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Sample records for maintain osseous viability

  1. Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.

    PubMed Central

    Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

    1992-01-01

    One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi. PMID:1572955

  2. Low Dose BCG Infection as a Model for Macrophage Activation Maintaining Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Galán, Leslie; Vesin, Dominique; Martinvalet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the current vaccine against tuberculosis, is ingested by macrophages promoting the development of effector functions including cell death and microbicidal mechanisms. Despite accumulating reports on M. tuberculosis, mechanisms of BCG/macrophage interaction remain relatively undefined. In vivo, few bacilli are sufficient to establish a mycobacterial infection; however, in vitro studies systematically use high mycobacterium doses. In this study, we analyze macrophage/BCG interactions and microenvironment upon infection with low BCG doses and propose an in vitro model to study cell activation without affecting viability. We show that RAW macrophages infected with BCG at MOI 1 activated higher and sustained levels of proinflammatory cytokines and transcription factors while MOI 0.1 was more efficient for early stimulation of IL-1β, MCP-1, and KC. Both BCG infection doses induced iNOS and NO in a dose-dependent manner and maintained nuclear and mitochondrial structures. Microenvironment generated by MOI 1 induced macrophage proliferation but not MOI 0.1 infection. In conclusion, BCG infection at low dose is an efficient in vitro model to study macrophage/BCG interactions that maintains macrophage viability and mitochondrial structures. This represents a novel model that can be applied to BCG research fields including mycobacterial infections, cancer immunotherapy, and prevention of autoimmunity and allergies. PMID:27833923

  3. Low Dose BCG Infection as a Model for Macrophage Activation Maintaining Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Galán, Leslie; Vesin, Dominique; Martinvalet, Denis; Garcia, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the current vaccine against tuberculosis, is ingested by macrophages promoting the development of effector functions including cell death and microbicidal mechanisms. Despite accumulating reports on M. tuberculosis, mechanisms of BCG/macrophage interaction remain relatively undefined. In vivo, few bacilli are sufficient to establish a mycobacterial infection; however, in vitro studies systematically use high mycobacterium doses. In this study, we analyze macrophage/BCG interactions and microenvironment upon infection with low BCG doses and propose an in vitro model to study cell activation without affecting viability. We show that RAW macrophages infected with BCG at MOI 1 activated higher and sustained levels of proinflammatory cytokines and transcription factors while MOI 0.1 was more efficient for early stimulation of IL-1β, MCP-1, and KC. Both BCG infection doses induced iNOS and NO in a dose-dependent manner and maintained nuclear and mitochondrial structures. Microenvironment generated by MOI 1 induced macrophage proliferation but not MOI 0.1 infection. In conclusion, BCG infection at low dose is an efficient in vitro model to study macrophage/BCG interactions that maintains macrophage viability and mitochondrial structures. This represents a novel model that can be applied to BCG research fields including mycobacterial infections, cancer immunotherapy, and prevention of autoimmunity and allergies.

  4. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells adjust the metabolism to maintain viability in response to atrazine stress.

    PubMed

    Esperanza, Marta; Seoane, Marta; Rioboo, Carmen; Herrero, Concepción; Cid, Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were exposed to a sublethal concentration of the widespread herbicide atrazine for 3 and 24h. Physiological parameters related to cellular energy status, such as cellular activity and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic membrane potentials, monitored by flow cytometry, were altered in microalgal cells exposed to 0.25μM of atrazine. Transcriptomic analyses, carried out by RNA-Seq technique, displayed 12 differentially expressed genes between control cultures and atrazine-exposed cultures at both tested times. Many cellular processes were affected, but the most significant changes were observed in genes implicated in amino acid catabolism and respiratory cellular process. Obtained results suggest that photosynthesis inhibition by atrazine leads cells to get energy through a heterotrophic metabolism to maintain their viability.

  5. Fibroblasts maintain the phenotype and viability of the rat heparin-containing mast cell in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Levi-Schaffer, F.; Austen, K.F.; Caulfield, J.P.; Hein, A.; Bloes, W.F.; Stevens, R.L.

    1985-11-01

    Rat serosal heparin-containing mast cells (HP-MC) were maintained in vitro for as long as 30 days when co-cultured with mouse skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts. In contrast, when the mast cells were cultured alone, on fibronectin-, gelatin-, or dermal-collagen-coated dishes, on acid and heat-killed fibroblasts in the presence or absence of 24 hr fibroblast-conditioned medium, or on a monolayer of mouse serosal macrophages, they failed to adhere to the dishes, released significant amounts of their histamine and lactate dehydrogenase, and stained with trypan blue, indicating a loss of viability. The rat serosal HP-MC cultured with the 3T3 fibroblasts became so adherent to the fibroblasts that the two cell types could be separated from one another only by trypsinization. The cultured HP-MC stained with both alcian blue and safranin and continued to synthesize proteoglycan at a rate comparable to that of freshly isolated cells. The /sup 35/S-labeled proteoglycan synthesized by these cultured cells, like that produced by freshly isolated rat serosal HP-MC, was a 750,000 to 1,000,000 m.w. proteoglycan containing only heparin glycosaminoglycans of 50,000 to 100,000 m.w. As assessed by electron microscopy, many of the cultured HP-MC resembled freshly isolated cells except that some secretory granules had fused with one another in some cells. These results demonstrate that the in vivo differentiated rat HP-MC maintain their histology, morphology, immunologic responsiveness, histamine content, and ability to synthesize heparin proteoglycan when co-cultured with living fibroblasts.

  6. Bcl-2 expression in synovial fibroblasts is essential for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Perlman, H; Georganas, C; Pagliari, L J; Koch, A E; Haines, K; Pope, R M

    2000-05-15

    The regulation of proliferation and cell death is vital for homeostasis, but the mechanism that coordinately balances these events in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains largely unknown. In RA, the synovial lining thickens in part through increased proliferation and/or decreased synovial fibroblast cell death. Here we demonstrate that the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, is highly expressed in RA compared with osteoarthritis synovial tissues, particularly in the CD68-negative, fibroblast-like synoviocyte population. To determine the importance of endogenous Bcl-2, an adenoviral vector expressing a hammerhead ribozyme to Bcl-2 (Ad-Rbz-Bcl-2) mRNA was employed. Ad-Rbz-Bcl-2 infection resulted in reduced Bcl-2 expression and cell viability in synovial fibroblasts isolated from RA and osteoarthritis synovial tissues. In addition, Ad-Rbz-Bcl-2-induced mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases 9 and 3, and DNA fragmentation. The general caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk blocked caspase activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and DNA fragmentation, but not loss of transmembrane potential or viability, indicating that cell death was independent of caspase activation. Ectopically expressed Bcl-xL inhibited Ad-Rbz-Bcl-2-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and apoptosis in Ad-Rbz-Bcl-2-transduced cells. Thus, forced down-regulation of Bcl-2 does not induce a compensatory mechanism to prevent loss of mitochondrial integrity and cell death in human fibroblasts.

  7. The proprotein convertase furin is required to maintain viability of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jaaks, Patricia; Meier, Gianmarco; Alijaj, Nagjie; Brack, Eva; Bode, Peter; Koscielniak, Ewa; Wachtel, Marco; Schäfer, Beat W.; Bernasconi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Success of current therapies is still limited and outcome is particularly poor for metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS). We previously identified the proprotein convertase furin as potential target for specific drug delivery with RMS-homing peptides. Furin is a protease that converts inactive precursor proteins into bioactive proteins and peptides. In this study, we investigate the biological role of furin in aRMS progression in vitro and in vivo. Furin expression was confirmed in over 86% RMS biopsies in a tissue microarray (n=89). Inducible furin silencing in vitro led to significant impairment of cell viability and proliferation in all investigated aRMS cell lines, but not in MRC5 fibroblasts. Furthermore, the aRMS cell lines Rh3 and Rh4 revealed to be very sensitive to furin silencing, undergoing caspase-dependent cell death. Notably, furin silencing in vivo led to complete remission of established Rh4 tumors and to delayed growth in Rh30 tumors. Taken together, these findings identify furin as an important factor for aRMS progression and survival. Thus, we propose furin as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of aRMS. PMID:27572312

  8. Mouse granulated metrial gland cells require contact with stromal cells to maintain viability

    PubMed Central

    STEWART, I. J.

    2000-01-01

    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells differentiate in the uterine wall in pregnancy in mice but the mechanisms which control their differentiation and maintenance are unknown. In vivo, GMG cells share an intimate association with fibroblast-like stromal cells. The importance of this association has been assessed by examining the effects of withdrawal of stromal cell contact on GMG cell maintenance in vitro. When single cell suspensions of cells were prepared from mouse metrial glands there was a steady decline in numbers with days of culture but usually some remained at 7 d of culture. The ability of metrial gland cells to kill Wehi 164 target cells in 51Cr-release cytotoxicity assays was retained by cells cultured for at least 3 d. When explants of metrial gland were maintained in culture to allow GMG cell migration onto the culture flask, the attached GMG cells were lost by 1 d later. Overall, these results suggest that a juxtacrine regulatory mechanism maintains GMG cells. The rapid loss of unsupported GMG cells in culture has major implications in the design of assays to examine GMG cell function. PMID:11117633

  9. Hemoglobin Function in Stored Blood. IX. A Modified Preservative with Optimal pH to Maintain Red Cell 2,3-DPG (Function) and ATP (Viability).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    differences at the 95 percent level were based on the paired ’t’ test. In addition, osmotic fragility and methylene blue uptake were determined to...optimal for maintaining hemoglobin function and red cell viability. In addition, methylene blue uptake seems to correlate fairly well with maintenance of ATP in the two lowest pH preservatives. (Author)

  10. Integrated watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability.

    PubMed

    Ghebremichael, Lula T; Veith, Tamie L; Hamlett, James M

    2013-01-15

    environmental mitigation at the farm- and watershed-levels. This paper also outlines steps needed to extract important CSA-related information from a watershed model to help inform targeting decisions at the farm scale. The modeling framework is demonstrated with two unique case studies in the northeastern United States (New York and Vermont), with supporting data from numerous published, location-specific studies at both the watershed and farm scales. Using the integrated modeling framework, it can be possible to compare the costs (in terms of changes required in farm system components or financial compensations for retiring crop lands) and benefits (in terms of measurable water quality improvement goals) of implementing targeted BMPs. This multi-scale modeling approach can be used in the multi-objective task of mitigating CSAs of pollution to meet water quality goals while maintaining farm-level economic viability.

  11. The epididymal sperm viability, motility and DNA integrity in dead mice maintained at 4-6oC

    PubMed Central

    Golshan Iranpour, Farhad; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Background: When male animals die, spermatozoa within the body of animal will be degenerated. Because of unique chromatin structure of sperm, maybe this degeneration is different from other cells. However there is not any research which considered directly the integrity of sperm DNA by keeping the cadaver in refrigerator. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess viability, total motility and DNA integrity of sperm cells after death. Materials and Methods:In this experimental study, 24 male Swiss white mice were killed by cervical dislocation and then kept in refrigerator (4-6oC) for up to 12 days. On the 0 (immediately after death as control group), 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th and the 12th days after death cauda epididymides were removed and squeezed in Ham’s F10 medium. The proportion of viable, motile and double stranded DNA spermatozoa was examined. Viability and DNA integrity of sperm cells were examined consecutively by eosin nigrosin and acridine orange stainings. Results:The data obtained from this study showed that viability and total motility of sperm cells were significantly decreased during 12 days after death (p<0.001). In contrast with viability and motility, DNA integrity was without significant changes (even 12 days after death). Conclusion:This study suggests that integrity of sperm DNA would not change even after 12 days after death if the cadaver kept in refrigerator. PMID:24639746

  12. Real architecture For 3D Tissue (RAFT™) culture system improves viability and maintains insulin and glucagon production of mouse pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Szebeni, Gabor J; Tancos, Zsuzsanna; Feher, Liliana Z; Alfoldi, Robert; Kobolak, Julianna; Dinnyes, Andras; Puskas, Laszlo G

    2017-04-01

    There is an unmet medical need for the improvement of pancreatic islet maintenance in culture. Due to restricted donor availability it is essential to ameliorate islet viability and graft engraftment. The aim of this study was to compare the standard tissue culture techniques with the advanced Real Architecture For 3D Tissue (RAFT™) culture system in terms of viability and hormone production. Here, we first report that islets embedded in RAFT™ collagen type I advanced tissue culture system maintain their tissue integrity better than in monolayer and suspension cultures. The Calcein violet assay and Annexin V/propidium-iodide staining show higher cell viability in the RAFT™ culture system. Quantitative real-time PCR data showed that RAFT™ increases insulin expression after 18 days in culture compared to traditional methods. Enhanced insulin and glucagon production was further verified by immunofluorescent staining in a time-course manner. These results indicate that RAFT™ tissue culture platform can be a promising tool to maintain pancreatic islet spheroid integrity and culture islets for downstream high throughput pharmacological studies ex vivo.

  13. Human iPSC-derived motoneurons harbouring TARDBP or C9ORF72 ALS mutations are dysfunctional despite maintaining viability

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Anna-Claire; Burr, Karen; Borooah, Shyamanga; Foster, Joshua D.; Cleary, Elaine M.; Geti, Imbisaat; Vallier, Ludovic; Shaw, Christopher E.; Chandran, Siddharthan; Miles, Gareth B.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease for which a greater understanding of early disease mechanisms is needed to reveal novel therapeutic targets. We report the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motoneurons (MNs) to study the pathophysiology of ALS. We demonstrate that MNs derived from iPSCs obtained from healthy individuals or patients harbouring TARDBP or C9ORF72 ALS-causing mutations are able to develop appropriate physiological properties. However, patient iPSC-derived MNs, independent of genotype, display an initial hyperexcitability followed by progressive loss of action potential output and synaptic activity. This loss of functional output reflects a progressive decrease in voltage-activated Na+ and K+ currents, which occurs in the absence of overt changes in cell viability. These data implicate early dysfunction or loss of ion channels as a convergent point that may contribute to the initiation of downstream degenerative pathways that ultimately lead to MN loss in ALS. PMID:25580746

  14. Ubiquitin ligase EL5 maintains the viability of root meristems by influencing cytokinin-mediated nitrogen effects in rice

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Root formation is dependent on meristematic activity and is influenced by nitrogen supply. We have previously shown that ubiquitin ligase, EL5, in rice (Oryza sativa) is involved in the maintenance of root meristematic viability. When mutant EL5 protein is overexpressed to dominantly inhibit the endogenous EL5 function in rice, primordial and meristematic necrosis ia observed. Here, we analysed the cause of root cell death in transgenic rice plants (mEL5) overexpressing EL5V162A, which encodes a partly inactive ubiquitin ligase. The mEL5 mutants showed increased sensitivity to nitrogen that was reflected in the inhibition of root formation. Treatment of mEL5 with nitrate or nitrite caused meristematic cell death accompanied by browning. Transcriptome profiling of whole roots exhibited overlaps between nitrite-responsive genes in non-transgenic (NT) rice plants and genes with altered basal expression levels in mEL5. Phytohormone profiling of whole roots revealed that nitrite treatment increased cytokinin levels, but mEL5 constitutively contained more cytokinin than NT plants and showed increased sensitivity to exogenous cytokinin. More superoxide was detected in mEL5 roots after treatment with nitrite or cytokinin, and treatment with an inhibitor of superoxide production prevented mEL5 roots from both nitrite- and cytokinin-induced meristematic cell death. These results indicate a nitrogen-triggered pathway that leads to changes in root formation through the production of cytokinin and superoxide, on which EL5 acts to prevent meristematic cell death. PMID:24663342

  15. Biomaterials in periodontal osseous defects

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Nand; Dixit, Jaya

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Osseous defects in periodontal diseases require osseous grafts and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) using barrier membranes. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to clinically evaluate the osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA), cissus quadrangularis (CQ), and oxidized cellulose membrane (OCM) and compare with normal bone healing. Materials and Methods Twenty subjects with periodontitis in the age group ranging from 20 years to 40 years were selected from our outpatient department on the basis of presence of deep periodontal pockets, clinical probing depth ≥5 mm, vertical osseous defects obvious on radiograph and two- or three-walled involvement seen on surgical exposure. Infrabony defects were randomly divided into four groups on the basis of treatment to be executed, such that each group comprised 5 defects. Group I was control, II received HA, III received CQ and IV received OCM. Probing depth and attachment level were measured at regular months after surgery. Defects were re-exposed using crevicular incisions at 6 months. Results There was gradual reduction in the mean probing pocket depth in all groups, but highly significant in the site treated with HA. Gain in attachment level was higher in sites treated with HA, 3.2 mm at 6 months. Conclusion Hydroxyapatite and OCM showed good reduction in pocket depth, attachment level gain and osseous defect fill. Further study should be conducted by using a combination of HA and OCM in periodontal osseous defects with growth factors and stem cells. PMID:25756030

  16. Evaluation and comparison of efficacy of three different storage media, coconut water, propolis, and oral rehydration solution, in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Tulsi; Shah, Nimisha; Parekh, Vaishali; Singbal, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two of the most critical factors affecting the prognosis of an avulsed tooth after replantation are extra oral dry time and the storage medium in which the tooth is placed before treatment is rendered. However, the ability of a storage/transport medium to support cell viability can be more important than the extra oral time to prevent ankylosis and replacement resorption. Aim: Purpose of this study was evaluation and comparison of efficacy of a new storage medium, oral rehydration solution (ORS) with coconut water, and propolis in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells by using a collagenase-dispase assay. Materials and Methods: 40 teeth were selected with intact crown which were advised for Orthodontic extraction having healthy PDL. Teeth were then randomly divided into three experimental storage solution groups. Other 10 were divided into positive and negative control groups (5 each). Statistical Analysis and Result: The results were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance and multiple range by using post hoc tests. The results of the prevailing study indicated that coconut water group demonstrated a significantly higher number of viable PDL cells than propolis 50%, and ORS. There was no significant difference between coconut water and propolis 50% groups. PMID:23349581

  17. PDH45 transgenic rice maintain cell viability through lower accumulation of Na(+), ROS and calcium homeostasis in roots under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Nath, Manoj; Yadav, Sandep; Kumar Sahoo, Ranjan; Passricha, Nishat; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-02-01

    Salinity severely affects the growth/productivity of rice, which is utilized as major staple food crop worldwide. PDH45 (pea DNA helicase 45), a member of the DEAD-box helicase family, actively provides salinity stress tolerance, but the mechanism behind this is not well known. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanism of stress tolerance, sodium ion (Na(+)), reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytosolic calcium [Ca(2+)]cyt and cell viability were analyzed in roots of PDH45 transgenic-IR64 rice lines along with wild-type (WT) IR64 rice under salinity stress (100mM and 200 mM NaCl). In addition, the roots of salinity-tolerant (FL478) and susceptible (Pusa-44) rice varieties were also analyzed under salinity stress for comparative analysis. The results reveal that, under salinity stress (100mM and 200 mM NaCl), roots of PDH45 transgenic lines accumulate lower levels of Na(+), ROS and maintain [Ca(2+)]cyt and exhibit higher cell viability as compared with roots of WT (IR64) plants. Similar results were also obtained in the salinity-tolerant FL478 rice. However, the roots of WT and salinity-susceptible Pusa-44 rice accumulated higher levels of Na(+), ROS and [Ca(2+)]cyt imbalance and lower cell viability during salinity stress, which is in contrast to the overexpressing PDH45 transgenic lines and salinity-tolerant FL478 rice. Further, to understand the mechanism of PDH45 at molecular level, comparative expression profiling of 12 cation transporters/genes was also conducted in roots of WT (IR64) and overexpressing PDH45 transgenic lines (L1 and L2) under salt stress (24h of 200 mM NaCl). The expression analysis results show altered and differential gene expression of cation transporters/genes in salt-stressed roots of WT (IR64) and overexpressing transgenic lines (L1 and L2). These observations collectively suggest that, under salinity stress conditions, PDH45 is involved in the regulation of Na(+) level, ROS production, [Ca(2+)]cyt homeostasis, cell viability and

  18. Rutin can replace the use of three other antioxidants in the culture medium, maintaining the viability of sheep isolated secondary follicles.

    PubMed

    Lins, T L B G; Cavalcante, A Y P; Santos, J M S; Menezes, V G; Barros, V R P; Barberino, R S; Bezerra, M É S; Macedo, T J S; Matos, M H T

    2017-02-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of addition of rutin alone or combined with other antioxidants (transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid) present in the culture medium on the in vitro development of ovine isolated secondary follicles. After collection of the sheep ovaries, secondary follicles (200-230 μm) were isolated and cultured for 12 days in α-Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM) supplemented with BSA, insulin, glutamine and hypoxanthine (α-MEM: antioxidant free-medium) or in this medium also added by transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid (AO: base medium with antioxidants). Moreover, different concentrations of rutin (0.1; 1 or 10 μg/mL) were added to the different base media (α-MEM or AO). The parameters analyzed were morphology, antrum formation, extrusion rate, follicular diameter, growth and fully-grown oocytes (oocytes ≥ 110 μm) rates. In treatments that had the best results of morphology, follicular viability, apoptosis, glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial activity were also analyzed. After 12 days, the percentage of normal follicles was higher (P < 0.05) in α-MEM + 0.1 μg/mL rutin than the other treatments, except compared to AO medium (P > 0.05). There is no difference (P > 0.05) in the diameter and growth rate among treatments. Moreover, AO medium and α-MEM + 0.1 μg/mL rutin showed similar (P > 0.05) percentages of follicular viability, antrum formation, extruded follicles, fully-grown oocytes, levels of ROS and active mitochondria. However, α-MEM + 0.1 μg/mL rutin treatment showed higher (P > 0.05) GSH levels than AO medium. In conclusion, 0.1 μg/mL rutin can be used as the single antioxidant present in the base medium, replacing the addition of transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid during in vitro culture of ovine secondary follicles, maintaining follicular viability and increasing GSH levels.

  19. Primary multifocal osseous Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Langley, Clare R; Garrett, Simon JW; Urand, Jill; Kohler, Janice; Clarke, Nick MP

    2008-01-01

    Background Hodgkin's disease (HD) most commonly presents with progressive painless enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes, especially around the cervical region. A few children have systemic symptoms and weight loss. At the time of diagnosis, osseous involvement is uncommon Case presentation A case is described of Primary Multifocal Osseous Hodgkin's Lymphoma in a seven-year-old boy. He presented with a painful swelling in the sternum, and further investigations revealed deposits in his L1 vertebra, the left sacro-iliac joint and the right acetabulum. Conclusion The clinical, radiological and histological features of this disease can mimic other medical conditions, including Tuberculosis, making the diagnosis difficult and often leading to delays in treatment. This is a very rare condition and we believe this to be the youngest reported case in the literature. PMID:18346271

  20. Extraribosomal Functions Associated with the C Terminus of the 37/67 kDa Laminin Receptor are Required for Maintaining Cell Viability

    SciTech Connect

    J Scheiman; K Jamieson; J Ziello; J Tseng; D Meruelo

    2011-12-31

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LAMR) is a multifunctional protein, acting as an extracellular receptor, localizing to the nucleus, and playing roles in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. LAMR is important for cell viability; however, it is unclear which of its functions are essential. We developed a silent mutant LAMR construct, resistant to siRNA, to rescue the phenotypic effects of knocking down endogenous LAMR, which include inhibition of protein synthesis, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In addition, we generated a C-terminal-truncated silent mutant LAMR construct structurally homologous to the Archaeoglobus fulgidus S2 ribosomal protein and missing the C-terminal 75 residues of LAMR, which displays more sequence divergence. We found that HT1080 cells stably expressing either silent mutant LAMR construct still undergo arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle when treated with siRNA. However, the expression of full-length silent mutant LAMR rescues cell viability, whereas the expression of the C-terminal-truncated LAMR does not. Interestingly, we also found that both silent mutant constructs restore protein translation and localize to the nucleus. Our findings indicate that the ability of LAMR to regulate viability is associated with its C-terminal 75 residues. Furthermore, this function is distinct from its role in cell proliferation, independent of its ribosomal functions, and may be regulated by a nonnuclear localization.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: progressive osseous heteroplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and muscle tissue. Bone that forms outside the skeleton is called heterotopic or ectopic bone. In progressive ... preventing bony tissue from being produced outside the skeleton. The GNAS gene mutations that cause progressive osseous ...

  2. Optimization of storage condition for maintaining long-term viability of nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola as biocontrol agent against pinewood nematode.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jian Jie; Hou, Jin Gang; Zhang, Yong An; Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Yun Bo; Wang, Yu Zhu; Wang, Qing Hua; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-11-01

    The fungus, Esteya vermicola has been proposed as biocontrol agent against pine wilting disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In this study, we reported the effects of temperature and different additives on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of E. vermicola formulated by alginate-clay. The viability of the E. vermicola formulation was determined for six consecutive months at temperature ranged from -70 to 25 °C. The fresh conidia without any treatment were used as control. Under the optimal storage conditions with E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation, the results suggested that E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation with a long shelf life could be a non-vacuum-packed formulation that contains 2 % sodium alginate and 5 % clay at 4 °C. Three conidial formulations prepared with additives of 15 % glycerol, 0.5 % yeast extract and 0.5 % herbal extraction, respectively significantly improved the shelf life. In addition, these tested formulations retained the same biocontrol efficacy as the fresh conidial against pinewood nematode. This study provided a tractable and low-cost method to preserve the shelf life of E. vermicola.

  3. Injectable thermosensitive chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/collagen hydrogel maintains the plasticity of skeletal muscle satellite cells and supports their in vivo viability.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ke; Yang, Zhong; Zhang, Yu-Long; Xu, Jian-Zhong

    2013-09-01

    A cell carrier plays an important role in the maintenance, growth and engraftment of specific cells aimed for defined therapeutic uses in many tissue engineering strategies. A suitable microenvironment for the cells allows for the maximum efficacy of the hybrid device. We have prepared an injectable thermosensitive chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/collagen (C/GP/Co) gel and investigated its potential application as a support for the culture of skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs). A cell viability assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytocompatibility of the gel. Cell growth was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and histological analysis. The influence of the C/GP/Co gel on the plasticity of SMSCs seeded at the surface of the gel was assessed by induction of the myogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. C/GP/Co gel provided the appropriate environment for the culture of SMSCs in vitro. In addition, the C/GP/Co gel supported SMSC plasticity. In vivo testing of the SMSC-seeded gel was investigated by subcutaneous injection into the dorsum of nude mice. Cell viability was assessed both by in vivo imaging and histological examination of the explants. In conclusion, C/GP/Co hydrogel is a cytocompatible carrier for the in vivo delivery of SMSCs and supportive for SMSC plasticity. Thus, this gel has potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  4. Adrenal myelolipoma with osseous metaplasia and hypercortisolism

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ujwal; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Tomar, Vinay; Vohra, Rishi Raj

    2017-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas are rare adrenal tumors generally diagnosed incidentally. A 42-year-old female reported to us with complaints of left flank pain attributable to her left ureteric calculi. On evaluation, a large adrenal mass was diagnosed along with hypercortisolism. After adrenalectomy, the histopathology revealed adrenal myelolipoma along with osseous metaplasia not reported in English literature, to the best of our knowledge till date. PMID:28216934

  5. Hardware Removal after Osseous Free Flap Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Day, Kristine E.; Desmond, Renee; Magnuson, J. Scott; Carroll, William R.; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying risk factors for hardware removal in patients undergoing mandibular reconstruction with vascularized osseous free flaps remains a challenge. The purpose of this study is to identify potential risk factors, including osteocutaneous radial forearm versus fibular flap, for need for removal and to describe the fate of implanted hardware. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Academic tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods Two hundred thirteen patients undergoing 227 vascularized osseous mandibular reconstructions between the years 2004 and 2012. Data were compiled through a manual chart review, and patients incurring hardware removals were identified. Results Thirty-four of 213 evaluable vascularized osseous free flaps (16%) underwent surgical removal of hardware. The average length of time to removal was 16.2 months (median 10 months), with the majority of removals occurring within the first year. Osteocutaneous radial forearm free flaps (OCRFFF) incurred a slightly higher percentage of hardware removals (9.9%) compared to fibula flaps (6.1%). Partial removal was performed in 8 of 34 cases, and approximately 38% of these required additional surgery for removal. Conclusion Hardware removal was associated with continued tobacco use after mandibular reconstruction (P = .03). Removal of the supporting hardware most commonly occurs from infection or exposure in the first year. In the majority of cases the bone is well healed and the problem resolves with removal. PMID:24201061

  6. Osseous choristoma of the oral soft tissue. Case report.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Oral osseous choristoma is a rare developmental alteration, their principal localization is nearly to base of the tongue (foramen caecum). The oral mucosa localization of osseous choristoma is extremely rare. At date only 10 cases of oral mucosa osseous choristoma had been reported. In the present paper we reported a new case of oral mucosa osseous choristoma in a Klippel-Feil syndrome patient. A review of available literature was made. We presented a 28 years old female patient who showed into the right oral mucosa, a hard, mobile, and asymptomatic mass, with minimum 4 years of evolution. The histological image showed a lesion constituted by lamellar bone, osteocytes and haematopoyetic tissue. The diagnosis of osseous choristoma was made. It is discusses their possible association with Klippel-Feil syndrome. The osseous choristoma of buccal mucosa is most frequently in fifth decade of the life although is reported between 12-to-64 years old, with a female predisposition.

  7. Interarytenoid osseous bridge after prolonged endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Boemo, Rafael Luis; Navarrete, María Luisa; Genestar, Elisabet Ingrid; González, Mireia; Fuentes, Juan Fernando; Fortuny, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Posterior glottic stenosis or interarytenoid fibrous adhesion is uncommon and has sometimes been misdiagnosed as cord paralysis. Laryngoscopy and laryngeal electromyography studies are the two main diagnostic aids. We present the case of a 63-year-old man under endotracheal intubation during 10 days after a cardiac procedure who was evaluated in our department for persistent dysphonia. The laryngoscopy showed a granuloma-like lesion in the posterior glottic space. During the microlaryngoscopy procedure, the osseous consistence of the interarytenoid lesion was observed. Laser surgery excision of the lesion was performed with good results. According to our review of the literature, this corresponds to the second case reported.

  8. Osseous metaplasia within a canine insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Pieczarka, Emily M; Russell, Duncan S; Santangelo, Kelly S; Aeffner, Famke; Burkhard, Mary Jo

    2014-03-01

    An 11-year-old male castrated mixed-breed dog was presented for exercise intolerance, tetraparesis, and persistent hypoglycemia. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed 2 nodules within the right limb of the pancreas. Cytology from one nodule was consistent with a carcinoma of neuroendocrine origin, with a primary differential diagnosis of insulinoma. Histologic evaluation and immunohistochemistry for synaptophysin and insulin confirmed the diagnosis of insulinoma. Additionally, there was a solitary nodule of mineralized compact bone composing approximately 60% of the mass. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of osseous metaplasia within an insulinoma (islet cell carcinoma).

  9. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiayu; Xu, Weijiang; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Neng; Ni, Juan; Zou, Tianning; Liang, Ziqing; Wang, Xu; Fenech, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state). SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer. PMID:27347936

  10. Multimodality imaging of osseous involvement In haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski, Katherine M; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Shinagare, Atul B; Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Tirumani, Sree H; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the imaging features of osseous involvement in haematological malignancies. Osseous involvement can be seen in various haematological malignancies including lymphomas, plasma cell neoplasms, leukaemias and myeloproliferative neoplasms. Imaging plays a crucial role in initial diagnosis, staging and in the assessment of treatment response in these patients. PMID:26781757

  11. Infected florid osseous dysplasia: clinical and imaging follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mufeed, Abdulla; Mangalath, Ummar; George, Antony; Hafiz, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Florid osseous dysplasia (FOD) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw usually identified incidentally on radiograph. It rarely presents with clinical symptoms. A case of FOD presenting with features similar to osteomyelitis is discussed here. The diagnosis is based on radiographic findings; biopsy or surgical intervention should be avoided as it may predispose to infection. PMID:25754168

  12. Osseous Injury Associated With Ligamentous Tear of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chee Hwee; Tan, Chih Feng; Kim, Okwha; Suh, Kyung Jin; Yao, Min-Szu; Chan, Wing P; Wu, Jim S

    2016-11-01

    One of the most common knee injuries is ligament tear, which may initially manifest as an osseous injury in radiographs. Radiologists should therefore be able to recognize ligament tears of the knee as osseous abnormalities in images. This review focuses on the imaging features of knee ligament injuries and their related osseous injuries: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear with Segond fracture; associated marrow contusion; ACL avulsion fracture; posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear with osseous avulsion of the ligament including arcuate sign; reverse Segond fracture; PCL avulsion fracture; medial collateral ligament tear with Pellegrini-Stieda disease; lateral collateral ligament tear with avulsion fracture of the fibular head; and patellar ligament injuries with Osgood-Schlatter and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson.

  13. Myocardial viability.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Y; Kloner, R A

    1996-01-01

    Left ventricular function is a major predictor of outcome in patients with coronary artery disease. Acute ischemia, postischemic dysfunction (stunning), myocardial hibernation, or a combination of these 3 are among the reversible forms of myocardial dysfunction. In myocardial stunning, dysfunction occurs despite normal myocardial perfusion, and function recovers spontaneously over time. In acute ischemia and hibernation, there is regional hypoperfusion. Function improves only after revascularization. Evidence of myocardial viability usually relies on the demonstration of uptake of various metabolic tracers, such as thallium (thallous chloride TI 201) or fludeoxyglucose F 18, by dysfunctional myocardium or by the demonstration of contractile reserve in a dysfunctional region. This can be shown as an augmentation of function during the infusion of various sympathomimetic agents. The response of ventricular segments to increasing doses of dobutamine may indicate the underlying mechanism of dysfunction. Stunned segments that have normal perfusion show dose-dependent augmentation of function. If perfusion is reduced as in hibernating myocardium, however, a biphasic response usually occurs: function improves at low doses of dobutamine, whereas higher doses may induce ischemia and, hence, dysfunction. But in patients with severely impaired perfusion, even low doses may cause ischemia. Myocardial regions with subendocardial infarction or diffuse scarring may also have augmented contractility during catecholamine infusion due to stimulation of the subepicardial layers. In these cases, augmentation of function after revascularization is not expected. Because the underlying mechanism, prognosis, and therapy may differ among these conditions, it is crucial to differentiate among dysfunctional myocardial segments that are nonviable and have no potential to regain function, hibernating or ischemic segments in which recovery of function occurs only after revascularization, and

  14. Osseous Defects Seen in Patients with Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Itoi, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder surgeons need to be aware of the critical size of the glenoid or humeral osseous defects seen in patients with anterior shoulder instability, since the considerable size of osseous defect is reported to cause postoperative instability. Biomechanical studies have identified the size of the osseous defect which affects stability. Since engagement always occurs between a Hill-Sachs lesion and the glenoid rim, when considering the critical size of the Hill-Sachs lesion, we have to simultaneously consider the size of the glenoid osseous defect. With the newly developed concept of the glenoid track, we are able to evaluate whether a large Hill-Sachs lesion is an "on-track" or "off-track" lesion, and to consider both osseous defects together. In case of an off-track Hill-Sachs lesion, if the glenoid defect is less than 25%, no treatment is required. In this case, the Latarjet procedure or arthroscopic remplissage procedure can be a treatment option. However, if the glenoid defect is more than 25%, treatment such as bone grafting is required. This will convert an off-track lesion to an on-track lesion. After the bone graft or Latarjet procedure, if the Hill-Sachs lesion persists as off-track, then further treatment is necessitated. In case with an on-track Hill-Sachs lesion and a less than 25% glenoid defect, arthroscopic Bankart repair alone is enough. PMID:26640623

  15. Tissue response: biomaterials, dental implants, and compromised osseous tissue.

    PubMed

    Babu RS, Arvind; Ogle, Orrett

    2015-04-01

    Tissue response represents an important feature in biocompatibility in implant procedures. This review article highlights the fundamental characteristics of tissue response after the implant procedure. This article also highlights the tissue response in compromised osseous conditions. Understanding the histologic events after dental implants in normal and abnormal bone reinforces the concept of case selection in dental implants.

  16. Radium-223 dichloride therapy in breast cancer with osseous metastases.

    PubMed

    Takalkar, Amol; Paryani, Bhavna; Adams, Scott; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-11-18

    Osseous metastases occur frequently in patients with breast cancer. Few options exist for bone targeted therapy for hormone refractory patients with breast cancer with progressive bone metastases. We present a case of breast cancer with osseous metastases but no visceral metastases. The patient had been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy, but still had extensive symptomatic osseous metastases. She received radium-223 dichloride, a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for castration resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. She tolerated the therapy well with no significant adverse effects. She had an excellent response with significant pain relief obviating need for regular analgaesics. Her tumour markers also dropped significantly. Osseous metastases assessed with F-18 fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) bone PET/CT) scans at baseline, after two and six cycles, also showed interval improvement in the lesions. Radium-223 dichloride could potentially be a safe and useful therapeutic option in this setting.

  17. Unusual primary osseous Hodgkin’s lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LUO, WEI; ZHANG, FANGJIE; SUN, JINPENG; HE, HONGBO

    2015-01-01

    Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) is one of the few adult malignancies that most frequently presents with a progressive, painless enlargement of the peripheral lymph nodes. A primary osseous presentation of HL, without lymph node involvement, is extremely rare. The present study describes a case of primary multifocal osseous HL in a 22-year-old female. The patient presented with pain in the lumbar-sacral-pelvic area and a prolonged fever. Pathological examination led to a diagnosis of primary multifocal osseous lymphoma, and the patient was subsequently prescribed a course of Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy. Following this, the patient recovered with no pain or fever, and computed tomography identified no further progression. The clinical, radiological and histological features of HL are similar to those of other medical conditions, such as tuberculosis and eosinophilic granuloma. Furthermore, in rare cases, HL may even occur in combination with multiple myeloma. This makes it difficult to diagnose the condition, which often leads to a delay in treatment. Clinicians should not ignore HL when it manifests in the unusual primary osseous form. PMID:25621037

  18. Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome and precocious eruption.

    PubMed

    Jain, Parul; Kaul, Rahul; Saha, Subrata; Sarkar, Subir

    2017-03-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO), an uncommon form of ectodermal dysplasia is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder which is characterized by inherited defects in tissues arising from epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Genetic studies have revealed that it is caused by mutation in the DLX3 gene. TDO presents with a great phenotypic heterogeneity and studies have suggested that this heterogeneity is the result of environmental factors or other genetic modifiers. In this article, we report a case of TDO in which the child had typical clinical features of hair, teeth and bone defects, as seen in TDO. Parents of the child were unaffected. Genetic analysis of the child revealed mutation in DLX3 gene. The child also showed precocious eruption of the permanent molars, a clinical feature which has been rarely reported. We suggest that the precocious eruption seen in TDO is probably due to a markedly increased osteoblastic activity. Key words:Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome, DLX3 gene, precocious eruption.

  19. H. R. 5593: A Bill to maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill would maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration by amending certain sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The bill describes the following provisions under the title, Percentage depletion and intangible drilling costs: increase in percentage depletion; percentage depletion permitted after transfer of proven property; percentage depletion allowed for stripper well production of integrated producers; net income limitation not to apply to oil or gas wells; and definitions of intangible drilling costs. Under Title II, Domestic energy improvement tax credits, the following tax credits are described: marginal production; exploring for oil or gas; vehicles fueled by clean-burning fuels, property converting vehicles to be so fueled, and facilities for the retail delivery of such fuels; conversion to natural gas equipment; clean fuel alternatives research; and tertiary recovery methods research.

  20. Osseous manifestations of SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reith, J D; Bauer, T W; Schils, J P

    1996-11-01

    The SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome includes a complex group of disorders characterized by peculiar bone lesions, most commonly involving the anterior chest wall, and sometimes accompanied by dermatologic manifestations. The clinical and radiographic features of this syndrome are well described, but few studies have examined the histologic features of the bone lesions. We describe the clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the osseous lesions encountered in eight patients with a clinical diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome. The patients included five female and three male patients ranging in age from 5 to 63 years (mean, 35.3 years). The most common clinical presentation was pain related to the sites of osseous involvement. Two patients also had some form of pustular dermatosis. The radiographic features of the osseous lesions varied but often suggested the possibility of a neoplasm. Nine pathologic specimens were available for review, five from the clavicle, two from the first rib, one from the calcaneus/cuboid, and one from the tibia. The histologic features varied but seemed related to the duration of the patients' musculoskeletal symptoms. Early lesions contained acute inflammation, edema, and prominent periosteal bone formation, histologically indistinguishable from ordinary bacterial osteomyelitis, whereas late lesions demonstrated markedly sclerotic bone trabeculae with prominent marrow fibrosis and only mild chronic inflammation; one of these biopsies appeared virtually identical to Paget's disease. One biopsy was performed after an intermediate duration of symptoms and contained prominent chronic inflammation only. The histologic findings in SAPHO are variable and nonspecific and may depend on the duration of disease, but it is important to recognize the spectrum of histologic changes possible in the syndrome and to realize that clinicopathologic correlation is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary

  1. Paranasal Rosai-Dorfman Disease with Osseous Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Koempel, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology typically characterized by cervical lymphadenopathy. Extranodal involvement often manifests in the head and neck region. We present a 10-year-old male who presented to our hospital with left epiphora from an aggressive paranasal mass invading the left orbit with osseous destruction. The mass was surgically biopsied and debulked with histopathological examination revealing Rosai-Dorfman disease. Although rarely found in the sinuses, Rosai-Dorfman disease should be considered when evaluating sinonasal masses. PMID:28321353

  2. Embryonic stem cells from blastomeres maintaining embryo viability.

    PubMed

    Klimanskaya, Irina

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of cell and tissue types that are sought in regenerative medicine can be generated from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and currently two derivatives of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have entered human clinical trials. However, the ethical controversy surrounding this technology, which uses preimplantation human embryos to generate cell lines, is limiting research and the development of new therapies. Several new technologies such as induced pluripotent cells or parthenogenetically derived pluripotent cells hold great promise, but more research is needed before their derivatives can be proven to be safe and functional for use in human patients. The blastomere biopsy-based technique allows the derivation of human ESClines without sacrificing a human embryo and was shown to be robust and produce safe and functional derivatives of therapeutic value.

  3. Maintaining viability of white clover under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihira, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Shinpou, R.; Hara, A.; Ono, F.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2012-06-01

    The high pressure technique developed in physics may give a new possibility if it is applied to a biological study. We have been studying the tolerance of small living samples such as planktons and mosses, and found that all of them were alive after exposed to extremely high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. This technique has been extended to a higher plant Trifolium lepens L. (white clover). A few seeds of white clover were exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 days. After the pressure was released, they were seeded on agar, or directly on sowing soil. Seventeen out of the total 22 seeds exposed to the high pressure were found to be alive. Those exposed for up to 1 day and seeded on agar germinated roots. Those exposed for up to 1 h and seeded on soil germinated stems and leaves. The present technique has the possibility of being applied to improve breed of plants and to discover a very strong species that stands against very severe environmental conditions.

  4. Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome and precocious eruption

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Rahul; Saha, Subrata; Sarkar, Subir

    2017-01-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO), an uncommon form of ectodermal dysplasia is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder which is characterized by inherited defects in tissues arising from epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Genetic studies have revealed that it is caused by mutation in the DLX3 gene. TDO presents with a great phenotypic heterogeneity and studies have suggested that this heterogeneity is the result of environmental factors or other genetic modifiers. In this article, we report a case of TDO in which the child had typical clinical features of hair, teeth and bone defects, as seen in TDO. Parents of the child were unaffected. Genetic analysis of the child revealed mutation in DLX3 gene. The child also showed precocious eruption of the permanent molars, a clinical feature which has been rarely reported. We suggest that the precocious eruption seen in TDO is probably due to a markedly increased osteoblastic activity. Key words:Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome, DLX3 gene, precocious eruption. PMID:28298997

  5. Successful treatment of osseous blastomycosis without pulmonary or disseminated disease and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Day, Shandra R; Weiss, David B; Hazen, Kevin C; Moore, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Blastomycosis commonly occurs following inhalation of Blastomyces dermatitidis conidia causing a pulmonary infection and can disseminate to extrapulmonary sites. Osseous involvement primarily results from hematogenous spread, but in rare cases, direct inoculation can occur. We describe a case of osseous blastomycosis without pulmonary or disseminated disease successfully treated with posaconazole.

  6. Successful Treatment of Osseous Blastomycosis without Pulmonary or Disseminated Disease and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Day, Shandra R.; Weiss, David B.; Hazen, Kevin C.; Moore, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Blastomycosis commonly occurs following inhalation of Blastomyces dermatitidis conidia causing a pulmonary infection and can disseminate to extrapulmonary sites. Osseous involvement primarily results from hematogenous spread but in rare cases direct inoculation can occur. We describe a case of osseous blastomycosis without pulmonary or disseminated disease successfully treated with posaconazole. PMID:24703876

  7. Cemento-osseous dysplasia-like lesion and complex odontoma associated with an impacted third molar.

    PubMed

    Prodromidis, Georgios I; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Koutlas, Ioannis G

    2011-12-01

    We present a case of a 36-year-old female with a benign fibro-osseous lesion consistent with cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) that was located coronally to the crown of an impacted mandibular third molar tooth and was associated with a complex odontoma. The pathogenesis of this unusual association is discussed and the odontogenic origin of COD is suggested.

  8. Prominent Pulmonary Metastases Without Concurrent Osseous Involvement in Patients With High-Risk Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xia; Zhuang, Hongming

    2017-02-13

    Metastases from high-risk neuroblastomas generally are to the bone or bone marrow. Multiple lung metastases are rare, especially when there was no concurrent osseous metastasis. We report 2 cases of high-risk neuroblastomas having prominent lung metastases without concurrent osseous lesion observed.

  9. Evolution of the human hip. Part 1: the osseous framework

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Tom; Vereecke, Evie E.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive osseous adaptations of the lumbar spine, pelvis, hip and femur characterize the emergence of the human bipedal gait with its ‘double extension’ of the lumbar spine and hip. To accommodate lumbar lordosis, the pelvis was ‘compacted’, becoming wider and shorter, as compared with the non-human apes. The hip joint acquired a much more extended position, which can be seen in a broader evolutionary context of verticalization of limbs. When loaded in a predominantly vertical position, the femur can be built lighter and longer than when it is loaded more horizontally because bending moments are smaller. Extension of the hip joint together with elongation of the femur increases effective leg length, and hence stride length, which improves energy efficiency. At the hip joint itself, the shift of the hip’s default working range to a more extended position influences concavity at the head–neck junction and femoral neck anteversion. PMID:27011802

  10. Radiographic features of osseous metastases of soft-tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.S.; Kaiser, L.R.; Gold, R.H.; Fon, G.T.

    1982-04-01

    In contrast to most other neoplastic processes of bone, in our study osseous metastases from soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) were more reliably detected by radiography than by scintigraphy. The radiographic manifestations of 65 skeletal metastases in 23 patients with STS were reveiwed. Although most metastases (88%) were osteolytic, eight (12%) lesions were osteoblastic. The destructive patterns were geographic in 29%, moth-eaten in 55%, and permeative in 12% of the lesions. The axial skeleton was most commonly involved. In the long bones the diaphyses were the predominant sites of involvement. The bony cortex was frequently breached, with resultant soft-tissue swelling and pathologic fractures. Noteworthy features included subarticular location, involvement of the sarcoiliac joint, and an expansile appearance.

  11. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  12. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  13. Cell viability assays: introduction.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of cell viability plays a fundamental role in all forms of cell culture. Sometimes it is the main purpose of the experiment, such as in toxicity assays. Alternatively, cell viability can be used to -correlate cell behaviour to cell number, providing a more accurate picture of, for example, anabolic -activity. There are wide arrays of cell viability methods which range from the most routine trypan blue dye exclusion assay to highly complex analysis of individual cells, such as using RAMAN microscopy. The cost, speed, and complexity of equipment required will all play a role in determining the assay used. This chapter aims to provide an overview of many of the assays available today.

  14. Florid Osseous Dysplasia-Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, G.V. Murali Gopika

    2017-01-01

    Florid osseous dysplasia is a rare benign fibro-osseous multiquadrant dysplastic lesion confined to the alveolar process of jaws, generally asymptomatic and usually detected incidentally during radiologic examination and requires no treatment unless symptomatic or cosmetically concerning. In this article, we present two rare cases of florid osseous dysplasia in Indian women with their clinical, radiographic and histologic findings and a brief review of literature. The first case was asymptomatic and the lesion was detected during routine radiographic examination and required no treatment whereas, the second case presented with features of osteomyelitis. Based on the clinical findings, the case was diagnosed as chronic suppurative osteomyelitis, but, after radiologic examination, diagnosis of florid osseous dysplasia with secondary osteomyelitis was made. Besides diagnostic challenge, management of the lesion is difficult due to poor vascularity. In our case, antibiotic prophylaxis along with surgical debridement and sequestrectomy was done with regular recall visits. PMID:28274069

  15. Bilateral Osseous Interclinoid Bridges Associated with Foramina of Vesalius: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, George; Nitsa, Zoi; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos

    2015-07-01

    The current study displays a very rare combination of ossified interclinoid ligaments at the sella turcica region associated with bilateral foramina of Vesalius. In a macerated skull four osseous bars interconnecting the clinoid processes bilaterally were detected. Specifically, two bilateral osseous bars were observed bridging the gap between the anterior and middle clinoid processes forming the so called caroticoclinoid foramen on each side and two additional osseous bridges linked the anterior and posterior clinoid processes, bilaterally. Furthermore, two distinct bilateral foramina of Vesalius were documented just anterior and medial to the foramen ovale. The awareness of the osseous sellar bridges is crucial for the physician and especially the neurosurgeon since their presence may complicate the removal of clinoid processes and induce damage of the internal carotid artery and oculomotor nerves. Furthermore, the likely existence of the foramen of Vesalius may lead to transfer of an infected thrombus into the cranial cavity and complicate a percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy.

  16. Simultaneous osseous metaplasia nodules of the submucosa and mesosalpinx after first trimester abortion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Here, we report a case of simultaneous osseous metaplasia nodules of the submucosa and mesosalpinx after a first trimester abortion. Case presentation A 36-year-old woman presented to the Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University with vaginal bleeding and infertility resulting from osseous metaplasia nodules of the submucosa and mesosalpinx after a first trimester abortion. Diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy and laparoscope procedures were performed. The osseous metaplasia nodules disappeared after hysteroscopy and laparoscope interventions; 2 weeks postoperatively, the patient underwent a transvaginal ultrasound examination and the abnormal ultrasound appearance had resolved. Conclusions Osseous metaplasia nodules in the submucosa and mesosalpinx can be a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and infertility. Autologous tissue, not persistent heterologous tissue, may be the true reason for metaplasia. Treatment is by ultrasound-guided curettage or by hysteroscopic and laparoscope removal. PMID:24245923

  17. Bilateral Osseous Interclinoid Bridges Associated with Foramina of Vesalius: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nitsa, Zoi; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The current study displays a very rare combination of ossified interclinoid ligaments at the sella turcica region associated with bilateral foramina of Vesalius. In a macerated skull four osseous bars interconnecting the clinoid processes bilaterally were detected. Specifically, two bilateral osseous bars were observed bridging the gap between the anterior and middle clinoid processes forming the so called caroticoclinoid foramen on each side and two additional osseous bridges linked the anterior and posterior clinoid processes, bilaterally. Furthermore, two distinct bilateral foramina of Vesalius were documented just anterior and medial to the foramen ovale. The awareness of the osseous sellar bridges is crucial for the physician and especially the neurosurgeon since their presence may complicate the removal of clinoid processes and induce damage of the internal carotid artery and oculomotor nerves. Furthermore, the likely existence of the foramen of Vesalius may lead to transfer of an infected thrombus into the cranial cavity and complicate a percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy. PMID:26393114

  18. Tricho-Dento-Osseous Syndrome: Diagnosis and Dental Management

    PubMed Central

    Al-Batayneh, Ola B.

    2012-01-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder principally characterised by curly hair at infancy, severe enamel hypomineralization and hypoplasia and taurodontism of teeth, sclerotic bone, and other defects. Diagnostic criteria are based on the generalized enamel defects, severe taurodontism especially of the mandibular first permanent molars, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, and at least one of the other features (i.e., nail defects, bone sclerosis, and curly, kinky or wavy hair present at a young age that may straighten out later). Confusion with amelogenesis imperfecta is common; however, taurodontism is not a constant feature of any of the types of amelogenesis imperfecta. Management of TDO requires a team approach, proper documentation, and a long-term treatment and follow-up plan. The aim of treatment is to prevent problems such as sensitivity, caries, dental abscesses, and loss of occlusal vertical dimension through attrition of hypoplastic tooth structure. Another aim is to restore function of the dentition and enhance the esthetics and self-esteem of the patient. This paper proposes treatment approaches that include preventive, restorative, endodontic, prosthetic, and surgical options to management. In addition, it sheds light on the difficulties faced during dental treatment of such cases. PMID:22969805

  19. Osseous penetration rate into implants pretreated with bone cement.

    PubMed

    Albrektsson, T

    1984-01-01

    The titanium bone growth chamber consists of two titanium disks held together by two screws. At the level of the intersection between the disks, a 1 mm wide canal penetrates the implant. After implantation, in e.g. the rabbit, tibial metaphysis bone and vessels will grow through this canal, the contents of which are collected four weeks after surgery. Microradiography and a computer-based analysis give a numerical representation of the amount of newly formed bone in the canal. When the bone ingrowth into two identical titanium implants, one inserted in the left and the other in the right tibia, was compared, only small and insignificant differences were found in the same animal. However, when one animal was compared to another, greater differences in the bone-forming capacity were found, in spite of the fact that the rabbits were controlled with respect to race, age and sex. The osseous penetration rate into titanium canals was compared to the bone ingrowth in equally sized pipes of polymerized acrylic cement which had been inserted in the titanium chamber. In these cases there was significantly less bone formed in the cement pipes compared to the titanium controls. Poor biocompatibility of the cement compared to titanium is suggested to be one factor responsible for the reduced bone formation in the cement environment. This may be one reason for the fibrous tissue capsule generally seen around cemented implants.

  20. Evaluation of metallic osseous implants with nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, H.N.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Capello, W.N.

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear medicine has proven to have a valuable role in the evaluation of osseous metallic implants, particularly with joint prostheses, but can assist with evaluation of other appliances as well. The nuclear arthrogram has become an invaluable adjunct to simultaneously performed radiographic contrast arthrography. This application has been best evaluated in what is one of the most common of orthopedic prosthesis problems, namely, loosening of total hip prostheses. Experience indicates that both sensitivity and specificity of loosening of the femoral component can be increased to over 90% through combined use of nuclear with radiographic contrast arthrography. Furthermore the combination of routine skeletal scintimaging with the nuclear arthrogram adds a significant dimension to precise localizing of the nuclear arthrographics agent In-111 chloride. Nuclear medicine also plays an important role in further evaluating the presence of infection associated with metallic implants with In-111 WBC preparations being superior to Ga-67 as the radiopharmaceutical tracer. Infection has been detected with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in our series using combined In-111 WBC and simultaneous skeletal imaging with conventional Tc-99m MDP. Acute infections are more readily identifiable than chronic in association with prostheses. 29 references.

  1. Treatment of osseous defects associated with anterior shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Joseph R; Clinton, Jeremiah M; Dewing, Christopher B; Warme, Winston J; Matsen, Frederick A

    2009-01-01

    Bone loss of the glenoid and/or humerus is a common consequence of traumatic anterior shoulder instability and can be a cause of recurrent instability after a Bankart repair. Accurate characterization of the size and location of osseous defects associated with traumatic instability is important when planning treatment. Open or arthroscopic soft tissue repairs are usually sufficient when less than 25% of the width of the glenoid bone has been lost. Bone replacement techniques may be necessary when glenoid bone loss is greater than 25% of the glenoid width. Glenoid bone restoration techniques include the use of a tricortical iliac crest graft or the transfer of the coracoid process to the area of glenoid deficiency. Bone grafting becomes a strong consideration when soft tissue repairs have failed to restore stability. Treatment of these severe defects may be followed by osteoarthritis. The destabilizing effects of anterior glenoid bone defects are compounded by concurrent defects of the posterior-lateral humeral head, commonly known as Hill-Sachs lesions, which can engage the glenoid defect. Large humeral head defects can be treated by transhumeral bone grafting techniques or osteoarticular allograft reconstruction. Prosthetic replacement of the proximal humerus is considered for humeral head defects involving more than 40% of the articular surface. Understanding the importance of humeral and glenoid bone deficiencies may help guide the treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability.

  2. Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition

    PubMed Central

    Chapel, Laetitia; Castelló, Xavier; Bernard, Claire; Deffuant, Guillaume; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Martin, Sophie; Miguel, Maxi San

    2010-01-01

    We study the viability and resilience of languages, using a simple dynamical model of two languages in competition. Assuming that public action can modify the prestige of a language in order to avoid language extinction, we analyze two cases: (i) the prestige can only take two values, (ii) it can take any value but its change at each time step is bounded. In both cases, we determine the viability kernel, that is, the set of states for which there exists an action policy maintaining the coexistence of the two languages, and we define such policies. We also study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return to the viability kernel (finite resilience), or where one of the languages is lead to disappear (zero resilience). Within our current framework, the maintenance of a bilingual society is shown to be possible by introducing the prestige of a language as a control variable. PMID:20126655

  3. Temporomandibular joint reconstruction with a 2-part chrome-cobalt prosthesis, chondro-osseous graft, and silastic: clinical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Kummoona, Raja

    2009-11-01

    Seventy-six patients including 27 females and 49 males, with ages ranging between 4 and 35 years (mean, 19.5 y), all experienced loss of weight, stiff temporomandibular joints and inability to chew food, and facial deformities. These patients were treated in the Maxillofacial Unit, Surgical Specialties Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq, using 4 different techniques according to the requirement of each case and the facilities available. These patients were divided into 4 groups: the first group consists of 16 children (21.06%) treated with a chondro-osseous graft; the second group, 10 children (13.16%) treated with a 2-part chrome-cobalt prosthesis; the third group, 32 children (42.11%) treated with a Sialastic rubber silicone implant (Koken Co, Tokyo, Japan); and the fourth group, 18 children (23.69%) treated with interposition arthroplasty with a temporalis muscle flap. The follow-up period of the cases ranged between 3 and 15 years. Experimental studies were done on using rabbits to assess the viability of the chondro-osseous graft and on monkeys to demonstrate the biological acceptability of the 2-part chrome-cobalt prosthesis. The aim of this clinical and experimental study was to show our experience in managing difficult tasks that craniofacial or maxillofacial surgeons may face and to share these experiences with other colleagues all over the world.

  4. Cartilage viability after trochleoplasty.

    PubMed

    Schöttle, Philip B; Schell, Hanna; Duda, Georg; Weiler, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    Trochleoplasty is an established and accepted technique for the treatment of patellar instability because of a missing trochlear groove. In this technique, a flap of cartilage over the trochlea is carefully removed and a new trochlear groove is created in the underlying bone before the cartilaginous flap is reattached with sutures. The mid-term clinical and radiological results of this operation are promising but no information about the viability of the reattached cartilage has been reported. To evaluate cartilage viability and quality after trochleoplasty and to verify the healing process, two osteochondral biopsies were harvested from three patients 6, 8, and 9 months after trochleoplasty. One cylinder was evaluated histologically to assess cartilage, calcified cartilage (cc), and subchondral bone quality, while the other one was examined by confocal microscopy to evaluate cell viability. The histological examination showed a normal matrix and cell distribution of the cartilage, while the cc showed lacunae ingrowing from the underlying bone. The subchondral bone showed normal lamellae and histology, and the healing of the flap. Confocal microscopy showed almost exclusively viable chondrocytes. This demonstration of non-injured cartilage at short-term follow-up together with promising clinical and radiological 2- and 5-year follow-up results indicate a potential promising outlook for the long term, as further chondral damage is not expected. So trochleoplasty can be seen as a primary intervention for patellar instability because of trochlear dysplasia as the risk for cartilage damage is low.

  5. Antibiotic-releasing Porous Polymethylmethacrylate Constructs for Osseous Space Maintenance and Infection Control

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Meng; Kretlow, James D.; Nguyen, Anson; Young, Simon; Baggett, L. Scott; Wong, Mark E.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of a strategy involving space maintenance as the initial step of a two-stage regenerative medicine approach toward reconstructing significant bony or composite tissue defects in the craniofacial area, preserves the void volume of bony defects and could promote soft tissue healing prior to the subsequent definitive repair. One of the complications with a biomaterial-based space maintenance approach is local infection, which requires early, effective eradication, ideally through local antibiotic delivery. The purpose of this study is to develop a dual function implant material for maintaining osseous space and releasing an antibiotic to eliminate local infection in bony defects. Colistin, a polymyxin antibiotic, was chosen specifically to address infections with Acinetobacter species, the most common pathogen associated with combat-related traumatic craniofacial injuries. Porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) constructs incorporating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated by mixing a clinically used bone cement formulation of PMMA powder and methylmethacrylate liquid with a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrogel (40 or 50 wt%) to impart porosity and PLGA microspheres (10 or 15 wt%) loaded with colistin to control drug release. The PMMA/CMC/PLGA construct featured mild setting temperature, controllable surface/bulk porosity by incorporation of the CMC hydrogel, reasonably strong compressive properties, and continuous drug release over a period of 5 weeks with total drug release of 68.1-88.3%, depending on the weight percentage of CMC and PLGA incorporation. The concentration of released colistin was well above its reported minimum inhibitory concentration against susceptible species for 5 weeks. This study provides information on the composition parameters that enable viable porosity characteristics/drug release kinetics of the PMMA/CMC/PLGA construct for the initial space maintenance as part of a two-stage regenerative medicine

  6. Autosomal dominant mesomandibular fibro-osseous dysplasia: a self-resolving inherited fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Koutlas, Ioannis G; Forsman, Cynthia L; Kyrkanides, Stephanos; Oetting, William S; Petryk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A hereditary congenital condition characterized by a fibro-osseous lesion sharing some features with fibrous dysplasia and affecting the middle aspect of the mandible is presented. The condition was initially described as congenital monostotic fibrous dysplasia in two siblings, a male and a female. However, there is sufficient evidence that the disorder is autosomal dominant since it has been encountered in two of four children, both males, of the female propositus and one child, a boy, of the male propositus. All patients presented at birth or right after birth with enlargement of the middle part of the mandible. Radiographs from affected individuals have shown mesomandibular enlargement with irregular trabeculation akin of "ground-glass" appearance. Histologically, samples from all patients revealed woven bone proliferation in a cellular fibroblastic stroma. Interestingly, the originally described siblings, now in their 30s, have no evidence of jaw lesions either radiographically or clinically, thus indicating that the condition is self-limiting or self-resolving. An autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with apparent male predilection is favored. The molecular basis of this condition is currently unknown. However, the location of the lesions in the middle aspect of the mandible suggests dysregulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling since BMPs regulate mandibular morphogenesis in utero, particularly in the medial region as well as postnatal bone remodeling. Immunohistochemical evaluation for a BMP-binding protein Twisted Gastrulation (TWSG1) revealed mosaic pattern of staining, with some cells, including osteoclasts, strongly stained and others exhibiting faint or no staining, thus supporting active regulation of BMP signaling within the lesion. Future investigations will determine if dysregulation of BMP signaling plays a causative role or rather reflects secondary activation of repair mechanisms and/or bone remodeling.

  7. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental, and Non-skeletal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Heather A; Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-03-01

    Forensic anthropologists are generally able to identify skeletal materials (bone and tooth) using gross anatomical features; however, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic to identify. Several chemical analysis techniques have been shown to be reliable laboratory methods that can be used to determine if questionable fragments are osseous, dental, or non-skeletal in nature. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed background of chemical analysis techniques focusing on elemental compositions that have been assessed for use in differentiating osseous, dental, and non-skeletal materials. More recently, chemical analysis studies have also focused on using the elemental composition of osseous/dental materials to evaluate species and provide individual discrimination, but have generally been successful only in small, closed groups, limiting their use forensically. Despite significant advances incorporating a variety of instruments, including handheld devices, further research is necessary to address issues in standardization, error rates, and sample size/diversity.

  8. [Problems in the diagnosis and surgical treatment in an osseous tuberculosis hospital].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, N I; Evlashkin, D V; Karzhavina, G I

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosed patients treated at an osseous tuberculosis hospital are analyzed. In the reporting period, the diagnosis of osseous tuberculosis has not been verified. Late detection of osseous tuberculosis, as its prehospital hyperdiagnosis is one of the main reasons of a grave condition in this group of patients. The paper characterizes plastic reparative versus palliative decompressive operations for tuberculous spondylitis with spinal-cord abnormalities and shows that radical surgery has a higher efficiency (89%) in the treatment of an inflammatory process and in the regression of neurological complications. In generalized forms of osteoarticular lesions if there is an indication for surgical treatment, long-term drug therapy for tuberculosis of the lung and other organs is not warranted.

  9. Establishing lunar resource viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  10. Osseous metastases from renal cell carcinoma: embolization and surgery for restoration of function. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.M.; Becker, G.J.; Rabe, F.E.; Holden, R.W.; Richmond, B.D.; Wass, J.L.; Sequeira, F.W.

    1984-03-01

    Five patients underwent preoperative embolization of osseous metastases from renal cell carcinoma. The group consisted of four men and one woman who ranged in age from 46 to 79 years. The lesions were located in the pubic ramus and acetabulum, proximal femur, femoral midshaft, proximal humerus, and proximal tibia. All embolizations were performed within 24 hours of surgery. The internal fixation and tumor curettage was accomplished with estimated perioperative blood loss ranging from 10 ml to 1,250 ml. All patients had significant restoration of function following surgery. The authors suggest that preoperative embolization is an important and efficacious adjunct in the management of hypervascular renal cell osseous metastases.

  11. Computed tomography review of the osseous structures of the orbital apex.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Eldan; Dilberović, Faruk

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, we described osseous anatomy of the orbital apex using CT in axial and coronal projections. The main osseous landmarks facilitate the evaluation of orbital apex in radiology, especially on the axial and coronal CT scans. These landmarks include so called optic strut, small segment of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone and upper part of the pterygopalatine fossa. We also concentrate attention upon visualisation and review of the optic canal, superior and inferior orbital fissure, pterygopalatine fossa and foramen rotundum.

  12. [Primary osseous Hodgkin's lymphoma of the sacrum: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge].

    PubMed

    Fourati, N; Kanoun Belajouza, S; Regaieg, H; Khlif, A; Bouaouina, N

    2017-02-01

    Primary osseous Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very rare entity. Cases reported in the literature are limited with often insufficient initial exploration. We report a new case of a 24 years old patient with a diagnosis of primary osseous Hodgkin lymphoma of the lumbosacral region with extension to the soft tissues, without simultaneous lymph node involvement confirmed both by conventional and metabolic imaging. The patient received a combination chemotherapy (two courses BEACOPP(®) and four courses ABVD) followed by radiotherapy of the lombosacral region at the dose of 40Gy in 20 fractions. Fifteen months after the end of treatment, the patient was in complete remission.

  13. [Osseous bridge after physeal-injury to the distal tibia with spontaneous resolution].

    PubMed

    Trnka, J; Sýkora, L; Bibza, J

    2008-12-01

    The risk of osseous bridge development after certain types of physeal injury is well established. Once formed, the bridge continues to grow and results in a progressive deformity. The authors present an unusual case of a five-year-old girl who had a Salter-Harris Type-IV fracture of the distal tibial epiphyseal plate, with subsequent osseous bridge formation and deformity development. The bridge resolved spontaneously in 16 months, and joint mechanical axis alignment was gradually restored with normal growth of the distal tibia. Key words: physis, paediatric fractures, bony bridge, growth arrest.

  14. High-flow Paraspinal Osseous Epidural Arteriovenous Fistula. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Yuo; Suzuki, Mitimasa; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Shimoji, Keigo; Komura, Shinji

    2008-06-03

    We report the clinical and neuroradiological imaging findings of a 26-year-old man who presented with lumbago related to high flow paraspinal osseous epidural arteriovenous fistulas in the thoracic spine. This case was of particular interest because of his exclusive epidural and paraspinal venous drainage and the presence of a prominent dilated venous pouch in the spinal canal. Angiography demonstrated multiple high flow arteriovenous fistulas with an osseous nidus. Transarterial glue embolization was performed by multistage sessions. Clinical symptoms improved dramatically. The unusual features of this case have important implications for therapeutic management.

  15. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2016-04-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy.

  16. Herniation pit mimicking osseous metastasis on 18F-FDG PET/CT in patient with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Su Woong; Song, Ho-Chun; Oh, Jong-Ryool; Kim, Jahae; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Chong, Ari; Byun, Byung Hyun; Hong, Sun-Pyo; Min, Jung-Joon; Bom, Hee-Seung

    2012-07-01

    Herniation pits are small subcortical osseous defects located typically at the proximal anterosuperior quadrant of the femoral neck that are most frequently seen in the young, athletic adult population. We report a case with herniation pit showing focal 18F-FDG uptake on PET/CT images mimicking osseous metastasis in a 69-year-old patient with lung cancer.

  17. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  18. The cybernetics of viability: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    A three-level approach to viability is developed, considering (1) living systems, (2) a niche, understood as the area within the reach of their actions, and (3) an environment. A systematic analysis of the interrelations between these levels shows that living systems emerge with matter/energy processing systems. These can add controller structures when producing excess energy. A three-sensor controller structure enables a living system to deal with unfavourable and scarce environments. Further evolution of these controller structures offers improved ways to act on niches. Maintaining niches in scarce environments can require technology or economy. So social systems emerge, which are understood as aggregates of living systems. Basic patterns of interactions within social systems are analysed. So the introduction of the notion of the niche into the discussion of viability allows us to explain phenomena ranging from properties of single living systems to societal organization.

  19. Evaluation of osseous integration of PVD-silver-coated hip prostheses in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Gregor; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Stoeppeler, Sandra; Ahrens, Helmut; Blaske, Franziska; Wehe, Christoph; Karst, Uwe; Höll, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (mega)prostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition-) silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb) and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses.

  20. Evaluation of Osseous Integration of PVD-Silver-Coated Hip Prostheses in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Gregor; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Blaske, Franziska; Wehe, Christoph; Karst, Uwe; Höll, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (mega)prostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition-) silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb) and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses. PMID:25695057

  1. Primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column: review of pathology and surgical decision making.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Eli, Ilyas M; Schmidt, Meic H; Brockmeyer, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    Spinal column tumors are rare in children and young adults, accounting for only 1% of all spine and spinal cord tumors combined. They often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this article, the authors review the current management of primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column and highlight diagnosis, management, and surgical decision making.

  2. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software.

  3. Wound healing in the tissues of the periodontium following periradicular surgery. III. The osseous excisional wound.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J W; Jurosky, K A

    1992-02-01

    Excisional wounds were made in the maxillas and mandibles of rhesus monkeys, and the osseous wound-healing responses at postsurgical intervals ranging from 1 to 28 days were evaluated by light microscopy. The excisional defects were initially filled with a coagulum which was subsequently replaced by granulation tissue emanating from the endosteal tissues. Cortical and trabecular bone forming the wound edges was devitalized, as evidenced by an absence of osteocytes in the peripheral lacunae. At 14 days postsurgery, woven bone trabeculae occupied most of the defect, with the more superficial trabeculae in direct contact with a thick band of dense fibrous connective tissue separating the osseous defect from overlying mucosal tissues. Within the defect, new bone was deposited on devitalized bone without evidence of preceding osteoclastic activity. At 28 days, the woven bone trabeculae were more mature and a functioning periosteum was now active in repair of the cortical plate.

  4. Elbow joint stability in relation to forced external rotation: An experimental study of the osseous constraint.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Søren R; Jensen, Steen L; Olsen, Bo S; Sneppen, Otto

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the osseous constraint related to forced forearm external rotation as the initial stage in a posterior elbow dislocation. Six joint specimens without soft tissues were examined in a joint analysis system developed for simulation of dislocation. The osseous stability, expressed as the maximal torque needed for pathologic external forearm rotation, increased from varus to valgus stress (P =.0001) and from 10 degrees to 90 degrees of elbow flexion (P =.012) and also tended to increase from forearm supination to pronation. The work of pathologic external forearm rotation until the point of maximal torque decreased from a maximum in full extension to a minimum at 30 degrees of elbow flexion (P =.03). The elbow in a slightly flexed position, varus stress, and forearm external rotation trauma might be the important biomechanical factors in the posterior elbow dislocation, and they might serve as guidelines during clinical investigation for posterolateral instability.

  5. Management of a One-wall Intrabony Osseous Defect with Combination of Platelet Rich Plasma and Demineralized Bone Matrix- a Two-year Follow up Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Thakkalapati, Parthasaradhi; R Chandran, Chitraa; Ranganathan, Aravindhan Thiruputkuzhi; Jain, Ashish Ratahanchand; Prabhakar, Priya; Padmanaban, Suganya

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration in a one-wall intrabony defect is a challenging and complex phenomenon. The combination therapy of commercially available bone grafts with the innovative tissue engineering strategy, the platelet rich plasma, has emerged as a promising grafting modality for two and three walled intrabony osseous defects. The application of this combination approach was attempted in a most challenging one-wall intrabony defect. Open flap debridement and placement of combination of autologous platelet rich plasma(PRP) and demineralized bone matrix was done in one-wall intrabony defect in relation to tooth #21 in a 30 year old female patient. The 6-month follow- up results showed significant improvement in clinical parameters. Radiographic evidence of bone formation was observed as early as 3 months with almost complete fill by 6 months post-operatively. The results were maintained over a period of 2 years. PMID:26331153

  6. Presternal false aneurysm due to osseous arrosion of the right ventricle.

    PubMed

    Deschka, Heinz; Machner, Matthias; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Right ventricular rupture after open heart surgery is a rare but severe postoperative complication. In most cases, right ventricular bleeding is associated with mediastinitis and either directly caused by inflammatory processes or iatrogenically through penetration of dehiscent sternal edges or vacuum-assisted closure therapy. We describe a case of right ventricular rupture due to osseous arrosion in a closed chest in the absence of mediastinitis which led to the creation of a massive presternal false aneurysm.

  7. Soft tissue hemangioma with osseous extension: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Alexander; Olivieri, Brandon; Feinberg, Daniel; Betancourt, Michel; Bockelman, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Soft tissue hemangiomas are commonly encountered lesions, accounting for 7-10 % of all benign soft tissue masses (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010). While the literature describes the great majority of hemangiomas as asymptomatic and discovered only as incidental findings, they do have the potential to induce reactive changes in neighboring structures (Pastushyn et al. Surg Neurol 50(6):535-47, 1998). When these variants occur in close proximity to bone, they may elicit a number of well-documented reactive changes in osseous tissue (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; DeFilippo et al. Skelet Radiol 25(2):174-7, 1996; Ly et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180(6):1695-700, 2003; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998). However, instances of direct extension into bone by soft tissue hemangiomas--that is, infiltration of the mass's vascular components into nearby osseous tissue--are currently undocumented in the literature. In these cases, imaging plays an important role in differentiating hemangiomas from malignant lesions (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998; Pourbagher, Br J Radiol 84(1008):1100-8, 2011). In this article, we present such a case that involved the sacral spine. Imaging revealed a soft tissue mass with direct extension of vascular components into osseous tissue of the adjacent sacral vertebrae. Biopsy and subsequent histopathologic examination led to definitive diagnosis of soft tissue hemangioma. While MRI is widely regarded as the gold standard imaging modality for evaluating hemangiomas, in this report we describe how CT can aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis when one encounters a vascular lesion with adjacent osseous changes. Furthermore, we review the literature as it pertains to the imaging of soft tissue hemangiomas that occur in proximity to osseous tissue, as well as correlate this case to current theories on the pathogenesis of hemangiomas

  8. Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.

    PubMed

    Maesani, Andrea; Fernando, Pradeep Ruben; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Osseous Biopsy in Children With Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Jan; Tzaribachev, Nikolay; Thomas, Christoph; Wehrmann, Manfred; Horger, Marius S.; Carrino, John A.; Koenig, Claudius W.; Pereira, Philippe L.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To report the safety and diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MRI)-guided core biopsy of osseous lesions in children with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) that were visible on MRI but were occult on radiography and computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of MRI-guided osseous biopsy performed in seven children (four girls and three boys; mean age 13 years (range 11 to 14) with CRMO was performed. Indication for using MRI guidance was visibility of lesions by MRI only. MRI-guided procedures were performed with 0.2-Tesla (Magnetom Concerto; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; n = 5) or 1.5-T (Magnetom Espree; Siemens; n = 2) open MRI systems. Core needle biopsy was obtained using an MRI-compatible 4-mm drill system. Conscious sedation or general anesthesia was used. Parameters evaluated were lesion visibility, technical success, procedure time, complications and microbiology, cytology, and histopathology findings. Results: Seven of seven (100%) targeted lesions were successfully visualized and sampled. All obtained specimens were sufficient for histopathological analysis. Length of time of the procedures was 77 min (range 64 to 107). No complications occurred. Histopathology showed no evidence of malignancy, which was confirmed at mean follow-up of 50 months (range 28 to 78). Chronic nonspecific inflammation characteristic for CRMO was present in four of seven (58%) patients, and edema with no inflammatory cells was found in three of seven (42%) patients. There was no evidence of infection in any patient. Conclusion: MRI-guided osseous biopsy is a safe and accurate technique for the diagnosis of pediatric CRMO lesions that are visible on MRI only.

  10. Reassessing the Aurignacian of Slovenia: techno-economic behaviour and direct dating of osseous projectile points.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Luc; Odar, Boštjan; Higham, Tom; Horvat, Aleksander; Pirkmajer, Darja; Turk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Palaeolithic of southern Central Europe has a long history of archaeological research. Particularly, the presence of numerous osseous projectile points in many early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) assemblages in this region has attracted the attention of the international research community. However, the scarcity of properly identified and well-dated Aurignacian contexts represents an obstacle for investigation of the nature and timing of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. In this context, the question of whether Neandertals made Aurignacian osseous projectile points, either on their own or as a consequence of cultural interaction with anatomically modern humans (AMH), still remains an open issue. Here we reassess the EUP record of Slovenia by evaluating the Aurignacian character of the assemblages from Potočka zijalka, Mokriška jama and Divje babe I in the light of their suggested roots in the local Mousterian. We provide a comprehensive description of the lithic industry from Potočka zijalka, which represents one of the rare EUP assemblages of southern Central Europe with a representative number of lithic artefacts to be analysed from the perspective of lithic technology and raw material economy. Our re-analysis of the Slovenian assemblages is backed by a series of 11 new ultrafiltered collagen 14C dates obtained directly on associated osseous projectile points from the studied assemblages. The Aurignacian of Potočka zijalka underlines the remarkable consistency of the Early Aurignacian with low typo-technological variability across Europe, resulting from a marked dependence on transported toolkits and raw material conservation. The new radiocarbon determinations for the Aurignacian of Slovenia appear to post-date the 34-32 ka BP (thousands of years before present) threshold for the last Neandertals in the region. Although not falsified, the hypothesis of Aurignacian bone tools in southern Central Europe as a product of late Neandertals is not

  11. Temporomandibular joint osseous morphology in a consecutive sample of ankylosing spondylitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Remus, C.; Major, P.; Gomez-Vargas, A.; Petrikowski, G.; Hernandez-Chavez, A.; Gonzalez-Marin, E.; Russell, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osseous morphology in a consecutive sample of Mexican patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
METHODS—Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis who attended two secondary care outpatient rheumatology clinics were included in the study. Patients had a rheumatological assessment using a structured questionnaire and examination. Recorded variables included demographic data, disease characteristics, TMJ symptoms, and axial mobility measurements. Hypocycloidal tomography of the TMJ was obtained on all subjects. Radiographic variables included condyle position, superior joint space, range of movement, condylar osseous changes, and temporal osseous changes. Patients also underwent standard cervical spine radiography. A control group of normal people without either TMJ symptoms or systemic rheumatic disease was obtained.
RESULTS—65 subjects were studied (65 right sided and 63 left sided tomograms). The control group consisted of 22 individuals. Both groups were similar in age [33 (SD 11) v 34 (9) years, P = 0.8]. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis had more variability in TMJ mobility than controls (P < 0.05) and showed increased frequency of condylar erosions (P < 0.01), flattening (P < 0.01), sclerosis (P < 0.01), and temporal flattening (P < 0.01). Condylar erosions were associated with longer duration of ankylosing spondylitis (P < 0.05), neck complaints (P < 0.05), and atlantoaxial subluxation (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—TMJ involvement is frequent in this population of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and is associated with variables that suggest more severe disease.

 PMID:9068282

  12. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: A rare case report evaluated with cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Eren; Bağlar, Serdar; Ciftci, Mehmet Ertugrul; Ozcan, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year-old systemically healthy female patient presented to our department. Cone-beam computed tomographic images showed multiple well-defined sclerotic masses with radiolucent border in both right and left molar regions of the mandible. These sclerotic masses were surrounded by a thin radiolucent border. We diagnosed the present pathology as florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and decided to follow the patient without taking biopsy. For the patient, who did not have any clinical complaints, radiographic followupis recommended twice a year. The responsibility of the dentist is to ensure the follow-up of the diagnosed patients and take necessary measures for preventing the infections. PMID:27601835

  13. Successful Repeated Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapies in Renal Neuroendocrine Tumor With Osseous Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Anna; Mayer, Karin; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2016-12-01

    Renal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is an extremely rarely occurring disease. The sporadic reports in the literature are mostly case reports, or less commonly small studies. In cases of metastatic disease from renal NET, there are no established therapies. We are reporting our experience with a patient with extensive osseous infiltration of a renal NET, who was successfully treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using Lu-DOTATATE. In a period of 10 years, the patient underwent in total 12 cycles of PRRT with a cumulative dose of 81 GBq. All therapies were unproblematic and well tolerated.

  14. Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) due to a recurrent filamin A (FLNA) mutation

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Torrado, Maria; Fernandez, Maria del Carmen; Tello, Ana Maria; Arberas, Claudia L; Cardinale, Antonella; Piccolo, Pasquale; Bacino, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is an X-linked dominant syndrome with distal limb anomalies, pigmentary skin defects, digital fibromas, and generalized bone involvement due to a recurrent mutation in the filamin A (FLNA) gene. We here report the mutation c.5217G>A in FLNA in three families with TODPD and we found possible germline and somatic mosaicism in two out of the three families. The occurrence of somatic and germline mosaicism for TODPD indicates that caution should be taken in counseling recurrence risks for these conditions upon presentation of an isolated case. PMID:25614868

  15. Management of Osseous and Soft-Tissue Ankle Equinus During Total Ankle Replacement.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S; Simonson, Devin C

    2015-10-01

    Obtaining functional alignment of a total ankle replacement, including physiologic sagittal plane range of motion, is paramount for a successful outcome. This article reviews the literature on techniques available for correction of osseous and soft-tissue equinus at the time of index total ankle replacement. These techniques include anterior tibiotalar joint cheilectomy, posterior superficial muscle compartment lengthening, posterior ankle capsule release, and release of the posterior portions of the medial and lateral collateral ligament complexes. The rationale for these procedures and the operative sequence of events for these procedures are presented.

  16. Hydrogen Supplementation of Preservation Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takuya; Onuma, Kenji; Kuzuno, Jun; Ujihira, Masanobu; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Sakai, Rina; Takaso, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Allogenic osteochondral tissue (OCT) is used for the treatment of large cartilage defects. Typically, OCTs collected during the disease-screening period are preserved at 4°C; however, the gradual reduction in cell viability during cold preservation adversely affects transplantation outcomes. Therefore, improved storage methods that maintain the cell viability of OCTs are needed to increase the availability of high-quality OCTs and improve treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether long-term hydrogen delivery to preservation solution improved the viability of rat OCTs during cold preservation. Hydrogen-supplemented Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution both significantly improved the cell viability of OCTs during preservation at 4°C for 21 days compared to nonsupplemented media. However, the long-term cold preservation of OCTs in DMEM containing hydrogen was associated with the most optimal maintenance of chondrocytes with respect to viability and morphology. Our findings demonstrate that OCTs preserved in DMEM supplemented with hydrogen are a promising material for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. PMID:25506061

  17. Bioluminescence assay for cell viability.

    PubMed

    Lomakina, G Yu; Modestova, Yu A; Ugarova, N N

    2015-06-01

    Theoretical aspects of the adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay based on the use of the firefly luciferin-luciferase system are considered, as well as its application for assessing cell viability in microbiology, sanitation, medicine, and ecology. Various approaches for the analysis of individual or mixed cultures of microorganisms are presented, and capabilities of the method for investigation of biological processes in live cells including necrosis, apoptosis, as well as for investigation of the dynamics of metabolism are described.

  18. Artificial Evolution by Viability Rather than Competition

    PubMed Central

    Maesani, Andrea; Fernando, Pradeep Ruben; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design. PMID:24489790

  19. Maintaining DACUM Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    This document discusses the importance of maintaining the quality of DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analyses and presents a 2-page checklist detailing DACUM quality performance criteria. The introduction to the checklist discusses various "infractions" discovered during an analyses of some curriculum/program developers'…

  20. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  1. Electrochemical sensing of hepatocyte viability.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hweiyan; Tsai, Shang-heng; Ting, Wei-Jen; Hu, Chao-Chin; Fuh, C Bor

    2014-05-21

    We investigated the use of amperometric and chronoamperometric methods with a double mediator system and screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for the electrochemical sensing of hepatocyte viability. Cell counts were determined based on measuring cellular respiration via interaction of electroactive redox mediators. The oxidation currents of chronoamperometric measurement were proportional to the concentrations of ferrocyanide which was produced via interaction of cellular respiration, succinate and ferricyanide. The integrated oxidation charges increased linearly with the density of the cultured primary rat hepatocytes over a range of 1 × 10(5) to 5 × 10(5) cells per well (slope = 1.98 (±0.08) μC per 10(5) cells; R(2) = 0.9969), and the detection limit was 7600 (±300) cells per well based on S/N = 3. Each density of cells was cultured in triple replicates and individual cell samples were evaluated. The results of the cytotoxic effect of the chronoamperometric method are comparable to those of the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. The chronoamperometric method with ferricyanide and succinate mediators is an efficient, alternative method for assessing the viability of primary hepatocytes which can be completed in 20 min. Succinate did not provide an efficient electron shuttle between cytosolic respiratory redox activity of cancer cells and extracellular ferricyanide, an effect that may be useful for distinguishing hepatocarcinoma cells from healthy hepatocytes.

  2. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  3. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  4. Paediatric post-traumatic osseous cystic lesion following a distal radial fracture

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Joey Chan Yiing; Hamouda, Ehab Shaban Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic osseous cystic lesions are a rare complication in children. An aetiology of intramedullary fat seepage through the damaged bone cortex and its entrapment within the subperiosteum has been proposed. These lesions run a benign course and usually resolve spontaneously. The presence of fatty marrow gives it a distinct appearance which aids in its diagnosis and differentiation from other bone lesions. This case demonstrates a fat-fluid level within the subperiosteal cystic lesion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and this is a typical feature of post-traumatic cystic lesion in a child. Recognition of this imaging feature allows for a confident diagnosis, cutting down on unnecessary, potentially invasive investigations. PMID:27761186

  5. Primary multiple osseous leiomyosarcomas of the spine metastasizing to the skull

    PubMed Central

    Yassaad, Oudrhiri Mohammed; Nabil, Raouzi; KacemiInas, El; Mohammed, Allaoui; Yasser, Arkha; Abdessamad, El Ouahabi

    2016-01-01

    Primary osseous leiomyosarcoma of the spine is a very unusual condition, with only few cases being reported in the literature. In fact, this type of tumors arises from the smooth muscle cells and occurs usually in the uterus and the gastrointestinal tracts. If the spine should be involved, it occurs generally as a metastatic location. Location to the spine as a primary site is exceedingly rare. We present the case of a 37 years old female patient, with multiple spine levels involvement - to vertebral body and to posterior aspects of Vertebra, causing spinal cord compression syndrome. A secondary location to the skull was diagnosed one month later. Through a literature review, we analyze various aspects in the diagnosis and management of this rare entity. PMID:28154689

  6. Spinal metaplastic meningioma with osseous differentiation in the ventral thoracic spinal canal.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Kentaro; Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Ichimura, Kouichi; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Ossified meningioma is classified histologically as a phenotype of metaplastic meningioma, and it is extremely rare. There are only 12 cases involving ossified spinal meningiomas in the literature. We present the case of a 61-year-old female with a primary tumor within the ventral spinal canal at T12. Although we performed a total tumor excision using an ultrasonic bone aspirator, a temporary deterioration of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was observed during curettage with a Kerrison rongeur. The neurologic findings worsened immediately after surgery. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a metaplastic meningioma with osseous differentiation. In order to avoid spinal cord injury, great care must be taken when removing an ossified meningioma located on the ventral spinal cord.

  7. Tubercular spinal epidural abscess involving the dorsal-lumbar-sacral region without osseous involvement.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sumit; Kumar, Ramesh

    2011-07-27

    Musculoskeletal tuberculosis is known for its ability to present in various forms and guises at different sites. Tubercular spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is an uncommon infectious entity. Its presence without associated osseous involvement may be considered an extremely rare scenario. We present a rare case of tubercular SEA in an immune-competent 35-year-old male patient. The patient presented with acute cauda equina syndrome and was shown to have multisegmental SEA extending from D5 to S2 vertebral level without any evidence of vertebral involvement on MRI. The patient made an uneventful recovery following surgical decompression and antitubercular chemotherapy. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological demonstration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in drained pus. Such presentation of tubercular SEA has not been reported previously in the English language based medical literature to the best of our knowledge.

  8. Fibro-osseous lesion of the cranium in an adolescent patient

    PubMed Central

    Park, Brian; Abode-Iyamah, Kingsley; Lee, Siang Liao; Kirby, Patricia; El-Khoury, George; Wilson, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fibrous dysplasia, ossifying fibroma, and desmoplastic fibroma are rare benign calvarial lesions, which can have local aggressive behavior. These tumors can present with similar clinical and radiologic characteristics making diagnosis difficult at times. Case Description: A 16-year-old male presents after noting an indentation of his skull. Comparison with current and previous imaging revealed progressive erosion of the skull underlying the indentation. Conclusion: Fibrous dysplasia, ossifying fibroma, and desmoplastic fibroma are rare fibro-osseous tumors with similar characteristics radiographically. Accurate diagnosis of these tumors can be difficult even with the combination of clinical presentation, imaging, and pathology. The treatment of choice is resection and cranial reconstruction, if necessary, with close follow-up as recurrence can occur. PMID:25657865

  9. Vertebral body enhancement mimicking sclerotic osseous lesions in the setting of bilateral brachiocephalic vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Berritto, Daniela; Abboud, Salim; Kosmas, Christos; Riherd, Daniel; Robbin, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Contrast enhancement of the vertebral body marrow may be seen secondary to collateral venous blood flow via the vertebral venous plexus in the setting of superior vena cava obstruction. We report a 48-year-old woman presenting with bilateral brachiocephalic vein obstruction and multilevel thoracic spine hyperdensities as seen on venous-phase CT angiography (CTA), initially concerning for sclerotic neoplastic lesions. A contrast-enhanced CT of the neck obtained 1 day prior to the chest CTA did not demonstrate any osseous abnormality, and inspection of the chest CTA demonstrated filling of perivertebral venous collateral vessels. The abnormal vertebral body enhancement was therefore feltsecondary to retrograde collateral venous flow via the basivertebral venous plexus in the setting of functional SVC obstruction. Vertebral body enhancement should be considered in patients with thoracic central venous obstruction when enhancement or apparent sclerosis of the vertebral bodies is seen on CTA.

  10. Clinical and pathologic relevance of p53 index in canine osseous tumors.

    PubMed

    Loukopoulos, P; Thornton, J R; Robinson, W F

    2003-05-01

    The clinicopathologic value of the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p53 protein was evaluated in 167 canine osseous tumors. p53 staining frequency and intensity in tumor cells was expressed as a p53 index. p53 index was significantly higher in osteosarcomas than in other sarcomas, chondrosarcoma, multilobular tumor of bone, and tumors initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcomas as well as in appendicular versus axial and in distal versus proximal osteosarcomas. A strong correlation is demonstrated between the p53 index and a range of clinicopathologic parameters in osteosarcoma, including the tumor site, histologic grade and score, mitotic index, degree of tumor necrosis, and pleomorphism. Chondroblastic osteosarcomas had significantly higher and telangiectatic osteosarcomas significantly lower p53 index than did osteosarcomas belonging to other histopathologic subtypes, a fact that tends to reinforce the perception of these osteosarcomas as distinct clinicopathologic entities. Entire males had higher p53 index than did neutered males. p53 index was higher in Rottweilers than in Great Danes and Terriers, confirming breed susceptibilities to osteosarcoma. p53 index showed no association with age, primary or secondary site status, or the presence of metastases or other tumor types. Biopsy samples had a higher p53 index than did postmortem samples, either because of differences in sample processing or the possibility that p53 overexpression is more evident at the earlier stages of osteosarcoma pathogenesis, presumably represented by the biopsy material. IHC examination for p53 and the derived index has the potential to be used as an additional diagnostic tool and prognostic indicator for osseous tumors.

  11. Can a novel silver nano coating reduce infections and maintain cell viability in vitro?

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ammar T; Landry, Jace P; Dasa, Vinod; Janes, Marlene; Hayes, Daniel J

    2014-03-01

    Herein we report a facile layer-by-layer method for creating an antimicrobial coating composed of silver nanoparticles on medical grade titanium test discs. Nanoscale silver nanoparticle layers are attached to the titanium orthopedic implant material via aminopropyltriethoxy silane crosslinker that reacts with neighboring silane moieties to create an interconnected network. A monolayer of silane, followed by a monolayer of silver nanoparticles would form one self-assembled layer and this process can be repeated serially, resulting in increased silver nanoparticles deposition. The release rate of silver ion increases predictably with increasing numbers of layers and at appropriate thicknesses these coatings demonstrate 3-4 log reduction of viable Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Increasing the thickness of the coatings resulted in reduced bacterial colonization as determined by fluorescent staining and image analysis. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity of murine 3T3 cells as quantified by fluorescent staining and flow cytometry, was minimal and did not vary significantly with the coating thickness. Additionally, these coatings are mechanically stable and resist delamination by orthogonal stress test. This simple layer-by-layer coating technique may provide a cost-effective and biocompatible method for reducing microbial colonization of implantable orthopedic devices.

  12. Cancer-related ectopic expression of the bone-related transcription factor RUNX2 in non-osseous metastatic tumor cells is linked to cell proliferation and motility

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Metastatic breast cancer cells frequently and ectopically express the transcription factor RUNX2, which normally attenuates proliferation and promotes maturation of osteoblasts. RUNX2 expression is inversely regulated with respect to cell growth in osteoblasts and deregulated in osteosarcoma cells. Methods Here, we addressed whether the functional relationship between cell growth and RUNX2 gene expression is maintained in breast cancer cells. We also investigated whether the aberrant expression of RUNX2 is linked to phenotypic parameters that could provide a selective advantage to cells during breast cancer progression. Results We find that, similar to its regulation in osteoblasts, RUNX2 expression in MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells is enhanced upon growth factor deprivation, as well as upon deactivation of the mitogen-dependent MEK-Erk pathway or EGFR signaling. Reduction of RUNX2 levels by RNAi has only marginal effects on cell growth and expression of proliferation markers in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Thus, RUNX2 is not a critical regulator of cell proliferation in this cell type. However, siRNA depletion of RUNX2 in MDA-MB-231 cells reduces cell motility, while forced exogenous expression of RUNX2 in MCF7 cells increases cell motility. Conclusions Our results support the emerging concept that the osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2 functions as a metastasis-related oncoprotein in non-osseous cancer cells. PMID:21029421

  13. Regionally Aligned Forces: Concept Viability and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Carlisle Compendia of Collaborative Research United States Army War College Student Publications Regionally Aligned Forces: Concept Viability and...Concept Viability and Implementation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Carlisle Compendia of Collaborative Research United States Army War College Student Publications Regionally Aligned Forces: Concept Viability and

  14. An Arabidopsis senescence-associated protein SAG29 regulates cell viability under high salinity.

    PubMed

    Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Jung-Min; Kang, Seok Ki; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane is an important cellular organ that perceives incoming developmental and environmental signals and integrates these signals into cellular regulatory mechanisms. It also acts as a barrier against unfavorable extracellular factors to maintain cell viability. Despite its importance for cell viability, molecular components determining cell viability and underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that a plasma membrane-localized MtN3 protein SAG29 regulates cell viability under high salinity in Arabidopsis. The SAG29 gene is expressed primarily in senescing plant tissues. It is induced by osmotic stresses via an abscisic acid-dependent pathway. Whereas the SAG29-overexpressing transgenic plants (35S:SAG29) exhibited an accelerated senescence and were hypersensitive to salt stress, the SAG29-deficient mutants were less sensitive to high salinity. Consistent with this, the 35S:SAG29 transgenic plants showed reduced cell viability in the roots under normal growth condition. In contrast, cell viability in the SAG29-deficient mutant roots was indistinguishable from that in the roots of control plants. Notably, the mutant roots exhibited enhanced cell viability under high salinity. Our observations indicate that the senescence-associated SAG29 protein is associated with cell viability under high salinity and other osmotic stress conditions. We propose that the SAG29 protein may serve as a molecular link that integrates environmental stress responses into senescing process.

  15. Tubercular Spinal Epidural Abscess of the Lumbosacral Region without Osseous Involvement: Comparison of Spinal MRI and Pathological Findings of the Resected Tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, QingLong; Koga, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of tubercular spinal epidural abscess (SEA) without osseous involvement that mimicked an acute bacterial abscess. This case manifested quite unusual findings not only radiographically, but also clinically compared with previously reported cases of tubercular SEA.

  16. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  17. Phosphodiesterase activity is a novel property of alkaline phosphatase from osseous plate.

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, A A; Pizauro, J M; Ciancaglini, P; Leone, F A

    1994-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase activity is a novel property of the still-enigmatic alkaline phosphatase from osseous plate. Bis-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate was hydrolysed at both pH 7.5 and 9.4 with an apparent dissociation constant (K0.5) of 1.9 mM and 3.9 mM respectively. The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-5'-thymidine phosphate followed hyberbolic kinetics with a K0.5 of 500 microM. For p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonate, site-site interactions [Hill coefficient (h) = 1.3] were observed in the range between 0.2 and 100 microM, and K0.5 was 32.8 mM. The hydrolysis of cyclic AMP by the enzyme followed more complex kinetics, showing site-site interactions (h = 1.7) and K0.5 = 300 microM for high-affinity sites. The low-affinity sites, representing 85% of total activity, also showed site-site interactions (h = 3.8) and a K0.5 of about 22 mM. ATP and cyclic AMP were competitive inhibitors of bis-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphatase activity of the enzyme and Ki values (25 mM and 0.6 mM for cyclic AMP and ATP respectively) very close to those of the K0.5 (22 mM and 0.7 mM for cyclic AMP and ATP respectively), determined by direct assay, indicated that a single catalytic site was responsible for the hydrolysis of both substrates. Non-denaturing PAGE of detergent-solubilized enzyme showed coincident bands on the gel for phosphomonohydrolase and phosphodiesterase activities. Additional evidence for a single catalytic site was the similar pKa values (8.5 and 9.7) found for the two ionizing groups participating in the hydrolysis of bis-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate and p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The alkaline apparent pH optima, the requirement for bivalent metal ions and the inhibition by methylxanthines, amrinone and amiloride demonstrated that rat osseous-plate alkaline phosphatase was a type I phosphodiesterase. Considering that there is still confusion as to which is the physiological substrate for the enzyme, the present results describing a novel property for this enzyme could be of relevance in

  18. Reconstruction of Peri-implant Osseous Defects: A Multicenter Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, K; Jepsen, S; Laine, M L; Anssari Moin, D; Pilloni, A; Zeza, B; Sanz, M; Ortiz-Vigon, A; Roos-Jansåker, A M; Renvert, S

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data for the effectiveness of reconstructive procedures in the treatment of peri-implantitis. The objective of this study was to compare reconstruction of peri-implant osseous defects with open flap debridement (OFD) plus porous titanium granules (PTGs) compared with OFD alone. Sixty-three patients (36 female, 27 male; mean age 58.4 y [SD 12.3]), contributing one circumferential peri-implant intraosseous defect, were included in a multinational, multicenter randomized trial using a parallel-group design. After OFD and surface decontamination using titanium brushes and hydrogen peroxide, 33 defects received PTGs. The implants were not submerged. All patients received adjunctive perioperative systemic antibiotics. The primary outcome variable (defect fill) was assessed on digitalized radiographs. Clinical measurements of probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BoP), suppuration, and plaque were taken by blinded examiners. After 12 mo, the test group (OFD plus PTG) showed a mean radiographic defect fill (mesial/distal) of 3.6/3.6 mm compared with 1.1/1.0 in the control group (OFD). Differences were statistically significant in favor of the test group (P < 0.0001). The OFD plus PTG group showed a mean reduction in PPD of 2.8 mm compared with 2.6 mm in the OFD group. BoP was reduced from 89.4% to 33.3% and from 85.8% to 40.4% for the test and control groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in complete resolution of peri-implantitis (PPD ≤4 mm and no BoP at six implant sites and no further bone loss), because this finding was accomplished at 30% of implants in the test group and 23% of implants in the control group. Reconstructive surgery using PTGs resulted in significantly enhanced radiographic defect fill compared with OFD. However, limitations in the lack of ability to discern biomaterial from osseous tissue could not be verified to determine new bone formation. Similar improvements according to clinical measures were

  19. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  20. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous and Nonosseous Materials Using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and Multivariate Statistical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-11-01

    Identification of osseous materials is generally established on gross anatomical features. However, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic and may require chemical analysis. This research was designed to assess the use of scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), elemental analysis, and multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis) for discrimination of osseous and nonosseous materials of similar chemical composition. Sixty samples consisting of osseous (human and nonhuman bone and dental) and non-osseous samples were assessed. After outliers were removed a high overall correct classification of 97.97% was achieved, with 99.86% correct classification for osseous materials. In addition, a blind study was conducted using 20 samples to assess the applicability for using this method to classify unknown materials. All of the blind study samples were correctly classified resulting in 100% correct classification, further demonstrating the efficiency of SEM/EDX and statistical analysis for differentiation of osseous and nonosseous materials.

  1. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  2. Zygomatico-maxillary Reconstruction with Computer-aided Manufacturing of a Free DCIA Osseous Flap and Intraoral Anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Roy, Andrée-Anne; Efanov, Johnny I; Mercier-Couture, Geneviève; Chollet, André; Borsuk, Daniel E

    2017-02-01

    Craniomaxillofacial reconstruction using virtual surgical planning, computer-aided manufacturing, and new microsurgical techniques optimizes patient-specific and defect-directed reconstruction. A 3D customized free deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap with intraoral anastomoses was performed on a 23-year-old man with a posttraumatic right zygomatico-maxillary defect with failure of alloplastic implant reconstruction. An osseous iliac crest flap was sculpted based on a customized 3D model of the mirror image of the patient's unaffected side to allow for perfect fit to the zygomatico-maxillary defect. An intraoral dissection of the facial artery and vein was performed within the right cheek mucosa and allowed for end-to-end microvascular anastomoses. 3D preoperative planning and customized free DCIA osseous flap combined with an intraoral microsurgical technique provided restoration of facial esthetics and function without visible scars. In cases where zygomatico-malar reconstruction by alloplastic material fails, a customized free DCIA osseous flap can be designed by virtual surgical planning to restore facial appearance and function.

  3. Zygomatico-maxillary Reconstruction with Computer-aided Manufacturing of a Free DCIA Osseous Flap and Intraoral Anastomoses

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Andrée-Anne; Efanov, Johnny I.; Mercier-Couture, Geneviève; Chollet, André

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Craniomaxillofacial reconstruction using virtual surgical planning, computer-aided manufacturing, and new microsurgical techniques optimizes patient-specific and defect-directed reconstruction. A 3D customized free deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap with intraoral anastomoses was performed on a 23-year-old man with a posttraumatic right zygomatico-maxillary defect with failure of alloplastic implant reconstruction. An osseous iliac crest flap was sculpted based on a customized 3D model of the mirror image of the patient’s unaffected side to allow for perfect fit to the zygomatico-maxillary defect. An intraoral dissection of the facial artery and vein was performed within the right cheek mucosa and allowed for end-to-end microvascular anastomoses. 3D preoperative planning and customized free DCIA osseous flap combined with an intraoral microsurgical technique provided restoration of facial esthetics and function without visible scars. In cases where zygomatico-malar reconstruction by alloplastic material fails, a customized free DCIA osseous flap can be designed by virtual surgical planning to restore facial appearance and function. PMID:28280668

  4. High-resolution CT analysis of facial struts in trauma: 2. Osseous and soft-tissue complications.

    PubMed

    Gentry, L R; Manor, W F; Turski, P A; Strother, C M

    1983-03-01

    In six cadavers, high-resolution thin-section computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate the sequelae of experimentally produced facial trauma. As confirmed by pluridirectional tomography, CT was an effective imaging method for the detection and classification of facial fractures. The ability of CT to simultaneously depict both osseous and soft-tissue structures expands the role that diagnostic radiology can play in the evaluation of the traumatized face. A method of evaluation is presented in which the face is geometrically conceptualized as a series of triplanar (horizontal, sagittal, and coronal) osseous struts. Sequential, systematic assessment of each strut for fracture and its adjacent soft tissue for injury can facilitate evaluation of the traumatized face. Using this approach the osseous and soft-tissue complications arising from experimentally produced trauma are reviewed and illustrated with CT. Examples of potential soft-tissue complications that may occur with fractures of the horizontal group of struts include disruption of the dura matter at the cribiform plate, involvement of the structures of the anterior cranial fossa, injury to the optic nerve, and involvement of the superior and inferior groups of extraocular muscles. Injury to the nasolacrimal duct, maxillary sinus ostium, medial and lateral rectus muscles, or the soft-tissue structures in the superior and inferior orbital fissures may arise from disruption of the sagittal struts. Fractures of the coronal struts may involve the frontal sinus, anterior cranial fossa, lacrimal gland, nasofrontal duct, lacrimal sac, or the soft tissues of the pterygopalatine fossa.

  5. Osseous oral hyaline ring granuloma mimicking a mandible tumor in a child with congenital agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Neves-Silva, Rodrigo; Ferreira-Gomes, Camilla-Borges; Palmier, Natalia; Brum-Corrêa, Marcelo; Paes-Almeida, Oslei; Ajudarte-Lopes, Marcio; Agustin-Vargas, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyaline ring granuloma (HRG) of the oral cavity is an uncommon disorder considered to be a foreign-body reaction resulting from implantation of food vegetable particles. Microscopically, it is characterized by the presence of structures of hyaline rings in an inflamed fibrous tissue background, which contains multinucleated giant cells. Material and Methods We present the case of a 4-year-old boy diagnosed with a mandible osseous HRG, which showed clinical and tomographic aspects suggestive of an aggressive bone tumor. Results The patient underwent surgical exploration and histopathologic analysis showed fragments composed predominantly of widespread dense connective tissue with an acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrate containing multinucleated giant cells and scattered areas of eosinophilic material associated with hyaline rings, strongly suggestive of vegetable particles. The eosinophilic material was positive for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and resistant to diastase digestion. These features led to diagnosis of osseous HRG. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed for illustrative purposes and the multiple structures resembling vegetable particles were characterized in more detail. Conclusions Although rare, this case highlights the importance of the clinician’s awareness regarding the existence of an osseous counterpart of HRG. Key words:Agenesis of the corpus callosum, child, hyaline ring granuloma, intraosseous, mandible, pulse granuloma. PMID:28210458

  6. Relationship of sup(99m)Tc-MDP uptake to regional osseous circulation in skeletally immature and mature dogs

    SciTech Connect

    McKinstry, P.; Schnitzer, J.E.; Light, T.R.; Ogden, J.A.; Hoffer, P.

    1982-05-01

    Uptake of intravenously injected sup(99m)Tc-MDP in multiple regions of healthy skeletally immature and mature dogs was correlated with regional chondro-osseous blood flow determined by radioactively labeled microspheres. Compared to the microsphere distribution, the distribution of sup(99m)Tc-MDP indicated that blood flow is an important, but not exclusive, factor in the uptake of bone-seeking tracers. Other factors such as the affinity of the tracer for the various types of chondro-osseous tissues must also affect tracer uptake. A measure of the relative affinity of sup(99m)Tc-MDP for bone was derived by the ratio of the percentage of tracer uptake to the percentage of blood flow. The juxta-ephyseal region demonstrated the greatest affinity for the tracer, followed in decreasing affinity, by the cortical bone, epiphyseal cartilage, trabecular bone of the metaphysis and secondary ossification center, and marrow space. Within the spongiosa, affinity generally increased as the proportion of osseous trabeculae relative to marrow space increased. sup(99m)Tc-MDP uptake is disproportionately increased in areas of active bone growth and remodeling where the surface area of hydroxyapatite crystals available for adsorption is probably highest.

  7. Sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma with benign fibro-osseous lesion of the mandible: an extremely rare case report.

    PubMed

    Irié, Tarou; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi; Toyosawa, Satoru; Saito, Noriko; Akiba, Masakazu; Isobe, Tomohide; Hokazono, Chie; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2010-10-01

    A case of sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma (SOC) admixed with a benign fibro-osseous lesion (BFOL) is reported herein. A 67-year-old male had paresthesia in the mental region. Computed tomography detected an intragnathic mass that was focally expansile with disappearance of cortical bone, and contained admixed radiolucency and radio-opacity. Under the pathological diagnosis as benign fibro-osseous lesion, it was surgically removed by curettage. Microscopic analysis showed that a few parts of the resected materials contained dispersed thin cords and small nests of epithelial cells accompanied by fibrous stroma. Cellular atypia and mitotic figures were not evident. The diagnosis of BFOL with hyperplastic and metaplastic odontogenic epithelia was ultimately made. Eight months after the operation, the lesion recurred and segmental mandibulectomy was carried out. Histologically, the lesion was predominantly occupied by the fibro-osseous component with irregular-shaped foci of epithelial component. The epithelial component exhibited mostly thin cord or small nest patterns and showed definite perineural infiltration. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial cells were positive for p63, cytokeratin (CK) 6 and CK19, and focally positive for CK7 but negative for vimentin. MIB-1 positive nuclei were inconspicuous. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first case of SOC with BFOL.

  8. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  9. Histologic Evaluation of Osseous Regeneration Following Combination Therapy With Platelet-Rich Plasma and Bio-Oss in a Rat Calvarial Critical-Size Defect Model.

    PubMed

    DeNicolo, Philip J; Guyton, M Kelly; Cuenin, Michael F; Hokett, Steven D; Sharawy, Mohamed; Borke, James; McPherson, James C

    2015-10-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autogenous source of growth factors shown to facilitate human bone growth. Bio-Oss, an osteoconductive xenograft, is used clinically to regenerate periodontal defects, restore dental alveolar ridges, and facilitate sinus-lift procedures. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether a combination of PRP and Bio-Oss would enhance bone regeneration better than either material alone. PRP and/or Bio-Oss were administered in an 8-mm critical-size defect (CSD) rat calvarial model of bone defect between 2 polytetrafluoroethylene membranes to prevent soft tissue incursion. Eight weeks after the induction of the CSD, histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and analyzed via light microscopy. Qualitative analyses revealed new bone regeneration in all 4 groups. The Bio-Oss and PRP plus Bio-Oss groups demonstrated greater areas of closure in the defects than the control or PRP-only groups because of the space-maintaining ability of Bio-Oss. The groups grafted with Bio-Oss showed close contact with new bone growth throughout the defects, suggesting a stronger graft. The use of PRP alone or in combination with Bio-Oss, however, did not appear to enhance osseous regeneration at 8 weeks. Areas grafted with Bio-Oss demonstrated greater space-maintaining capacity than controls, and PRP was an effective vehicle for placement of the Bio-Oss. However, at 8 weeks this study was unable to demonstrate a significant advantage of using PRP plus Bio-Oss over using Bio-Oss alone.

  10. Comparison of imaging methods used for dental implant osseous integration assessment.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, C M; Gahlert, M; Röhling, S; Kniha, H; Gueorguiev, B; Milz, S

    2013-09-01

    Two different imaging techniques used to determine bone tissue response to dental implants were compared. Dental implants were implanted into the maxillae of 18 pigs, which were sacrificed after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Implants with surrounding bone tissue were retrieved for methyl methacrylate histology and contact radiography. On identical sections peri-implant bone density and bone implant contact (BIC) ratio were assessed with two different imaging methods. Evaluation of Giemsa eosin stained and contact radiographed sections showed direct osseous integration for all implants and both methods showed a strong correlation with correlation coefficient r = 0.930 (P < 0.0001) for peri-implant bone density and r = 0.817 (P < 0.0001) for bone implant contact ratio. While the two imaging methods showed moderate differences for peri-implant bone density there were significant differences between the BIC values determined. In general, contact radiography tends to underestimate BIC for approximately 4.5 % (P = 0.00003).

  11. The vertebral trabecular model revisited: magnetic field distribution in the vicinity of osseous disconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiger, Markus; Schnizer, Bernhard; Stollberger, Rudolf

    2016-12-01

    In the current paper a vertebral bone model is introduced that can be used for studying trabecular thinning and the formation of trabecular disconnections. Magnetostatic simulations are applied in MR-osteodensitometry to deduce the quality of trabecular bone from experimentally obtained susceptibility effects. The course of trabecular bone loss, which results in distinct interruptions and consequently severe mechanical impairment, is not assessable in the majority of such applied models. In the novel approach introduced here, analytical solutions of prolate ellipsoids were used to compute the disturbed magnetic fields within the proposed 3D model. The performed simulations focused on two variants of the vertebral model: an intact model and a pathological model accounting for microdamage. For both variants, magnetic resonance spectra were simulated for different bone volume fractions. Subsequently, resonance signals were obtained from the Fourier transform of the distribution with respect to time. The resonance time courses were analyzed through common signal models to estimate the relaxation time {{T}\\prime}2 of the corresponding free induction decay. Detailed computations revealed the significant contribution of the microdamage to the susceptibility effect. Further, when comparing the line broadening effect between the intact and disrupted models a contradictory outcome was found. The damaged osseous network for the lower bone fraction resulted in faster decay of the transverse magnetization. In conclusion, a significant contribution of trabecular disconnections to the susceptibility effect has been shown by the presented model. Future dedicated MRI experiments can explore the use of this effect to assess the integrity of cancellous bone.

  12. A Resorbable Calcium-Deficient Hydroxyapatite Hydrogel Composite for Osseous Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, Stacy A; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Benson, Roberto S.; Evans, Barbara R; Rawn, Claudia J

    2009-01-01

    It was previously discovered that the unique structure and chemistry of bacterial cellulose (BC) permits the formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) nanocrystallites under aqueous conditions at ambient pH and temperature. In this study, BC was chemically modified via a limited periodate oxidation reaction to render the composite degradable and thus more suitable for bone regeneration. While native BC does not degrade in mammalian systems, periodate oxidation yields dialdehyde cellulose which breaks down at physiological pH. The composite was characterized by tensile testing, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that oxidized BC retains its structure and could biomimetically form CdHAP. Degradation behavior was analyzed by incubating the samples in simulated physiological fluid (pH 7.4) at 37 C under static and dynamic conditions. The oxidized BC and oxidized BC-CdHAP composites both lost significant mass after exposure to the simulated physiological environment. Examination of the incubation solutions by UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that, while native BC released only small amounts of soluble cellulose fragments, oxidized cellulose releases carbonyl containing degradation products as well as soluble cellulose fragments. By entrapping CdHAP in a degradable hydrogel carrier, this composite should elicit bone regeneration then resorb over time to be replaced by new osseous tissue.

  13. Reduced elastogenesis: a clue to the arteriosclerosis and emphysematous changes in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arteriosclerosis and emphysema develop in individuals with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), a multisystem disorder caused by biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1). However, the mechanism by which the vascular and pulmonary disease arises in SIOD remains unknown. Methods We reviewed the records of 65 patients with SMARCAL1 mutations. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on autopsy tissue from 4 SIOD patients. Results Thirty-two of 63 patients had signs of arteriosclerosis and 3 of 51 had signs of emphysema. The arteriosclerosis was characterized by intimal and medial hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers, and the pulmonary disease was characterized by panlobular enlargement of air spaces. Consistent with a cell autonomous disorder, SMARCAL1 was expressed in arterial and lung tissue, and both the aorta and lung of SIOD patients had reduced expression of elastin and alterations in the expression of regulators of elastin gene expression. Conclusions This first comprehensive study of the vascular and pulmonary complications of SIOD shows that these commonly cause morbidity and mortality and might arise from impaired elastogenesis. Additionally, the effect of SMARCAL1 deficiency on elastin expression provides a model for understanding other features of SIOD. PMID:22998683

  14. Osteopontin and the dento-osseous pathobiology of X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Hoac, Betty; Coyac, Benjamin R; Leger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Wicart, Philippe; Whyte, Michael P; Glorieux, Francis H; Linglart, Agnès; Chaussain, Catherine; McKee, Marc D

    2017-02-01

    Seven young patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH, having inactivating PHEX mutations) were discovered to accumulate osteopontin (OPN) at the sites of defective bone mineralization near osteocytes - the so-called hallmark periosteocytic (lacunar) "halos" of XLH. OPN was also localized in the pericanalicular matrix extending beyond the osteocyte lacunae, as well as in the hypomineralized matrix of tooth dentin. OPN, a potent inhibitor of mineralization normally degraded by PHEX, is a member of a family of acidic, phosphorylated, calcium-binding, extracellular matrix proteins known to regulate dental, skeletal, and pathologic mineralization. Associated with the increased amount of OPN (along with inhibitory OPN peptide fragments) in XLH bone matrix, we found an enlarged, hypomineralized, lacuno-canalicular network - a defective pattern of skeletal mineralization that decreases stiffness locally at: i) the cell-matrix interface in the pericellular environment of the mechanosensing osteocyte, and ii) the osteocyte's dendritic network of cell processes extending throughout the bone. Our findings of an excess of inhibitory OPN near osteocytes and their cell processes, and in dentin, spatially correlates with the defective mineralization observed at these sites in the skeleton and teeth of XLH patients. These changes likely contribute to the dento-osseous pathobiology of XLH, and participate in the aberrant bone adaptation and remodeling seen in XLH.

  15. Maintaining the unmethylated state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA

  16. Microencapsulation in Alginate and Chitosan Microgels to Enhance Viability of Bifidobacterium longum for Oral Delivery.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Timothy W; Üçok, Elif F; Tiani, Kendra A; McClements, David J; Sela, David A

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms are incorporated into a wide variety of foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals to promote human health and wellness. However, maintaining bacterial cell viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit remains a challenge. Encapsulation of bifidobacteria within food-grade hydrogel particles potentially mitigates their sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies and strains were encapsulated in core-shell microgels consisting of an alginate core and a microgel shell. Encapsulated obligate anaerobes Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum exhibited differences in viability in a strain-dependent manner, without a discernable relationship to subspecies lineage. This includes viability under aerobic storage conditions and modeled gastrointestinal tract conditions. Coating alginate microgels with chitosan did not improve viability compared to cells encapsulated in alginate microgels alone, suggesting that modifying the surface charge alone does not enhance delivery. Thus hydrogel beads have great potential for improving the stability and efficacy of bifidobacterial probiotics in various nutritional interventions.

  17. Microencapsulation in Alginate and Chitosan Microgels to Enhance Viability of Bifidobacterium longum for Oral Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Timothy W.; Üçok, Elif F.; Tiani, Kendra A.; McClements, David J.; Sela, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms are incorporated into a wide variety of foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals to promote human health and wellness. However, maintaining bacterial cell viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit remains a challenge. Encapsulation of bifidobacteria within food-grade hydrogel particles potentially mitigates their sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies and strains were encapsulated in core-shell microgels consisting of an alginate core and a microgel shell. Encapsulated obligate anaerobes Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum exhibited differences in viability in a strain-dependent manner, without a discernable relationship to subspecies lineage. This includes viability under aerobic storage conditions and modeled gastrointestinal tract conditions. Coating alginate microgels with chitosan did not improve viability compared to cells encapsulated in alginate microgels alone, suggesting that modifying the surface charge alone does not enhance delivery. Thus hydrogel beads have great potential for improving the stability and efficacy of bifidobacterial probiotics in various nutritional interventions. PMID:27148184

  18. Recovery and viability of Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae.

    PubMed

    Grieve, R B; Mika-Grieve, M; Lok, J B; Marchell, T F; Cupp, E W

    1984-09-01

    The viability of Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae recovered from canine blood by different methods was determined. Microfilaria recovery techniques included saponin lysis, saponin lysis with a trypsin treatment, dextran sedimentation and phytohemagglutinin treatment. Criteria for evaluating viability were microfilarial motility in vitro at 37 degrees C, microfilarial development in mosquitoes and the ability of microfilariae to circulate in mice. Although each method produced motile microfilariae, differences among groups of microfilariae recovered by different techniques were apparent by each of the criteria for viability. Saponin lysis gave superior yields of viable microfilariae.

  19. Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.

    PubMed

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers.

  20. Passive Entrapment of Tumor Cells Determines Metastatic Dissemination to Spinal Bone and Other Osseous Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Piffko, Andras; Hoffmann, Christian J.; Harms, Christoph; Vajkoczy, Peter; Czabanka, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    During the metastatic process tumor cells circulate in the blood stream and are carried to various organs. In order to spread to different organs tumor cell—endothelial cell interactions are crucial for extravasation mechanisms. It remains unclear if tumor cell dissemination to the spinal bone occurs by passive entrapment of circulating tumor cells or by active cellular mechanisms mediated by cell surface molecules or secreted factors. We investigated the seeding of three different tumor cell lines (melanoma, lung and prostate carcinoma) to the microvasculature of different organs. Their dissemination was compared to biologically passive microbeads. The spine and other organs were resected three hours after intraarterial injection of tumor cells or microbeads. Ex vivo homogenization and fluorescence analysis allowed quantification of tumor cells or microbeads in different organs. Interestingly, tumor cell distribution to the spinal bone was comparable to dissemination of microbeads independent of the tumor cell type (melanoma: 5.646% ± 7.614%, lung: 6.007% ± 1.785%, prostate: 3.469% ± 0.602%, 7 μm beads: 9.884% ± 7.379%, 16 μm beads: 7.23% ± 1.488%). Tumor cell seeding differed significantly between tumor cells and microbeads in all soft tissue organs. Moreover, there were significant differences between the different tumor cell lines in their dissemination behaviour to soft tissue organs only. These findings demonstrate that metastatic dissemination of tumor cells to spinal bone and other osseous organs is mediated by passive entrapment of tumor cells similar to passive plugging of microvasculature observed after intraarterial microbeads injection. PMID:27603673

  1. Comparative quantitative analysis of osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of tiger, horse, deer, and humans

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha; Kothari, Manu; Gaikwad, Santosh; Dhande, Prakash L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of a horse, deer, and tiger with that of a human being. The variation in the structure of bones in these animals is analyzed. Materials and Methods: Various dimensions of the bones of the craniovertebral junction of the horse, deer, and tiger were quantitatively measured, and their differences with those of human bones were compared and analyzed. Results: Apart from the sizes and weights, there are a number of structural variations in the bones of these animals that depend on their functional needs. The more remarkable difference in joint morphology is noticed in the occipitoatlantal joint. The occipitoatlantal articulation is remarkably large and deep, resembling a ‘hinge joint’ in all the three animals studied. The odontoid process is ‘C shaped’ in the deer and horse and is ‘denslike’ in the tiger and humans. The transverse processes of the atlas are in the form of large wings in all the three animals. The arches of the atlas are large and flat, but the traverse of the vertebral artery resembles, to an extent, to that of human vertebral artery. The rotatory movements of the head at the craniovertebral junction are wider ranged in the horse and deer as compared with those of the tiger and humans. The bones of the craniovertebral junction of all the three animals are adapted to the remarkable thickness and strength of the extensor muscles of the nape of the neck. Conclusions: Despite the wide variations in the size of the bones, the basic patterns of structure, vascular and neural relationship, and joint alignments have remarkable similarities and a definite pattern of differences. PMID:22013373

  2. Assessing Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Orthognathic Surgery and Osseous Genioplasty.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Jonathan A; Albino, Frank P; Mathis, Ryan K; Scott, Amie M; Gamble, Laurie; Baker, Stephen B

    2015-11-01

    Primary outcomes for orthognathic surgery and genioplasty patients include satisfaction with appearance, improved motor function, and enhanced quality of life. The goal of this study was to assess outcomes among patients undergoing these procedures, and to highlight the potential use of FACE-Q instrument for use in patients with dentofacial deformities. A total of 56 patients presenting for orthognathic surgery and/or osseous genioplasty completed the FACE-Q during preoperative and/or at postoperative visits. FACE-Q scores increased following surgery in satisfaction with facial appearance overall (+24.5, P < 0.01), satisfaction with lower face and jawline (+40.7, P < 0.01), and in all satisfaction with chin items (profile, prominence, shape, and overall). Patients also demonstrated increased social confidence (+8.9, P = 0.29). There was no improvement in psychologic well-being (-0.8, P = 0.92). All 3 surgical groups of patients experienced gains in satisfaction with appearance following surgery. Patients who underwent orthognathic surgery either alone or in combination with genioplasty demonstrated statistically significant improvements in satisfaction with facial appearance overall (P < 0.01 for both groups), whereas patients who underwent genioplasty alone did not (P = 0.13). In addition, patients who underwent orthognathic surgery combined with genioplasty demonstrated greater improvement in satisfaction with chin than patients who underwent genioplasty alone. In conclusion, patients who underwent orthognathic surgery and/or genioplasty demonstrated improvement in appearance and social confidence. The use of this model supports the successful outcomes possible for patients undergoing these procedures.

  3. Analysis of the tricho-dento-osseous syndrome genotype and phenotype.

    PubMed

    Wright, J T; Kula, K; Hall, K; Simmons, J H; Hart, T C

    1997-10-17

    The tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome demonstrates kinky curly hair, thin-pitted enamel, taurodontism, and thickening of cortical bone. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the phenotypic variation of TDO in 3, previously unreported, kindreds and to examine possible candidates for the genomic TDO locus. Thirty-three affected and 20 unaffected individuals were recruited for prospective analysis. Participants were evaluated clinically and photographed by one examiner. Blood was drawn for genetic linkage analyses and radiographs were taken to assess dental and skeletal characteristics. All TDO individuals with teeth had generalized thin and/or pitted enamel hypoplasia. Taurodontism was present in all affected individuals, but was variably expressed. Unique kinky/curly hair at birth was reported in 85% of affected individuals. The curly hair phenotype was retained in 46% of affected individuals after infancy. Thick cranial bones, lack of visible pneumatization of the mastoid process, and/or obliteration of the calvarial diploë was seen in 97% of affected persons compared with 30% of the unaffected individuals. The findings suggest that curly hair at birth, enamel hypoplasia, and taurodontism are highly penetrant yet clinically variable components of TDO. The ABO, Kell, and Gc loci previously suggested to be linked to TDO were excluded as candidates in this TDO population. This investigation characterizes the marked variability in the expression of skeletal, hair, and dental manifestations. The broad range of TDO phenotypes seen in these families, including a variety of skeletal changes, does not support subdividing TDO into multiple subtypes based on subtle phenotypic differences.

  4. Sperm storage and viability in Photinus fireflies.

    PubMed

    Demary, Kristian C

    2005-07-01

    In many species females mate with and store sperm from multiple males, and some female insects have evolved multiple compartments for sperm storage. Sperm storage and sperm viability were investigated in two firefly species, Photinus greeni and P. ignitus, which differ in the morphology of the female reproductive tract. Although the primary spermatheca is similar in both species, P. greeni females have an additional, conspicuous outpocketing within the bursa copulatrix whose potential role in sperm storage was investigated in this study. An assay that distinguishes between live and dead sperm was used to examine sperm viability in male seminal vesicles and sperm storage sites within the female reproductive tract. For both Photinus species, sperm from male seminal vesicles showed significantly higher viability compared to sperm from the primary spermatheca of single mated females. In single mated P. greeni females, sperm taken from the channel outpocketing (secondary spermatheca) showed significantly higher viability compared to sperm from the primary spermatheca. This sperm viability difference was not evident in double mated females. There were no significant differences between P. greeni and P. ignitus females in the viability of sperm from the primary spermatheca. These studies contribute to our understanding of post-mating processes that may influence paternity success, and suggest that sexual conflict over control of fertilizations may occur in multiply mated firefly females.

  5. Aprotinin application has no negative effect on osseous implant integration: a biomechanical and histomorphometric investigation in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Faensen, B; Hain, C; Höhne, J; Schwabe, P; Haas, N; Schmidmaier, G; Wildemann, B

    2009-01-01

    Intraoperative blood loss requiring allogenic blood transfusion (ABT) is a common problem in major orthopedic surgery. Since transfusion related side effects up to fatal consequences due to blood type incompatibility cannot be excluded completely, it is desirable to reduce the amount of blood loss and transfusions to a minimum. Encouraging results in the application of aprotinin, a natural protease-inhibitor with antifibrinolytic, bleeding-reducing properties, in thoracic-, heart- and abdominal surgery led to the use of aprotinin also in orthopedic surgery. One important safety issue in the use of aprotinin in orthopedic surgery is a possible negative effect on the osseous integration of an implant due to the multiple interactions of aprotinin with several enzymatic systems. In this study, we therefore investigated the influence of aprotinin on the osseous ingrowth of a titanium-implant in a rat model. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral retrograde nailing of the femur. Animals were divided in two groups, one receiving i.v. aprotinin intraoperatively, the other group receiving the same amount as saline solution. After 56 days animals were killed and from each group half of the femora were prepared for biomechanical testing, the other half for histological examination. The push-out experiment revealed no significant difference between the aprotinin-group and the control-group, both showing comparable shear stresses. In addition, the histomorphometrical analysis showed comparable implant integration between both groups. The results demonstrate that perioperative aprotinin application has no negative effect on osseous implant integration in a rat model.

  6. A Six-Month Clinical Evaluation of Decalcified Freeze-Dried Bone Allografts in Periodontal Osseous Defects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-15

    made with a itent and a calibrated periodontal probe before surgery , at the time of surgery , and at re-entry. The combined mean osseous regeneration for...in periodontal surgery . J Pereaso el S&5, S. Unist, MI. A.. Silverman, 3. F., Biring. K., Dubuc, F. L., and 1981. Rosenberg, J. M.: The bone induction...calibrated periodontal probe before surgery , at the t~in Fell W143 ONMiw of I Bev so eweOev SM ------4s1 WI UNCLALSSIIIKD SUCUft CLMPICATbo Or Title

  7. Application of laser therapy in the surgical treatment of periodontal osseous defects with the Bio-Oss Spongiosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We have made an investigation on three-wall and four-wall osseous defects on which a surgical treatment was conducted with application of Bio-Oss ( Geistlich ) and laser therapy. After conducting of clinical oral hygiene to the patients and curettage with flap, a Bio-Oss Spongiosa of Geistlich is applied. We have conducted the laser therapy pre- and postoperative scanning with power density of 100 mW/cm2 on scheme. The patients were traced out within 1 year. The obtained results showed that the application of laser therapy gives anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect.

  8. Impacts of early viability selection on management of inbreeding and genetic diversity in conservation.

    PubMed

    Grueber, Catherine E; Hogg, Carolyn J; Ivy, Jamie A; Belov, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is a crucial goal of intensive management of threatened species, particularly for those populations that act as sources for translocation or re-introduction programmes. Most captive genetic management is based on pedigrees and a neutral theory of inheritance, an assumption that may be violated by selective forces operating in captivity. Here, we explore the conservation consequences of early viability selection: differential offspring survival that occurs prior to management or research observations, such as embryo deaths in utero. If early viability selection produces genotypic deviations from Mendelian predictions, it may undermine management strategies intended to minimize inbreeding and maintain genetic diversity. We use empirical examples to demonstrate that straightforward approaches, such as comparing litter sizes of inbred vs. noninbred breeding pairs, can be used to test whether early viability selection likely impacts estimates of inbreeding depression. We also show that comparing multilocus genotype data to pedigree predictions can reveal whether early viability selection drives systematic biases in genetic diversity, patterns that would not be detected using pedigree-based statistics alone. More sophisticated analysis combining genomewide molecular data with pedigree information will enable conservation scientists to test whether early viability selection drives deviations from neutrality across wide stretches of the genome, revealing whether this form of selection biases the pedigree-based statistics and inference upon which intensive management is based.

  9. Mps1 kinase regulates tumor cell viability via its novel role in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Ling, Y; Guo, Y; Bai, Y; Shi, X; Gong, F; Tan, P; Zhang, Y; Wei, C; He, X; Ramirez, A; Liu, X; Cao, C; Zhong, H; Xu, Q; Ma, R Z

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mitotic kinase monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) for tumor therapy has been investigated for many years. Although it was suggested that Mps1 regulates cell viability through its role in spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), the underlying mechanism remains less defined. In an endeavor to reveal the role of high levels of mitotic kinase Mps1 in the development of colon cancer, we unexpectedly found the amount of Mps1 required for cell survival far exceeds that of maintaining SAC in aneuploid cell lines. This suggests that other functions of Mps1 besides SAC are also employed to maintain cell viability. Mps1 regulates cell viability independent of its role in cytokinesis as the genetic depletion of Mps1 spanning from metaphase to cytokinesis affects neither cytokinesis nor cell viability. Furthermore, we developed a single-cycle inhibition strategy that allows disruption of Mps1 function only in mitosis. Using this strategy, we found the functions of Mps1 in mitosis are vital for cell viability as short-term treatment of mitotic colon cancer cell lines with Mps1 inhibitors is sufficient to cause cell death. Interestingly, Mps1 inhibitors synergize with microtubule depolymerizing drug in promoting polyploidization but not in tumor cell growth inhibition. Finally, we found that Mps1 can be recruited to mitochondria by binding to voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) via its C-terminal fragment. This interaction is essential for cell viability as Mps1 mutant defective for interaction fails to main cell viability, causing the release of cytochrome c. Meanwhile, deprivation of VDAC1 can make tumor cells refractory to loss of Mps1-induced cell death. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of the novel mitochondrial function Mps1 is sufficient to kill tumor cells. PMID:27383047

  10. The pathology of acute chondro-osseous injury in the child.

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, J. A.; Ganey, T.; Light, T. R.; Southwick, W. O.

    1993-01-01

    Skeletal tissues from children sustaining acute skeletal trauma were analyzed with detailed radiologic and histologic techniques to assess the failure patterns of the developing skeleton. In the physis- and epiphysis-specific fracture propagation varied, usually going through the portion of the hypertrophic zone adjacent to the metaphysis. However, the physeal fracture in types 1 and 2 sometimes involved the germinal zone. There may also be microscopic propagation at oblique angles from the primary fracture plane, splitting cell columns apart longitudinally. The cartilage canals supplying the germinal zone appear to be "weak" areas into which the fracture may propagate, especially in infancy. Incomplete type 1 physeal fractures, which cannot be detected by routine radiography, may occur. Types 1, 2, and 4 physeal injuries may be comminuted. In type 3 injuries, discrete segments of physis that include the germinal zone may "adhere" to the metaphysis, separating the cells from their normal vascularity. In types 2 and 3, comminution may occur at the site of fracture redirection from the physis. Direct type 5 crushing of the physeal germinal zone does not occur, even in the presence of significant pressure-related changes within other areas of the epiphysis. Type 7 separation between cartilage and bone at any chondro-osseous epiphyseal interface may occur, but is similarly impossible to diagnose radiographically. In the metaphysis torus, fractures result from plastic deformation of the cortex, coupled with a partial microfracturing that may be difficult to visualize with clinical radiography. Some of the energy absorption may also be transmitted to the physis, causing metaphyseal hemorrhage adjacent to the growth plate and variable microscopic damage within the physis. In the diaphysis, the greenstick fracture is associated with longitudinal tensile failure through the developing osteons of the "intact" cortex. The inability of these failure patterns to "narrow" after

  11. Poxvirus viability and signatures in historical relics.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Andrea M; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L; Davidson, Whitni B; Paddock, Christopher D; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K

    2014-02-01

    Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it.

  12. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  13. A novel SMARCAL1 mutation associated with a mild phenotype of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD, OMIM #242900) is an autosomal-recessive pleiotropic disorder characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, renal dysfunction and T-cell immunodeficiency. SIOD is caused by mutations in the gene SMARCAL1. Case presentation We report the clinical and genetic diagnosis of a 5-years old girl with SIOD, referred to our Center because of nephrotic-range proteinuria occasionally detected during the follow-up for congenital hypothyroidism. Mutational analysis of SMARCAL1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bidirectional sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that patient was compound heterozygous for two SMARCAL1 mutations: a novel missense change (p.Arg247Pro) and a well-known nonsense mutation (p.Glu848*). Conclusion This report provided the clinical and genetic description of a mild phenotype of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia associated with nephrotic proteinuria, decreasing after combined therapy with ACE inhibitors and sartans. Our experience highlighted the importance of detailed clinical evaluation, appropriate genetic counseling and molecular testing, to provide timely treatment and more accurate prognosis. PMID:24589093

  14. Removal from the membrane affects the interaction of rat osseous plate ecto-nucleosidetriphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 with substrates and ions.

    PubMed

    Garçon, Daniela P; Masui, Douglas C; Furriel, Rosa P M; Leone, Francisco A

    2008-01-01

    We have characterized the kinetic properties of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (E-NTPDase1) from rat osseous plate membranes. A novel finding of the present study is that the solubilized enzyme shows high- and low-affinity sites for the substrate in contrast with a single substrate site for the membrane-bound enzyme. In addition, contrary to the Michaelian chraracteristics of the membrane-bound enzyme, the site-site interactions after solubilization with 0.5% digitonin plus 0.1% lysolecithin resulted in a less active ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase, showing activity of about 398.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1). The solubilized enzyme has M (r) of 66-72 kDa, and its catalytic efficiency was significantly increased by magnesium and calcium ions; but the ATP/ADP activity ratio was always <2.0. Partial purification and kinetic characterization of the rat osseous plate E-NTPDase1 in a solubilized form may lead to a better understanding of a possible function of the enzyme as a modulator of nucleotidase activity or purinergic signaling in matrix vesicle membranes. The simple procedure to obtain the enzyme in a solubilized form may also be attractive for comparative studies of particular features of the active sites from this and other ATPases.

  15. A Case of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in a Patient with Subpontic Osseous Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Hidenori; Goto, Mitsuo; Kurita, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Subpontic osseous hyperplasia (SOH) is a growth of bone occurring on the edentulous ridge beneath the pontics of fixed partial dentures (FPDs). This report describes a case of bisphosphonate- (BP-) related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in a SOH patient followed by deciduation of the bony lesion. A 73-year-old woman visited a dental clinic after experiencing pain and swelling beneath the pontics of a FPD that had been inserted 15 years ago. The pontics were removed, but the symptoms persisted and she was referred to our hospital. There was an osseous bulge and gum swelling around the edentulous ridge of teeth 18 and 19, as well as bone exposure. As she had been taking an oral BP for 6 years, we diagnosed this case as stage 2 BRONJ. Following BP withdrawal, the bony lesion detached from the mandible. The tissue was diagnosed as sequestrum based on the histopathological findings. Two months after deciduation, epithelialization over the area of exposed bone was achieved and no recurrence has been observed. PMID:28286679

  16. Non-disruptive measurement system of cell viability in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, F.; Nelsen, B. L.; Baselt, T.; Berger, T.; Wiele, M.; Prade, I.; Hartmann, P.

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient and oxygen transport, as well as the removal of metabolic waste are essential processes to support and maintain viable tissue. Current bioreactor technology used to grow tissue cultures in vitro has a fundamental limit to the thickness of tissues. Based on the low diffusion limit of oxygen a maximum tissue thickness of 200 μm is possible. The efficiency of those systems is currently under investigation. During the cultivation process of the artificial tissue in bioreactors, which lasts 28 days or longer, there are no possibilities to investigate the viability of cells. This work is designed to determine the influence of a non-disruptive cell viability measuring system on cellular activity. The measuring system uses a natural cellular marker produced during normal metabolic activity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a coenzyme naturally consumed and produced during cellular metabolic processes and has thoroughly been studied to determine the metabolic state of a cell. Measuring the fluorescence of NADH within the cell represents a non-disruptive marker for cell viability. Since the measurement process is optical in nature, NADH fluorescence also provides a pathway for sampling at different measurement depths within a given tissue sample. The measurement system we are using utilizes a special UV light source, to excite the NADH fluorescence state. However, the high energy potentially alters or harms the cells. To investigate the influence of the excitation signal, the cells were irradiated with a laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm and examined for cytotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a non-cytotoxic system that is applicable for large-scale operations during drug-tissue interaction testing.

  17. Viability of microencapsulated bifidobacteria in set yogurt during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, K; Mustapha, A; Grün, I U; Fernando, L

    2000-09-01

    Bifidobacteria are probiotic organisms that improve the microbial balance in the human gut. They can be incorporated as live cultures in fermented dairy foods, including yogurt, for transmission to humans. Because bifidobacteria are sensitive to high acidity, their viability in yogurt is limited. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of microencapsulation on the viability of bifidobacteria in yogurt during refrigerated storage for 30 d. Live bifidobacterial cells were encapsulated in kappa-carrageenan. Cell enumeration, determination of titratable acidity and pH, quantitation of lactic and acetic acids, and sensory evaluation (consumer test) were carried out on the yogurt samples. Microbiological results showed a decline of 78 and 70.5% in the population of Bifidobacterium longum B6 and B. longum ATCC 15708, respectively, for the treatments containing nonencapsulated cells. No difference in bifidobacterial population was observed in the encapsulated treatments. The acetic acid content in the yogurt with nonencapsulated bifidobacteria was higher than that in the plain yogurt (control) and encapsulated treatments. The increase in lactic acid content during storage was not different among the various treatments for B. longum B6, but was greater for nonencapsulated than encapsulated B. longum 15708 and the control. Consumers judged the nonencapsulated treatment as the most sour, which was likely due to the higher acetic acid content. Consumers preferred the control and nonencapsulated treatments over the encapsulated treatment. Microencapsulation appears to increase the viability of bifidobacteria in yogurt. This technique can be used to transmit bifidobacteria via fermented products provided that sensory characteristics of the product are improved or maintained.

  18. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective was to update the 2001 systematic review conducted by the Institute For Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) on the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in assessing myocardial viability. The update consisted of a review and analysis of the research evidence published since the 2001 ICES review to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PET in detecting left ventricular (LV) viability and predicting patient outcomes after revascularization in comparison with other noninvasive techniques. Background Left Ventricular Viability Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the contractile ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in poor functional capacity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in elderly Canadians. In more than two-thirds of cases, heart failure is secondary to coronary heart disease. It has been shown that dysfunctional myocardium resulting from coronary heart disease (CAD) may recover contractile function (i.e. considered viable). Dysfunctional but viable myocardium may have been stunned by a brief episode of ischemia, followed by restoration of perfusion, and may regain function spontaneously. It is believed that repetitive stunning results in hibernating myocardium that will only regain contractile function upon revascularization. For people with CAD and severe LV dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) refractory to medical therapy, coronary artery bypass and heart transplantation are the only treatment options. The opportunity for a heart transplant is limited by scarcityof donor hearts. Coronary artery bypass in these patients is associated with high perioperative complications; however, there is evidence that revascularization in the presence of dysfunctional but viable myocardium is associated with survival benefits and lower rates of cardiac events. The assessment of left

  19. Comparison of the Copan eSwab System with an Agar Swab Transport System for Maintenance of Fastidious Anaerobic Bacterium Viability

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Leoncio, Eliza S.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the eSwab system to a swab with an anaerobic transport semisolid agar system for their capacities to maintain the viability of 20 species of fastidious anaerobes inoculated on the bench and held at ambient or refrigerator temperature for 24 or 48 h. On average, both systems maintained similar viabilities among analogous groups of organisms at both temperatures, although there were quantitative differences among some species. PMID:26888906

  20. Adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase is essential for Arabidopsis viability.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sarah G; Matthewman, Colette A; Hill, Lionel; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2010-01-04

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase (APK) provides activated sulfate for sulfation of secondary metabolites, including the glucosinolates. We have successfully isolated three of the four possible triple homozygous mutant combinations of this family. The APK1 isoform alone was sufficient to maintain WT levels of growth and development. Analysis of apk1 apk2 apk3 and apk1 apk3 apk4 mutants suggests that APK3 and APK4 are functionally redundant, despite being located in cytosol and plastids, respectively. We were, however, unable to isolate apk1 apk3 apk4 mutants, most probably because the apk1 apk3 apk4 triple mutant combination is pollen lethal. Therefore, we conclude that APS kinase is essential for plant reproduction and viability.

  1. Viability of nonminimally coupled f (R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Páramos, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    In this work we explore the viability of nonminimally coupled matter-curvature gravity theories, namely the conditions required for the absence of tachyon instabilities and ghost degrees of freedom. We contrast our finds with recent claims of a pathological behaviour of this class of models, which resorted to, in our view, an incorrect analogy with k-essence.

  2. Observability in strategic models of viability selection.

    PubMed

    Gámez, M; Carreño, R; Kósa, A; Varga, Z

    2003-10-01

    Strategic models of frequency-dependent viability selection, in terms of mathematical systems theory, are considered as a dynamic observation system. Using a general sufficient condition for observability of nonlinear systems with invariant manifold, it is studied whether, observing certain phenotypic characteristics of the population, the development of its genetic state can be recovered, at least near equilibrium.

  3. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Zanatta, G.; Steffens, D.; Braghirolli, D.I.; Fernandes, R.A.; Netto, C.A.; Pranke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage. PMID:22183245

  4. Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  5. A study of different buffers to maximize viability of an oral Shigella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi; Lal, Manjari; Van De Verg, Lillian L; Venkatesan, Malabi M

    2015-11-17

    Live, whole cell killed and subunit vaccines are being developed for diarrheal diseases caused by V. cholerae, Shigella species, ETEC, and Campylobacter. Some of these vaccines can be administered orally since this route best mimics natural infection. Live vaccines administered orally have to be protected from the harsh acidic gastric environment. Milk and bicarbonate solutions have been administered to neutralize the stomach acid. For many Shigella vaccine trials, 100-120 ml of a bicarbonate solution is ingested followed by the live vaccine candidate, which is delivered in 30 ml of bicarbonate, water or saline. It is not clear if maximum bacterial viability is achieved under these conditions. Also, volumes of neutralizing buffer that are optimal for adults may be unsuitable for children and infants. To address these questions, we performed studies to determine the viability and stability of a Shigella sonnei vaccine candidate, WRSS1, in a mixture of different volumes of five different buffer solutions added to hydrochloric acid to simulate gastric acidity. Among the buffers tested, bicarbonate solution, rotavirus buffer and CeraVacx were better at neutralizing acid and maintaining the viability of WRSS1. Also, a much smaller volume of the neutralizing buffer was sufficient to counteract stomach acid while maintaining bacterial viability.

  6. Viability assessment of primo-node slices from organ surface primo-vascular tissues in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae Hee; Lim, Chae Jeong; Choi, Jae-Hong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2010-12-01

    The primo-vascular system is a novel thread-like structure which is recently rediscovered, but its cellular properties are largely unknown. In this study, a slice preparation for primo-nodes was developed to facilitate study of the cellular properties of primo-node cells in vitro. Slices (4-8 slices; 200 μm thick) were sectioned from single primo-nodes collected from the abdominal organ surface of rats and incubated in oxygenated Krebs solution at 25°C or 31°C for up to 7 hours. Trypan blue staining and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to estimate the viability of cells in the slices. Viability was largely maintained during the first 3 hours, but subsequently decreased (from 80% to 21%, p < 0.001). In addition, the viability of slices incubated at 31°C was higher than those incubated at 25°C (80%vs. 47%, p < 0.001). In whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, high resistance seals readily formed and primo-node cells showed a mean resting membrane potential (-38 mV) comparable to that recorded with sharp electrodes and outwardly-rectifying current-voltage relationships. The results show that the primo-node slices developed in this study maintained viability for up to 4 hours in vitro.

  7. Fibroblast Viability after Storage at 20 °C in Milk, Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and Coconut Water.

    PubMed

    Souza, Beatriz Dulcineia Mendes de; Alves, Ana Maria Hecke; Santos, Luciane Geanini Pena Dos; Simões, Claudia Maria de Oliveira; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various storage media at 20 °C in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) over time. HPLF were maintained at 20 °C in skim milk (SM), whole milk (WM), freshly prepared Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Save-A-Tooth(r), natural coconut water (NCW), coconut water industrialized (ICW) and tap water (negative control) for 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Cells maintained in Minimal Essential Medium (MEM-37) at 37 °C served as a positive control. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Scheffe test (α = 5%). From 24 h, NCW was significantly better in maintaining cell viability than all other tested storage media (p<0.05). SM and WM were significantly better than HBSS for up to 72 h. Save-A-Tooth(r) and ICW were the worst conservation storage media. In conclusion, the effectiveness of the tested storage media to maintain the viability of the periodontal ligament cells was as follows, in a descending order: NCW > MEM-37> SM and IM> HBSS> ICW > Save-A-Tooth(r)> tap water.

  8. Linking Conservation Actions with Population Viability Models: Reducing Uncertainty to Better Predict Management Effects on Viability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    editors. Population viability analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago , Illinois, USA. Goodman, L. A. 1971. On the sensitivity of the...stochastic simulation of the extinction process. Version 9.71. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois. Ladd, C., and L. Gass. 1999...Pages 511-520 in S.R. Beissinger and D.R. McCullough, editors. Population viability analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago , Illinois, USA

  9. Effects of diluents on cell culture viability measured by automated cell counter

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aaron; Leith, Matthew; Tu, Roger; Tahim, Gurpreet; Sudra, Anish; Bhargava, Swapnil

    2017-01-01

    Commercially available automated cell counters based on trypan blue dye-exclusion are widely used in industrial cell culture process development and manufacturing to increase throughput and eliminate inherent variability in subjective interpretation associated with manual hemocytometers. When using these cell counters, sample dilution is often necessary to stay within the assay measurement range; however, the effect of time and diluents on cell culture is not well understood. This report presents the adverse effect of phosphate buffered saline as a diluent on cell viability when used in combination with an automated cell counter. The reduced cell viability was attributed to shear stress introduced by the automated cell counter. Furthermore, length of time samples were incubated in phosphate buffered saline also contributed to the observed drop in cell viability. Finally, as erroneous viability measurements can severely impact process decisions and product quality, this report identifies several alternative diluents that can maintain cell culture viability over time in order to ensure accurate representation of cell culture conditions. PMID:28264018

  10. Maintaining oral health after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Hazel

    Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.

  11. Microcephaly, ectodermal dysplasia, multiple skeletal anomalies and distinctive facial appearance: delineation of cerebro-dermato-osseous-dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Pascolini, Giulia; Parisi, Valentina; Sana, Maria Elena; Novelli, Antonio; Nürnberg, Peter; Iascone, Maria; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In 1980, a novel multiple malformation syndrome has been described in a 17-year-old woman with micro- and turricephaly, intellectual disability, distinctive facial appearance, congenital atrichia, and multiple skeletal anomalies mainly affecting the limbs. Four further sporadic patients and a couple of affected sibs are also reported with a broad clinical variability. Here, we describe a 4-year-old girl strikingly resembling the original report. Phenotype comparison identified a recurrent pattern of multisystem features involving the central nervous system, and skin and bones in five sporadic patients (including ours), while the two sibs and a further sporadic case show significant phenotypic divergence. Marked clinical variability within the same entity versus syndrome splitting is discussed and the term "cerebro-dermato-osseous dysplasia" is introduced to define this condition.

  12. A case of adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis showing successfully regenerated osseous tissue of the skull after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Izutsu, Koji; Kako, Shinichi; Ohta, Satoshi; Hangaishi, Akira; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Motokura, Toru; Chiba, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-04-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disorder of Langerhans cells and extremely rare in adults. Adult LCH is often associated with osteolytic bone lesions, but large bone-defective lesions have been rarely reported. We report an adult case of LCH accompanied by large osteolytic lesions in the skull that successfully responded to chemotherapy. A 47-year-old woman with LCH who had multiple, large osteolytic areas of more than 3 cm in diameter in the skull was admitted to our hospital. She was treated with systemic chemotherapy consisting of prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine. Twelve months later, when she completed the treatment, osteolytic areas were covered with hard osseous tissue, and X-ray examination confirmed regeneration of the bone. This case indicates that chemotherapy can be effective even for the treatment of large osteolytic lesions in adult LCH patients.

  13. Resurfacing of the humeral head: An analysis of the bone stock and osseous integration under the implant.

    PubMed

    Schmidutz, Florian; Sprecher, Christoph M; Milz, Stefan; Gohlke, Frank; Hertel, Ralph; Braunstein, Volker

    2015-09-01

    Cementless-surface-replacement-arthroplasty (CSRA) of the shoulder aims for functional joint restoration with minimal bone loss. Good clinical results have been reported, but due to the radiopaque metal shell no data is available on the structure, osseous integration, and bone stock under the implant. 14 hemi-CSRAs (4 manufacturers) with two geometries (crown [n = 7]/ stem [n = 7] fixation) were retrieved from patients undergoing revision due to glenoidal erosion. Histological sections cutting through the implant centre and bone were analysed. Quantitative histomorphometry evaluated the bone-implant-contact and compared the bone-area to native humeral retrievals (n = 7). The bone-implant-interface was further assessed by scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive-x-ray (EDX). Qualitative histology revealed a reduced and inhomogeneous bone stock. Obvious signs of stress shielding were observed with bone predominantly visible at the stem and implant rim. Quantitative histomorphometry confirmed the significantly reduced bone-area (9.2 ± 3.9% [crown 9.9 ± 4.3%, stem 8.6 ± 3.6%]) compared to native humeri (21.2 ± 9.1%; p < 0.05). Bone-implant-contact was 20.5 ± 5.8% (crown 21.8 ± 6.2%, stem 19.2 ± 5.6%) which was confirmed by SEM and EDX. Altogether, CRSA shows satisfactory bone ingrowth at the interface suggesting sufficient primary stability to allow osseous integration. However, clear signs of stress shielding with an inhomogeneous and reduced bone stock were observed. The impact on the long-term-results is unclear requiring further investigation.

  14. Hospital Viability during a Pandemic Influenza Outbreak

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    provide protection from the next pandemic. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hospital Security, Pandemic Influenza , Viability Checklist, 1918 Spanish Flu, 2003 SARS...pandemic influenza : 1918 Spanish Flu, 1957 Asian Flu, 1968 Hong Kong Flu, 2003 SARS epidemic, and 2005 Hurricane Katrina. Understanding the...emergency management events: 1918 , Spanish flu (H1N1); 2003, SARS outbreak; 2005, Hurricane Katrina, and the 2009, Swine flu (H1N1) outbreak, for the

  15. Strategies for Maintaining Community Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Fred

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…

  16. Maintaining COTS-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    12-1 Maintaining COTS-Based Systems Dr. Mark R. Vigder John Dean National Research Council of Canada Institute for Information Technology Ottawa...evluton destifyng cand s yste dff uresamng sets ongoingoperato n.ts devhoisg Configuration magement Tracking versions of different COTS products

  17. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  18. Pneumocystis melanins confer enhanced organism viability.

    PubMed

    Icenhour, Crystal R; Kottom, Theodore J; Limper, Andrew H

    2006-06-01

    Pneumocystis continues to represent an important opportunistic fungal pathogen of those with compromised immunity. Thus, it is crucial to identify factors that affect its viability and pathogenicity. We previously reported the first identification of melanins in Pneumocystis. In the present study, we sought to further characterize these components and define the function for these melanins. Melanins extracted from Pneumocystis and melanized Pneumocystis cells were analyzed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, revealing spectra consistent with melanins from other fungi. Immunofluorescence assays using anti-melanin monoclonal antibodies showed that melanins are widely present across Pneumocystis host species, including mouse-, ferret-, and human-derived Pneumocystis organisms, as well as Pneumocystis carinii derived from rat. Using immunoelectron microscopy, melanins were found to localize to the cell wall and cytoplasm of P. carinii cysts, as well as to intracystic bodies within mature cysts. Next, the role of melanins on the maintenance of Pneumocystis viability was determined by using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR measurement of the heat shock protein mRNA under adverse environmental conditions. Using a new method to promote the melanization of Pneumocystis, we observed that strongly melanized Pneumocystis retained viability to a greater degree when exposed to UV irradiation or desiccation compared to less-pigmented organisms. These studies support our previous identification of Pneumocystis melanins across the genus, further characterize these Pneumocystis components, and demonstrate that melanins protect Pneumocystis from environmental stressors.

  19. Optimization of temperature, sugar concentration, and inoculum size to maximize ethanol production without significant decrease in yeast cell viability.

    PubMed

    Laluce, Cecilia; Tognolli, João Olimpio; de Oliveira, Karen Fernanda; Souza, Crisla Serra; Morais, Meline Rezende

    2009-06-01

    Aiming to obtain rapid fermentations with high ethanol yields and a retention of high final viabilities (responses), a 2(3) full-factorial central composite design combined with response surface methodology was employed using inoculum size, sucrose concentration, and temperature as independent variables. From this statistical treatment, two well-fitted regression equations having coefficients significant at the 5% level were obtained to predict the viability and ethanol production responses. Three-dimensional response surfaces showed that increasing temperatures had greater negative effects on viability than on ethanol production. Increasing sucrose concentrations improved both ethanol production and viability. The interactions between the inoculum size and the sucrose concentrations had no significant effect on viability. Thus, the lowering of the process temperature is recommended in order to minimize cell mortality and maintain high levels of ethanol production when the temperature is on the increase in the industrial reactor. Optimized conditions (200 g/l initial sucrose, 40 g/l of dry cell mass, 30 degrees C) were experimentally confirmed and the optimal responses are 80.8 +/- 2.0 g/l of maximal ethanol plus a viability retention of 99.0 +/- 3.0% for a 4-h fermentation period. During consecutive fermentations with cell reuse, the yeast cell viability has to be kept at a high level in order to prevent the collapse of the process.

  20. Use of flow cytometry to assess chondrocyte viability after laser reshaping of cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Alexandre; Kim, Charlton C.; Basu, Reshmi; Wong, Brian J.

    2000-05-01

    Lasers have been shown to cause permanent shape change in cartilage via photothermally induced mechanical stress relaxation. While the biophysical properties of cartilage during laser irradiation have been studied, tissue viability following laser irradiation has not been fully characterized. In this study, cell viability staining and flow cytometry were used to determine chondrocyte viability following photothermal stress relaxation. Porcine septal cartilage slabs (10 X 25 X 1.5 mm) were irradiated with light from a Nd:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 1.32 micrometer, 25 W/cm2) while surface temperature, stress relaxation, and diffuse reflectance were recorded. Each slab received one, two, or three laser exposures (respective exposure times of 6.7, 7.2, 10 s), determined from measurements of diffuse reflectance, which correlate with mechanical stress relaxation. Irradiated samples were then divided into two groups analyzed immediately and at five days following laser exposure (the latter group was maintained in culture). Chondrocytes were isolated following serial enzymatic digestion with hyaluronidase, protease, and collagenase II for a total of 17 hours. Chondrocytes were then stained using SYTOR/DEAD RedTM (Molecular Probes; Eugene, OR) wherein live cells stained green (530 nm) and dead cells stained red (630 nm) when excited at 488 nm. A flow cytometer (FACScan, Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) was then used to detect differential cell fluorescence; size; granularity; and the number of live cells, dead cells, and post irradiation debris in each treatment population. Nearly 60% of chondrocytes from reshaped cartilage samples isolated shortly after irradiation, were viable as determined using flow cytometry while non- irradiated controls were 100 percent viable. Specimens irradiated two or three times with the laser demonstrated increasing amounts of cellular debris along with a reduction in chondrocyte viability: 31 percent following two laser exposures, and 16

  1. Efficient intracellular delivery of molecules with high cell viability using nanosecond-pulsed laser-activated carbon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Aritra; Kelly, Sean C; Dwivedi, Nishant; Thadhani, Naresh; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2014-03-25

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5-9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability.

  2. Efficient Intracellular Delivery of Molecules with High Cell Viability Using Nanosecond-Pulsed Laser-Activated Carbon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5–9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. PMID:24547946

  3. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  4. Maintaining the Defense Industrial Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-02

    34 43 Utilizing concurrent engineering , development times are reduced by up to 40%.44 Japan’s auto industry use of concurrent engineering is a factor in... Developing this prescription for maintaining the defense industrial base involves a two step process. First, it is important to establish the current...increased. The skills required to work with advanced aerospace composite materials are unique to the industry . Developing 8 -1777 profiiency in this

  5. Moxonidine modulates cytokine signalling and effects on cardiac cell viability.

    PubMed

    Aceros, Henry; Farah, Georges; Noiseux, Nicolas; Mukaddam-Daher, Suhayla

    2014-10-05

    Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and improved cardiac function in SHR by the centrally acting imidazoline I1-receptor agonist, moxonidine, are associated with differential actions on circulating and cardiac cytokines. Herein, we investigated cell-type specific I1-receptor (also known as nischarin) signalling and the mechanisms through which moxonidine may interfere with cytokines to affect cardiac cell viability. Studies were performed on neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts incubated with interleukin (IL)-1β (5 ng/ml), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (10 ng/ml), and moxonidine (10(-7) and 10(-5) M), separately and in combination, for 15 min, and 24 and 48 h for the measurement of MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38) and Akt activation and inducible NOS (iNOS) expression, by Western blotting, and cardiac cell viability/proliferation and apoptosis by flow cytometry, MTT assay, and Live/Dead assay. Participation of imidazoline I1-receptors and the signalling proteins in the detected effects was identified using imidazoline I1-receptor antagonist and signalling protein inhibitors. The results show that IL-1β, and to a lower extent, TNF-α, causes cell death and that moxonidine protects against starvation- as well as IL-1β -induced mortality, mainly by maintaining membrane integrity, and in part, by improving mitochondrial activity. The protection involves activation of Akt, ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and iNOS. In contrast, moxonidine stimulates basal and IL-1β-induced fibroblast mortality by mechanisms that include inhibition of JNK and iNOS. Thus, apart from their actions on the central nervous system, imidazoline I1-receptors are directly involved in cardiac cell growth and death, and may play an important role in cardiovascular diseases associated with inflammation.

  6. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  7. [Nicotinamide influence on pancreatic cells viability].

    PubMed

    Kuchmerovs'ka, T M; Donchenko, H V; Tykhonenko, T M; Huzyk, M M; Stavniĭchuk, R V; Ianits'ka, L V; Stepanenko, S P; Klymenko, A P

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the modulating effect of nicotinamide (NAm) in different concentrations and under different glucose concentrations on the viability and oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 5 mmol/l) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 100 micromol/l) on isolated rat pancreatic cells of the Langerhans islets in vitro. Cell viability did not depend on the concentration of glucose in the range of 5-20 mmol/l, and in subsequent studies we used glucose in concentration of 10 mmol/l to protect cells against its hypo- and hyperglycemic action. Cytoprotective effect of NAm in concentrations from 5 to 20 mmol/l on cells survival was the same. It was found that the destructive action of STZ and H2O2 during 24 hours on isolated cells of the pancreas resulted in the significant cell death. It was revealed that NAm in concentration of 5 mmol/l not only had cytoprotective effects against STZ and H2O2 but also partially reduced the level of oxidative stress in the investigated cells induced by these compounds. High concentration of NAm, 35 mmol/l, causes cytotoxic effect on the viability of pancreatic islet cells and increase of oxidative stress induced by STZ and H2O2. Most likely these effects could be associated with direct modulatory action of NAm on important effector mechanisms involved in cell death, including PARP-dependent processes, or/and indirectly, through metabolic and antioxidant effects of the compound.

  8. Cell viability test after laser guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbalm, Tabitha N.; Owens, Sarah; Bakken, Daniel; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2006-02-01

    To precisely control the position of multiple types of cells in a coculture for the study of cell-cell interactions, we have developed a laser micropatterning technique. The technique employs the optical forces generated by a weakly focused laser beam. In the beam's focal region, the optical force draws microparticles, such as cells, into the center of the beam, propels them along the beam axis, and guides them onto a target surface. Specific patterns are created through computercontrolled micromanipulation of the substrate relative to the laser beam. Preliminary data have demonstrated cell viability after laser guidance. This project was designed to systematically vary the controllable laser parameters, namely, intensity and exposure time of the laser on single cells, and thus determine the laser parameters that allow negligible cell damage with functional cellular position control. To accomplish this goal, embryonic day 7 (E7) chick forebrain neurons were cultured in 35 mm petri dishes. Control and test cells were selected one hour after cell placement to allow cell attachment. Test cells were subjected to the laser at the focal region. The experimental parameters were chosen as: wavelength - 800 nm, intensities - 100 mW, 200 mW, and 300 mW, and exposure times - 10 s and 60 s. Results were analyzed based on neurite outgrowth and the Live/Dead assay (Viability/Cytoxicity kit from Molecular Probes). No statistical difference (p >> 0.1, student t-test) in viability or function was found between the control neurons and those exposed to the laser. This confirms that laser guidance seems to be a promising method for cellular manipulation.

  9. Kinetic viability assays using DRAQ7 probe.

    PubMed

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Akagi, Jin; Dobrucki, Jurek; Errington, Rachel; Smith, Paul J; Takeda, Kazuo; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2013-07-01

    Cell death within cell populations is a stochastic process where cell-to-cell variation in temporal progression through the various stages of cell death arises from asynchrony of subtle fluctuations in the signaling pathways. Most cell death assays rely on detection of the specific marker of cell demise at the end-point of cell culturing. Such an approach cannot account for the asynchrony and the stochastic nature of cell response to the death-inducing signal. There is a need therefore for rapid and high-throughput bioassays capable of continuously tracking viability of individual cells from the time of encountering a stress signal up to final stages of their demise. In this context, a new anthracycline derivative, DRAQ7, is gaining increasing interest as an easy-to-use marker capable of long-term monitoring of cell death in real-time. This novel probe neither penetrates the plasma membrane of living cells nor does it affect the cells' susceptibility to the death-inducing agents. However, when the membrane integrity is compromised, DRAQ7 enters cells undergoing demise and binds readily to nuclear DNA to report cell death. Here, we provide three sets of protocols for viability assays using DRAQ7 probe. The first protocol describes the innovative use of single-color DRAQ7 real-time assay to dynamically track cell viability. The second protocol outlines a simplified end-point DRAQ7 staining approach. The final protocol highlights the real-time and multiparametric apoptosis assay utilizing DRAQ7 dye concurrently with tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), the mitochondrial trans-membrane electrochemical potential (ΔΨm) sensing probe.

  10. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. PMID:25429386

  11. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  12. Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2007-01-15

    We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

  13. Assessment of cryopreserved donor skin viability: the experience of the regional tissue bank of Siena.

    PubMed

    Pianigiani, E; Tognetti, L; Ierardi, F; Mariotti, G; Rubegni, P; Cevenini, G; Perotti, R; Fimiani, M

    2016-06-01

    Skin allografts from cadaver donors are an important resource for treating extensive burns, slow-healing wounds and chronic ulcers. A high level of cell viability of cryopreserved allografts is often required, especially in burn surgery, in Italy. Thus, we aimed to determine which conditions enable procurement of highly viable skin in our Regional Skin Bank of Siena. For this purpose, we assessed cell viability of cryopreserved skin allografts procured between 2011 and 2013 from 127 consecutive skin donors, before and after freezing (at day 15, 180, and 365). For each skin donor, we collected data concerning clinical history (age, sex, smoking, phototype, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cause of death), donation process (multi-tissue or multi-organ) and timing of skin procurement (assessment of intervals such as death-harvesting, harvesting-banking, death-banking). All these variables were analysed in the whole case study (127 donors) and in different groups (e.g. multi-organ donors, non refrigerated multi-tissue donors, refrigerated multi-tissue donors) for correlations with cell viability. Our results indicated that cryopreserved skin allografts with higher cell viability were obtained from female, non smoker, heartbeating donors died of cerebral haemorrhage, and were harvested within 2 h of aortic clamping and banked within 12 h of harvesting (13-14 h from clamping). Age, cause of death and dyslipidaemia or diabetes did not appear to influence cell viability. To maintain acceptable cell viability, our skin bank needs to reduce the time interval between harvesting and banking, especially for refrigerated donors.

  14. How to maintain chain drives

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L. )

    1992-06-18

    Properly selected and maintained chain drives can be expected to give thousands of hours of reliable service. Selection is usually done just once. This paper reports on good maintenance which must be done regularly to keep the drive operating. An effective maintenance program for roller chain should include correct type and adequate amounts of lubrication, replacement of worn chains and sprockets, and elimination of drive interferences. It is important to set u a lubrication and inspection/correction schedule to ensure that all required maintenance is carried out.

  15. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  16. Endodontic-periodontal management of a maxillary lateral incisor with an associated radicular lingual groove and severe periapical osseous destruction--a case report.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Amit; Yadav, Priya; Gandhi, Taru

    2012-01-01

    Radicular lingual grooves are morphological defects, which are found most frequently in maxillary anterior teeth and are a predisposing factor for periodontal disease. They are easily overlooked as aetiologic factors, as these grooves are covered by periodontal tissues. This case report presents a successful management of a case of a maxillary lateral incisor with an associated radicular lingual groove and severe periapical osseous destruction in a 30-year-old female patient. A combination of endodontic treatment, radiculoplasty to eliminate the radicular lingual groove, and periapical surgery to eliminate the periapical osseous defect was used. At two-year follow-up, the patient was comfortable and complete resolution of the periapical pathology was evident.

  17. Synergistic Simvastatin and Metformin Combination Chemotherapy for Osseous Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Babcook, Melissa A.; Shukla, Sanjeev; Fu, Pingfu; Vazquez, Edwin J.; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; Molter, Joseph P.; Oak, Christine Z.; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Flask, Chris A.; Lindner, Daniel J.; Parker, Yvonne; Daneshgari, Firouz; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Docetaxel (DTX) chemotherapy remains a standard-of-care for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). DTX modestly increases survival, yet results in frequent occurrence of side-effects and resistant disease. An alternate chemotherapy with greater efficacy and minimal side-effects is needed. Acquisition of metabolic aberrations promoting increased survival and metastasis in CRPC cells include constitutive activation of Akt, loss of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity due to Ser-485/491 phosphorylation, and over-expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR). We report that combination of simvastatin (SIM) and metformin (MET), within pharmacological dose range (500nM to 4µM SIM and 250µM to 2mM MET), significantly and synergistically reduces C4-2B3/B4 CRPC cell viability and metastatic properties with minimal adverse effects on normal prostate epithelial cells. Combination of SIM and MET decreased Akt Ser-473 and Thr-308 phosphorylation and AMPKα Ser-485/491 phosphorylation, increased Thr-172 phosphorylation and AMPKα activity as assessed by increased Ser-79 and Ser-872 phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and HMG-CoAR, respectively; decreased HMG-CoAR activity, and reduced total cellular cholesterol and its synthesis in both cell lines. Studies of C4-2B4 orthotopic NCr-nu/nu mice further demonstrated that combination of SIM and MET (3.5–7.0µg/g body weight SIM and 175–350µg/g body weight MET) daily by oral gavage over 9-week period significantly inhibited primary ventral prostate tumor formation, cachexia, bone metastasis, and biochemical failure more effectively than 24µg/g body weight DTX intraperitoneally-injected every three weeks, 7.0µg/g/day SIM, or 350µg/g/day MET treatment alone, with significantly less toxicity and mortality than DTX, establishing combination SIM and MET as a promising chemotherapeutic alternative for metastatic CRPC. PMID:25122066

  18. Enhanced cell viability and cell adhesion using low conductivity medium for negative dielectrophoretic cell patterning.

    PubMed

    Puttaswamy, Srinivasu Valagerahally; Sivashankar, Shilpa; Chen, Rong-Jhe; Chin, Chung-Kuang; Chang, Hwan-You; Liu, Cheng Hsien

    2010-10-01

    Negative dielectrophoretic (n-DEP) cell manipulation is an efficient way to pattern human liver cells on micro-electrode arrays. Maintaining cell viability is an important objective for this approach. This study investigates the effect of low conductivity medium and the optimally designed microchip on cell viability and cell adhesion. To explore the influence of conductivity on cell viability and cell adhesion, we have used earlier reported dielectrophoresis (DEP) buffer with a conductivity of 10.2 mS/m and three formulated media with conductivity of 9.02 (M1), 8.14 (M2), 9.55 (M3) mS/m. The earlier reported isotonic sucrose/dextrose buffer (DEP buffer) used for DEP manipulation has the drawback of poor cell adhesion and cell viability. A microchip prototype with well-defined positioning of titanium electrode arrays was designed and fabricated on a glass substrate. The gap between the radial electrodes was accurately determined to achieve good cell patterning performance. Parameters such as dimension of positioning electrode, amplitude, and frequency of voltage signal were investigated to optimize the performance of the microchip.

  19. Dynamic changes in Mcl-1 expression regulate macrophage viability or commitment to apoptosis during bacterial clearance.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Helen M; Bingle, Colin D; Read, Robert C; Braley, Karen E; Kroemer, Guido; Hellewell, Paul G; Craig, Ruth W; Whyte, Moira K B; Dockrell, David H

    2005-02-01

    Macrophages are critical effectors of bacterial clearance and must retain viability, despite exposure to toxic bacterial products, until key antimicrobial functions are performed. Subsequently, host-mediated macrophage apoptosis aids resolution of infection. The ability of macrophages to make this transition from resistance to susceptibility to apoptosis is important for effective host innate immune responses. We investigated the role of Mcl-1, an essential regulator of macrophage lifespan, in this switch from viability to apoptosis, using the model of pneumococcal-associated macrophage apoptosis. Upon exposure to pneumococci, macrophages initially upregulate Mcl-1 protein and maintain viability for up to 14 hours. Subsequently, macrophages reduce expression of full-length Mcl-1 and upregulate a 34-kDa isoform of Mcl-1 corresponding to a novel BH3-only splice variant, Mcl-1(Exon-1). Change in expression of Mcl-1 protein is associated with mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, which is characterized by loss of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential and translocation of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor. Following pneumococcal infection, macrophages expressing full-length human Mcl-1 as a transgene exhibit a delay in apoptosis and in bacterial killing. Mcl-1 transgenic mice clear pneumococci from the lung less efficiently than nontransgenic mice. Dynamic changes in Mcl-1 expression determine macrophage viability as well as antibacterial host defense.

  20. Sperm competition and offspring viability at hybridization in Australian tree frogs, Litoria peronii and L. tyleri.

    PubMed

    Sherman, C D H; Wapstra, E; Olsson, M

    2010-02-01

    Hybridization between closely related species often leads to reduced viability or fertility of offspring. Complete failure of hybrid offspring (post-zygotic hybrid incompatibilities) may have an important role in maintaining the integrity of reproductive barriers between closely related species. We show elsewhere that in Peron's tree frog, Litoria peronii, males more closely related to a female sire more offspring in sperm competition with a less related rival male. Observations of rare 'phenotypic intermediate' males between L. peronii and the closely related L. tyleri made us suggest that these relatedness effects on siring success may be because of selection arising from risks of costly hybridization between the two species. Here, we test this hypothesis in an extensive sperm competition experiment, which shows that there is no effect of species identity on probability of fertilization in sperm competition trials controlling for sperm concentration and sperm viability. Instead, there was a close agreement between a male's siring success in isolation with a female and his siring success with the same female in competition with a rival male regardless of species identity. Offspring viability and survival, however, were strongly influenced by species identity. Over a 14-day period, hybrid offspring suffered increasing mortality and developed more malformations and an obvious inability to swim and right themselves, leading to compromised probability of survival. Thus, hybridization in these sympatric tree frogs does not compromise fertilization but has a strong impact on offspring viability and opportunity for reinforcement selection on mate choice for conspecific partners.

  1. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  2. When to maintain centrifugal pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Karassik, I.J.

    1993-04-01

    Centrifugal pumps comprise critical maintenance equipment. The rationale of when to maintain them relates to a spreading tendency to contain costs in the face of tight money. Plant managers are thus entitled to a thorough analysis of whether reduced expenditures truly lower costs or actually hinder maintenance and increase costs. Absence of such an analysis hides the fact that proper and timely maintenance has a double effect: it not only reduces power consumption but also extends equipment life, and thus reduces the frequency of labor and material expenditures for scheduled or crisis maintenance. Centrifugal pump maintenance can demonstrate well the validity of this observation. The paper discusses: restoring internal clearances; real cost of renewing clearances; and monitoring clearances and pump performance.

  3. Installing and maintaining gear pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmire, K.

    1996-03-01

    While not as common as centrifugal pumps in the CPI, gear pumps play important roles in handling many of today`s more difficult-to-pump fluids. Because they operate at lower speeds -- generally, 900 rpm or less -- their seals and bearings tend to last longer than those of centrifugal models. In addition, unlike centrifugal pumps, gear pumps` flows are independent of their systems` pressure curves, and they can handle a wider range of viscosities. Although high-flow, low-head applications remain the domain of centrifugal pumps, the use of gear pumps is increasing in the chemical process industries (CPI). While some application boundaries between gears and centrifugals are blurring, there are some crucial differences between the way the two are operated and maintained -- for example, where pressure relief is concerned. This article provides a general summary of gear pump characteristics and applications, highlighting critical aspects of installation, operation and maintenance.

  4. Osseous alterations in the condylar head after unilateral surgical directional change in rabbit mandibular condyles: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hoon Joo; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate bony changes in the mandibular condyle when the surface not normally subjected to masticatory forces was subjected to functional loading using a unilateral surgical experiment. Fifteen male New Zealand white rabbits, divided into two groups, were used. Oblique vertical body osteotomies of the mandible and counterclockwise rotation (CCWR) of the proximal segment (PS) [six with 1 mm (group I), six with 3 mm (group II)] were performed on the right side. Osseous changes of condyles were analyzed using micro-computed tomography and histological evaluation four weeks postoperatively. The comparison was performed between condyles on the right and left sides. Since the left condyle (control) might be affected by the operation on the right side, the results were also compared with the healthy control (group III, n = 3, 6 condyles). CCWR of the PS led to osteoporotic changes of the condyle including significantly reduced bone volume and bone mineral density (p < 0.05), thin and small number of trabeculae (p < 0.05). In addition, thinning of condylar cartilage and reduced density of cartilaginous cells were observed. However, these changes were not affected by the amount of CCWR of the PS.

  5. Impact of vitamin E-blended UHMWPE wear particles on the osseous microenvironment in polyethylene particle-induced osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Neuerburg, Carl; Loer, Theresa; Mittlmeier, Lena; Polan, Christina; Farkas, Zsuzsanna; Holdt, Lesca Miriam; Utzschneider, Sandra; Schwiesau, Jens; Grupp, Thomas M.; Böcker, Wolfgang; Aszodi, Attila; Wedemeyer, Christian; Kammerlander, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aseptic loosening mediated by wear particle-induced osteolysis (PIO) remains the major cause of implant loosening in endoprosthetic surgery. The development of new vitamin E (α-tocopherol)-blended ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (VE-UHMWPE) with increased oxidation resistance and improved mechanical properties has raised hopes. Furthermore, regenerative approaches may be opened, as vitamin E supplementation has shown neuroprotective characteristics mediated via calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is known to affect bone remodeling in PIO. Therefore, the present study aimed to further clarify the impact of VE-UHMWPE wear particles on the osseous microenvironment and to identify the potential modulatory pathways involved. Using an established murine calvaria model, mice were subjected to sham operation (SHAM group), or treated with UHMWPE or VE-UHMWPE particles for different experimental durations (7, 14 and 28 days; n=6/group). Morphometric analysis by micro-computed tomography detected significant (p<0.01) and comparable signs of PIO in all particle-treated groups, whereas markers of inflammation [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining] and bone remodeling [Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1)/osteoprotegerin (OPG)] were most affected in the early stages following surgery. Taking the present data into account, VE-UHMWPE appears to have a promising biocompatibility and increased ageing resistance. According to the α-CGRP serum levels and immunohistochemistry, the impact of vitamin E on neuropeptidergic signaling and its chance for regenerative approaches requires further investigation. PMID:27779642

  6. Senescence: novel insight into DLX3 mutations leading to enhanced bone formation in Tricho-Dento-Osseous syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Na; Han, Dong; Liu, Haochen; Li, Yue; Wong, Sing-Wai; Cao, Zhengyi; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cai, Tao; Wang, Yixiang; Feng, Hailan

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor distal-less homeobox 3 gene (DLX3) is required for hair, tooth and skeletal development. DLX3 mutations have been found to be responsible for Tricho-Dento-Osseous (TDO) syndrome, characterized by kinky hair, thin-pitted enamel and increased bone density. Here we show that the DLX3 mutation (c.533 A>G; Q178R) attenuates osteogenic potential and senescence of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) isolated from a TDO patient, providing a molecular explanation for abnormal increased bone density. Both DLX3 mutations (c.533 A>G and c.571_574delGGGG) delayed cellular senescence when they were introduced into pre-osteoblastic cells MC3T3-E1. Furthermore, the attenuated skeletal aging and bone loss in DLX3 (Q178R) transgenic mice not only reconfirmed that DLX3 mutation (Q178R) delayed cellular senescence, but also prevented aging-mediated bone loss. Taken together, these results indicate that DLX3 mutations act as a loss of function in senescence. The delayed senescence of BMSCs leads to increased bone formation by compensating decreased osteogenic potentials with more generations and extended functional lifespan. Our findings in the rare human genetic disease unravel a novel mechanism of DLX3 involving the senescence regulation of bone formation. PMID:27924851

  7. Osseous reaction to implantation of two endodontic cements: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM)

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Kazemi, Ali; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad J.; Mesgariabbasi, Mehran; Mohajeri, Daryoush

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present in vivo study was to determine bone tissue reaction to calcium enriched mixture (CEM) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) using a rat femur model. Study Design: Sixty-three rats were selected and randomly divided into three groups of 21 each [experimental groups (n=15), control (n=6)]. Implantation cavities were prepared in each femoral bone and randomly filled with the biomaterials only in the experimental groups. The animals in three groups were sacrificed 1, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively. Histologic evaluations comprising inflammation severity and new bone formation were blindly made on H&E-stained decalcified 6-µm sections. Results: At 1, 4, and 8 weeks after implantation number of inflammatory cells had decreased in the CEM, MTA and control groups, respectively, with no statistically significant differences. Conversely, new bone formation had increased in all the experimental and control groups, without statistically significant differences. Conclusion: The results suggest that biocompatibility of MTA, as gold standard, and CEM cement as a new endodontic biomaterial are comparable Key words:Endodontics, MTA,CEM, osseous reaction. PMID:22549692

  8. Intra-osseous Co-transplantation of CD34-selected Umbilical Cord Blood and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Metheny, Leland; Eid, Saada; Lingas, Karen; Reese, Jane; Meyerson, Howard; Tong, Alexander; de Lima, Marcos; Huang, Alex Y

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to support the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We hypothesized that intra-osseous (IO) co-transplantation of MSC and umbilical cord blood (UCB) may be effective in improving early HSC engraftment, as IO transplantation has been demonstrated to enhance UCB engraftment in NOD SCID-gamma (NSG) mice. Following non-lethal irradiation (300rads), 6 groups of NSG mice were studied: 1) intravenous (IV) UCB CD34+ cells, 2) IV UCB CD34+ cells and MSC, 3) IO UCB CD34+ cells, 4) IO UCB CD34+ cells and IO MSC, 5) IO UCB CD34+ cells and IV MSC, and 6) IV UCB CD34+ and IO MSC. Analysis of human-derived CD45+, CD3+, and CD19+ cells 6 weeks following transplant revealed the highest level of engraftment in the IO UCB plus IO MSC cohort. Bone marrow analysis of human CD13 and CD14 markers revealed no significant difference between cohorts. We observed that IO MSC and UCB co-transplantation led to superior engraftment of CD45+, CD3+ and CD19+ lineage cells in the bone marrow at 6 weeks as compared with the IV UCB cohort controls. Our data suggests that IO co-transplantation of MSC and UCB facilitates human HSC engraftment in NSG mice. PMID:27882356

  9. Viability of Selected Microorganisms in Hydrocarbon Fuels.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, H G; Carroll, M T; Owen, H P; Pritchard, D J

    1963-11-01

    A laboratory study of the viability of selected microorganisms in a hydrocarbon fuel medium was carried out on 19 species of microorganisms, representative of the types found as natural contaminants in aircraft fuels. More species remained viable when inoculated in pure cultures than when inoculated in mixed (composite) cultures. Of the 19 species selected, 10 were still viable after 3 months and 5 were viable after 4 months in the pure culture inoculants. In the complete composite culture inoculant, the bacterial species which were viable at the end of 4 months were the same as those found in the pure culture inoculant. No fungi remained viable in the complete composite cultures after a 3-week period. The microorganisms which remain viable in a hydrocarbon fuel medium are considered indicative of a satisfactory inoculum to be used as a test culture in laboratory analysis of mechanical control techniques.

  10. VIABILITY OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN ANTARCTIC SOIL.

    PubMed

    BOYD, W L; BOYD, J W

    1963-05-01

    Boyd, William L. (Ohio State University, Columbus) and Josephine W. Boyd. Viability of coliform bacteria in antarctic soil. J. Bacteriol. 85:1121-1123. 1963.-The distribution of coliform bacteria in soils of Ross Island and the nearby mainland was studied. None was found in almost all of the samples collected, including some from the Adelie penguin rookeries at Cape Royds and Cape Crozier and in soil at the McMurdo Base which had been recently contaminated by human sewage. Samples of pony manure left from previous expeditions were also negative, with one exception where Escherichia coli were present. Studies carried out with two freshly isolated human strains of E. coli and the isolate from pony manure showed that the death rate was extremely rapid, although the animal strain was much more resistant to the various factors of the environment causing death.

  11. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence.

  12. Menaquinone synthesis is critical for maintaining mycobacterial viability during exponential growth and recovery from non-replicating persistence.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Rakesh K; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Slayden, Richard A; Boyne, Melissa E; Lenaerts, Anne; Hinshaw, Jerald C; Angala, Shiva K; Chatterjee, Delphi; Biswas, Kallolmay; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran; Kurosu, Michio; Crick, Dean C

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the basis of bacterial persistence in latent infections is critical for eradication of tuberculosis. Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mRNA expression in an in vitro model of non-replicating persistence indicated that the bacilli require electron transport chain components and ATP synthesis for survival. Additionally, low microM concentrations of aminoalkoxydiphenylmethane derivatives inhibited both the aerobic growth and survival of non-replicating, persistent M. tuberculosis. Metabolic labelling studies and quantification of cellular menaquinone levels suggested that menaquinone synthesis, and consequently electron transport, is the target of the aminoalkoxydiphenylmethane derivatives. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the observations that treatment with these compounds inhibits oxygen consumption and that supplementation of growth medium with exogenous menaquinone rescued both growth and oxygen consumption of treated bacilli. In vitro assays indicate that the aminoalkoxydiphenylmethane derivatives specifically inhibit MenA, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of menaquinone. Thus, the results provide insight into the physiology of mycobacterial persistence and a basis for the development of novel drugs that enhance eradication of persistent bacilli and latent tuberculosis.

  13. Integrating watershed– and farm–scale models to target critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture and the impacts of mitigating best management practices are commonly evaluated based on hydrologic boundaries using watershed models. However, management practice effectiveness is impacted by which of the feasible practices are actually selected, implemente...

  14. Integrating watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative risk assessments of pollution and data related to the effectiveness of mitigating best management practices (BMPs) are important aspects of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control efforts, particularly those driven by specific water quality objectives and by measurable improvement goals...

  15. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  16. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  17. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  18. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  19. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  20. Ovarian Fluid Mediates the Temporal Decline in Sperm Viability in a Fish with Sperm Storage

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:23691216

  1. Fault Detection and Isolation using Viability Theory and Interval Observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaniee Zarch, Majid; Puig, Vicenç; Poshtan, Javad

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of interval observers and viability theory in fault detection and isolation (FDI). Viability theory develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty. These methods can be used for checking the consistency between observed and predicted behavior by using simple sets that approximate the exact set of possible behavior (in the parameter or state space). In this paper, fault detection is based on checking for an inconsistency between the measured and predicted behaviors using viability theory concepts and sets. Finally, an example is provided in order to show the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  2. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  3. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  4. Treatment of Solitary Painful Osseous Metastases with Radiotherapy, Cryoablation or Combined Therapy: Propensity Matching Analysis in 175 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zugaro, Luigi; Bonfili, Pierluigi; Gregori, Lorenzo; Franzese, Pietro; Marampon, Francesco; Vittorini, Francesca; Moro, Roberto; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose aim of this study was to identify outcomes in pain relief and quality of life in patients with a solitary painful osseous metastasis treated by radiotherapy, cryoablation or the combination using a propensity score matching study design. Materials and Methods 175 patients with painful bone metastases were included in the study. Twenty-five of them underwent a radiation course (20 Gy in five daily fractions) 15 days after the cryoablation. These subjects were retrospectively matched by propensity analysis with a group of subjects treated by radiotherapy (125 subjects) and with a group treated byCryoablation (25 subjects). The pain relief in terms of complete response, rate of subjects requiring analgesics after treatments and the changes in self-rated quality of life were measured. Informed consent was obtained from the subject and the study was approved by the local Ethical Committee. Results An higher proportion of subjects treated by cryoablation (32%) or cryoablation followed by RT (72%;) experienced a complete response compared with patients treated by radiotherapy alone (11.2%). After Bonferroni correction strategy, the addition of radiotherapy to cryoablation significantly improved the rate of complete response compared with cryoablation alone (p = 0.011) and this paralleled with an improved self-rated quality of life. Seventeen subjects (13.6%) of patients in the radiotherapy group, 9 (36%) in the cryoablation group, and 19 (76)% in the cryoablation- radiotherapy group did not require narcotic medications. Conclusions The addition of radiotherapy to cryoablation favorably impacts on perceived pain, with a favorable toxicity profile. However, our data should be interpreted with caution and could serve as a framework around which to design future trials. PMID:26103516

  5. Copper-doped borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with improved angiogenic and osteogenic capacity for repairing osseous defects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the use of synthetic biomaterials to deliver inorganic ions that are known to stimulate angiogenesis and osteogenesis in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effects of varying amounts of copper in a bioactive glass on the response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in vitro and on blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects in vivo. Porous scaffolds of a borosilicate bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 36B2O3, 18SiO2, 2P2O5, mol.%) doped with 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0wt.% CuO were created using a foam replication method. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the scaffolds released Cu ions into the medium and converted to hydroxyapatite. At the concentrations used, the Cu in the glass was not toxic to the hBMSCs cultured on the scaffolds in vitro. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the hBMSCs and the expression levels of angiogenic-related genes (vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor) and osteogenic-related genes (runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin) increased significantly with increasing amount of Cu in the glass. When implanted in rat calvarial defects in vivo, the scaffolds (3wt.% CuO) significantly enhanced both blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in the defects at 8weeks post-implantation. These results show that doping bioactive glass implants with Cu is a promising approach for enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the healing of osseous defects.

  6. A common DLX3 gene mutation is responsible for tricho-dento-osseous syndrome in Virginia and North Carolina families.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J A; Wright, J T; Kula, K; Bowden, D W; Hart, T C

    1998-01-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO) is characterised by a variable clinical phenotype primarily affecting the hair, teeth, and bone. Different clinical features are observed between and within TDO families. It is not known whether the variable clinical features are the result of genetic heterogeneity or clinical variability. A gene for TDO was localised recently to chromosome 17q21 in four North Carolina families, and a 4 bp deletion in the human distal-less 3 gene (DLX3) was identified in all affected members. A previous genetic linkage study in a large Virginia kindred with TDO indicated possible linkage to the ABO, Gc, and Kell blood group loci. To examine whether TDO exhibits genetic heterogeneity, we have performed molecular genetic analysis to determine whether affected members of this Virginia kindred have the DLX3 gene deletion identified in North Carolina families. Results show that affected subjects (n=3) from the Virginia family have the same four nucleotide deletion previously identified in the North Carolina families. A common haplotype for three genetic markers surrounding the DLX3 gene was identified in all affected subjects in the North Carolina and Virginia families. These findings suggest that all people with TDO who have been evaluated have inherited the same DLX3 gene deletion mutation from a common ancestor. The variable clinical phenotype observed in these North Carolina and Virginia families, which share a common gene mutation, suggests that clinical variability is not the result of genetic heterogeneity at the major locus, but may reflect genetic heterogeneity at other epigenetic loci or contributing environmental factors or both. Images PMID:9783705

  7. Effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of hydroxyapatite implant.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A R; Sant'Ana, D C M; Mendes, J A; Moreira, M; Pires, G C; Santos, M P; Fernandes, G J M; Nakagaki, W R; Garcia, J A D; Lima, C C; Soares, E A

    2013-02-01

    The present study aims to assess the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and/or coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of a dense hydroxyapatite (DHA) implant in rats. For this study, 20 male rats were divided into four groups (n = 5): CT (control) group, CE (coffee) group, CI (cigarette) group and CC (coffee + cigarette) group. During 16 weeks, animals in the CI group were exposed to cigarette smoke inhalation equivalent to 6 cigarettes per day; specimens in the CE group drank coffee as liquid diet; and rats in the CC group were submitted to both substances. In the 6th week a 5 mm slit in the parietal bone and a 4 mm slit in the tibia were performed on the left side: the former was left open while the latter received a DHA implant. As soon as surgeries were finished, the animals returned to their original protocols and after 10 weeks of exposure they were euthanised (ethically sacrificed) and the mentioned bones collected for histological processing. Data showed that exposure to cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption did not interfere in weight gain and that solid and liquid diet consumption was satisfactory. Rats in the CC group showed a decrease in bone neoformation around the tibial DHA implant (31.8 ± 2.8) as well as in bone formation in the parietal slit (28.6 ± 2.2). On their own, cigarette smoke inhalation or coffee consumption also led to diminished bone neoformation around the implant and delayed the bone repair process in relation to the CT group. However, reduction in the bone repair process was accentuated with exposure to both cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption in this study.

  8. Biomorphometric analysis of ilio-sacro-iliacal corridors for an intra-osseous implant to fix posterior pelvic ring fractures.

    PubMed

    Gras, Florian; Hillmann, Sophia; Rausch, Sascha; Klos, Kajetan; Hofmann, Gunther O; Marintschev, Ivan

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that ilio-sacro-iliacal corridors for a new envisioned pelvic ring implant (trans-sacral nail with two iliacal bolts = ISI-nail: ilio-sacro-iliacal nail) exists on the level of S1- or S2-vertebra in each patient. The corridors of 84 healthy human pelves (42x ♂; 42x ♀, 18-85 years) were measured in high resolution CT scans using the Merlin Diagnostic Workcenter Software. Trans-sacral corridors (≥ 9 mm diameter) on the level of S1 and S2 were found in 62% and 54% of pelves with a mean length [mm ± SD] of 164 ± 12.9 and 142 ± 10.2. Corresponding iliac corridors were present in all specimens in caudally tilted axial planes of 37.8 ± 0.67° and 53.7 ± 0.94° in relation to the operating table plane and divergent angulations of 69.0 ± 0.49° and 70.1 ± 0.32° in relation to the sagittal midline plane. Sacral dysmorphism, with compensatory larger S2 corridors were prevalent in 24% of pelves; ilio-sacro-iliacal osseous corridors for the envisioned implant were found in 88% of pelves on the level of S1 or S2. In the remaining 12% with too narrow corridors for any trans-sacral implant (screws, bars, ISI nail) alternative fixation methods have to be considered. Expected advantages of the envisioned ISI nail compared to available fixation devices are discussed.

  9. Impact of vitamin E-blended UHMWPE wear particles on the osseous microenvironment in polyethylene particle-induced osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Neuerburg, Carl; Loer, Theresa; Mittlmeier, Lena; Polan, Christina; Farkas, Zsuzsanna; Holdt, Lesca Miriam; Utzschneider, Sandra; Schwiesau, Jens; Grupp, Thomas M; Böcker, Wolfgang; Aszodi, Attila; Wedemeyer, Christian; Kammerlander, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Aseptic loosening mediated by wear particle-induced osteolysis (PIO) remains the major cause of implant loosening in endoprosthetic surgery. The development of new vitamin E (α-tocopherol)-blended ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (VE-UHMWPE) with increased oxidation resistance and improved mechanical properties has raised hopes. Furthermore, regenerative approaches may be opened, as vitamin E supplementation has shown neuroprotective characteristics mediated via calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is known to affect bone remodeling in PIO. Therefore, the present study aimed to further clarify the impact of VE-UHMWPE wear particles on the osseous microenvironment and to identify the potential modulatory pathways involved. Using an established murine calvaria model, mice were subjected to sham operation (SHAM group), or treated with UHMWPE or VE-UHMWPE particles for different experimental durations (7, 14 and 28 days; n=6/group). Morphometric analysis by micro-computed tomography detected significant (p<0.01) and comparable signs of PIO in all particle-treated groups, whereas markers of inflammation [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining] and bone remodeling [Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1)/osteoprotegerin (OPG)] were most affected in the early stages following surgery. Taking the present data into account, VE-UHMWPE appears to have a promising biocompatibility and increased ageing resistance. According to the α-CGRP serum levels and immunohistochemistry, the impact of vitamin E on neuropeptidergic signaling and its chance for regenerative approaches requires further investigation.

  10. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Todd W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  11. Photonics: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Information Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Photonics Maintaining Competitiveness in the Information Era \\ATIONAL RESEIARCII COUVIIII, -mail Photonics: Maintaining Competitiveness in the... Information Era Panel on Photonics Science and Tcchnology Assessment Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical

  12. The Location of Viability Genes within a Testcross Framework.

    PubMed

    Chapco, W

    1972-02-01

    The maximum likelihood method is applied to the problem of estimating the positions and effects of viability genes. Whenever testcross linkage data indicate the presence of differential viability, it is hypothesized that there exists one viability gene between each marker. Estimation is possible only for two-point data since the number of independent expectation expressions is less than the number of parameters for three or more markers. It is pointed out that within the two-point testcross system, it is impossible to distinguish between pleiotropic effects of the marker genes and the effect of a middle viability gene, if existent. The methods outlined will be useful in their application to experiments specifically designed to locate induced viability genes.

  13. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  14. Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, G.; Anderson, C.; Henricson, J.; Leahy, M.; O'Doherty, J.; Sjöberg, F.

    2008-09-01

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0-4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  15. Breeding maintainer lines for hybrid rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintainer lines are a component of 3-line hybrid rice production, necessary to perpetuate the male-sterile (MS) line. In practice, it is often the maintainer that is bred with an array of desirable traits, then male-sterility is transferred in through several backcrosses with the new maintainer to...

  16. Effect of culture age, protectants, and initial cell concentration on viability of freeze-dried cells of Metschnikowia pulcherrima.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Davide; Ciavorella, Annalisa Alessandra; Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2010-10-01

    The effect of freeze-drying using different lyoprotectants at different concentrations on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of Metschnikowia pulcherrima was evaluated. The effects of initial yeast cell concentration and culture age on viability were also considered. Yeast cells grown for 36 h were more resistant to freeze-drying than were 48 h cells. An initial concentration of 10⁸ cells·mL⁻¹ favoured the highest survival after freeze-drying. When maltose (25%, m/v) was used as protectant, a high cell viability was obtained (64.2%). Cells maintained a high viability after 6 months of storage at 4 °C. The biocontrol efficacy of freeze-dried cells was similar to the activity of fresh cells on 'Gala' apples and was slightly lower on 'Golden Delicious' apples. After optimizing freeze-drying conditions, the viability of M. pulcherrima cells was similar to that obtained in other studies. The results constitute a first step towards the commercial development of M. pulcherrima as a biocontrol agent.

  17. [Diagnostic value of MRI versus 99Tcm-MDP bone scan in osseous metastasis of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhou, Luyi; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Qiao; Deng, Houfu

    2014-08-01

    This paper is aimed to assess the diagnostic value of MRI versus 99 Tcm-methylene diphosphonate (99 Tcm- MDP) bone scan (BS) for osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. The computer-based retrieval was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library and Ovid data bases to search for trials about diagnosing osseous metastases of prostate cancer with MRI and 99Tc"m-MDP BS. Selected with time acceptance and time exclusion criteria, the data quality were evaluated with QUADAS quality assessment tool and collected. We used the Meta-Disc software to conduct meta-analysis, and then calculated the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), drew the summary receiving operating characteristic (SROC) curve, and measured the area under curve (AUC) and Q value. Then five studies were included, involving 353 patients. The pooled sensitivity of MRI and BS was 0. 95 (95% CI 0. 90~0. 98) and 0. 67 (95% CI 0. 58~0. 75), respectively. The pooled specificity was 0. 97 (95% CI 0. 94~0. 99) and 0. 88 (95% CI 0. 83~0. 91), respectively. The pooled DOR was 402.99 (95% CI 119. 05 ~1364. 15) and 23. 85 (95% CI 1. 32~431. 48), respectively. The AUC was 0. 990 1 and 0. 624 1, respectively. The Q was 0. 958 7 and 0. 593 8. It can well be concluded that MRI is more effective than 99 Tcm-MDP BS in the diagnosis of osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer.

  18. Oxygen is required to restore flor strain viability and lipid biosynthesis under fermentative conditions.

    PubMed

    Zara, Giacomo; Angelozzi, Daniele; Belviso, Simona; Bardi, Laura; Goffrini, Paola; Lodi, Tiziana; Budroni, Marilena; Mannazzu, Ilaria

    2009-03-01

    To further elucidate the biosynthesis of lipids in flor strains under fermentative conditions, the transcription levels of the lipid biosynthetic genes ACS1, ACS2, ACC1, OLE1, ERG1, ERG11, ARE1 and ARE2, as well as the lipid composition and cell viability of a flor strain were compared with that of a non-flor strain during hypoxic and aerobic fermentations in the absence of lipid nutrients. While no significant differences in transcription levels or lipid compositions were observed between the two strains when oxygen was not limiting, significant differences were seen during hypoxic fermentation. In this last condition, the flor strain, in spite of higher levels of transcription of hypoxic genes, lost the abilities to desaturate fatty acids and complete ergosterol biosynthesis, and showed a dramatic loss of viability. In contrast, the non-flor strain, which showed lower transcription levels, was able to reach a balanced lipid composition and maintained a higher cell viability. One possible explanation is that the flor strain requires a higher amount of oxygen than the non-flor strain in order to carry out the oxygen-dependent steps of lipid biosynthesis under fermentative conditions.

  19. Optimizing conservation strategies for Mexican freetailed bats: a population viability and ecosystem services approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Svancara, Colleen; McCracken, Gary; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Mattson, Brady; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul; Amy Russell,; Semmens, Darius J.; Rodrigo A. Medellín,

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning can be challenging due to the need to balance biological concerns about population viability with social concerns about the benefits biodiversity provide to society, often while operating under a limited budget. Methods and tools that help prioritize conservation actions are critical for the management of at-risk species. Here, we use a multi-attribute utility function to assess the optimal maternity roosts to conserve for maintaining the population viability and the ecosystem services of a single species, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana). Mexican free-tailed bats provide ecosystem services such as insect pest-suppression in agricultural areas and recreational viewing opportunities, and may be threatened by climate change and development of wind energy. We evaluated each roost based on five attributes: the maternity roost’s contribution to population viability, the pest suppression ecosystem services to the surrounding area provided by the bats residing in the roost, the ecotourism value of the roost, the risks posed to each roost structure, and the risks posed to the population of bats residing in each roost. We compared several scenarios that prioritized these attributes differently, hypothesizing that the set of roosts with the highest rankings would vary according to the conservation scenario. Our results indicate that placing higher values on different roost attributes (e.g. population importance over ecosystem service value) altered the roost rankings. We determined that the values placed on various conservation objectives are an important determinant of habitat planning.

  20. [Methylene blue test for the determination of viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis].

    PubMed

    Randazzo, V R; Costamagna, S R

    2010-01-01

    The present research was carried out with the purpose of determining whether or not the methylene blue test could also evidence viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis, taking into account its usefulness in the determination of viability of protoscolices in Echinococcus granulosus. To this end, three T. spiralis larval suspensions (M1, M2 and M3) were used, each containing 500 free larval stages. A hundred microl of methylene blue solution 1:10000 in distilled water were added to 100 microl of the larval suspension. Larvae were observed under optical microscopy to evaluate motility. M1 was exposed to -30 degrees C and could be observed on day 70, M2 was exposed to 80 degrees C during 5 minutes and it was immediately observed under optical microscopy, and M3 was maintained at 4 degrees C during the experiment as a 100% viability testing. Our results indicated that when T. spiralis larvae took up 100% of the methylene blue stain (M1 and M2), their inner structures appeared not only retracted but also stained blue, whereas in the M3 suspension test, larvae remained unstained and 100% of them showed their typical spiral-like movement.

  1. Population viability analysis: using a modeling tool to assess the viability of tapir populations in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Desbiez, Arnaud Leonard Jean

    2012-12-01

    A population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted of the lowland tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest of the Pontal do Paranapanema region, Brazil, including Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) and surrounding forest fragments. Results from the model projected that the population of 126 tapirs in MDSP is likely to persist over the next 100 years; however, 200 tapirs would be required to maintain a viable population. Sensitivity analysis showed that sub-adult mortality and adult mortality have the strongest influence on the dynamics of lowland tapir populations. High road-kill has a major impact on the MDSP tapir population and can lead to population extinction. Metapopulation modeling showed that dispersal of tapirs from MDSP to the surrounding fragments can be detrimental to the overall metapopulation, as fragments act as sinks. Nevertheless, the model showed that under certain conditions the maintenance of the metapopulation dynamics might be determinant for the persistence of tapirs in the region, particularly in the smaller fragments. The establishment of corridors connecting MDSP to the forest fragments models resulted in an increase in the stochastic growth rate, making tapirs more resilient to threats and catastrophes, but only if rates of mortality were not increased when using corridors. The PVA showed that the conservation of tapirs in the Pontal region depends on: the effective protection of MDSP; maintenance and, whenever possible, enhancement of the functional connectivity of the landscape, reducing mortality during dispersal and threats in the unprotected forest fragments; and neutralization of all threats affecting tapirs in the smaller forest fragments.

  2. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be

  3. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  4. Prolonged viability of human organotypic skin explant in culture method (hOSEC)*

    PubMed Central

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; de Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Aguiar, Andréia Fernanda Carvalho Leone; Guedes, Flávia Araújo; Leite, Marcel Nani; Passos, Williane Rodrigues; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Das, Pranab Kummar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, the cosmetic industry is overwhelmed in keeping up with the safety assessment of the increasing number of new products entering the market. To meet such demand, research centers have explored alternative methods to animal testing and also the large number of volunteers necessary for preclinical and clinical tests. OBJECTIVES: This work describes the human skin ex-vivo model (hOSEC: Human Organotypic Skin Explant Culture) as an alternative to test the effectiveness of cosmetics and demonstrate its viability through cutaneous keratinocytes' proliferative capacity up to 75 days in culture. METHODS: The skin explants obtained from surgeries were cultured in CO2-humid incubator. After 1, 7, 30 and 75 days in culture, skin fragments were harvested for analysis with histomorphological exam (HE staining) on all days of follow-up and immunohistochemistry for Ck5/6, Ck10 and Ki-67 only on the 75th day. RESULTS: On the 7th day, the epidermis was perfect in the dermoepidermal junction, showing the viability of the model. On the 30th day, the epidermis was thicker, with fewer layers on the stratum corneum, although the cutaneous structure was unaltered. On the 75th day, the skin became thinner but the dermoepidermal junctions were preserved and epidermal proliferation was maintained. After the 75th day on culture, the skin was similar to normal skin, expressing keratinocytes with Ck5/6 on supra-basal layers; Ck10 on differentiated layers; and viability could be assessed by the positivity of basal cells by Ki-67. CONCLUSION: The hOSEC model seems a good alternative to animal testing; it can be used as a preclinical test analogous to clinical human skin test with similar effectiveness and viability proven by immunohistological analyses. PMID:26131864

  5. Influence of boundary-layer dynamics on pollen dispersion and viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, Raymond W.; Viner, Brian J.; Westgate, Mark E.

    2013-04-01

    Adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns that GM traits can accidentally cross into conventional crops or wild relatives through the transport of wind-borne pollen. In order to evaluate this risk it is necessary to account both for dispersion of the pollen grains and environmental influences on pollen viability. The Lagrangian approach is suited to this problem because it allows tracking the environmental temperature and moisture that pollen grains experience as they travel. Taking advantage of this capability we have combined a high-resolution version of the WRF meteorological model with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model to predict maize pollen dispersion and viability. WRF is used to obtain fields of wind, turbulence kinetic energy, temperature, and humidity which are then used as input to the Lagrangian dispersion model. The dispersion model in turn predicts transport of a statistical sample of a pollen cloud from source plants to receptors. We also use the three-dimensional temperature and moisture fields from WRF to diagnose changes in moisture content of the pollen grains and consequent loss of viability. Results show that turbulent motions in the convective boundary layer counteract the large terminal velocity of maize pollen grains and lift them to heights of several hundred meters, so that they can be transported long distances before settling to the ground. We also found that pollen lifted into the upper part of the boundary layer remains more viable than has been inferred using surface observations of temperature and humidity. This is attributed to the thermal and moisture structure that typifies the daytime atmospheric boundary layer, producing an environment of low vapor pressure deficit in the upper boundary layer which helps maintain pollen viability.

  6. Effect of fluconazole on viability of Candida albicans over extended periods of time.

    PubMed Central

    Sohnle, P G; Hahn, B L; Erdmann, M D

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of chronic mycoses may expose the infecting organisms to antimicrobial agents for extended periods of time. It is possible that an azole antifungal drug such as fluconazole, with primarily fungistatic activity in standard in vitro susceptibility tests, might be able to damage the fungal cells and reduce their viability over prolonged incubations under nonproliferating conditions. To test this possibility, Candida albicans yeast cells were exposed to various concentrations of fluconazole in RPMI 1640 tissue culture medium for 4 h at 37 degrees C, washed free of the drug, and then incubated at 37 degrees C for a 28-day period; enumeration of the remaining CFU at various times during this period revealed no increased loss of viability for the fluconazole-exposed organisms. However, when fluconazole was added to the organisms maintained in distilled water (with or without pretreatment with the drug), a marked reduction of viability was found. At 14 days of incubation with two strains of C. albicans, negative cultures were found for 7 of 10 and 10 of 11 samples, respectively, containing 1.0 microgram of fluconazole per ml versus 0 of 10 and 1 of 11 control samples (P of < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). The effect of fluconazole on fungal viability under these conditions became noticeable at approximately 7 days and was greater when the samples were incubated at 37 degrees C rather than 25 degrees C. These findings suggest that fluconazole may have fungicidal effects on fungal cells during prolonged exposures under conditions in which the organisms are prevented from proliferating by lack of nutrients. PMID:8913476

  7. Microbubble mediated sonoporation of cells in suspension: clonogenic viability and influence of molecular size on uptake.

    PubMed

    Karshafian, Raffi; Samac, Sanya; Bevan, Peter D; Burns, Peter N

    2010-06-01

    This work investigates whether the application of sonoporation is limited by the size of a macromolecule being delivered and by the ability of cells to proliferate following uptake. KHT-C cells in suspension were exposed to variations in ultrasound pressure (0-570 kPa) and microbubble shell-type (lipid and protein) at fixed settings of 500 kHz centre frequency, 32 micros pulse duration, 3 kHz pulse repetition frequency and 2 min insonation. Reversible permeability (P(R)), defined as the number of cells stained with FITC-dextran and unstained with propidium iodide (i.e., PI-viable), was measured with flow cytometry for marker molecules ranging from 10 kDa to 2 MDa in size. Viable permeability (P(V)) defined as the number of permeabilised cells that maintained their ability to proliferate, was measured by clonogenic assay. Comparable intracellular delivery of all sizes of molecules was achieved, indicating that intracellular delivery of common therapeutic drugs may not be limited by molecular size. Maximum P(R)'s of 80% (at 10 kDa) and 55% (at 10 kDa) were achieved with lipid coated bubbles at 3.3% v/v and protein coated bubbles at 6.7% v/v concentrations. The PI-viability was approximately 80% at 570 kPa in both cases. The maximum P(V) achieved with both agents was 22%, while inducing a lower overall clonogenic viability with the lipid (39%) compared to the protein (56%) shelled bubbles. This study demonstrates that large macromolecules, up to 2 MDa in size, can be delivered with high efficiency to cells which undergo reversible permeabilisation, maintaining long-term viability in approximately half of the cells.

  8. Analysis of cell viability in intervertebral disc: Effect of endplate permeability on cell population.

    PubMed

    Shirazi-Adl, A; Taheri, M; Urban, J P G

    2010-05-07

    Responsible for making and maintaining the extracellular matrix, the cells of intervertebral discs are supplied with essential nutrients by diffusion from the blood supply through mainly the cartilaginous endplates (CEPs) and disc tissue. Decrease in transport rate and increase in cellular activity may adversely disturb the intricate supply-demand balance leading ultimately to cell death and disc degeneration. The present numerical study aimed to introduce for the first time cell viability criteria into nonlinear coupled nutrition transport equations thereby evaluating the dynamic nutritional processes governing viable cell population and concentrations of oxygen, glucose and lactic acid in the disc as CEP exchange area dropped from a fully permeable condition to an almost impermeable one. A uniaxial model of an in vitro cell culture analogue of the disc is first employed to examine and validate cell viability criteria. An axisymmetric model of the disc with four distinct regions was subsequently used to investigate the survival of cells at different CEP exchange areas. In agreement with measurements, predictions of the diffusion chamber model demonstrated substantial cell death as essential nutrient concentrations fell to levels too low to support cells. Cells died away from the nutrient supply and at higher cell densities. In the disc model, the nucleus region being farthest away from supply sources was most affected; cell death initiated first as CEP exchange area dropped below approximately 40% and continued exponentially thereafter to depletion as CEP calcified further. In cases with loss of endplate permeability and/or disruptions therein, as well as changes in geometry and fall in diffusivity associated with fluid outflow, the nutrient concentrations could fall to levels inadequate to maintain cellular activity or viability, resulting in cell death and disc degeneration.

  9. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

    2007-04-06

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads to

  10. Flow Cytometry Approach to Quantify the Viability of Milk Somatic Cell Counts after Various Physico-Chemical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Richoux, Romain; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Boutinaud, Marion; Mayol, Jean-François; Gagnaire, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry has been used as a routine method to count somatic cells in milk, and to ascertain udder health and milk quality. However, few studies investigate the viability of somatic cells and even fewer at a subpopulation level to follow up how the cells can resist to various stresses that can be encountered during technological processes. To address this issue, a flow cytometry approach was used to simultaneously identify cell types of bovine milk using cell-specific antibodies and to measure the cell viability among the identified subpopulations by using a live/dead cell viability kit. Confirmation of the cell viability was performed by using conventional microscopy. Different physico-chemical treatments were carried out on standardized cell samples, such as heat treatment, various centrifugation rates and storage in milk or in PBS pH 7.4 for three days. Cytometry gating strategy was developed by using blood cell samples stored at 4°C in PBS and milk cell samples heat-treated at 80°C for 30 min as a control for the maximum (95.9%) and minimum (0.7%) values of cell viability respectively. Cell viability in the initial samples was 39.5% for all cells and varied for each cell population from 26.7% for PMNs, to 32.6% for macrophages, and 58.3% for lymphocytes. Regarding the physico-chemical treatments applied, somatic cells did not sustain heat treatment at 60°C and 80°C in contrast to changes in centrifugation rates, for which only the higher level, i.e. 5000×g led to a cell viability decrease, down to 9.4%, but no significant changes within the cell subpopulation distribution were observed. Finally, the somatic cells were better preserved in milk after 72h storage, in particular PMNs, that maintained a viability of 34.0 ± 2.9% compared to 4.9±1.9% in PBS, while there was almost no changes for macrophages (41.7 ± 5.7% in milk vs 31.2 ± 2.4% in PBS) and lymphocytes (25.3 ± 3.0% in milk vs 11.4 ± 3.1% in PBS). This study provides a new array to better

  11. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  12. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ASSESSMENT OF THE REASONABLE REVITALIZATION POTENTIAL OF CERTAIN PUBLIC HOUSING REQUIRED BY LAW § 971.5 Long... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  13. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ASSESSMENT OF THE REASONABLE REVITALIZATION POTENTIAL OF CERTAIN PUBLIC HOUSING REQUIRED BY LAW § 971.5 Long... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  14. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ASSESSMENT OF THE REASONABLE REVITALIZATION POTENTIAL OF CERTAIN PUBLIC HOUSING REQUIRED BY LAW § 971.5 Long... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  15. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed.

  16. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (p<0.05) and both presented the highest viability values. For MTT, the dragon's blood sap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (p<0.05). It was concluded that the dragon's blood sap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  17. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  18. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records. 784.12 Section 784.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining...

  19. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining records. 1430.508 Section 1430.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under...

  20. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining records. 1430.508 Section 1430.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under...

  1. Colloidal centrifugation with Androcoll-E prolongs stallion sperm motility, viability and chromatin integrity.

    PubMed

    Johannisson, A; Morrell, J M; Thorén, J; Jönsson, M; Dalin, A-M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2009-11-01

    The objective was to investigate the changes in stallion sperm quality (sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity and chromatin integrity) occurring during cool storage, and to study the effect of sperm selection by single layer colloidal centrifugation on these parameters of sperm quality. Spermatozoa from 3 stallions (10 ejaculates, 3-4 per stallion) were selected by centrifugation through a single layer of colloid (SLC). The resulting sperm preparations and the control samples (extended but unselected semen samples) were stored at 5 degrees C for 48h. Assessments of sperm quality, such as sperm motility, viability (SYBR-14/PI staining), membrane stability (Annexin-V/PI staining) and chromatin integrity, were performed on aliquots of the selected sperm preparations and unselected samples on the day of collection (3h) and after 24 and 48h of storage. In the SLC-selected sperm samples, sperm motility, sperm viability, proportions of spermatozoa with normal morphology and with intact chromatin were significantly better than in unselected samples (motility: 77+/-4% vs. 64+/-8% at 3h; P<0.001; viability: 79.5+/-9% vs. 64.7+/-9%, P<0.001; normal morphology 89+/-6% vs. 69+/-9%; chromatin integrity DFI 11.3+/-5% vs. 22.1+/-10%). Membrane stability, however, was not different in the SLC-selected and unselected samples (74.6+/-8% vs. 69.3+/-8%). The deterioration seen in sperm quality in the unselected samples was prevented by SLC, so that sperm viability, membrane stability and chromatin integrity were unchanged in the selected samples by 48h compared to 3h (P<0.001), whereas the unselected samples were significantly worse by 48h (P<0.001). Furthermore, it should be possible to send an aliquot of a normal insemination dose (i.e. unselected spermatozoa) overnight to a reference laboratory for analysis of both plasma membrane and chromatin integrity. In conclusion, centrifugation of stallion spermatozoa through a single layer of colloid is a useful technique for

  2. Viability of fat cells over time after syringe suction lipectomy: the effects of cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Son, Daegu; Oh, Jaehoon; Choi, Taehyun; Kim, Junhyung; Han, Kihwan; Ha, Seongyun; Lee, Kyungho

    2010-09-01

    fat preservation storage techniques using a -15 degrees C freezer or a -70 degrees C deep freezer are both inadequate to maintain the viability of fat cells.

  3. A cellular viability assay to monitor drug toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jakob; Bross, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A central part of the research in protein misfolding and its associated disorders is the development of treatment strategies based on ensuring cellular protein homeostasis. This often includes testing chemical substances or drugs for their ability to counteract protein misfolding processes and to promote correct folding. Such investigations also include assessment of how the tested chemical substances affect cellular viability, that is, their cytotoxic effect. Investigations of cytotoxicity often require testing several different concentrations and drug exposure times using cells in culture. It is therefore attractive to use a viability test that permits the analysis of many samples with little handling time. This protocol describes a simple and fast methodology to analyze viability of lymphoblastoid cells and to test putative cytotoxic effects associated with exposure to a chemical substance, here exemplified by celastrol. The natural substance celastrol has been used for many years in traditional Chinese medicine and has subsequently been shown to induce transcription of genes encoding molecular chaperones (heat shock proteins) that are involved in promoting folding of cellular proteins. The well-described colorimetric tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay, which monitors metabolic activity of cultured cells, was adapted to analyze the viability of cells exposed to celastrol. After having established a suitable cell seeding density, the dose-dependence and time-course of viability reduction of lymphoblastoid cells treated with celastrol were determined. It was found that 4- and 24-h exposure to 0.8 microM celastrol reduced the viability of lymphoblastoid cells, with the most severe effect observed at 24 h with MTT reductions approaching 30% of non-exposed cells. For a series of incubations for 24 h, it was found that concentrations as low as 0.2 microM were sufficient to affect the viability, and celastrol concentrations of 0.5 microM reduced the MTT reduction rate to

  4. Comparison of reintroduction and enhancement effects on metapopulation viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Metapopulation viability depends upon a balance of extinction and colonization of local habitats by a species. Mechanisms that can affect this balance include physical characteristics related to natural processes (e.g. succession) as well as anthropogenic actions. Plant restorations can help to produce favorable metapopulation dynamics and consequently increase viability; however, to date no studies confirm this is true. Population viability analysis (PVA) allows for the use of empirical data to generate theoretical future projections in the form of median time to extinction and probability of extinction. In turn, PVAs can inform and aid the development of conservation, recovery, and management plans. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) is a dune endemic that exhibited metapopulation dynamics. We projected viability of three natural and two restored populations with demographic data spanning 15–23 years to determine the degree the addition of reintroduced population affects metapopulation viability. The models were validated by comparing observed and projected abundances and adjusting parameters associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity to improve model performance. Our chosen model correctly predicted yearly population abundance for 60% of the population-years. Using that model, 50-year projections showed that the addition of reintroductions increases metapopulation viability. The reintroduction that simulated population performance in early-successional habitats had the maximum benefit. In situ enhancements of existing populations proved to be equally effective. This study shows that restorations can facilitate and improve metapopulation viability of species dependent on metapopulation dynamics for survival with long-term persistence of C. pitcheri in Indiana likely to depend on continued active management.

  5. Density fluctuations represent a key process maintaining personality variation in a wild passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Marion; Tinbergen, Joost M; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-04-01

    Heritable personality variation is subject to fluctuating selection in many animal taxa; a major unresolved question is why this is the case. A parsimonious explanation must involve a general ecological process: a likely candidate is the omnipresent spatiotemporal variation in conspecific density. We tested whether spatiotemporal variation in density within and among nest box plots of great tits (Parus major) predicted variation in selection acting on exploratory behaviour (n = 48 episodes of selection). We found viability selection favouring faster explorers under lower densities but slower explorers under higher densities. Temporal variation in local density represented the primary factor explaining personality-related variation in viability selection. Importantly, birds did not anticipate changes in selection by means of adaptive density-dependent plasticity. This study thereby provides an unprecedented example of the key importance of the interplay between fluctuating selection and lack of adaptive behavioural plasticity in maintaining animal personality variation in the wild.

  6. Enhanced resveratrol production in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures by heavy metals without loss of cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Kastell, Anja; Speiser, Claire; Smetanska, Iryna

    2013-09-01

    The effects of heavy metal ions (Co(2+), Ag(+), Cd(2+)) on cell viability and secondary metabolite production, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures, were investigated. Of these, Co at all three used concentrations (5.0, 25, and 50 μM), Ag, and Cd at low concentration (5.0 μM) were most effective to stimulate the phenolic acid production, increasing the 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol up to 1.6-fold of the control level (250.5 versus 152.4 μmol/g), 4 h after the treatments. Meanwhile, the elicitors at effective concentrations did not suppress cell growth, while the cell viability maintained. In contrast, Ag and Cd at high concentrations (25 and 50 μM) remarkably reduced the cell viability, decreasing the cell viability up to about 15 % of the control level, 24 h after the treatments. The heavy metal ions did not affect the anthocyanin production. These observations show how, in a single system, different groups of secondary products can show distinct differences in their responses to potential elicitors. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, peroxidase activity, medium pH value, and conductivity were only slightly elevated by the heavy metal ions. The results suggest that some of the secondary metabolites production was stimulated by the used elicitors, but there was not a stress response of the cells.

  7. Inflammation affects the viability and plasticity of equine mesenchymal stem cells: possible implications in intra-articular treatments

    PubMed Central

    Barrachina, Laura; Remacha, Ana Rosa; Romero, Antonio; Vázquez, Francisco José; Albareda, Jorge; Prades, Marta; Ranera, Beatriz; Zaragoza, Pilar; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are gaining relevance for treating equine joint injuries because of their ability to limit inflammation and stimulate regeneration. Because inflammation activates MSC immunoregulatory function, proinflammatory priming could improve MSC efficacy. However, inflammatory molecules present in synovial fluid or added to the culture medium might have deleterious effects on MSCs. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of inflammatory synovial fluid and proinflammatory cytokines priming on viability and plasticity of equine MSCs. Equine bone marrow derived MSCs (eBM-MSCs) from three animals were cultured for 72 h in media supplemented with: 20% inflammatory synovial fluid (SF); 50 ng/mL IFN-γ and TNF-α (CK50); and 20 ng/mL IFN-γ and TNF-α (CK20). Proliferation assay and expression of proliferation and apoptosis-related genes showed that SF exposed-eBM-MSCs maintained their viability, whereas the viability of CK primed-eBM-MSCs was significantly impaired. Tri-lineage differentiation assay revealed that exposure to inflammatory synovial fluid did not alter eBM-MSCs differentiation potential; however, eBM-MSCs primed with cytokines did not display osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic phenotype. The inflammatory synovial environment is well tolerated by eBM-MSCs, whereas cytokine priming negatively affects the viability and differentiation abilities of eBM-MSCs, which might limit their in vivo efficacy. PMID:27297420

  8. Effect of doping in carbon nanotubes on the viability of biomimetic chitosan-carbon nanotubes-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-García, Abril; Mota-Morales, Josué D; Quintero-Ortega, Iraís A; García-Carvajal, Zaira Y; Martínez-López, V; Ruvalcaba, Erika; Landa-Solís, Carlos; Solis, Lilia; Ibarra, Clemente; Gutiérrez, María C; Terrones, Mauricio; Sanchez, Isaac C; del Monte, Francisco; Velasquillo, María C; Luna-Bárcenas, G

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of biomimetic chitosan/multiwall carbon nanotubes/nano-hydroxyapatite (CTS/MWCNT/nHAp) scaffolds and their viability for bone tissue engineering applications. The cryogenic process ice segregation-induced self-assembly (ISISA) was used to fabricate 3D biomimetic CTS scaffolds. Proper combination of cryogenics, freeze-drying, nature and molecular ratio of solutes give rise to 3D porous interconnected scaffolds with clusters of nHAp distributed along the scaffold surface. The effect of doping in CNT (e.g. with oxygen and nitrogen atoms) on cell viability was tested. Under the same processing conditions, pore size was in the range of 20-150 μm and irrespective on the type of CNT. Studies on cell viability with scaffolds were carried out using human cells from periosteum biopsy. Prior to cell seeding, the immunophenotype of mesenchymal periosteum or periosteum-derived stem cells (MSCs-PCs) was characterized by flow cytometric analysis using fluorescence-activated and characteristic cell surface markers for MSCs-PCs. The characterized MSCs-PCs maintained their periosteal potential in cell cultures until the 2nd passage from primary cell culture. Thus, the biomimetic CTS/MWCNT/nHAp scaffolds demonstrated good biocompatibility and cell viability in all cases such that it can be considered as promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering.

  9. Cartilage Viability and Catabolism in the Intact Porcine Knee Following Transarticular Impact Loading with and without Articular Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Jonathon D.; Furman, Bridgette D.; Swimmer, Troy; Kent, Collin L.; McNulty, Amy L.; DeFrate, Louis E.; Guilak, Farshid; Olson, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic arthritis commonly develops following articular fracture. The objective of this study was to develop a closed joint model of transarticular impact with and without creation of an articular fracture that maintains the physiologic environment during loading. Fresh intact porcine knees were preloaded and impacted at 294 J via a drop track. Osteochondral cores were obtained from the medial and lateral aspects of the femoral condyles and tibial plateau. Chondrocyte viability was assessed at days 0, 3 and 5 post-impact in sham, impacted nonfractured, and impacted fractured joints. Total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, aggrecanase (ADAMTS-4) activity, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) release was measured in culture media from days 3 and 5 post-trauma. No differences were observed in chondrocyte viability of impacted nonfractured joints (95.9±6.9%) when compared to sham joints (93.8±7.7%). In impacted fractured joints, viability of the fractured edge was 40.5±27.6% and significantly lower than all other sites, including cartilage adjacent to the fractured edge (p<0.001). MMP and aggrecanase activity and S-GAG release were significantly increased in specimens from the fractured edge. This study showed that joint impact resulting in articular fracture significantly decreased chondrocyte viability, increased production of MMPs and aggrecanases, and enhanced S-GAG release, whereas the same level of impact without fracture did not cause such changes. PMID:21337389

  10. Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability on Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Veiseh, Mandana; Veiseh, Omid; Martin, Michael C.; Asphahani, Fareid; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-01-01

    Single cell patterning holds important implications for biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, medicine, and bioinformatics. The challenge for single cell patterning is to produce small islands hosting only single cells and retaining their viability for a prolonged period of time. This study demonstrated a surface engineering approach that uses a covalently-bound short peptide as a mediator to pattern cells with improved single cell adhesion and prolonged cellular viability on gold patterned SiO2 substrates. The underlying hypothesis is that cell adhesion is regulated by the type, availability and stability of effective cell adhesion peptides, and thus covalently bound short peptides would promote cell spreading and thus, single cell adhesion and viability. The effectiveness of this approach and the underlying mechanism for the increased probability of single cell adhesion and prolonged cell viability by short peptides were studied by comparing cellular behavior of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells on three model surfaces whose gold electrodes were immobilized with fibronectin, physically adsorbed Arg-Glu-Asp-Val-Tyr, and covalently-bound Lys-Arg-Glu-Asp-Val-Tyr, respectively. The surface chemistry and binding properties were characterized by reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both short peptides were superior to fibronectin in producing adhesion of only single cells, while the covalently bound peptide also reduced apoptosis and necrosis of adhered cells. Controlling cell spreading by peptide binding domains to regulate apoptosis and viability represents a fundamental mechanism in cell-materials interaction and provides an effective strategy in engineering arrays of single cells. PMID:17371055

  11. Treating problem behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Cipani, E; Spooner, F

    1997-01-01

    The examination of controlling contingencies in an analysis of problem behavior has been an important clinical topic of discussion in the field of developmental disabilities for many years. We know that problem behavior may be maintained by positive reinforcement or by negative reinforcement. From a clinical perspective, we seem to know more about behavioral techniques that are used when the problem behavior is maintained by positive reinforcement that we understand about those techniques that may be applied when a problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement. In this paper, we identify four treatment techniques that may be applied when problem; behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement: (a) functional communication training; (b) behavioral momentum; (c) differential reinforcement or an alternative escape behavior; and (d) errorless learning. Each of the four techniques will be defined, applications and guidelines for use delineated.

  12. Maintainability planning for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The planned NASA Space Station, which is expected to have many years of on-orbit operation, for the first time confronts spacecraft designers with major questions of maintainability in design. A Maintainability Guidelines Document has been distributed to all Space Station Definition and Preliminary Design personnel of the Space Station Program Office. Trade studies are being performed to determine the most economical balance between initial (reliability) cost and life cycle cost (crew time and replacement hardware) costs.

  13. Viability, infectivity and fatty acid synthetic activity of Perkinsus marinus meront cells incubated in estuarine and artificial seawater.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Lund, Eric D

    2006-07-25

    We investigated the viability and fatty acid synthetic activity of in vitro cultured Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) in lipid-free medium and estuarine water, and the infectivity of P. marinus maintained in artificial seawater (ASW). Viability and fatty acid synthetic activity in 7 d old P. marinus meronts maintained in lipid-free medium and estuarine water were tested. The infectivity of meronts incubated in ASW was examined by first incubating P. marinus meronts in ASW for 2, 3 or 7 d, and then inoculating viable ASW-incubated meronts into the shell cavity of individual oysters Crassostrea virginica. P. marinus infection prevalence and intensity in oysters were determined 9 wk post-inoculation. Heavy mortality occurred in meronts maintained in estuarine water, a drop from an initial value of 100% viable to 7.8 and 6.1% after 3 and 14 d incubation, respectively. Viability was 85 and 67% in meronts maintained in lipid-free medium for 3 and 24 d, respectively. Meronts kept in lipid-free medium for 14 d retained their ability to synthesize fatty acids. Viable meronts incubated in ASW remained infective for up to 7 d. The infection prevalences were 85, 48 and 100%, in the treatments inoculated with viable meronts that were incubated in ASW for 2, 3 and 7 d, respectively. Infection prevalence in the group inoculated with viable meronts immediately after they were transferred to ASW ranged from 61 to 85%. Our results suggest that in nature meronts can survive for at least 14 d outside the host. Viable meronts are not only infective, but are also able to replicate and retain their fatty acid synthetic ability for 7 d.

  14. Viability and the moral status of the fetus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A V

    1985-01-01

    The viability of the fetus has played a significant part in the framing of abortion legislation, but the use of viability as a criterion represents a compromise which is conceptually unclear and which fails to satisfy either side in the abortion debate. Both conservative and liberal views on abortion regard fetal development as morally irrelevant. For the moderate (or gradualist) view some point in the development must be found which indicates a change in the moral status of the fetus. Since viability changes according to available techniques for neonatal care it cannot be the criterion. Alternative criteria are surveyed and it is concluded that the onset of sensation is a significant transition point beyond which abortion and infanticide cannot be morally distinguished. It is suggested that either legislation should be amended to prohibit abortion after 18 to 20 weeks, or abortion to full term should be permitted and the possibility of legislation for infanticide be envisaged.

  15. Micro-organism and cell viability on antimicrobially modified titanium.

    PubMed

    Omori, S; Shibata, Y; Arimoto, T; Igarashi, T; Baba, K; Miyazaki, T

    2009-10-01

    When titanium is anodized by discharge in NaCl solution, both antimicrobial activity and osteoconductivity are conferred. The viability of adherent micro-organisms and cells on antimicrobial titanium remains uncertain. We hypothesized that a thin peroxidation barrier would efficiently destroy adherent bacteria, whereas adherent osteoblastic cells would be viable, since these cells adhere to the surface indirectly though serum proteins. The efficacy of antimicrobial titanium appears to be based on peroxidation, since peroxidation products were detected in parallel with the destruction of bacterial cell-surface structures. The peroxidation effect of antimicrobial titanium was confined to the surface within narrow limits. The viability of osteoblastic cells on the surface was strongly dependent on the presence of serum protein, whereas that of adherent Streptococcus mutans was not affected by the presence of serum proteins. Therefore, differences in the adherent systems used by bacteria and osteoblastic cells are important determinants of their viability on antimicrobial titanium.

  16. Comparison of NaF and FDG PET/CT for assessment of treatment response in castrate-resistant prostate cancers with osseous metastases

    PubMed Central

    Simoncic, Urban; Perlman, Scott; Liu, Glenn; Staab, Mary Jane; Straus, Jane; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of skeletal metastases response to therapy is highly relevant, but unresolved clinical problem. The main goal of this work was to compare pharmacodynamic responses to therapy assessed with NaF and FDG PET/CT. Materials and Methods Prostate cancer patients with known osseous metastases were treated with Zibotentan (ZD4054) and imaged with combined dynamic NaF/FDG PET/CT prior to therapy (Baseline), after 4 weeks of therapy (Week 4) and after 2 weeks of treatment break (Week 6). Kinetic analysis allowed comparison of voxel-based tracer uptake rate parameter Ki, vasculature parameters K1 (measuring perfusion/permeability) and Vb (measuring vasculature fraction in the tissue) together with standardized uptake values (SUVs). Results Correlations were high for the NaF and FDG peak uptake parameters (Ki and SUV correlations ranged from 0.57 to 0.88) and for vasculature parameters (K1 and Vb correlations ranged from 0.61 to 0.81). Correlation between the NaF and FDG Week 4 Ki responses was low (ρ=0.35, p=0.084), but higher for NaF and FDG Week 6 Ki responses (ρ=0.72, p<0.0001). Correlations for vasculature responses were always low (ρ<0.35). NaF and FDG uptakes in the osseous metastases were spatially dislocated, with overlap in the range from 0% to 80%. Conclusions These results showed that late NaF and FDG uptake responses are consistently correlated, but earlier uptake responses and all vasculature responses can be unrelated. This study also proved that FDG and NaF uptakes are spatially dislocated. Although treatment responses assessed with NaF and FDG may be correlated, using both tracers provides additional information. PMID:25128349

  17. Rethinking the approach to viability monitoring in seed genebanks.

    PubMed

    Hay, Fiona R; Whitehouse, Katherine J

    2017-01-01

    Seed viability monitoring, usually through a germination test, is a key aspect of genebank management; a low viability result triggers the regeneration of an accession in order to ensure that the genetic diversity of the accession is conserved and available for distribution. However, regular viability monitoring of large collections is costly in terms of seeds, labour and other resources. Genebanks differ in how they conduct their viability monitoring and how they collect, manage and store the data that are generated. In this article, we propose alternatives to the current norm of conducting an initial germination test soon after arrival at the genebank and then testing after regular, set storage intervals, as recommended in the Food and Agriculture Organization's Genebank Standards for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. We use real data from the International Rice Genebank (held at the International Rice Research Institute) to illustrate some of the issues regarding the accuracy and reliability of germination test results, in particular when they are used to predict the longevity of a seed lot in storage and to set viability monitoring intervals. We suggest the use of seed storage experiments on samples of seeds to identify which seed lots from a particular crop season to test first. We also give advice on the use of sequential testing schemes potentially to reduce the number of seeds used for viability testing; the use of tolerance tables to identify unlikely results when samples are subdivided into replicates; and what data to include in a genebank management database to improve the management of seed collections.

  18. Rethinking the approach to viability monitoring in seed genebanks

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Katherine J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Seed viability monitoring, usually through a germination test, is a key aspect of genebank management; a low viability result triggers the regeneration of an accession in order to ensure that the genetic diversity of the accession is conserved and available for distribution. However, regular viability monitoring of large collections is costly in terms of seeds, labour and other resources. Genebanks differ in how they conduct their viability monitoring and how they collect, manage and store the data that are generated. In this article, we propose alternatives to the current norm of conducting an initial germination test soon after arrival at the genebank and then testing after regular, set storage intervals, as recommended in the Food and Agriculture Organization's Genebank Standards for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. We use real data from the International Rice Genebank (held at the International Rice Research Institute) to illustrate some of the issues regarding the accuracy and reliability of germination test results, in particular when they are used to predict the longevity of a seed lot in storage and to set viability monitoring intervals. We suggest the use of seed storage experiments on samples of seeds to identify which seed lots from a particular crop season to test first. We also give advice on the use of sequential testing schemes potentially to reduce the number of seeds used for viability testing; the use of tolerance tables to identify unlikely results when samples are subdivided into replicates; and what data to include in a genebank management database to improve the management of seed collections. PMID:28361000

  19. Flow cytometric analyses of the viability, surface marker expression and function of lymphocytes from children following cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Hui; Mou, Wenjun; Qi, Zhan; Ren, Xiaoya; Wang, Guoliang; Jiao, Hong; Kong, Xiaohui; Gui, Jingang

    2016-11-01

    Flow cytometric analysis is important for the investigation and clinical preparation of lymphocytes from children. However, the strict requirement of cell freshness and inter‑assay variability limits the application of this methodology for pediatric investigations. Therefore, it is necessary to identify a reliable cryopreservative method capable of maintaining high cell viability and proper cell function in lymphocytes from children. In the present study, eight commonly‑used cell cyropreservative methods were used, and their effects on cell viability, surface marker expression and cell function were examined. In addition, how these methods affect the distribution of T‑cell receptor Vβ subfamilies were also determined. The results of the present study provided valuable experimental evidence, based on which the optimal method for the cryopreservation of lymphocytes from children in pediatric investigations and clinical applications can be selected.

  20. [Viability of facultative anaerobic bacteria in commercial transport systems].

    PubMed

    Gruber, I M; Dmitrieva, M N; Gavrilova, N A; Zhigunova, O V; Nisilevich, V F

    2001-01-01

    The possibilities of the transport systems manufactured by Copan (Italy) and Deltalab (Spain) were studied on 15 microbial strains: representatives of the family Enterobacteriaceae (enterobacterial swabs with Cary-Blair medium) and the genus Streptococcus, as well as the species Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae (universal swabs with charcoal-enriched Amies medium). Microorganisms were shown to retain their viability (in colony-forming units, %) for 48 hours in the systems of both firms. H. influenzae exhibited greater viability in the system manufactured by Copan than in that manufactured by Deltalab (respectively, 62% and 28% in 24 hours, 19% and 6% in 48 hours).

  1. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  2. Population-specific life histories contribute to metapopulation viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Samniqueka J.; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration efforts can be improved by understanding how variations in life-history traits occur within populations of the same species living in different environments. This can be done by first understanding the demographic responses of natural occurring populations. Population viability analysis continues to be useful to species management and conservation with sensitivity analysis aiding in the understanding of population dynamics. In this study, using life-table response experiments and elasticity analyses, we investigated how population-specific life-history demographic responses contributed to the metapopulation viability of the Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). Specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) Subpopulations occupying different environments within a metapopulation have independent demographic responses and (2) advancing succession results in a shift from a demographic response focused on growth and fecundity to one dominated by stasis. Our results showed that reintroductions had a positive contribution to the metapopulation growth rate as compared to native populations which had a negative contribution. We found no difference in succession on the contribution to metapopulation viability. In addition, we identified distinct population-specific contributions to metapopulation viability and were able to associate specific life-history demographic responses. For example, the positive impact of Miller High Dunes population on the metapopulation growth rate resulted from high growth contributions, whereas increased time of plant in stasis for the State Park Big Blowout population resulted in negative contributions. A greater understanding of how separate populations respond in their corresponding environment may ultimately lead to more effective management strategies aimed at reducing extinction risk. We propose the continued use of sensitivity analyses to evaluate population-specific demographic influences on

  3. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay; Reddy, Y. G.; Mittal, Rakesh; Agarwal, Vishal; Singh, Chanchal; Singh, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media. Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control); Group II: aloe vera (experimental); Group III: egg white (experimental)]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated. Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0), followed by egg white (100.9±6.3) and milk (101.1±7.3). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk. PMID:26877742

  4. A possible regulatory role of glyoxalase I in cell viability of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Scott D; Milanesa, Dan M; Mallouh, Camille; Choudhury, Muhammad S; Tazaki, Hiroshi; Konno, Sensuke

    2002-05-01

    A role of glyoxalase I (Gly-I), a detoxifying enzyme, in cell viability of prostate cancer was investigated. Cell extracts obtained from 66 prostate tissue specimens and prostatic cancer PC-3 cells were assayed for Gly-I activity using the spectrophotometric method. Gly-I activity was consistently more than eightfold higher in prostate cancer (CAP) specimens (n = 37) than in non-cancerous (NCP) specimens (n = 29). To understand the importance of such a high Gly-I activity in CAP specimens, the effects of methylglyoxal (MG) on PC-3 cells were examined in vitro. MG, a putative toxic glycolytic metabolite, was capable of inducing severe (> 99%) cell death in 24 h, along with a significant reduction in activities of Gly-I as well as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), a key glycolytic enzyme. However, such severe cell death was effectively (approximately 85%) prevented with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of reduced glutathione (GSH) that is an essential cofactor for Gly-I, accompanied by the intact Gly-I and G3PDH activities. Therefore, Gly-I may play a critical detoxifying role in glycolysis to maintain cellular activity and viability of prostatic cancer cells.

  5. A multicellular spheroid array to realize spheroid formation, culture, and viability assay on a chip.

    PubMed

    Torisawa, Yu-suke; Takagi, Airi; Nashimoto, Yuji; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel multicellular spheroid culture system that facilitates the easy preparation and culture of a spheroid microarray for the long-term monitoring of cellular activity. A spheroid culture device with an array of pyramid-like microholes was constructed in a silicon chip that was equipped with elastomeric microchannels. A cell suspension was introduced via the microfluidic channel into the microstructure that comprised silicon microholes and elastomeric microwells. A single spheroid can be formed and localized precisely within each microstructure. Since the culture medium could be replaced via the microchannels, a long-term culture (of approximately 2 weeks) is available on the chip. Measurement of albumin production in the hepatoma cell line (HepG2) showed that the liver-specific functions were maintained for 2 weeks. Based on the cellular respiratory activity, the cellular viability of the spheroid array on the chip was evaluated using scanning electrochemical microscopy. Responses to four different chemical stimulations were simultaneously detected on the same chip, thus demonstrating that each channel could be evaluated independently under various stimulation conditions. Our spheroid culture system facilitated the understanding of spheroid formation, culture, and viability assay on a single chip, thus functioning as a useful drug-screening device for cancer and liver cells.

  6. Effect of Four Different Media on Periodontal Ligament Cells Viability of Dry- Stored Dog Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Moazzami, Fariborz; Asheghi, Bahar; Sahebi, Safoura

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The maintenance of viable periodontal ligament cells is the most important issue in the long-term preservation of avulsed teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess aloe vera as a new storage media in maintaining the cell viability of dry-stored teeth in comparison with soy milk, Hank`s balanced salt solution (HBSS), and milk. Materials and Method: Twenty one extracted dog premolar teeth were dried for 30 minutes and stored in soy milk, HBSS, milk, and aloe vera extract (50%) for 45 minutes (n=6 for each). Furthermore, positive and two negative control groups (n=6), corresponding to 0 min, 30 min, and 2-hour drying times were also prepared respectively. The number of viable cells was counted following storage using Trypan blue exclusion. Data were statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-HSD test. Results: Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in cell viability among aloe vera, soymilk, and HBSS- stored teeth; however, they were all superior to milk. Conclusion: Aloe vera extract can be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth. PMID:28280756

  7. The Effect of Tuning Cold Plasma Composition on Glioblastoma Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term “plasma dosage” to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability. PMID:24878760

  8. Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Promotes Neuronal Viability and Activity of Hippocampal Neuronal Circuits In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Alcazar, Marta; Culley, Georgia; Lyckenvik, Tim; Mobarrez, Kristoffer; Bjorefeldt, Andreas; Wasling, Pontus; Seth, Henrik; Asztely, Frederik; Harrer, Andrea; Iglseder, Bernhard; Aigner, Ludwig; Hanse, Eric; Illes, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    For decades it has been hypothesized that molecules within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diffuse into the brain parenchyma and influence the function of neurons. However, the functional consequences of CSF on neuronal circuits are largely unexplored and unknown. A major reason for this is the absence of appropriate neuronal in vitro model systems, and it is uncertain if neurons cultured in pure CSF survive and preserve electrophysiological functionality in vitro. In this article, we present an approach to address how human CSF (hCSF) influences neuronal circuits in vitro. We validate our approach by comparing the morphology, viability, and electrophysiological function of single neurons and at the network level in rat organotypic slice and primary neuronal cultures cultivated either in hCSF or in defined standard culture media. Our results demonstrate that rodent hippocampal slices and primary neurons cultured in hCSF maintain neuronal morphology and preserve synaptic transmission. Importantly, we show that hCSF increases neuronal viability and the number of electrophysiologically active neurons in comparison to the culture media. In summary, our data indicate that hCSF represents a physiological environment for neurons in vitro and a superior culture condition compared to the defined standard media. Moreover, this experimental approach paves the way to assess the functional consequences of CSF on neuronal circuits as well as suggesting a novel strategy for central nervous system (CNS) disease modeling. PMID:26973467

  9. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-06-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis.

  10. Preservation of Rhizobium viability and symbiotic infectivity by suspension in water

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, D.K.; Wyza, R.E.; Mills, K.K.; Bauer, W.D.; Evans, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Three Rhizobium japonicum strains and two slow-growing cowpea-type Rhizobium strains were found to remain viable and able to rapidly nodulate their respective hosts after being stored in purified water at ambient temperatures for periods of 1 year and longer. Three fast-growing Rhizobium species did not remain viable under the same water storage conditions. After dilution of slow-growing Rhizobium strains with water to 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/ cells ml/sup -1/, the bacteria multiplied until the viable cell count reached levels of between 10/sub 6/ and 10/sup 7/ cells ml/sup -1/. The viable cell count subsequently remained fairly constant. When the rhizobia were diluted to 10/sup 7/ cells ml/sup -1/, they did not multiply, but full viability was maintained. If the rhizobia were washed and suspended at 10/sup 9/ cells ml/sup -1/, viability slowly declined to 10/sup 7/ cells ml/sup -1/ during 9 months of storage. Scanning electron microscopy showed that no major morphological changes took place during storage. Preservation of slow-growing rhizobia in water suspensions could provide a simple and inexpensive alternative to current methods for the preservation of rhizobia for legume inoculation. 25 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  11. In situ monitoring of surgical flap viability using THz imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Neha; Sung, Shijun; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the utility of reflective THz imaging to assess the viability of surgical flaps. Flap surgery is a technique where tissue is harvested from a donor site and moved to a recipient while keeping the blood supply intact. This technique is common in head and neck tumor resection surgery where the reconstruction of complex and sensitive anatomic structures is routine following the resection of large and/or invasive tumors. Successful flap surgery results in tissue that is sufficiently perfused with both blood and extracellular water. If insufficient fluid levels are maintained, the flap tissue becomes necrotic and must be excised immediately to prevent infection developing and spreading to the surrounding areas. The goal of this work is to investigate the hydration of surgical flaps and correlate image features to successful graft outcomes. Advancement flaps were created on the abdomens of rat models. One rat model was labeled control and care was taken to ensure a successful flap outcome. The flap on the second rat was compromised with restricted blood flow and allowed to fail. The flaps of both rats were imaged once a day over the course of a week at which point the compromised flap had begun to show signs of necrosis. Significant differences in tissue water content were observed between rats over the experimental period. The results suggest that THz imaging may enable early assessment of flap viability.

  12. Analyses of several seed viability markers in individual recalcitrant seeds of Eugenia stipitata McVaugh with totipotent germination.

    PubMed

    Calvi, G P; Aud, F F; Ferraz, I D K; Pritchard, H W; Kranner, I

    2017-01-01

    The use of biochemical seed viability markers is often compromised by the unknown partitioning of analytes in bulk seed lots consisting of inseparable populations of viable and nonviable seeds. We took advantage of an unusual morphological syndrome found in the recalcitrant, undifferentiated seeds of Eugenia stipitata: one seed can be cut into several parts, each of which can germinate and develop into seedlings. We used four seed parts from one individual seed to analyse seed moisture content (MC), seed viability and the antioxidant glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG) and intermediates of glutathione synthesis and breakdown. Seeds were exposed to different environmental MC to induce various levels of desiccation stress. Upon storage at high seed MC, seed viability was maintained, while GSH concentration increased and the glutathione half-cell reduction potential (EGSSG/2GSH ) was less negative than -215 mV, indicating GSH production and highly reducing conditions. Storage at low seed MC led to loss of GSH, resulting in a shift in EGSSG/2GSH , and seed death. In contrast, the cyst(e)ine half-cell reduction potential (ECySS/2CYS ) could not distinguish between the viability categories. Previous studies on seed populations revealed that the probability for a seed being alive is 50% at EGSSG/2GSH values between -180 and -160 mV. The single seed approach revealed that the window in which seed viability was lost could be slightly shifted towards more negative values. We discuss the contribution of cellular pH to EGSSG/2GSH and recommend E. stipitata as a recalcitrant seed model to study stress response on a single seed basis.

  13. Cell viability studies of PEG-thiol treated gold nanorods as optoacoustic contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Srirang; Rayavarapu, Rajagopal; Petersen, Wilma; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2009-02-01

    Rod shaped gold nanoparticles are synthesized using cetyltriammonium bromide (CTAB) as a major component of growth solutions. This surfactant is toxic to cells, but is at the moment unavoidable when monodisperse and high yield nanorods are to be synthesized. CTAB is found coating side walls of the nanoparticles and plays a role in maintaining colloidal stability. It may be displaced using thiolated PEG which is non-toxic to cells. Here we report on systematic studies of cell viability of such PEGylated nanorods on an SKBR3 cell-line using the MTS assay. These PEGylated particles are characterized using electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. It is expected that such treatment will be crucial in making nanorods compatible for in vivo biomedical applications.

  14. [Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on the viability of cyanobacteria in association with oil-oxidizing bacteria].

    PubMed

    Gusev, M V; Lin'kova, M A; Koronelli, T V

    1982-01-01

    An important aspect in the problem of interactions between microorganisms in the conditions of oil pollution is how to preserve the viability of phototrophic organisms if active oil-oxidizing microflora is present in the environment. As was illustrated using a closed model ecosystem, the association 'cyanobacteria--oil-oxidizing bacteria' is capable of withstanding the negative effect of oil pollution, but within the range of hydrocarbon concentrations which can be oxidized by oil-oxidizing bacteria during a very short time. The biological equilibrium in the ecosystem was maintained and the number of viable cells of the phototrophic component in the ecosystem increased if the oil-oxidizing bacteria started to function at the same time as toxic compounds commenced to produce their effect on the microorganisms.

  15. Microfluidic-aided genotyping of zebrafish in the first 48 h with 100% viability.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Raheel; Stephenson, Regan; Roy, Paula; Pryor, Rob; Zhou, Luming; Bonkowsky, Joshua L; Gale, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    This paper introduces an innovative method for genotyping 1-2 days old zebrafish embryos, without sacrificing the life/health of the embryos. The method utilizes microfluidic technology to extract and collect a small amount of genetic material from the chorionic fluid or fin tissue of the embryo. Then, using conventional DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and high resolution melt analysis with fluorescent DNA detection techniques, the embryo is genotyped. The chorionic fluid approach was successful 78% of the time while the fin clipping method was successful 100% of the time. Chorionic fluid was shown to only contain DNA from the embryo and not from the mother. These results suggest a novel method to genotype zebrafish embryos that can facilitate high-throughput screening, while maintaining 100% viability of the embryo.

  16. The Polymerase Activity of Mammalian DNA Pol ζ Is Specifically Required for Cell and Embryonic Viability

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Sabine S.; Tomida, Junya; Boulware, Karen S.; Bhetawal, Sarita; Wood, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase ζ (pol ζ) is exceptionally important for maintaining genome stability. Inactivation of the Rev3l gene encoding the polymerase catalytic subunit causes a high frequency of chromosomal breaks, followed by lethality in mouse embryos and in primary cells. Yet it is not known whether the DNA polymerase activity of pol ζ is specifically essential, as the large REV3L protein also serves as a multiprotein scaffold for translesion DNA synthesis via multiple conserved structural domains. We report that Rev3l cDNA rescues the genomic instability and DNA damage sensitivity of Rev3l-null immortalized mouse fibroblast cell lines. A cDNA harboring mutations of conserved catalytic aspartate residues in the polymerase domain of REV3L could not rescue these phenotypes. To investigate the role of REV3L DNA polymerase activity in vivo, a Rev3l knock-in mouse was constructed with this polymerase-inactivating alteration. No homozygous mutant mice were produced, with lethality occurring during embryogenesis. Primary fibroblasts from mutant embryos showed growth defects, elevated DNA double-strand breaks and cisplatin sensitivity similar to Rev3l-null fibroblasts. We tested whether the severe Rev3l-/- phenotypes could be rescued by deletion of DNA polymerase η, as has been reported with chicken DT40 cells. However, Rev3l-/- Polh-/- mice were inviable, and derived primary fibroblasts were as sensitive to DNA damage as Rev3l-/- Polh+/+ fibroblasts. Therefore, the functions of REV3L in maintaining cell viability, embryonic viability and genomic stability are directly dependent on its polymerase activity, and cannot be ameliorated by an additional deletion of pol η. These results validate and encourage the approach of targeting the DNA polymerase activity of pol ζ to sensitize tumors to DNA damaging agents. PMID:26727495

  17. Effect of aerosolization on culturability and viability of gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, J F; Shahamat, M; Levin, M; Rahman, I; Stelma, G; Grim, C; Colwell, R R

    1997-01-01

    Estimations of the bacterial content of air can be more easily made now than a decade ago, with colony formation the method of choice for enumeration of airborne bacteria. However, plate counts are subject to error because bacteria exposed to the air may remain viable yet lose the ability to form colonies, i.e., they become viable but nonculturable. If airborne bacteria exhibit this phenomenon, colony formation data will significantly underestimate the bacterial populations in air samples. The objective of the study reported here was to determine the effect of aerosolization on viability and colony-forming ability of Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella planticola, and Cytophaga allerginae. A collision nebulizer was used to spray bacterial suspensions into an aerosol chamber, after which duplicate samples were collected in all-glass impingers over a 4-h period. Humidity was maintained at ca. 20 to 25%, and temperature was maintained at 20 to 22 degrees C for each of two replicate trials per microorganism. Viability was determined by using a modified direct viable count method, employing nalidixic acid or aztreonam and p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet (INT). Cells were stained with acridine orange and observed by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate total and viable cells. Viable cells were defined as those elongating in the presence of antibiotic and/or reducing INT. CFU were determined by plating on tryptic soy agar and R2A agar. It was found that culture techniques did not provide an adequate description of the bacterial burdens of indoor air (i.e., less than 10% of the aerosolized bacteria were capable of forming visible colonies). It is concluded that total cell count procedures provide a better approximation of the number of bacterial cells in air and that procedures other than plate counting are needed to enumerate bacteria in aerosol samples, especially if the public health quality of indoor air is to be estimated. PMID:9293010

  18. Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Iain; Chiu, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to…

  19. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  20. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  1. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  2. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  3. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  4. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  5. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  6. Proving the Viability of a School Choice Voucher. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A recent Pioneer Institute report written by Ken Ardon and Cara Stilling Candal, "Modeling Urban Scholarship Vouchers in Massachusetts," explores the viability of a school choice voucher program in the Commonwealth. Nationally, school choice has been shown to improve parent satisfaction and student achievement, reduce racial segregation,…

  7. A comparison of assays measuring the viability of Legionella ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: The relatively high prevalence of Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing systems has been widely reported. Published reports indicate Legionella has a comparatively high resistance to chlorine and moreover has the ability to grow in phagocytic amoeba which could provide additional protection in chlorinated drinking water distribution systems. Copper-Silver (Cu-Ag) ionization treatment systems are commercially available for use in large building water systems to help control the risks from Legionella bacteria. The objectives of this study were to develop and optimize Legionella viability assays and use them to investigate the viability of Legionella bacteria after exposure to water treated with coppper and silver ions. Methods: Log phase L. pneumophila cells were used in all experiments and were generated by incubation at 35C for 48 hours in buffered yeast extract broth. Viability assays used included plating on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar to determine the number of culturable cells and treating cells with propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) followed by quantitative PCR targeting mip gene of L. pneumophila. The qPCR viability assays were optimized using L. pneumophila inactivated by heat treatment at 65C for 60 min. The effectiveness of Cu-Ag ionization treatment was studied by inoculating L. pneumonia at 105 CFU/mL in water collected directly from a building water system that employed this technology and incubat

  8. Influence of electroporation on chicken blastoderm cell viability in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wawrzynska, Magdalena; Bednarczyk, Marek; Łakota, Pawel; Lubiszewska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two types of devices used for blastoderm cell (BC) transfection: the Nucleofector (Amaxa, Biosystems) and the Multiporator (Eppendorf). To assess the influence of electric current on BCs, different conditions of both nucleofection and electroporation were used. Next, the viability of cells was assessed. The highest number of cells (90.8%) was viable after nucleofection in the G10 program. After transfection in the presence of pmaxGFP, the A23 program was found to be most advantageous. The elecroporation experiment with the Multiporator (Eppendorf) showed a significant influence of osmotic pressure and voltage on BC viability. Namely, in the isoosmolar buffer BC viability was statistically higher (P < or = 0.05) in comparison to the hypoosmolar buffer. The, viability of cells was statistically higher (P < or = 0.05) after application of 25V as compared to 50V. The efficiency of transfection in the presence of EGFP-C 1 after electroporation in 2 pulses, 25V, 500 micros in the isoosmolar buffer was better than in the recommended conditions in the Amaxa Biosystems A23 program.

  9. Viability of stored seed: extension by cathodic protection.

    PubMed

    Pammenter, N W; Adamson, J H; Berjak, P

    1974-12-20

    Placing seeds on a negatively charged conductor extended their viability during artificial aging. Such cathodic protection may reduce free radical attack by providing a source of electrons. The results stupport the hypothesis of free radical damage to cellular components and are consistent with such damage being important in deteriorative senescence changes.

  10. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  11. Proof of Economic Viability of Blended Learning Business Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druhmann, Carsten; Hohenberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on economically sustainable business models with respect to information technology is lacking in many aspects of proven approaches. In the following contribution the economic viability is valued based on a procedural model for design and evaluation of e-learning business models in the form of a case study. As a case study object a…

  12. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  13. Quantifying edge significance on maintaining global connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yuhua; Li, Yebin; Zhang, Min; Ma, Guoshuai; Lu, Furong

    2017-01-01

    Global connectivity is a quite important issue for networks. The failures of some key edges may lead to breakdown of the whole system. How to find them will provide a better understanding on system robustness. Based on topological information, we propose an approach named LE (link entropy) to quantify the edge significance on maintaining global connectivity. Then we compare the LE with the other six acknowledged indices on the edge significance: the edge betweenness centrality, degree product, bridgeness, diffusion importance, topological overlap and k-path edge centrality. Experimental results show that the LE approach outperforms in quantifying edge significance on maintaining global connectivity. PMID:28349923

  14. Determining system maintainability as a probability

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.; Atwood, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Maintainability has often been defined in principle as the probability that a system or component can be repaired in a specific time given that it is in a failed state, but presented in practice in terms of mean-time-to-repair. In this paper, formulas are developed for maintainability as a probability, analogous to those for reliability and availability. This formulation is expressed in terms of cut sets, and leads to a natural definition of unmaintainability importance for cut sets and basic events. 6 refs.

  15. Fibromyalgia as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel

    2004-10-01

    Abnormal activity of the sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic pain syndromes. This article reviews the animal studies of sympathetically induced pain behavior, the controversy of sympathetically maintained pain in clinical practice, and the dysautonomic nature of fibromyalgia (FM). FM has neuropathic pain features (stimuli-independent pain state accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias). The proposal of FM as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome is based on the controlled studies showing that patients with FM display signs of relentless sympathetic hyperactivity and that the pain is submissive to sympathetic blockade and is rekindled by norepinephrine injections. Dysautonomia also may explain the multisystem features of FM.

  16. Molecular Viability Testing of UV-Inactivated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Kris M; Nguyen, Felicia K; Kearney, Moira R; Meschke, John S; Cangelosi, Gerard A

    2017-03-10

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is effective at detecting bacterial DNA in samples, but it is unable to differentiate viable bacteria from inactivated cells or free DNA fragments. New PCR-based analytical strategies have been developed to address this limitation. Molecular viability testing (MVT) correlates bacterial viability with the ability to rapidly synthesize species-specific ribosomal RNA precursor (pre-rRNA) in response to brief nutritional stimulation. Previous studies demonstrated that MVT can assess bacterial inactivation by chlorine, serum, and low-temperature pasteurization. Here, we demonstrate that MVT can detect inactivation of Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Enterococcus faecalis cells by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Some UV-inactivated E. coli cells transiently retained the ability to synthesize pre-rRNA post-irradiation (generating false-positive MVT results), but this activity ceased within one hour following UV exposure. Viable but transiently undetectable (by culture) E. coli cells were consistently detected by MVT. An alternative viability testing method, viability PCR (vPCR), correlates viability with cell envelope integrity. This method did not distinguish viable from UV-inactivated bacteria under some conditions, indicating that the inactivated cells retained intact cell envelopes. MVT holds promise as a means to rapidly assess microbial inactivation by UV treatment.IMPORTANCE Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is increasingly used to disinfect water, food, and other materials for human use. Confirming the effectiveness of UV disinfection remains a challenging task. In particular, microbiological methods that rely on rapid detection of microbial DNA can yield misleading results. This is due to the detection of "remnant" DNA associated with dead microbial cells. This report describes a novel method that rapidly distinguishes living from dead microbial cells after UV disinfection.

  17. Viability and infectivity of fresh and cryopreserved Nosema ceranae spores.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Janine; De la Mora, Alvaro; Goodwin, Paul H; Habash, Marc; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Kelly, Paul G; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2016-12-01

    The microsporidium fungus Nosema ceranae is an intracellular parasite that infects the midgut of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. A major limitation of research on N. ceranae is that the fungus is non-culturable and thus studying it depends on the seasonal availability of Nosema spores. Also, spore viability and infectivity can vary considerably, and thus there is a need for reliable methods for determining those traits. This study examined different conditions for N. ceranae spore cryopreservation at -70°C, assessing spore viability and infectivity. Viability was determined by a staining procedure counting total spores numbers with bright field microscopy and un-viable spore numbers with the fluorescent dye, propidium iodide. Spore infectivity was determined with a dilution inoculation assay. Infectivity was dependent on the inoculum dose for the proportion of bees with detectable Nosema infections based on the number of spores per bee at 18days after inoculation; 4000 spores per bee or higher were needed to get approx. 100% of the inoculated bees infected. The median infective dose (ID50) was 149 spores per bee, and the minimum dose capable of causing a detectable infection was 1.28 spores. The proportion of N. ceranae infected bees correlated significantly with the number of spores per bee (r=0.98, P<0.0001). N. ceranae spores cryopreserved in water or 10% glycerol did not differ in viability compared to fresh spores, but lost infectivity when inoculated into bees. This study shows that while cryopreservation of N. ceranae spores can preserve viability, the spores can have reduced infectivity.

  18. Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

  19. Treating Problem Behaviors Maintained by Negative Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio; Spooner, Fred

    1997-01-01

    Identifies four treatment techniques that may be applied when problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement: (1) functional communication training; (2) behavioral momentum; (3) differential reinforcement or an alternative escape behavior; and (4) errorless learning. Each of the techniques is defined, and applications and guidelines for…

  20. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  1. How to Maintain a Social Reinforcement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkin, Ronald; And Others

    This manual presents methodology for maintaining a social reinforcement system after supervisors in industrial environments have been trained in behavior modification theory and application. The maintenance manual discusses monitoring, evaluation, and integration of a company's employee performance system with the social reinforcement system…

  2. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  3. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  4. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  5. Building and Maintaining Digital Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Joann M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services that provide subject expertise and information referral over the Internet to their users. Describes the history of digital reference, how digital reference services work, and explains a six-step process for building and maintaining digital reference services, including training, planning, and evaluating. (LRW)

  6. Maintaining Effective Classroom Control in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E., Ed.; McCracken, J. David

    This handbook is designed to assist vocational teachers in maintaining effective classroom and laboratory control. Following an introduction to the topic, the importance of effective control and teacher attitude are overviewed. The third section offers definitions of discipline and "in loco parentis", a perspective on discipline, and reasons for…

  7. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  8. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  9. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  10. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  11. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  12. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  13. Safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication establishes common safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle Program. NASA Centers shall use this publication both as the basis for negotiating safety, reliability, maintainability and quality requirements with Shuttle Program contractors and as the guideline for conduct of program safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities at the Centers. Centers shall assure that applicable provisions of the publication are imposed in lower tier contracts. Centers shall give due regard to other Space Shuttle Program planning in order to provide an integrated total Space Shuttle Program activity. In the implementation of safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities, consideration shall be given to hardware complexity, supplier experience, state of hardware development, unit cost, and hardware use. The approach and methods for contractor implementation shall be described in the contractors safety, reliability, maintainability and quality plans. This publication incorporates provisions of NASA documents: NHB 1700.1 'NASA Safety Manual, Vol. 1'; NHB 5300.4(IA), 'Reliability Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'; and NHB 5300.4(1B), 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'. It has been tailored from the above documents based on experience in other programs. It is intended that this publication be reviewed and revised, as appropriate, to reflect new experience and to assure continuing viability.

  14. A synthetic biochemistry molecular purge valve module that maintains redox balance.

    PubMed

    Opgenorth, Paul H; Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

    2014-06-17

    The greatest potential environmental benefit of metabolic engineering would be the production of high-volume commodity chemicals, such as biofuels. Yet, the high yields required for the economic viability of low-value chemicals is particularly hard to achieve in microbes owing to the myriad competing biochemical pathways. An alternative approach, which we call synthetic biochemistry, is to eliminate the organism by constructing biochemical pathways in vitro. Viable synthetic biochemistry, however, will require simple methods to replace the cellular circuitry that maintains cofactor balance. Here we design a simple purge valve module for maintaining NADP(+)/NADPH balance. We test the purge valve in the production of polyhydroxybutyryl bioplastic and isoprene--pathways where cofactor generation and utilization are unbalanced. We find that the regulatory system is highly robust to variations in cofactor levels and readily transportable. The molecular purge valve provides a step towards developing continuously operating, sustainable synthetic biochemistry systems.

  15. Priming Equine Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Proinflammatory Cytokines: Implications in Immunomodulation-Immunogenicity Balance, Cell Viability, and Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Barrachina, Laura; Remacha, Ana Rosa; Romero, Antonio; Vázquez, Francisco José; Albareda, Jorge; Prades, Marta; Gosálvez, Jaime; Roy, Rosa; Zaragoza, Pilar; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Rodellar, Clementina

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a great potential for treating equine musculoskeletal injuries. Although their mechanisms of action are not completely known, their immunomodulatory properties appear to be key in their functions. The expression of immunoregulatory molecules by MSCs is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines; so inflammatory priming of MSCs might improve their therapeutic potential. However, inflammatory environment could also increase MSC immunogenicity and decrease MSC viability and differentiation capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cytokine priming on equine bone marrow-derived MSC (eBM-MSC) immunoregulation, immunogenicity, viability, and differentiation potential, to enhance MSC immunoregulatory properties, without impairing their immune-evasive status, viability, and plasticity. Equine BM-MSCs (n = 4) were exposed to 5 ng/mL of TNFα and IFNγ for 12 h (CK5-priming). Subsequently, expression of genes coding for immunomodulatory, immunogenic, and apoptosis-related molecules was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chromatin integrity and proliferation assays were assessed to evaluate cell viability. Trilineage differentiation was evaluated by specific staining and gene expression. Cells were reseeded in a basal medium for additional 7 days post-CK5 to elucidate if priming-induced changes were maintained along the time. CK5-priming led to an upregulation of immunoregulatory genes IDO, iNOS, IL-6, COX-2, and VCAM-1. MHC-II and CD40 were also upregulated, but no change in other costimulatory molecules was observed. These changes were not maintained 7 days after CK5-priming. Viability and differentiation potential were maintained after CK5-priming. These findings suggest that CK5-priming of eBM-MSCs could improve their in vivo effectiveness without affecting other eBM-MSC properties.

  16. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  17. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Gomoiu, I; Chatzitheodoridis, E; Vadrucci, S; Walther, I; Cojoc, R

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  18. Fetal viability as a threshold to personhood. A legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Peterfy, A

    1995-12-01

    This essay opens with an examination of US laws concerning fetal viability as they apply to induced abortion, to a mother's right to refuse medical treatment necessary to save the life of a fetus, and to the rights to file suit for the wrongful death of unborn children. The history of abortion policies in the US is traced from the common law period of the early 19th century to the restrictive post-Civil War laws and the decisions of the Supreme Court in Roe vs. Wade, which upheld the constitutionality of previability abortions; Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services, in which the Court assigned viability to the 20th week of pregnancy and acknowledged that States could have a compelling previability interest in the fetus; and the Casey decision, which provided tolerance for limits on the availability of abortion before viability as long as the limits did not create an "undue burden" on the woman seeking the abortion. Courts dealing with the issue of compelling a mother to undergo medical treatment to save her fetus have been inconsistent as they balanced the state's interest in the fetus against the mother's rights to privacy. Judges have tended to err on the side of forcing the medical interventions, but the most recent trend is against this sort of judgement. In these cases, fetal viability has also served as a dividing line. The inconsistency of the legal system is illustrated by the fact that, whereas the fetus now has a legal existence, wrongful death actions entered on behalf of a nonviable fetus have often been denied although courts have been more willing to extend protection to fetuses in wrongful death tort cases than in abortion or medical intervention cases. Criminal law has a unique set of rules for dealing with fetuses as some states have broadened their definitions of "homicide" to include fetuses, even nonviable fetuses. Courts, however, are reluctant to enlarge criminal statutes on their own. While the central position given to the role of

  19. Short-term storage of human spermatozoa in electrolyte-free medium without freezing maintains sperm chromatin integrity better than cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Riel, Jonathan M; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Huang, Thomas T F; Grove, John; Ward, Monika A

    2011-09-01

    Previous attempts to maintain human spermatozoa without freezing were based on short-term storage in component-rich medium and led to fast decline in motility and increased incidence of chromosome breaks. Here we report a new method in which sperm are maintained without freezing in an electrolyte-free medium (EFM) composed of glucose and bovine serum albumin. Human sperm were stored in EFM or human tubal fluid medium (HTFM) or were cryopreserved, and their motility, viability, and DNA integrity were examined at different intervals. Cryopreservation led to significant decline in sperm motility and viability and induced DNA fragmentation. Sperm stored in EFM maintained motility and viability for up to 4 and 7 wk, respectively, much longer than sperm stored in HTFM (<2 and <4 wk, respectively). DNA integrity, assessed with comet assay, was also maintained significantly better in EFM than in HTFM. One-week storage in EFM yielded motility and viability similar to that of cryopreserved sperm, but DNA integrity was significantly higher, resembling that of fresh sperm. After several weeks of storage in EFM, sperm were able to activate oocytes, undergo chromatin remodeling, and form normal zygotic chromosomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. This study demonstrated that human spermatozoa can be stored in EFM without freezing for several weeks while maintaining motility, viability, and chromatin integrity and that 1-wk storage in EFM offers better protection of sperm DNA integrity than cryopreservation. Sperm storage in EFM may become a viable option for the physicians working in assisted reproduction technology clinics, which would avoid cryodamage.

  20. Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya

    2013-08-01

    Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective.

  1. Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast Leonard Smith Pembroke College Oxford University St Aldates Oxford OX1 3LB England phone... Oxford University ,Pembroke College,St Aldates,Oxford OX1 3LB England, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...in my group. REFERENCES Clarke, L. (1999) Rogue Thermocouple Detection. MSc Thesis, Mathematical Institute, Oxford University . Hansen J. and L. A

  2. Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast Leonard Smith Pembroke College Oxford University St. Aldates Oxford OX1 1DW United Kingdom...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Pembroke College, Oxford University ,,St...evaluation: l-shadowing, probabilistic prediction and weather forecasting. D.Phil Thesis, Oxford University . Lorenz, E. (1995) Predictability-a Partially

  3. Device Maintains Water At The Triple Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. W.; Burkett, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    Inexpensive device maintains water at 0.01 degree C for 10 weeks or longer. New device consists of four basic assemblies; small, commercial chest freezer containing insulated water tank; insulated copper cell holder; "ice switch" for cycling freezer compressor and externally-mounted air pump for circulation. Access hole in freezer lid allows triple point measurements without opening lid. Modified freezer used to calibrate standard platinum resistance thermomenters.

  4. Maintainability Prediction and Analysis Study. Revision A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    SS- 6b SECTION 1.0 INTRiODUCTION This document presents the results of a study to develop and document an improved maintainability prediction and...include operations on other RIs called out in the jth fault iscolation result . Tmujn Average time to perform the ruth corrective maintenance step for...of the study however, as the resulting time standards are used as Inputs In computing disassembly, interchange, and reassembly times for the

  5. Maintaining Multimedia Data in a Geospatial Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    in a GIS are stored in two-dimensional space, which adds to the complexities faced in simulating a databases’ workload when the data is three...browsing, geocoding , reverse geocoding , flood risk, land information management, and toxic spill analysis. Jackpine was more in-depth than this thesis...benchmark testing. A. OVERVIEW In creating a GIS that maintains multimedia data, it is first important to note that the actual multimedia data is

  6. The effect of gamma keratose on cell viability in vitro after thermal stress and the regulation of cell death pathway-specific gene expression.

    PubMed

    Poranki, Deepika R; Van Dyke, Mark E

    2014-05-01

    When skin is thermally burned, transfer of heat energy into the skin results in the destruction of cells. Some of these cells are damaged but may be capable of self-repair and survival, thereby contributing to spontaneous healing of the wound. Keratin protein-based biomaterials have been suggested as potential treatments for burn injury. Isolation of cortical proteins from hair fibers results in an acid soluble fraction of keratin proteins referred to as "gamma" keratose. In the present study, treatment with this fraction dissolved in media was able to maintain cell viability after thermal stress in an in vitro model using primary mouse dermal fibroblasts. PCR array analysis demonstrated that gamma keratose treatment may assist in the survival and salvage of thermally stressed cells by maintaining their viability through regulation of cell death pathway-related genes. Gamma keratose may be a promising biomaterial for burn treatment that aids in spontaneous wound healing from viable tissue surrounding the burn.

  7. Assessment of cell viability in primary neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Aras, Mandar A; Hartnett, Karen A; Aizenman, Elias

    2008-07-01

    This unit contains five protocols for assaying cell viability in vitro using primary neuronal cultures, including a novel method for use with transfected neurons. Three of the assays are based on the principle that cell death cascades alter membrane permeability. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay measures the amount of the cytoplasmic enzyme released into the bathing medium, while the trypan blue and propidium iodide assays measure the ability of cells to exclude dye from their cytoplasm. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay measures the mitochondrial activity of viable cells by quantifying the conversion of the tetrazolium salt to its formazan product. Finally, the fifth assay details the measurement of luciferase expression as an indication of neuronal viability within a relatively small population of transfected neurons.

  8. False-Positive Viability PCR Results: An Association with Microtubes.

    PubMed

    Agustí, Gemma; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Codony, Francesc

    2017-03-01

    Currently, one of the most challenged points to expand the use of viability PCR technique is achieving the complete exclusion of dead cells amplification signals, thus avoiding the overestimation of live cells population. Considering that, and based on the hypothesis that DNA may be retained by microtube walls, the impact of the microtube was addressed on signals from live and heat-killed cells. A double-dye reagent, PEMAX™, which comprises a mix of photo-reactive azide forms of phenanthridium, was used in this work. We found that if both the incubation and the photoactivation steps are carried out in different microtubes, the dead cell signal is greatly reduced than when those steps are done in the same tube. Therefore, the strategy depicted in this study presents a simple and efficient step in minimizing false-positive signal when employing viability PCR.

  9. Assessment of canine neonatal viability-the Apgar score.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C

    2016-09-01

    Perinatal mortality is relatively high in dogs, with deaths peaking around the time of birth and during the first week of age. Among the several causes of canine perinatal mortality, whelping is the greatest cause. Therefore, early neonatal assistance at birth should be mandatory with dogs. In comparison with human neonatology, knowledge and technological ability in canine neonatology is tremendously scarce. The Apgar score for the newborn viability assessment at birth represents a feasible method for the prompt recognition of newborns that will need special assistance immediately after birth. The five parameters of the Apgar score were adapted to the canine species by different studies. Advantages and limits, as well as clinical applications, are presented and discussed in further detail. It was concluded that the Apgar score represents the easiest and simplest, non-invasive and reliable method, that could be performed under every clinical and practical condition, for newborn puppies viability evaluations and short-term survival prognosis.

  10. Hybrid Viability and Fertility in Co-occuring Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, E.; Garcia, C.; Yost, J.

    2012-12-01

    Similar species of plants can co-exist due to reproductive barriers that keep them from hybridizing. In the case of Lasthenia gracilis and L. californica, certain reproductive barriers allow them to co-exist at Jasper Ridge without hybridization. The two species are locally adapted to different regions of the same hillside, and have slight differences in flowering time but hybrids can be created at low rate in the green house. We tested the viability and fertility of green house produced hybrids to quantify post-zygotic reproductive isolation at Jasper Ridge. We planted 10 hybrid seeds and 10 control seeds from 11 different families. We measured the percent germination, survival to flowering and pollen fertility of the seeds. We expect lower germination, lower survival to flowering, and lower pollen viability of hybrid seeds as compared to control seeds.

  11. Song Diversity Predicts the Viability of Fragmented Bird Populations

    PubMed Central

    Laiolo, Paola; Vögeli, Matthias; Serrano, David; Tella, José L.

    2008-01-01

    In the global scenario of increasing habitat fragmentation, finding appropriate indicators of population viability is a priority for conservation. We explored the potential of learned behaviours, specifically acoustic signals, to predict the persistence over time of fragmented bird populations. We found an association between male song diversity and the annual rate of population change, population productivity and population size, resulting in birds singing poor repertoires in populations more prone to extinction. This is the first demonstration that population viability can be predicted by a cultural trait (acquired via social learning). Our results emphasise that cultural attributes can reflect not only individual-level characteristics, but also the emergent population-level properties. This opens the way to the study of animal cultural diversity in the increasingly common human-altered landscapes. PMID:18350158

  12. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  13. Viability of vector-tensor theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Maroto, Antonio L. E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es

    2009-02-15

    We present a detailed study of the viability of general vector-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of an arbitrary temporal background vector field. We find that there are six different classes of theories which are indistinguishable from General Relativity by means of local gravity experiments. We study the propagation speeds of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations and obtain the conditions for classical stability of those models. We compute the energy density of the different modes and find the conditions for the absence of ghosts in the quantum theory. We conclude that the only theories which can pass all the viability conditions for arbitrary values of the background vector field are not only those of the pure Maxwell type, but also Maxwell theories supplemented with a (Lorentz type) gauge fixing term.

  14. Interventions to Maintain Mobility: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lesley A.; Schmidt, Erica L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Mobility, in broad terms, includes everything from the ability to move within your immediate environment (e.g., get out of bed) to the ability to drive across the country. Mobility is essential to maintaining independence and wellbeing, particularly for older adults. This is highlighted by the large number of interventions developed for older adults with the goal of maintaining such mobility. The current paper reviews the state of the science with respect to mobility interventions. Inclusion criteria for the review were: (1) articles must have been peer-reviewed; (2) interventions were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); (3) studies included a mobility outcome such as lifespace, driving, or walking ability, (4) studies included a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults (e.g., not investigations of disease conditions); and (5) studies reported enough empirical data and detail such that results could potentially be replicated. Three main types of interventions were identified: cognitive training, educational interventions, and exercise interventions. A detailed summary and evaluation of each type of intervention, and the current evidence regarding its effectiveness in maintaining mobility, are discussed. Several interventions show clear evidence of effectiveness, and thus are prime areas for translation of results to the older population. Needs and issues for future intervention research are also detailed. PMID:23083492

  15. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  16. Techniques to maintain functionality during degraded performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Joseph R.; White, Joshua S.

    2010-04-01

    In technology the notion of beyond state-of-the-art often begins when a paradigm is shifted. In this paper the authors present their work which has fundamentally enabled an enterprise to insure operational viability under the very real cyber facts: "we are under constant attack, it is a hostile space and we can control the point of contact." That point of contact is the optical bit stream which is currently beyond the scope of the standard cyber toolset. EverisTM, in working with our customers, has developed the tools to capture, view, analyze, and control the correlative (interdependent network, metadata, data and users) information as it traverses the core, regional, and global fiber optic networks. This capability to visualize below the operational picture afforded by current network intrusion detection systems can be combined with real-time intervention at the network core yielding prioritization, identification, and authentication of authentication. This directly translates into sophisticated end user interaction across the interdependencies often viewed as the "cloud". Everis has demonstrated unique applications based on this capability that includes mitigation of DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service), identification of "forged" IP (Internet Protocol) addresses, malicious executable destruction, WAN (Wide Area Network) IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) and connectionless routing vs. connection based switching.

  17. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, for aflatoxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L

    2015-05-01

    Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA ligase is dispensable for the viability of cultured cells but essential for mtDNA maintenance.

    PubMed

    Shokolenko, Inna N; Fayzulin, Rafik Z; Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J; Wilson, Glenn L; Alexeyev, Mikhail F

    2013-09-13

    Multiple lines of evidence support the notion that DNA ligase III (LIG3), the only DNA ligase found in mitochondria, is essential for viability in both whole organisms and in cultured cells. Previous attempts to generate cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA ligase failed. Here, we report, for the first time, the derivation of viable LIG3-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These cells lack mtDNA and are auxotrophic for uridine and pyruvate, which may explain the apparent lethality of the Lig3 knock-out observed in cultured cells in previous studies. Cells with severely reduced expression of LIG3 maintain normal mtDNA copy number and respiration but show reduced viability in the face of alkylating and oxidative damage, increased mtDNA degradation in response to oxidative damage, and slow recovery from mtDNA depletion. Our findings clarify the cellular role of LIG3 and establish that the loss of viability in LIG3-deficient cells is conditional and secondary to the ρ(0) phenotype.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Ligase Is Dispensable for the Viability of Cultured Cells but Essential for mtDNA Maintenance*

    PubMed Central

    Shokolenko, Inna N.; Fayzulin, Rafik Z.; Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J.; Wilson, Glenn L.; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support the notion that DNA ligase III (LIG3), the only DNA ligase found in mitochondria, is essential for viability in both whole organisms and in cultured cells. Previous attempts to generate cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA ligase failed. Here, we report, for the first time, the derivation of viable LIG3-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These cells lack mtDNA and are auxotrophic for uridine and pyruvate, which may explain the apparent lethality of the Lig3 knock-out observed in cultured cells in previous studies. Cells with severely reduced expression of LIG3 maintain normal mtDNA copy number and respiration but show reduced viability in the face of alkylating and oxidative damage, increased mtDNA degradation in response to oxidative damage, and slow recovery from mtDNA depletion. Our findings clarify the cellular role of LIG3 and establish that the loss of viability in LIG3-deficient cells is conditional and secondary to the ρ0 phenotype. PMID:23884459

  20. Assessing population viability while accounting for demographic and environmental uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Oppel, Steffen; Hilton, Geoff; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fenton, Calvin; Daley, James; Gray, Gerard; Vickery, Juliet; Gibbons, David

    2014-07-01

    Predicting the future trend and viability of populations is an essential task in ecology. Because many populations respond to changing environments, uncertainty surrounding environmental responses must be incorporated into population assessments. However, understanding the effects of environmental variation on population dynamics requires information on several important demographic parameters that are often difficult to estimate. Integrated population models facilitate the integration of time series data on population size and all existing demographic information from a species, allowing the estimation of demographic parameters for which limited or no empirical data exist. Although these models are ideal for assessments of population viability, they have so far not included environmental uncertainty. We incorporated environmental variation in an integrated population model to account for both demographic and environmental uncertainty in an assessment of population viability. In addition, we used this model to estimate true juvenile survival, an important demographic parameter for population dynamics that is difficult to estimate empirically. We applied this model to assess the past and future population trend of a rare island endemic songbird, the Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi, which is threatened by volcanic activity. Montserrat Orioles experienced lower survival in years with volcanic ashfall, causing periodic population declines that were compensated by higher seasonal fecundity in years with high pre-breeding season rainfall. Due to the inclusion of both demographic and environmental uncertainty in the model, the estimated population growth rate in the immediate future was highly imprecise (95% credible interval 0.844-1.105), and the probability of extinction after three generations (in the year 2028) was low (2.1%). This projection demonstrates that accounting for both demographic and environmental sources of uncertainty provides a more realistic assessment

  1. Viability and DNA fragmentation in differently sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    De Ambrogi, M; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C

    2006-11-01

    Sperm cell defense against DNA damage relies on two factors: the tight packaging of chromatin, based on condensation and substitution of histones with protamines, and the antioxidant agents present in seminal plasma. These defenses are extremely important as mature sperm is unable to repair DNA damage and even if a successful fertilization occurs, embryo undergoes apoptosis at the time of genomic activation. Sex-sorting exposes spermatozoa to stress sources such as high pressure, laser beam and electrical charge. The aim of this work was to determine how sorting procedures affect viability and DNA integrity in boar spermatozoa, by using the newly developed Sperm-Sus-Halomax. Four sperm populations were considered: CONTROL (no treatment), REAL (sex-sorted semen), BULK (semen sorted without sex separation) and NO LASER (semen only exposed to the high pressure, but including also cells normally discarded from sex-sorting). A significantly (P=0.019) lower viability in NO LASER (64.71%) than in CONTROL (78.6%) and REAL (80.5%) groups was found; this was accompanied by a significantly (P=0.001) higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in NO LASER group (6.86%) respect to CONTROL (3.30%) and REAL (3.42%) groups. BULK group did not show any difference in viability or DFI as compared to the other groups. In conclusion, we may believe that sex-sorting procedure as a whole does not affect either viability or DFI and that shear mechanical forces are a relevant source of DNA damage for sorted semen.

  2. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  3. Fermented red ginseng extract inhibits cancer cell proliferation and viability.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jisun; Jeon, Seong Bin; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Hyeji; Kim, Ju; Kwon, Bo Ra; Yu, Kang-Yeol; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Hwang, Seung-Mi; Choi, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2015-04-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most widely recognized medicinal herb due to its remedial effects in various disorders, such as cancers, diabetes, and heart problems. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of fermented red ginseng extract (f-RGE; provided by Jeonju Biomaterials Institute, Jeonju, South Korea) in a parallel comparison with the effect of nonfermented red ginseng extract (nf-RGE; control) on several cancer cell lines--MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and reprogrammed MCF-7 cells (mimicking cancer stem cells). Cells were cultured at various concentrations of RGE (from 0.5 up to 5 mg/mL) and their viabilities and proliferative properties were examined. Our data demonstrate the following: (1) nf-RGE inhibited cell viability at ≥1 mg/mL for MCF-7 cells and ≥2 mg/mL for HepG2 cells, (2) in the presence of a carcinogenic agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), nf-RGE treatment in combination with paclitaxel synergistically decreased MCF-7 as well as HepG2 cell viability, (3) f-RGE (which contained a greater level of Rg3 content) more effectively decreased the viability of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells compared to nf-RGE, and (4) f-RGE appeared more potent for inhibiting cancerous differentiation of reprogrammed MCF-7 cells in a synergistic fashion with paclitaxel, especially in the presence of TPA, compared to nf-RGE. These findings suggest that f-RGE treatment may be more effective for decreasing cancer cell survival by inducing apoptotic cell death and also presumably for preventing cancer stem cell differentiation compared to nf-RGE.

  4. Metronidazole decreases viability of DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Anna; Krętowski, Rafał; Szynaka, Beata; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna; Car, Halina

    2013-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell (CRC) line. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. Cells were incubated with MTZ used in different concentrations for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The morphological changes in human DLD-1 cell line were defined by transmission electron microscope OPTON 900. The influence of MTZ on the apoptosis of DLD-1 cell lines was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while cell concentration, volume, and diameter were displayed by Scepter Cell Counter from Millipore. Our results show that cell viability was diminished in all experimental groups in comparison with the control, and the differences were statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in [3H]-thymidine incorporation in all experimental groups and times of observation. Cytofluorimetric assays demonstrated a statistically significant increase of apoptotic rate in MTZ concentrations 10 and 50 μg/mL after 24 hours; 0.1, 10, 50, and 250 μg/mL after 48 hours; and in all concentrations after 72 hours compared with control groups. In the ultrastructural studies, necrotic or apoptotic cells were occasionally seen. In conclusion, MTZ affects human CRC cell line viability. The reduction of cell viability was consistent with the apoptotic test.

  5. Reevaluating multicolor flow cytometry to assess microbial viability.

    PubMed

    Buysschaert, Benjamin; Byloos, Bo; Leys, Natalie; Van Houdt, Rob; Boon, Nico

    2016-11-01

    Flow cytometry is a rapid and quantitative method to determine bacterial viability. Although different stains can be used to establish viability, staining protocols are inconsistent and lack a general optimization approach. Very few "true" multicolor protocols, where dyes are combined in one sample, have been developed for microbiological applications. In this mini-review, the discrepancy between protocols for cell-permeant nucleic acid and functional stains are discussed as well as their use as viability dyes. Furthermore, optimization of staining protocols for a specific setup are described. Original data using the red-excitable SYTO dyes SYTO 59 to 64 and SYTO 17, combined with functional stains, for double and triple staining applications is also included. As each dye and dye combination behaves differently within a certain combination of medium matrix, microorganism, and instrument, protocols need to be tuned to obtain reproducible results. Therefore, single, double, and triple stains are reviewed, including the different parameters that influence staining such as stain kinetics, optimal stain concentration, and the effect of the chelator EDTA as membrane permeabilizer. In the last section, we highlight the need to investigate the stability of multicolor assays to ensure correct results as multiwell autoloaders are now commonly used.

  6. Historical notes on immaturity. Part 1: measures of viability.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The interest in the limit of viability originated from various sources, including legal requirements, the rejection of mechnical life support, competition for resources, concerns about handicaps, and proximity to the fetus with its limited rights. Gestational age was determined from menstrual history by Hippocratic writers, who established the tenacious idea that 7-, but not 8-month infants could survive. Naegele's rule, already published by Boerhaave in 1744, was correct when applied to the last day of menstruation. Birth weight and length were not measured until the end of the 18(th) century. This remarkable disinterest resulted from superstition, grossly inaccurate measurements by the authorities Mauriceau and Smellie, and the conversion chaos of the pre-metric era. A table is provided with historic mass and length units allowing to determine birth weight and body length in the older literature. The idea of viability is a remnant of vitalism, a medical doctrine popularized in 1780 by Brown. Many short-lived statements defined its limit, but until now what was meant by viability remained nebulous.

  7. Dormancy, activation and viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores.

    PubMed

    Thanh, N V; Nout, M J R

    2004-04-15

    Interruption of dormancy to improve viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores is crucial for the application of stored starter cultures for fungal (tempe) production. We aimed to assess the extent of dormancy and factors that could result in activation. Whereas heat treatments were unsuccessful, Malt Extract Broth (MEB) showed to be a good activation medium, with 80% of dormant spores being activated as measured by fluorescence microscopy using a fluorescent marker, compared with 11% with the control. Peptone and yeast extract but not glucose played an important role in activating dormant spores. Metabolically active (fluorescent) and swollen spores, followed by germ tubes were obtained after activation in MEB for 25 min., 2 and 4 h, respectively, at 37 degrees C. Simultaneously, some interesting transitions took place. Dormant spores represent 85-90% of the total spores at harvest and after drying. Their number decreased to 21-32% after activation with MEB with a concomitant increase of metabolically active spores. As a result of storage, some dormancy was lost, yielding an increase of active spores from 11.2% at harvest to 28.8% after 3 months storage. Levels of active spores were well correlated with their viability. By activation of dormant spores, their viability increased; levels of viable and active spores were maximum in 1 month old starter (61.7% and 75.9% of total spores, respectively) but gradually decreased with concomitant increase of the number of dead spores.

  8. Inhibiting ice recrystallization and optimization of cell viability after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Chaytor, Jennifer L; Tokarew, Jacqueline M; Wu, Luke K; Leclère, Mathieu; Tam, Roger Y; Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Guolla, Louise; von Moos, Elisabeth; Findlay, C Scott; Allan, David S; Ben, Robert N

    2012-01-01

    The ice recrystallization inhibition activity of various mono- and disaccharides has been correlated with their ability to cryopreserve human cell lines at various concentrations. Cell viabilities after cryopreservation were compared with control experiments where cells were cryopreserved with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The most potent inhibitors of ice recrystallization were 220 mM solutions of disaccharides; however, the best cell viability was obtained when a 200 mM d-galactose solution was utilized. This solution was minimally cytotoxic at physiological temperature and effectively preserved cells during freeze-thaw. In fact, this carbohydrate was just as effective as a 5% DMSO solution. Further studies indicated that the cryoprotective benefit of d-galactose was a result of its internalization and its ability to mitigate osmotic stress, prevent intracellular ice formation and/or inhibit ice recrystallization. This study supports the hypothesis that the ability of a cryoprotectant to inhibit ice recrystallization is an important property to enhance cell viability post-freeze-thaw. This cryoprotective benefit is observed in three different human cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the ability of a potential cryoprotectant to inhibit ice recrystallation may be used as a predictor of its ability to preserve cells at subzero temperatures.

  9. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria.

  10. Single cell viability and impact of heating by laser absorption.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Franziska; Rönicke, Susanne; Müller, Karla; Gyger, Markus; Rose, Daniel; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef

    2011-09-01

    Optical traps such as tweezers and stretchers are widely used to probe the mechanical properties of cells. Beyond their large range of applications, the use of infrared laser light in optical traps causes significant heating effects in the cell. This study investigated the effect of laser-induced heating on cell viability. Common viability assays are not very sensitive to damages caused in short periods of time or are not practicable for single cell analysis. We used cell spreading, a vital ability of cells, as a new sensitive viability marker. The optical stretcher, a two beam laser trap, was used to simulate heat shocks that cells typically experience during measurements in optical traps. The results show that about 60% of the cells survived heat shocks without vital damage at temperatures of up to 58 ± 2°C for 0.5 s. By varying the duration of the heat shocks, it was shown that 60% of the cells stayed viable when exposed to 48 ± 2°C for 5 s.

  11. Nuclear cardiac imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability

    PubMed Central

    Slart, R.H.J.A.; Bax, J.J.; van der Wall, E.E.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Jager, P.L.; Dierckx, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    An important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy is the assessment of myocardial viability. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischaemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularisation. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using 201thallium, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc- tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularisation. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, such as attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and noninvasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696432

  12. Transphyseal osseous bridges in experimental osteonecrosis of the femoral head of the rat. Histologic study of the bony bridges connecting the epiphyseal with the metaphyseal bony trabeculae through gaps in the physeal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Peskin, B; Shupak, A; Misselevich, I; Zinman, C; Levin, D; Jacob, Z; Reis, D N; Boss, J H

    2001-07-01

    In view of the lifelong persistence of the physis, the femoral head of rats may serve to model Perthes disease and slipped capital femoral epiphysis. To produce osteonecrosis, the blood supply of one femoral head of 133, 6-month-old animals was severed by circumferentially incising the periosteum of the neck and cutting the ligamentum teres. The rats were killed 7 days to 90 days postoperatively. Associated with resorption of the necrotic bone and marrow, remodeling of the epiphysis was characterized by an ingrowth of vascularized fibrous tissue, formation of new bone and some cartilage, architectural deformation and flattening of the head. In 22 of 83 rats killed 30 days or more postoperatively, gaps in the continuity of the physeal cartilage were occupied by osseous bridges, connecting newly formed epiphyseal bony trabeculae with either the preexisting or newly formed metaphyseal osseous trabeculae. This healing mode may follow ischemic death of physeal chondrocytes or be owing to another mechanism, e.g., release of mediatory substances of inflammation. These findings raise the possibility that fixation of the healing epiphysis of a child's previously necrotic femoral head to the metaphysis occurs by transphyseal osseous growth in cases in which the physis is involved in the necrotic process.

  13. 3D finite element analysis of nutrient distributions and cell viability in the intervertebral disc: effects of deformation and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alicia R; Huang, Chun-Yuh C; Brown, Mark D; Gu, Wei Yong

    2011-09-01

    viability in the degenerated case, in which averaged cell density fell 11% compared with the normal case. This effect was further exacerbated by deformation of the degenerated IVD. Both deformation and disc degeneration altered the glucose distribution in the IVD. For the degenerated case, glucose levels fell below levels necessary for maintaining cell viability, and cell density decreased. This study provides important insight into nutrition-related mechanisms of disc degeneration. Moreover, our model may serve as a powerful tool in the development of new treatments for low back pain.

  14. Histological studies on the effects of tooth brushing on repair of alveolar bone after periodontal osseous surgery in the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Agematsu, H; Watanabe, H; Fukayama, M; Yamamoto, H; Kanazawa, T; Kishiro, H; Miake, K

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of tooth brushing on repair of alveolar bone after periodontal osseous surgery in the labial alveolar bone of rat incisor. The surgery was performed on 24 Wistar rats divided into 2 groups: the experimental group, which was subjected to tooth brushing, and the control group, which was not. In the experimental group, daily tooth brushing was initiated at 4 weeks after surgery. The rats were sacrificed after 1 or 2 weeks of tooth brushing. Microradiographic, light and fluorescence microscopic examinations were made of sections of the alveolar bone and its surrounding tissue. After 1 week of tooth brushing, callus with a low degree of mineralization and with large, irregularly arranged, young osteocytes appeared in the superficial layer and crest portion of alveolar bone in the brushing region. Numerous blood vessels had invaded the callus. In this region, the height of osteoblasts on the callus surface increased. At the alveolar crest region, the callus was approximately 3 times thicker than in the superficial region. After 2 weeks of tooth brushing, modification had occurred in the callus; this region had evolved into developed bone with a compact matrix. These findings suggest that the intermittent mechanical stress of tooth brushing is useful in activating the cells of the alveolar periosteum and in stimulating bone formation.

  15. In vivo distribution of parathyroid hormone receptors in bone: evidence that a predominant osseous target cell is not the mature osteoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Rouleau, M.F.; Mitchell, J.; Goltzman, D.

    1988-07-01

    Previous studies in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated the presence of receptor sites for PTH on cells of the osteoblast phenotype. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the diverse functions of this hormone in bone can all be attributed to its interaction with a single cell type. In this study, we have used a radioautographic method to examine the competitive binding of /sup 125/I-labeled rat PTH-(1-34) to the long bones of rats in vivo. Our studies confirm the presence of competitive binding to mature osteoblasts and the absence of significant competitive binding to multinucleated osteoclasts. However, by light and electron microscopic radioautographic analysis, the majority of specific competitive PTH binding was present over a cell in the intertrabecular space of the metaphyseal region, which was distinct from the mature osteoblast. This large mononuclear cell with multiple cytoplasmic extensions appeared to interface with both the bone matrix and the microvascular osseous circulation and may provide an additional target to mediate hormonal effects on the skeleton.

  16. Infiltrating hybrid mesenchymal tumor of skeletal muscle showing lipomatous, hemangiomatous, leiomyomatous and osseous features - An unusual soft tissue tumor providing insight into the pathogenesis of lipoma variants.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louis Tsun Cheung

    2015-06-01

    Infiltrating angiolipoma and osteolipoma of the hand are rare. A 40-year-old man presented with slowly enlarging swelling of his right hand for two and half years without functional deficit but it became painful with slight limitation of movement for the past few months. Plain radiograph showed a large soft tissue swelling with specks of calcifications. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an infiltrative mass in the right palm deep to the flexor tendons. As biopsy suggested infiltrative angiolipoma of skeletal muscle, debulking of the tumor was performed. The tumor showed coexistence of all four mesenchymal elements, fat, blood vessel, smooth muscle and bone in various combinations in the form of angiolipomatous, osteolipomatous, ossified intramuscular hemangiomatous, myolipomatous and angiomyolipomatous patterns throughout the entire tumor. Small meningothelial-like whorls of spindle cells were focally seen, some showed intramembranous ossification forming small woven bony spicules in their centers. There were no atypical cells or lipoblasts. Staining for CDK4, MDM2, p16, HMB45 and Melan A was negative. The diagnosis was "infiltrating hybrid mesenchymal tumor of skeletal muscle showing lipomatous, hemangiomatous, leiomyomatous and osseous features". The fairly even admixture of the various components supports the neoplastic participation of each individual element. Hybrid mesenchymal tumor most probably originates from multipotent neoplastic cells showing multidirectional differentiation.

  17. Effects of Ciprofloxacin-Containing Antimicrobial Scaffolds on Dental Pulp Stem Cell Viability — In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kamocki, Krzysztof; Nör, Jacques E.; Bottino, Marco C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective A combination of antibiotics, including but not limited to metronidazole (MET) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), has been indicated to eradicate bacteria in necrotic immature permanent teeth prior to regenerative procedures. It has been shown clinically that antibiotic pastes may lead to substantial stem cell death. The aim of this study was to synthesize scaffolds containing various concentrations of CIP to enhance cell viability while preserving antimicrobial properties. Design Polydioxanone (PDS)-based electrospun scaffolds were processed with decreasing CIP concentrations (25 – 1 wt.%) and morphologically evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytotoxicity assays were performed to determine whether the amount of CIP released from the scaffolds would lead to human dental pulp stem cell (hDPSC) toxicity. Similarly, WST-1 assays were performed to evaluate the impact of CIP release on hDPSC proliferation. Pure PDS scaffolds and saturated double antibiotic solution MET/CIP (DAP) served as both positive and negative controls, respectively. Antibacterial efficacy against E. faecalis (Ef) was tested. Results A significant decrease in hDPSC’ viability at concentrations 5–25 wt.% was observed. However, concentrations below 5 wt.% did not impair cell viability. Data from the WST-1 assays indicated no detrimental impact on cell proliferation for scaffolds containing 2.5 wt.% CIP or less. Significant antimicrobial properties were seen for CIP-scaffolds at lower concentrations (i.e., 1 and 2.5 wt.%). Conclusion The obtained data demonstrated that a reduced concentration of CIP incorporated into PDS-based scaffolds maintains its antimicrobial properties while enhancing viability and proliferation of dental pulp stem cells. PMID:26042622

  18. Laboratory services: regaining and maintaining control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory staff, thereby safeguarding patient test results for their intended medical purpose. Design/methodology/approach - The authors address how quality can be maintained and if lost, how it can be regained. The methodology is based on the experience working in clinical laboratory diagnostics and is in accord with both international accreditation requirements and laboratory best practice guidelines. Findings - Monitoring test performance usually involves both prospective and retrospective IQC data analysis. The authors present a number of different approaches together with software tools currently available and emerging, that permit performance monitoring at the level of the individual analyser, across analysers and laboratories (networks). The authors make recommendations on the appropriate response to IQC rule warnings, failures and metrics that indicate analytical control loss, that either precludes further analysis, or signifies deteriorating performance and eventual unsuitability. The authors provide guidance on systematic troubleshooting, to identify undesirable performance and consider risk assessment preventive measures and continuous quality improvement initiatives; e.g., material acceptance procedures, as tools to help regain and maintain analytical control and minimise potential for patient harm. Practical implications - The authors provide a template for use by laboratory scientific personnel that ensures the optimal monitoring of analytical test performance and response when it changes undesirably. Originality/value - The proposed template has been designed to meet the International Organisation for Standardisation for medical laboratories ISO15189:2012 requirements and therefore includes the use of External Quality Assessment and patient results data, as an adjunct to IQC data.

  19. Patients’ lived experiences regarding maintaining dignity

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Manookian, Arpi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of dignity is frequently emphasized as a basic patient’s right in national and international nursing codes of ethics and is indeed the essence and core of nursing care. It is therefore essential to explore the concept based on patients’ lived experiences in order to maintain and respect their dignity and consequently improve the quality of health services and patient satisfaction. The present study aimed to discover the lived experiences of Iranian patients regarding maintaining their dignity at the bedside. This qualitative study was conducted using an interpretive phenomenological approach. A total of 14 participants (9 women and 5 men) were purposefully selected, and data were collected through individual, semi-structured and deep interviews. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed by the Diekelman, Allen and Tanner approach. The findings of this study revealed three main themes and related subthemes regarding the meaning of preserving patients’ dignity. The first main theme was “exigency of preserving the innate human dignity” and comprised two subthemes: “respect for the intrinsic equality of all humans” and “treating the patient as a valued person, not an object”. The second theme was “service based on love and kindness” and included two subthemes: ‘being with the patient” and “inspiring the sense of being accepted and loved”. The third main theme emerged as “dignifying and transcendental professional service” and consisted of two subthemes: “professional commitment to uphold patients’ rights” and “enlightened practice”. This study revealed that the concept of maintaining patients’ dignity is related to health providers’ duty to preserve patients’ dignity and also their moral obligation to manifest the human love that is in their own as well as their patients’ nature. In conclusion, if nurses reflect on the transcendental nature of nursing care, they will value and prize their

  20. Practical circular-polarization-maintaining optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Huang, H C

    1997-09-20

    The author describes a new idea for making circular-polarization-maintaining optical fiber with an existing fabrication technique. The method simply requires one to spin at a constant rate a special preform consisting of only one off-axis stress-applying element in addition to the on-axis core. Measurements taken with such a fiber specimen verify the existence of circular eigenmodes, the ease of joining or splicing two fiber segments, the tolerance to macrobending with a small radius, etc. Good agreement exists between the experimental data and the theoretical analysis. Prospective applications are discussed.

  1. Population viability impacts of habitat additions and subtractions: A simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species viability is influenced by the quality, quantity and configuration of habitat. For species at risk, a principal challenge is to identify landscape configurations that, if realized, would improve a population’s viability or restoration potential. Critical habitat patche...

  2. Maintainability design of underground mining equipment. Volume 2. Maintainability design guidelines. Research report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, E.J.; Unger, R.

    1989-09-01

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) determine the extent to which maintainability design concepts and principles have been applied to the design of underground coal mining equipment, (2) try to assess its impact on productivity and personnel safety, and (3) develop maintainability guidelines to enhance the design of new or rebuilt equipment. An equipment design review was completed at ten operational coal mines. The purpose was to identify design approaches and features that enhanced and degraded the maintenance process. Mine management, safety, and maintenance personnel were also interviewed to identify machine specific design problems. Six original equipment manufacturers were visited and the procedures used to enhance the maintainability of their equipment discussed. Volume I of the Final Technical Report presents an overview of procedures and protocol used and a summary of the findings. Volume II includes the maintainability design guide for mobile underground mining equipment.

  3. The Implications of Habitat Management on the Population Viability of the Endangered Ohlone Tiger Beetle (Cicindela ohlone) Metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    Cornelisse, Tara M.; Bennett, Michelle K.; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their role in providing ecosystem services, insects remain overlooked in conservation planning, and insect management approaches often lack a rigorous scientific basis. The endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone) occurs in a 24-km2 area in Santa Cruz County, California. The once larger metapopulation now consists of subpopulations inhabiting five patches of coastal prairie where it depends on bare ground for mating, foraging, and oviposition. Human activities have eliminated natural disturbances and spread invasive grasses, reducing C. ohlone's bare-ground habitat. Management actions to restore critical beetle habitat consist of cattle and horse grazing, maintaining slow bicycle speeds on occupied public trails, and artificial creation of bare-ground plots. Recreational biking trails help maintain bare ground, but can cause beetle mortality if left unregulated. We tracked C. ohlone survivorship and estimated fecundity for three years. We then constructed a stage-structured population projection matrix model to estimate population viability among the five patches, and to evaluate the success of management interventions. We demonstrate that habitat creation, regulation of bicycle speed, and migration between patches increase C. ohlone survival and population viability. Our results can be directly applied to management actions for conservation outcomes that will reduce species extinction risk and promote recolonization of extirpated patches. PMID:23951067

  4. Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Sponsored by DTIC Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry Supply Chain Viability for the US Microwave Power Tube...Industry iii Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry September 2002 Therese M. Philippi Federico M. Sciammarella...Patterson Air Force Base 45433-7739 Supply Chain Viability for the US Microwave Power Tube Industry ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved Public

  5. Clinical Evaluation of Insulin like Growth Factor-I and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor with Alloplastic Bone Graft Material in the Management of Human Two Wall Intra-Osseous Defects

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Jaya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, emphasis on the use of growth factors for periodontal healing is gaining great momentum. Several growth factors showed promising results in periodontal regeneration. Aim This study was designed to compare the clinical outcomes of 0.8μg recombinant human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (rh-VEGF) and 10μg recombinant human Insulin Like Growth Factor-I (rh-IGF-I) with β-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) and Polylactide-Polyglycolide Acid (PLGA) membrane in two wall intra-osseous defects. Materials and Methods A total of 29 intra-osseous defects in 27 subjects were randomly divided into 3 test and 1 control group. Test group I (n=8) received rh-VEGF+ rh-IGF-I, Test group II (n=7) rh-VEGF, Test group III (n=7) rh-IGF-I and control group (n=7) with no growth factor, β-TCP and PLGA membrane was used in all the groups. Baseline soft tissue parameters including Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), and Gingival Recession (GR) at selected sites were recorded at baseline and at 6 months. Intrasurgically, intra-osseous component was calculated as a) Cemento-Enamel Junction to Bone Crest (CEJ to BC), b) Bone Crest to Base of the Defect (BC to BD) at baseline and at re-entry. The mean changes at baseline and after 6 months within each group were compared using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The mean changes for each parameter between groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Results After 6 months, maximum mean PPD reduction occurred in test group I followed by test group II, III and control group. Similar trend was observed in CAL gain. Non-significant GR was present in test group I and control group whereas in test group II and III GR was absent. The use of rh-VEGF+ rhIGF-I exhibited 95.8% osseous fill as compared to 54.8% in test group II, 52.7% in test group III and 41.1 % in the control group. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that, rh-IGF-I+rh-VEGF treated sites resulted in greater

  6. Does PKM(zeta) maintain memory?

    PubMed

    Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-06-01

    Work on the long-term stability of memory has identified a potentially critical role for protein kinase Mzeta (PKMζ) in maintaining established memory. PKMζ, an autonomously active isoform of PKC, is hypothesized to sustain those changes that occurred during memory formation in order to preserve the memory engram over time. Initial studies investigating the role of PKMζ were largely successful in demonstrating a role for the kinase in memory maintenance; disrupting PKMζ activity with ζ-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) was successful in disrupting a variety of established associations in a number of key brain regions. More recent work, however, has questioned both the role of PKMζ in memory maintenance and the effectiveness of ZIP as a specific inhibitor of PKMζ activity. Here, we outline the research both for and against the idea that PKMζ is a memory maintenance mechanism and discuss how these two lines of research can be reconciled. We conclude by proposing a number of studies that would help to clarify the role of PKMζ in memory and define other mechanisms the brain may use to maintain memory.

  7. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE)

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.; Brick, Timothy R.; Pritikin, Joshua N.; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D.; Maes, Hermine H.; Neale, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly-impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participants’ personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual’s data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  8. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE).

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M; Brick, Timothy R; Pritikin, Joshua N; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D; Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant's personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual's data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies.

  9. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  10. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  11. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  12. Design guidelines for remotely maintained equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, T.W.; Evans, J.H.; Peishel, F.L.; Schrock, S.L.; Smith, G.E.; Macdonald, D.

    1988-11-01

    The CFRP has pioneered and developed the concept of totally remote operation and maintenance of process equipment in spent fuel reprocessing, using force-reflecting master/slave servomanipulators, coupled with television viewing, to extend human capabilities effectively throughout an uninhabitable environment. This concept enhances safeguard control of nuclear materials, provides for low-exposure of personnel to radiation and reliable recovery from unplanned events, ensures high plant availability, and aids eventual decommissioning of the plant. The results of this experience have been organized in this document to enable designers to consider this technology, not only in spent fuel reprocessing, but among various other situations that may be hazardous to personnel. This document is an expanded and updated version of an earlier design guide that was specific to fuel reprocessing requirements. The guidelines identified in the present document suggest a general approach to the design of effective, reliable, safe, remotely operated and maintained facilities. This document may be used broadly to apply remotely maintained equipment in hostile environments based on proven techniques, equipment, and well-established practices. The concepts are particularly applicable to large plant facilities where economy of scale is important. The theme emphasizes utilization of ordinary commercial tools, equipment, and materials widely available. 5 refs., 51 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. [Trace elements maintaining the vital functions].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yasuaki

    2016-07-01

    In a healthy condition, trace elements constituting the living body are regulated and maintained their balance of each other and their range of physiological optimum concentration in order to maintain the normal vital functions. When the optimum conditions of their balance and their homeostasis, however, are broken down by deficiency or excess of certain trace element, an excess accumulation or deficiency of specified element is induced and it follows that peculiar disease is caused according to function of each specified element. Generally, the disturbance of major elements such as O, C, H, N, Ca, P will induce a nutrition lesion and electrolytic abnormality, and the disturbance of 10 trace elements such as Fe, F, Si, Zn, Sr, Rb, Br, Pb, Mn, Cu being at ppm order and 14 ultra-trace elements such as Al, Cd, Sn, Ba, Hg, Se, I, Mo, Ni, B, Cr, As, Co, V being at ppb order will give rise to functional disorder of enzyme and physiological active substance in living body.

  14. Inbreeding Avoidance Influences the Viability of Reintroduced Populations of African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Penny A.; Miller, Philip S.; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J.; Wildt, David E.; Maldonado, Jesús E.

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed. PMID:22615933

  15. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Becker, Penny A; Miller, Philip S; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J; Wildt, David E; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.

  16. Functional investigation of bone implant viability using radiotracers in a new model of osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schiper, Luis; Faintuch, Bluma Linkowski; da Silva Badaró, Roberto José; de Oliveira, Erica Aparecida; Chavez, Victor E. Arana; Chinen, Elisangela; Faintuch, Joel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Conventional imaging methods are excellent for the morphological characterization of the consequences of osteonecrosis; however, only specialized techniques have been considered useful for obtaining functional information. To explore the affinity of radiotracers for severely devascularized bone, a new mouse model of isolated femur implanted in a subcutaneous abdominal pocket was devised. To maintain animal mobility and longevity, the femur was harvested from syngeneic donors. Two technetium-99m-labeled tracers targeting angiogenesis and bone matrix were selected. METHODS: Medronic acid and a homodimer peptide conjugated with RGDfK were radiolabeled with technetium-99m, and biodistribution was evaluated in Swiss mice. The grafted and control femurs were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days, including computed tomography (CT) and histological analysis. RESULTS: Radiolabeling achieved high (>95%) radiochemical purity. The biodistribution confirmed good blood clearance 1 hour after administration. For 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC)-E-[c(RGDfK)2, remarkable renal excretion was observed compared to 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP), but the latter, as expected, revealed higher bone uptake. The results obtained in the control femur were equal at all time points. In the implanted femur, 99mTc-HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)2 uptake was highest after 15 days, consistent with early angiogenesis. Regarding 99mTc-MDP in the implant, similar uptake was documented at all time points, consistent with sustained bone viability; however, the uptake was lower than that detected in the control femur, as confirmed by histology. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Graft viability was successfully diagnosed using radiotracers in severely ischemic bone at all time points. 2) Analogously, indirect information about angiogenesis could be gathered using 999mTc-HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)2. 3) These techniques appear promising and warrant further studies to determine their potential clinical applications. PMID

  17. Testing the Goodness of Supplementary Feeding to Enhance Population Viability in an Endangered Vulture

    PubMed Central

    Oro, Daniel; Margalida, Antoni; Carrete, Martina; Heredia, Rafael; Donázar, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Background Human-predator conflicts are directly or indirectly threatening many species with extinction. Thus, biologists are urged to find simple solutions to complex situations while avoiding unforeseen conservation outcomes. The provision of supplementary food at artificial feeding sites (AFS) is frequently used in the conservation of scavenger bird populations currently suffering from indirect poisoning, although no scientific studies on its effectiveness have been conducted. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a long-term data set of 95 individually marked birds from the largest European core of the endangered bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) to test the long-term effects of specific AFS for bearded vultures on their survival rates (by CMR models) and population dynamics (by Monte Carlo simulations) in an area where fatalities derived from illegal poisoning and the use of other toxics like veterinary drugs have increased over the last several years. Our data support the positive relationship between the use of AFS and survival. However, contrary to theoretical predictions (e.g. high and more stable adult survival among long-lived species), the use of AFS increased only survival of pre-adults. Moreover, AFS buffered the effects of illegal poisoning on this age-class, while adult survival decreased over years. Our simulations predicted a maximum value of extinction probability over a time horizon of 50 years. Population projections run with survival rates expected in scenarios without poisoning predicted the situation of least conservation concern, while including only AFS can maintain a large floater surplus that may delay population decline but fails to reduce poisoning risk among adults. Conclusions/Significance Although AFS are not effective to save bearded vultures from an expected population decline, they delay population extinction and can be a useful tool for prolonging population viability while combating illegal and indirect poisoning. The

  18. Heterosis for viability, fecundity, and male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster: comparison of mutational and standing variation.

    PubMed

    Fry, J D; Heinsohn, S L; Mackay, T F

    1998-03-01

    If genetic variation for fitness traits in natural populations ("standing" variation) is maintained by recurrent mutation, then quantitative-genetic properties of standing variation should resemble those of newly arisen mutations. One well-known property of standing variation for fitness traits is inbreeding depression, with its converse of heterosis or hybrid vigor. We measured heterosis for three fitness traits, pre-adult viability, female fecundity, and male fertility, among a set of inbred Drosophilia melanogaster lines recently derived from the wild, and also among a set of lines that had been allowed to accumulate spontaneous mutations for over 200 generations. The inbred lines but not the mutation-accumulation (MA) lines showed heterosis for pre-adult viability. Both sets of lines showed heterosis for female fecundity, but heterosis for male fertility was weak or absent. Crosses among a subset of the MA lines showed that they were strongly differentiated for male fertility, with the differences inherited in autosomal fashion; the absence of heterosis for male fertility among the MA lines was therefore not caused by an absence of mutations affecting this trait. Crosses among the inbred lines also gave some, albeit equivocal, evidence for male fertility variation. The contrast between the results for female fecundity and those for male fertility suggests that mutations affecting different fitness traits may differ in their average dominance properties, and that such differences may be reflected in properties of standing variation. The strong differentiation among the MA lines in male fertility further suggests that mutations affecting this trait occur at a high rate.

  19. Pollen viability and storage temperature for Southern highbush and Rabbiteye blueberry breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen viability, as measured by tetrad germination, has been reported, but these studies focused on freshly collected pollen and did not address viability of pollen stored at different temperatures over time. Moreover, genetic differences in pollen viability have been reported in blueberry genotype...

  20. Monitoring viability of seeds in gene banks: developing software tools to increase efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the decline of seed viability is essential for effective long term seed storage in ex situ collections. Recent FAO Genebank Standards recommend monitoring intervals at one-third the time predicted for viability to fall to 85% of initial viability. This poster outlines the development of ...

  1. Influence of electric current on bacterial viability in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, V; Elektorowicz, M; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2011-10-15

    Minimizing the influence of electric current on bacterial viability in the electro-technologies such as electrophoresis and electrocoagulation is crucial in designing and operating the electric hybrid wastewater treatment system. In this study the biomass from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was subjected to constant direct current and the bacterial viability was monitored against electrical intensity, duration as well as the spatial vicinity related to the electrodes. It was found that the bacterial viability was not significantly affected (less than 10% of death percentage) when the applied electric current density (CD) was less than 6.2 A/m2 after 4 h. The percentage of live cell dropped by 15% and 29% at CD of 12.3 A/m2 and 24.7 A/m2, respectively. The pH of electrolytic biomass fluid has shifted to alkaline (from nearly neutral to around pH 10) at CD above 12.3 A/m2, which could have been the contributing factor for the bacterial inactivation. The temperature change in the electrolytic media at all current densities during 4 h of experiment was less than 2 °C, thus temperature effects were negligible. Bacteria experienced different micro-environments in the electrochemical reactor. Bacterial cells on the cathode surface exhibited highest death rate, whereas bacteria outside the space between electrodes were the least affected. It was concluded that in an electro-technology integrated wastewater treatment process, sufficient mixing should be used to avoid localized inactivation of bacterial cells.

  2. Air quality biomonitoring through pollen viability of Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Duro, Anna; Piccione, Vincenzo; Zampino, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    In this study, pollen viability and germination of three plant species, Cercis siliquastrum L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Spartium junceum L., belonging to the Fabaceae family, was evaluated in sites with different intensity of road traffic, constantly monitored with continuous analysers for air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))) by the Municipality of Catania. Two sites, in which road traffic was absent, were selected, too. The percentages of viable pollen by 2,3,5-trypheniltetrazolium chloride (TTC) test ranged from 59.0 to 90.2 % in C. siliquastrum, from 61.5 to 83.5 % in S. junceum and from 67.5 to 84.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The percentages of germination varied from 41.0 to 72.7 % in C. siliquastrum, from 42.0 to 64.7 % in S. junceum and from 38.3 to 66.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The highest percentages of viable pollens were found in no-road traffic stations by either TTC or germination tests, while the lowest values were detected in a site characterised by heavy road traffic. In the monitored period (2007-2009), pollen viability, germinability and tube length of C. siliquastrum resulted in a significant negative correlation to CO, SO(2) and NO(2), whereas data from TTC and germination tests on S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia pollens were not well correlated to air pollutants. The results showed that pollen viability, germination and tube growth in C. siliquastrum were affected by air pollution. S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia were not very influenced by air pollutants, suggesting a different pollen sensitivity of these species.

  3. Projecting the success of plant restoration with population viability analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, T.J.; Bowles, M.L.; McEachern, A.K.; Brigham, C.A.; Schwartz, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Conserving viable populations of plant species requires that they have high probabilities of long-term persistence within natural habitats, such as a chance of extinction in 100 years of less than 5% (Menges 1991, 1998; Brown 1994; Pavlik 1994; Chap. 1, this Vol.). For endangered and threatened species that have been severely reduces in range and whose habitats have been fragmented, important species conservation strategies may include augmenting existing populations or restoring new viable populations (Bowles and Whelan 1994; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Restoration objectives may include increasing population numbers to reduce extinction probability, deterministic manipulations to develop a staged cohort structure, or more complex restoration of a desired genetic structure to allow outcrossing or increase effective population size (DeMauro 1993, 1994; Bowles et al. 1993, 1998; Pavlik 1994; Knapp and Dyer 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). These efforts may require translocation of propagules from existing (in situ) populations, or from ex situ botanic gardens or seed storage facilities (Falk et al. 1996; Guerrant and Pavlik 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Population viability analysis (PVA) can provide a critical foundation for plant restoration, as it models demographic projections used to evaluate the probability of population persistence and links plant life history with restoration strategies. It is unknown how well artificially created populations will meet demographic modeling requirements (e.g., due to artificial cohort transitions) and few, if any, PVAs have been applied to restorations. To guide application of PVA to restored populations and to illustrate potential difficulties, we examine effects of planting different life stages, model initial population sizes needed to achieve population viability, and compare demographic characteristics between natural and restored populations. We develop and compare plant population restoration viability analysis (PRVA) case studies of

  4. Viability of Stored Rabbit Erythrocytes Carrying Number C3c.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-31

    A-A165 440 VIABILITY OF STORED RABBIT ERYTHROCYTES CARRYING NUBR V no C3C(U) MASSACHUSETTS UNIV MEDICAL SCHOOL MORCESTER UNCLRSSIFI 0 SZYMANSKI 31...Carrying No C3c 0 Annual and Final Report Irma 0. Szymanski, M.D. Ln CD May 31, 1984 I Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND...Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 Contract No. DAMD17-82-C-2150 .TICD ET University of Massachusetts Medical Center .EC, Worcester

  5. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    DOEpatents

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  6. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  7. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  8. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  9. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    PubMed

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  10. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  11. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  12. How homologous recombination maintains telomere integrity.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, Eliana M C; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes against loss of genetic information and inappropriate processing as damaged DNA and are therefore crucial to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. In addition to providing a pathway for genome-wide DNA repair, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in telomere replication and capping. Consistent with this, the genomic instability characteristic of HR-deficient cells and tumours is driven in part by telomere dysfunction. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which HR modulates the response to intrinsic cellular challenges that arise during telomere replication, as well as its impact on the assembly of telomere protective structures. How normal and tumour cells differ in their ability to maintain telomeres is deeply relevant to the search for treatments that would selectively eliminate cells whose capacity for HR-mediated repair has been compromised.

  13. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    PubMed

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use.

  14. Maintaining the Telescope Bibliography at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.

    2010-10-01

    The library profession benefits tremendously from ever-changing web technologies. In maintaining a telescope bibliography, web-publishing revolutionized the way librarians track relevant publications. Thanks to the search abilities provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, arXiv, publishers, as well as Google Scholar, and other such resources, online searching for Gemini-based publications has replaced the tedious perusing of print journals. However, we should keep in mind that online searching is neither flawless nor simple — different content providers require different search strategies. Sometimes the retrievals are not as complete as one expects. Information providers should be constantly improving their searching abilities in order to make the task of electronic publication tracking more reliable and efficient.

  15. Maintaining control is team's vital role.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Liz; Frankel, Chris; Johns, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    In an environment where there is an ever-increasing use of reliable electronic control, it is easy to become complacent about the need for in-depth knowledge of how the controls actually work. After all, experts who can diagnose and fix such systems are only a phone call away, and a new unit can easily be fitted. Sometimes this is not the case at Bendigo Health, as we have a number of systems with a "black box" set of controls that can take days, or weeks, to fix, and cannot be fixed locally. To better manage and maintain our infrastructure, the Buildings & Infrastructure Department at Bendigo Health includes a number of employees who concentrate on building management systems (BMS). The BMS group plays a vital role in the complete lifecycle of projects that include control and monitoring of the plant within the hospital setting. A good example of this role was in the design, build, installation and commissioning, of two new negative pressure suites at Bendigo Health. The BMS group's involvement in this particular project included the door interlocking, the air conditioning and exhaust fan control, and a comprehensive alarm panel and overrides, all of which can be monitored centrally via the existing BMS system. The involvement of the BMS group, following the DHS guidelines, resulted in the architect and consulting engineers revisiting their designs and improving them to the benefit of both patient care and staff safety. The advantages of projects such as the negative pressure suites installed by the BMS group include the fact that that the hospital gains facilities that work correctly and according to industry guidelines; and the design, installation, and controls of the plant are understood by the people who will be maintaining the infrastructure. This paper will provide an overview of the work undertaken by the BMS group at Bendigo Health, using the negative pressure suites as an exemplar.

  16. Cell Viability and Functionality of Probiotic Bacteria in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Binetti, Ana; Burns, Patricia; Reinheimer, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria, according to the definition adopted by the World Health Organization in 2002, are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Recent studies show that the same probiotic strain produced and/or preserved under different storage conditions, may present different responses regarding their susceptibility to the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, its capacity to adhere to the intestinal epithelium, or its immunomodulating capacity, the functionality being affected without changes in cell viability. This could imply that the control of cell viability is not always enough to guarantee the functionality (probiotic capacity) of a strain. Therefore, a new challenge arises for food technologists and microbiologists when it comes to designing and monitoring probiotic food: to be able to monitor the functionality of a probiotic microorganism throughout all the stages the strain goes through from the moment it is produced and included in the food vehicle, until the moment of consumption. Conventional methodological tools or others still to be developed must be used. The application of cell membrane functionality markers, the use of tests of resistance to intestinal barriers, the study of surface properties and the application of in vivo models come together as complementary tools to assess the actual capacity of a probiotic organism in a specific food, to exert functional effects regardless of the number of viable cells present at the moment of consumption. PMID:21833320

  17. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  18. Population viability analysis with species occurrence data from museum collections.

    PubMed

    Skarpaas, Olav; Stabbetorp, Odd E

    2011-06-01

    The most comprehensive data on many species come from scientific collections. Thus, we developed a method of population viability analysis (PVA) in which this type of occurrence data can be used. In contrast to classical PVA, our approach accounts for the inherent observation error in occurrence data and allows the estimation of the population parameters needed for viability analysis. We tested the sensitivity of the approach to spatial resolution of the data, length of the time series, sampling effort, and detection probability with simulated data and conducted PVAs for common, rare, and threatened species. We compared the results of these PVAs with results of standard method PVAs in which observation error is ignored. Our method provided realistic estimates of population growth terms and quasi-extinction risk in cases in which the standard method without observation error could not. For low values of any of the sampling variables we tested, precision decreased, and in some cases biased estimates resulted. The results of our PVAs with the example species were consistent with information in the literature on these species. Our approach may facilitate PVA for a wide range of species of conservation concern for which demographic data are lacking but occurrence data are readily available.

  19. Viability of bacteria in unused air filter media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, R.; Goppelsröder, A.; Umhauer, H.

    Different experimental techniques were applied to determine the effects of different air filter media on the viability of bacteria. Rinse suspensions of unused filter media were employed in standard inhibition tests to determine the effects of filter ingredients on bacterial growth under ideal nutritional conditions. Furthermore, a new test procedure was proposed and validated to determine the survival of viable microorganisms in fibrous air filters as a function of different parameters. Samples of filter media were challenged with microbial aerosols in an experimental set-up designed for measuring the collection efficiencies of fibrous filters. The loaded filter samples were then challenged with clean air under controlled conditions for a definite time span and numbers of viable microorganisms in the filter media were determined as colony forming units. The filter samples were retrieved from unused filter media usually employed in common air conditioning and ventilation systems. Under ideal nutritional and moisture conditions, growth of investigated microorganisms in nutrient broth and on nutrient agar was not inhibited by the inclusion of filter samples or rinse solutions of different filters in the growth medium with one exception. M. luteus and E. coli collected in air filter media and exposed to low air humidity (RH = 30-60%) showed a decline in their viability as a function of time (within 1 h). The decline rate was dependent on the type of bacteria employed and also the filter material itself.

  20. Effects of Triclosan on Neural Stem Cell Viability and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo Kyung; Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Yang, Sung Min; Bang, Minji; Choi, Chang Soon; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial or sanitizing agent used in personal care and household products such as toothpaste, soaps, mouthwashes and kitchen utensils. There are increasing evidence of the potentially harmful effects of triclosan in many systemic and cellular processes of the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of triclosan in the survivability of cultured rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Cortical cells from embryonic day 14 rat embryos were isolated and cultured in vitro. After stabilizing the culture, triclosan was introduced to the cells with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM and in varied time periods. Thereafter, cell viability parameters were measured using MTT assay and PI staining. TCS decreased the cell viability of treated NSC in a concentration-dependent manner along with increased expressions of apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, while reduced expression of Bcl2. To explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of TCS in NSC, we measured the activation of MAPKs and intracellular ROS. TCS at 50 μM induced the activations of both p38 and JNK, which may adversely affect cell survival. In contrast, the activities of ERK, Akt and PI3K, which are positively correlated with cell survival, were inhibited. Moreover, TCS at this concentration augmented the ROS generation in treated NSC and depleted the glutathione activity. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS can induce neurodegenerative effects in developing rat brains through mechanisms involving ROS activation and apoptosis initiation. PMID:26759708

  1. Viability of Heterodera glycines Exposed to Fungal Filtrates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Dickson, D. W.; Mitchell, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Filtrates from nematode-parasitic fungi have been reported to be toxic to plant-parasitic nematodes. Our objective was to determine the effects of fungal filtrates on second-stage juveniles and eggs of Heterodera glycines. Eleven fungal species that were isolated from cysts extracted from a soybean field in Florida were tested on J2, and five species were tested on eggs in vitro. Each fungal species was grown in Czapek-Dox broth and malt extract broth. No toxic activity was observed for fungi grown in Czapek-Dox broth. Filtrates from Paecilomyces lilacinus, Stagonospora heteroderae, Neocosmospora vasinfecta, and Fusarium solani grown in malt extract broth were toxic to J2, whereas filtrates from Exophiala pisciphila, Fusarium oxysporum, Gliocladium catenulatum, Pyrenochaeta terrestris, Verticillium chlamydosporium, and sterile fungi 1 and 2 were not toxic to J2. Filtrates of P. lilacinus, S. heteroderae, and N. vasinfecta grown in malt extract broth reduced egg viability, whereas F. oxysporum and P. terrestris filtrates had no effect on egg viability. PMID:19270965

  2. The evolutionary dynamics of haplodiploidy: Genome architecture and haploid viability.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Heath; Hardy, Nate B; Ross, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Haplodiploid reproduction, in which males are haploid and females are diploid, is widespread among animals, yet we understand little about the forces responsible for its evolution. The current theory is that haplodiploidy has evolved through genetic conflicts, as it provides a transmission advantage to mothers. Male viability is thought to be a major limiting factor; diploid individuals tend to harbor many recessive lethal mutations. This theory predicts that the evolution of haplodiploidy is more likely in male heterogametic lineages with few chromosomes, as genes on the X chromosome are often expressed in a haploid environment, and the fewer the chromosome number, the greater the proportion of the total genome that is X-linked. We test this prediction with comparative phylogenetic analyses of mites, among which haplodiploidy has evolved repeatedly. We recover a negative correlation between chromosome number and haplodiploidy, find evidence that low chromosome number evolved prior to haplodiploidy, and that it is unlikely that diplodiploidy has reevolved from haplodiploid lineages of mites. These results are consistent with the predicted importance of haploid male viability.

  3. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  4. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  5. Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthew D. W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available. Spores are also resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH; such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case of B. anthracis. Thus, having rapid analytical methods to determine a spore's viability after attempts to clean a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify the viable vs. the autoclaved (dead) spores.

  6. The in vitro impact of toothpaste extracts on cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cvikl, Barbara; Lussi, Adrian; Gruber, Reinhard

    2015-06-01

    Toothpastes contain three main components: detergents, abrasives, and fluoride. Detergents, particularly sodium lauryl sulfate, have been proposed as components that enable toothpastes to produce cytotoxic effects in vitro. However, not all toothpastes contain sodium lauryl sulfate, and almost no studies have found an association between detergents and the in vitro cytotoxicity of toothpastes. The present study examined the in vitro cytotoxicity of nine commercially available toothpastes containing four different detergents. Toothpastes were diluted in serum-free medium, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The half-lethal concentration of the toothpaste-conditioned medium (TCM) was calculated based on the formation of formazan by gingival fibroblasts, oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells, and L929 cells. Cell proliferation was analyzed, and live-dead staining was performed, after exposure of cells to conditioned medium prepared with 1% toothpaste (1% TCM). It was found that toothpastes containing sodium lauryl sulfate and amine fluoride strongly inhibited cell viability with the half-lethal concentration being obtained with conditioned medium prepared with approximately 1% toothpaste (1% TCM). Toothpastes containing cocamidopropyl betaine and Steareth-20 showed higher half-lethal concentration values, with the half-lethal concentration being obtained with conditioned medium prepared with 10% (10% TCM) and 70% (70% TCM) toothpaste, respectively. Proliferation and live-dead data were consistent with the cell-viability analyses. These results demonstrate that the type of detergent in toothpastes can be associated with changes in in vitro cell toxicity.

  7. Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Matthew D.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-10-06

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available, being resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH. Such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case with B. anthracis. Thus, rapid analysis to determine a spore's viability in a given environment or after attempts to sterilize a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify viable vs. autoclaved (dead) B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus bacterial spores.

  8. Cell viability and functionality of probiotic bacteria in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Binetti, Ana; Burns, Patricia; Reinheimer, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria, according to the definition adopted by the World Health Organization in 2002, are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Recent studies show that the same probiotic strain produced and/or preserved under different storage conditions, may present different responses regarding their susceptibility to the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, its capacity to adhere to the intestinal epithelium, or its immunomodulating capacity, the functionality being affected without changes in cell viability. This could imply that the control of cell viability is not always enough to guarantee the functionality (probiotic capacity) of a strain. Therefore, a new challenge arises for food technologists and microbiologists when it comes to designing and monitoring probiotic food: to be able to monitor the functionality of a probiotic microorganism throughout all the stages the strain goes through from the moment it is produced and included in the food vehicle, until the moment of consumption. Conventional methodological tools or others still to be developed must be used. The application of cell membrane functionality markers, the use of tests of resistance to intestinal barriers, the study of surface properties and the application of in vivo models come together as complementary tools to assess the actual capacity of a probiotic organism in a specific food, to exert functional effects regardless of the number of viable cells present at the moment of consumption.

  9. A New Methodology for Evaluation of Nematode Viability

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Mendes, Tiago Antônio Oliveira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes infections are responsible for debilitating conditions and economic losses in domestic animals as well as livestock and are considered an important public health problem due to the high prevalence in humans. The nematode resistance for drugs has been reported for livestock, highlighting the importance for development of new anthelmintic compounds. The aim of the current study was to apply and compare fluorimetric techniques using Sytox and propidium iodide for evaluating the viability of C. elegans larvae after treatment with anthelmintic drugs. These fluorescent markers were efficient to stain larvae treated with ivermectin and albendazole sulfoxide. We observed that densitometric values were proportional to the concentration of dead larvae stained with both markers. Furthermore, data on motility test presented an inverse correlation with fluorimetric data when ivermectin was used. Our results showed that lower concentrations of drugs were effective to interfere in the processes of cellular transport while higher drugs concentrations were necessary in order to result in any damage to cell integrity. The methodology described in this work might be useful for studies that aim to evaluate the viability of nematodes, particularly for testing of new anthelminthic compounds using an easy, economic, reproducible, and no time-consuming technique. PMID:25866820

  10. Adverse Events in the Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients Treated With Samarium Sm 153 Lexidronam for Osseous Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Paravati, Anthony J.; Russo, Andrea L.; Aitken, Candice

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate adverse events after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam and the effect of pre- and post-samarium Sm 153 lexidronam external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and/or chemotherapy on myelosuppression in patients who received samarium Sm 153 lexidronam for osseous metastases. Methods and Materials: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of 139 patients treated with samarium Sm 153 lexidronam between November 1997 and February 2008. New-onset adverse events after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam were reported. The effect of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam on platelet and peripheral white blood cell counts and the duration of myelosuppression after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam plus EBRT and/or chemotherapy were calculated. Differences in the prevalence of adverse events among patients with varying treatment histories were evaluated with the Pearson chi-square test. Results: Hematologic follow-up was available for 103 patients. Chemotherapy and/or EBRT had no effect on the magnitude or duration of myelosuppression. The most common nonhematologic adverse events were acute lower extremity edema (n = 27) and acute and transient neuropathy (n = 29). Patients treated with chemotherapy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam had a higher prevalence of lower extremity edema (9 of 18 [50%]) than those who were not treated with chemotherapy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam (18 of 85 [21.2%]) (p = 0.01, chi-square test). No adverse events were correlated with EBRT. Conclusions: Our observation of new-onset, acute and transient edema and neuropathy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam and of a relationship between edema and post-samarium Sm 153 lexidronam chemotherapy suggests the need for re-examination of patients in past series or for a prospective investigation with nonhematologic adverse events as a primary endpoint.

  11. Pulmonary Kaposi Sarcoma with Osseous Metastases in an Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patient: A Remarkable Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dirweesh, Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Yasir; Hamiz, Shaikh Fawad; Karabulut, Nigahus

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 34 Final Diagnosis: Pulmonary Kaposi’s sarcoma with bony metastatses Symptoms: Cough • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is known to involve the mucocutaneous tissues and the aero-digestive tracts. In acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, KS has an aggressive course and carries poor prognosis. We present a case of pulmonary KS with osseous metastases as the first presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a young male. The lesions impressively decreased in size and numbers following initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Case Report: A 34-year-old heterosexual male presented with a one month history of cough and 15–20 pound weight loss within six months. Examination revealed oral thrush, decreased breath sounds and crackles on the right lower lung base. Imaging showed a large right perihilar mass with multiple lytic lesions involving thoracic and lumber vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and clavicles. Blood and sputum cultures, smears for acid fast bacilli, and a QUANTIferon gold test were all negative. He tested positive for HIV and his CD4 count was 7 cells/uL. Bronchoscopy with biopsy was unrevealing. Pathology of the right hilar mass was diagnostic of KS. Following initiation of antiretroviral therapy his condition dramatically improved; repeat chest CT scan showed marked regression of the bony and pulmonary lesions. Conclusions: The dual action of HAART on the recovery of the immune system and against human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) may essentially cause regression of KS lesions. PMID:28216610

  12. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  13. [Maintaining epidural anesthesia by the midwife].

    PubMed

    Dörfling, C; Nolte, A G

    1990-12-01

    Epidural anaesthesia as a method of pain relief during labour has lately become very popular. Statistics show that in some labour units up to 70 per cent of all patients undergo epidural anaesthesia. The popularity of this method can be attributed to its effectiveness in relieving pain during labour. The anaesthetist commences an epidural block by introducing an epidural catheter into the epidural space. The anaesthetist administers the test dose and the first therapeutic dose. Within a short duration of time (10 to 20 minutes) the patient can already experience the numbing effect of the anaesthetic. This anaesthetic loses its numbing effect within two to three hours and effective pain relief can only be achieved by administering a further dose of local anaesthetic via the epidural catheter. This procedure can be repeated between three to six times during the average duration of labour. Alternatively, a continuous epidural infusion procedure can be used. The last method, however, sometimes requires the administration of additional epidural "top-ups". There are some risks in administering additional "top-up" dosages. The possibility exists of the anaesthetic causing a spinal block as a result of being administered into the spinal fluid. The "top-up" can also cause convulsions if administered intravenously. In some units it is expected of the midwife to maintain epidural anaesthesia on prescription by the doctor. These side-effects can, however, also occur when the patient is being treated by medical personnel with ample experience and knowledge. It is expected of some midwives to maintain an epidural block on prescription by the anaesthetist. If the midwife lacks the necessary knowledge of epidural anaesthetic and its maintenance, she might unintentionally administer the local anaesthetic into the spinal fluid or intravascularly. This might cause a threat to the mother's and baby's lives. This research covers the maintenance of epidural anaesthesia as carried out by

  14. Work Adjustment of the Methadone-Maintained Corporate Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankowitz, Robert; Randell, Joan

    1977-01-01

    The work adjustment of 26 methadone-maintained corporate employees was evaluated. Results indicated: (a) relative to their nonmethadone-maintained coworkers, the methadone-maintained employees had comparable job performance and superior punctuality and attendance; and (b) the methadone-maintained skilled laborers were satisfied with their…

  15. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  16. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  17. Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S

    2013-10-31

    Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant three-dimensional associations in the mouse bone marrow among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal bone marrow. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2 (also known as CSPG4)(+) pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated leptin receptor (LEPR)(+) cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of the HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2(+) periarteriolar niches to LEPR(+) perisinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2(+) cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in the bone marrow. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable for maintaining HSC quiescence.

  18. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif ‘YxxI’, suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  19. The Cdc48-Vms1 complex maintains 26S proteasome architecture.

    PubMed

    Tran, Joseph R; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2014-03-15

    The 26S proteasome is responsible for most regulated protein turnover and for the degradation of aberrant proteins in eukaryotes. The assembly of this ~2.5 MDa multicatalytic protease requires several dedicated chaperones and, once assembled, substrate selectivity is mediated by ubiquitin conjugation. After modification with ubiquitin, substrates are escorted to the proteasome by myriad factors, including Cdc48 (cell-division cycle 48). Cdc48 also associates with numerous cofactors, but, to date, it is unclear whether each cofactor facilitates proteasome delivery. We discovered that yeast lacking a conserved Cdc48 cofactor, Vms1 [VCP (valosin-containing protein)/Cdc48-associated mitochondrial stress-responsive], accumulate proteasome-targeted ubiquitinated proteins. Vms1 mutant cells also contain elevated levels of unassembled 20S proteasome core particles and select 19S cap subunits. In addition, we found that the ability of Vms1 to support 26S proteasome assembly requires Cdc48 interaction, and that the loss of Vms1 reduced 26S proteasome levels and cell viability after prolonged culture in the stationary phase. The results of the present study highlight an unexpected link between the Cdc48-Vms1 complex and the preservation of proteasome architecture, and indicate how perturbed proteasome assembly affects the turnover of ubiquitinated proteins and maintains viability in aging cells.

  20. The Cdc48–Vms1 complex maintains 26S proteasome architecture

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Joseph R.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is responsible for most regulated protein turnover and for the degradation of aberrant proteins in eukaryotes. The assembly of this ~2.5 MDa multicatalytic protease requires several dedicated chaperones and, once assembled, substrate selectivity is mediated by ubiquitin conjugation. After modification with ubiquitin, substrates are escorted to the proteasome by myriad factors, including Cdc48 (cell-division cycle 48). Cdc48 also associates with numerous cofactors, but, to date, it is unclear whether each cofactor facilitates proteasome delivery. We discovered that yeast lacking a conserved Cdc48 cofactor, Vms1 [VCP (valosin-containing protein)/Cdc48-associated mitochondrial stress-responsive], accumulate proteasome-targeted ubiquitinated proteins. Vms1 mutant cells also contain elevated levels of unassembled 20S proteasome core particles and select 19S cap subunits. In addition, we found that the ability of Vms1 to support 26S proteasome assembly requires Cdc48 interaction, and that the loss of Vms1 reduced 26S proteasome levels and cell viability after prolonged culture in the stationary phase. The results of the present study highlight an unexpected link between the Cdc48–Vms1 complex and the preservation of proteasome architecture, and indicate how perturbed proteasome assembly affects the turnover of ubiquitinated proteins and maintains viability in aging cells. PMID:24351022

  1. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Dexin; Chen, Zi; Jiang, Yuan; Xue, Feng; Li, Baoguang

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology [conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR)] is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide (PMA) to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR), scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound) may eventually

  2. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dexin; Chen, Zi; Jiang, Yuan; Xue, Feng; Li, Baoguang

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology [conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR)] is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide (PMA) to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR), scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound) may eventually

  3. Cat and dog primordial follicles enclosed in ovarian cortex sustain viability after in vitro culture on agarose gel in a protein-free medium.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, M; Comizzoli, P; Wildt, D E; Songsasen, N

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to examine the influences of differing media, protein supplementation and the microenvironment on cat vs dog primordial follicle viability in vitro. Ovarian cortical slices were cultured for 3, 9 or 15 days in α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) or MEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% knock-out serum replacement (KSR) or 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol (protein free). In a separate study, cat and dog ovarian tissues were cultured in protein-free α-MEM and MEM, respectively, in cell culture inserts, on 1.5% agarose gel or in 24-well cell culture plates (control). Follicle viability was assessed in both studies using calcein AM/ethidium homodimer and histological evaluation with haematoxylin/eosin staining. No cat follicle sustained viability beyond 9 days of in vitro culture in α-MEM compared to 37.5% of those incubated for 15 days in MEM in protein-free condition (p < 0.05). In contrast, α-MEM was superior (p < 0.05) to MEM in maintaining dog follicle viability (32.7% vs 8.1%) in protein-free condition at 15 days. Serum was detrimental (p < 0.05) to follicle survival in both species. Knock-out serum replacement supplementation and a protein-free condition supported cat follicle viability, whereas the latter was superior (p < 0.05) to the former for sustaining dog follicle survival. Likewise, dog follicle viability was enhanced (p < 0.05) by the agarose gel compared to the cell culture insert and control groups after 3 and 9 days of culture. For the cat, the agarose gel better (p < 0.05) supported follicle viability compared to the control, but was equivalent to the cell culture insert. Therefore, sustaining primordial follicle survival from intracortical ovarian slices requires a different in vitro microenvironment for the cat vs the dog. A key factor to enhancing survival of these early stage follicles in culture appears to be the use of agarose gel, which enhances follicle viability, perhaps by promoting gas exchange.

  4. RSS1 regulates the cell cycle and maintains meristematic activity under stress conditions in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Daisuke; Abe, Kiyomi; Miyao, Akio; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Mizutani, Megumi; Morita, Haruka; Toda, Yosuke; Hobo, Tokunori; Sato, Yutaka; Hattori, Tsukaho; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takeda, Shin

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth and development are sustained by continuous cell division in the meristems, which is perturbed by various environmental stresses. For the maintenance of meristematic functions, it is essential that cell division be coordinated with cell differentiation. However, it is unknown how the proliferative activities of the meristems and the coordination between cell division and differentiation are maintained under stressful conditions. Here we show that a rice protein, RSS1, whose stability is controlled by cell cycle phases, contributes to the vigour of meristematic cells and viability under salinity conditions. These effects of RSS1 are exerted by regulating the G1–S transition, possibly through an interaction of RSS1 with protein phosphatase 1, and are mediated by the phytohormone, cytokinin. RSS1 is conserved widely in plant lineages, except eudicots, suggesting that RSS1-dependent mechanisms might have been adopted in specific lineages during the evolutionary radiation of angiosperms. PMID:21505434

  5. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.

  6. Maintaining professional activity during breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ganem, G; Antoine, E-C; Touboul, C; Naman, H; Dohollou, N; Facchini, T; Coscas, Y; Lortholary, A; Catala, S; Jacquot, S; Lhomel, C; Eisinger, F

    2016-05-01

    The question of returning to work and pursuing professional activity during cancer treatment is an increasingly important consideration. The present work focuses on factors affecting the feasibility of maintaining professional activity during treatment for breast cancer, for women who wished to do so. Written questionnaires were collected from 216 patients between March and November 2012. Since the onset of their treatment, 31.4% of the women (68/216) had not been on sick-leave. The main factors associated with the pursuit of professional activity were: considering the availability of their physician to answer questions as unimportant [OR = 18.83 (3.60-98.53); P ≤ 0.05]; considering the diagnosis of cancer as likely to have a weak impact on career perspectives [OR = 4.07 (2.49-6.64); P ≤ 0.05]; not having any children in the household [OR = 3.87 (2.38-6.28); P ≤ 0.05]; being in a managerial position [OR = 3.13 (1.88-5.21); P ≤ 0.05]. Negative predictive factors were: physician mentioning adverse effects of the treatment [OR = 0.31 (0.16-0.58); P ≤ 0.05], and patient rating workload as high [OR = 0.26 (0.15-0.46); P ≤ 0.05]. As a result of advances in therapeutic strategies, more patients will expect healthcare professionals, as well as employers and occupational health societies, to prioritise issues pertaining to the maintenance of professional activities during cancer treatment.

  7. Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that—in both the foraging and the casino frames—participants’ choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  8. Myocyte contractility can be maintained by storing cells with the myosin ATPase inhibitor 2,3 butanedione monoxime

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Charles S; Mechas, Charles; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    Isolated intact myocytes can be used to investigate contractile mechanisms and to screen new therapeutic compounds. These experiments typically require euthanizing an animal and isolating fresh cells each day or analyzing cultured myocytes, which quickly lose their rod-shaped morphology. Recent data suggest that the viability of canine myocytes can be prolonged using low temperature and N-benzyl-p-toluene sulfonamide (an inhibitor of skeletal myosin ATPase). We performed similar studies in rat myocytes in order to test whether the cardiac myosin ATPase inhibitors 2,3-Butanedione monoxime (BDM) and blebbistatin help to maintain cell-level function over multiple days. Myocytes were isolated from rats and separated into batches that were stored at 4°C in a HEPES-buffered solution that contained 0.5 mmol L−1 Ca2+ and (1) no myosin ATPase inhibitors; (2) 10 mmol L−1 BDM; or (3) 3 μmol L−1 blebbistatin. Functional viability of myocytes was assessed up to 3 days after the isolation by measuring calcium transients and unloaded shortening profiles induced by electrical stimuli in inhibitor-free Tyrode's solution. Cells stored without myosin ATPase inhibitors had altered morphology (fewer rod-shaped cells, shorter diastolic sarcomere lengths, and membrane blebbing) and were not viable for contractile assays after 24 h. Cells stored in BDM maintained morphology and contractile function for 48 h. Storage in blebbistatin maintained cell morphology for 72 h but inhibited contractility. These data show that storing cells with myosin ATPase inhibitors can extend the viability of myocytes that will be used for functional assays. This may help to refine and reduce the use of animals in experiments. PMID:26116551

  9. Relationship between humidity and influenza A viability in droplets and implications for influenza's seasonality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Marr, Linsey C

    2012-01-01

    Humidity has been associated with influenza's seasonality, but the mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unclear. There is no consistent explanation for influenza's transmission patterns that applies to both temperate and tropical regions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ambient humidity and viability of the influenza A virus (IAV) during transmission between hosts and to explain the mechanisms underlying it. We measured the viability of IAV in droplets consisting of various model media, chosen to isolate effects of salts and proteins found in respiratory fluid, and in human mucus, at relative humidities (RH) ranging from 17% to 100%. In all media and mucus, viability was highest when RH was either close to 100% or below ∼50%. When RH decreased from 84% to 50%, the relationship between viability and RH depended on droplet composition: viability decreased in saline solutions, did not change significantly in solutions supplemented with proteins, and increased dramatically in mucus. Additionally, viral decay increased linearly with salt concentration in saline solutions but not when they were supplemented with proteins. There appear to be three regimes of IAV viability in droplets, defined by humidity: physiological conditions (∼100% RH) with high viability, concentrated conditions (50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability depending on the composition of media, and dry conditions (<50% RH) with high viability. This paradigm could help resolve conflicting findings in the literature on the relationship between IAV viability in aerosols and humidity, and results in human mucus could help explain influenza's seasonality in different regions.

  10. Impediments to eye transplantation: ocular viability following optic-nerve transection or enucleation.

    PubMed

    Ellenberg, D; Shi, J; Jain, S; Chang, J-H; Ripps, H; Brady, S; Melhem, E R; Lakkis, F; Adamis, A; Chen, D-F; Ellis-Behnke, R; Langer, R S; Strittmatter, S M; Azar, D T

    2009-09-01

    Maintenance of ocular viability is one of the major impediments to successful whole-eye transplantation. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the current literature to help guide future studies in order to overcome this hurdle. A systematic multistage review of published literature was performed. Three specific questions were addressed: (1) Is recovery of visual function following eye transplantation greater in cold-blooded vertebrates when compared with mammals? (2) Is outer retina function following enucleation and reperfusion improved compared with enucleation alone? (3) Following optic-nerve transection, is there a correlation between retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and either time after transection or proximity of the transection to the globe? In a majority of the studies performed in the literature, recovery of visual function can occur after whole-eye transplantation in cold-blooded vertebrates. Following enucleation (and reperfusion), outer retinal function is maintained from 4 to 9 h. RGC survival following optic-nerve transection is inversely related to both the time since transection and the proximity of transection to the globe. Lastly, neurotrophins can increase RGC survival following optic-nerve transection. This review of the literature suggests that the use of a donor eye is feasible for whole-eye transplantation.

  11. Morphology and Viability of Pleistocene Microbiota from the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel Near Fox, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    The U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory maintains the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel at Fox, Alaska (-10 miles north of Fairbanks.) The active microbial ecosystems and the cryopreserved anabiotic viable microorganisms and dead microbial remains and biomarkers frozen within the permafrost and ice of the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel are of direct relevance to Astrobiology. Microbial extremophiles from permafrost and ice provide information concerning where and how should we search for evidence of life elsewhere in the Cosmos. The permafrost and ice wedges of the Fox tunnel preserves a magnificent of record of Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene life on Earth spanning more than 2.5 million years. This record includes frozen fossil bacteria, archaea, algae, mosses, higher plants, insects and mammals. In this paper we present the preliminary results of studies of the morphology, ultramicrostructure and elemental distributions of Fox tunnel microbiota as determined in-situ by the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) investigations. The long-term viability of cryopreserved microbiota and potential implications to Astrobiology will be discussed.

  12. Life history mediates mate limitation and population viability in self-incompatible plant species

    PubMed Central

    Thrall, Peter H; Encinas-Viso, Francisco; Hoebee, Susan E; Young, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Genetically controlled self-incompatibility systems represent links between genetic diversity and plant demography with the potential to directly impact on population dynamics. We use an individual-based spatial simulation to investigate the demographic and genetic consequences of different self-incompatibility systems for plants that vary in reproductive capacity and lifespan. The results support the idea that, in the absence of inbreeding effects, populations of self-incompatible species will often be smaller and less viable than self-compatible species, particularly for shorter-lived organisms or where potential fecundity is low. At high ovule production and low mortality, self-incompatible and self-compatible species are demographically similar, thus self-incompatibility does not automatically lead to reduced mate availability or population viability. Overall, sporophytic codominant self-incompatibility was more limiting than gametophytic or sporophytic dominant systems, which generally behaved in a similar fashion. Under a narrow range of conditions, the sporophytic dominant system maintained marginally greater mate availability owing to the production of S locus homozygotes. While self-incompatibility reduces population size and persistence for a broad range of conditions, the actual number of S alleles, beyond that required for reproduction, is important for only a subset of life histories. For these situations, results suggest that addition of new S alleles may result in significant demographic rescue. PMID:24683451

  13. Potassium uptake system Trk2 is crucial for yeast cell viability during anhydrobiosis.

    PubMed

    Borovikova, Diana; Herynkova, Pavla; Rapoport, Alexander; Sychrova, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts grow at very different potassium concentrations, adapting their intracellular cation levels to changes in the external environment. Potassium homeostasis is maintained with the help of several transporters mediating the uptake and efflux of potassium with various affinities and mechanisms. In the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two uptake systems, Trk1 and Trk2, are responsible for the accumulation of a relatively high intracellular potassium content (200-300 mM) and the efflux of surplus potassium is mediated by the Tok1 channel and active exporters Ena ATPase and Nha1 cation/proton antiporter. Using a series of deletion mutants, we studied the role of individual potassium transporters in yeast cell resistance to dehydration. The Trk2 transporter (whose role in S. cerevisiae physiology was not clear) is important for cell viability in the stationary phase of growth and, moreover, it plays a crucial role in the yeast survival of dehydration/rehydration treatments. Mutants lacking the TRK2 gene accumulated significantly lower amounts of potassium ions in the stationary culture growth phase, and these lower amounts correlated with decreased resistance to dehydration/rehydration stress. Our results showed Trk2 to be the major potassium uptake system in stationary cells, and potassium content to be a crucial parameter for desiccation survival.

  14. Using the Viability Theory to Assess the Flexibility of Forest Managers Under Ecological Intensification.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Bonté, Bruno; Cordonnier, Thomas; de Morogues, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Greater demand for wood material has converged with greater demand for biodiversity conservation to make balancing forest ecosystem services a key societal issue. Forest managers, owners, or policymakers need new approaches and methods to evaluate their ability to adapt to this dual objective. We analyze the ability of forest owners to define sustainable forest management options based on viability theory and a new flexibility index. This new indicator gauges the adaptive capacity of forest owners based on the number of sustainable actions available to them at a given time. Here we study a public forest owner who regulates harvest intensity and frequency in order to meet demand for timber wood at forest scale and to meet a biodiversity recommendation via a minimum permanently maintained volume of deadwood per hectare at stand scale. Dynamical systems theory was used to model uneven-aged forest dynamics-including deadwood dynamics-and the dynamics of timber wood demand and tree removals. Uneven-aged silver fir forest management in the "Quatre Montagnes region" (Vercors, France) is used as an illustrative example. The results explain situations where a joint increase in wood production and deadwood retention does not reduce the flexibility index more than increasing either one dimension alone, thus opening up ecological intensification options. To conclude, we discuss the value of the new flexibility index for addressing environmental management and ecological intensification issues.

  15. Using the Viability Theory to Assess the Flexibility of Forest Managers Under Ecological Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Bonté, Bruno; Cordonnier, Thomas; de Morogues, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Greater demand for wood material has converged with greater demand for biodiversity conservation to make balancing forest ecosystem services a key societal issue. Forest managers, owners, or policymakers need new approaches and methods to evaluate their ability to adapt to this dual objective. We analyze the ability of forest owners to define sustainable forest management options based on viability theory and a new flexibility index. This new indicator gauges the adaptive capacity of forest owners based on the number of sustainable actions available to them at a given time. Here we study a public forest owner who regulates harvest intensity and frequency in order to meet demand for timber wood at forest scale and to meet a biodiversity recommendation via a minimum permanently maintained volume of deadwood per hectare at stand scale. Dynamical systems theory was used to model uneven-aged forest dynamics—including deadwood dynamics—and the dynamics of timber wood demand and tree removals. Uneven-aged silver fir forest management in the "Quatre Montagnes region" (Vercors, France) is used as an illustrative example. The results explain situations where a joint increase in wood production and deadwood retention does not reduce the flexibility index more than increasing either one dimension alone, thus opening up ecological intensification options. To conclude, we discuss the value of the new flexibility index for addressing environmental management and ecological intensification issues.

  16. Could Microparticles Be the Universal Quality Indicator for Platelet Viability and Function?

    PubMed

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Chipperfield, Kate

    2016-01-01

    High quality means good fitness for the intended use. Research activity regarding quality measures for platelet transfusions has focused on platelet storage and platelet storage lesion. Thus, platelet quality is judged from the manufacturer's point of view and regulated to ensure consistency and stability of the manufacturing process. Assuming that fresh product is always superior to aged product, maintaining in vitro characteristics should preserve high quality. However, despite the highest in vitro quality standards, platelets often fail in vivo. This suggests we may need different quality measures to predict platelet performance after transfusion. Adding to this complexity, platelets are used clinically for very different purposes: platelets need to circulate when given as prophylaxis to cancer patients and to stop bleeding when given to surgery or trauma patients. In addition, the emerging application of platelet-rich plasma injections exploits the immunological functions of platelets. Requirements for quality of platelets intended to prevent bleeding, stop bleeding, or promote wound healing are potentially very different. Can a single measurable characteristic describe platelet quality for all uses? Here we present microparticle measurement in platelet samples, and its potential to become the universal quality characteristic for platelet production, storage, viability, function, and compatibility.

  17. The viability of professional wet cleaning as a pollution prevention alternative to perchloroethylene dry cleaning.

    PubMed

    Sinsheimer, Peter; Grout, Cyrus; Namkoong, Angela; Gottlieb, Robert

    2007-02-01

    The vast majority of dry cleaners worldwide use the toxic chemical perchloroethylene (PCE), which is associated with a number of adverse health and environmental impacts. Professional wet cleaning was developed as a nontoxic alternative to PCE dry cleaning but has not been widely adopted as substitute technology. In the greater Los Angeles, CA, region, a demonstration project was set up to showcase this technology and evaluate its commercial viability by converting seven cleaners from PCE dry cleaning to professional wet cleaning. The demonstration site cleaners who switched to professional wet cleaning were able to maintain their level of service and customer base while lowering operating costs. The cleaners were able to transition to professional wet cleaning without a great degree of difficulty and expressed a high level of satisfaction with professional wet cleaning. Crucial to this success was the existence of the demonstration project, which helped to develop a supporting infrastructure for professional wet cleaning that had otherwise been lacking in the garment care industry.

  18. Could Microparticles Be the Universal Quality Indicator for Platelet Viability and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, Kate

    2016-01-01

    High quality means good fitness for the intended use. Research activity regarding quality measures for platelet transfusions has focused on platelet storage and platelet storage lesion. Thus, platelet quality is judged from the manufacturer's point of view and regulated to ensure consistency and stability of the manufacturing process. Assuming that fresh product is always superior to aged product, maintaining in vitro characteristics should preserve high quality. However, despite the highest in vitro quality standards, platelets often fail in vivo. This suggests we may need different quality measures to predict platelet performance after transfusion. Adding to this complexity, platelets are used clinically for very different purposes: platelets need to circulate when given as prophylaxis to cancer patients and to stop bleeding when given to surgery or trauma patients. In addition, the emerging application of platelet-rich plasma injections exploits the immunological functions of platelets. Requirements for quality of platelets intended to prevent bleeding, stop bleeding, or promote wound healing are potentially very different. Can a single measurable characteristic describe platelet quality for all uses? Here we present microparticle measurement in platelet samples, and its potential to become the universal quality characteristic for platelet production, storage, viability, function, and compatibility. PMID:28053805

  19. Nephrin Preserves Podocyte Viability and Glomerular Structure and Function in Adult Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuezhu; Chuang, Peter Y; D'Agati, Vivette D; Dai, Yan; Yacoub, Rabi; Fu, Jia; Xu, Jin; Taku, Oltjon; Premsrirut, Prem K; Holzman, Lawrence B; He, John Cijiang

    2015-10-01

    Nephrin is required during kidney development for the maturation of podocytes and formation of the slit diaphragm junctional complex. Because nephrin expression is downregulated in acquired glomerular diseases, nephrin deficiency is considered a pathologic feature of glomerular injury. However, whether nephrin deficiency exacerbates glomerular injury in glomerular diseases has not been experimentally confirmed. Here, we generated mice with inducible RNA interference-mediated nephrin knockdown. Short-term nephrin knockdown (6 weeks), starting after the completion of kidney development at 5 weeks of age, did not affect glomerular structure or function. In contrast, mice with long-term nephrin knockdown (20 weeks) developed mild proteinuria, foot process effacement, filtration slit narrowing, mesangial hypercellularity and sclerosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, subendothelial zone widening, and podocyte apoptosis. When subjected to an acquired glomerular insult induced by unilateral nephrectomy or doxorubicin, mice with short-term nephrin knockdown developed more severe glomerular injury compared with mice without nephrin knockdown. Additionally, nephrin-knockdown mice developed more exaggerated glomerular enlargement when subjected to unilateral nephrectomy and more podocyte apoptosis and depletion after doxorubicin challenge. AKT phosphorylation, which is a slit diaphragm-mediated and nephrin-dependent pathway in the podocyte, was markedly reduced in mice with long-term or short-term nephrin knockdown challenged with uninephrectomy or doxorubicin. Taken together, our data establish that under the basal condition and in acquired glomerular diseases, nephrin is required to maintain slit diaphragm integrity and slit diaphragm-mediated signaling to preserve glomerular function and podocyte viability in adult mice.

  20. Rice aldehyde dehydrogenase7 is needed for seed maturation and viability.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jun-Hye; Kim, Sung-Ryul; An, Gynheung

    2009-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Although the proteins have been studied from various organisms and at different growth stages, their roles in seed development have not been well elucidated. We obtained T-DNA insertional mutants in OsALDH7, which is remarkably inducible by oxidative and abiotic stresses. Interestingly, endosperms from the osaldh7 null mutants accumulated brown pigments during desiccation and storage. Extracts from the mutant seeds showed a maximum absorbance peak at 360 nm, the wavelength that melanoidin absorbs. Under UV light, those extracts also exhibited much stronger fluorescence than the wild type, suggesting that the pigments are melanoidin. These pigments started to accumulate in the late seed developmental stage, the time when OsALDH7 expression began to increase significantly. Purified OsALDH7 protein showed enzyme activities to malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde. These results suggest that OsALDH7 is involved in removing various aldehydes formed by oxidative stress during seed desiccation. The mutant seeds were more sensitive to our accelerated aging treatment and accumulated more malondialdehyde than the wild type. These data imply that OsALDH7 plays an important role in maintaining seed viability by detoxifying the aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation.

  1. DNA ligase I is not essential for mammalian cell viability.

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Masani, Shahnaz; Hsieh, Chih-lin; Yu, Kefei

    2014-04-24

    Of the three DNA ligases present in all vertebrates, DNA ligase I (Lig1) has been considered essential for ligating Okazaki fragments during DNA replication and thereby essential for cell viability. Here, we report the striking finding that a Lig1-null murine B cell line is viable. Surprisingly, the Lig1-null cells exhibit normal proliferation and normal immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination and are not hypersensitive to a wide variety of DNA damaging agents. These findings demonstrate that Lig1 is not absolutely required for cellular DNA replication and repair and that either Lig3 or Lig4 can substitute for the role of Lig1 in joining Okazaki fragments. The establishment of a Lig1-null cell line will greatly facilitate the characterization of DNA ligase function in mammalian cells, but the finding alone profoundly reprioritizes the role of ligase I in DNA replication, repair, and recombination.

  2. SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) Preliminary Results from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Quinn, R.; Ricco, A. J.; Bramall, N.; Chittenden, J.; Bryson, K.; Minelli, G.

    2012-01-01

    SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) is one of two astrobiology experiments onboard the NASA Organism/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) cubesat, launched in November 2010. The satellite is still operational with nominal performance and records data on a regular basis. In the SEVO experiment, four astrobiologically relevant organic thin films are exposed to radiation in low-earth orbit, including the unfiltered solar spectrum from approximately 120 - 2600 nm. The thin films are contained in each of four separate micro-environments: an atmosphere containing CO2, a low relative humidity (approximately 2%) atmosphere, an inert atmosphere representative of interstellar/interplanetary space, and a SiO2 mineral surface to measure the effects of surface catalysis. The UV/Vis spectrum of each sample is monitored in situ, with a spectrometer onboard the satellite.

  3. Integrated imaging of cardiac anatomy, physiology, and viability.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, James A

    2009-03-01

    Technologic developments in imaging will have a significant impact on cardiac imaging over the next decade. These advances will permit more detailed assessment of cardiac anatomy, complex assessment of cardiac physiology, and integration of anatomic and physiologic data. The distinction between anatomic and physiologic imaging is important. For assessing patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease, physiologic and anatomic imaging data are complementary. The strength of anatomic imaging rests in its ability to detect the presence of disease, whereas physiologic imaging techniques assess the impact of disease, such as whether a coronary atherosclerotic lesion limits myocardial blood flow. Research indicates that physiologic data are more prognostically important than anatomic data, but both may be important in patient management decisions. Integrated cardiac imaging is an evolving field, with many potential indications. These include assessment of coronary stenosis, myocardial viability, anatomic and physiologic characterization of atherosclerotic plaque, and advanced molecular imaging.

  4. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Passell, Howard David; Peplinski, William J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  5. Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

    2014-01-01

    Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP.

  6. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  7. Thioredoxin 1 protects astrocytes from oxidative stress by maintaining peroxiredoxin activity

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MENGFEI; ZHU, KUNTING; ZHANG, LUYU; LI, LINGYU; ZHAO, JING

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) exerts neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by oxidative stress. While Trx1 is known to maintain the anti-oxidant activity of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prdxs), the underlying mechanisms of its protective effects have remained to be elucidated, which was the aim of the present study. For this, an in vitro ischemic model of hypoxemia lasting for 4 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion was used. Primary astrocytes from neonatal rats were pre-treated with small interfering RNA targeting Trx1 prior to oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R). MTS and lactate dehydrogenase assays were performed to evaluate cell viability. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis were employed to assess the mRNA and protein expression levels of Prdx1-4 and Prdx-SO3. Furthermore, a dual luciferase reporter assay was used to assess the interaction between activator protein-1 (AP-1) and Trx1. The present study demonstrated that OGD/R decreased the cell viability and increased cellular damage, which was more marked following Trx1 knockdown. The expression of Prdx1-4 and Prdx-SO3 protein was higher in the cells subjected to OGD/R. Knockdown of Trx1 markedly decreased the levels of Prdx1-4 but increased Prdx-SO3 mRNA and protein levels. The results of the present study also suggested that AP-1 directly activated the expression of Trx1. The present study demonstrated that Trx1 exerts its neuroprotective effects by preventing oxidative stress in astrocytes via maintaining Prdx expression. PMID:26846911

  8. Effect of platelet dense granule contents upon osteoblast viability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Siddhant K; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) into scaffolds for application in musculoskeletal injuries has been a topic of recent interest in orthopaedic surgery. Platelets have dense granules containing ADP, ATP, serotonin, and calcium; and alpha granules containing PDGF, VEGF, IGF, TGF-ß, and EGF. Particular focus of previous studies has been on mitogenic effects of alpha granules, but the role of dense granules in PRP therapy currently remains undefined. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ATP, ADP, and serotonin upon osteoblast viability in vitro. Human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 cells) were exposed to phosphate buffered saline (control group), ATP (20µM), ADP (10µM), and serotonin (11.75nM) for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Osteoblast viability was evaluated at each timepoint using biochemical assays. When compared to controls, osteoblasts treated with ATP and ADP resulted in a significant reduction in cell number, while serotonin caused an increase at 24 hours. Similar trends were noted at later timepoints. At 48 hours, a trend towards increase in glutathione was observed with ADP and ATP, but was not sustained at 72 hours. No significant differences in membrane damage were detected between groups. At 24 and 48 hours, ADP significantly increased nitric oxide production. Results of this study demonstrate that ATP, ADP, and serotonin induced significant structural adaptive responses to osteoblastic activities. The data revealed minimal functional alteration as evident by biomarker measurements. Overall conclusion: the results provided further insight regarding PRP therapy for traumatized bone.

  9. Viability of imaging structures inside human dentin using dental transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandisoli, C. L.; Alves-de-Souza, F. D.; Costa, M. M.; Castro, L.; Ana, P. A.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C.

    2014-02-01

    Dental Transillumination (DT) is a technique for imaging internal structures of teeth by detecting infrared radiation transmitted throughout the specimens. It was successfully used to detect caries even considering dental enamel and dentin scatter infrared radiation strongly. Literature reports enamel's scattering coefficient is 10 to 30 times lower than dentin; this explain why DT is useful for imaging pathologies in dental enamel, but does not disable its using for imaging dental structures or pathologies inside the dentin. There was no conclusive data in the literature about the limitations of using DT to access biomedical information of dentin. The goal in this study was to present an application of DT to imaging internal structures of dentin. Slices of tooth were confectioned varying the thickness of groups from 0.5 mm up to 2,5 mm. For imaging a FPA InGaAs camera Xeva 1.7- 320 (900-1700 nm; Xenics, Inc., Belgium) and a 3W lamp-based broadband light source (Ocean Optics, Inc., USA) was used; bandpass optical filters at 1000+/-10 nm, 1100+/-10 nm, 1200+/-10 nm and 1300+/-50 nm spectral region were also applied to spectral selection. Images were captured for different camera exposure times and finally a computational processing was applied. The best results revealed the viability to imaging dent in tissue with thickness up to 2,5 mm without a filter (900-1700nm spectral range). After these results a pilot experiment of using DT to detect the pulp chamber of an incisive human tooth was made. New data showed the viability to imaging the pulp chamber of specimen.

  10. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  11. Dominance of mutations affecting viability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, James D; Nuzhdin, Sergey V

    2003-01-01

    There have been several attempts to estimate the average dominance (ratio of heterozygous to homozygous effects) of spontaneous deleterious mutations in Drosophila melanogaster, but these have given inconsistent results. We investigated whether transposable element (TE) insertions have higher average dominance for egg-to-adult viability than do point mutations, a possibility suggested by the types of fitness-depressing effects that TEs are believed to have. If so, then variation in dominance estimates among strains and crosses would be expected as a consequence of variation in TE activity. As a first test, we estimated the average dominance of all mutations and of copia insertions in a set of lines that had accumulated spontaneous mutations for 33 generations. A traditional regression method gave a dominance estimate for all mutations of 0.17, whereas average dominance of copia insertions was 0.51; the difference between these two estimates approached significance (P = 0.08). As a second test, we reanalyzed Ohnishi 1974 data on dominance of spontaneous and EMS-induced mutations. Because a considerable fraction of spontaneous mutations are caused by TE insertions, whereas EMS induces mainly point mutations, we predicted that average dominance would decline with increasing EMS concentration. This pattern was observed, but again fell short of formal significance (P = 0.07). Taken together, however, the two results give modest support for the hypothesis that TE insertions have greater average dominance in their viability effects than do point mutations, possibly as a result of deleterious effects of expression of TE-encoded genes. PMID:12702680

  12. Flow Cytometric Assessment of Viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bunthof, Christine J.; Bloemen, Karen; Breeuwer, Pieter; Rombouts, Frank M.; Abee, Tjakko

    2001-01-01

    The viability of lactic acid bacteria is crucial for their applications as dairy starters and as probiotics. We investigated the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria. The esterase substrate carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and the dye exclusion DNA binding probes propidium iodide (PI) and TOTO-1 were tested for live/dead discrimination using a Lactococcus, a Streptococcus, three Lactobacillus, two Leuconostoc, an Enterococcus, and a Pediococcus species. Plate count experiments were performed to validate the results of the FCM assays. The results showed that cFDA was an accurate stain for live cells; in exponential-phase cultures almost all cells were labeled, while 70°C heat-killed cultures were left unstained. PI did not give clear live/dead discrimination for some of the species. TOTO-1, on the other hand, gave clear discrimination between live and dead cells. The combination of cFDA and TOTO-1 gave the best results. Well-separated subpopulations of live and dead cells could be detected with FCM. Cell sorting of the subpopulations and subsequent plating on agar medium provided direct evidence that cFDA labels the culturable subpopulation and that TOTO-1 labels the nonculturable subpopulation. Applied to cultures exposed to deconjugated bile salts or to acid, cFDA and TOTO-1 proved to be accurate indicators of culturability. Our experiments with lactic acid bacteria demonstrated that the combination of cFDA and TOTO-1 makes an excellent live/dead assay with versatile applications. PMID:11319119

  13. Thermoforming of Tracheal Cartilage: Viability, Shape Change, and Mechanical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Yongseok; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Holden, Paul K.; Chlebicki, Cara; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Trauma, emergent tracheostomy, and prolonged intubation are common causes of severe deformation and narrowing of the trachea. Laser technology may be used to reshape tracheal cartilage using minimally invasive methods. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the dependence of tracheal cartilage shape change on temperature and laser dosimetry using heated saline bath immersion and laser irradiation, respectively, (2) the effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of cartilage, and (3) tissue viability as a function of laser dosimetry. Materials and Methods Ex vivo rabbit trachea cartilage specimens were bent and secured around a cylinder (6 mm), and then immersed in a saline bath (45 and 72°C) for 5– 100 seconds. In separate experiments, tracheal specimens were irradiated with a diode laser (λ = 1.45 μm, 220–400 J/cm2). Mechanical analysis was then used to determine the elastic modulus in tension after irradiation. Fluorescent viability assays combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were employed to image and identify thermal injury regions. Results Shape change transition zones, between 62 and 66°C in the saline heating bath and above power densities of 350 J/cm2 (peak temperatures 65±10°C) for laser irradiation were identified. Above these zones, the elastic moduli were higher (8.2±4 MPa) than at lower temperatures (4.5±3 MPa). LSCM identified significant loss of viable chondrocytes within the laser-irradiation zones. Conclusion Our results indicate a change in mechanical properties occurs with laser irradiation and further demonstrates that significant thermal damage is concurrent with clinically relevant shape change in the elastic cartilage tissues of the rabbit trachea using the present laser and dosimetry parameters. PMID:18798288

  14. A global viability assessment of the European eel.

    PubMed

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Melià, Paco; Gatto, Marino; De Leo, Giulio A

    2015-09-01

    The global European eel (Anguilla anguilla) stock is critically endangered according to the IUCN, and the European Commission has urged the development of conservation plans aimed to ensure its viability. However, the complex life cycle of this panmictic species, which reproduces in the open ocean but spends most of its prereproductive life in continental waters (thus embracing a huge geographic range and a variety of habitat types), makes it difficult to assess the long-term effectiveness of conservation measures. The interplay between local and global stressors raises intriguing cross-scale conservation challenges that require a comprehensive modelling approach to be addressed. We developed a full life cycle model of the global European eel stock, encompassing both the oceanic and the continental phases of eel's life, and explicitly allowing for spatial heterogeneity in vital rates, availability of suitable habitat and settlement potential via a metapopulation approach. We calibrated the model against a long-term time series of global European eel catches and used it to hindcast the dynamics of the stock in the past and project it over the 21st century under different management scenarios. Although our analysis relies on a number of inevitable simplifying assumptions and on data that may not embrace the whole range of variation in population dynamics at the small spatiotemporal scale, our hindcast is consistent with the general pattern of decline of the stock over recent decades. The results of our projections suggest that (i) habitat loss played a major role in the European eel decline; (ii) the viability of the global stock is at risk if appropriate protection measures are not implemented; (iii) the recovery of spawner escapement requires that fishing mortality is significantly reduced; and (iv) the recovery of recruitment might not be feasible if reproductive output is not enhanced.

  15. Aptamer–polymer functionalized silicon nanosubstrates for enhanced recovered circulating tumor cell viability and in vitro chemosensitivity testing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qinglin; Peng, Caixia; Zhan, Yan; Fan, Liang; Wang, Mengyi; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Jue; Lv, Xiaojuan; Tang, Qiu; Li, Jun; Huang, Xiaodong; Xia, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Selection of the optimal chemotherapy regimen for an individual cancer patient is challenging. The existing chemosensitivity tests are costly, time-consuming, and not amenable to wide utilization within a clinic. This limitation might be addressed by the recently proposed use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor response to therapy. Over the past few decades, various techniques were developed to capture and recover CTCs, but these techniques were often limited by a capture and recovery performance tradeoff between high viability and high efficiency. In this work, we used anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule coated aptamer–poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) functionalized silicon nanowire substrates to capture and release epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive CTCs at 32°C and 4°C, respectively. Then, we applied the nuclease to digest the aptamer to release the captured CTCs (near or at the end of the polymer brush), which cannot be released by heating/cooling process. High viability and purity CTCs could be achieved by decreasing the heating/cooling cycles and enzymatic treatment rounds. Furthermore, the time-saving process is helpful to maintain the morphology and enhance vitality of the recovered CTCs and is beneficial to the subsequent cell culture in vitro. We validated the feasibility of chemosensitivity testing based on the recovered HCC827 cells using an adenosine triphosphate–tumor chemosensitivity assay, and the results suggested that our method can determine which agent and what concentration have the best chemosensitivity for the culturing recovered CTCs. So, the novel method capable of a highly effective capture and recovery of high viability CTCs will pave the way for chemosensitivity testing. PMID:27274239

  16. The Viability of Commodity Cartels: The Case of Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeijk, Peter A. G. van

    1989-01-01

    Explains the rise and fall of the oil cartel by applying an elasticity of demand analysis. Beginning from the demand side of the market, offers a simple derivation of the elasticity of demand for the cartel's product. Maintains that method helps undergraduates comprehend basic properties, requiring only an understanding of the elasticities of…

  17. Probabilistic viability calculations for cryopreserving vegetatively propagated collections in genebanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetatively propagated plant collections within genebanks are vulnerable to threats when they are maintained in field or greenhouse conditions. International genebanking standards recommend that these collections be securely backed-up at either secondary locations or by using in vitro culture or cr...

  18. Citrus cyopreservation: viability of diverse taxa and histological observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse citrus cultivars maintained clonally within gene banks serve as valuable resources for research and breeding programs worldwide. These critical collections are kept as trees within field, screenhouse, or greenhouse collections. These ex situ collections are at risk of being lost due to unfor...

  19. Seasonal variation in viability of cryopreserved Vaccinium dormant buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berries of several Vaccinium L (Ericaceae) species have become an integral part of everyday diets of a vast American population. The most economically important are blueberry and cranberry. The USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System maintains over 1,500 accessions of living plants and seeds at a ...

  20. Drosophila Uri, a PP1α binding protein, is essential for viability, maintenance of DNA integrity and normal transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Jasmin; Vissi, Emese; Gross, Sascha; Szoor, Balazs; Rudenko, Andrey; Alphey, Luke; White-Cooper, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is involved in diverse cellular processes, and is targeted to substrates via interaction with many different protein binding partners. PP1 catalytic subunits (PP1c) fall into PP1α and PP1β subfamilies based on sequence analysis, however very few PP1c binding proteins have been demonstrated to discriminate between PP1α and PP1β. Results URI (unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor) is a conserved molecular chaperone implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including the transcriptional response to nutrient signalling and maintenance of DNA integrity. We show that Drosophila Uri binds PP1α with much higher affinity than PP1β, and that this ability to discriminate between PP1c forms is conserved to humans. Most Uri is cytoplasmic, however we found some protein associated with active RNAPII on chromatin. We generated a uri loss of function allele, and show that uri is essential for viability in Drosophila. uri mutants have transcriptional defects, reduced cell viability and differentiation in the germline, and accumulate DNA damage in their nuclei. Conclusion Uri is the first PP1α specific binding protein to be described in Drosophila. Uri protein plays a role in transcriptional regulation. Activity of uri is required to maintain DNA integrity and cell survival in normal development. PMID:18412953

  1. Comparison of the Copan ESwab system with two Amies agar swab transport systems for maintenance of microorganism viability.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Kenneth G; Audette, Carol D; Sebeck, Denise; Tucker, Kelly A

    2008-05-01

    Swab transport systems are used for a variety of specimen types and must maintain organism viability throughout the transport process. The Copan ESwab is a new nylon-flocked swab designed to optimize specimen collection and to minimize entrapment of the specimen. We used the quantitative elution method with recommended strains, as described in CLSI document M40-A, to evaluate the ESwab for maintenance of viability of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for 0, 6, 24, and 48 h during room temperature and refrigerated temperature storage. The Becton Dickinson CultureSwab MaxV swab and the Remel BactiSwab were used as comparators. The ESwab met CLSI acceptance criteria for all aerobic isolates stored at both temperatures and for all anaerobic isolates stored at refrigerated temperature. The ESwab also met CLSI criteria for four of five anaerobic strains at room temperature. Prevotella melaninogenica was not recovered after 24 or 48 h of room temperature storage with any of the three swab transport systems tested. Overall, the ESwab was equivalent to the Becton Dickinson CultureSwab MaxV swab in organism recovery but recovered more isolates than Remel BactiSwab.

  2. Effect of Alendronate with β – TCP Bone Substitute in Surgical Therapy of Periodontal Intra-Osseous Defects: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Vishali; Subbaraya, Dwijendra Kocherlakota; Prasanna, Jammula Surya; Panthula, Veerendranath Reddy; Koduganti, Rekha Rani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alendronate (ALN), an aminobisphosphonate, inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and also stimulates osteogenesis. Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive graft material which provides a scaffold for bone formation and also a widely used drug delivery vehicle for growth factors and antibiotics. Drug delivery vehicles, like β-TCP, improve the potency of the drugs by specific local site delivery of the drug, optimal release characteristics and easy handling. Aim The aim of the this study was to evaluate the bone formation potential of 400μg ALN delivered in β-TCP in the treatment of periodontal intra-osseous defects. Materials and Methods Thirty patients with periodontal defects were randomly assigned to 400μg ALN + β-TCP + Saline (test) group and β-TCP + Saline (active-control) group. Clinical parameters like Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) gain, Probing Depth (PD) reduction, post-operative Gingival Recession (GR) were assessed from the baseline, 3 months and 6 months recordings. Radiographic parameters like Linear Bone Growth (LBG), Percentage Bone Fill (%BF), and change in alveolar crest height (ACH) were assessed from baseline and 6 months radiographs. Results Mean measurements in the ALN test group for CAL gain (3.4 ± 0.74 mm), PD reduction (4.33 ± 0.82 mm), LBG (2.88 ± 0.88 mm), and %BF (51.98 ± 15.84%) were significantly greater with a p-value <0.05 compared to the mean measurements of CAL gain (2.20 ± 0.86 mm), PD reduction (3.20 ± 1.15 mm), LBG (1.70 ± 0.39 mm), and %BF (30.35 ± 6.88%) of the control group. There was mild alveolar crestal apposition (0.32 ± 0.68 mm) in the ALN test group and mild alveolar crestal resorption (-0.24 ± 0.40 mm) in the control group. Conclusion 400μg ALN combined with β-TCP bone graft material was effective in improving soft tissue parameters, inhibiting alveolar crestal resorption and enhancing bone formation, compared to β-TCP alone. PMID:27656552

  3. Role of atmospheric corrosion of aluminum alloys in viability of intrinsic-surface methods for tagging military hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P.S.; Kassner, T.F.

    1991-11-01

    A primary requirement for authentication of tags for military equipment desigated as treaty-limited items (TLIs) is that the surface topograhy of the tag area be maintained after exposure to a variety of atmospheric conditions over many years. This report summarizes the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric as they relate to localized corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloys. The role of impurity species that exacerbate corrison, and that hence may interfere with tag verification, is discussed. Because exposure times for the tag materials are much longer than those practical in laboratory experiments, it is important to understand the kinetics of processes occurring in these alloys and the viability of various protection schemes. General principles and limitations of testing in natural atmospheres and in the laboratory are discussed. Corrosion results indicate that the tag surface must be protected, and a tag protection scheme is proposed.

  4. 22 CFR 171.2 - Types of records maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.2 Types of records maintained. Most of the records maintained by the Department pertain to the formulation and execution of U.S. foreign policy... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of records maintained. 171.2 Section...

  5. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  8. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested...

  9. Robustness and management adaptability in tropical rangelands: a viability-based assessment under the non-equilibrium paradigm.

    PubMed

    Accatino, F; Sabatier, R; De Michele, C; Ward, D; Wiegand, K; Meyer, K M

    2014-08-01

    Rangelands provide the main forage resource for livestock in many parts of the world, but maintaining long-term productivity and providing sufficient income for the rancher remains a challenge. One key issue is to maintain the rangeland in conditions where the rancher has the greatest possibility to adapt his/her management choices to a highly fluctuating and uncertain environment. In this study, we address management robustness and adaptability, which increase the resilience of a rangeland. After reviewing how the concept of resilience evolved in parallel to modelling views on rangelands, we present a dynamic model of rangelands to which we applied the mathematical framework of viability theory to quantify the management adaptability of the system in a stochastic environment. This quantification is based on an index that combines the robustness of the system to rainfall variability and the ability of the rancher to adjust his/her management through time. We evaluated the adaptability for four possible scenarios combining two rainfall regimes (high or low) with two herding strategies (grazers only or mixed herd). Results show that pure grazing is viable only for high-rainfall regimes, and that the use of mixed-feeder herds increases the adaptability of the management. The management is the most adaptive with mixed herds and in rangelands composed of an intermediate density of trees and grasses. In such situations, grass provides high quantities of biomass and woody plants ensure robustness to droughts. Beyond the implications for management, our results illustrate the relevance of viability theory for addressing the issue of robustness and adaptability in non-equilibrium environments.

  10. Effects of pH during liquid storage of goat semen on sperm viability and fertilizing potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-He; Dong, Hai-Bo; Ma, Dong-Li; Li, You-Wei; Han, Dong; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Chang, Zhong-Le; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    A specific problem in goat semen preservation is the detrimental effect of seminal plasma on sperm viability in extenders containing yolk or milk. Thus, the use of chemically defined extenders will have obvious advantages. Although previous studies indicate that the initial pH of an extender is crucial to sustain high sperm motility, changes in extender pH during long-term semen storage have not been observed. Monitoring extender pH at different times of semen storage and modeling its variation according to nonlinear models is thus important for protocol optimization for long-term liquid semen preservation. The present results showed that during long-term liquid storage of goat semen, both sperm motility and semen pH decreased gradually, and a strong correlation was observed between the two. Whereas increasing the initial extender pH from 6.04 to 6.25 or storage with stabilized pH improved, storage with artificially lowered pH impaired sperm motility. Extender renewal improved sperm motility by maintaining a stable pH. Sperm coating with chicken (Gallus gallus) egg yolk improved motility by increasing tolerance to pH decline. A new extender (n-mZAP) with a higher buffering capacity was formulated, and n-mZAP maintained higher sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosome intactness than the currently used mZAP extender did. Goat semen liquid-stored for 12 d in n-mZAP produced pregnancy and kidding rates similar to those obtained with freshly collected semen following artificial insemination. In conclusion, maintenance of a stable pH during liquid semen storage dramatically improved sperm viability and fertilizing potential.

  11. Comparative clinical evaluation of combination anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix (ABM)/cell binding peptide (P-15) and open flap debridement (DEBR) in human periodontal osseous defects: a 6 month pilot study.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Sujatha; Anusuya, C N

    2004-07-01

    A synthetic cell binding peptide (P-15) combined with anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite bone matrix (ABM) was compared to open flap debridement (DEBR) in human periodontal osseous defects. Following initial preparation procedures, two osseous defects per patient were treated randomly with one of the two procedures after surgical preparation. Appropriate periodontal maintenance schedules were followed, and at 6 months clinical and radiographic assessments for soft tissue and hard tissue were performed for documentation and finalization of treatment. Statistical analysis using Student's paired t-test analyses of patient mean value from 10 patients revealed that the combination ABM/P-15 grafts demonstrated significantly better mean defect fill of 3.4+/-1.7 mm (73.2%) versus a mean defect fill of 0.6 mm (15.8%) for defects treated with DEBR. Soft tissue findings showed significant differences among treatments with ABM/P-15 compared to DEBR. These results suggest that the use of the P-15 synthetic cell-binding peptide combined with ABM yields better clinical results than DEBR.

  12. Radiolabeled red cell viability. I. Comparison of /sup 51/Cr, /sup 99m/Tc, and /sup 111/In for measuring the viability of autologous stored red cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.; Demianew, S.H.

    1987-09-01

    The simultaneous determination of autologous /sup 99m/Tc red cell (RBC) and /sup 51/Cr RBC viability at 24 hours was measured in 19 normal volunteers whose RBCs had been stored in additive media (Nutracel) for 42 or 49 days. The ratio of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 99m/Tc value was 1.23. In this experiment we also calculated /sup 51/Cr RBC viability by both the single-isotope method (extrapolation) and the double-isotope method (using /sup 125/I human serum albumin for an independent plasma volume) in the same volunteers. The corresponding viability values were not significantly different. The simultaneous determination of autologous /sup 111/In-oxine RBC and /sup 51/Cr RBC viability at 24 hours was measured in 19 other normal volunteers whose RBCs had been stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) for 1 or 15 days. The ratio of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 111/In value was 1.1. Use of these 24-hour viability ratios as conversion factors permits direct comparison of /sup 99m/Tc or /sup 111/In RBC viability with a /sup 51/Cr standard, and therefore expands the application of these newer RBC radiolabels.

  13. Cytoglobin modulates myogenic progenitor cell viability and muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvjeet; Canseco, Diana C; Manda, Shilpa M; Shelton, John M; Chirumamilla, Rajendra R; Goetsch, Sean C; Ye, Qiu; Gerard, Robert D; Schneider, Jay W; Richardson, James A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Mammen, Pradeep P A

    2014-01-07

    Mammalian skeletal muscle can remodel, repair, and regenerate itself by mobilizing satellite cells, a resident population of myogenic progenitor cells. Muscle injury and subsequent activation of myogenic progenitor cells is associated with oxidative stress. Cytoglobin is a hemoprotein expressed in response to oxidative stress in a variety of tissues, including striated muscle. In this study, we demonstrate that cytoglobin is up-regulated in activated myogenic progenitor cells, where it localizes to the nucleus and contributes to cell viability. siRNA-mediated depletion of cytoglobin from C2C12 myoblasts increased levels of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death both at baseline and in response to stress stimuli. Conversely, overexpression of cytoglobin reduced reactive oxygen species levels, caspase activity, and cell death. Mice in which cytoglobin was knocked out specifically in skeletal muscle were generated to examine the role of cytoglobin in vivo. Myogenic progenitor cells isolated from these mice were severely deficient in their ability to form myotubes as compared with myogenic progenitor cells from wild-type littermates. Consistent with this finding, the capacity for muscle regeneration was severely impaired in mice deficient for skeletal-muscle cytoglobin. Collectively, these data demonstrate that cytoglobin serves an important role in muscle repair and regeneration.

  14. Viability and heat resistance of murine norovirus on bread.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Michiko; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2016-01-04

    Contaminated bread was the cause of a large-scale outbreak of norovirus disease in Japan in 2014. Contamination of seafood and uncooked food products by norovirus has been reported several times in the past; however the outbreak resulting from the contamination of bread products was unusual. A few reports on the presence of norovirus on bread products are available; however there have been no studies on the viability and heat resistance of norovirus on breads, which were investigated in this study. ce:italic>/ce:italic> strain 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, was inoculated directly on 3 types of bread, but the infectivity of MNV-1 on bread samples was almost unchanged after 5days at 20°C. MNV-1 was inoculated on white bread that was subsequently heated in a toaster for a maximum of 2min. The results showed that MNV-1 remained viable if the heating period was insufficient to inactivate. In addition, bread dough contaminated with MNV-1 was baked in the oven. Our results indicated that MNV-1 may remain viable on breads if the heating duration or temperature is insufficient.

  15. [Effect of temperature on the viability of Trichinella spiralis larvae].

    PubMed

    Randazzo, Viviana R; La Sala, Luciano F; Costamagna, Sixto R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of temperature on the viability of free and encysted larvae of Trichinella spiralis from southwest Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Larvae were treated at variable temperatures (-30 °C, -20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, gradual heating between 0-100 °C). The time necessary to kill 100 % of larvae was calculated. During the first days of freezing, larval mortality significantly increased as a function of time. Regardless of temperature, encysted larvae survived longer than the free ones. At -30 °C, -20 °C, and 20 °C there were no significant differences between the survival curves for each larval stage. At 4 °C, mortality was less severe for encysted larvae. All free and encysted larvae died at 61 days and 95 days (-30 °C), 160 days and 180 days (-20 °C), 280 days and 330 days (4 °C) and 460 days and 590 days (20 °C), respectively. Cooking at 90 °C and 100 °C during 15 minutes killed 100 % of free and encysted larvae, respectively. Our results suggest that temperatures and exposure times traditionally used to treat meat products with a potential to transmit T. spiralis are not entirely efficient.

  16. Population viability of the Snake River chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emlen, John M.

    1995-01-01

    In the presence of historical data, population viability models of intermediate complexity can be parameterized and utilized to project the consequences of various management actions for endangered species. A general stochastic population dynamics model with density feedback, age structure, and autocorrelated environmental fluctuations was constructed and parameterized for best fit over 36 years of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) redd count data in five Idaho index streams. Simulations indicate that persistence of the Snake River spring chinook salmon population depends primarily on density-independent mortality. Improvement of rearing habitat, predator control, reduced fishing pressure, and improved dam passage all would alleviate density-independent mortality. The current value of the Ricker α should provide for a continuation of the status quo. A recovery of the population to 1957–1961 levels within 100 years would require an approximately 75% increase in survival and (or) fecundity. Manipulations of the Ricker β are likely to have little or no effect on persistence versus extinction, but considerable influence on population size.

  17. Demographic rates and population viability of black bears in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Clark, Joseph D.; Hooker, Michael J.; Lowe, Carrie L.; O'Connell-Goode, Kaitlin C.; Troxler, Jesse C.; Davidson, Maria M.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Chandler, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    observed 43 yearling litters for 33 females in the TRB and 21 yearling litters for 19 females in the TRC. The estimated number of cubs and number of yearlings produced per breeding adult female was 0.47 and 0.20, respectively, in the TRB and 0.32 and 0.18 in the TRC. On the basis of matrix projection models, asymptotic growth rates ranged from 1.053 to 1.078 for the TRB and from 1.005 to 1.062 for the TRC, depending on how we treated unresolved fates of adult females. Persistence probabilities estimated from stochastic population models based on telemetry data ranged from 0.997 to 0.998 for the TRC subpopulation depending on model assumptions and were >0.999 for the TRB regardless of model assumptions. We extracted DNA from hair collected at baited, barbed-wire enclosures in the TRB, UARB, and LARB to determine individual identities for capture-mark-recapture (CMR) analysis. We used those detection histories to estimate apparent survival (φ), per-capita recruitment (f), abundance (N), realized growth rate (λ), and long-term viability, based on Bayesian hierarchical modeling methods that allowed estimation of temporal process variance and parameter uncertainty. Based on 23,312 hair samples, annual N for females in the TRB ranged from 133 to 164 during 2006–2012, depending on year and how detection heterogeneity was modeled. Geometric mean of λ ranged from 0.996 to 1.002. In the UARB, we collected 11,643 hair samples from 2007 to 2012, from which estimates of N for females ranged from 23 to 43 during the study period, depending on detection heterogeneity model. The geometric mean of λ ranged from 1.038 to 1.059. Estimated N for females in LARB ranged from 69 to 96, and annual λ ranged from 0.80 to 1.11 based on 3,698 hair samples collected during 2010–2012, also depending on year and heterogeneity model. Probabilities of persistence over 100 years for the TRC and TRB based on stochastic matrix projection models that used vital rate estimates from telemetry data were

  18. The viability of photovoltaics on the Martian surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

    1994-01-01

    The viability of photovoltaics (PV) on the Martian surface may be determined by their ability to withstand significant degradation in the Martian environment. Probably the greatest threat is posed by fine dust particles which are continually blown about the surface of the planet. In an effort to determine the extent of the threat, and to investigate some abatement strategies, a series of experiments were conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at NASA Ames Research Center. The effects of dust composition, particle size, wind velocity, angle of attack, and protective coatings on the transmittance of light through PV coverglass were determined. Both initially clear and initially dusted samples were subjected both to clear winds and simulated dust storms in the MARSWIT. It was found that wind velocity, particle size, and angle of attack are important parameters affecting occlusion of PV surfaces, while dust composition and protective coatings were not. Neither induced turbulence nor direct current biasing up to 200 volts were effective abatement techniques. Abrasion diffused the light impinging on the PV cells, but did not reduce total coverglass transmittance by more than a few percent.

  19. On the viability of quintessential inflation models from observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that primordial density fluctuations are nearly Gaussian, from a frequentist viewpoint, the two-dimensional marginalized joint coincidence contour in the plane (n_s,r) (being n_s the spectral index and r the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations), without the presence of running is often used to test the viability of the inflationary models. The models that provide, between 50 and 60 e-folds, a curve in that plane lying outside the 95.5% C.L are ruled out. I will basically argue that, in quintessential inflation, this low number of e-folds is unjustified, and that models leading to a theoretical value of the running different from zero must be checked with observational data allowing the running. When both prescriptions are taken into account, dealing in the context of quintessential inflation, i.e. when the potential is a combination of an inflationary with a quintessential one that leads to a kination (also called deflation) regime, inflationary models such as the quartic or the Higgs potential are allowed.

  20. Nuclear hydrogen : an assessment of product flexibility and market viability.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Yildiz, B.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies.