a novel protein elicitor produced by Verticillium dahliae inducing hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tobacco plants; however, the detailed mechanisms of PevD1's elicitor activity remain unclear. In this study, five mutant fragments of PevD1 were generated by polymerase chain reaction-based mutagenesis and the truncated proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were used to test their elicitor activities. Biological activity analysis showed that the N-terminal and C-terminal of PevD1 had distinct influence on HR and SAR elicitation. Fragment PevD1ΔN98, which spans the C-terminal 57 amino acids of PevD1, was critical for the induction of HR in tobacco plants. In contrast, fragment PevD1ΔC57, the N-terminal of 98 amino acids of PevD1, retained the ability to induce SAR against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) but not induction of HR, suggesting that the induction of HR is not essential for SAR mediated by PevD1. Our results indicated that fragment PevD1ΔC57 could be a candidate peptide for plant protection against pathogens without causing negative effects.

  18. Cloning and characterisation of mtDBP, a DNA-binding protein which binds two distinct regions of sea urchin mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Loguercio Polosa, P; Roberti, M; Musicco, C; Gadaleta, M N; Quagliariello, E; Cantatore, P

    1999-04-15

    The cDNA for the sea urchin mitochondrial D-loop-binding protein (mtDBP), a 40 kDa protein which binds two homologous regions of mitochondrial DNA (the D-loop region and the boundary between the oppositely transcribed ND5 and ND6 genes), has been cloned. Four different 3'-untranslated regions have been detected that are related to each other in pairs and do not contain the canonical polyadenylation signal. The in vitro synthesised mature protein (348 amino acids), deprived of the putative signal sequence, binds specifically to its DNA target sequence and produces a DNase I footprint identical to that given by the natural protein. mtDBP contains two leucine zippers, one of which is bipartite, and two small N- and C-terminal basic domains. A deletion mutation analysis of the recombinant protein has shown that the N-terminal region and the two leucine zippers are necessary for the binding. Furthermore, evidence was provided that mtDBP binds DNA as a monomer. This rules out a dimerization role for the leucine zippers and rather suggests that intramolecular interactions between leucine zippers take place. A database search has revealed as the most significative homology a match with the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF), a protein that also binds DNA as a monomer and contains three leucine zippers forming intramolecular interactions. These similarities, and the observation that mtDBP-binding sites contain the 3'-ends of mtRNAs coded by opposite strands and the 3'-end of the D-loop structure, point to a dual function of the protein in modulating sea urchin mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication.

  19. Silencing of neurotropic flavivirus replication in the central nervous system by combining multiple microRNA target insertions in two distinct viral genome regions

    PubMed Central

    Teterina, Natalya L.; Liu, Guangping; Maximova, Olga A.; Pletnev, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, microRNA-targeting has become an effective strategy for selective control of tissue-tropism and pathogenesis of both DNA and RNA viruses. Here, using a neurotropic flavivirus as a model, we demonstrate that simultaneous miRNA targeting of the viral genome in the open reading frame and 3′-noncoding regions for brain-expressed miRNAs had an additive effect and produced a more potent attenuation of the virus compared to separate targeting of those regions. Multiple miRNA co-targeting of these two distantly located regions completely abolished the virus neurotropism as no viral replication was detected in the developing brain of neonatal mice. Furthermore, no viral antigens were detected in neurons, and neuronal integrity in the brain of mice was well preserved. This miRNA co-targeting approach can be adapted for other viruses in order to minimize their replication in a cell- or tissue-type specific manner, but most importantly, to prevent virus escape from miRNA-mediated silencing. PMID:24889244

  20. Identification of sequence polymorphism in the D-Loop region of mitochondrial DNA as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma with distinct etiology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is frequently preceded by hepatitis virus infection or alcohol abuse. Genetic backgrounds may increase susceptibility to HCC from these exposures. Methods Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of peripheral blood, tumor, and/or adjacent non-tumor tissue from 49 hepatitis B virus-related and 11 alcohol-related HCC patients, and from 38 controls without HCC were examined for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations in the D-Loop region. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the D-loop region of mt DNA were examined in HCC patients. Individual SNPs, namely the 16266C/T, 16293A/G, 16299A/G, 16303G/A, 242C/T, 368A/G, and 462C/T minor alleles, were associated with increased risk for alcohol- HCC, and the 523A/del was associated with increased risks of both HCC types. The mitochondrial haplotypes under the M haplogroup with a defining 489C polymorphism were detected in 27 (55.1%) of HBV-HCCand 8 (72.7%) of alcohol- HCC patients, and in 15 (39.5%) of controls. Frequencies of the 489T/152T, 489T/523A, and 489T/525C haplotypes were significantly reduced in HBV-HCC patients compared with controls. In contrast, the haplotypes of 489C with 152T, 249A, 309C, 523Del, or 525Del associated significantly with increase of alcohol-HCC risk. Mutations in the D-Loop region were detected in 5 adjacent non-tumor tissues and increased in cancer stage (21 of 49 HBV-HCC and 4 of 11 alcohol- HCC, p < 0.002). Conclusions In sum, mitochondrial haplotypes may differentially predispose patients to HBV-HCC and alcohol-HCC. Mutations of the mitochondrial D-Loop sequence may relate to HCC development. PMID:20849651

  1. A distinct immunogenic region of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 is naturally processed and presented by human islet cells to cytotoxic CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Knight, R R; Dolton, G; Kronenberg-Versteeg, D; Eichmann, M; Zhao, M; Huang, G C; Beck, K; Cole, D K; Sewell, A K; Skowera, A; Peakman, M

    2015-01-01

    CD8 T cells specific for islet autoantigens are major effectors of β cell damage in type 1 diabetes, and measurement of their number and functional characteristics in blood represent potentially important disease biomarkers. CD8 T cell reactivity against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) in HLA-A*0201 subjects has been reported to focus on an immunogenic region 114-123 (VMNILLQYVV), with studies demonstrating both 114-123 and 114-122 epitopes being targeted. However, the fine specificity of this response is unclear and the key question as to which epitope(s) β cells naturally process and present and, therefore, the pathogenic potential of CD8 T cells with different specificities within this region has not been addressed. We generated human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201-restricted CD8 T cell clones recognizing either 114-122 alone or both 114-122 and 114-123. Both clone types show potent and comparable effector functions (cytokine and chemokine secretion) and killing of indicator target cells externally pulsed with cognate peptide. However, only clones recognizing 114-123 kill target cells transfected with HLA-A*0201 and GAD2 and HLA-A*0201(+) human islet cells. We conclude that the endogenous pathway of antigen processing by HLA-A*0201-expressing cells generates GAD65114-123 as the predominant epitope in this region. These studies highlight the importance of understanding β cell epitope presentation in the design of immune monitoring for potentially pathogenic CD8 T cells.

  2. Reagan: Maintain Antarctic program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan has decided that the United States should maintain an ‘active and influential presence’ in Antarctica to support the nation's interests. Following a review of a study by the Antarctica Policy Group, Reagan issued a memorandum, dated February 5, to the heads of 14 government agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Office of Management and Budget.The U.S. presence in Antarctica ‘shall include the conduct of scientific activities in major disciplines; year-round occupation of the South Pole and two coastal stations; and availability of related necessary logistics support,’ wrote the President. In addition, NSF should continue to budget for the entire U.S. program in Antarctica. Short-term programs by other agencies require the recommendation of the Antarctica Policy Group and should be coordinated within the framework of NSF logistics support.

  3. Identification of geographic clustering and regions spared by the Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) in Texas using two distinct cancer registries

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Ivan V.; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Rahme, Elham; Habel, Youssef; Risser, David R.; Gangar, Pamela; Jennings, Michelle A.; Pehr, Kevin; Prieto, Victor G.; Sasseville, Denis; Duvic, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (Mycosis Fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sézary Syndrome) are rare malignancies. Reports of occurrence of Mycosis Fungoides in married couples and families raise the possibility of an environmental trigger for this cancer. While it was suggested that CTLC arises from inappropriate T cell stimulation, currently no preventable trigger has been identified. Methods We analyzed by region, zip code, age, sex and ethnicity the demographic data of 1047 patients from Texas, who were seen in a CTCL clinic at the MD Anderson Cancer Center during 2000-2012 (the MDACC database) and 1990 patients that were recorded in the population-based Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) between 1996-2010. Subsequently data from both databases was cross analyzed and compared. Results Our findings, based on the MDACC database, document geographic clustering of patients in three communities within the Houston metropolitan area, where CTCL incidence rates were 5-20 times higher than the expected population rate. Analysis of the TCR database defined the CTCL population rate for the state to be 5.8 [95% CI 5.5, 6.0] cases per million individuals per year, confirmed the observations from the MDACC database and further highlighted additional areas of geographic clustering and regions spared by CTCL in Texas. Conclusions Our study documents geographic clustering of CTCL cases in Texas and argues for the existence of yet unknown external causes/triggers for this rare malignancy. PMID:25728286

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of sandwiched ZnO@Ag@Cu2O nanorod films: the distinct role of Ag NPs in the visible light and UV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shoutian; Zhao, Guoliang; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Benyang; Wang, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Sandwiched ZnO@Ag@Cu2O nanorod films were synthesized by successive electrodeposition, magnetron sputtering and the second electrodeposition. The as-synthesized composites were characterized by x-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy, low- and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Their photocatalytic performance was estimated by the degradation of a methyl orange solution under UV or visible-light irradiation, respectively. In the visible region, due to localized surface plasmon resonance absorption of Ag NPs, ZnO@Ag@Cu2O showed a significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance. The enhancement factor of Ag NPs on the catalytic performance of ZnO@Ag@Cu2O was estimated as a function of the Cu2O deposition time, and the corresponding enhancement mechanism was also evaluated by the monochromatic photocatalytic experiment and discrete dipole approximation simulation. In the UV region, due to the formation of a Schottky junction (e.g. Ag/ZnO, Ag/Cu2O), a limited enhanced photocatalytic performance was also realized for ZnO@Ag@Cu2O photocatalysts.

  5. Distinct Roles for the N- and C-terminal Regions of M-Sec in Plasma Membrane Deformation during Tunneling Nanotube Formation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Masami; Yamakami-Kimura, Megumi; Sato, Yusuke; Yamagata, Atsushi; Kobashigawa, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Amada, Takako; Hase, Koji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Fukai, Shuya

    2016-01-01

    The tunneling nanotube (TNT) is a structure used for intercellular communication, and is a thin membrane protrusion mediating transport of various signaling molecules and cellular components. M-Sec has potent membrane deformation ability and induces TNT formation in cooperation with the Ral/exocyst complex. Here, we show that the N-terminal polybasic region of M-Sec directly binds phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate for its localization to the plasma membrane during the initial stage of TNT formation. We further report a crystal structure of M-Sec, which consists of helix bundles arranged in a straight rod-like shape, similar to the membrane tethering complex subunits. A positively charged surface in the C-terminal domains is required for M-Sec interaction with active RalA to extend the plasma membrane protrusions. Our results suggest that the membrane-associated M-Sec recruits active RalA, which directs the exocyst complex to form TNTs.

  6. High ploidy diversity and distinct patterns of cytotype distribution in a widespread species of Oxalis in the Greater Cape Floristic Region

    PubMed Central

    Krejčíková, Jana; Sudová, Radka; Lučanová, Magdalena; Trávníček, Pavel; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Kolano, Bożena; Oberlander, Kenneth; Dreyer, Leanne L.; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome duplication is widely acknowledged as a major force in the evolution of angiosperms, although the incidence of polyploidy in different floras may differ dramatically. The Greater Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and is considered depauperate in polyploids. To test this assumption, ploidy variation was assessed in a widespread member of the largest geophytic genus in the Cape flora: Oxalis obtusa. Methods DNA flow cytometry complemented by confirmatory chromosome counts was used to determine ploidy levels in 355 populations of O. obtusa (1014 individuals) across its entire distribution range. Ecological differentiation among cytotypes was tested by comparing sets of vegetation and climatic variables extracted for each locality. Key Results Three majority (2x, 4x, 6x) and three minority (3x, 5x, 8x) cytotypes were detected in situ, in addition to a heptaploid individual originating from a botanical garden. While single-cytotype populations predominate, 12 mixed-ploidy populations were also found. The overall pattern of ploidy level distribution is quite complex, but some ecological segregation was observed. Hexaploids are the most common cytotype and prevail in the Fynbos biome. In contrast, tetraploids dominate in the Succulent Karoo biome. Precipitation parameters were identified as the most important climatic variables associated with cytotype distribution. Conclusions Although it would be premature to make generalizations regarding the role of genome duplication in the genesis of hyperdiversity of the Cape flora, the substantial and unexpected ploidy diversity in Oxalis obtusa is unparalleled in comparison with any other cytologically known native Cape plant species. The results suggest that ploidy variation in the Greater Cape Floristic Region may be much greater than currently assumed, which, given the documented role of polyploidy in speciation, has direct implications for radiation

  7. Clinical aspects of envenomation caused by Tityus obscurus (Gervais, 1843) in two distinct regions of Pará state, Brazilian Amazon basin: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, whose most dangerous cases are attributable to the genus Tityus. This study was designed to compare the clinical and demographic features of envenomations by Tityus obscurus in two areas of the state of Pará located in the Amazon basin. Were compared demographic findings, local and systemic signs and symptoms of human envenomations caused by T. obscurus that occurred in western and eastern areas of the state. Results Forty-eight patients with confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus were evaluated from January 2008 to July 2011. Most of them came from the eastern region, where male and female patients were present in similar numbers, while males predominated in the west. Median age groups were also similar in both areas. Most scorpion stings took place during the day and occurred significantly more frequently on the upper limbs. The time between the sting and admission to the health center was less than three hours in both areas. Most eastern patients had local manifestations while in the west, systemic manifestations predominated. Local symptoms were similar in both areas, but systemic signs and symptoms were more common in the west. Symptoms frequently observed at the sting site were local and radiating pain, paresthesia, edema, erythema, sweating, piloerection and burning. The systemic manifestations were significantly higher in patients from the west. Futhermore, neurological symptoms such as general paresthesia, ataxia, dysarthria, myoclonus, dysmetria, and electric shock-like sensations throughout the body were reported only by patients from the west. Conclusion The present study shows that two regions of Para state differ in the clinical manifestations and severity of confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus which suggests a toxicity variation resulting from the diversity of T. obscurus venom in different areas of the Brazilian Amazon basin, and that T. serrulatus antivenom can be

  8. Introduction of a novel 18S rDNA gene arrangement along with distinct ITS region in the saline water microalga Dunaliella

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of 18S rDNA gene sequences is a very promising method for identification and classification of living organisms. Molecular identification and discrimination of different Dunaliella species were carried out based on the size of 18S rDNA gene and, number and position of introns in the gene. Three types of 18S rDNA structure have already been reported: the gene with a size of ~1770 bp lacking any intron, with a size of ~2170 bp consisting one intron near 5' terminus, and with a size of ~2570 bp harbouring two introns near 5' and 3' termini. Hereby, we report a new 18S rDNA gene arrangement in terms of intron localization and nucleotide sequence in a Dunaliella isolated from Iranian salt lakes (ABRIINW-M1/2). PCR amplification with genus-specific primers resulted in production of a ~2170 bp DNA band, which is similar to that of D. salina 18S rDNA gene containing only one intron near 5' terminus. Whilst, sequence composition of the gene revealed the lack of any intron near 5' terminus in our isolate. Furthermore, another alteration was observed due to the presence of a 440 bp DNA fragment near 3' terminus. Accordingly, 18S rDNA gene of the isolate is clearly different from those of D. salina and any other Dunaliella species reported so far. Moreover, analysis of ITS region sequence showed the diversity of this region compared to the previously reported species. 18S rDNA and ITS sequences of our isolate were submitted with accesion numbers of EU678868 and EU927373 in NCBI database, respectively. The optimum growth rate of this isolate occured at the salinity level of 1 M NaCl. The maximum carotenoid content under stress condition of intense light (400 μmol photon m-2 s-1), high salinity (4 M NaCl) and deficiency of nitrate and phosphate nutritions reached to 240 ng/cell after 15 days. PMID:20377865

  9. Effects of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A in diencephalic regions of the teleost fish Coris julis occur preferentially via distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Alo', Raffaella; Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Madeo, Maria; Giusi, Giuseppina; Carelli, Antonio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2005-04-15

    The xenoestrogen bisphenol A, a contaminant used in the manufacturing of polymers for many consumer products, has been shown to mimic estrogenic actions. This xenoestrogen regulates secretion and expression of pituitary lactotrophs plus morphological and structural features of estrogen target tissues in rodents. Recently, ecological hazards produced by bisphenol A have drawn interests towards the effects of this environmental chemical on neurobiological functions of aquatic vertebrates of which little is known. In this study, the effects of bisphenol A on the distribution of the biologically more active somatostatin receptor subtypes in diencephalic regions of the teleost fish Coris julis were assessed using nonpeptide agonists (L-779, 976 and L-817, 818) that are highly selective for subtype(2) and subtype(5), respectively. Bisphenol A proved to be responsible for highly significant increased binding levels of subtype(2) in hypothalamic areas, while markedly decreased levels of subtype(5) were found in these diencephalic areas, as well as in the medial preglomerular nucleus. The extensive distribution of somatostatin receptor subtype(2) and subtype(5) in the teleost diencephalic areas suggests that, like in mammals, this receptor system may not only be involved in enhanced hypophysiotropic neurohormonal functions but might also promote neuroplasticity events.

  10. Distinct Roles for the N- and C-terminal Regions of M-Sec in Plasma Membrane Deformation during Tunneling Nanotube Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Masami; Yamakami-Kimura, Megumi; Sato, Yusuke; Yamagata, Atsushi; Kobashigawa, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Amada, Takako; Hase, Koji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Fukai, Shuya

    2016-01-01

    The tunneling nanotube (TNT) is a structure used for intercellular communication, and is a thin membrane protrusion mediating transport of various signaling molecules and cellular components. M-Sec has potent membrane deformation ability and induces TNT formation in cooperation with the Ral/exocyst complex. Here, we show that the N-terminal polybasic region of M-Sec directly binds phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate for its localization to the plasma membrane during the initial stage of TNT formation. We further report a crystal structure of M-Sec, which consists of helix bundles arranged in a straight rod-like shape, similar to the membrane tethering complex subunits. A positively charged surface in the C-terminal domains is required for M-Sec interaction with active RalA to extend the plasma membrane protrusions. Our results suggest that the membrane-associated M-Sec recruits active RalA, which directs the exocyst complex to form TNTs. PMID:27629377

  11. Distinct Roles for the N- and C-terminal Regions of M-Sec in Plasma Membrane Deformation during Tunneling Nanotube Formation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Masami; Yamakami-Kimura, Megumi; Sato, Yusuke; Yamagata, Atsushi; Kobashigawa, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Amada, Takako; Hase, Koji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Fukai, Shuya

    2016-01-01

    The tunneling nanotube (TNT) is a structure used for intercellular communication, and is a thin membrane protrusion mediating transport of various signaling molecules and cellular components. M-Sec has potent membrane deformation ability and induces TNT formation in cooperation with the Ral/exocyst complex. Here, we show that the N-terminal polybasic region of M-Sec directly binds phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate for its localization to the plasma membrane during the initial stage of TNT formation. We further report a crystal structure of M-Sec, which consists of helix bundles arranged in a straight rod-like shape, similar to the membrane tethering complex subunits. A positively charged surface in the C-terminal domains is required for M-Sec interaction with active RalA to extend the plasma membrane protrusions. Our results suggest that the membrane-associated M-Sec recruits active RalA, which directs the exocyst complex to form TNTs. PMID:27629377

  12. How the human brain goes virtual: distinct cortical regions of the person-processing network are involved in self-identification with virtual agents.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Shanti; van Schie, Hein T; de Lange, Floris P; Thompson, Evan; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2012-07-01

    Millions of people worldwide engage in online role-playing with their avatar, a virtual agent that represents the self. Previous behavioral studies have indicated that many gamers identify more strongly with their avatar than with their biological self. Through their avatar, gamers develop social networks and learn new social-cognitive skills. The cognitive neurosciences have yet to identify the neural processes that underlie self-identification with these virtual agents. We applied functional neuroimaging to 22 long-term online gamers and 21 nongaming controls, while they rated personality traits of self, avatar, and familiar others. Strikingly, neuroimaging data revealed greater avatar-referential cortical activity in the left inferior parietal lobe, a region associated with self-identification from a third-person perspective. The magnitude of this brain activity correlated positively with the propensity to incorporate external body enhancements into one's bodily identity. Avatar-referencing furthermore recruited greater activity in the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus, suggesting relatively greater emotional self-involvement with one's avatar. Post-scanning behavioral data revealed superior recognition memory for avatar relative to others. Interestingly, memory for avatar positively covaried with play duration. These findings significantly advance our knowledge about the brain's plasticity to self-identify with virtual agents and the human cognitive-affective potential to live and learn in virtual worlds.

  13. Phenotypic characterization of two naturally occurring human Cytomegalovirus sequence polymorphisms located in a distinct region of ORF UL56 known to be involved in in vitro resistance to letermovir.

    PubMed

    Goldner, Thomas; Zimmermann, Holger; Lischka, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Letermovir is a new drug in Phase 3 clinical development for the prevention of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in hematopoietic-stem-cell transplant recipients (HSCT). In contrast to marketed anti-HCMV drugs which all target the viral DNA polymerase, letermovir's novel mode of action targets the UL56 subunit of the viral terminase complex. Consistently letermovir resistance has mapped in vitro to a distinct region within ORF UL56 (amino acid 230-370). Here we used marker transfer to demonstrate that two naturally occurring UL56 sequence variants within this region, located directly adjacent to sites known to mediate letermovir resistance in vitro (D242G and A327V) represent normal interstrain polymorphisms unrelated to drug-resistance.

  14. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

  15. Conserved residues within the putative S4-S5 region serve distinct functions among thermosensitive vanilloid transient receptor potential (TRPV) channels.

    PubMed

    Boukalova, Stepana; Marsakova, Lenka; Teisinger, Jan; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2010-12-31

    The vanilloid transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is a tetrameric six-transmembrane segment (S1-S6) channel that can be synergistically activated by various proalgesic agents such as capsaicin, protons, heat, or highly depolarizing voltages, and also by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common activator of the related thermally gated vanilloid TRP channels TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3. In these channels, the conserved charged residues in the intracellular S4-S5 region have been proposed to constitute part of a voltage sensor that acts in concert with other stimuli to regulate channel activation. The molecular basis of this gating event is poorly understood. We mutated charged residues all along the S4 and the S4-S5 linker of TRPV1 and identified four potential voltage-sensing residues (Arg(557), Glu(570), Asp(576), and Arg(579)) that, when specifically mutated, altered the functionality of the channel with respect to voltage, capsaicin, heat, 2-APB, and/or their interactions in different ways. The nonfunctional charge-reversing mutations R557E and R579E were partially rescued by the charge-swapping mutations R557E/E570R and D576R/R579E, indicating that electrostatic interactions contribute to allosteric coupling between the voltage-, temperature- and capsaicin-dependent activation mechanisms. The mutant K571E was normal in all aspects of TRPV1 activation except for 2-APB, revealing the specific role of Lys(571) in chemical sensitivity. Surprisingly, substitutions at homologous residues in TRPV2 or TRPV3 had no effect on temperature- and 2-APB-induced activity. Thus, the charged residues in S4 and the S4-S5 linker contribute to voltage sensing in TRPV1 and, despite their highly conserved nature, regulate the temperature and chemical gating in the various TRPV channels in different ways.

  16. Ca2+ ionophore A23187-dependent stabilization of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor messenger RNA in murine thymoma EL-4 cells is mediated through two distinct regions in the 3'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Y; Akahane, K; Pluznik, D H; Cohen, R B

    1993-05-15

    We analyze the role of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 in the induction of GM-CSF mRNA expression in EL-4 thymoma cells. Northern analysis shows that A23187 increases the half-life of GM-CSF mRNA. To identify potential Ca2+ response elements in the GM-CSF mRNA, we produced stable transfectants containing pRSV-CAT (EL-4cat) or hybrid constructs in which most of the GM-CSF 3'-untranslated region (EL-4gm) or the adenosine-uridine boxes alone (EL-4au) were placed in a downstream position from the CAT coding region. A23187 induces a 4.4-fold increase in CAT activity in EL-4cat cells and a 210-fold and 48-fold increase in CAT activity in EL-4gm and EL-4au cells, respectively. Actinomycin D chase experiments in transfected cells demonstrate that A23187 increases the half-life of CAT mRNA from 15 min to 3 h in EL-4au cells and more than 3 h in EL-4gm cells, suggesting that the effect of Ca2+ is mediated predominantly by the adenosine-uridine boxes with a smaller contribution from upstream regions. To map these upstream regions, we transfected cells with constructs containing mutations of the 3'-untranslated region. With two of these mutations, corresponding to a region located about 160 bases upstream of the adenosine-uridine boxes, CAT activity was induced only 50-fold compared to 200-fold in EL-4gm cells. These data indicate that two regions within the GM-CSF 3'-untranslated region interact to modulate Ca2+ effects on GM-CSF mRNA half-life. PMID:8482841

  17. Maintaining the unmethylated state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA

  18. Why have the peninsular "negritos" remained distinct?

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The primary focus of this article is on the so-called negritos of Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand, but attention is also paid to other parts of Southeast Asia. I present a survey of current views on the "negrito" phenotype--is it single or many? If the phenotype is many (as now seems likely), it must have resulted from parallel evolution in the several different regions where it has been claimed to exist. This would suggest (contrary to certain views that have been expressed on the basis of very partial genetic data) that the phenotype originated recently and by biologically well-authenticated processes from within the neighboring populations. Whole-genome and physical-anthropological research currently support this view. Regardless of whether the negrito phenotype is ancient or recent-and to the extent that it retains any valid biological reality (which is worth questioning)-explanations are still needed for its continued distinctiveness. In the Malay Peninsula, a distinctive "Semang" societal pattern followed by most, but not all, so-called negritos may have been responsible for this by shaping familial, breeding, and demographic patterns to suit the two main modes of environmental appropriation that they have followed, probably for some millennia: nomadic foraging in the forest, and facultative dependence on exchange or labor relations with neighboring populations. The known distribution of "negritos" in the Malay Peninsula is limited to areas within relatively easy reach of archaeologically authenticated premodern transpeninsular trading and portage routes, as well as of other non-negrito, Aslian-speaking populations engaged in swidden farming. This suggests that their continued distinctiveness has resulted from a wish to maintain a complementary advantage vis-à-vis other, less specialized populations. Nevertheless, a significant degree of discordance exists between the associated linguistic, societal-tradition, and biological patterns which suggests

  19. Modified bonded bridge space maintainer.

    PubMed

    Liegeois, F; Limme, M

    1999-01-01

    The premature loss of primary teeth can create the need for space maintenance and restoration of function. This article presents a fixed bonded space maintainer, which allows space to be maintained with economy of dental tissues.

  20. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  1. Localization of a gene for autosomal dominant Larsen syndrome to chromosome region 3p21.1-14.1 in the proximity of, but distinct from the COL7A1 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Vujic, M.; Hallstensson, K.; Wahlstroem, J.

    1995-11-01

    Larsen syndrome (LS) is a skeletal dysplasia (osteochondrodysplasia) in which multiple dislocations of the large joints are the major feature. Nosology in this group of diseases, which constitutes 8% of Mendelian disorders in man, is primarily based on clinical and radiographic features. Hopes for more accurate classification grounds are currently being met by progress in elucidation of underlying genetic defects. We have performed linkage analysis in a large Swedish kindred with autosomal dominant LS and found the gene (LAR1) to be strongly linked to chromosome 3p markers (Z{sub max} = 13.4 at {theta} = .00). Recombination analysis indicates that the LAR1 locus is located in a region defined distally by D3S1581 and proximally by D3S1600, which cytogenetically maps to chromosome region 3p21.1-14.1. Linkage and recombination analysis of a COL7A1 PvuII intragenic polymorphism versus LS and chromosome 3 markers indicate that COL7A1 is located close to, but distinct from, the LAR1 locus. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV) is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep) and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR) led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in the non-coding region of

  3. Human maternal heritage in Andalusia (Spain): its composition reveals high internal complexity and distinctive influences of mtDNA haplogroups U6 and L in the western and eastern side of region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The archeology and history of the ancient Mediterranean have shown that this sea has been a permeable obstacle to human migration. Multiple cultural exchanges around the Mediterranean have taken place with presumably population admixtures. A gravitational territory of those migrations has been the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the maternal gene pool, by means of control region sequencing and PCR-RFLP typing, of autochthonous Andalusians originating from the coastal provinces of Huelva and Granada, located respectively in the west and the east of the region. Results The mtDNA haplogroup composition of these two southern Spanish populations has revealed a wide spectrum of haplogroups from different geographical origins. The registered frequencies of Eurasian markers, together with the high incidence and diversification of African maternal lineages (15% of the total mitochondrial variability) among Huelva Andalusians when compared to its eastwards relatives of Granada and other Iberian populations, constitute relevant findings unknown up-to-date on the characteristics of mtDNA within Andalusia that testifies a female population substructure. Therefore, Andalusia must not be considered a single, unique population. Conclusions The maternal legacy among Andalusians reflects distinctive local histories, pointing out the role of the westernmost territory of Peninsular Spain as a noticeable recipient of multiple and diverse human migrations. The obtained results underline the necessity of further research on genetic relationships in both sides of the western Mediterranean, using carefully collected samples from autochthonous individuals. Many studies have focused on recent North African gene flow towards Iberia, yet scientific attention should be now directed to thoroughly study the introduction of European genes in northwest Africa across the sea, in order to determine its magnitude, timescale and methods, and to compare them to

  4. 2q37.3 Deletion Syndrome: Two Cases with Highly Distinctive Facial Phenotype, Discordant Association with Schizophrenic Psychosis, and Shared Deletion Breakpoint Region on 2q37.3.

    PubMed

    Mehraein, Yasmin; Pfob, Martina; Steinlein, Ortrud; Aichinger, Eric; Eggert, Marlene; Bubendorff, Valerie; Mannhart, Adelina; Müller, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    2q37.3 deletion syndrome belongs to the chromosomal 2q37 deletion spectrum which clinically resembles Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) syndrome. It is is mainly characterized by short stature, obesity, round face, brachydactyly type E, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and variable intellectual deficits. Different from classical AHO syndrome, patients with 2q37 deletion syndrome lack renal parathyroid hormone resistance (pseudohypoparathyroidism) and soft tissue ossification. So far, deletion mapping or molecular breakpoint analyses of 2q37 have been performed in only few patients. Here, we report on 2 patients with 2q37.3 deletion syndrome. In both patients the breakpoint of the 5.5-Mb terminal microdeletion could be narrowed down to the same ∼ 200-kb interval on 2q37.3 by BAC-FISH and/or array-CGH. Flanking low-copy repeats may indicate a classical microdeletion syndrome genesis for the 2q37.3 microdeletion subgroup. Clinical evaluation revealed intellectual deficits and type E brachydactyly typical for classical AHO syndrome together with distinctive facial dysmorphisms not present in the former. Furthermore, one patient presented with schizophrenic psychosis, an observation that would be in accordance with previous reports about an association between schizophrenia susceptibility and an unknown gene within the chromosomal region 2q37. PMID:26112830

  5. Living on the edge: how philopatry maintains adaptive potential

    PubMed Central

    Stiebens, Victor A.; Merino, Sonia E.; Roder, Christian; Chain, Frédéric J. J.; Lee, Patricia L. M.; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Without genetic variation, species cannot cope with changing environments, and evolution does not proceed. In endangered species, adaptive potential may be eroded by decreased population sizes and processes that further reduce gene flow such as philopatry and local adaptations. Here, we focused on the philopatric and endangered loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting in Cape Verde as a model system to investigate the link between adaptive potential and philopatry. We produced a dataset of three complementary genomic regions to investigate female philopatric behaviour (mitochondrial DNA), male-mediated gene flow (microsatellites) and adaptive potential (major histocompatibility complex, MHC). Results revealed genetically distinct nesting colonies, indicating remarkably small-scale philopatric behaviour of females. Furthermore, these colonies also harboured local pools of MHC alleles, especially at the margins of the population's distribution, which are therefore important reserves of additional diversity for the population. Meanwhile, directional male-mediated gene flow from the margins of distribution sustains the adaptive potential for the entire rookery. We therefore present the first evidence for a positive association between philopatry and locally adapted genomic regions. Contrary to expectation, we propose that philopatry conserves a high adaptive potential at the margins of a distribution, while asymmetric gene flow maintains genetic connectivity with the rest of the population. PMID:23720544

  6. The C-Terminal Region of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Nucleoprotein Contains Distinct and Segregable Functional Domains Involved in NP-Z Interaction and Counteraction of the Type I Interferon Response▿

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Riaño, Emilio; Cheng, Benson Yee Hin; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans that is associated with high morbidity and significant mortality. Arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP), the most abundant viral protein in infected cells and virions, encapsidates the viral genome RNA, and this NP-RNA complex, together with the viral L polymerase, forms the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) that directs viral RNA replication and gene transcription. Formation of infectious arenavirus progeny requires packaging of vRNPs into budding particles, a process in which arenavirus matrix-like protein (Z) plays a central role. In the present study, we have characterized the NP-Z interaction for the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The LCMV NP domain that interacted with Z overlapped with a previously documented C-terminal domain that counteracts the host type I interferon (IFN) response. However, we found that single amino acid mutations that affect the anti-IFN function of LCMV NP did not disrupt the NP-Z interaction, suggesting that within the C-terminal region of NP different amino acid residues critically contribute to these two distinct and segregable NP functions. A similar NP-Z interaction was confirmed for the HF arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV). Notably, LCMV NP interacted similarly with both LCMV Z and LASV Z, while LASV NP interacted only with LASV Z. Our results also suggest the presence of a conserved protein domain within NP but with specific amino acid residues playing key roles in determining the specificity of NP-Z interaction that may influence the viability of reassortant arenaviruses. In addition, this NP-Z interaction represents a potential target for the development of antiviral drugs to combat human-pathogenic arenaviruses. PMID:21976642

  7. Maintaining qualification for 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    After initial acceptance in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, hospitals and health systems should monitor and take steps to maintain their disproportionate share hospital status to continue to qualify for participation. Proactively managing the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Ratio will ensure the organization avoids an unexpected decline in the Medicare portion of its 340B patient base. Even with the surge resulting from Medicaid expansion, tracking patient eligibility for Medicare/ SSI to ensure all patients who qualify are appropriately enrolled in the program is an important step in maintaining 340B program eligibility. PMID:27183761

  8. Developing Distinctive Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchild, Lester F.; Chambers, Crystal Renée; Freeman, Sydney, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding one's competitive stance in a globally competitive environment provides the requisite awareness to maintain both competitive edge and institutional responsiveness. In this chapter, three case studies are presented to provide examples of ways in which strategic scanning can enhance the academic program development process and how…

  9. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  10. Radiation Propulsion For Maintaining Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Brief report proposes radiative propulsion systems for maintaining precise orbits of spacecraft. Radiation from electrical heaters directed outward by paraboloidal reflectors to produce small forces to oppose uncontrolled drag and solar-radiative forces perturbing orbits. Minimizes or eliminates need to fire rocket thrusters to correct orbits.

  11. Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnagey, William J.

    This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

  12. Effectiveness of protected areas in maintaining plant production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a "supporting" ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed.

  13. Can modular psychological concepts like affect and emotion be assigned to a distinct subset of regional neural circuits?. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    The proposed Quartet Theory of Human Emotions by Koelsch and co-workers [11] adumbrates evidence from various scientific sources to integrate and assign the psychological concepts of 'affect' and 'emotion' to four brain circuits or to four neuronal core systems for affect-processing in the brain. The authors differentiate between affect and emotion and assign several facultative, or to say modular, psychological domains and principles of information processing, such as learning and memory, antecedents of affective activity, emotion satiation, cognitive complexity, subjective quality feelings, degree of conscious appraisal, to different affect systems. Furthermore, they relate orbito-frontal brain structures to moral affects as uniquely human, and the hippocampus to attachment-related affects. An additional feature of the theory describes 'emotional effector-systems' for motor-related processes (e.g., emotion-related actions), physiological arousal, attention and memory that are assumed to be cross-linked with the four proposed affect systems. Thus, higher principles of emotional information processing, but also modular affect-related issues, such as moral and attachment related affects, are thought to be handled by these four different physiological sub-systems that are on the other side assumed to be highly interwoven at both physiological and functional levels. The authors also state that the proposed sub-systems have many features in common, such as the selection and modulation of biological processes related to behaviour, perception, attention and memory. The latter aspect challenges an ongoing discussion about the mind-body problem: To which degree do the proposed sub-systems 'sufficiently' cover the processing of complex modular or facultative emotional/affective and/or cognitive phenomena? There are current models and scientific positions that almost completely reject the idea that modular psychological phenomena are handled by a distinct selection of

  14. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  15. The lincRNA HOTAIRM1, located in the HOXA genomic region, is expressed in acute myeloid leukemia, impacts prognosis in patients in the intermediate-risk cytogenetic category, and is associated with a distinctive microRNA signature

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Beyá, Marina; Brunet, Salut; Nomdedéu, Josep; Pratcorona, Marta; Cordeiro, Anna; Gallardo, David; Escoda, Lourdes; Tormo, Mar; Heras, Inmaculada; Ribera, Josep Maria; Duarte, Rafael; de Llano, María Paz Queipo; Bargay, Joan; Sampol, Antonia; Nomdedeu, Mertixell; Risueño, Ruth M.; Hoyos, Montserrat; Sierra, Jorge; Monzo, Mariano; Navarro, Alfons; Esteve, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are deregulated in several tumors, although their role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is mostly unknown. We have examined the expression of the lncRNA HOX antisense intergenic RNA myeloid 1 (HOTAIRM1) in 241 AML patients. We have correlated HOTAIRM1 expression with a miRNA expression profile. We have also analyzed the prognostic value of HOTAIRM1 expression in 215 intermediate-risk AML (IR-AML) patients. The lowest expression level was observed in acute promyelocytic leukemia (P < 0.001) and the highest in t(6;9) AML (P = 0.005). In 215 IR-AML patients, high HOTAIRM1 expression was independently associated with shorter overall survival (OR:2.04;P = 0.001), shorter leukemia-free survival (OR:2.56; P < 0.001) and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse (OR:1.67; P = 0.046). Moreover, HOTAIRM1 maintained its independent prognostic value within the favorable molecular subgroup (OR: 3.43; P = 0.009). Interestingly, HOTAIRM1 was overexpressed in NPM1-mutated AML (P < 0.001) and within this group retained its prognostic value (OR: 2.21; P = 0.01). Moreover, HOTAIRM1 expression was associated with a specific 33- microRNA signature that included miR-196b (P < 0.001). miR-196b is located in the HOX genomic region and has previously been reported to have an independent prognostic value in AML. miR-196b and HOTAIRM1 in combination as a prognostic factor can classify patients as high-, intermediate-, or low-risk (5-year OS: 24% vs 42% vs 70%; P = 0.004). Determination of HOTAIRM1 level at diagnosis provided relevant prognostic information in IR-AML and allowed refinement of risk stratification based on common molecular markers. The prognostic information provided by HOTAIRM1 was strengthened when combined with miR-196b expression. Furthermore, HOTAIRM1 correlated with a 33-miRNA signature. PMID:26436590

  16. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  17. Generating and Maintaining a Distinctive Feature: Lessons for Urban New Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiler, Leslie S.

    2007-01-01

    As the number of new schools explodes in urban centers, educators need to understand the processes and challenges faced by schools trying to develop a central focus for curriculum and instruction. Using case study methods including interviews and document analysis, the current study explores the ways in which a highly successful magnet high…

  18. Temporal stability and representational distinctiveness: Key functions of orthographic working memory

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vanessa; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele; Rapp, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    A primary goal of working memory research has been to understand the mechanisms that permit working memory systems to effectively maintain the identity and order of the elements held in memory for sufficient time as to allow for their selection and transfer to subsequent processing stages. Based on the performance of two individuals with acquired dysgraphia affecting orthographic WM (the graphemic buffer) we present evidence of two distinct and dissociable functions of orthographic WM. One function is responsible for maintaining the temporal stability of letters held in orthographic WM, while the other is responsible for maintaining their representational distinctiveness. The failure to maintain temporal stability and representational distinctiveness give rise, respectively, to decay and interference effects that manifest themselves in distinctive error patterns, including distinct serial position effects. The findings we report have implications beyond our understanding of orthographic WM, as the need to maintain temporal stability and representational distinctiveness in WM is common across cognitive domains. PMID:22248210

  19. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  20. Foundations of Distinctive Feature Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.

    This treatise on the theoretical and historical foundations of distinctive feature theory traces the evolution of the distinctive features concept in the context of related notions current in linguistic theory, discusses the evolution of individual distinctive features, and criticizes certain acoustic and perceptual correlates attributed to these…

  1. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-12-31

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  2. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  3. Hydroelectric redevelopment maintains heritage values

    SciTech Connect

    Bulkovshteyn, L.; Chidiac, M.; Hall, W.

    1995-12-31

    The Seymour GS is an 80 year old generating station on the historic Trent-Severn Waterway in Ontario, Canada. The rehabilitation at Seymour was approved by Provincial and Federal authorities on condition that the original appearance of the building be maintained. The capacity of the Generating Station (GS) is being uprated from 3.15 MW to 5.7 MW, by replacing five vertical double runner Francis units with five horizontal Kaplan turbines. The replacement of vertical Francis units with horizontal Kaplan units, necessitated an extensive and innovative demolition approach for the substructure modification. The new turbines required a powerhouse base slab 3.5 m below the grade of the original slab. This required removal of the existing slabs and foundation rock along with most of the interior powerhouse walls. The type of modification and demolition were carefully chosen to accommodate a very tight schedule dictated by the requirement of the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), where in-water work is restricted to certain months of the year.

  4. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  5. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  6. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  7. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  8. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  9. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  10. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.

  11. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  12. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7795421

  13. The Distinction between Epistemic and Non-Epistemic Values in the Natural Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pournari, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I examine the particular question of the meaning of the distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values in the natural sciences and, if this would make sense, the possibility to transcend this distinction. I claim that the distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values maintains its necessity as long as a certain sort…

  14. Maintaining a competitive geothermal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zodiaco, V.P.

    1996-04-10

    I come to this geothermal business with over 30 years of experience in the power generation industry. I have earned my spurs (so to speak) in the electric utility, nuclear power, coal and the gas-fired cogeneration power businesses. I have been employed by Oxbow Power for the past seven years and for the past 18 months I have been based in Reno and responsible for the operation, maintenance and management of Oxbow`s domestic power projects which include three geothermal and two gas-fired facilities. The Oxbow Power Group (consisting principally of Oxbow Power Corporation, Oxbow Geothermal Corporation, Oxbow Power of Beowawe, Oxbow Power International and Oxbow Power Services, Inc.) is based in West Palm Beach, Florida, and has regional offices in Reno, Hong Kong and Manila to support on-line geothermal projects in Nevada, other domestic power projects and a geothermal plant under construction in the Philippines. Oxbow Power employs approximately 30 professionals in the development and management of power projects and over 100 supervisors and technicians in the operation and maintenance of power facilities. Current ownership in independent power projects total 340 MW in the United States and 47 MW under construction in the Philippines. Oxbow is currently negotiating additional projects in several Asian and Central American countries.

  15. A Lys49 Phospholipase A2, Isolated from Bothrops asper Snake Venom, Induces Lipid Droplet Formation in Macrophages Which Depends on Distinct Signaling Pathways and the C-Terminal Region

    PubMed Central

    Cristina Giannotti, Karina; Leiguez, Elbio; Moreira, Vanessa; Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José Maria; Lopes de Melo, Robson; Teixeira, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    MT-II, a Lys49PLA2 homologue devoid of catalytic activity from B. asper venom, stimulates inflammatory events in macrophages. We investigated the ability of MT-II to induce formation of lipid droplets (LDs), key elements of inflammatory responses, in isolated macrophages and participation of protein kinases and intracellular PLA2s in this effect. Influence of MT-II on PLIN2 recruitment and expression was assessed, and the effects of some synthetic peptides on LD formation were further evaluated. At noncytotoxic concentrations, MT-II directly activated macrophages to form LDs. This effect was reproduced by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence 115–129 of MT-II, evidencing the critical role of C-terminus for MT-II-induced effect. Moreover, MT-II induced expression and recruitment of PLIN2. Pharmacological interventions with specific inhibitors showed that PKC, PI3K, ERK1/2, and iPLA2, but not P38MAPK or cPLA2, signaling pathways are involved in LD formation induced by MT-II. This sPLA2 homologue also induced synthesis of PGE2 that colocalized to LDs. In conclusion, MT-II is able to induce formation of LDs committed to PGE2 formation in a process dependent on C-terminal loop engagement and regulated by distinct protein kinases and iPLA2. LDs may constitute an important inflammatory mechanism triggered by MT-II in macrophages. PMID:23509782

  16. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions: in silico peptide binding prediction identifies distinct functional clusters.

    PubMed

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie; Nijhof, Ard; Mazzoni, Camila J; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla; Awino, Elias; Olds, Cassandra; Jabbar, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African taurines in T. parva endemic areas is very limited. We utilized the multiplexing capabilities of 454 pyrosequencing to make an initial assessment of class I MHC allelic diversity in a population of Ankole cattle. We also typed a population of exotic Holstein cattle from an African ranch for class I MHC and investigated the extent, if any, that their peptide-binding motifs overlapped with those of Ankole cattle. We report the identification of 18 novel allelic sequences in Ankole cattle and provide evidence of positive selection for sequence diversity, including in residues that predominantly interact with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified in Holstein and Boran (Bos indicus) cattle breeds. PMID:26852329

  17. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  18. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  19. Optimal Distinctiveness Signals Membership Trust.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Loyd, Denise Lewin

    2016-07-01

    According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests. PMID:27140657

  20. Loss of heterozygosity in the chromosomal region 12p12-13 is very common in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and permits the precise localization of a tumor-suppressor gene distinct from p27KIP1.

    PubMed

    Cavé, H; Gérard, B; Martin, E; Guidal, C; Devaux, I; Weissenbach, J; Elion, J; Vilmer, E; Grandchamp, B

    1995-11-15

    Abnormalities of the short arm of chromosome 12 are relatively common in hematologic malignancies and deletions of the region. 12p12-13 are found in approximately 5% of the patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). As a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, p27KIP1 prevents the progression of the cell cycle and the gene encoding p27KIP1 represents a potential tumor-suppressor gene. Its recent assignment to the chromosomal region (12p12.3) prompted us to study the p27KIP1 gene in a series of 61 children with ALL. Microsatellite polymorphic markers flanking the p27KIP1 gene were analyzed to detect losses of heterozygosity (LOH). Eleven patients displayed LOH for at least one of the markers. The deleted are encompassed the p27KIP1 gene locus in 10 cases, but inactivation of the remaining allele by deletion, translocation, or mutation was never observed. In addition, in 1 patient, the p27KIP1 gene was situated outside of the region of LOH. Thus, p27KIP1 does not seem to be the target gene of 12p12-13 alterations. However, this study indicates that 12p12-13 alterations at the molecular level, which are present in about 27% of the children with B-lineage ALL, are much more common than had previously been reported by usual chromosome analysis. Moreover, LOH mapping allowed us to better define the location of a putative tumor-suppressor gene implicated in these malignancies and should therefore help in identifying this gene.

  1. Distinct contributions of lateral orbito-frontal cortex, striatum, and fronto-parietal network regions for rule encoding and control of memory-based implementation during instructed reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2016-01-15

    A key element of behavioral flexibility is to quickly learn to modify or reverse previously acquired stimulus-response associations. Such reversal learning (RL) can either be driven by feedback or by explicit instruction, informing either retrospectively or prospectively about the changed response requirements. Neuroimaging studies have thus far exclusively focused either on feedback-driven RL or on instructed initial learning of novel rules. The present study examined the neural basis of instructed RL as compared to instructed initial learning, separately assessing reversal-related instruction-based encoding processes and reversal-related control processes required for implementing reversed rules under competition from the initially learned rules. We found that instructed RL is partly supported by similar regions as feedback-driven RL, including lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) and anterior dorsal caudate. Encoding-related activation in both regions determined resilience against response competition during subsequent memory-based reversal implementation. Different from feedback-driven RL, instruction-based RL relied heavily on the generic fronto-parietal cognitive control network--not for encoding but for reversal-related control processes during memory-based implementation. These findings are consistent with a model of partly decoupled, yet interacting, systems of (i) symbolic rule representations that are instantaneously updated upon instruction and (ii) pragmatic representations of reward-associated S-R links mediating the enduring competition from initially learned rules.

  2. How RNA viruses maintain their genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Barr, John N; Fearns, Rachel

    2010-06-01

    RNA genomes are vulnerable to corruption by a range of activities, including inaccurate replication by the error-prone replicase, damage from environmental factors, and attack by nucleases and other RNA-modifying enzymes that comprise the cellular intrinsic or innate immune response. Damage to coding regions and loss of critical cis-acting signals inevitably impair genome fitness; as a consequence, RNA viruses have evolved a variety of mechanisms to protect their genome integrity. These include mechanisms to promote replicase fidelity, recombination activities that allow exchange of sequences between different RNA templates, and mechanisms to repair the genome termini. In this article, we review examples of these processes from a range of RNA viruses to showcase the diverse approaches that viruses have evolved to maintain their genome sequence integrity, focusing first on mechanisms that viruses use to protect their entire genome, and then concentrating on mechanisms that allow protection of the genome termini, which are especially vulnerable. In addition, we discuss examples in which it might be beneficial for a virus to 'lose' its genomic termini and reduce its replication efficiency.

  3. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  4. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    PubMed

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

  5. Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

  6. Generation of two distinct functional isoforms of dosage-sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita-critical region on the X chromosome gene 1 (DAX-1) by alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Anwar; Li, Chun; Saunders, Grady F

    2004-06-01

    DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita-critical region on the X chromosome gene 1; NR0B1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays an important role in the development and functioning of the adrenal gland and hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis. The DAX-1 protein acts as a transcriptional repressor of genes involved in the steroidogenic pathway. We have identified a novel isoform encoded by the known exon 1 of DAX-1 and a previously unrecognized exon (exon 2alpha) that lies within intron 1 of DAX-1. This novel transcript, which we designated DAX-1alpha, is terminated at exon 2alpha; the last 70 amino acids of the C-terminal repressor domain encoded by exon 2 are absent. DAX-1alpha encodes a protein of 401 amino acids; the first 389 amino acids are encoded by exon 1 and the last 12 are encoded by exon 2alpha. Using conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR analyses, we found that DAX-1alpha is abundantly expressed in the adrenal gland, brain, kidney, ovary, and testis. We also found that DAX-1alpha can bind to steroidogenic factor 1 and to DNA but is unable to repress steroidogenic factor 1-mediated transcriptional activation of the reporter gene and acts as an antagonist of DAX-1 under certain conditions.

  7. Thermally distinct ejecta blankets from Martian craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-06-01

    A study of Martian ejecta blankets is carried out using the high-resolution thermal IR/visible data from the Termoskan instrument aboard Phobos '88 mission. It is found that approximately 100 craters within the Termoskan data have an ejecta blanket distinct in the thermal infrared (EDITH). These features are examined by (1) a systematic examination of all Termoskan data using high-resolution image processing; (2) a study of the systematics of the data by compiling and analyzing a data base consisting of geographic, geologic, and mormphologic parameters for a significant fraction of the EDITH and nearby non-EDITH; and (3) qualitative and quantitative analyses of localized regions of interest. It is noted that thermally distinct ejecta blankets are excellent locations for future landers and remote sensing because of relatively dust-free surface exposures of material excavated from depth.

  8. Conserved region 2 of adenovirus E1A has a function distinct from pRb binding required to prevent cell cycle arrest by p16INK4a or p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Alevizopoulos, K; Sanchez, B; Amati, B

    2000-04-13

    Ectopic expression of the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p16INK4a and p27Kip1 in Rat1 fibroblasts induces dephosphorylation and activation of Retinoblastoma-family proteins (pRb, p107 and p130), their association with E2F proteins, and cell cycle arrest in G1. The growth-inhibitory action of p16, in particular, is believed to be mediated essentially via pRb activation. The 12S E1A protein of human Adenovirus 5 associates with pRb-family proteins via residues in its Conserved Regions (CR) 1 and 2, in particular through the motif LXCXE in CR2. These interactions are required for E1A to prevent G1 arrest upon co-expression of CKIs. We show here that mutating either of two conserved motifs adjacent to LXCXE in CR2, GFP and SDDEDEE, also impairs the ability of E1A to overcome G1 arrest by p16 or p27. Strikingly, however, these mutations affect neither the association of E1A with pRb, p07 and p130, nor its ability to derepress E2F-1 transcriptional activity in transient transfection assays. One of the EIA mutants, however, is defective in derepressing several endogenous E2F target genes in the presence of p16 or p27. Thus, CR2 possesses an essential function besides pRb-binding. We speculate that this function might be required for the full derepression of E2F-regulated genes in their natural chromatin context. PMID:10803468

  9. Late Glacial, Early Holocene and Late Holocene life at the interface of a distinct landscape — relationship of humans and environments in the Sub-Carpathian region (N Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bácsmegi, Gábor; Sümegi, Pál; Törőcsik, Tünde

    2012-12-01

    Relationships between the communities and environment surrounding these communities can be disclosed by the application of different archeological, geological and environmental historical methods. This includes the deployment of numerous tools in scientific investigation including the application of chronological, sedimentological, geochemical and paleoecological analytical methods on sequences accumulated in historical catchment basins of peat-bog. The Nádas-tó at Nagybárkány is a small peatbog in the northern part of Hungary, on the Sub-Carpathian region. The formation of the lake can be traced back to the Late Glacial period. The sediments deposited in the lakebed provide a record of climatic and hydrologic changes. A higher water level could be demonstrated from the Late Glacial to the Mid-Holocene, when the reed-beds covered a small area only. This was followed by a hiatus spanning ca. 4400 years, caused by the deepening and cleaning of the lakebed during the Late Iron / Imperial Age, between 2100 - 1900 cal BP years. After this change the water level decreased and the water quality was more eutrophic. A reed-bed evolved around the lake. Paludification started with a bulrush floating mat phase at the close of the Middle Age, ca. 1500 cal AD years. The endowments and settlement pattern persisted from the Neolithic onwards until the terminal Modern Age, when measures aimed to ordain the area substantially altered the natural landscape. Although some anthropogenic disturbances can be reconstructed in the development of the peatland, some climatic effects and authogenic processes might be separated by paleoecological analyses.

  10. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records. 784.12 Section 784.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining...

  11. An Unexpected Effect: Restitution Maintains Object Throwing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mary

    1988-01-01

    This study examined effects of restitution on object throwing behavior of an adolescent male with severe mental retardation. Restitution was shown to maintain throwing behavior. When the subject was not forced to pick up what he threw (no restitution), throwing dropped to zero and was maintained at a very low rate. (Author/PB)

  12. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  13. 42 CFR 431.230 - Maintaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintaining services. 431.230 Section 431.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Applicants and Recipients Procedures § 431.230 Maintaining services. (a) If the agency mails the 10-day or...

  14. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  15. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  16. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  17. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  18. Ability to maintain internal arousal and motivation modulates brain responses to emotions.

    PubMed

    Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Persistence (PS) is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS) subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC) and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala). Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression.

  19. Keys to Maintaining a Good Banking Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Suggests strategies for finding an appropriate bank for a day care center, maintaining a good relationship with a bank once one has been selected, and obtaining and repaying a day care center loan. (SKC)

  20. Sources and Information: Maintaining Institutional Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jim; Zwemer, Diane

    1985-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of ERIC materials dealing with the community college mission, educational quality, maintaining an effective faculty, effects and management of retrenchment, and the state role in community college education. (LAL)

  1. Ecology: Tribal Warfare Maintains Microbial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Greig, Duncan; Goddard, Matthew

    2015-07-20

    When two tribes of Myxococcus bacteria attack each other, the most numerous usually wins. Established colonies can therefore resist invaders by outnumbering them. This shows how positive frequency dependence can maintain diversity across spatially structured environments. PMID:26196492

  2. Ecology: Tribal Warfare Maintains Microbial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Greig, Duncan; Goddard, Matthew

    2015-07-20

    When two tribes of Myxococcus bacteria attack each other, the most numerous usually wins. Established colonies can therefore resist invaders by outnumbering them. This shows how positive frequency dependence can maintain diversity across spatially structured environments.

  3. Older Runners Can Maintain Their 'Fuel Efficiency'

    MedlinePlus

    ... of oxygen consumption is what researchers call "running economy." They found that even though the gait of ... still maintain youthful energy levels, or good running economy, while exercising. "There's good evidence that it's never ...

  4. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  5. China English: Its Distinctive Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wei-dong; Dai, Wei-ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to expound that China English boasting its own distinctive features on the levels of phonology, words, sentences and discourse has been playing an irreplaceable role in intercultural activities, though still in its infancy and in the process of developing and perfecting itself, and it now makes every effort to move towards…

  6. Distinctive Characteristics of Educational Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell N., III.

    2008-01-01

    Examining the charitable behavior of 56,663 US households, this paper evaluates the distinctive characteristics of educational donors as compared with donors to noneducational charitable organizations and with nondonors. In general, educational donors had significantly greater income, wealth, and education than other donors. Educational donors…

  7. Distinct 5′ UTRs regulate XIAP expression under normal growth conditions and during cellular stress

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Alura; Jordan, Lindsay E.; Holcik, Martin

    2010-01-01

    X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis, XIAP, is cellular caspase inhibitor and a key regulator of apoptosis. We and others have previously shown that XIAP expression is regulated primarily at the level of protein synthesis; the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of XIAP mRNA contains an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) that supports cap-independent expression of XIAP protein during conditions of pathophysiological stress, such as serum deprivation or gamma irradiation. Here, we show that XIAP is encoded by two distinct mRNAs that differ in their 5′ UTRs. We further show that the dominant, shorter, 5′ UTR promotes a basal level of XIAP expression under normal growth conditions. In contrast, the less abundant longer 5′ UTR contains an IRES and supports cap-independent translation during stress. Our data suggest that the combination of alternate regulatory regions and distinct translational initiation modes is critical in maintaining XIAP levels in response to cellular stress and may represent a general mechanism of cellular adaptation. PMID:20385593

  8. Distinct Orbitofrontal Regions Encode Stimulus and Choice Valuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William A.; Kesek, Amanda; Mowrer, Samantha M.

    2009-01-01

    The weak axiom of revealed preferences suggests that the value of an object can be understood through the simple examination of choices. Although this axiom has driven economic theory, the assumption of equation between value and choice is often violated. fMRI was used to decouple the processes associated with evaluating stimuli from evaluating…

  9. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  10. Adaptive Traits Are Maintained on Steep Selective Gradients despite Gene Flow and Hybridization in the Intertidal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Canovas, Fernando; Ferreira Costa, Joana; Serrão, Ester A.; Pearson, Gareth A.

    2011-01-01

    Gene flow among hybridizing species with incomplete reproductive barriers blurs species boundaries, while selection under heterogeneous local ecological conditions or along strong gradients may counteract this tendency. Congeneric, externally-fertilizing fucoid brown algae occur as distinct morphotypes along intertidal exposure gradients despite gene flow. Combining analyses of genetic and phenotypic traits, we investigate the potential for physiological resilience to emersion stressors to act as an isolating mechanism in the face of gene flow. Along vertical exposure gradients in the intertidal zone of Northern Portugal and Northwest France, the mid-low shore species Fucus vesiculosus, the upper shore species Fucus spiralis, and an intermediate distinctive morphotype of F. spiralis var. platycarpus were morphologically characterized. Two diagnostic microsatellite loci recovered 3 genetic clusters consistent with prior morphological assignment. Phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 protein coding regions unambiguously resolved 3 clades; sympatric F. vesiculosus, F. spiralis, and the allopatric (in southern Iberia) population of F. spiralis var. platycarpus. In contrast, the sympatric F. spiralis var. platycarpus (from Northern Portugal) was distributed across the 3 clades, strongly suggesting hybridization/introgression with both other entities. Common garden experiments showed that physiological resilience following exposure to desiccation/heat stress differed significantly between the 3 sympatric genetic taxa; consistent with their respective vertical distribution on steep environmental clines in exposure time. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that F. spiralis var. platycarpus is a distinct entity in allopatry, but that extensive gene flow occurs with both higher and lower shore species in sympatry. Experimental results suggest that strong selection on physiological traits across steep intertidal exposure gradients acts to maintain

  11. Distinct cytoskeletal domains revealed in sperm cells

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies against different cytoskeletal proteins were used to study the cytoskeletal organization of human spermatozoa. A positive staining with actin antibodies was seen in both the acrosomal cap region and the principal piece region of the tail. However, no staining was obtained with nitrobenzoxadiazol-phallacidin, suggesting that most of the actin was in the nonpolymerized form. Most of the myosin immunoreactivity was confirmed to a narrow band in the neck region of spermatozoa. Tubulin was located to the entire tail, whereas vimentin was only seen in a discrete band-like structure encircling the sperm head, apparently coinciding with the equatorial segment region. Surface staining of the spermatozoa with fluorochrome-coupled Helix pomatia agglutinin revealed a similar band-like structure that co-distributed with the vimentin- specific staining. Instead, other lectin conjugates used labeled either the acrosomal cap region (peanut and soybean agglutinins), both the acrosomal cap and the postacrosomal region of the head (concanavalin A), or the whole sperm cell surface membrane (wheat germ and lens culinaris agglutinins and ricinus communis agglutinin l). In lectin blotting experiments, the Helix pomatia agglutinin-binding was assigned to a 80,000-mol-wt polypeptide which, together with vimentin, also resisted treatment with Triton X-100. Only the acrosomal cap and the principal piece of the tail were decorated with rabbit and hydridoma antibodies against an immunoanalogue of erythrocyte alpha-spectrin (p230). p230 appeared to be the major calmodulin-binding polypeptide in spermatozoa, as shown by a direct overlay assay of electrophoretic blots of spermatozoa with 125I-calmodulin. The results indicate that spermatozoa have a highly specialized cytoskeletal organization and that the distribution of actin, spectrin, and vimentin can be correlated with distinct surface specializations of the sperm cells. This suggest that cytoskeleton may regulate the maintenance

  12. Functional diversification of hsp40: distinct j-protein functional requirements for two prions allow for chaperone-dependent prion selection.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julia M; Nguyen, Phil P; Patel, Milan J; Sporn, Zachary A; Hines, Justin K

    2014-07-01

    Yeast prions are heritable amyloid aggregates of functional yeast proteins; their propagation to subsequent cell generations is dependent upon fragmentation of prion protein aggregates by molecular chaperone proteins. Mounting evidence indicates the J-protein Sis1 may act as an amyloid specificity factor, recognizing prion and other amyloid aggregates and enabling Ssa and Hsp104 to act in prion fragmentation. Chaperone interactions with prions, however, can be affected by variations in amyloid-core structure resulting in distinct prion variants or 'strains'. Our genetic analysis revealed that Sis1 domain requirements by distinct variants of [PSI+] are strongly dependent upon overall variant stability. Notably, multiple strong [PSI+] variants can be maintained by a minimal construct of Sis1 consisting of only the J-domain and glycine/phenylalanine-rich (G/F) region that was previously shown to be sufficient for cell viability and [RNQ+] prion propagation. In contrast, weak [PSI+] variants are lost under the same conditions but maintained by the expression of an Sis1 construct that lacks only the G/F region and cannot support [RNQ+] propagation, revealing mutually exclusive requirements for Sis1 function between these two prions. Prion loss is not due to [PSI+]-dependent toxicity or dependent upon a particular yeast genetic background. These observations necessitate that Sis1 must have at least two distinct functional roles that individual prions differentially require for propagation and which are localized to the glycine-rich domains of the Sis1. Based on these distinctions, Sis1 plasmid-shuffling in a [PSI+]/[RNQ+] strain permitted J-protein-dependent prion selection for either prion. We also found that, despite an initial report to the contrary, the human homolog of Sis1, Hdj1, is capable of [PSI+] prion propagation in place of Sis1. This conservation of function is also prion-variant dependent, indicating that only one of the two Sis1-prion functions may have

  13. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  14. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  15. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  16. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  17. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  18. Pedagogical Practices: Nurturing and Maintaining Democratic Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubler-Larimore, Lucretia Marie

    2011-01-01

    This case study examined the pedagogical practices of four teachers of one public elementary school whose mission seeks to nurture and maintain democratic habits for participation in a democratic society. Historically, public schools have been charged with the duty of preparing young minds to live within in a democratic society and as such this…

  19. Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

  20. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  1. Maintaining Effective Classroom Control in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E., Ed.; McCracken, J. David

    This handbook is designed to assist vocational teachers in maintaining effective classroom and laboratory control. Following an introduction to the topic, the importance of effective control and teacher attitude are overviewed. The third section offers definitions of discipline and "in loco parentis", a perspective on discipline, and reasons for…

  2. Maintaining standards of primary care in America

    PubMed Central

    Snider, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of present day attitudes toward maintaining standards of medical care in the United States is described, and the main methods identified. Their influence on current practice is discussed, and application made to the promotion of high standards of care in British general practice. PMID:317108

  3. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  4. Control system maintains selected liquid level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeson, R. L.; Schuck, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Single-sensor control system maintains liquid hydrogen at a preselected desired level within a tank, regardless of boiloff. It calibrates output in percentage. Thus, when the fuel is at the desired level, the system output will indicate 100 percent regardless of what percent of tank capacity the fuel has reached.

  5. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  6. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  7. How to Maintain a Social Reinforcement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkin, Ronald; And Others

    This manual presents methodology for maintaining a social reinforcement system after supervisors in industrial environments have been trained in behavior modification theory and application. The maintenance manual discusses monitoring, evaluation, and integration of a company's employee performance system with the social reinforcement system…

  8. β-actin and fascin-2 cooperate to maintain stereocilia length

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Benjamin J.; Strandjord, Dana M.; Narayanan, Praveena; Henderson, Davin M.; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Ervasti, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Stereocilia are actin-based protrusions on auditory sensory hair cells that are deflected by sound waves to initiate the conversion of mechanical energy to neuronal signals. Stereocilia maintenance is essential because auditory hair cells are not renewed in mammals. This process requires both β-actin and γ-actin as knockout mice lacking either isoform develop distinct stereocilia pathology during aging. In addition, stereocilia integrity may hinge on immobilizing actin, which outside of a small region at stereocilia tips turns over with a very slow, months-long half-life. Here, we establish that β-actin and the actin crosslinking protein fascin-2 cooperate to maintain stereocilia length and auditory function. We observed that mice expressing mutant fascin-2 (p.R109H) or mice lacking β-actin share a common phenotype including progressive, high-frequency hearing loss together with shortening of a defined subset of stereocilia in the hair cell bundle. Fascin-2 binds β-actin and γ-actin filaments with similar affinity in vitro and fascin-2 does not depend on β-actin for localization in vivo. Nevertheless, double mutant mice lacking β-actin and expressing fascin-2 p.R109H have a more severe phenotype suggesting that each protein has a different function in a common stereocilia maintenance pathway. Since the fascin-2 p.R109H mutant binds but fails to efficiently crosslink actin filaments, we propose that fascin-2 crosslinks function to slow actin depolymerization at stereocilia tips to maintain stereocilia length. PMID:23658152

  9. Local Neutral Networks Help Maintain Inaccurately Replicating Ribozymes

    PubMed Central

    Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2014-01-01

    The error threshold of replication limits the selectively maintainable genome size against recurrent deleterious mutations for most fitness landscapes. In the context of RNA replication a distinction between the genotypic and the phenotypic error threshold has been made; where the latter concerns the maintenance of secondary structure rather than sequence. RNA secondary structure is treated as a proxy for function. The phenotypic error threshold allows higher per digit mutation rates than its genotypic counterpart, and is known to increase with the frequency of neutral mutations in sequence space. Here we show that the degree of neutrality, i.e. the frequency of nearest-neighbour (one-step) neutral mutants is a remarkably accurate proxy for the overall frequency of such mutants in an experimentally verifiable formula for the phenotypic error threshold; this we achieve by the full numerical solution for the concentration of all sequences in mutation-selection balance up to length 16. We reinforce our previous result that currently known ribozymes could be selectively maintained by the accuracy known from the best available polymerase ribozymes. Furthermore, we show that in silico stabilizing selection can increase the mutational robustness of ribozymes due to the fact that they were produced by artificial directional selection in the first place. Our finding offers a better understanding of the error threshold and provides further insight into the plausibility of an ancient RNA world. PMID:25299454

  10. Local neutral networks help maintain inaccurately replicating ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2014-01-01

    The error threshold of replication limits the selectively maintainable genome size against recurrent deleterious mutations for most fitness landscapes. In the context of RNA replication a distinction between the genotypic and the phenotypic error threshold has been made; where the latter concerns the maintenance of secondary structure rather than sequence. RNA secondary structure is treated as a proxy for function. The phenotypic error threshold allows higher per digit mutation rates than its genotypic counterpart, and is known to increase with the frequency of neutral mutations in sequence space. Here we show that the degree of neutrality, i.e. the frequency of nearest-neighbour (one-step) neutral mutants is a remarkably accurate proxy for the overall frequency of such mutants in an experimentally verifiable formula for the phenotypic error threshold; this we achieve by the full numerical solution for the concentration of all sequences in mutation-selection balance up to length 16. We reinforce our previous result that currently known ribozymes could be selectively maintained by the accuracy known from the best available polymerase ribozymes. Furthermore, we show that in silico stabilizing selection can increase the mutational robustness of ribozymes due to the fact that they were produced by artificial directional selection in the first place. Our finding offers a better understanding of the error threshold and provides further insight into the plausibility of an ancient RNA world.

  11. SPTAN1 encephalopathy: distinct phenotypes and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Jun; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Nabatame, Shin; Gaik-Siew, Ch'ng; Miyata, Rie; Rener-Primec, Zvonka; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo

    2015-04-01

    Recent progress in genetic analysis reveals that a significant proportion of cryptogenic epileptic encephalopathies are single-gene disorders. Mutations in numerous genes for early-onset epileptic encephalopathies have been rapidly identified, including in SPTAN1, which encodes α-II spectrin. The aim of this review is to delineate SPTAN1 encephalopathy as a distinct clinical syndrome. To date, a total of seven epileptic patients with four different in-frame SPTAN1 mutations have been identified. The major clinical features of SPTAN1 mutations include epileptic encephalopathy with hypsarrhythmia, no visual attention, acquired microcephaly, spastic quadriplegia and severe intellectual disability. Brainstem and cerebellar atrophy and cerebral hypomyelination, as observed by magnetic resonance imaging, are specific hallmarks of this condition. A milder variant is characterized by generalized epilepsy with pontocerebellar atrophy. Only in-frame SPTAN1 mutations in the last two spectrin repeats in the C-terminal region lead to dominant negative effects and these specific phenotypes. The last two spectrin repeats are required for α/β spectrin heterodimer associations and the mutations can alter heterodimer formation between the two spectrins. From these data we suggest that SPTAN1 encephalopathy is a distinct clinical syndrome owing to specific SPTAN1 mutations. It is important that this syndrome is recognized by pediatric neurologists to enable proper diagnostic work-up for patients. PMID:25631096

  12. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes. Key Points First multi-region seasonal velocity measurements show regional differences Seasonal velocity fluctuations on most glaciers appear meltwater controlled Seasonal development of efficient subglacial drainage geographically divided PMID:25821275

  13. Chd1 remodelers maintain open chromatin and regulate the epigenetics of differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, Jenna; Ekwall, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Eukaryotic DNA is packaged around octamers of histone proteins into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin. In addition to enabling meters of DNA to fit within the confines of a nucleus, the structure of chromatin has functional implications for cell identity. Covalent chemical modifications to the DNA and to histones, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, small noncoding RNAs and the level of chromatin compaction all contribute to chromosomal structure and to the activity or silencing of genes. These chromatin-level alterations are defined as epigenetic when they are heritable from mother to daughter cell. The great diversity of epigenomes that can arise from a single genome permits a single, totipotent cell to generate the hundreds of distinct cell types found in humans. Two recent studies in mouse and in fly have highlighted the importance of Chd1 chromatin remodelers for maintaining an open, active chromatin state. Based on evidence from fission yeast as a model system, we speculate that Chd1 remodelers are involved in the disassembly of nucleosomes at promoter regions, thus promoting active transcription and open chromatin. It is likely that these nucleosomes are specifically marked for disassembly by the histone variant H2A.Z.

  14. Managing Self-Governing Primary Schools in the Locally Maintained, Grant-Maintained and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Les; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study that surveyed heads of locally maintained, grant-maintained, and private sector (British) primary schools concerning their management styles. Questionnaire and interview data suggest that autonomous primary schools are characterized by collective decision making and high job satisfaction levels. Private sector school heads'…

  15. Establishing and maintaining a colony of planarians.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Néstor J; Nicolas, Cindy L; Adams, Dany S; Levin, Michael

    2008-10-01

    INTRODUCTIONTo provide sufficient material for experimentation, a laboratory needs to expand and maintain a colony of planarians. It is crucial to keep a stable, healthy population of animals in a consistent environment to avoid inter-animal variability and modifier effects that can mask true phenotypes from experimental perturbation. In this protocol, we describe basic procedures for establishing and maintaining healthy colonies of Dugesia japonica, Schmidtea mediterranea, and Girardia tigrina (commonly found in the wild and commercially available in the United States). Although the recommendations are based on our optimization of conditions for G. tigrina, many of the procedures (such as food preparation and feeding strategy) can be applied to other species. For best results, the culture water must be carefully monitored and adjusted for each species.

  16. Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya

    2013-08-01

    Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective. PMID:23986988

  17. Device Maintains Water At The Triple Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. W.; Burkett, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    Inexpensive device maintains water at 0.01 degree C for 10 weeks or longer. New device consists of four basic assemblies; small, commercial chest freezer containing insulated water tank; insulated copper cell holder; "ice switch" for cycling freezer compressor and externally-mounted air pump for circulation. Access hole in freezer lid allows triple point measurements without opening lid. Modified freezer used to calibrate standard platinum resistance thermomenters.

  18. Anthropogenic disturbances are key to maintaining the biodiversity of grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Z. Y.; Jiao, F.; Li, Y. H.; Kallenbach, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Although anthropogenic disturbances are often perceived as detrimental to plant biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance remains unclear. Opinions diverge on how natural diversity is generated and maintained. We conducted a large-scale investigation of a temperate grassland system in Inner Mongolia and assessed the richness-disturbance relationship using grazing intensity, the primary anthropogenic disturbance in the region. Vascular plant-species richness peaked at an intermediate level of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results support the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which provides a valid and useful measure of biodiversity at a metacommunity scale, indicating that anthropogenic disturbances are necessary to conserve the biodiversity of grassland systems. PMID:26903041

  19. Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving.

    PubMed

    Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Shinar, David

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in maintaining alertness. The trivia AMT prevented driving performance deterioration, and increased alertness (measured by standardized HRV). The choice reaction time AMT was least demanding but also increased subjective sleepiness and reduced arousal (measured by alpha/beta ratio). The working memory AMT caused a significant decrement in driving speed, increased subjective fatigue, and was regarded by the participants as detrimental to driving. Trivia was preferred by the majority of the drivers over the other two AMTs. Experiment 2 further examined the utility of the trivia AMT. When the drivers engaged in the trivia AMT they maintained better driving performance and perceived the driving duration as shorter than the control condition. The two experiments demonstrated that AMTs can have a positive effect on alertness. The effect is localized in the sense that it does not persist beyond the period of the AMT activation.

  20. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  1. Dementia: Continuum or Distinct Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2009-01-01

    The latent structure of dementia was examined in a group of 10,775 older adults with indicators derived from a neuropsychological test battery. Subjecting these data to taxometric analysis using mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum covariance (MAXCOV), and latent mode factor analysis (L-Mode) produced results more consistent with dementia as a dimensional (lying along a continuum) than categorical (representing a distinct entity) construct. A second study conducted on a group of 2375 21-to-64-year olds produced similar results. These findings denote that dementia, as measured by deficits in episodic memory, attention/concentration, executive function, and language, differs quantitatively rather than qualitatively from the cognitive status of non-demented adults. The implications of these results for classification, assessment, etiology, and prevention are discussed. PMID:20677881

  2. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2’s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 PMID:27159240

  3. ZFP57 recognizes multiple and closely spaced sequence motif variants to maintain repressive epigenetic marks in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Anvar, Zahra; Cammisa, Marco; Riso, Vincenzo; Baglivo, Ilaria; Kukreja, Harpreet; Sparago, Angela; Girardot, Michael; Lad, Shraddha; De Feis, Italia; Cerrato, Flavia; Angelini, Claudia; Feil, Robert; Pedone, Paolo V.; Grimaldi, Giovanna; Riccio, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) need to maintain their parental allele-specific DNA methylation during early embryogenesis despite genome-wide demethylation and subsequent de novo methylation. ZFP57 and KAP1 are both required for maintaining the repressive DNA methylation and H3-lysine-9-trimethylation (H3K9me3) at ICRs. In vitro, ZFP57 binds a specific hexanucleotide motif that is enriched at its genomic binding sites. We now demonstrate in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that SNPs disrupting closely-spaced hexanucleotide motifs are associated with lack of ZFP57 binding and H3K9me3 enrichment. Through a transgenic approach in mouse ESCs, we further demonstrate that an ICR fragment containing three ZFP57 motif sequences recapitulates the original methylated or unmethylated status when integrated into the genome at an ectopic position. Mutation of Zfp57 or the hexanucleotide motifs led to loss of ZFP57 binding and DNA methylation of the transgene. Finally, we identified a sequence variant of the hexanucleotide motif that interacts with ZFP57 both in vivo and in vitro. The presence of multiple and closely located copies of ZFP57 motif variants emerges as a distinct characteristic that is required for the faithful maintenance of repressive epigenetic marks at ICRs and other ZFP57 binding sites. PMID:26481358

  4. Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  5. Laboratory services: regaining and maintaining control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory staff, thereby safeguarding patient test results for their intended medical purpose. Design/methodology/approach - The authors address how quality can be maintained and if lost, how it can be regained. The methodology is based on the experience working in clinical laboratory diagnostics and is in accord with both international accreditation requirements and laboratory best practice guidelines. Findings - Monitoring test performance usually involves both prospective and retrospective IQC data analysis. The authors present a number of different approaches together with software tools currently available and emerging, that permit performance monitoring at the level of the individual analyser, across analysers and laboratories (networks). The authors make recommendations on the appropriate response to IQC rule warnings, failures and metrics that indicate analytical control loss, that either precludes further analysis, or signifies deteriorating performance and eventual unsuitability. The authors provide guidance on systematic troubleshooting, to identify undesirable performance and consider risk assessment preventive measures and continuous quality improvement initiatives; e.g., material acceptance procedures, as tools to help regain and maintain analytical control and minimise potential for patient harm. Practical implications - The authors provide a template for use by laboratory scientific personnel that ensures the optimal monitoring of analytical test performance and response when it changes undesirably. Originality/value - The proposed template has been designed to meet the International Organisation for Standardisation for medical laboratories ISO15189:2012 requirements and therefore includes the use of External Quality Assessment and patient results data, as an adjunct to IQC data. PMID

  6. Patients’ lived experiences regarding maintaining dignity

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Manookian, Arpi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of dignity is frequently emphasized as a basic patient’s right in national and international nursing codes of ethics and is indeed the essence and core of nursing care. It is therefore essential to explore the concept based on patients’ lived experiences in order to maintain and respect their dignity and consequently improve the quality of health services and patient satisfaction. The present study aimed to discover the lived experiences of Iranian patients regarding maintaining their dignity at the bedside. This qualitative study was conducted using an interpretive phenomenological approach. A total of 14 participants (9 women and 5 men) were purposefully selected, and data were collected through individual, semi-structured and deep interviews. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed by the Diekelman, Allen and Tanner approach. The findings of this study revealed three main themes and related subthemes regarding the meaning of preserving patients’ dignity. The first main theme was “exigency of preserving the innate human dignity” and comprised two subthemes: “respect for the intrinsic equality of all humans” and “treating the patient as a valued person, not an object”. The second theme was “service based on love and kindness” and included two subthemes: ‘being with the patient” and “inspiring the sense of being accepted and loved”. The third main theme emerged as “dignifying and transcendental professional service” and consisted of two subthemes: “professional commitment to uphold patients’ rights” and “enlightened practice”. This study revealed that the concept of maintaining patients’ dignity is related to health providers’ duty to preserve patients’ dignity and also their moral obligation to manifest the human love that is in their own as well as their patients’ nature. In conclusion, if nurses reflect on the transcendental nature of nursing care, they will value and prize their

  7. Mothers in prison: maintaining connections with children.

    PubMed

    Mignon, Sylvia I; Ransford, Paige

    2012-01-01

    The significant increase in the number of incarcerated women ensures that many children must live without their mothers for some period of time. Women in prison were interviewed about their efforts to maintain relationships with their children. Mail and telephone contacts were more frequent than actual visits. Almost one half of mothers had never received a visit from their children. This article identifies challenges to the development and maintenance of contact between incarcerated mothers and their children. Recommendations are made for correctional agencies to enhance opportunities for incarcerated mothers to foster positive connections with their children.

  8. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  9. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    PubMed

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.

  10. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  11. Design guidelines for remotely maintained equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, T.W.; Evans, J.H.; Peishel, F.L.; Schrock, S.L.; Smith, G.E.; Macdonald, D.

    1988-11-01

    The CFRP has pioneered and developed the concept of totally remote operation and maintenance of process equipment in spent fuel reprocessing, using force-reflecting master/slave servomanipulators, coupled with television viewing, to extend human capabilities effectively throughout an uninhabitable environment. This concept enhances safeguard control of nuclear materials, provides for low-exposure of personnel to radiation and reliable recovery from unplanned events, ensures high plant availability, and aids eventual decommissioning of the plant. The results of this experience have been organized in this document to enable designers to consider this technology, not only in spent fuel reprocessing, but among various other situations that may be hazardous to personnel. This document is an expanded and updated version of an earlier design guide that was specific to fuel reprocessing requirements. The guidelines identified in the present document suggest a general approach to the design of effective, reliable, safe, remotely operated and maintained facilities. This document may be used broadly to apply remotely maintained equipment in hostile environments based on proven techniques, equipment, and well-established practices. The concepts are particularly applicable to large plant facilities where economy of scale is important. The theme emphasizes utilization of ordinary commercial tools, equipment, and materials widely available. 5 refs., 51 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE).

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M; Brick, Timothy R; Pritikin, Joshua N; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D; Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant's personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual's data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  13. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  14. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE).

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M; Brick, Timothy R; Pritikin, Joshua N; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D; Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant's personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual's data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies.

  15. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  16. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  17. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE)

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.; Brick, Timothy R.; Pritikin, Joshua N.; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D.; Maes, Hermine H.; Neale, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly-impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participants’ personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual’s data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  18. Design guidelines for remotely maintainable equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Manouchehri, Davoud

    1988-01-01

    The quantity and complexity of on-orbit assets will increase significantly over the next decade. Maintaining and servicing these costly assets represent a difficult challenge. Three general methods are proposed to maintain equipment while it is still in orbit: an extravehicular activity (EVA) crew can perform the task in an unpressurized maintenance area outside any space vehicle; an intravehicular activity (IVA) crew can perform the maintenance in a shirt sleeve environment, perhaps at a special maintenance work station in a space vehicle; or a telerobotic manipulator can perform the maintenance in an unpressurized maintenance area at a distance from the crew (who may be EVA, IVA, or on the ground). However, crew EVA may not always be possible; the crew may have other demands on their time that take precedence. In addition, the orbit of the tasks themselves may be impossible for crew entry. Also crew IVA may not always be possible as option for equipment maintenance. For example, the equipment may be too large to fit through the vehicle airlock. Therefore, in some circumstances, the third option, telerobotic manipulation, may be the only feasible option. Telerobotic manipulation has, therefore, an important role for on-orbit maintenance. It is not only used for the reasons outlined above, but also used in some cases as backup to the EVA crew in an orbit that they can reach.

  19. The N-DRC forms a conserved biochemical complex that maintains outer doublet alignment and limits microtubule sliding in motile axonemes

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; VanderWaal, Kristyn; Perrone, Catherine A.; Mueller, Joshua; Fox, Laura; Sale, Winfield S.; Porter, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    The nexin–dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) is proposed to coordinate dynein arm activity and interconnect doublet microtubules. Here we identify a conserved region in DRC4 critical for assembly of the N-DRC into the axoneme. At least 10 subunits associate with DRC4 to form a discrete complex distinct from other axonemal substructures. Transformation of drc4 mutants with epitope-tagged DRC4 rescues the motility defects and restores assembly of missing DRC subunits and associated inner-arm dyneins. Four new DRC subunits contain calcium-signaling motifs and/or AAA domains and are nearly ubiquitous in species with motile cilia. However, drc mutants are motile and maintain the 9 + 2 organization of the axoneme. To evaluate the function of the N-DRC, we analyzed ATP-induced reactivation of isolated axonemes. Rather than the reactivated bending observed with wild-type axonemes, ATP addition to drc-mutant axonemes resulted in splaying of doublets in the distal region, followed by oscillatory bending between pairs of doublets. Thus the N-DRC provides some but not all of the resistance to microtubule sliding and helps to maintain optimal alignment of doublets for productive flagellar motility. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that regulate motility and further highlight the importance of the proximal region of the axoneme in generating flagellar bending. PMID:23427265

  20. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  1. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards. PMID:24591599

  2. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gotts, Stephen J; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L; Saad, Ziad S; Cox, Robert W; Martin, Alex

    2013-09-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability.

  3. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate–acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate–acquired distinction is under attack in contemporary philosophy of biology. Three arguments are then presented to provide a limited and pragmatic defense of the distinction: an epistemic, a conceptual, and a historical argument. If interpreted in a certain manner, and if the pragmatic goals of prevention and treatment (ideally specifying what medicine and health care is all about) are taken into account, then the innate–acquired distinction can be a useful epistemic tool. It can help, first, to understand that genetic determination does not mean fatalism, and, second, to maintain a system of checks and balances in the continuing nature–nurture debates. PMID:20234831

  4. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold. PMID:22390713

  5. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  6. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  7. How homologous recombination maintains telomere integrity.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, Eliana M C; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes against loss of genetic information and inappropriate processing as damaged DNA and are therefore crucial to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. In addition to providing a pathway for genome-wide DNA repair, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in telomere replication and capping. Consistent with this, the genomic instability characteristic of HR-deficient cells and tumours is driven in part by telomere dysfunction. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which HR modulates the response to intrinsic cellular challenges that arise during telomere replication, as well as its impact on the assembly of telomere protective structures. How normal and tumour cells differ in their ability to maintain telomeres is deeply relevant to the search for treatments that would selectively eliminate cells whose capacity for HR-mediated repair has been compromised.

  8. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    PubMed

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use. PMID:21329438

  9. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    PubMed

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use.

  10. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  11. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  12. Dynamics of EEG Rhythms Support Distinct Visual Selection Mechanisms in Parietal Cortex: A Simultaneous Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Spadone, Sara; Tosoni, Annalisa; Sestieri, Carlo; Romani, Gian Luca; Della Penna, Stefania; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we have recently shown a functional anatomical distinction in human parietal cortex between regions involved in maintaining attention to a location [ventral intraparietal sulcus (vIPS)] and a region involved in shifting attention between locations [medial superior parietal lobule (mSPL)]. In particular, while rTMS interference over vIPS impaired target discrimination at contralateral attended locations, interference over mSPL affected performance following shifts of attention regardless of the visual field (Capotosto et al., 2013). Here, using rTMS interference in conjunction with EEG recordings of brain rhythms during the presentation of cues that indicate to either shift or maintain spatial attention, we tested whether this functional anatomical segregation involves different mechanisms of rhythm synchronization. The transient inactivation of vIPS reduced the amplitude of the expected parieto-occipital low-α (8–10 Hz) desynchronization contralateral to the cued location. Conversely, the transient inactivation of mSPL, compared with vIPS, reduced the high-α (10–12 Hz) desynchronization induced by shifting attention into both visual fields. Furthermore, rTMS induced a frequency-specific delay of task-related modulation of brain rhythms. Specifically, rTMS over vIPS or mSPL during maintenance (stay cues) or shifting (shift cues) of spatial attention, respectively, caused a delay of α parieto-occipital desynchronization. Moreover, rTMS over vIPS during stay cues caused a delay of δ (2–4 Hz) frontocentral synchronization. These findings further support the anatomo-functional subdivision of the dorsal attention network in subsystems devoted to shifting or maintaining covert visuospatial attention and indicate that these mechanisms operate in different frequency channels linking frontal to parieto-occipital visual regions. PMID:25589765

  13. Structural Mechanism behind Distinct Efficiency of Oct4/Sox2 Proteins in Differentially Spaced DNA Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Yesudhas, Dhanusha; Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Panneerselvam, Suresh; Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Shah, Masaud; Choi, Sangdun

    2016-01-01

    The octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (Sox2) proteins induce various transcriptional regulators to maintain cellular pluripotency. Most Oct4/Sox2 complexes have either 0 base pairs (Oct4/Sox20bp) or 3 base pairs (Oct4/Sox23bp) separation between their DNA-binding sites. Results from previous biochemical studies have shown that the complexes separated by 0 base pairs are associated with a higher pluripotency rate than those separated by 3 base pairs. Here, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and calculations to determine the binding free energy and per-residue free energy for the Oct4/Sox20bp and Oct4/Sox23bp complexes to identify structural differences that contribute to differences in induction rate. Our MD simulation results showed substantial differences in Oct4/Sox2 domain movements, as well as secondary-structure changes in the Oct4 linker region, suggesting a potential reason underlying the distinct efficiencies of these complexes during reprogramming. Moreover, we identified key residues and hydrogen bonds that potentially facilitate protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, in agreement with previous experimental findings. Consequently, our results confess that differential spacing of the Oct4/Sox2 DNA binding sites can determine the magnitude of transcription of the targeted genes during reprogramming. PMID:26790000

  14. How many TCR clonotypes does a body maintain?

    PubMed Central

    Lythe, Grant; Callard, Robin E.; Hoare, Rollo L.; Molina-París, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    We consider the lifetime of a T cell clonotype, the set of T cells with the same T cell receptor, from its thymic origin to its extinction in a multiclonal repertoire. Using published estimates of total cell numbers and thymic production rates, we calculate the mean number of cells per TCR clonotype, and the total number of clonotypes, in mice and humans. When there is little peripheral division, as in a mouse, the number of cells per clonotype is small and governed by the number of cells with identical TCR that exit the thymus. In humans, peripheral division is important and a clonotype may survive for decades, during which it expands to comprise many cells. We therefore devise and analyse a computational model of homeostasis of a multiclonal population. Each T cell in the model competes for self pMHC stimuli, cells of any one clonotype only recognising a small fraction of the many subsets of stimuli. A constant mean total number of cells is maintained by a balance between cell division and death, and a stable number of clonotypes by a balance between thymic production of new clonotypes and extinction of existing ones. The number of distinct clonotypes in a human body may be smaller than the total number of naive T cells by only one order of magnitude. PMID:26546971

  15. Maintaining osmotic balance with an aglomerular kidney.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M Danielle; Grosell, Martin

    2006-04-01

    The gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, is a marine teleost fish with an aglomerular kidney that is highly specialized to conserve water. Despite this adaptation, toadfish have the ability to survive when in dilute hypoosmotic seawater environments. The objectives of this study were to determine the joint role of the kidney and intestine in maintaining osmotic and ionic balance and to investigate whether toadfish take advantage of their urea production ability and use urea as an osmolyte. Toadfish were gradually acclimated to different salinities (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 22, 33, 50 and 70 ppt (1.5%, 7.5%, 15%, 30%, 45%, 67%, 100%, 151% and 212% seawater)) and muscle tissue, urine, blood and intestinal fluids were analyzed for ion and in some cases urea concentration. The renal and intestinal ionoregulatory processes of toadfish responded to changes in salinity and when gradually acclimated, toadfish maintain a relatively constant plasma osmolality at environmental salinities of 5 to 50 ppt. However, at salinities lower (2.5 ppt) or higher (70 ppt) than this range, a significant deviation from resting plasma and urine osmolality as well as changes in muscle water content was measured, suggesting osmoregulatory difficulties at these salinities. The renal system compensates for dilute seawater by reducing Na+ reabsorption by the bladder, which allowed excess water to be excreted. In the case of hypersalinity, Na+ reabsorption was increased, which resulted in a conservation of water and the concentration of Mg2+, Cl-, SO(4)2- and urea. A similar pattern was observed within the gastrointestinal system. Notably, Mg2+, HCO3- and SO4(2-) were the dominant ions in the intestinal fluid under control and hypersaline conditions due to the absorption of Na+, Cl- and water. When exposed to dilute seawater conditions, the absorption of Na+ was greatly reduced which likely increased water elimination. As a result of decreased environmental levels and a reduction in drinking rate, Mg2+ and

  16. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  17. Selection maintaining protein stability at equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Sanzo

    2016-02-21

    The common understanding of protein evolution has been that neutral mutations are fixed by random drift, and a proportion of neutral mutations depending on the strength of structural and functional constraints primarily determines evolutionary rate. Recently it was indicated that fitness costs due to misfolded proteins are a determinant of evolutionary rate and selection originating in protein stability is a driving force of protein evolution. Here we examine protein evolution under the selection maintaining protein stability. Protein fitness is a generic form of fitness costs due to misfolded proteins; s=κexp(ΔG/kT)(1-exp(ΔΔG/kT)), where s and ΔΔG are selective advantage and stability change of a mutant protein, ΔG is the folding free energy of the wildtype protein, and κ is a parameter representing protein abundance and indispensability. The distribution of ΔΔG is approximated to be a bi-Gaussian distribution, which represents structurally slightly- or highly-constrained sites. Also, the mean of the distribution is negatively proportional to ΔG. The evolution of this gene has an equilibrium point (ΔGe) of protein stability, the range of which is consistent with observed values in the ProTherm database. The probability distribution of Ka/Ks, the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate per site, over fixed mutants in the vicinity of the equilibrium shows that nearly neutral selection is predominant only in low-abundant, non-essential proteins of ΔGe>-2.5 kcal/mol. In the other proteins, positive selection on stabilizing mutations is significant to maintain protein stability at equilibrium as well as random drift on slightly negative mutations, although the average 〈Ka/Ks〉 is less than 1. Slow evolutionary rates can be caused by both high protein abundance/indispensability and large effective population size, which produces positive shifts of ΔΔG through decreasing ΔGe, and strong structural constraints, which directly make

  18. Distinct requirements for Wntless in habenular development

    PubMed Central

    Akitake, Courtney M.; Fortuno, Lea; Gamse, Joshua; Moens, Cecilia; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2015-01-01

    Secreted Wnt proteins play pivotal roles in development, including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, progenitor maintenance and tissue patterning. The transmembrane protein Wntless (Wls) is necessary for secretion of most Wnts and essential for effective Wnt signaling. During a mutagenesis screen to identify genes important for development of the habenular nuclei in the dorsal forebrain, we isolated a mutation in the sole wls gene of zebrafish and confirmed its identity with a second, independent allele. Early embryonic development appears normal in homozygous wls mutants, but they later lack the ventral habenular nuclei, form smaller dorsal habenulae and otic vesicles, have truncated jaw and fin cartilages and lack swim bladders. Activation of a reporter for β-catenin-dependent transcription is decreased in wls mutants, indicative of impaired signaling by the canonical Wnt pathway, and expression of Wnt-responsive genes is reduced in the dorsal diencephalon. Wnt signaling was previously implicated in patterning of the zebrafish brain and in the generation of left–right (L–R) differences between the bilaterally paired dorsal habenular nuclei. Outside of the epithalamic region, development of the brain is largely normal in wls mutants and, despite their reduced size, the dorsal habenulae retain L–R asymmetry. We find that homozygous wls mutants show a reduction in two cell populations that contribute to the presumptive dorsal habenulae. The results support distinct temporal requirements for Wls in habenular development and reveal a new role for Wnt signaling in the regulation of dorsal habenular progenitors. PMID:26116173

  19. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif ‘YxxI’, suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  20. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  1. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom.

  2. Maintaining urban gas systems demands special technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Anglero, T.F. )

    1994-04-01

    Brooklyn Union Gas Co. has been providing gas to 50% of the population of New York City for the last 100 years. The company has constructed an elaborate gas distribution network that includes a gas main under nearly every city street in a service territory that includes Brooklyn, Staten Island and parts of Queens. Conventional ways of pipeline construction and maintenance are inadequate in today's environment of heightened competition, increased regulations and, most importantly, demanding customer expectations of quality service. As a result, Brooklyn Union Gas must use special construction and maintenance methods in its operations, and in particular trenchless technologies. Over the past 10 years the company has paid close attention to developing a variety of trenchless techniques. Like many gas distribution companies providing service in densely populated urban areas, Brooklyn Union must operate and maintain its gas distribution network in a challenging environment of increasing governmental regulation and escalating field construction costs. Technological innovation is not a luxury, but instead a necessity to achieve corporate growth, regulatory compliance and greater customer satisfaction. Trenchless technologies offset rising pipe installation costs and provide benefits both to the customer and the company. Of special value to Brooklyn Union is the development of systems that renovate old metal pipes by lining. Such techniques are described.

  3. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G.; Flavahan, William A.; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes – FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1 — elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  4. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  5. Generating and maintaining jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Youbong; Lee, Ilha

    2008-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a lipid-derived plant hormone that mediates diverse biological phenomena. It is one of major goals in JA research field to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of JA level. Recently we have demonstrated cooperative and differentiated roles of two chloroplast localized galactolipases, DGL (DONGLE) and DAD1 (DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE 1), for the regulation of JA content. The DGL maintains a basal level of JA in unwounded vegetative tissues, while the DAD1 is involved in JA production in floral tissues. The JA in vegetative tissues regulates cell expansion while the JA produced in flowers regulates pollen maturation. After wounding, the cooperative function of DGL and DAD1 causes drastic increase of JA. The analysis of induction kinetics showed that the two enzymes have temporally separated roles in wound response; DGL in early phase and DAD1 in late phase of JA production. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our recent findings and extend our working model for JA homeostasis in plants.

  6. Exploring how nurse lecturers maintain clinical credibility.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie T

    2005-01-01

    The role of the nurse lecturer is changing. There is growing pressure from the government and professionals alike to recruit nurse teachers who posses both practical and recent experience of nursing [Department of Health, 1999. Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Health Care. DOH, London; UKCC, 2000. Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting. UKCC, London]. Whilst much of the literature available suggests a growing concern amongst practitioners, students and nurse educationalists themselves about the importance of being ;clinically credible', what is not clear is how tangible it is to maintain currency and clinical credibility. In addition, the term ;clinical credibility' is in itself ill-defined. An exploratory study was undertaken within one higher education institution which sought to seek the views of nurse lecturers. The principles of ethnography were applied to this research. The sample included six of the most recently appointed nurse lecturers within one academic faculty who taught predominantly on pre-registration programmes. Data from individual and focus group interviews was analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. The findings are discussed which embrace the concepts of: working ;hands on' in the clinical area, clinical currency, transferability of skills, clinical visibility and role development. Recommendations for the development of professional practice are offered. PMID:19038175

  7. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom. PMID:15044166

  8. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif 'YxxI', suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  9. Two retrotransposons maintain telomeres in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pardue, M.-L.; Rashkova, S.; Casacuberta, E.; DeBaryshe, P.G.; George, J. A.; Traverse, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Telomeres across the genus Drosophila are maintained, not by telomerase, but by two non-LTR retrotransposons, HeT-A and TART, that transpose specifically to chromosome ends. Successive transpositions result in long head-to-tail arrays of these elements. Thus Drosophila telomeres, like those produced by telomerase, consist of repeated sequences reverse transcribed from RNA templates. The Drosophila repeats, complete and 5′-truncated copies of HeT-A and TART, are more complex than telomerase repeats; nevertheless these evolutionary variants have functional similarities to the more common telomeres. Like other telomeres, the Drosophila arrays are dynamic, fluctuating around an average length that can be changed by changes in the genetic background. Several proteins that interact with telomeres in other species have been found to have homologues that interact with Drosophila telomeres. Although they have hallmarks of non-LTR retrotransposons, HeT-A and TART appear to have a special relationship to Drosophila. Their Gag proteins are efficiently transported into diploid nuclei where HeT-A Gag recruits TART Gag to chromosome ends. Gags of other non-LTR elements remain predominantly in the cytoplasm. These studies provide intriguing evolutionary links between telomeres and retrotransposable elements. PMID:16132810

  10. Work Adjustment of the Methadone-Maintained Corporate Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankowitz, Robert; Randell, Joan

    1977-01-01

    The work adjustment of 26 methadone-maintained corporate employees was evaluated. Results indicated: (a) relative to their nonmethadone-maintained coworkers, the methadone-maintained employees had comparable job performance and superior punctuality and attendance; and (b) the methadone-maintained skilled laborers were satisfied with their…

  11. The role of predators in maintaining the geographic organization of aposematic signals.

    PubMed

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Angers, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    Selective predation of aposematic signals is expected to promote phenotypic uniformity. But while these signals may be uniform within a population, numerous species display impressive variations in warning signals among adjacent populations. Predators from different localities who learn to avoid distinct signals while performing intense selection on others are thus expected to maintain such a geographic organization. We tested this assumption by placing clay frog models, representing distinct color morphs of the Peruvian poison dart frog Ranitomeya imitator and a nonconspicuous frog, reciprocally between adjacent localities. In each locality, avian predators were able to discriminate between warning signals; the adjacent exotic morph experienced up to four times more attacks than the local one and two times more than the nonconspicuous phenotype. Moreover, predation attempts on the exotic morph quickly decreased to almost nil, suggesting rapid learning. This experiment offers direct evidence for the existence of different predator communities performing localized homogenizing selection on distinct aposematic signals. PMID:22089874

  12. Lifelong bilingualism maintains white matter integrity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Grady, Cheryl L

    2011-11-16

    Previous research has shown that bilingual speakers have higher levels of cognitive control than comparable monolinguals, especially at older ages. The present study investigates a possible neural correlate of this behavioral effect. Given that white matter (WM) integrity decreases with age in adulthood, we tested the hypothesis that bilingualism is associated with maintenance of WM in older people. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we found higher WM integrity in older people who were lifelong bilinguals than in monolinguals. This maintained integrity was measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) and was found in the corpus callosum extending to the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. We also hypothesized that stronger WM connections would be associated with more widely distributed patterns of functional connectivity in bilinguals. We tested this by assessing the resting-state functional connectivity of frontal lobe regions adjacent to WM areas with group differences in FA. Bilinguals showed stronger anterior to posterior functional connectivity compared to monolinguals. These results are the first evidence that maintained WM integrity is related to lifelong naturally occurring experience; the resulting enhanced structural and functional connectivity may provide a neural basis for "brain reserve."

  13. Multi-Voxel Decoding and the Topography of Maintained Information During Visual Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Baker, Chris I

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain representations in the absence of external sensory stimulation, such as in working memory, is critical for guiding human behavior. Human functional brain imaging studies suggest that visual working memory can recruit a network of brain regions from visual to parietal to prefrontal cortex. In this review, we focus on the maintenance of representations during visual working memory and discuss factors determining the topography of those representations. In particular, we review recent studies employing multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) that demonstrate decoding of the maintained content in visual cortex, providing support for a "sensory recruitment" model of visual working memory. However, there is some evidence that maintained content can also be decoded in areas outside of visual cortex, including parietal and frontal cortex. We suggest that the ability to maintain representations during working memory is a general property of cortex, not restricted to specific areas, and argue that it is important to consider the nature of the information that must be maintained. Such information-content is critically determined by the task and the recruitment of specific regions during visual working memory will be both task- and stimulus-dependent. Thus, the common finding of maintained information in visual, but not parietal or prefrontal, cortex may be more of a reflection of the need to maintain specific types of visual information and not of a privileged role of visual cortex in maintenance.

  14. Multi-Voxel Decoding and the Topography of Maintained Information During Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain representations in the absence of external sensory stimulation, such as in working memory, is critical for guiding human behavior. Human functional brain imaging studies suggest that visual working memory can recruit a network of brain regions from visual to parietal to prefrontal cortex. In this review, we focus on the maintenance of representations during visual working memory and discuss factors determining the topography of those representations. In particular, we review recent studies employing multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) that demonstrate decoding of the maintained content in visual cortex, providing support for a “sensory recruitment” model of visual working memory. However, there is some evidence that maintained content can also be decoded in areas outside of visual cortex, including parietal and frontal cortex. We suggest that the ability to maintain representations during working memory is a general property of cortex, not restricted to specific areas, and argue that it is important to consider the nature of the information that must be maintained. Such information-content is critically determined by the task and the recruitment of specific regions during visual working memory will be both task- and stimulus-dependent. Thus, the common finding of maintained information in visual, but not parietal or prefrontal, cortex may be more of a reflection of the need to maintain specific types of visual information and not of a privileged role of visual cortex in maintenance. PMID:26912997

  15. Distinct neural patterns of social cognition for cooperation versus competition.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Lily; Dungan, James; Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane

    2016-08-15

    How do people consider other minds during cooperation versus competition? Some accounts predict that theory of mind (ToM) is recruited more for cooperation versus competition or competition versus cooperation, whereas other accounts predict similar recruitment across these two contexts. The present fMRI study examined activity in brain regions for ToM (bilateral temporoparietal junction, precuneus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) across cooperative and competitive interactions with the same individual within the same paradigm. Although univariate analyses revealed that ToM regions overall were recruited similarly across interaction contexts, multivariate pattern analyses revealed that these regions nevertheless encoded information separating cooperation from competition. Specifically, ToM regions encoded differences between cooperation and competition when people believed the outcome was determined by their and their partner's choices but not when the computer determined the outcome. We propose that, when people are motivated to consider others' mental states, ToM regions encode different aspects of mental states during cooperation versus competition. Given the role of these regions for ToM, these findings reveal distinct patterns of social cognition for distinct motivational contexts.

  16. Distinct neural patterns of social cognition for cooperation versus competition.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Lily; Dungan, James; Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane

    2016-08-15

    How do people consider other minds during cooperation versus competition? Some accounts predict that theory of mind (ToM) is recruited more for cooperation versus competition or competition versus cooperation, whereas other accounts predict similar recruitment across these two contexts. The present fMRI study examined activity in brain regions for ToM (bilateral temporoparietal junction, precuneus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) across cooperative and competitive interactions with the same individual within the same paradigm. Although univariate analyses revealed that ToM regions overall were recruited similarly across interaction contexts, multivariate pattern analyses revealed that these regions nevertheless encoded information separating cooperation from competition. Specifically, ToM regions encoded differences between cooperation and competition when people believed the outcome was determined by their and their partner's choices but not when the computer determined the outcome. We propose that, when people are motivated to consider others' mental states, ToM regions encode different aspects of mental states during cooperation versus competition. Given the role of these regions for ToM, these findings reveal distinct patterns of social cognition for distinct motivational contexts. PMID:27165762

  17. Establishing and maintaining cell polarity with mRNA localization in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justinn; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Shidlovskii, Yulii; Schedl, Paul

    2016-03-01

    How cell polarity is established and maintained is an important question in diverse biological contexts. Molecular mechanisms used to localize polarity proteins to distinct domains are likely context-dependent and provide a feedback loop in order to maintain polarity. One such mechanism is the localized translation of mRNAs encoding polarity proteins, which will be the focus of this review and may play a more important role in the establishment and maintenance of polarity than is currently known. Localized translation of mRNAs encoding polarity proteins can be used to establish polarity in response to an external signal, and to maintain polarity by local production of polarity determinants. The importance of this mechanism is illustrated by recent findings, including orb2-dependent localized translation of aPKC mRNA at the apical end of elongating spermatid tails in the Drosophila testis, and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA in Drosophila follicle and embryonic epithelia.

  18. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.

  19. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  20. Dpp signaling determines regional stem cell identity in the regenerating adult Drosophila gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjie; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2013-07-11

    The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a series of epithelia that share functional requirements but also have distinct, highly specialized roles. Distinct populations of somatic stem cells (SCs) regenerate these epithelia, yet the mechanisms that maintain regional identities of these SCs are not well understood. Here, we identify a role for the BMP-like Dpp signaling pathway in diversifying regenerative processes in the adult gastrointestinal tract of Drosophila. Dpp secreted from enterocytes at the boundary between the posterior midgut and the middle midgut (MM) sets up a morphogen gradient that selectively directs copper cell (CC) regeneration from gastric SCs in the MM and thus determines the size of the CC region. In vertebrates, deregulation of BMP signaling has been associated with Barrett's metaplasia, wherein the squamous esophageal epithelium is replaced by a columnar epithelium, suggesting that the maintenance of regional SC identities by BMP is conserved.

  1. Triton College: One Institution's Search for Distinctiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.; Catanzaro, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Recounts Triton College's efforts to identify its distinctive elements. Reviews empirical evidence showing that Triton's school schedule, curricular offerings, and continuing education and support services are distinctive among local colleges. Discusses students' and staff members' perceptions of Triton. Considers the value of the research to the…

  2. 14 CFR 1252.411 - Age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Age distinctions. 1252.411 Section 1252.411 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN... Procedures § 1252.411 Age distinctions. There are no Federal statutes or regulations containing...

  3. 14 CFR 1252.411 - Age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Age distinctions. 1252.411 Section 1252.411 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN... Procedures § 1252.411 Age distinctions. There are no Federal statutes or regulations containing...

  4. 14 CFR 1252.411 - Age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Age distinctions. 1252.411 Section 1252.411 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN... Procedures § 1252.411 Age distinctions. There are no Federal statutes or regulations containing...

  5. 14 CFR 1252.411 - Age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Age distinctions. 1252.411 Section 1252.411 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN... Procedures § 1252.411 Age distinctions. There are no Federal statutes or regulations containing...

  6. Evidence for a Distinct Kind of Noun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the spontaneous speech of four children and their parents for use of determiners with NP-type nouns and count nouns. Found that the parents made a clear distinction between the two kinds of nouns, omitting determiners with the NP-type nouns but not with the count nouns. The children all made the same distinction by four years of age. (HTH)

  7. Evaluation of the genetic distinctiveness of Greater Sage-grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further characterize a distinct population of Greater Sage-grouse: the population located along the border between Nevada and California (Bi-State Planning Area) and centered around the Mono Basin. This population was previously determined to be genetically distinct from other Greater Sage-grouse populations across their range. Previous genetic work focused on characterizing genetic variation across the species' range and thereby used a coarse sampling approach for species characterization. The goal of this study was to investigate this population further by obtaining samples from breeding locations within the population and analyzing those samples with the same mitochondrial and microsatellite loci used in previous studies. Blood samples were collected in six locations within the Bi-State Planning Area. Genetic data from subpopulations were then compared with each other and also with two populations outside of the Bi-State Planning Area. Particular attention was paid to subpopulation boundaries and internal dynamics by drawing comparisons among particular regions within the Bi-State Planning Area and regions proximal to it. All newly sampled subpopulations contained mitochondrial haplotypes and allele frequencies that were consistent with the genetically unique Bi-State (Mono Basin) Greater Sage-grouse described previously. This reinforces the fact that this group of Greater Sage-grouse is genetically unique and warrants special attention. Maintaining the genetic integrity of this population could protect the evolutionary potential of this population of Greater Sage-grouse. Additionally, the White Mountains subpopulation was found to be significantly distinct from all other Bi-State subpopulations.

  8. Evolution of identity signals: frequency-dependent benefits of distinctive phenotypes used for individual recognition.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Michael J; Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

    2009-12-01

    Identifying broad-scale evolutionary processes that maintain phenotypic polymorphisms has been a major goal of modern evolutionary biology. There are numerous mechanisms, such as negative frequency-dependent selection, that may maintain polymorphisms, although it is unknown which mechanisms are prominent in nature. Traits used for individual recognition are strikingly variable and have evolved independently in numerous lineages, providing an excellent model to investigate which factors maintain ecologically relevant phenotypic polymorphisms. Theoretical models suggest that individuals may benefit by advertising their identities with distinctive, recognizable phenotypes. Here, we test the benefits of advertising one's identity with a distinctive phenotype. We manipulated the appearance of Polistes fuscatus paper wasp groups so that three individuals had the same appearance and one individual had a unique, easily recognizable appearance. We found that individuals with distinctive appearances received less aggression than individuals with nondistinctive appearances. Therefore, individuals benefit by advertising their identity with a unique phenotype. Our results provide a potential mechanism through which negative frequency-dependent selection may maintain the polymorphic identity signals in P. fuscatus. Given that recognition is important for many social interactions, selection for distinctive identity signals may be an underappreciated and widespread mechanism underlying the evolution of phenotypic polymorphisms in social taxa. PMID:19744121

  9. Distinction between epigenic and hypogenic maze caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    2011-11-01

    Certain caves formed by dissolution of bedrock have maze patterns composed of closed loops in which many intersecting fractures or pores have enlarged simultaneously. Their origin can be epigenic (by shallow circulation of meteoric groundwater) or hypogenic (by rising groundwater or production of deep-seated solutional aggressiveness). Epigenic mazes form by diffuse infiltration through a permeable insoluble caprock or by floodwater supplied by sinking streams. Most hypogenic caves involve deep sources of aggressiveness. Transverse hypogenic cave origin is a recently proposed concept in which groundwater of mainly meteoric origin rises across strata in the distal portions of large flow systems, to form mazes in soluble rock sandwiched between permeable but insoluble strata. The distinction between maze types is debated and is usually based on examination of diagnostic cave features and relation of caves to their regional setting. In this paper, the principles of mass transfer are applied to clarify the limits of each model, to show how cave origin is related to groundwater discharge, dissolution rate, and time. The results show that diffuse infiltration and floodwater can each form maze caves at geologically feasible rates (typically within 500 ka). Transverse hypogenic mazes in limestone, to enlarge significantly within 1 Ma, require an unusually high permeability of the non-carbonate beds (generally ≥ 10-4 cm/s), large discharge, and calcite saturation no greater than 90%, which is rare in deep diffuse flow in sedimentary rocks. Deep sources of aggressiveness are usually required. The origin of caves by transverse hypogenic flow is much more favorable in evaporite rocks than in carbonate rocks.

  10. Techniques to maintain functionality during degraded performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Joseph R.; White, Joshua S.

    2010-04-01

    In technology the notion of beyond state-of-the-art often begins when a paradigm is shifted. In this paper the authors present their work which has fundamentally enabled an enterprise to insure operational viability under the very real cyber facts: "we are under constant attack, it is a hostile space and we can control the point of contact." That point of contact is the optical bit stream which is currently beyond the scope of the standard cyber toolset. EverisTM, in working with our customers, has developed the tools to capture, view, analyze, and control the correlative (interdependent network, metadata, data and users) information as it traverses the core, regional, and global fiber optic networks. This capability to visualize below the operational picture afforded by current network intrusion detection systems can be combined with real-time intervention at the network core yielding prioritization, identification, and authentication of authentication. This directly translates into sophisticated end user interaction across the interdependencies often viewed as the "cloud". Everis has demonstrated unique applications based on this capability that includes mitigation of DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service), identification of "forged" IP (Internet Protocol) addresses, malicious executable destruction, WAN (Wide Area Network) IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) and connectionless routing vs. connection based switching.

  11. 33 CFR 118.5 - Penalty for failure to maintain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintain lights and other signals upon any bridge or abutment over or in the navigable waters of the United States who fails or refuses to maintain such lights and other signals, or to obey any of the lawful...

  12. 33 CFR 118.5 - Penalty for failure to maintain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintain lights and other signals upon any bridge or abutment over or in the navigable waters of the United States who fails or refuses to maintain such lights and other signals, or to obey any of the lawful...

  13. 33 CFR 118.5 - Penalty for failure to maintain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintain lights and other signals upon any bridge or abutment over or in the navigable waters of the United States who fails or refuses to maintain such lights and other signals, or to obey any of the lawful...

  14. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  15. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  16. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  17. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  18. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  19. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  20. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  4. 4 CFR 200.11 - Maintaining records of disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosure. 200.11 Section 200.11 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.11 Maintaining records of disclosure. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purposes of each...

  5. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintaining and accounting for funds. 668.163 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.163 Maintaining and accounting for funds. (a)(1) Bank or investment account. An institution must maintain title...

  6. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintaining and accounting for funds. 668.163 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.163 Maintaining and accounting for funds. (a)(1) Bank or investment account. An institution must maintain title...

  7. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintaining and accounting for funds. 668.163 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.163 Maintaining and accounting for funds. (a)(1) Bank or investment account. An institution must maintain title...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14460 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What records must I maintain? 62.14460 Section 62.14460 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 62.14460 What records must I maintain? You must maintain...

  9. 24 CFR 1003.505 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records to be maintained. 1003.505 Section 1003.505 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... Administration § 1003.505 Records to be maintained. Each grantee shall establish and maintain sufficient...

  10. 24 CFR 1003.505 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records to be maintained. 1003.505 Section 1003.505 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... Administration § 1003.505 Records to be maintained. Each grantee shall establish and maintain sufficient...

  11. 24 CFR 1003.505 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records to be maintained. 1003.505 Section 1003.505 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... Administration § 1003.505 Records to be maintained. Each grantee shall establish and maintain sufficient...

  12. 24 CFR 1003.505 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records to be maintained. 1003.505 Section 1003.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Administration § 1003.505 Records to be maintained. Each grantee shall establish and maintain sufficient...

  13. Seasonal dynamics in photosynthesis of woody plants at the northern limit of Asian tropics: potential role of fog in maintaining tropical rainforests and agriculture in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Holbrook, N Michele; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2014-10-01

    The lowland tropical rainforests in Xishuangbanna, Southwest (SW) China, mark the northern limit of Asian tropics. Fog has been hypothesized to play a role in maintaining rainforests and tropical crop production in this region, but the physiological mechanism has not been studied. The goals of this study were to characterize the seasonal dynamics in photosynthesis and to assess the potential for fog to mitigate chilling-induced photodamage for tropical trees and crops in Xishuangbanna. We measured seasonal dynamics in light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (Aa), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 concentration, quantum yield of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and maximum P700 changes (Pm; indicates the amount of active PSI complex), as well as chilling resistance and fog (light/shading) effects on low temperature-induced decline in Fv/Fm and Pm for native tree and introduced lower latitude tree or woody shrub species grown in a tropical botanical garden. Despite significant decreases in Aa, gs, Pm and Fv/Fm, most species maintained considerably high Aa during the cool season (2.51-14.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Shaded leaves exposed to seasonal low temperatures had higher Fv/Fm than sun-exposed leaves in the cool season. All species could tolerate 1.4 °C in the dark, whereas a combined treatment of low temperature and high light caused a distinctly faster decline in Pm and Fv/Fm compared with low temperature treatment alone. Because fog persistence avoids or shortens the duration of high light condition in the morning when the temperatures are still low, our results provide support for the hypothesis that fog reduces chilling damage to tropical plants in this region and thus plays a role in maintaining tropical rainforests and agriculture in SW China.

  14. Velocity Selective Networks in Human Cortex Reveal Two Functionally Distinct Auditory Motion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jhao-An; Saberi, Kourosh; Hsieh, I-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system encounters motion cues through an acoustic object’s movement or rotation of the listener’s head in a stationary sound field, generating a wide range of naturally occurring velocities from a few to several hundred degrees per second. The angular velocity of moving acoustic objects relative to a listener is typically slow and does not exceed tens of degrees per second, whereas head rotations in a stationary acoustic field may generate fast-changing spatial cues in the order of several hundred degrees per second. We hypothesized that these two types of systems (i.e., encoding slow movements of an object or fast head rotations) may engage functionally distinct substrates in processing spatially dynamic auditory cues, with the latter potentially involved in maintaining perceptual constancy in a stationary field during head rotations and therefore possibly involving corollary-discharge mechanisms in premotor cortex. Using fMRI, we examined cortical response patterns to sound sources moving at a wide range of velocities in 3D virtual auditory space. We found a significant categorical difference between fast and slow moving sounds, with stronger activations in response to higher velocities in the posterior superior temporal regions, the planum temporale, and notably the premotor ventral-rostral (PMVr) area implicated in planning neck and head motor functions. PMID:27294673

  15. Thermal responses and perceptions under distinct ambient temperature and wind conditions.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yamamoto, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Wind conditions are widely recognized to influence the thermal states of humans. In this study, we investigated the relationship between wind conditions and thermal perception and energy balance in humans. The study participants were exposed for 20 min to 3 distinct ambient temperatures, wind speeds, and wind angles. During the exposure, the skin temperatures as a physiological reaction and mental reactions of the human body were measured and the energy balance was calculated based on the human thermal-load method. The results indicate that the human thermal load is an accurate indicator of human thermal states under all wind conditions. Furthermore, wind speed and direction by themselves do not account for the human thermal experience. Because of the thermoregulation that occurs to prevent heat loss and protect the core of the body, a low skin temperature was maintained and regional differences in skin temperature were detected under cool ambient conditions. Thus, the human thermal load, which represents physiological parameters such as skin-temperature change, adequately describes the mixed sensation of the human thermal experience.

  16. Selective removal of mitochondria via mitophagy: distinct pathways for different mitochondrial stresses.

    PubMed

    Wei, Huifang; Liu, Lei; Chen, Quan

    2015-10-01

    The efficient and selective elimination of damaged or excessive mitochondria in response to bioenergetic and environmental cues is critical for maintaining a healthy and appropriate population of mitochondria. Mitophagy is considered to be the central mechanism of mitochondrial quality and quantity control. Atg32, a mitophagy receptor in yeast, recruits mitochondria targeted for degradation into the isolation membrane via both direct and indirect interactions with Atg8. In mammals, different mitophagy effectors, including the mitophagy receptors NIX, BNIP3 and FUDNC1 and the PINK1/Parkin pathway, have been identified to participate in the selective clearance of mitochondria. One common feature of mitophagy receptors is that they harbor an LC3-interacting region (LIR) that interacts with LC3, thus promoting the sequestration of mitochondria into the isolation membrane. Additionally, both receptor- and Parkin/PINK1-mediated mitophagy have been found to be regulated by reversible phosphorylation. Here, we review the recent progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in selective mitophagy at multiple levels. We also discuss different mitophagy receptors from an evolutionary perspective and highlight the specific functions of and possible cooperation between distinct mechanisms of mitophagy.

  17. Evidence for multiple, distinct representations of the human body.

    PubMed

    Schwoebel, John; Coslett, H Branch

    2005-04-01

    Previous data from single-case and small group studies have suggested distinctions among structural, conceptual, and online sensorimotor representations of the human body. We developed a battery of tasks to further examine the prevalence and anatomic substrates of these body representations. The battery was administered to 70 stroke patients. Fifty-one percent of the patients were impaired relative to controls on at least one body representation measure. Further, principal components analysis of the patient data as well as direct comparisons of patient and control performance suggested a triple dissociation between measures of the 3 putative body representations. Consistent with previous distinctions between the "what" and "how" pathways, lesions of the left temporal lobe were most consistently associated with impaired performance on tasks assessing knowledge of the shape or lexical-semantic information about the body, whereas lesions of the dorsolateral frontal and parietal regions resulted in impaired performance on tasks requiring on-line coding of body posture.

  18. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.

  19. Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications.

    PubMed

    Poff, N Leroy; Olden, Julian D; Merritt, David M; Pepin, David M

    2007-04-01

    Global biodiversity in river and riparian ecosystems is generated and maintained by geographic variation in stream processes and fluvial disturbance regimes, which largely reflect regional differences in climate and geology. Extensive construction of dams by humans has greatly dampened the seasonal and interannual streamflow variability of rivers, thereby altering natural dynamics in ecologically important flows on continental to global scales. The cumulative effects of modification to regional-scale environmental templates caused by dams is largely unexplored but of critical conservation importance. Here, we use 186 long-term streamflow records on intermediate-sized rivers across the continental United States to show that dams have homogenized the flow regimes on third- through seventh-order rivers in 16 historically distinctive hydrologic regions over the course of the 20th century. This regional homogenization occurs chiefly through modification of the magnitude and timing of ecologically critical high and low flows. For 317 undammed reference rivers, no evidence for homogenization was found, despite documented changes in regional precipitation over this period. With an estimated average density of one dam every 48 km of third- through seventh-order river channel in the United States, dams arguably have a continental scale effect of homogenizing regionally distinct environmental templates, thereby creating conditions that favor the spread of cosmopolitan, nonindigenous species at the expense of locally adapted native biota. Quantitative analyses such as ours provide the basis for conservation and management actions aimed at restoring and maintaining native biodiversity and ecosystem function and resilience for regionally distinct ecosystems at continental to global scales.

  20. Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications.

    PubMed

    Poff, N Leroy; Olden, Julian D; Merritt, David M; Pepin, David M

    2007-04-01

    Global biodiversity in river and riparian ecosystems is generated and maintained by geographic variation in stream processes and fluvial disturbance regimes, which largely reflect regional differences in climate and geology. Extensive construction of dams by humans has greatly dampened the seasonal and interannual streamflow variability of rivers, thereby altering natural dynamics in ecologically important flows on continental to global scales. The cumulative effects of modification to regional-scale environmental templates caused by dams is largely unexplored but of critical conservation importance. Here, we use 186 long-term streamflow records on intermediate-sized rivers across the continental United States to show that dams have homogenized the flow regimes on third- through seventh-order rivers in 16 historically distinctive hydrologic regions over the course of the 20th century. This regional homogenization occurs chiefly through modification of the magnitude and timing of ecologically critical high and low flows. For 317 undammed reference rivers, no evidence for homogenization was found, despite documented changes in regional precipitation over this period. With an estimated average density of one dam every 48 km of third- through seventh-order river channel in the United States, dams arguably have a continental scale effect of homogenizing regionally distinct environmental templates, thereby creating conditions that favor the spread of cosmopolitan, nonindigenous species at the expense of locally adapted native biota. Quantitative analyses such as ours provide the basis for conservation and management actions aimed at restoring and maintaining native biodiversity and ecosystem function and resilience for regionally distinct ecosystems at continental to global scales. PMID:17360379

  1. Distinctive antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of flavonols.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lisu; Tu, Yi-Chen; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Hung, Jing-Ting; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2006-12-27

    The antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of flavonols have been suggested to be structure-related. Results revealed that selected flavonols, including fisetin (F), kaempferol (K), morin (MO), myricetin (MY), and quercetin (Q), exhibited distinctive free radical scavenging properties against different kinds of free radicals. The H donation (DPPH bleaching) potential was Q > F approximately equals MY > MO > K, indicating that the presence of a 3',4'-catechol moiety in the B ring correlated with high activity. The 4'-OH in the B ring was suggested to be important for reducing xanthing/xanthine oxidase-generated superoxide; while an additional OH moiety on the ortho sites (3' or 5') attenuated the effect as the observed inhibitory potency was K approximately equals MO > Q > F > MY. The relative inhibitory effect for Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical was K approximately equals MO approximately equals Q > F > MY. This result implies the involvement of 4-keto, 5-OH region in Fe++ chelating and the negative effect of pyrogallol moiety in the B ring. Similar to the inhibitory activity against a N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP)-stimulated oxidative burst in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), our result showed that the structural peculiarity of the di-OH in the B ring obviously rendered F, Q, and MO more potent as ROS inhibitors than MY and K, which have tri- and mono-OH in the B ring, respectively. All of the previous data indicated that the structure prerequisite to reinforce the free radical scavenging activity varies with the type of free radical. We further analyzed the effects of flavonols on nitric oxide (NO) production in endotoxin-stimulated murine macrophages, RAW264.7 cells. Results showed that all flavonols (up to 10 microM) inhibited NO production without exerting detectable cytotoxicity. F, K, and Q dose-dependently repressed iNOS mRNA expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, in part through an attenuating NF-kappaB signaling

  2. Maintaining human health at the border of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsieh, Jui-Wei; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Because international travel is now more frequent and convenient, communicable diseases that occur in one region can be transmitted to another area within a few hours. For this reason, many efforts have been undertaken in Taiwan to establish a comprehensive border quarantine system to protect against imported diseases that may threaten the health of the population. According to the International Health Regulations (2005), decades of development strategies for border quarantine have covered not only routine practices and specific measures for handling a pandemic but also have drawn attention to the development of core capacities at designated points of entry. However, as a result of the rapidly increasing number of points of entry, changes in transportation patterns, and the emergence of diseases, current border quarantine practice is being challenged to maintain human resources and the efficacy of entry screening. It is therefore critical to reexamine border quarantine strategies that will fit future needs and national conditions. This article reviews the current border health practices in Taiwan and discusses 5 key challenges to be further considered and improved. The findings can serve as a guide for further policy reform in Taiwan and other countries. PMID:25396287

  3. SIM2 maintains innate host defense of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Jung; Lizaso, Analyn; Lee, Ying-Hue

    2014-12-01

    The single-minded 2 (SIM2) protein is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor regulating central nervous system (CNS) development in Drosophila. In humans, SIM2 is located within the Down syndrome critical region on chromosome 21 and may be involved in the development of mental retardation phenotype in Down syndrome. In this study, knockout of SIM2 expression in mice resulted in a gas distention phenotype in the gastrointestinal tract. We found that SIM2 is required for the expression of all cryptdins and numerous other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) expressed in the small intestine. The mechanism underlying how SIM2 controls AMP expression involves both direct and indirect regulations. For the cryptdin genes, SIM2 regulates their expression by modulating transcription factor 7-like 2, a crucial regulator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, while for other AMP genes, such as RegIIIγ, SIM2 directly activates their promoter activity. Our results establish that SIM2 is a crucial regulator in controlling expression of intestinal AMPs to maintain intestinal innate immunity against microbes.

  4. Maintaining US Space Weather Capabilities after DMSP: Research to Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machuzak, J. S.; Gentile, L. C.; Burke, W. J.; Holeman, E. G.; Ober, D. M.; Wilson, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    The first Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft was launched in 1972; the last is scheduled to fly in 2020. Presently, there is no replacement for the space-weather monitoring sensors that now fly on DMSP. The present suite has provided comprehensive, long-term records that constitute a critical component of the US space weather corporate memory. Evolving operational needs and research accomplishments justify continued collection of space environmental data. Examples include measurements to: (1) Monitor the Dst index in real time as a driver of next-generation satellite drag models; (2) Quantify electromagnetic energy fluxes from deep space to the ionosphere/ thermosphere that heat neutrals, drive disturbance-dynamo winds and degrade precise orbit determinations; (3) Determine strengths of stormtime electric fields at high and low latitudes that lead to severe blackouts and spacecraft anomalies; (4) Specify variability of plasma density irregularities, equatorial plasma bubbles, and the Appleton anomaly to improve reliability of communication, navigation and surveillance links; (5) Characterize energetic particle fluxes responsible for auroral clutter and radar degradation; (6) Map regions of L-Band scintillation for robust GPS applications; and (7) Update the World Magnetic Field Model needed to maintain guidance system superiority. These examples illustrate the utility of continued space environment awareness. Comprehensive assessments of both operational requirements and research advances are needed to make informed selections of sensors and spacecraft that support future capabilities. A proposed sensor set and satellite constellation to provide the needed measurement capabilities will be presented.

  5. Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Brian T; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D

    2013-01-01

    Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task-switching paradigm, including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task-switching experiment while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task-switching performance. In addition, the lower blood oxygenation level-dependent response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task-switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes.

  6. Different Functions of Phylogenetically Distinct Bacterial Complex I Isozymes

    PubMed Central

    Spero, Melanie A.; Brickner, Joshua R.; Mollet, Jordan T.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a bioenergetic enzyme that transfers electrons from NADH to quinone, conserving the energy of this reaction by contributing to the proton motive force. While the importance of NADH oxidation to mitochondrial aerobic respiration is well documented, the contribution of complex I to bacterial electron transport chains has been tested in only a few species. Here, we analyze the function of two phylogenetically distinct complex I isozymes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an alphaproteobacterium that contains well-characterized electron transport chains. We found that R. sphaeroides complex I activity is important for aerobic respiration and required for anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) respiration (in the absence of light), photoautotrophic growth, and photoheterotrophic growth (in the absence of an external electron acceptor). Our data also provide insight into the functions of the phylogenetically distinct R. sphaeroides complex I enzymes (complex IA and complex IE) in maintaining a cellular redox state during photoheterotrophic growth. We propose that the function of each isozyme during photoheterotrophic growth is either NADH synthesis (complex IA) or NADH oxidation (complex IE). The canonical alphaproteobacterial complex I isozyme (complex IA) was also shown to be important for routing electrons to nitrogenase-mediated H2 production, while the horizontally acquired enzyme (complex IE) was dispensable in this process. Unlike the singular role of complex I in mitochondria, we predict that the phylogenetically distinct complex I enzymes found across bacterial species have evolved to enhance the functions of their respective electron transport chains. IMPORTANCE Cells use a proton motive force (PMF), NADH, and ATP to support numerous processes. In mitochondria, complex I uses NADH oxidation to generate a PMF, which can drive ATP synthesis. This study analyzed the function of complex I in bacteria, which contain more

  7. Building and Maintaining Trust in a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Suzanne; Watts, Vanessa; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun; Young, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Although intervention research is vital to eliminating health disparities, many groups with health disparities have had negative research experiences, leading to an understandable distrust of researchers and the research process. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches seek to reverse this pattern by building trust between community members and researchers. We highlight strategies for building and maintaining trust from an American Indian CBPR project and focus on 2 levels of trust building and maintaining: (1) between university and community partners and (2) between the initial project team and the larger community. This article was cowritten by community and academic partners; by offering the voices of community partners, it provides a novel and distinctive contribution to the CBPR literature. PMID:18556605

  8. Ergothioneine maintains redox and bioenergetic homeostasis essential for drug susceptibility and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Vikram; Cumming, Bridgette M.; Guidry, Loni; Lamprecht, Dirk; Adamson, John H.; Reddy, Vineel P.; Chinta, Krishna C.; Mazorodzo, James; Glasgow, Joel N.; Richard-Greenblatt, Melissa; Gomez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Bach, Horacio; Av-Gay, Yossef; Eoh, Hyungjin; Rhee, Kyu; Steyn, Adrie J.C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) maintains metabolic equilibrium to survive during infection and upon exposure to antimycobacterial drugs are poorly characterized. Ergothioneine (EGT) and mycothiol (MSH) are the major redox buffers present in Mtb, but the contribution of EGT to Mtb redox homeostasis and virulence remains unknown. We report that Mtb WhiB3, a 4Fe-4S redox sensor protein, regulates EGT production and maintains bioenergetic homeostasis. We show that central carbon metabolism and lipid precursors regulate EGT production and that EGT modulates drug sensitivity. Notably, EGT and MSH are both essential for redox and bioenergetic homeostasis. Transcriptomic analyses of EGT and MSH mutants indicate overlapping, but distinct functions of EGT and MSH. Lastly, we show that EGT is critical for Mtb survival in both macrophages and mice. This study has uncovered a dynamic balance between Mtb redox and bioenergetic homeostasis, which critically influences Mtb drug susceptibility and pathogenicity. PMID:26774486

  9. Birefringence properties of a polarization maintaining Panda fibre during Bragg grating regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polz, Leonhard; Jarsen, Andreas; Bartelt, Hartmut; Roths, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    Regeneration of fibre Bragg gratings under application of a high temperature annealing process in a high birefringent polarisation maintaining fibre of type Panda was investigated. During the annealing process, a distinct nonlinearity and hysteresis of the birefringence with temperature was observed. After the temperature process, the birefringence between slow and fast axis at room temperature was nearly doubled, which is in agreement with observations of other researchers. The hysteresis in birefringence might be explained by the crossing of the transition temperature of the stress applying parts and the relief of in-frozen mechanical and thermal stresses.

  10. Maintenance of neural stem cell regional identity in culture.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Ryan N; Lu, Changqing; Lim, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are distributed throughout the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) in the adult mouse brain. NSCs located in spatially distinct regions of the V-SVZ generate different types of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and the regional expression of specific transcription factors correlates with these differences in NSC developmental potential. In a recent article, we show that Nkx2.1-expressing embryonic precursors give rise to NKX2.1+ NSCs located in the ventral V-SVZ of adult mice. Here we characterize a V-SVZ monolayer culture system that retains regional gene expression and neurogenic potential of NSCs from the dorsal and ventral V-SVZ. In particular, we find that Nkx2.1-lineage V-SVZ NSCs maintain Nkx2.1 expression through serial passage and can generate new neurons in vitro. Thus, V-SVZ NSCs retain key aspects of their in vivo regional identity in culture, providing new experimental opportunities for understanding how such developmental patterns are established and maintained during development. PMID:27606338

  11. A ribonucleoprotein complex protects the interleukin-6 mRNA from degradation by distinct herpesviral endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mandy; Hutin, Stephanie; Marigold, Oliver; Li, Kathy H; Burlingame, Al; Glaunsinger, Britt A

    2015-05-01

    During lytic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, the viral endonuclease SOX promotes widespread degradation of cytoplasmic messenger RNA (mRNA). However, select mRNAs escape SOX-induced cleavage and remain robustly expressed. Prominent among these is interleukin-6 (IL-6), a growth factor important for survival of KSHV infected B cells. IL-6 escape is notable because it contains a sequence within its 3' untranslated region (UTR) that can confer protection when transferred to a SOX-targeted mRNA, and thus overrides the endonuclease targeting mechanism. Here, we pursued how this protective RNA element functions to maintain mRNA stability. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified a set of proteins that associate specifically with the protective element. Although multiple proteins contributed to the escape mechanism, depletion of nucleolin (NCL) most severely impacted protection. NCL was re-localized out of the nucleolus during lytic KSHV infection, and its presence in the cytoplasm was required for protection. After loading onto the IL-6 3' UTR, NCL differentially bound to the translation initiation factor eIF4H. Disrupting this interaction, or depleting eIF4H, reinstated SOX targeting of the RNA, suggesting that interactions between proteins bound to distant regions of the mRNA are important for escape. Finally, we found that the IL-6 3' UTR was also protected against mRNA degradation by the vhs endonuclease encoded by herpes simplex virus, despite the fact that its mechanism of mRNA targeting is distinct from SOX. These findings highlight how a multitude of RNA-protein interactions can impact endonuclease targeting, and identify new features underlying the regulation of the IL-6 mRNA. PMID:25965334

  12. Moral fiction or moral fact? The distinction between doing and allowing in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2013-06-01

    Opponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) maintain that physician withdrawal-of-life-sustaining-treatment cannot be morally equated to voluntary active euthanasia. PAS opponents generally distinguish these two kinds of act by positing a possible moral distinction between killing and allowing-to-die, ceteris paribus. While that distinction continues to be widely accepted in the public discourse, it has been more controversial among philosophers. Some ethicist PAS advocates are so certain that the distinction is invalid that they describe PAS opponents who hold to the distinction as in the grip of 'moral fictions'. The author contends that such a diagnosis is too hasty. The possibility of a moral distinction between active euthanasia and allowing-to-die has not been closed off by the argumentative strategies employed by these PAS advocates, including the contrasting cases strategy and the assimilation of doing and allowing to a common sense notion of causation. The philosophical debate over the doing/allowing distinction remains inconclusive, but physicians and others who rely upon that distinction in thinking about the ethics of end-of-life care need not give up on it in response to these arguments. PMID:22296611

  13. Distinct photoresponse in graphene induced by laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wen Hui; Nan, Hai Yan; Liu, Qi; Ni, Zhen Hua; Liang, Zheng; Yu, Zhi Hao; Liu, Feng Yuan; Wang, Xin Ran; Hu, Wei Da; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-12

    The graphene-based photodetector with tunable p-p{sup +}-p junctions was fabricated through a simple laser irradiation process. Distinct photoresponse was observed at the graphene (G)-laser irradiated graphene (LIG) junction by scanning photocurrent measurements, and its magnitude can be modulated as a result of a positive correlation between the photocurrent and doping concentration in LIG region. Detailed investigation suggests that the photo-thermoelectric effect, instead of the photovoltaic effect, dominates the photocurrent generation at the G-LIG junctions. Such a simple and low-cost technique offers an alternative way for the fabrication of graphene-based optoelectronic devices.

  14. What is morally distinctive about genetic engineering?

    PubMed

    Porter, J

    1990-01-01

    It sometimes seems that genetic engineering is suspect, both to its practitioners and to the general public, because it is perceived as being somehow unnatural. This essay argues, on the basis of an analysis of two senses of "natural," that there is nothing distinctively morally problematic about genetic engineering, at least on the grounds of its alleged unnaturalness. It does not follow that we cannot distinguish among morally legitimate and morally suspect uses of genetic engineering. But these distinctions can and should be drawn on the basis of the same considerations that enter into the evaluation of particular uses of any other medical procedure.

  15. Teacher Preparation for Distinctive Evangelical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Thomas Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In the current atmosphere of expanding school choice, evangelical Christian schools provide a distinctive alternative consistent with deeply held beliefs of what is required for human flourishing, and represent a significant resource for parents seeking education based on a perspective diverging from those promoted by popular culture and public…

  16. The Distinctive Difficulties of Disagreeable Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Hafen, Christopher A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether disagreeable youth are distinct from aggressive youth, victimized youth, and withdrawn youth. Young adolescents (120 girls and 104 boys, M = 13.59 years old) completed personality and adjustment inventories. Aggression, withdrawal, and victimization scores were derived from peer nominations (N = 807). Cluster analyses…

  17. Indopithecus giganteus distinct from Sivapithecus indicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madden, C.T.; Lewis, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The very large Eurasian Miocene ape Indopithecus giganteus is distinct from contemporanious Sivapithecus (non-Dryopithecus)indicus. The probabilities that length and width for the only specimen of I. giganteus could be sampled from populations similar or identical to those of S. indicus are less than six chances in 100,000 for both parameters. ?? 1980 Japan Monkey Centre.

  18. Hemispheric lateralization of semantic feature distinctiveness

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, M.; Machado, N.; Blumstein, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent models of semantic memory propose that the semantic representation of concepts is based, in part, on a network of features. In this view, a feature that is distinctive for an object (a zebra has stripes) is processed differently from a feature that is shared across many objects (a zebra has four legs). The goal of this paper is to determine whether there are hemispheric differences in such processing. In a feature verification task, participants responded ‘yes’ or ‘no’ following concepts which were presented to a single visual field (left or right) paired with a shared or distinctive feature. Both hemispheres showed faster reaction times to shared features than to distinctive features, although right hemisphere responses were significantly slower overall and particularly in the processing of distinctive features. These findings support models of semantic processing in which the dominant left hemisphere more efficiently performs highly discriminating ‘fine’ encoding, in contrast to the right hemisphere which performs less discriminating ‘coarse’ encoding. PMID:26022059

  19. Collegiate Educators: From Novice to Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Kimberly Ashton

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore reflective practices of lived experiences of collegiate educators as they progressed from novice to distinction. Specifically, this study investigated how a phenomenon connects to consciousness from lived experiences of teachers who proceeded from novice to a distinguished collegiate…

  20. A Linguistic Approach to Distinctive Feature Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blache, Stephen E.; Parsons, Carl L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an instructional procedure for teaching distinctive features to children with articulation problems. The procedure uses minimal pairs to teach a feature. A four step program is described that considers conceptual skills, discrimination and production training, as well as carry-over. (Author/SBH)

  1. Similarity and rules: distinct? Exhaustive? Empirically distinguishable?

    PubMed

    Hahn, U; Chater, N

    1998-01-01

    The distinction between rule-based and similarity-based processes in cognition is of fundamental importance for cognitive science, and has been the focus of a large body of empirical research. However, intuitive uses of the distinction are subject to theoretical difficulties and their relation to empirical evidence is not clear. We propose a 'core' distinction between rule- and similarity-based processes, in terms of the way representations of stored information are 'matched' with the representation of a novel item. This explication captures the intuitively clear-cut cases of processes of each type, and resolves apparent problems with the rule/similarity distinction. Moreover, it provides a clear target for assessing the psychological and AI literatures. We show that many lines of psychological evidence are less conclusive than sometimes assumed, but suggest that converging lines of evidence may be persuasive. We then argue that the AI literature suggests that approaches which combine rules and similarity are an important new focus for empirical work.

  2. Toward a Distinctive Christian Undergraduate Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas M.; VanderVeen, Steve

    2008-01-01

    We motivate and develop a theoretical framework for creating a distinctive Christian undergraduate management program that is directed toward providing (a) the necessary intellectual characteristics to do "well" and (b) the necessary emotional characteristics to do "good." This framework consists of seven propositions that connect the learning…

  3. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  4. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

    PubMed

    Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Väinölä, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in

  5. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

    PubMed

    Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Väinölä, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in

  6. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea

    PubMed Central

    Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Väinölä, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in

  7. 27 CFR 478.123 - Records maintained by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records maintained by manufacturers. 478.123 Section 478.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Records § 478.123 Records maintained by manufacturers. (a) Each licensed manufacturer shall record...

  8. 27 CFR 478.123 - Records maintained by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Records maintained by manufacturers. 478.123 Section 478.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Records § 478.123 Records maintained by manufacturers. (a) Each licensed manufacturer shall record...

  9. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  10. Maintaining Institutional Integrity. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Donald E., Ed.; Vaughan, George B., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of articles addresses ways in which community colleges can maintain institutional integrity while at the same time adapting the colleges' mission to a changing environment. The following articles are included: (1) "The Search for Mission and Integrity: A Retrospective View," by Jennings L. Wagoner, Jr.; (2) "Maintaining Open Access…

  11. 9 CFR 439.20 - Criteria for maintaining accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.20 Criteria for maintaining... establishment may assign the analysis of official samples to an FSIS laboratory if, in the inspector's judgment... been analyzed under this Program. (2) Maintain complete records of the receipt, analysis,...

  12. 9 CFR 439.20 - Criteria for maintaining accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.20 Criteria for maintaining... establishment may assign the analysis of official samples to an FSIS laboratory if, in the inspector's judgment... been analyzed under this Program. (2) Maintain complete records of the receipt, analysis,...

  13. 29 CFR 1204.1 - Making and maintaining contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making and maintaining contracts. 1204.1 Section 1204.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD LABOR CONTRACTS § 1204.1 Making and maintaining contracts. It is the duty of all carriers, their officers, agents, and employees...

  14. 29 CFR 1204.1 - Making and maintaining contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making and maintaining contracts. 1204.1 Section 1204.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD LABOR CONTRACTS § 1204.1 Making and maintaining contracts. It is the duty of all carriers, their officers, agents, and employees...

  15. 29 CFR 1204.1 - Making and maintaining contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making and maintaining contracts. 1204.1 Section 1204.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD LABOR CONTRACTS § 1204.1 Making and maintaining contracts. It is the duty of all carriers, their officers, agents, and employees...

  16. 29 CFR 1204.1 - Making and maintaining contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making and maintaining contracts. 1204.1 Section 1204.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD LABOR CONTRACTS § 1204.1 Making and maintaining contracts. It is the duty of all carriers, their officers, agents, and employees...

  17. 29 CFR 1204.1 - Making and maintaining contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making and maintaining contracts. 1204.1 Section 1204.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD LABOR CONTRACTS § 1204.1 Making and maintaining contracts. It is the duty of all carriers, their officers, agents, and employees...

  18. Object Representations Maintain Attentional Control Settings across Space and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that we create and maintain mental representations for perceived objects on the basis of their spatiotemporal continuity. An important question is what type of information can be maintained within these so-called object files. We provide evidence that object files retain specific attentional control settings for…

  19. Cantilever springs maintain tension in thermally expanded wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terselic, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    Two deflected cantilever springs strung with wire provide force displacement compensation to maintain tension in the wires as they undergo thermal expansion. This method of maintaining tension in thermally expanded wires is used in electric space heaters and residential heat exchangers.

  20. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  1. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  2. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  3. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  4. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  5. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  6. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  7. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  8. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  9. 2 CFR 182.40 - How is the guidance maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is the guidance maintained? 182.40 Section 182.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS...) § 182.40 How is the guidance maintained? The OMB publishes proposed changes to the guidance in...

  10. 24 CFR 6.6 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall maintain records and data as required by 24 CFR 91.105, 91.115, 570.490, and 570.506. (b... Commission at 29 CFR part 1600. (c) Recipients shall make available such records and any supporting... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records to be maintained....

  11. 24 CFR 6.6 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shall maintain records and data as required by 24 CFR 91.105, 91.115, 570.490, and 570.506. (b... Commission at 29 CFR part 1600. (c) Recipients shall make available such records and any supporting... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records to be maintained....

  12. 24 CFR 6.6 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shall maintain records and data as required by 24 CFR 91.105, 91.115, 570.490, and 570.506. (b... Commission at 29 CFR part 1600. (c) Recipients shall make available such records and any supporting... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records to be maintained....

  13. 29 CFR 794.144 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Records to be maintained. 794.144 Section 794.144 Labor... From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 7(b)(3) of the Act Records to Be Kept by Employers § 794.144 Records to be maintained. (a) Form of records. No particular order or form of records...

  14. 29 CFR 794.144 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Records to be maintained. 794.144 Section 794.144 Labor... From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 7(b)(3) of the Act Records to Be Kept by Employers § 794.144 Records to be maintained. (a) Form of records. No particular order or form of records...

  15. 29 CFR 794.144 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records to be maintained. 794.144 Section 794.144 Labor... From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 7(b)(3) of the Act Records to Be Kept by Employers § 794.144 Records to be maintained. (a) Form of records. No particular order or form of records...

  16. 24 CFR 6.6 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall maintain records and data as required by 24 CFR 91.105, 91.115, 570.490, and 570.506. (b... Commission at 29 CFR part 1600. (c) Recipients shall make available such records and any supporting... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records to be maintained....

  17. 24 CFR 6.6 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall maintain records and data as required by 24 CFR 91.105, 91.115, 570.490, and 570.506. (b... Commission at 29 CFR part 1600. (c) Recipients shall make available such records and any supporting... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records to be maintained....

  18. 29 CFR 794.144 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Records to be maintained. 794.144 Section 794.144 Labor... From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 7(b)(3) of the Act Records to Be Kept by Employers § 794.144 Records to be maintained. (a) Form of records. No particular order or form of records...

  19. 30 CFR 886.22 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RECLAMATION GRANTS FOR UNCERTIFIED STATES AND INDIAN TRIBES § 886.22 What records must I maintain? You must maintain complete records in accordance with 43 CFR part 12. Your records must support the information you reported to us. This includes, but is not limited...

  20. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Persons required to maintain records. 163.2 Section 163.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.2 Persons required to maintain records....

  1. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Persons required to maintain records. 163.2 Section 163.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.2 Persons required to maintain records....

  2. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Persons required to maintain records. 163.2 Section 163.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.2 Persons required to maintain records....

  3. 19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... operational standards of the ABI system and maintain a high level of quality in the transmission of data, as... standards of the ABI system or maintain a high level of quality as described above may be placed on... the participant fails to respond within the allotted time, or fails to show to the satisfaction of...

  4. 22 CFR 171.2 - Types of records maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.2 Types of records maintained. Most of the records maintained by the Department pertain to the formulation and execution of U.S. foreign...

  5. 31 CFR 205.24 - How are accurate estimates maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are accurate estimates maintained... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.24 How are accurate estimates maintained? (a) If a State has knowledge that an estimate does not reasonably correspond to the State's cash needs for a Federal assistance...

  6. 41 CFR 51-4.3 - Maintaining qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Maintaining qualification. 51-4.3 Section 51-4.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 4-NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-4.3 Maintaining qualification. (a)...

  7. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Troy; Toon, Jamie; Conner, Angelo C.; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program’s subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  8. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Jamie; Toon, Troy; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology that was developed to allocate reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program's subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. Allocating is an iterative process; as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases this provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. Trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper will discuss the value of modifying reliability and maintainability allocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  9. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-03-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environ- mental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government.

  10. [Diagnostic and treatment measures in patients with sympathetically maintained pain].

    PubMed

    Maier, C; Gleim, M

    1998-08-27

    The term "sympathetically maintained pain" (SMP) describes a symptom that might accompany a variety of diseases (CRPS, (post-) herpetic and post-injury neuralgia), which might transform into sympathetically independent pain (SIP) after some time. Patients with SMP present a bunch of disorders of the autonomic and sensory system, but the only reliable way to diagnose a pain as SMP is a positive response to an intervention at the sympathetic nervous system. Three ways of influencing the sympathetic system are commonly used: (a) local anesthetic sympathetic blockade (SB), (b) intravenous regional sympathectomy (IVRS) and (c) ganglionic local opioid application (GLOA). A review of current literature shows that SB has certain advantages in diagnostic sensitivity, whereas GLOA might be slightly superior in therapy of some diseases with longstanding pain history. Obviously, the therapeutic benefit of all interventions is complete independent of the accompanying autonomic disorder and of a blockade of efferent fibers. A new heuristic model of the SMP mechanism is presented, including both experimental and clinical data. For reducing the risks of false positive or negative diagnosis of SMP and SIP, a diagnostic algorithm is proposed. This includes optimizing the technique, changes of interventional measures, and adequate monitoring both of analgesia and as well of the extend of efferent sympathetic blockade (e.g. measurement of sympathetic reflexes). The treatment recommendations in patients with SMP vary in dependence of the kind of disease. In SMP, invasive measures play an important, but only limited role within the comprehensive treatment concept. As an example a three-stage, symptom-adapted treatment algorithm is demonstrated for CRPS, including also drug therapy, psychologic and physiotherapeutic approaches.

  11. Distinct development of the cerebral cortex in platypus and echidna.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D

    2012-01-01

    Both lineages of the modern monotremes have distinctive features in the cerebral cortex, but the developmental mechanisms that produce such different adult cortical architecture remain unknown. Similarly, nothing is known about the differences and/or similarities between monotreme and therian cortical development. We have used material from the Hill embryological collection to try to answer key questions concerning cortical development in monotremes. Our findings indicate that gyrencephaly begins to emerge in the echidna brain shortly before birth (crown-rump length 12.5 mm), whereas the cortex of the platypus remains lissencephalic throughout development. The cortices of both monotremes are very immature at the time of hatching, much like that seen in marsupials, and both have a subventricular zone (SubV) within both the striatum and pallium during post-hatching development. It is particularly striking that in the platypus, this region has an extension from the palliostriatal angle beneath the developing trigeminoreceptive part of the somatosensory cortex of the lateral cortex. The putative SubV beneath the trigeminal part of S1 appears to accommodate at least two distinct types of cell and many mitotic figures and (particularly in the platypus) appears to be traversed by large numbers of thalamocortical axons as these grow in. The association with putative thalamocortical fibres suggests that this region may also serve functions similar to the subplate zone of Eutheria. These findings suggest that cortical development in each monotreme follows distinct paths from at least the time of birth, consistent with a long period of independent and divergent cortical evolution. PMID:22143038

  12. Distinct human stem cell populations in small and large intestine.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Julie M; Thompson, Timothy; Geskin, Albert; LaFramboise, William; Lagasse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease.

  13. Axon degeneration: context defines distinct pathways.

    PubMed

    Geden, Matthew J; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-08-01

    Axon degeneration is an essential part of development, plasticity, and injury response and has been primarily studied in mammalian models in three contexts: 1) Axotomy-induced Wallerian degeneration, 2) Apoptosis-induced axon degeneration (axon apoptosis), and 3) Axon pruning. These three contexts dictate engagement of distinct pathways for axon degeneration. Recent advances have identified the importance of SARM1, NMNATs, NAD+ depletion, and MAPK signaling in axotomy-induced Wallerian degeneration. Interestingly, apoptosis-induced axon degeneration and axon pruning have many shared mechanisms both in signaling (e.g. DLK, JNKs, GSK3α/β) and execution (e.g. Puma, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3). However, the specific mechanisms by which caspases are activated during apoptosis versus pruning appear distinct, with apoptosis requiring Apaf-1 but not caspase-6 while pruning requires caspase-6 but not Apaf-1. PMID:27197022

  14. Use of porous space maintainers in staged mandibular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Henslee, Allan M; Spicer, Patrick P; Shah, Sarita R; Tatara, Alexander M; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G; Wong, Mark E

    2014-05-01

    The success of mandibular reconstructions depends not only on restoring the form and function of lost bone but also on the preservation of the overlying soft tissue layer. In this case study, 5 porous polymethylmethacrylate space maintainers fabricated via patient-specific molds were implanted initially to maintain the vitality of the overlying oral mucosa during staged mandibular reconstructions. Three of the 5 patients healed well; the other 2 patients developed dehiscences, likely due to a thin layer of soft tissue overlying the implant. The results presented provide evidence that a larger investigation of space maintainers fabricated using this method is warranted.

  15. Implanted Microvessels Progress through Distinct Neovascularization Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Sara S.; Greer, Kevin A.; Stiening, Chad M.; Chen, Helen YS.; Kidd, Kameha R.; Schwartz, Mark A; Sullivan, Chris J.; Rekapally, Harish; Hoying, James B.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that implanted microvessels form a new microcirculation with minimal host-derived vessel investment. Our objective was to define the vascular phenotypes present during neovascularization in these implants and identify post-angiogenesis events. Morphological, functional and transcriptional assessments identified three distinct vascular phenotypes in the implants: sprouting angiogenesis, neovascular remodeling, and network maturation. A sprouting angiogenic phenotype appeared first, characterized by high proliferation and low mural cell coverage. This was followed by a neovascular remodeling phenotype characterized by a perfused, poorly organized neovascular network, reduced proliferation, and re-associated mural cells. The last phenotype included a vascular network organized into a stereotypical tree structure containing vessels with normal perivascular cell associations. In addition, proliferation was low and was restricted to the walls of larger microvessels. The transition from angiogenesis to neovascular remodeling coincided with the appearance of blood flow in the implant neovasculature. Analysis of vascular-specific and global gene expression indicates that the intermediate, neovascular remodeling phenotype is transcriptionally distinct from the other two phenotypes. Therefore, this vascular phenotype likely is not simply a transitional phenotype but a distinct vascular phenotype involving unique cellular and vascular processes. Furthermore, this neovascular remodeling phase may be a normal aspect of the general neovascularization process. Given that this phenotype is arguably dysfunctional, many of the microvasculatures present within compromised or diseased tissues may not represent a failure to progress appropriately through a normally occurring neovascularization phenotype. PMID:19833141

  16. Development of individually distinct recognition cues.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Jill M

    2006-11-01

    Despite extensive research on the functions of kin recognition, little is known about ontogenetic changes in the cues mediating such recognition. In Belding's ground squirrels, Spermophilus beldingi, secretions from oral glands are both individually distinct and kin distinct, and function in social recognition across many contexts. Behavioral studies of recognition and kin preferences suggest that these cues may change across development, particularly around the time of weaning and emergence from natal burrows (around 25 days of age). I used an habituation-discrimination task with captive S. beldingi, presenting subjects with odors collected from a pair of pups at several ages across early development. I found that at 21 days of age, but not at 7 or 14, young produce detectable odors. Odors are not individually distinct, however, until 28 days of age, after young have emerged from their burrows and begun foraging. In addition, an individual's odor continues to develop after emergence: odors produced by an individual at 20 and 40 days of age are perceived as dissimilar, yet odors produced at 28 and 40 days are treated as similar. Developmental changes in odors provide a proximate explanation for why S. beldingi littermate preferences are not consolidated until after natal emergence, and demonstrate that conspecifics must update their recognition templates as young develop. PMID:17016836

  17. Gingival Tissue Transcriptomes Identify Distinct Periodontitis Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kebschull, M.; Demmer, R.T.; Grün, B.; Guarnieri, P.; Pavlidis, P.; Papapanou, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    The currently recognized principal forms of periodontitis—chronic and aggressive—lack an unequivocal, pathobiology-based foundation. We explored whether gingival tissue transcriptomes can serve as the basis for an alternative classification of periodontitis. We used cross-sectional whole-genome gene expression data from 241 gingival tissue biopsies obtained from sites with periodontal pathology in 120 systemically healthy nonsmokers with periodontitis, with available data on clinical periodontal status, subgingival microbial profiles, and serum IgG antibodies to periodontal microbiota. Adjusted model-based clustering of transcriptomic data using finite mixtures generated two distinct clusters of patients that did not align with the current classification of chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Differential expression profiles primarily related to cell proliferation in cluster 1 and to lymphocyte activation and unfolded protein responses in cluster 2. Patients in the two clusters did not differ with respect to age but presented with distinct phenotypes (statistically significantly different whole-mouth clinical measures of extent/severity, subgingival microbial burden by several species, and selected serum antibody responses). Patients in cluster 2 showed more extensive/severe disease and were more often male. The findings suggest that distinct gene expression signatures in pathologic gingival tissues translate into phenotypic differences and can provide a basis for a novel classification. PMID:24646639

  18. Conservation of Distinct Genetically-Mediated Human Cortical Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qian; Schork, Andrew; Bartsch, Hauke; Lo, Min-Tzu; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Westlye, Lars T.; Kremen, William S.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Steen, Vidar M.; Espeseth, Thomas; Huentelman, Matt; Agartz, Ingrid; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A.; Dale, Anders M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Chen, Chi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The many subcomponents of the human cortex are known to follow an anatomical pattern and functional relationship that appears to be highly conserved between individuals. This suggests that this pattern and the relationship among cortical regions are important for cortical function and likely shaped by genetic factors, although the degree to which genetic factors contribute to this pattern is unknown. We assessed the genetic relationships among 12 cortical surface areas using brain images and genotype information on 2,364 unrelated individuals, brain images on 466 twin pairs, and transcriptome data on 6 postmortem brains in order to determine whether a consistent and biologically meaningful pattern could be identified from these very different data sets. We find that the patterns revealed by each data set are highly consistent (p<10−3), and are biologically meaningful on several fronts. For example, close genetic relationships are seen in cortical regions within the same lobes and, the frontal lobe, a region showing great evolutionary expansion and functional complexity, has the most distant genetic relationship with other lobes. The frontal lobe also exhibits the most distinct expression pattern relative to the other regions, implicating a number of genes with known functions mediating immune and related processes. Our analyses reflect one of the first attempts to provide an assessment of the biological consistency of a genetic phenomenon involving the brain that leverages very different types of data, and therefore is not just statistical replication which purposefully use very similar data sets. PMID:27459196

  19. Conservation of Distinct Genetically-Mediated Human Cortical Pattern.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Schork, Andrew; Bartsch, Hauke; Lo, Min-Tzu; Panizzon, Matthew S; Westlye, Lars T; Kremen, William S; Jernigan, Terry L; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Steen, Vidar M; Espeseth, Thomas; Huentelman, Matt; Håberg, Asta K; Agartz, Ingrid; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A; Dale, Anders M; Schork, Nicholas J; Chen, Chi-Hua

    2016-07-01

    The many subcomponents of the human cortex are known to follow an anatomical pattern and functional relationship that appears to be highly conserved between individuals. This suggests that this pattern and the relationship among cortical regions are important for cortical function and likely shaped by genetic factors, although the degree to which genetic factors contribute to this pattern is unknown. We assessed the genetic relationships among 12 cortical surface areas using brain images and genotype information on 2,364 unrelated individuals, brain images on 466 twin pairs, and transcriptome data on 6 postmortem brains in order to determine whether a consistent and biologically meaningful pattern could be identified from these very different data sets. We find that the patterns revealed by each data set are highly consistent (p<10-3), and are biologically meaningful on several fronts. For example, close genetic relationships are seen in cortical regions within the same lobes and, the frontal lobe, a region showing great evolutionary expansion and functional complexity, has the most distant genetic relationship with other lobes. The frontal lobe also exhibits the most distinct expression pattern relative to the other regions, implicating a number of genes with known functions mediating immune and related processes. Our analyses reflect one of the first attempts to provide an assessment of the biological consistency of a genetic phenomenon involving the brain that leverages very different types of data, and therefore is not just statistical replication which purposefully use very similar data sets. PMID:27459196

  20. Structural Basis for Myosin V Discrimination Between Distinct Cargoes

    SciTech Connect

    Pashkova,N.; Jin, Y.; Ramaswamy, S.; Weisman, L.

    2006-01-01

    Myosin V molecular motors move cargoes on actin filaments. A myosin V may move multiple cargoes to distinct places at different times. The cargoes attach to the globular tail of myosin V via cargo-specific receptors. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 {angstrom} of the myosin V globular tail. The overall tertiary structure has not been previously observed. There are several patches of highly conserved regions distributed on the surface of the tail. These are candidate attachment sites for cargo-specific receptors. Indeed, we identified a region of five conserved surface residues that are solely required for vacuole inheritance. Likewise, we identified a region of five conserved surface residues that are required for secretory vesicle movement, but not vacuole movement. These two regions are at opposite ends of the oblong-shaped cargo-binding domain, and moreover are offset by 180{sup o}. The fact that the cargo-binding areas are distant from each other and simultaneously exposed on the surface of the globular tail suggests that major targets for the regulation of cargo attachment are organelle-specific myosin V receptors.

  1. Establishing and maintaining cell polarity with mRNA localization in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Justinn; Yakovlev, Konstantin V.; Shidlovskii, Yulii; Schedl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    How cell polarity is established and maintained is an important question in diverse biological contexts. Molecular mechanisms used to localize polarity proteins to distinct domains are likely context-dependent and provide a feedback loop in order to maintain polarity. One such mechanism is the localized translation of mRNAs encoding polarity proteins, which will be the focus of this review and may play a more important role in the establishment and maintenance of polarity than is currently known. Localized translation of mRNAs encoding polarity proteins can be used to establish polarity in response to an external signal, and to maintain polarity by local production of polarity determinants. The importance of this mechanism is illustrated by recent findings, including orb2-dependent localized translation of aPKC mRNA at the apical end of elongating spermatid tails in the Drosophila testis, and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA in Drosophila follicle and embryonic epithelia. PMID:26773560

  2. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  3. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  4. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  5. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  6. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  7. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  8. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  9. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... emergency or industrial mobilization; (3) Be in the interest of national defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational...

  10. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emergency or industrial mobilization; (3) Be in the interest of national defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational...

  11. Control circuit maintains unity power factor of reactive load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, M.; Martinage, L. H.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit including feedback control elements automatically corrects the power factor of a reactive load. It maintains power supply efficiency where negative load reactance changes and varies by providing corrective error signals to the control windings of a power supply transformer.

  12. Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: High School Students

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparedness and Response Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: High School Students Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... died. Having upsetting thoughts or pictures in your mind of what happened. They can pop into your ...

  13. System availability management technique for reliability and maintainability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, G. K.

    1970-01-01

    Method for total system availability analysis is based on numerical prediction of the reliability, maintainability, and availability of each function system. It incorporates these functional-system estimates into an overall mathematical model.

  14. Strategies for Buying and Maintaining Audio Visual Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmbach, John A.; Kruzel, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    Presents guidelines for purchasing and maintaining audiovisual equipment most often used in the classroom. Highlights include selecting a vendor; purchasing associations; preventive maintenance; optical equipment, including overhead projectors, slide projectors, movie projectors, and filmstrip projectors; and electromagnetic equipment, including…

  15. ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. A 0.63 micrometers polarization maintaining optical fiber cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Tamaki, Y.

    1986-11-01

    Polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber cable was developed with negligible small loss increase and high crosstalk for optical interferometric measuring system of JT-60 (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute TOKAMAK-60). Optical interferometric measuring system is required for high precise non-contact measurement of distance or vibration. Polarization maintaining optical fiber enabled to measure them in extremely high electromagnetic field of JT-60. Developed cable is flame-resistant non-metallic type complex 16 fiber cable for 0.6 micron use, that has 8 polarization maintaining optical fibers (stress applying, called PANDA fiber) and 8 single mode optical fibers. This paper shows the experimental result and the possibility of manufacturing polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber cable for 0.63 micron use.

  17. Inverted television and video games to maintain neck extension.

    PubMed

    Foley, K H; Kaulkin, C; Palmieri, T L; Greenhalgh, D G

    2001-01-01

    It has been the standard of care in our pediatric facility to keep patients on strict bedrest with the neck in hyperextension for 5 days after a neck contracture release or grafting. Multiple methods have been used to help maintain neck immobility after grafting. It has been challenging to maintain strict bedrest protocols, because of decreased compliance and boredom. To address this issue, we examined common sedentary diversional activities engaged in by children. We decided to use video games to facilitate the intrinsic motivation of play. The monitor of a video game activity was inverted and placed behind the head of the bed so that the child could maintain proper neck positioning. We found the activity to be beneficial in many aspects. It helped maintain neck positioning, decreased the demand for individual interventions, and provided opportunities for improving self-confidence.

  18. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure the... ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  19. Band and loop space maintainer--made easy.

    PubMed

    Nayak, U A; Loius, J; Sajeev, R; Peter, J

    2004-09-01

    Space maintainers have been used in Pediatric Dentistry for many years. The use of these appliances, however, in terms of indications, contraindications, design and construction has gained little attention from researchers. This paper highlights the construction of a new technique of fabrication of band and loop space maintainer. The advantages of this new Direct technique or Single sitting technique over the conventional technique are discussed.

  20. The Cleveland Clinic: a distinctive model of American medicine.

    PubMed

    Stoller, James K

    2014-04-01

    The Cleveland Clinic is a large healthcare system based in Cleveland, Ohio (USA) with an extensive American (throughout Northeast Ohio; Weston, Florida; and Las Vegas, Nevada) and global presence (in Abu Dhabi, UAE; and with training alumni in >70 countries). Cleveland Clinic was founded in 1921 as a distinctive medical model with a tripartite mission of "better care of the sick, investigation of their problems, and more teaching of those who serve" which has been vibrantly maintained. Distinctive aspects of the Clinic include its being a closed staff, salaried, group practice which is physician-led and which features 1-year faculty appointments and a vigorous annual review process for all physicians and leaders. Regarding its tripartite mission, the Clinic has demonstrated longstanding clinical excellence, e.g., with consistent ranking as first in cardiovascular care in U.S. News and World Report and top-10 rankings in at least 12 other specialties. A longstanding tradition of research has contributed landmark discoveries, including performance of the first coronary revascularization procedure, the first intra-coronary angiogram, the world's third face transplant, ongoing development of a breast cancer vaccine, etc. Regarding education, the Clinic serves many educational audiences excellently through its Education Institute. These audiences include medical students, graduate medical trainees, faculty physicians, nurses, and allied health providers (both within the Cleveland Clinic and from other institutions worldwide), and patients. The Education Institute also includes the Cleveland Clinic Academy, which offers training in leadership competencies to physicians, nurses, and healthcare administrators both within the Cleveland Clinic and to visitors from abroad (through the Executive Visitors Program and the Samson Global Leadership Academy for Healthcare Executives). The latter program is an intensive 2-week residential leadership development course for emerging

  1. The Cleveland Clinic: a distinctive model of American medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Cleveland Clinic is a large healthcare system based in Cleveland, Ohio (USA) with an extensive American (throughout Northeast Ohio; Weston, Florida; and Las Vegas, Nevada) and global presence (in Abu Dhabi, UAE; and with training alumni in >70 countries). Cleveland Clinic was founded in 1921 as a distinctive medical model with a tripartite mission of “better care of the sick, investigation of their problems, and more teaching of those who serve” which has been vibrantly maintained. Distinctive aspects of the Clinic include its being a closed staff, salaried, group practice which is physician-led and which features 1-year faculty appointments and a vigorous annual review process for all physicians and leaders. Regarding its tripartite mission, the Clinic has demonstrated longstanding clinical excellence, e.g., with consistent ranking as first in cardiovascular care in U.S. News and World Report and top-10 rankings in at least 12 other specialties. A longstanding tradition of research has contributed landmark discoveries, including performance of the first coronary revascularization procedure, the first intra-coronary angiogram, the world’s third face transplant, ongoing development of a breast cancer vaccine, etc. Regarding education, the Clinic serves many educational audiences excellently through its Education Institute. These audiences include medical students, graduate medical trainees, faculty physicians, nurses, and allied health providers (both within the Cleveland Clinic and from other institutions worldwide), and patients. The Education Institute also includes the Cleveland Clinic Academy, which offers training in leadership competencies to physicians, nurses, and healthcare administrators both within the Cleveland Clinic and to visitors from abroad (through the Executive Visitors Program and the Samson Global Leadership Academy for Healthcare Executives). The latter program is an intensive 2-week residential leadership development course for

  2. Making views self-maintainable for data warehousing

    SciTech Connect

    Quass, D.; Widom, J.; Gupta, A.; Mumick, I.S.

    1996-12-31

    A data warehouse stores materialized views over data from one or more sources in order to provide fast access to the integrated data, regardless of the availability of the data sources. Warehouse views need to be maintained in response to changes to the base data in the sources. Except for very simple views, maintaining a warehouse view requires access to data that is not available in the view itself. Hence, to maintain the view, one either has to query the data sources or store auxiliary data in the warehouse. We show that by using key and referential integrity constraints, we often can maintain a select-project-join view without going to the data sources or replicating the base relations in their entirety in the warehouse. We derive a set of auxiliary views such that the warehouse view and the auxiliary views together are self-maintainable-they can be maintained without going to the data sources or replicating all base data. In addition, our technique can be applied to simplify traditional materialized view maintenance by exploiting key and referential integrity constraints.

  3. Implicit motivational value and salience are processed in distinct areas of orbitofrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rothkirch, Marcus; Schmack, Katharina; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Sterzer, Philipp

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that motivational stimulus information is represented in the brain even in situations where the individual is not actively engaged in stimulus evaluation. However, it has remained unclear whether neural representations of such implicit motivational information reflect the motivational value or motivational salience of stimuli. While motivational values correspond to the desirability of stimuli, motivational salience is related to the arousal elicited by the stimulus. Here we aimed at disentangling the neural representation of both motivational dimensions. In the first part, participants learned the association of face stimuli with monetary reward and punishment. The same face stimuli were presented in a subsequent fMRI experiment, during which participants either performed a gender discrimination task on the faces or an orientation discrimination task on two simultaneously presented bars. Importantly, faces only differed regarding their implicit motivational information as acquired in the previous learning task, as participants neither received monetary reinforcement during the fMRI experiment nor were they asked to explicitly judge their face preferences. We found that neural responses in lateral OFC were modulated by implicit motivational value, whereas the faces' implicit motivational salience was coded in medial OFC. While the value-related responses in lateral OFC decreased over time, the salience-related modulation of medial OFC activity remained stable over the duration of the fMRI experiment. Neural responses to both motivational dimensions were observed independent of whether participants' attention was directed to the faces or to the surrounding bars, suggesting an automatic processing of implicit motivational value and salience. The functional dissociation within the OFC suggests that this region is critically involved in distinct motivation-related processes: In medial OFC, a representation of salient items may be maintained in

  4. Distinction of magnetic non-ferroelastic domains.

    PubMed

    Litvin, D B; Janovec, V

    2006-03-01

    It is shown that there always exists a coordinate system in which components of property tensors that distinguish between the domains of a magnetic non-ferroelastic domain pair differ solely in the two domains by a change in sign. The 309 classes of twin laws of magnetic non-ferroelastic domain pairs are listed and the twin laws, which are given in a coordinate system where the tensor distinction is provided by a change in sign of tensor components, are specified. If the twin law is not given in such a coordinate system, then a new coordinate system, related by a rotation, is specified. PMID:16489246

  5. Sleep Related Scratching: A Distinct Parasomnia?

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Gaurav; Riaz, Muhammad; Hershner, Shelley D.; Goldstein, Cathy A.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    Pruritus (itching) during the sleep period can present as a symptom of dermatological or systemic disease, or as a parasomnia. Sleep related scratching as a primary parasomnia, exclusively confined to sleep in the absence of coexisting dermatological disorders, has not been well described. This case series describes three such patients, and discusses potentially relevant pathophysiology that can underlie itching or pain. Such cases of sleep related scratching may merit nosologic classification apart from previously defined parasomnias. Citation: Nigam G, Riaz M, Hershner SD, Goldstein CA, Chervin RD. Sleep related scratching: a distinct parasomnia? J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):139–142. PMID:26285112

  6. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P < 0.001)). The genetic division with Florida, low diversity, small population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.

  7. Alternative applications for distinct RNA sequencing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Han, Leng; Vickers, Kasey C.; Samuels, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in RNA library preparation methods, platform accessibility and cost efficiency have allowed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to replace conventional hybridization microarray platforms as the method of choice for mRNA profiling and transcriptome analyses. RNAseq is a powerful technique to profile both long and short RNA expression, and the depth of information gained from distinct RNAseq methods is striking and facilitates discovery. In addition to expression analysis, distinct RNAseq approaches also allow investigators the ability to assess transcriptional elongation, DNA variance and exogenous RNA content. Here we review the current state of the art in transcriptome sequencing and address epigenetic regulation, quantification of transcription activation, RNAseq output and a diverse set of applications for RNAseq data. We detail how RNAseq can be used to identify allele-specific expression, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and somatic mutations and discuss the benefits and limitations of using RNAseq to monitor DNA characteristics. Moreover, we highlight the power of combining RNA- and DNAseq methods for genomic analysis. In summary, RNAseq provides the opportunity to gain greater insight into transcriptional regulation and output than simply miRNA and mRNA profiling. PMID:25246237

  8. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy.

  9. The Cosmology Distinction Course in NSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollow, Robert P.; McAdam, W. B.; O'Byrne, J.; White, Graeme L.; Holmes, R.; Webb, J. K.; Allen, L. R.; Zealey, W. J.; Hafner, R.

    1994-04-01

    The Cosmology Distinction Course is a new one-year course to be introduced for Year 12 candidates in the 1994 Higher School Certificate (HSC) examinations in NSW. It is one of three challenging courses of study that will enrich the HSC for talented students who accelerate and complete part of the HSC one year early. The courses will be taught through distance learning and will include residential seminars. They will be implemented on behalf of the Board of Studies by Charles Sturt University and the University of New England. The Cosmology Course is organized into nine modules of course work covering historical and social aspects of cosmology, observational techniques, key observatons and the various models developed--Newtonian, de Sitter, Friedmann, Lemaitre, steady-state, quasi-steady-state and big bang. Assessment will be through assignments, exams and a major project. As the first Distinction Course in a scientific area, the Cosmology Course represents an exciting and important educational initiative that needs the cooperation of NSW astronomers and, in return, promises to benefit the astronomical and general scientific community in Australia.

  10. Distinct types of eigenvector localization in networks

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix provide a trove of information about the structure and function of complex networks. In particular, the largest eigenvalue and its associated principal eigenvector are crucial in the understanding of nodes’ centrality and the unfolding of dynamical processes. Here we show that two distinct types of localization of the principal eigenvector may occur in heterogeneous networks. For synthetic networks with degree distribution P(q) ~ q−γ, localization occurs on the largest hub if γ > 5/2; for γ < 5/2 a new type of localization arises on a mesoscopic subgraph associated with the shell with the largest index in the K-core decomposition. Similar evidence for the existence of distinct localization modes is found in the analysis of real-world networks. Our results open a new perspective on dynamical processes on networks and on a recently proposed alternative measure of node centrality based on the non-backtracking matrix. PMID:26754565

  11. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy. PMID:22775289

  12. IVUS coronary volume alignment for distinct phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Monica Mitiko Soares; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi

    2009-02-01

    Image-based intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) cardiac phase detection allows coronary volume reconstruction in different phases. Consecutive volumes are not necessarily spatially aligned due to longitudinal movement of the catheter. Besides ordinary pullback velocity, there is a relative longitudinal movement of the heart vessel walls and the transducer, due to myocardial contraction. In this manuscript, we aim to spatially align cardiac phase coronary IVUS volumes. In addition, we want to investigate this non-linear longitudinal catheter movement. With this purpose, we have analyzed 120 simulated IVUS images and 10 real IVUS pullbacks. We implemented the following methodology. Firstly, we built IVUS volume for each distinct phase. Secondly, each IVUS volume was transformed into a parametric signal of average frame intensity. We have used these signals to make correlation in space with a reference one. Then we estimated the spatial distance between the distinct IVUS volumes and the reference. We have tested in simulated images and real examinations. We have also observed similar pattern in real IVUS examinations. This spatial alignment method is feasible and useful as a step towards dynamic studies of IVUS examination.

  13. A distinctive aphthous ileitis linked to Ancylostoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Croese, J; Fairley, S; Loukas, A; Hack, J; Stronach, P

    1996-06-01

    Ileal ulceration is diagnosed commonly at colonoscopy in northeastern Australia. This observation has occurred contemporaneously with the description of a painful enteritis caused through supposedly rare infections by Ancylostoma caninum, the cosmopolitan dog hookworm. In this study, we describe the morphology and prevalence of ileal ulcers and investigate their cause. There were 182 patients with a distinctive aphthous ileitis highlighted by haemorrhage into the tips of surrounding villi. The annual rate reached 4.7% of ileal examinations. Eosinophilic enteritis was the characteristic, but inconsistent, histological appearance. Ulceration was linked to infection by A. caninum through serological testing and, in three patients, by the retrieval of single hookworms. Affected patients were also more likely to own a dog (53%) than the total colonoscopic population (43%; P < 0.02). The monthly rates of diagnosis were related to climate with fewest recordings during winter. Pain was the chief indication for colonoscopy (49%), proportionally higher than in controls (28%; P < 0.0001). Patients with ulcers had increased blood eosinophil, immunoglobulin E and serological values. These results were higher still in the subset with pain compared with the rest. Most patients, however, had colonoscopy performed for unrelated reasons, such as bowel cancer surveillance, and were identified as having subclinical ulceration (rate 3.2%). The findings establish a distinctive aphthous ileitis characterized by tissue eosinophilia. The cause has been tentatively linked to canine hookworms. It is proposed that infection in this geographic region is common and only rarely does a painful enteritis develop as a consequence of hypersensitization.

  14. Development of common neural representations for distinct numerical problems

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Ting; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Metcalfe, Arron W. S.; Chen, Tianwen; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    How the brain develops representations for abstract cognitive problems is a major unaddressed question in neuroscience. Here we tackle this fundamental question using arithmetic problem solving, a cognitive domain important for the development of mathematical reasoning. We first examined whether adults demonstrate common neural representations for addition and subtraction problems, two complementary arithmetic operations that manipulate the same quantities. We then examined how the common neural representations for the two problem types change with development. Whole-brain multivoxel representational similarity (MRS) analysis was conducted to examine common coding of addition and subtraction problems in children and adults. We found that adults exhibited significant levels of MRS between the two problem types, not only in the intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) region of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), but also in ventral temporal-occipital, anterior temporal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Relative to adults, children showed significantly reduced levels of MRS in these same regions. In contrast, no brain areas showed significantly greater MRS between problem types in children. Our findings provide novel evidence that the emergence of arithmetic problem solving skills from childhood to adulthood is characterized by maturation of common neural representations between distinct numerical operations, and involve distributed brain regions important for representing and manipulating numerical quantity. More broadly, our findings demonstrate that representational analysis provides a powerful approach for uncovering fundamental mechanisms by which children develop proficiencies that are a hallmark of human cognition. PMID:26160287

  15. Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Genus Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) in the Sino-Japanese Region based on Nuclear rDNA and Plastid DNA Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Yuki; Chen, Shao-Tien; Zhou, Zhe-Kun; Peng, Ching-I.; Deng, Yun-Fei; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The flora of the Sino-Japanese plant region of eastern Asia is distinctively rich compared with other floristic regions in the world. However, knowledge of its floristic evolution is fairly limited. The genus Ainsliaea is endemic to and distributed throughout the Sino-Japanese region. Its interspecific phylogenetic relationships have not been resolved. The aim is to provide insight into floristic evolution in eastern Asia on the basis of a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Ainsliaea species. Methods Cladistic analyses of the sequences of two nuclear (ITS, ETS) and one plastid (ndhF) regions were carried out individually and using the combined data from the three markers. Key Results Phylogenetic analyses of three DNA regions confirmed that Ainsliaea is composed of three major clades that correspond to species distributions. Evolution of the three lineages was estimated to have occurred around 1·1 MYA during the early Pleistocene. Conclusions The results suggest that Ainsliaea species evolved allopatrically and that the descendants were isolated in the eastern (between SE China and Japan, through Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands) and western (Yunnan Province and its surrounding areas, including the Himalayas, the temperate region of Southeast Asia, and Sichuan Province) sides of the Sino-Japanese region. The results suggest that two distinct lineages of Ainsliaea have independently evolved in environmentally heterogeneous regions within the Sino-Japanese region. These regions have maintained rich and original floras due to their diverse climates and topographies. PMID:17981878

  16. Evolutionary distinctiveness of fatty acid and polyketide synthesis in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Gurjeet S; John, Uwe; Van Dolah, Frances M; Murray, Shauna A

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids, which are essential cell membrane constituents and fuel storage molecules, are thought to share a common evolutionary origin with polyketide toxins in eukaryotes. While fatty acids are primary metabolic products, polyketide toxins are secondary metabolites that are involved in ecologically relevant processes, such as chemical defence, and produce the adverse effects of harmful algal blooms. Selection pressures on such compounds may be different, resulting in differing evolutionary histories. Surprisingly, some studies of dinoflagellates have suggested that the same enzymes may catalyse these processes. Here we show the presence and evolutionary distinctiveness of genes encoding six key enzymes essential for fatty acid production in 13 eukaryotic lineages for which no previous sequence data were available (alveolates: dinoflagellates, Vitrella, Chromera; stramenopiles: bolidophytes, chrysophytes, pelagophytes, raphidophytes, dictyochophytes, pinguiophytes, xanthophytes; Rhizaria: chlorarachniophytes, haplosporida; euglenids) and 8 other lineages (apicomplexans, bacillariophytes, synurophytes, cryptophytes, haptophytes, chlorophyceans, prasinophytes, trebouxiophytes). The phylogeny of fatty acid synthase genes reflects the evolutionary history of the organism, indicating selection to maintain conserved functionality. In contrast, polyketide synthase gene families are highly expanded in dinoflagellates and haptophytes, suggesting relaxed constraints in their evolutionary history, while completely absent from some protist lineages. This demonstrates a vast potential for the production of bioactive polyketide compounds in some lineages of microbial eukaryotes, indicating that the evolution of these compounds may have played an important role in their ecological success. PMID:26784357

  17. Evolutionary distinctiveness of fatty acid and polyketide synthesis in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Gurjeet S; John, Uwe; Van Dolah, Frances M; Murray, Shauna A

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids, which are essential cell membrane constituents and fuel storage molecules, are thought to share a common evolutionary origin with polyketide toxins in eukaryotes. While fatty acids are primary metabolic products, polyketide toxins are secondary metabolites that are involved in ecologically relevant processes, such as chemical defence, and produce the adverse effects of harmful algal blooms. Selection pressures on such compounds may be different, resulting in differing evolutionary histories. Surprisingly, some studies of dinoflagellates have suggested that the same enzymes may catalyse these processes. Here we show the presence and evolutionary distinctiveness of genes encoding six key enzymes essential for fatty acid production in 13 eukaryotic lineages for which no previous sequence data were available (alveolates: dinoflagellates, Vitrella, Chromera; stramenopiles: bolidophytes, chrysophytes, pelagophytes, raphidophytes, dictyochophytes, pinguiophytes, xanthophytes; Rhizaria: chlorarachniophytes, haplosporida; euglenids) and 8 other lineages (apicomplexans, bacillariophytes, synurophytes, cryptophytes, haptophytes, chlorophyceans, prasinophytes, trebouxiophytes). The phylogeny of fatty acid synthase genes reflects the evolutionary history of the organism, indicating selection to maintain conserved functionality. In contrast, polyketide synthase gene families are highly expanded in dinoflagellates and haptophytes, suggesting relaxed constraints in their evolutionary history, while completely absent from some protist lineages. This demonstrates a vast potential for the production of bioactive polyketide compounds in some lineages of microbial eukaryotes, indicating that the evolution of these compounds may have played an important role in their ecological success. PMID:26784357

  18. Distinct facial processing in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Cataldo, Andrea; Norton, Daniel J; Ongur, Dost

    2012-01-01

    Although schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders have both similar and differing clinical features, it is not well understood whether similar or differing pathophysiological processes mediate patients' cognitive functions. Using psychophysical methods, this study compared the performances of schizophrenia (SZ) patients, patients with schizoaffective disorder (SA), and a healthy control group in two face-related cognitive tasks: emotion discrimination, which tested perception of facial affect, and identity discrimination, which tested perception of non-affective facial features. Compared to healthy controls, SZ patients, but not SA patients, exhibited deficient performance in both fear and happiness discrimination, as well as identity discrimination. SZ patients, but not SA patients, also showed impaired performance in a theory-of-mind task for which emotional expressions are identified based upon the eye regions of face images. This pattern of results suggests distinct processing of face information in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. PMID:21868199

  19. Six mouse alpha-tubulin mRNAs encode five distinct isotypes: testis-specific expression of two sister genes.

    PubMed Central

    Villasante, A; Wang, D; Dobner, P; Dolph, P; Lewis, S A; Cowan, N J

    1986-01-01

    Five mouse alpha-tubulin isotypes are described, each distinguished by the presence of unique amino acid substitutions within the coding region. Most, though not all of these isotype-specific amino acids, are clustered at the carboxy terminus. One of the alpha-tubulin isotypes described is expressed exclusively in testis and is encoded by two closely related genes (M alpha 3 and M alpha 7) which have homologous 3' untranslated regions but which differ at multiple third codon positions and in their 5' untranslated regions. We show that a subfamily of alpha-tubulin genes encoding the same testis-specific isotype also exists in humans. Thus, we conclude that the duplication event leading to a pair of genes encoding a testis-specific alpha-tubulin isotype predated the mammalian radiation, and both members of the duplicated sequence have been maintained since species divergence. A second alpha-tubulin gene, M alpha 6, is expressed ubiquitously at a low level, whereas a third gene, M alpha 4, is unique in that it does not encode a carboxy-terminal tyrosine residue. This gene yields two transcripts: a 1.8-kilobase (kb) mRNA that is abundant in muscle and a 2.4-kb mRNA that is abundant in testis. Whereas the 1.8-kb mRNA encodes a distinct alpha-tubulin isotype, the 2.4-kb mRNA is defective in that the methionine residue required for translational initiation is missing. Patterns of developmental expression of the various alpha-tubulin isotypes are presented. Our data support the view that individual tubulin isotypes are capable of conferring functional specificity on different kinds of microtubules. Images PMID:3785200

  20. Innovative scheduling to maintain clinical pharmacy services despite budget retrenchment.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J; Schneider, P J; Moore, T D

    1984-02-01

    A process is described in which staff scheduling was adjusted to maintain pharmaceutical services while achieving a 7% cutback in personnel costs. The pharmacy department in a 1000-bed university hospital was unable to achieve the necessary cost savings through reductions in sick leave and overtime hours. The pharmacy administration developed a plan that required pharmacists to work four 10-hour shifts per week and resulted in reduced hours of service. The pharmacists objected and proposed an alternative plan in which clinical service was maintained for 16 hours on weekdays and 12 hours on weekends. Pharmacist teams worked one flexible shift per week. Pharmacists developed an innovative staffing plan that allowed them to maintain a high level of practice and acceptable working hours.