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Sample records for maintain osseous viability

  1. Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.

    PubMed Central

    Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

    1992-01-01

    One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi. PMID:1572955

  2. Viability and economics of building or purchasing, driving and maintaining an electric car

    SciTech Connect

    Tauber, L.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the viability and economics of building or purchasing, driving and maintaining an electric car for commuting in the 90`s and beyond. Currently there are mandates in place that require that by the year 1998, two percent of the vehicles sold in California be {open_quotes}Zero Emission Vehicles{close_quotes} (ZEV). This same mandate has been imposed in many of the New England states as well. The {open_quotes}Big Three{close_quotes} automakers have answered with electric cars that surpass the $40,000 mark. What can the average person do, who wants to drive an electric car, but can`t afford these expensive prototypes? This paper will describe one approach to building an affordable electric car, with excellent performance and range. Additionally, there will be actual examples of these cars, using the design techniques outlined in this paper.

  3. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells adjust the metabolism to maintain viability in response to atrazine stress.

    PubMed

    Esperanza, Marta; Seoane, Marta; Rioboo, Carmen; Herrero, Concepción; Cid, Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were exposed to a sublethal concentration of the widespread herbicide atrazine for 3 and 24h. Physiological parameters related to cellular energy status, such as cellular activity and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic membrane potentials, monitored by flow cytometry, were altered in microalgal cells exposed to 0.25μM of atrazine. Transcriptomic analyses, carried out by RNA-Seq technique, displayed 12 differentially expressed genes between control cultures and atrazine-exposed cultures at both tested times. Many cellular processes were affected, but the most significant changes were observed in genes implicated in amino acid catabolism and respiratory cellular process. Obtained results suggest that photosynthesis inhibition by atrazine leads cells to get energy through a heterotrophic metabolism to maintain their viability.

  4. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are able to maintain their viability and basic function in normal urine

    PubMed Central

    Aghamajidi, Azin; Babaie, Hesam; Amirjamshidi, Narges; Abedian, Zeinab; Khorasani, Hamidreza; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Similar to inflammatory cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can also infiltrate in to kidney and urinary tracts and subsequently excreted by urine. In this study we determined the viability rate and response to phytohemagglutinin-A (PHA) of human PBMCs in normal urine. Methods: A number of 1×106 ficoll-hypaque isolated PBMCs were dispensed in 1 ml normal urine and 6 molar urea and RPMI-1640+FBS10 % were considered as negative and positive control, respectively. After 20, 60 and 120 minutes the viability of these cells was measured by trypan blue dye exclusion assay. 1×105 of PBMCs were isolated from urine and cultured as triplicate in RPMI-1640`supplemented with FBS 10% and PHA for 96hr. MTT assay was performed to determine the PBMCs response to PHA. These experiments were repeated three times independently. Results: There was no significant difference between the viability rates of the PBMCs incubated in urine and positive control after 20, 60 and 120 minutes. Overall, there was a significant difference in trends of viability rate across the three groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that not only PBMCs remained remarkably alive in urine after 120 minutes, but can also respond to PHA up to 60 minutes after incubation in urine. These data open a new avenue in the designation for cell culture-based techniques in urine cell analysis. PMID:26958332

  5. Florid osseous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shivani; Shetty, Subraj; Bablani, Deepika; Kulkarni, Sandip; Kumar, Vinay; Desai, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    The concept of ‘fibro-osseous lesions’ of bone has evolved over the last several decades and now includes two major entities, viz., fibrous dysplasia and ossifying fibroma, as well as other less common entities such as periapical dysplasia, focal osseous dysplasia, florid osseous dysplasia and familial gigantiform cementoma. Florid osseous dysplasia is a central lesion of the bone and periodontium, which has caused considerable controversy because of confusion regarding terminology and criteria for diagnosis. This paper reports a rare case of florid osseous dysplasia affecting maxilla and mandible bilaterally in a 14-year-old Indian male patient. PMID:22529580

  6. Sperm Viability Assessment over elapsing time maintained at 2 degrees C of orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea (Herbst, 1796).

    PubMed

    Ikhwanuddin, M; Muhd-Farouk, H; Memon, A J; Wendy, W; Abol-Munafi, A B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how long the fresh sperm maintained at 2 degrees C would be utilized for fishery management. The study was conducted every 2 h to assess the sperm viability of orange mud crab Scylla olivacea. Evaluations were conducted as 3 treatments; T1, T2 and T3. In T1, the live specimens were sacrificed; for T2, only spermatophores were extracted and for T3 spermatophore extraction followed by homogenization to create a sperm suspension. All samples were stored with ice in an insulated box was keep fresh longer at 2 degrees C. The time '0' referred the immediate collection of sperm after the specimen was sacrificed. Spermatophore viability was determined using the sperm suspension by eosin-nigrosin staining method. Sperm viability for the fresh sample at time zero was 97.36 ± 0.53%. Viability of the sperm significantly decreased in the 2nd h in all treatments, T1 was 44.66 ± 0.54 to 4.2 ± 0.22% at 16 and 18th h, T2 was 36.56 ± 0.5 to 2.69 ± 0.06% at the 12 and 14th h and T3 was 33.69 ± 1.26 to 6.4 ± 0.29% at 8 and 10th h. In comparison, T1 showed significantly higher than other treatments (p < 0.05). Extremely low viability percentages were recorded in T3. This study also proved that the time elapse had significant impact on the percentage of viable sperm count. PMID:26031028

  7. Florid osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Verma, Sankalp; Singh, Udita; Agarwal, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Florid osseous dysplasia (FOD) is the most dramatic and rare variant of the cemento-osseous lesions in which the normal cancellous bone is replaced by dense, acellular cemento-osseous tissue in a background of fibrous connective tissue. It appears to be a widespread form of periapical cemental dysplasia (PCD). No clear definition indicates that when the multiple lesions of PCD can be termed as FOD. If PCD is identified in three or four quadrants or is extensive in one jaw, then it is considered as FOD. Here, in this article, we report a case of FOD in 35-year-old woman. PMID:23814216

  8. Osseous genioplasty: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sanjeev N.; Munoli, Amarnath V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The chin (mentum) is vital to the human facial morphology as it contributes to the facial aesthetics and harmony both on frontal and lateral views. Osseous genioplasty, the alteration of the chin through skeletal modification, can lead to significant enhancement of the overall facial profile. Aim and Study Design: A case series was designed to study the long-term results of osseous genioplasty in Indian patients with regard to patient satisfaction, complications, and long-term stability. Materials and Methods: All subjects who underwent osseous genioplasty either alone or as a component of orthognathic surgery between January 1992 and December 2010, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, were included. The genioplasty was performed using standard protocols of assessment and execution. Post-operative evaluation included patient satisfaction, complications and radiological evidence of long-term stability. A comprehensive score was formulated for the purpose of the study. Results: Thirty-seven subjects underwent osseous genioplasty with at least 2 years of follow-up in the study period. This included 17 male and 20 female subjects, with a mean age of 22.8 years (15-52 years) and a mean follow-up of 3 years 4 months (2 years to 4 years and 11 months). Nineteen subjects underwent isolated genioplasty while 18 underwent genioplasty as a part of orthognathic surgery. The procedures included advancement (22), pushback (9), side-to-side (4) and vertical reduction (2) genioplasty. Thirty-six subjects (97.3%) were extremely pleased with the results with only one subject expressing reservations, without, however, demanding any further procedure. There were no significant complications. The osteotomised segment was well maintained in its new position with good bony union and minimal resorption. Overall, 35 (94.6%) cases had excellent results and 2 (4.4%) cases had good results, according to the comprehensive score. Conclusions: Osseous genioplasty is a safe and

  9. Temporalis myo-osseous flap: an experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Antonyshyn, O.; Colcleugh, R.G.; Hurst, L.N.; Anderson, C.

    1986-03-01

    The present paper investigates the anatomy and vascularization of the temporalis myo-osseous flap. This is a calvarial bone flap that employs temporalis muscle and its distal pericranial extension as a pedicle. In six human cadavers the flap was raised as an island on the anterior deep temporal artery after transecting the zygomatic arch and coronoid process. Maximal mobilization was thus obtained, allowing rotation of the flap into the mouth for intraoral reconstruction. The arc of rotation and potential surgical applications were noted. A comparative study of the temporalis myo-osseous flap and free calvarial bone graft was then conducted in a rabbit model. Vascularization of the calvarial bone flap was confirmed by technetium scintigraphy performed on the first postoperative day. The uptake of fluorochrome labels immediately after transfer verified the adequacy of the periosteal circulation in maintaining viability and new osteoid formation throughout the full thickness of calvarial bone. The transplantation of free calvarial bone grafts was followed by necrosis of most cellular elements. This was demonstrated by an absence of fluorochrome uptake up to 19 days postoperatively and a predominance of empty lacunae and nonviable marrow.

  10. Palatal Osseous Choristoma.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Ando, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Osseous choristoma of soft tissue in the oral cavity is rare. The choristoma is a tumor-like mass of normal cells in an abnormal location. In this report, a case of osseous choristoma of the palate in a 37-year-old male patient was reported. Approximately 6 × 5 mm pedunculated healthy colored and hard mass was observed in the median palate. The mass was surgically removed. Microscopic examination of the hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the mass revealed that a dense lamellar bone nodule was surrounded by fibrous connective tissue under the squamous epithelium. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the mass was negative for S-100 protein, cytokeratin, and epithelial membrane antigens. According to these findings, the final pathologic diagnosis confirmed that the mass was an osseous choristoma.

  11. Epipalpebral conjunctival osseous choristoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, J M; Yanoff, M

    1979-01-01

    Two cases of osseous choristoma are described. One of the tumours was found in the conjunctiva of the right lower lid, an apparently unique location. The other more typical epibulbar tumour was found in the superior temporal quadrant of the episclera between the lateral and superior rectus muscles. In both instances the tumour was suspected of being a dermoid. Images PMID:435428

  12. Integrated watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability.

    PubMed

    Ghebremichael, Lula T; Veith, Tamie L; Hamlett, James M

    2013-01-15

    environmental mitigation at the farm- and watershed-levels. This paper also outlines steps needed to extract important CSA-related information from a watershed model to help inform targeting decisions at the farm scale. The modeling framework is demonstrated with two unique case studies in the northeastern United States (New York and Vermont), with supporting data from numerous published, location-specific studies at both the watershed and farm scales. Using the integrated modeling framework, it can be possible to compare the costs (in terms of changes required in farm system components or financial compensations for retiring crop lands) and benefits (in terms of measurable water quality improvement goals) of implementing targeted BMPs. This multi-scale modeling approach can be used in the multi-objective task of mitigating CSAs of pollution to meet water quality goals while maintaining farm-level economic viability.

  13. The epididymal sperm viability, motility and DNA integrity in dead mice maintained at 4-6oC

    PubMed Central

    Golshan Iranpour, Farhad; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Background: When male animals die, spermatozoa within the body of animal will be degenerated. Because of unique chromatin structure of sperm, maybe this degeneration is different from other cells. However there is not any research which considered directly the integrity of sperm DNA by keeping the cadaver in refrigerator. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess viability, total motility and DNA integrity of sperm cells after death. Materials and Methods:In this experimental study, 24 male Swiss white mice were killed by cervical dislocation and then kept in refrigerator (4-6oC) for up to 12 days. On the 0 (immediately after death as control group), 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th and the 12th days after death cauda epididymides were removed and squeezed in Ham’s F10 medium. The proportion of viable, motile and double stranded DNA spermatozoa was examined. Viability and DNA integrity of sperm cells were examined consecutively by eosin nigrosin and acridine orange stainings. Results:The data obtained from this study showed that viability and total motility of sperm cells were significantly decreased during 12 days after death (p<0.001). In contrast with viability and motility, DNA integrity was without significant changes (even 12 days after death). Conclusion:This study suggests that integrity of sperm DNA would not change even after 12 days after death if the cadaver kept in refrigerator. PMID:24639746

  14. Dental management of florid cemento-osseous dysplosia.

    PubMed

    Sadda, Raid S; Phelan, Joan

    2014-04-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia encompasses several different clinical and radiographic presentations, including periapical, focal and florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD). FCOD is usually asymptomatic and discovered only fortuitously. No treatment is required unless the lesion is secondarily infected. Oral hygiene advice should be emphasized for patients with FCOD to prevent caries and periodontal diseases and to maintain natural teeth. Osseointegration of implants would likely not be successful in these patients because the bone is abnormal and not well-vascularized. PMID:24933769

  15. Dental management of florid cemento-osseous dysplosia.

    PubMed

    Sadda, Raid S; Phelan, Joan

    2014-04-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia encompasses several different clinical and radiographic presentations, including periapical, focal and florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD). FCOD is usually asymptomatic and discovered only fortuitously. No treatment is required unless the lesion is secondarily infected. Oral hygiene advice should be emphasized for patients with FCOD to prevent caries and periodontal diseases and to maintain natural teeth. Osseointegration of implants would likely not be successful in these patients because the bone is abnormal and not well-vascularized.

  16. [Osseous tumors of the jaw].

    PubMed

    Reychler, H

    1988-01-01

    The osseous tumors of the jaw bones are relatively rare but very oft malignant. This work analyses the different epidemiological, clinical, radiological, histological and therapeutic features of the benign and malignant osseous tumors of the jaw bones, with regard to the most recent literature. The described benign tumors are the osteoma and osteomatosis, the osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma, the desmo-osteoblastoma and the exostosis. The osteosarcoma is the unique malignant osseous tumor encountered.

  17. Evaluation and comparison of efficacy of three different storage media, coconut water, propolis, and oral rehydration solution, in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Tulsi; Shah, Nimisha; Parekh, Vaishali; Singbal, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two of the most critical factors affecting the prognosis of an avulsed tooth after replantation are extra oral dry time and the storage medium in which the tooth is placed before treatment is rendered. However, the ability of a storage/transport medium to support cell viability can be more important than the extra oral time to prevent ankylosis and replacement resorption. Aim: Purpose of this study was evaluation and comparison of efficacy of a new storage medium, oral rehydration solution (ORS) with coconut water, and propolis in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells by using a collagenase-dispase assay. Materials and Methods: 40 teeth were selected with intact crown which were advised for Orthodontic extraction having healthy PDL. Teeth were then randomly divided into three experimental storage solution groups. Other 10 were divided into positive and negative control groups (5 each). Statistical Analysis and Result: The results were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance and multiple range by using post hoc tests. The results of the prevailing study indicated that coconut water group demonstrated a significantly higher number of viable PDL cells than propolis 50%, and ORS. There was no significant difference between coconut water and propolis 50% groups. PMID:23349581

  18. Biomaterials in periodontal osseous defects

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Nand; Dixit, Jaya

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Osseous defects in periodontal diseases require osseous grafts and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) using barrier membranes. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to clinically evaluate the osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA), cissus quadrangularis (CQ), and oxidized cellulose membrane (OCM) and compare with normal bone healing. Materials and Methods Twenty subjects with periodontitis in the age group ranging from 20 years to 40 years were selected from our outpatient department on the basis of presence of deep periodontal pockets, clinical probing depth ≥5 mm, vertical osseous defects obvious on radiograph and two- or three-walled involvement seen on surgical exposure. Infrabony defects were randomly divided into four groups on the basis of treatment to be executed, such that each group comprised 5 defects. Group I was control, II received HA, III received CQ and IV received OCM. Probing depth and attachment level were measured at regular months after surgery. Defects were re-exposed using crevicular incisions at 6 months. Results There was gradual reduction in the mean probing pocket depth in all groups, but highly significant in the site treated with HA. Gain in attachment level was higher in sites treated with HA, 3.2 mm at 6 months. Conclusion Hydroxyapatite and OCM showed good reduction in pocket depth, attachment level gain and osseous defect fill. Further study should be conducted by using a combination of HA and OCM in periodontal osseous defects with growth factors and stem cells. PMID:25756030

  19. Radioisotope scanning in osseous sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-labeled pyrophosphate or diphosphonate compounds and gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) are two radionuclide scanning agents that are in widespread use in clinical practice. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate is used extensively for bone scanning to detect metastatic bone disease, benign bone tumors, osteomyelitis, benign hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, and Paget's disease. Only two reports describe abnormal /sup 99m/Tc/ pyrophosphate bone scans in four patients with osseous sarcoidosis. Gallium-67 scans are used primarily to localize neoplastic or inflammatory lesions anywhere in the body. In recent years /sup 67/Ga scans have also been used to detect the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, but there are no reports describing abnormal uptake of gallium in patients with osseous sarcoidosis. This report describes experience with radioisotope scanning in two patients with osseous sarcoidosis.

  20. Extra osseous primary Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Asad; Muhammad, Agha Taj; Soomro, Abdul Ghani; Siddiqui, Akmal Jamal

    2010-01-01

    The case of 20 years old boy with an extra osseous Ewing's sarcoma is described. He was initially diagnosed as a case of infiltrative malignant tumour of left suprarenal gland on the basis of preoperative workup but postoperative biopsy of surgically excised specimen confirmed Extra-osseous Ewing's Sarcoma (EES) suprarenal gland with no evidence of malignancy on skeletal scintiscan, bone marrow aspirate and histopathology Suprarenal location of primary EES is unknown and probably has not been reported in literature. We report a unique case of EES.

  1. Simultaneous osseous genioplasty and meloplasty.

    PubMed

    Wider, T M; Spiro, S A; Wolfe, S A

    1997-04-01

    A review was done of the records of 50 patients who had osseous genioplasty performed at the same sitting as face lifting and, in many cases, submental lipectomy over a 20-year period by the senior author. The types of genioplasties were sliding advancement (40), lengthening with interpositional bone graft (7), and reduction (3). In 9 patients, chin implants were removed, generally because of inadequate chin projection or implant erosion. Three patients were operated on under local anesthesia, the remainder under general anesthesia. Associated procedures, done in 46 patients, included rhinoplasty, forehead lifting, blepharoplasty, lateral canthopexy, excision of buccal fat pads, reduction mammaplasty, and abdominoplasty. In 4 patients, associated maxillofacial procedures were performed, including Le Fort I and III osteotomies, two-jaw surgery, mandibular advancement with sagittal splitting, and orbital expansion. The perceived advantages of osseous genioplasty were greater versatility in dealing with problems in other than the sagittal plane, the possibility of greater chin projection, and a tightening of the submental musculature. Complications occurred in 10 patients. These included two hematomas requiring aspiration in the office, a prolapsed submandibular gland requiring later excision, a transient weakness of the marginal mandibular nerve, a transient numbness of the lower lip on one side, four revisions of scars resulting from the face lifting, and one localized wound infection in the parasymphyseal area that resolved with oral antibiotics. The most common complaint, which came from 8 female patients at some time from 1 month to 3 years postoperatively, was that the chin was "too strong." In 6 of these patients, most of whom were operated on early in the series, some of the chin projection was reduced by burring. Osseous genioplasty can be performed safely along with face lifting and submental lipectomy. The degree of advancement necessary in aesthetic

  2. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Das, Bijay Kumar; Das, Surya Narayan; Gupta, Aprna; Nayak, Suryakanti

    2013-01-01

    Floridcemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a"fibro-osseouslesion" that characteristically affects the jaw bones of the middle-aged with multi-quadrant radiopaque cementum-like masses. In thepast, the condition was known with a variety of names causing confusion in diagnosis and treatment. The condition is usually asymptomatic and needs no treatment as such. The diagnosis of FCOD is made on the basis of typical clinico-radiological features and biopsy is usually not recommended due to the risk of postoperative infection. This paper reports a rare case of FCOD affecting mandible bilaterally in a forty-two years old woman. PMID:23798858

  3. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Das, Bijay Kumar; Das, Surya Narayan; Gupta, Aprna; Nayak, Suryakanti

    2013-01-01

    Floridcemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a"fibro-osseouslesion" that characteristically affects the jaw bones of the middle-aged with multi-quadrant radiopaque cementum-like masses. In thepast, the condition was known with a variety of names causing confusion in diagnosis and treatment. The condition is usually asymptomatic and needs no treatment as such. The diagnosis of FCOD is made on the basis of typical clinico-radiological features and biopsy is usually not recommended due to the risk of postoperative infection. This paper reports a rare case of FCOD affecting mandible bilaterally in a forty-two years old woman.

  4. Odontogenic squamous cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J H; Jones, J; Speight, P M

    1993-07-01

    Intra-osseous carcinomas of the jaw are rare tumours, thought to arise from residual elements of the odontogenic epithelium. We report an additional case which, unusually, was characterised by marked osseous metaplasia. We propose that the new bone formed around the tumour is the result of an epithelial-mesenchymal interaction between malignant odontogenic epithelium and osteogenic precursor cells in the surrounding stroma.

  5. Osseous sarcoidosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kuzyshyn, Halyna; Feinstein, David; Kolasinski, Sharon L; Eid, Hala

    2015-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder characterized by noncaseating granulomas infiltrating affected organs. Any organ system can be involved, and more than 90 % of patients have a primary pulmonary manifestation. The incidence of radiographically evident bone involvement has been reported over a wide range: from 3 to 39 % depending on the population studied and imaging modalities used. Any bone may be affected in osseous sarcoidosis. Bilateral involvement of the phalanges of the hand and feet is most common. However, reports of long bone, skull, rib and vertebral involvement have appeared. To date, there are no specific tools for the assessment of skeletal disease activity in sarcoidosis. Plain radiograph picks lesions in the small bones of hands and feet greater than does in other bones. Bone scan is useful for defining the extent of the skeletal disease and bone marrow involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging usually demonstrates multifocal lesions within the vertebrae that are hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. In cases of multifocal bone lesions and an established diagnosis of sarcoidosis, a diagnosis of bone sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Optimal treatment of osseous sarcoidosis remains controversial. We present five cases of multisystem sarcoidosis with skeletal involvement including long bones and vertebrae and a description of immunosuppressive therapies used in our patients. A literature review highlighting the diagnostic approach using radiographic imaging, as well as treatment strategies, is provided.

  6. Extraribosomal Functions Associated with the C Terminus of the 37/67 kDa Laminin Receptor are Required for Maintaining Cell Viability

    SciTech Connect

    J Scheiman; K Jamieson; J Ziello; J Tseng; D Meruelo

    2011-12-31

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LAMR) is a multifunctional protein, acting as an extracellular receptor, localizing to the nucleus, and playing roles in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. LAMR is important for cell viability; however, it is unclear which of its functions are essential. We developed a silent mutant LAMR construct, resistant to siRNA, to rescue the phenotypic effects of knocking down endogenous LAMR, which include inhibition of protein synthesis, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In addition, we generated a C-terminal-truncated silent mutant LAMR construct structurally homologous to the Archaeoglobus fulgidus S2 ribosomal protein and missing the C-terminal 75 residues of LAMR, which displays more sequence divergence. We found that HT1080 cells stably expressing either silent mutant LAMR construct still undergo arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle when treated with siRNA. However, the expression of full-length silent mutant LAMR rescues cell viability, whereas the expression of the C-terminal-truncated LAMR does not. Interestingly, we also found that both silent mutant constructs restore protein translation and localize to the nucleus. Our findings indicate that the ability of LAMR to regulate viability is associated with its C-terminal 75 residues. Furthermore, this function is distinct from its role in cell proliferation, independent of its ribosomal functions, and may be regulated by a nonnuclear localization.

  7. Glaucoma in oculo-dento-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, E I; Parks, M M

    1990-03-15

    Two patients with oculo-dento-osseous dysplasia developed glaucoma in infancy or early childhood. Aggressive surgical management resulted in the preservation of vision in both patients in at least one eye. A review of published reports disclosed that glaucoma in oculo-dento-osseous dysplasia develops at different ages and is possibly secondary to a variety of mechanisms. Glaucoma is the main cause of visual loss in this syndrome, for which patients otherwise have a good prognosis for life and intellect. Early screening for glaucoma in oculo-dento-osseous dysplasia is mandatory, especially when there are symptoms that suggest high intraocular pressure.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: progressive osseous heteroplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and muscle tissue. Bone that forms outside the skeleton is called heterotopic or ectopic bone. In progressive ... preventing bony tissue from being produced outside the skeleton. The GNAS gene mutations that cause progressive osseous ...

  9. Osseous choristoma of the lateral canthus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif O; Al-Hussein, Hailah; Al-Katan, Hind

    2007-10-01

    Ocular osseous choristoma, a rare idiopathic benign deposit of bone, is typically a static epibulbar lesion that occurs sporadically in the supertemporal quadrant of an otherwise normal eye. The subject of this report is a unique U-shaped subcutaneous osseous choristoma that did not involve the eye itself but rather conformed to the right lateral canthus in an otherwise normal 2-year-old boy.

  10. SREBP maintains lipid biosynthesis and viability of cancer cells under lipid- and oxygen-deprived conditions and defines a gene signature associated with poor survival in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C A; Brault, C; Peck, B; Bensaad, K; Griffiths, B; Mitter, R; Chakravarty, P; East, P; Dankworth, B; Alibhai, D; Harris, A L; Schulze, A

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen and nutrient limitation are common features of the tumor microenvironment and are associated with cancer progression and induction of metastasis. The inefficient vascularization of tumor tissue also limits the penetration of other serum-derived factors, such as lipids and lipoproteins, which can be rate limiting for cell proliferation and survival. Here we have investigated the effect of hypoxia and serum deprivation on sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activity and the expression of lipid metabolism genes in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer cells. We found that SREBP transcriptional activity was induced by serum depletion both in normoxic and hypoxic cells and that activation of SREBP was required to maintain the expression of fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism genes under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, the enzyme required for the generation of mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and fatty acid-binding protein 7, a regulator of glioma stem cell function, was strongly dependent on SREBP function. Inhibition of SREBP function blocked lipid biosynthesis in hypoxic cancer cells and impaired cell survival under hypoxia and in a three-dimensional spheroid model. Finally, gene expression analysis revealed that SREBP defines a gene signature that is associated with poor survival in glioblastoma. PMID:25619842

  11. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia of mandible.

    PubMed

    Cankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Olgac, Vakur; Firat, Deniz Refia

    2012-09-03

    Fibro-osseous lesions are disturbances in bone metabolism in which normal bone is replaced by a connective tissue matrix that then gradually develops into cemento-osseous tissue. Typically, the lesion is asymptomatic and is detected on routine radiographic examination. Radiologically, this lesion has three stages of maturation: pure radiolucent, radiopaque/mixed radiolucent, and radiopaque appearance. During these stages the lesion can be misdiagnosed. In this case report a 69-year- old patient with a a complaint of painless swelling of the left mandibular molar and premolar area is presented along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  12. Advanced imaging of osseous maxillary clefts.

    PubMed

    Boyne, P J; Christiansen, E L; Thompson, J R

    1993-01-01

    A computed tomographic (CT) technique to establish precise two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) images of the osseous defects of cleft palates is presented and illustrated by two case studies. Prospective soft tissue algorithms and bone detail imaging was made possible by a retrospective program, a specific software program and vertical reformatting technique leading to 3-D image reconstruction. The two cases illustrate the flexibility of the CT program in accurately providing morphometric and bone density data on the location and size of the osseous defects involved in the cleft. Not every cleft palate patient is a candidate for the procedures outlined; however, the diagnosis of and treatment planning for patients presenting with bilateral or extensive osseous clefting can be more accurate.

  13. Dento-osseous anomalies associated to familial adenomatous polyposis mimicking florid cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabiana Tolentino; Leite, André Ferreira; de Souza Figueiredo, Paulo Tadeu; Melo, Nilce Santos; Sousa, João Batista; Almeida, Rômulo; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Silva Guerra, Eliete Neves

    2012-12-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal cancer syndrome characterized by the development of multiple polyps of the colon and rectum with high risk of malignant transformation. The extraintestinal manifestations such as dento-osseous changes are associated with FAP. This is a case report of a 36-year-old female patient who was referred for dental treatment with the initial diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD). However, the association of the imaging dento-osseous findings with the medical history confirmed the diagnosis of FAP. The paper illustrates the clinical characteristics and imaging findings associated with FAP, and also discusses misdiagnosis based exclusively on imaging features.

  14. Bone grafting in the surgical management of osseous neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Leonheart, E E; Mendicino, R W

    1996-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of osseous neoplasms are challenges for the foot and ankle surgeon. Osseous neoplasms are potentially debilitating, thus appropriate diagnosis and management are critical to success. Resection of these lesions can result in large osseous deficits, requiring bone grafting for replacement. The graft may provide osteogenesis, structural support, or both. This article presents possible surgical therapeutic alternatives in management of benign and low-grade malignant osseous neoplasms in the foot and ankle. PMID:8915860

  15. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia: review and a case report.

    PubMed

    Salem, Y M Y; Osman, Y I; Norval, E J G

    2010-10-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous condition that can be seen in dentate and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however follow-up is essential due to the possibility that focal cemento-osseous dysplasia can progress to a condition called florid osseous dysplasia that involves multiple sites. A case report is presented here, along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  16. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiayu; Xu, Weijiang; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Neng; Ni, Juan; Zou, Tianning; Liang, Ziqing; Wang, Xu; Fenech, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state). SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer. PMID:27347936

  17. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene-Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiayu; Xu, Weijiang; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Neng; Ni, Juan; Zou, Tianning; Liang, Ziqing; Wang, Xu; Fenech, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene-nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state). SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer. PMID:27347936

  18. Epibulbar osseous choristoma: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Andrew S H; Lee, Kelvin Y C; Al Jajeh, Issam; Sittampalam, Kesavan; Fong, Kee Siew

    2008-01-01

    Epibulbar osseous choristoma occurs rarely and is commonly mistaken for a dermoid or dermolipoma. We report two cases: an 8-year-old boy and a 79-year-old lady with epibulbar osseous choristomas where computed tomography showed an extraocular lesion in the temporal quadrant and diagnosis was confirmed by excision biopsy. The osseous component was adherent to the sclera in the young patient, while it was loosely attached to the surrounding tissue in the older patient. We believe that the 79-year-old lady is the oldest reported patient with an epibulbar osseous choristoma.

  19. Lingual Osseous Choristoma Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Benamer, Mohamed H.; Elmangoush, Arej M.

    2007-01-01

    Lingual osseous choristoma is an extremely rare condition, of which only 61 cases have been reported. Monserrat in 1913 was the first to report this bony lesion on the dorsum of the tongue and it was labelled as lingual osteoma, the term that normally describes neoplastic pathology. Krolls et al changed this term later to osseous choristoma, which means normal tissue in an abnormal location. The aetiology and pathogenesis of lingual osseous choristoma remain debatable. We report a case of lingual osseous choristoma and review the literature. PMID:21503232

  20. Radiographic evaluation of pedal osseous tumors.

    PubMed

    Posteraro, R H

    1993-10-01

    Osseous tumors of the foot are uncommon lesions. The approach to making the correct diagnosis should be based upon a knowledge of the types of tumor that may be encountered and a systematic analysis of the characteristics of the lesion. Proper use of imaging techniques will help to narrow the differential diagnosis. Consultation among colleagues is very important for diagnosing a specific lesion, for broadening one's knowledge base, and for improving patient care. Topics discussed in this article include fluoroscopy, magnification views, and characteristics of lesions and patterns of destruction. PMID:8221544

  1. Infected florid osseous dysplasia: clinical and imaging follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mufeed, Abdulla; Mangalath, Ummar; George, Antony; Hafiz, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Florid osseous dysplasia (FOD) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw usually identified incidentally on radiograph. It rarely presents with clinical symptoms. A case of FOD presenting with features similar to osteomyelitis is discussed here. The diagnosis is based on radiographic findings; biopsy or surgical intervention should be avoided as it may predispose to infection. PMID:25754168

  2. Cemento-osseous dysplasia in Jamaica: review of six cases.

    PubMed

    Ogunsalu, C; Miles, D

    2005-09-01

    Six cases of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) of the jaw bone in Jamaicans are reviewed. Five were documented over a 15-year period (1980-1995). These include a case of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (previously called gigantiform cementoma). Three of the initial cases were histologically diagnosed as gigantiform cementoma. There was no indication in the patient's case file whether these were familial or non-familial. The other two cases were diagnosed histologically as periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia and cementoblastoma respectively. Based on the current understanding of the nature of florid-cemento-osseous dysplasia (FLCOD), a new case was diagnosed as such solely on radiological findings. This single case of FLCOD is reported and discussed against the background of other cemento-osseous lesions. Special emphasis is placed on the radiology of COD in this paper. The confirmative role of radiology without the need for histophathology and treatment for asymptomatic FLCOD is emphasized.

  3. Progressive osseous destruction as a complication of HIV-periodontitis.

    PubMed

    SanGiacomo, T R; Tan, P M; Loggi, D G; Itkin, A B

    1990-10-01

    A pathologic condition is described, characterized by rampant necrosis of gingival mucosa, periodontium, and related osseous structures associated with systemic infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is believed that this condition is an extension beyond the normal clinical course of HIV-periodontitis (HIV-P) and manifests itself in three progressive stages: (1) HIV-associated gingivitis, (2) HIV-P, and (3) an extension of HIV-P to osseous necrosis. Two cases of osseous destruction attending HIV-P are reported, one of which led to initial diagnosis of HIV infection. They represent the final stage of disease progression with localized necrosis of gingiva, periodontium, and alveolar bone.

  4. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia masquerading as a residual cyst.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Rajat; Sandhu, Simarpreet V; Bansal, Himanta; Behl, Rashi; Bhullar, Ramanpreet Kaur

    2012-04-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a benign fibroosseous condition that can be seen in dentulous and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however, follow-up is essential due to the possibility that it can progress to a condition called florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. We report a case of FCOD of mandible in a 25-year-old female. Clinically, the lesion resembled periapical pathosis of odontogenic origin. An attempt has been made to discuss the clinical and histopathologic features along with differential diagnosis of cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  5. [Effect of osteoinductors on osseous tissue reparation in ageing].

    PubMed

    Botabaev, B K

    2007-01-01

    Ageing of population determines the ever growing need for dental health service to older patients, which stipulates the necessity of the search for new materials with osteoplastic and osteoinductive properties. Experimental study on old animals showed that osseous defects of the lower jaw, filled with granules of GAP-99 osteoinductor, were completely replaced with new osseous tissue by the 90th day of the experiment.

  6. Osseous sarcoid with lytic lesions in skull.

    PubMed

    Suri, V; Singh, Abhijai; Das, Reena; Das, Ashim; Malhotra, P; Jain, S; Kumari, S; Khandelwal, N; Varma, S

    2014-04-01

    Sarcoidosis bone is uncommon, and involvement of the skull is exceptionally rare. We present a 65-year-old obese female who presented with a 2-month history of dryness of mouth, polyuria, fatigue, and anorexia. She had generalized lymphadenopathy, organomegaly, and hypercalcemia, and a skeletal survey revealed extensive osteolytic lesions in the skull and phalanges. Both lymph node biopsy from the cervical lymph node and bone marrow examination revealed non-caseating granulomas, suggesting sarcoidosis. She was started on 1 mg/kg oral corticosteroids; during a follow-up of 6 months, she achieved normocalcemia; however, the punched-out lesions in the skull remained unchanged. This case reiterates several important issues that all lymphadenopathy in emerging nations may not be tubercular, and presence of osteolytic lesions in skull are unusual for sarcoid, at an elderly age, necessitates evaluation for more common etiologies like metastases and myeloma. Finally, patients with osseous sarcoid should be on a close follow-up since due to the rarity of this presentation, no definite consensus on the management of such cases exists in the literature.

  7. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia: clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Roghi, Marco; Scapparone, Chiara; Crippa, Rolando; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Angiero, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) is a rare benign lesion, often asymptomatic, in which fibrous tissue replaces the normal bone tissue, with metaplasic bone and neo-formed cement. We present a rare case of mandibular PCOD in a woman of 55 years, who presented with moderate swelling and mobility of teeth 32-33-34. Endoral radiography showed that these teeth had been devitalized; they had deep periodontal pockets and marked radicular radiotransparency; the root apices exhibited mixed radiotransparency and radio-opacity. Clinical and radiographical findings led to a diagnosis of periapical rarefying osteitis, and the three teeth were thus extracted. Due to the persistence of swelling and slight pain post-extraction, a cone-beam computed tomographic scan was taken; this showed a mixed radiotransparent and radio-opaque lesion in the area of the extracted teeth. A bone biopsy of the affected area was taken for histopathological evaluation; a diagnosis of PCOD was rendered. This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient presents after tooth extraction with non-healing socket, pain, and swelling. A multidisciplinary approach is required to manage these rare cases. PMID:24778071

  8. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia: clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Roghi, Marco; Scapparone, Chiara; Crippa, Rolando; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Angiero, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) is a rare benign lesion, often asymptomatic, in which fibrous tissue replaces the normal bone tissue, with metaplasic bone and neo-formed cement. We present a rare case of mandibular PCOD in a woman of 55 years, who presented with moderate swelling and mobility of teeth 32-33-34. Endoral radiography showed that these teeth had been devitalized; they had deep periodontal pockets and marked radicular radiotransparency; the root apices exhibited mixed radiotransparency and radio-opacity. Clinical and radiographical findings led to a diagnosis of periapical rarefying osteitis, and the three teeth were thus extracted. Due to the persistence of swelling and slight pain post-extraction, a cone-beam computed tomographic scan was taken; this showed a mixed radiotransparent and radio-opaque lesion in the area of the extracted teeth. A bone biopsy of the affected area was taken for histopathological evaluation; a diagnosis of PCOD was rendered. This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient presents after tooth extraction with non-healing socket, pain, and swelling. A multidisciplinary approach is required to manage these rare cases.

  9. Osseous Defects Seen in Patients with Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Itoi, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder surgeons need to be aware of the critical size of the glenoid or humeral osseous defects seen in patients with anterior shoulder instability, since the considerable size of osseous defect is reported to cause postoperative instability. Biomechanical studies have identified the size of the osseous defect which affects stability. Since engagement always occurs between a Hill-Sachs lesion and the glenoid rim, when considering the critical size of the Hill-Sachs lesion, we have to simultaneously consider the size of the glenoid osseous defect. With the newly developed concept of the glenoid track, we are able to evaluate whether a large Hill-Sachs lesion is an "on-track" or "off-track" lesion, and to consider both osseous defects together. In case of an off-track Hill-Sachs lesion, if the glenoid defect is less than 25%, no treatment is required. In this case, the Latarjet procedure or arthroscopic remplissage procedure can be a treatment option. However, if the glenoid defect is more than 25%, treatment such as bone grafting is required. This will convert an off-track lesion to an on-track lesion. After the bone graft or Latarjet procedure, if the Hill-Sachs lesion persists as off-track, then further treatment is necessitated. In case with an on-track Hill-Sachs lesion and a less than 25% glenoid defect, arthroscopic Bankart repair alone is enough. PMID:26640623

  10. Osseous choristoma of the submandibular region: case report.

    PubMed

    Kamburoglu, K; Ozen, T; Sençimen, M; Ortakoglu, K; Günhan, O

    2009-10-01

    This report presents a case of osseous choristoma in the submandibular region of a 33-year-old female. Her chief complaint was painless swelling in the submandibular region. Panoramic radiography showed a well-defined, round, radiopaque lesion near the inferior border of the right mandibular angle. Coronal and sagittal tomographic images indicated a high-density area in the right submandibular region with no bony connection. The lesion was diagnosed as an osseous choristoma based on histopathological examination of the surgical specimen. A 1-year follow-up period was uneventful.

  11. Familial florid Cemento-osseous dysplasia - case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Thorawat, Amit; Kalkur, Chaitra; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-12-01

    Familial Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is a very uncommon condition. Cemento-osseous dysplasia is totally asymptomatic in many cases, in those conditions, lesions are detected in a radiograph taken for other purposes. In this report, we describe a family in which mother and daughter exhibited clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. PMID:26734141

  12. Familial florid Cemento-osseous dysplasia - case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Thorawat, Amit; Kalkur, Chaitra; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-12-01

    Familial Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is a very uncommon condition. Cemento-osseous dysplasia is totally asymptomatic in many cases, in those conditions, lesions are detected in a radiograph taken for other purposes. In this report, we describe a family in which mother and daughter exhibited clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  13. Radium-223 dichloride therapy in breast cancer with osseous metastases.

    PubMed

    Takalkar, Amol; Paryani, Bhavna; Adams, Scott; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-11-18

    Osseous metastases occur frequently in patients with breast cancer. Few options exist for bone targeted therapy for hormone refractory patients with breast cancer with progressive bone metastases. We present a case of breast cancer with osseous metastases but no visceral metastases. The patient had been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy, but still had extensive symptomatic osseous metastases. She received radium-223 dichloride, a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for castration resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. She tolerated the therapy well with no significant adverse effects. She had an excellent response with significant pain relief obviating need for regular analgaesics. Her tumour markers also dropped significantly. Osseous metastases assessed with F-18 fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) bone PET/CT) scans at baseline, after two and six cycles, also showed interval improvement in the lesions. Radium-223 dichloride could potentially be a safe and useful therapeutic option in this setting.

  14. Osseous fragment in a patient with knee pain.

    PubMed

    Beers, Lauren R; Mabry, Lance M; Sullivan, Robert T

    2015-04-01

    The patient was a 31-year-old man who was currently serving in the military. He was referred to a physical therapist by his primary care physician for a chief complaint of left anterior knee pain. Due to concern over a loose body, the physical therapist ordered radiographs of the left knee, which revealed an osseous fragment.

  15. Tissue response: biomaterials, dental implants, and compromised osseous tissue.

    PubMed

    Babu RS, Arvind; Ogle, Orrett

    2015-04-01

    Tissue response represents an important feature in biocompatibility in implant procedures. This review article highlights the fundamental characteristics of tissue response after the implant procedure. This article also highlights the tissue response in compromised osseous conditions. Understanding the histologic events after dental implants in normal and abnormal bone reinforces the concept of case selection in dental implants.

  16. Multicentric osseous lymphoma with spinal extradural involvement in a dog.

    PubMed

    Turner, J L; Luttgen, P J; VanGundy, T E; Roenigk, W J; Hightower, D; Frelier, P F

    1992-01-15

    Multicentric osseous lymphoma involving the ribs and multiple vertebrae was observed in a 7-year-old Siberian Husky. Extradural spinal cord compression was treated by surgical decompressive hemilaminectomy of L1-2 without noticeable improvement of signs neurologic dysfunction. However, palliation of signs of pain was noticed after irradiation in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgical decompression.

  17. Central Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma: Primary Odontogenic or Osseous Neoplasm?

    PubMed

    Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Currently, central cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified by the World Health Organization as a primary bone-forming tumor of the jaws. However, histopathologically, it is often indistinguishable from cemento-osseous dysplasias in that it forms osteoid and cementicles (cementum droplets) in varying proportions. It is believed that pluripotent cells within the periodontal membrane can be stimulated to produce either osteoid or woven bone and cementicles when stimulated. If this is true, cemento-ossifying fibroma would be better classified as a primary odontogenic neoplasm arising from the periodontal ligament. Cemento-ossifying fibromas also do not occur in the long bones. The present report compares several entities that fall within the diagnostic realm of benign fibro-osseous lesions and reviews the evidence for reclassifying central cemento-ossifying fibroma as a primary odontogenic neoplasm. PMID:26608158

  18. Central Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma: Primary Odontogenic or Osseous Neoplasm?

    PubMed

    Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Currently, central cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified by the World Health Organization as a primary bone-forming tumor of the jaws. However, histopathologically, it is often indistinguishable from cemento-osseous dysplasias in that it forms osteoid and cementicles (cementum droplets) in varying proportions. It is believed that pluripotent cells within the periodontal membrane can be stimulated to produce either osteoid or woven bone and cementicles when stimulated. If this is true, cemento-ossifying fibroma would be better classified as a primary odontogenic neoplasm arising from the periodontal ligament. Cemento-ossifying fibromas also do not occur in the long bones. The present report compares several entities that fall within the diagnostic realm of benign fibro-osseous lesions and reviews the evidence for reclassifying central cemento-ossifying fibroma as a primary odontogenic neoplasm.

  19. Subpontic osseous hyperplasia: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Connie A; Lee, Michael B; Matthews, Chad R; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    A subpontic osseous hyperplasia (SOH) is a slow-growing, non-neoplastic bone growth that uniquely affects mandibular posterior edentulous ridges underneath pontics of fixed partial dentures. An SOH can result in significant periodontal and restorative complications, however, it is usually corrected by surgical excision. This report presents a series of SOH cases, illustrates SOH management approaches, and reviews the literature on SOH clinical presentations.

  20. Osseous manifestations of elbow stress associated with sports activities.

    PubMed

    Gore, R M; Rogers, L F; Bowerman, J; Suker, J; Compere, C L

    1980-05-01

    The radiographic manifestations of musculoskeletal stress at the elbow associated with racket and throwing sports are reported in 29 symptomatic amateur, juvenile, and professional athletes. Five major categories of stress are identified: diffuse, humeral shaft, medial tension, lateral compression, and extension stress. The osseous changes produced by these stresses include bony hypertrophy, loose bodies, traction spur formation, osteochondral and humeral shaft fractures in the adult, and epiphyseal and apophyseal hypermaturity or avulsion in the youngster.

  1. Florid cemento osseous dysplasia in association with dentigerous cyst.

    PubMed

    Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Kumar, Vinod K; Patil, Archana

    2010-07-01

    We present a case of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia occurring in a 20-year-old Indian woman. The subject presented with three lesions involving the maxillary right quadrant, maxillary left quadrant and mandibular left quadrant. The mandibular left quadrant also demonstrated a cyst.The diagnosis was made by correlating the clinical presentation with that of the radiological and histopathological findings. This is a rare entity because of an unusual combination of Asian race along with the association of dentigerous cyst.

  2. Maintaining Transparency

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The lens and cornea are transparent and usually avascular. Controlling nutrient supply while maintaining transparency is a physiological challenge for both tissues. During sleep and with contact lens wear the endothelial layer of the cornea may become hypoxic, compromising its ability to maintain corneal transparency. The mechanism responsible for establishing the avascular nature of the corneal stroma is unknown. In several pathological conditions, the stroma can be invaded by abnormal, leaky vessels, leading to opacification. Several molecules that are likely to help maintain the avascular nature of the corneal stroma have been identified, although their relative contributions remain to be demonstrated. The mammalian lens is surrounded by capillaries early in life. After the fetal vasculature regresses, the lens resides in a hypoxic environment. Hypoxia is likely to be required to maintain lens transparency. The vitreous body may help to maintain the low oxygen level around the lens. The hypothesis is presented that many aspects of the aging of the lens, including increased hardening, loss of accommodation (presbyopia), and opacification of the lens nucleus, are caused by exposure to oxygen. Testing this hypothesis may lead to prevention for nuclear cataract and insight into the mechanisms of lens aging. Although they are both transparent, corneal pathology is associated with an insufficient supply of oxygen, while lens pathology may involve excessive exposure to oxygen. PMID:17920963

  3. H. R. 5593: A Bill to maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill would maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration by amending certain sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The bill describes the following provisions under the title, Percentage depletion and intangible drilling costs: increase in percentage depletion; percentage depletion permitted after transfer of proven property; percentage depletion allowed for stripper well production of integrated producers; net income limitation not to apply to oil or gas wells; and definitions of intangible drilling costs. Under Title II, Domestic energy improvement tax credits, the following tax credits are described: marginal production; exploring for oil or gas; vehicles fueled by clean-burning fuels, property converting vehicles to be so fueled, and facilities for the retail delivery of such fuels; conversion to natural gas equipment; clean fuel alternatives research; and tertiary recovery methods research.

  4. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dağistan, Saadettin; Tozoğlu, Ummühan; Göregen, Mustafa; Cakur, Binali

    2007-09-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasias are a group of disorders known to originate from periodontal ligament tissues and involve, essentially, the same pathological process. They are usually classified, depending on their extent and radiographic appearances, into three main groups: periapical (surrounds the periapical region of teeth and are bilateral), florid (sclerotic symmetrical masses) and focal (single lesion) cemental dysplasias. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia clearly appears to be a form of bone and cemental dysplasia that is limited to jaws. Patients do not have laboratory or radiologic evidence of bone disease in other parts of the skeleton. For the asymptomatic patient, the best management consists of regular recall examinations with prophylaxis and reinforcement of good home hygiene care to control periodontal disease and prevent tooth lose. Management of the symptomatic patient is more difficult. At this stage, there is an inflammatory component to the disease and the process is basically a chronic osteomyelitis involving dysplastic bone and cementum. Antibiotics may be indicated but may not be effective. A case of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia occurring in a 47-year-old Caucasian female is reported which was rare in regard to race and sex.

  5. Maintaining viability of white clover under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihira, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Shinpou, R.; Hara, A.; Ono, F.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2012-06-01

    The high pressure technique developed in physics may give a new possibility if it is applied to a biological study. We have been studying the tolerance of small living samples such as planktons and mosses, and found that all of them were alive after exposed to extremely high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. This technique has been extended to a higher plant Trifolium lepens L. (white clover). A few seeds of white clover were exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 days. After the pressure was released, they were seeded on agar, or directly on sowing soil. Seventeen out of the total 22 seeds exposed to the high pressure were found to be alive. Those exposed for up to 1 day and seeded on agar germinated roots. Those exposed for up to 1 h and seeded on soil germinated stems and leaves. The present technique has the possibility of being applied to improve breed of plants and to discover a very strong species that stands against very severe environmental conditions.

  6. Primary intra-osseous myoepithelioma of phalanx mimicking an enchondroma.

    PubMed

    Nambirajan, Aruna; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Panda, Ananya; Palaniswamy, Aravindh

    2016-10-01

    Myoepitheliomas (MEs) are uncommon tumours of the soft tissue with an intermediate biological behaviour and uncertain differentiation. Primary intra-osseous MEs are rare and occur predominantly in the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in middle-aged patients. The morphological variation of the tumour cells and stromal metaplasia may cause considerable diagnostic confusion, especially when it occurs in an unusual location. A wide panel of immunohistochemical markers is required to exclude other histological mimics. A 37-year-old male presented with a recurrent swelling in the right middle finger for 1-month duration. Radiographic images showed an expansile, lytic, intra-osseous lesion with high signal intensity on T2W fat-suppressed MR images in the proximal phalanx of the right middle finger without cortical breach, highly suggestive of an enchondroma. Histopathology revealed a lobulated tumour comprising of polygonal to spindle cells in groups and cords in a chondromyxoid stroma. No cellular atypia was noted. The tumour cells were immunopositive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p63, S100 and smooth muscle actin (SMA), compatible with the diagnosis of an intraosseous ME. The proximal phalanx of the right middle finger was excised, revealing a similar tumour, and the patient has been on regular follow-up for the last 18 months without any recurrence. Primary intra-osseous MEs are extremely rare, and this is the second reported occurrence in small bones. A differential diagnosis of ME should be kept for enchondroma-like lesions of the bone for proper histopathological assessment and accurate diagnosis. Documentation of such cases and follow-up will enhance our understanding of their clinical course and prognosis. PMID:27524490

  7. Florid Cemento-osseous Dysplasia: A Case of Misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Delai, Débora; Bernardi, Anarela; Felippe, Gabriela Santos; da Silveira Teixeira, Cleonice; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Santos Felippe, Mara Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) belongs to the group of fibro-osseous lesions in which normal bone is replaced by fibrous connective tissue and calcified cementum tissue of the avascular type. Among the various types of fibro-osseous lesions, FCOD is one of the most commonly encountered diseases in clinical practice and may involve 3 or 4 of the quadrants. FCOD is located in the periapical regions of teeth, and the lesions are predominantly radiolucent (osteolytic phase), become mixed over time (cementoblast phase), and ultimately become radiopaque (osteogenic phase) with a thin radiolucent peripheral halo. The characteristics of FCOD in the initial stages are similar to those of periapical lesions of inflammatory origin, which may lead to misdiagnosis. A 38-year-old woman sought dental care because of complaints of pain on the right side of her face. A clinical examination revealed no marked alterations; a panoramic radiograph was therefore requested and revealed the presence of radiolucent lesions associated with the periapical regions of some of the lower teeth. Thus, the professional referred the patient for endodontic treatment of the associated teeth with the justification that the lesions were of endodontic origin. However, the endodontist found that the teeth responded positively to a sensitivity test. The initial diagnosis could have resulted in unnecessary root canal treatment, but after careful clinical, radiographic, and tomographic assessments by different professionals, FCOD was diagnosed, conservatively treated, and regularly monitored. It is important that dentists have a basic knowledge of the various injuries that affect the jaw bones to prevent errors in diagnosis and treatment and to promote oral health. PMID:26410152

  8. Florid Cemento-osseous Dysplasia: A Case of Misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Delai, Débora; Bernardi, Anarela; Felippe, Gabriela Santos; da Silveira Teixeira, Cleonice; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Santos Felippe, Mara Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) belongs to the group of fibro-osseous lesions in which normal bone is replaced by fibrous connective tissue and calcified cementum tissue of the avascular type. Among the various types of fibro-osseous lesions, FCOD is one of the most commonly encountered diseases in clinical practice and may involve 3 or 4 of the quadrants. FCOD is located in the periapical regions of teeth, and the lesions are predominantly radiolucent (osteolytic phase), become mixed over time (cementoblast phase), and ultimately become radiopaque (osteogenic phase) with a thin radiolucent peripheral halo. The characteristics of FCOD in the initial stages are similar to those of periapical lesions of inflammatory origin, which may lead to misdiagnosis. A 38-year-old woman sought dental care because of complaints of pain on the right side of her face. A clinical examination revealed no marked alterations; a panoramic radiograph was therefore requested and revealed the presence of radiolucent lesions associated with the periapical regions of some of the lower teeth. Thus, the professional referred the patient for endodontic treatment of the associated teeth with the justification that the lesions were of endodontic origin. However, the endodontist found that the teeth responded positively to a sensitivity test. The initial diagnosis could have resulted in unnecessary root canal treatment, but after careful clinical, radiographic, and tomographic assessments by different professionals, FCOD was diagnosed, conservatively treated, and regularly monitored. It is important that dentists have a basic knowledge of the various injuries that affect the jaw bones to prevent errors in diagnosis and treatment and to promote oral health.

  9. Bilateral osseous stenosis of the internal auditory canal: case report.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, A; Aimoni, C; Bianchini, C; Borrelli, M; Calzolari, F; Martini, A

    2011-06-01

    Osteomas as well as exostoses of the internal auditory canal are rare, benign, usually slow-growing lesions. The most common localizations of these temporal bone lesions are the mastoid cortex and the external auditory canal. A rare case is reported of bilateral osseous stenosis of the internal auditory canal, in the absence of clinical (auditory, vestibular and facial nerve) symptoms. In the absence of auditory, vestibular and/or facial nerve symptoms, long-term follow-up should be assessed; surgical intervention may be warranted only if symptoms are present.

  10. Osseous choristoma of the labial mucosa: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, T. S.; Selvamani, M.; Ashwin, S.; Rahul, V. K.; Cyriac, Maria Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Osseous choristoma is a normal bone tissue in an ectopic position. These are slow growing lesions that are usually completely asymptomatic and only present when there is a disruption in the function of the organ due to its large size as it grows. Definitive diagnosis is obtained only after the histopathological examination. The etiology remains still questionable. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. Here we report a case of choristoma in the lower labial mucosa in a 47-year-old female. PMID:26538953

  11. Cemento-osseous dysplasia-like lesion and complex odontoma associated with an impacted third molar.

    PubMed

    Prodromidis, Georgios I; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Koutlas, Ioannis G

    2011-12-01

    We present a case of a 36-year-old female with a benign fibro-osseous lesion consistent with cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) that was located coronally to the crown of an impacted mandibular third molar tooth and was associated with a complex odontoma. The pathogenesis of this unusual association is discussed and the odontogenic origin of COD is suggested.

  12. Postradiation angiosarcoma of bladder with extensive osseous metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Rallabandi, Hima Bindu; Swain, Meenakshi; Gowrishankar, Swarnalata; Sinha, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare soft tissue neoplasms accounting for <2% of all sarcomas. Rare cases have been reported in other sites like breast, spleen, liver, bone and bladder. This is a case report of an angiosarcoma of the bladder in a 65 year old lady who came with complaints of haematuria. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography revealed a bladder tumour with calcification, which on cystoscopy also showed a calcified mass. The patient had a past history of carcinoma cervix for which she had undergone surgery and radiotherapy, 22 years ago. Biopsy of the bladder mass showed features of a high grade epithelioid sarcoma with extensive osseous metaplasia. On immune stains,the tumour was positive for CD31 and vimentin and negative for cytokeratin, desmin and CD34. Until now, only sixteen cases of angiosarcoma of the bladder have been reported in english literature, of which 6 occurred secondary to radiation. Our case is the first to occur after 22 years of radiotherapy and have extensive osseous metaplasia. PMID:26960643

  13. Osseous Metaplasia in an Inflammatory Polyp of the Rectum: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Odum, Brian R.; Bechtold, Matthew L.; Diaz-Arias, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Osseous metaplasia is a rare finding in colonic neoplasms. We report a case osseous metaplasia in a 74 year-old male who underwent surveillance colonoscopy and found to have a 7 mm rectal polyp. Histopathologic examination revealed an inflammatory polyp with osseous metaplasia.

  14. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  15. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  16. Radiographic features of osseous metastases of soft-tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.S.; Kaiser, L.R.; Gold, R.H.; Fon, G.T.

    1982-04-01

    In contrast to most other neoplastic processes of bone, in our study osseous metastases from soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) were more reliably detected by radiography than by scintigraphy. The radiographic manifestations of 65 skeletal metastases in 23 patients with STS were reveiwed. Although most metastases (88%) were osteolytic, eight (12%) lesions were osteoblastic. The destructive patterns were geographic in 29%, moth-eaten in 55%, and permeative in 12% of the lesions. The axial skeleton was most commonly involved. In the long bones the diaphyses were the predominant sites of involvement. The bony cortex was frequently breached, with resultant soft-tissue swelling and pathologic fractures. Noteworthy features included subarticular location, involvement of the sarcoiliac joint, and an expansile appearance.

  17. Evolution of the human hip. Part 1: the osseous framework

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Tom; Vereecke, Evie E.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive osseous adaptations of the lumbar spine, pelvis, hip and femur characterize the emergence of the human bipedal gait with its ‘double extension’ of the lumbar spine and hip. To accommodate lumbar lordosis, the pelvis was ‘compacted’, becoming wider and shorter, as compared with the non-human apes. The hip joint acquired a much more extended position, which can be seen in a broader evolutionary context of verticalization of limbs. When loaded in a predominantly vertical position, the femur can be built lighter and longer than when it is loaded more horizontally because bending moments are smaller. Extension of the hip joint together with elongation of the femur increases effective leg length, and hence stride length, which improves energy efficiency. At the hip joint itself, the shift of the hip’s default working range to a more extended position influences concavity at the head–neck junction and femoral neck anteversion. PMID:27011802

  18. Familial florid osseous dysplasia: a report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kucukkurt, Sercan; Rzayev, Sharif; Baris, Emre; Atac, Mustafa Sancar

    2016-01-01

    There are three types of osseous dysplasia: periapical cemental dysplasia (PCD), focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCD) and florid osseous dysplasia (FOD). While PCD is often observed in mandibular anterior teeth, FCD mainly affects mandibular posterior teeth. FOD, on the other hand, commonly involves both jaws. FOD is a type of sclerosing disease that is characterised by intense opaque masses and many areas with different densities. Genetic heritance of FOD is unusual, with only a few reported cases. We describe a case of FOD that affected three family members, discuss its clinical, radiological and histological characteristics, and review the literature. PMID:27030456

  19. Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition

    PubMed Central

    Chapel, Laetitia; Castelló, Xavier; Bernard, Claire; Deffuant, Guillaume; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Martin, Sophie; Miguel, Maxi San

    2010-01-01

    We study the viability and resilience of languages, using a simple dynamical model of two languages in competition. Assuming that public action can modify the prestige of a language in order to avoid language extinction, we analyze two cases: (i) the prestige can only take two values, (ii) it can take any value but its change at each time step is bounded. In both cases, we determine the viability kernel, that is, the set of states for which there exists an action policy maintaining the coexistence of the two languages, and we define such policies. We also study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return to the viability kernel (finite resilience), or where one of the languages is lead to disappear (zero resilience). Within our current framework, the maintenance of a bilingual society is shown to be possible by introducing the prestige of a language as a control variable. PMID:20126655

  20. Bilateral Osseous Interclinoid Bridges Associated with Foramina of Vesalius: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, George; Nitsa, Zoi; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos

    2015-07-01

    The current study displays a very rare combination of ossified interclinoid ligaments at the sella turcica region associated with bilateral foramina of Vesalius. In a macerated skull four osseous bars interconnecting the clinoid processes bilaterally were detected. Specifically, two bilateral osseous bars were observed bridging the gap between the anterior and middle clinoid processes forming the so called caroticoclinoid foramen on each side and two additional osseous bridges linked the anterior and posterior clinoid processes, bilaterally. Furthermore, two distinct bilateral foramina of Vesalius were documented just anterior and medial to the foramen ovale. The awareness of the osseous sellar bridges is crucial for the physician and especially the neurosurgeon since their presence may complicate the removal of clinoid processes and induce damage of the internal carotid artery and oculomotor nerves. Furthermore, the likely existence of the foramen of Vesalius may lead to transfer of an infected thrombus into the cranial cavity and complicate a percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy.

  1. Cemento-osseous dysplasia in African-American men: a report of two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    DiFiore, Peter M; Bowen, Sarah Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Two clinical cases of the unusual occurrence of cemento-osseous dysplasia in men and the clinical, radiographic and demographic findings that formed the basis for their diagnosis and management are presented.

  2. CBCT findings of periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Amir; Yousefi, Faezeh

    2013-09-01

    Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) is a subtype of cemento-osseous dysplasia that usually occurs in middle-aged black women. This report described a case of a 45-year-old Iranian woman who was diagnosed with PCOD on the basis of cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) findings. CBCT enabled detailed visualization of the bone changes. This report described the special radiographic characteristics of PCOD, including discontinuity of the lingual cortex on the CBCT sectional and three-dimensional images.

  3. Tricho-Dento-Osseous Syndrome: Diagnosis and Dental Management

    PubMed Central

    Al-Batayneh, Ola B.

    2012-01-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder principally characterised by curly hair at infancy, severe enamel hypomineralization and hypoplasia and taurodontism of teeth, sclerotic bone, and other defects. Diagnostic criteria are based on the generalized enamel defects, severe taurodontism especially of the mandibular first permanent molars, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, and at least one of the other features (i.e., nail defects, bone sclerosis, and curly, kinky or wavy hair present at a young age that may straighten out later). Confusion with amelogenesis imperfecta is common; however, taurodontism is not a constant feature of any of the types of amelogenesis imperfecta. Management of TDO requires a team approach, proper documentation, and a long-term treatment and follow-up plan. The aim of treatment is to prevent problems such as sensitivity, caries, dental abscesses, and loss of occlusal vertical dimension through attrition of hypoplastic tooth structure. Another aim is to restore function of the dentition and enhance the esthetics and self-esteem of the patient. This paper proposes treatment approaches that include preventive, restorative, endodontic, prosthetic, and surgical options to management. In addition, it sheds light on the difficulties faced during dental treatment of such cases. PMID:22969805

  4. Viability studies on actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Taddei, A; Tremarias, M M; Hartung de Capriles, C

    Eighty-nine Actinomycetes strains were tested for their viability, morphological and physiological characteristics after being kept under paraffin oil overlay and distilled water for a period between 10-30 years. Most of the studied strains belong to the "Lorenzo De Montemayor" collection. Almost all the recovered strains were 28-30 years old and had never been subcultured since the paraffin oil was overlaid. 71.4% of viable Streptomycetes strains had been kept on Sabouraud-dextrose agar and 28.6% were kept on Negroni and Bonfiglioli-medium. Streptomyces violaceusruber produced its characteristic pigment even after 28 years under these conditions. All of the recovered strains were tested for their biological activity, but only Streptomyces lavendulae showed growth-inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.

  5. Antibiotic-releasing Porous Polymethylmethacrylate Constructs for Osseous Space Maintenance and Infection Control

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Meng; Kretlow, James D.; Nguyen, Anson; Young, Simon; Baggett, L. Scott; Wong, Mark E.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of a strategy involving space maintenance as the initial step of a two-stage regenerative medicine approach toward reconstructing significant bony or composite tissue defects in the craniofacial area, preserves the void volume of bony defects and could promote soft tissue healing prior to the subsequent definitive repair. One of the complications with a biomaterial-based space maintenance approach is local infection, which requires early, effective eradication, ideally through local antibiotic delivery. The purpose of this study is to develop a dual function implant material for maintaining osseous space and releasing an antibiotic to eliminate local infection in bony defects. Colistin, a polymyxin antibiotic, was chosen specifically to address infections with Acinetobacter species, the most common pathogen associated with combat-related traumatic craniofacial injuries. Porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) constructs incorporating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated by mixing a clinically used bone cement formulation of PMMA powder and methylmethacrylate liquid with a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrogel (40 or 50 wt%) to impart porosity and PLGA microspheres (10 or 15 wt%) loaded with colistin to control drug release. The PMMA/CMC/PLGA construct featured mild setting temperature, controllable surface/bulk porosity by incorporation of the CMC hydrogel, reasonably strong compressive properties, and continuous drug release over a period of 5 weeks with total drug release of 68.1-88.3%, depending on the weight percentage of CMC and PLGA incorporation. The concentration of released colistin was well above its reported minimum inhibitory concentration against susceptible species for 5 weeks. This study provides information on the composition parameters that enable viable porosity characteristics/drug release kinetics of the PMMA/CMC/PLGA construct for the initial space maintenance as part of a two-stage regenerative medicine

  6. The cybernetics of viability: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    A three-level approach to viability is developed, considering (1) living systems, (2) a niche, understood as the area within the reach of their actions, and (3) an environment. A systematic analysis of the interrelations between these levels shows that living systems emerge with matter/energy processing systems. These can add controller structures when producing excess energy. A three-sensor controller structure enables a living system to deal with unfavourable and scarce environments. Further evolution of these controller structures offers improved ways to act on niches. Maintaining niches in scarce environments can require technology or economy. So social systems emerge, which are understood as aggregates of living systems. Basic patterns of interactions within social systems are analysed. So the introduction of the notion of the niche into the discussion of viability allows us to explain phenomena ranging from properties of single living systems to societal organization.

  7. Importance of neurologic and cutaneous signs in the diagnosis of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ayşe İpek; Yiş, Uluç; Ayanoğlu, Müge; Hız, Ayşe Semra; Güleryüz, Handan; Öztürk Atasoy, Tülay; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2015-01-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder caused by defects in SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1 gene (SMARCAL1). SMARCAL1 product is a helicase that has role in selective cellular proliferation. The disorder is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with short stature, nephropathy, T cell deficiency, neurologic and cutaneous signs. Patients may have hyperpigmented skin lesions similar to café au lait spots. Symptoms and disease severity in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia varies from patient to patient. Genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors play role on the severity of the disease. Here we report on a patient with short stature, steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome and recurrent infections. Cutaneous findings and developmental delay helped us to reach the diagnosis of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. A homozygous missense mutation in SMARCAL1 gene confirmed the clinical diagnosis. PMID:27411420

  8. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental, and Non-skeletal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Heather A; Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-03-01

    Forensic anthropologists are generally able to identify skeletal materials (bone and tooth) using gross anatomical features; however, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic to identify. Several chemical analysis techniques have been shown to be reliable laboratory methods that can be used to determine if questionable fragments are osseous, dental, or non-skeletal in nature. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed background of chemical analysis techniques focusing on elemental compositions that have been assessed for use in differentiating osseous, dental, and non-skeletal materials. More recently, chemical analysis studies have also focused on using the elemental composition of osseous/dental materials to evaluate species and provide individual discrimination, but have generally been successful only in small, closed groups, limiting their use forensically. Despite significant advances incorporating a variety of instruments, including handheld devices, further research is necessary to address issues in standardization, error rates, and sample size/diversity.

  9. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental, and Non-skeletal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Heather A; Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-03-01

    Forensic anthropologists are generally able to identify skeletal materials (bone and tooth) using gross anatomical features; however, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic to identify. Several chemical analysis techniques have been shown to be reliable laboratory methods that can be used to determine if questionable fragments are osseous, dental, or non-skeletal in nature. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed background of chemical analysis techniques focusing on elemental compositions that have been assessed for use in differentiating osseous, dental, and non-skeletal materials. More recently, chemical analysis studies have also focused on using the elemental composition of osseous/dental materials to evaluate species and provide individual discrimination, but have generally been successful only in small, closed groups, limiting their use forensically. Despite significant advances incorporating a variety of instruments, including handheld devices, further research is necessary to address issues in standardization, error rates, and sample size/diversity. PMID:25753999

  10. Familial florid cemento-osseous dysplasia--a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coleman, H; Altini, M; Kieser, J; Nissenbaum, M

    1996-12-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia is a fairly common lesion of the jaws originating from the elements of the periodontal ligament. Most lesions do not have a hereditary basis, however a few familial cases have been documented. This is the first report of the florid form of cemento-osseous dysplasia in an African family. The mother, son and one daughter exhibited multiple sclerotic cemental masses of the jaws with large tumour-like swellings in the symphyseal area of the mandible. In the case of the mother the lesions had become infected. The familial form of cemento-osseous dysplasia differs from the non-hereditary type in that the lesions present in children, all cases are florid in nature, there is no predilection for black females, the rate of growth appears to be more rapid and the symphyseal area of the mandible is most severely affected. The mode of transmission appears to be autosomal dominant with variable phenotypic expression.

  11. Concurrent cemento-osseous dysplasia and osteogenic sarcoma: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, A A; Adeyemi, B F; Adisa, A O

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) represents a rare group of benign fibroosseous disorders, while osteogenic sarcoma (OS) on the hand, is a malignant tumour of ominous prognosis. A combination of COD and OS is rare and sparsely reported in literature. There are only four reported cases known to the authors. The aim of this paper is to report additional cases of COD occurring concurrently with OS. Materials and Methods. The clinicoradiologic findings and histological analysis of mandibular lesions in two patients who reported at the Dental Centre of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, are presented. Results. The two patients were diagnosed of mandible osteosarcoma occurring concurrently with bilateral mandibular focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Conclusion. The simultaneous occurrence of osteosarcoma and cemento-osseous dysplasia raises the question of whether COD has transformed into OS or a collision tumour has occurred and their simultaneous occurrence is just a coincidence.

  12. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  13. [Osseous bridge after physeal-injury to the distal tibia with spontaneous resolution].

    PubMed

    Trnka, J; Sýkora, L; Bibza, J

    2008-12-01

    The risk of osseous bridge development after certain types of physeal injury is well established. Once formed, the bridge continues to grow and results in a progressive deformity. The authors present an unusual case of a five-year-old girl who had a Salter-Harris Type-IV fracture of the distal tibial epiphyseal plate, with subsequent osseous bridge formation and deformity development. The bridge resolved spontaneously in 16 months, and joint mechanical axis alignment was gradually restored with normal growth of the distal tibia. Key words: physis, paediatric fractures, bony bridge, growth arrest.

  14. Osseous metastases from renal cell carcinoma: embolization and surgery for restoration of function. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.M.; Becker, G.J.; Rabe, F.E.; Holden, R.W.; Richmond, B.D.; Wass, J.L.; Sequeira, F.W.

    1984-03-01

    Five patients underwent preoperative embolization of osseous metastases from renal cell carcinoma. The group consisted of four men and one woman who ranged in age from 46 to 79 years. The lesions were located in the pubic ramus and acetabulum, proximal femur, femoral midshaft, proximal humerus, and proximal tibia. All embolizations were performed within 24 hours of surgery. The internal fixation and tumor curettage was accomplished with estimated perioperative blood loss ranging from 10 ml to 1,250 ml. All patients had significant restoration of function following surgery. The authors suggest that preoperative embolization is an important and efficacious adjunct in the management of hypervascular renal cell osseous metastases.

  15. CBCT findings of periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Amir; Yousefi, Faezeh

    2013-09-01

    Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) is a subtype of cemento-osseous dysplasia that usually occurs in middle-aged black women. This report described a case of a 45-year-old Iranian woman who was diagnosed with PCOD on the basis of cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) findings. CBCT enabled detailed visualization of the bone changes. This report described the special radiographic characteristics of PCOD, including discontinuity of the lingual cortex on the CBCT sectional and three-dimensional images. PMID:24083217

  16. Bilateral laryngeal paralysis in a dog secondary to laryngeal osseous metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Skelding, Alicia Marie; Kisiel, Agatha; Essman, Stephanie; Rutland, Bronwyn E.

    2016-01-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female Lurcher was evaluated for a chronic history of increased upper respiratory noise. Advanced imaging including digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of an ill-defined soft tissue mineralized mass of the ventral larynx. Histopathology demonstrated pleocellular myositis and fasciitis with osseous metaplasia. PMID:26834266

  17. Bilateral laryngeal paralysis in a dog secondary to laryngeal osseous metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Skelding, Alicia Marie; Kisiel, Agatha; Essman, Stephanie; Rutland, Bronwyn E

    2016-02-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female Lurcher was evaluated for a chronic history of increased upper respiratory noise. Advanced imaging including digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of an ill-defined soft tissue mineralized mass of the ventral larynx. Histopathology demonstrated pleocellular myositis and fasciitis with osseous metaplasia.

  18. Primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column: review of pathology and surgical decision making.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Eli, Ilyas M; Schmidt, Meic H; Brockmeyer, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    Spinal column tumors are rare in children and young adults, accounting for only 1% of all spine and spinal cord tumors combined. They often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this article, the authors review the current management of primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column and highlight diagnosis, management, and surgical decision making. PMID:27476845

  19. Evaluation of Osseous Integration of PVD-Silver-Coated Hip Prostheses in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Gregor; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Blaske, Franziska; Wehe, Christoph; Karst, Uwe; Höll, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (mega)prostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition-) silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb) and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses. PMID:25695057

  20. Primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column: review of pathology and surgical decision making.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Eli, Ilyas M; Schmidt, Meic H; Brockmeyer, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    Spinal column tumors are rare in children and young adults, accounting for only 1% of all spine and spinal cord tumors combined. They often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this article, the authors review the current management of primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column and highlight diagnosis, management, and surgical decision making.

  1. Evaluation of osseous integration of PVD-silver-coated hip prostheses in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Gregor; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Stoeppeler, Sandra; Ahrens, Helmut; Blaske, Franziska; Wehe, Christoph; Karst, Uwe; Höll, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (mega)prostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition-) silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb) and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses. PMID:25695057

  2. Central ossifying fibroma, periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia and complex odon-toma occurring in the same jaw.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Farzaneh Agha; Moslemi, Elham

    2011-05-16

    Central ossifying fibroma is a rare, benign fibro-osseous lesion that arises from the periodontal ligament. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia is another variant of fibro-osseous lesion which occurs in the anterior region of the mandible of females. Odontoma is a benign odontogenic tumor that contains enamel, dentine cement and pulp tissue. A 46-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, with two non-painful swellings on both sides of the mandible, which had been slowly growing over a period of one year. Our differential diagnosis was florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia for the right side, complex odontoma for the left side and periapical cement-osseous dysplasia for the anterior side. The historical feature revealed ossifying fibroma, complex odontoma and periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia. The occurrence of these three lesions in the same jaw has been rarely reported in the literature. The relationship between the occurrence of these three lesions is not obvious it could be coincidental. It seems that more case reports are needed to establish the relationship between them.

  3. Viability of glycerol-preserved and cryopreserved anuran skin.

    PubMed

    Willens, Scott; Stoskopf, Michael K; Martin, Linda D; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2005-01-01

    Anurans are important animal models for studying the effects of anthropogenic chemical contamination of the environment. Two-compartment Teflon flow-through diffusion cells can be used to study percutaneous absorption of xenobiotics across harvested skin. However, such an approach currently necessitates that skin be harvested just before experimentation, a requirement that calls for the continuous growth and housing of living animals. The ability to preserve and store skin would allow more efficient use of animals and more flexibility in experimental design. To this end, we examined the viability of harvested anuran skin stored under various protocols consistent with current practices of mammalian skin preservation. Skin from the American bullfrog maintained 80-85% viability after 28 d, whereas viability of skin from the marine toad was only maintained for 7-10 d. PMID:16409111

  4. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software.

  5. Infected lingual osseous choristoma. Report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Andressakis, Dionysios D; Pavlakis, Athanasios G; Chrysomali, Evanthia; Rapidis, Alexander D

    2008-10-01

    Osseous choristoma is a rare, benign lesion of the oral cavity occurring usually in the tongue. It appears as a tumorous mass of normal bony structure with mature cells in an ectopic position. The case of a 72 years Caucasian male is presented and analyzed along with 52 similar cases reported in the English literature between 1967 and 2007. Lingual choristoma shows a female predilection, whereas the commonest anatomic location is the posterior third of the tongue, occurring at or close to the foramen caecum and the circumvallate papillae. Histologically the lesions show signs of a well-circumscribed mass of vital bone located under the surface oral epithelium. Some lesions represent developmental malformations, whereas others may be reactive lesions after trauma or chronic irritation. Treatment of lingual osseous choristoma consists of simple excision.

  6. Mixed form of pericardial mesothelioma with osseous differentiation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S; Fukushima, R; Kobayashi, M; Machida, N

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old female Yorkshire terrier was referred for evaluation and treatment of recurrent pericardial effusion. Echocardiographic examination revealed a markedly and irregularly thickened pericardial sac with frequent hyperechoic areas with acoustic shadows. Pericardiocentesis produced only a small amount of thick serosanguineous fluid. The dog underwent subtotal pericardiectomy, but died during surgery. At necropsy examination, the heart was encased by voluminous, grey-white to red-tan, soft to firm proliferative tissue arising from the pericardial sac. The pericardial cavity was obliterated. Microscopically, the tissue was predominantly sarcomatoid with osseous differentiation and epithelioid elements were admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Immunohistochemically, the constituent cells, especially those that were epithelioid, co-expressed cytokeratin and vimentin. A diagnosis of mixed form pericardial mesothelioma with osseous differentiation was made. This appears to be the first report of such a tumour in a dog.

  7. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia mimicking apical periodontitis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Rekabi, Ali Reza; Ashouri, Rezvan; Torabi, Molok; Parirokh, Masoud; Abbott, Paul V

    2013-12-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia may present as a focal, periapical or florid lesion in the mandible or maxilla. The lesion may sometimes appear similar to peri-radicular lesions on a periapical radiograph. This report presents a case with irreversible pulpitis and root resorption as well as a mixed radiolucent/radiopaque lesion around a mandibular molar tooth root. Root canal treatment was performed and because of the radiographic signs of root resorption and the patient's fear of having a malignant disease, periapical surgery was also performed. The histopathology report confirmed the presence of florid cement-osseous dysplasia which was mimicking apical periodontitis. Follow-up radiography 12 months after the surgery illustrated complete healing of the radiolucent area. PMID:24279668

  8. Florid osseous dysplasia in a middle-aged Turkish woman: A case report.

    PubMed

    Onder, Buket; Kurşun, Sebnem; Oztaş, Bengi; Barış, Emre; Erdem, Erdal

    2013-09-01

    Florid osseous dysplasia (FOD) is an uncommon, benign, cemento-osseous lesion of the jaws. The etiology of FOD is still unknown. It is often asymptomatic and may be identified on routine dental radiographs. The classic radiographic appearance of FOD is amorphous, lobulated, mixed radiolucent/radiopaque masses of cotton-wool appearance with a sclerotic border in the jaws. In our case the lesion was found incidentally on routine periapical radiographs taken for restored teeth and edentulous areas. For further and detailed examination, a panoramic radiograph and cone-beam computed tomograph (CBCT) were taken. The panoramic radiograph and CBCT revealed maxillary bilateral and symmetrical, non-expansile, well-defined, round, radiopaque masses in contact with the root of the maxillary right second molar and left first molar teeth. Our aim in presenting this case report was to highlight the importance of imaging in diagnosis of FOD. PMID:24083214

  9. Total Ankylosis of the Upper Left Limb: A Case of Progressive Osseous Heteroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Birjandinejad, Ali; Taraz-Jamshidi, Mohammad-Hossein; Hosseinian, Sayyed Hadi Sayyed

    2016-01-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia is a rare inherited disease that begins with skin ossification and proceeds into the deeper connective tissues. The disease should be distinguished from other genetic disorders of heterotopic ossification including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). We report a case of progressive osseous heteroplasia in a twenty four years old male with a complaint of ankylosis of the entire upper left limb and digital cutaneous lesions and sparing of the other limbs and the axial skeleton. Absence of great toe malformation, presence of cutaneous ossification, dermal bone spicules extruding in fingers, and involvement of just left upper limb were unique findings in contrast with FOP diagnosis in this case. There is no effective treatment or prevention for POH. Awareness of diagnostic features is necessary in early diagnosis of POH. PMID:27517079

  10. Cemento-osseous dysplasia in an elderly Asian male: a case report.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang

    2011-03-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia is a disorder typically found in middle-aged black women. However, the present report describes a case in a 61-year-old Vietnamese male. Without proper pulp testing and diagnosis, the radiographic presentation can easily be misdiagnosed as periapical periodontitis. On the basis of pulp vitality, lack of clinical symptoms and radiographic features, the diagnosis in this case was periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia at the mixed stage, which generally requires no treatment. At the 18-month follow-up, the patient was still asymptomatic and none of the clinical signs had changed. This case highlights the importance of careful clinical examination, including a pulp vitality test, and of having an unbiased view of age, gender, and ethnicity when diagnosing this condition.

  11. The orthodontic management of a patient presenting with cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Sethusa, M P S; Khan, M I

    2009-04-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasias are sometimes seen on routine radiographic examination of the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, most commonly amongst adult female patients. Lesions present as radiolucent to radio-opaque areas, depending on various levels of maturity. Extraction of teeth is strongly contraindicated because there is a high risk of infection with a possibility of bone sequestration, as antibiotics are unable to cross the thick cortical marginal bone that surrounds these lesions. No report has been found in the literature on the orthodontic management of patients with this condition. This paper reports on a 28-year-old black female patient with cemento-osseous dysplasia who received orthodontic treatment.

  12. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia mimicking apical periodontitis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Rekabi, Ali Reza; Ashouri, Rezvan; Torabi, Molok; Parirokh, Masoud; Abbott, Paul V

    2013-12-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia may present as a focal, periapical or florid lesion in the mandible or maxilla. The lesion may sometimes appear similar to peri-radicular lesions on a periapical radiograph. This report presents a case with irreversible pulpitis and root resorption as well as a mixed radiolucent/radiopaque lesion around a mandibular molar tooth root. Root canal treatment was performed and because of the radiographic signs of root resorption and the patient's fear of having a malignant disease, periapical surgery was also performed. The histopathology report confirmed the presence of florid cement-osseous dysplasia which was mimicking apical periodontitis. Follow-up radiography 12 months after the surgery illustrated complete healing of the radiolucent area.

  13. Total Ankylosis of the Upper Left Limb: A Case of Progressive Osseous Heteroplasia.

    PubMed

    Birjandinejad, Ali; Taraz-Jamshidi, Mohammad-Hossein; Hosseinian, Sayyed Hadi Sayyed

    2016-06-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia is a rare inherited disease that begins with skin ossification and proceeds into the deeper connective tissues. The disease should be distinguished from other genetic disorders of heterotopic ossification including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). We report a case of progressive osseous heteroplasia in a twenty four years old male with a complaint of ankylosis of the entire upper left limb and digital cutaneous lesions and sparing of the other limbs and the axial skeleton. Absence of great toe malformation, presence of cutaneous ossification, dermal bone spicules extruding in fingers, and involvement of just left upper limb were unique findings in contrast with FOP diagnosis in this case. There is no effective treatment or prevention for POH. Awareness of diagnostic features is necessary in early diagnosis of POH. PMID:27517079

  14. Post‐traumatic fibro‐osseous lesion of the ribs: a relatively under‐recognised entity

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, S; Kerdraon, O; Conti, M; Buob, D; Petit, S; Leroy, X

    2006-01-01

    Aim To report the description of a rare benign osseous lesion affecting the ribs entitled post‐traumatic fibro‐osseous lesion (PTFOL). Methods Seven cases of PTFOLs were retrieved from the archives of the University Hospital of Lille. Histological slides were reviewed and lesions were classified according to the histological patterns described by McDermott et al. Clinical and follow‐up data were obtained from the patients' charts. Results PTFOLs occurred principally in men (mean age 31.8 years) with a known or suspected previous chest injury for four of them. No previous cancer was noted. Radiologically, PTFOLs readily presented as an isolated expansive lucency with a sclerotic rim located on the last five ribs. A constant increased uptake of radionucleotide was noted on bone scan. Microscopically, two fibro‐osseous, four xanthomatous and one mixed pattern were individualised. Lesions were characterised by a network of anastomosing bone trabeculae without osteoblast lining within a fibrous stroma. A zonal maturation from woven to peripheral lamellar bone was characterised. Central sheets of lipid‐laden histiocytes were conspicuous in the xanthomatous type. For each patient, clinical follow‐up was excellent, without any recurrence. Conclusions This is the second largest series of PTFOLs, which is considered to be a dysplastic healing process after trauma. It may be symptomatic or shown by imaging studies realised for unrelated reason. PTFOL is regularly misdiagnosed with other more common lesions of the ribs, such as fibro‐osseous dysplasia, osteoma osteoid and benign fibrous histiocytoma. Its recognition is of importance because no follow‐up is needed after resection. PMID:16467162

  15. Supernumerary ovary with an endometrioma and osseous metaplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Badawy, S Z; Kasello, D J; Powers, C; Elia, G; Wojtowycz, A R

    1995-11-01

    A 32-year-old-woman with a history of endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain had left-sided pain and ultrasonographic documentation of a left pelvic complex cyst approximately 5 cm in diameter. Laparotomy revealed a left retroperitoneal cystic mass adjacent to the iliopsoas muscle and overlying the major pelvic vessels. The mass was dissected and excised. Histopathologic study revealed endometrioma and osseous metaplasia in a supernumerary ovary.

  16. Genetic determinants of fibro-osseous lesions in aged inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Annerose; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Sundberg, Beth A; Cates, Justin M; Schofield, Paul N; Sundberg, John P

    2016-02-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions in mice are progressive aging changes in which the bone marrow is replaced to various degrees by fibrovascular stroma and bony trabeculae in a wide variety of bones. The frequency and severity varied greatly among 28 different inbred mouse stains, predominantly affecting females, ranging from 0% for 10 strains to 100% for KK/HlJ and NZW/LacJ female mice. Few lesions were observed in male mice and for 23 of the strains, no lesions were observed in males for any of the cohorts. There were no significant correlations between strain-specific severities of fibro-osseous lesions and ovarian (r=0.11; P=0.57) or endometrial (r=0.03; P=0.89) cyst formation frequency or abnormalities in parathyroid glands. Frequency of fibro-osseous lesions was most strongly associated (P<10(-6)) with genome variations on chromosome (Chr) 8 at 90.6 and 90.8Mb (rs33108071, rs33500669; P=5.0·10(-10), 1.3·10(-6)), Chr 15 at 23.6 and 23.8Mb (rs32087871, rs45770368; P=7.3·10(-7), 2.7·10(-6)), and Chr 19 at 33.2, 33.4, and 33.6Mb (rs311004232, rs30524929, rs30448815; P=2.8·10(-6), 2.8·10(-6), 2.8·10(-6)) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The relatively large number of candidate genes identified in the GWAS analyses suggests that this may be an extremely complex polygenic disease. These results indicate that fibro-osseous lesions are surprisingly common in many inbred strains of laboratory mice as they age. While this presents little problem in most studies that utilize young animals, it may complicate aging studies, particularly those focused on bone. PMID:26589134

  17. Idiosyncratic Presentation of Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia - An in Depth Analysis Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Chennoju, Sai Kiran; Pachigolla, Ramaswamy; Govada, Vanya Mahitha; Alapati, Satish; Balla, Smitha

    2016-05-01

    Bone dysplasias comprise of a condition where the normal bone is replaced with fibrous tissue. Periapical Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia (PCOD) is a benign fibro-osseous condition where bone tissue is supplanted with fibrous tissue and cementum-like material. This condition affects mostly mandibular anterior region and rarely occurs in the maxilla. PCOD is seen above 30 years of age and has slight female predilection. Generally the teeth related to such lesions appear to be vital and are usually asymptomatic. These lesions are mostly seen during routine radiographic examination whose presentation may vary from complete radiolucency to dense radiopacity. The advent of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has brought a massive change in the field of dentistry which has become an important tool for diagnosis. Hence we hereby present an unusual case of cemento-osseous dysplasia in an unfamiliar location with an atypical presentation. The shape of the pathology was completely idiosyncratic and different from an orthodox lesion of COD, as the lesion was observed to grow out of the palatal surface with a prominent palatal expansion. This case highlights the importance of CBCT in radiographic diagnosis and in evaluating the characteristics of such lesion, which present with high diagnostic dilemma.

  18. Strontium 89 in the treatment of pain due to diffuse osseous metastases: a university hospital experience.

    PubMed Central

    Ashayeri, Ebrahim; Omogbehin, Adedamola; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Shankar, Ravi A.

    2002-01-01

    More than two-thirds of the patients with osseous metastases experience debilitating bone pain, requiring some form of pain relief. Analgesics are limited in their efficacy. Palliative application of hemi-body external beam radiation therapy in the treatment of multiple osseous metastases also is limited due to toxicity associated with large treatment ports. Intravenous injections of bone seeking radioisotopes are effective in the palliation of pain with fewer side effects. Forty-one patients with multiple osseous metastases due to prostate and breast cancer were treated with strontium chloride 89 (89Sr) at the department of radiation oncology, in a university hospital. A retrospective analysis of these patients indicated that all subjects had severe pain that diminished their quality of life. Most of these patients had multiple co-morbid factors. Many were on opioids leading to adverse effects such as nausea, constipation, and drowsiness that required additional medication. Objective findings and evaluation of the responses were not always available for all patients. Following treatmentwith 89Sr, over two-thirds of the patients responded favorably and required lower doses of opioids. PMID:12152927

  19. Idiosyncratic Presentation of Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia - An in Depth Analysis Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Chennoju, Sai Kiran; Pachigolla, Ramaswamy; Govada, Vanya Mahitha; Alapati, Satish; Balla, Smitha

    2016-05-01

    Bone dysplasias comprise of a condition where the normal bone is replaced with fibrous tissue. Periapical Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia (PCOD) is a benign fibro-osseous condition where bone tissue is supplanted with fibrous tissue and cementum-like material. This condition affects mostly mandibular anterior region and rarely occurs in the maxilla. PCOD is seen above 30 years of age and has slight female predilection. Generally the teeth related to such lesions appear to be vital and are usually asymptomatic. These lesions are mostly seen during routine radiographic examination whose presentation may vary from complete radiolucency to dense radiopacity. The advent of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has brought a massive change in the field of dentistry which has become an important tool for diagnosis. Hence we hereby present an unusual case of cemento-osseous dysplasia in an unfamiliar location with an atypical presentation. The shape of the pathology was completely idiosyncratic and different from an orthodox lesion of COD, as the lesion was observed to grow out of the palatal surface with a prominent palatal expansion. This case highlights the importance of CBCT in radiographic diagnosis and in evaluating the characteristics of such lesion, which present with high diagnostic dilemma. PMID:27437374

  20. Extending the viability of acute brain slices

    PubMed Central

    Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6–12 hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36 hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

  1. Viability of the Vulnerability Thesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Frank W.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the viability of the vulnerability thesis as a tool in accounting for school superintendent behavior today, suggesting how the thesis can be built on in order to better understand the political world of superintendency. The paper suggests some social and political theories that might extend the thesis, further clarifying the…

  2. Soft tissue hemangioma with osseous extension: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Alexander; Olivieri, Brandon; Feinberg, Daniel; Betancourt, Michel; Bockelman, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Soft tissue hemangiomas are commonly encountered lesions, accounting for 7-10 % of all benign soft tissue masses (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010). While the literature describes the great majority of hemangiomas as asymptomatic and discovered only as incidental findings, they do have the potential to induce reactive changes in neighboring structures (Pastushyn et al. Surg Neurol 50(6):535-47, 1998). When these variants occur in close proximity to bone, they may elicit a number of well-documented reactive changes in osseous tissue (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; DeFilippo et al. Skelet Radiol 25(2):174-7, 1996; Ly et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180(6):1695-700, 2003; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998). However, instances of direct extension into bone by soft tissue hemangiomas--that is, infiltration of the mass's vascular components into nearby osseous tissue--are currently undocumented in the literature. In these cases, imaging plays an important role in differentiating hemangiomas from malignant lesions (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998; Pourbagher, Br J Radiol 84(1008):1100-8, 2011). In this article, we present such a case that involved the sacral spine. Imaging revealed a soft tissue mass with direct extension of vascular components into osseous tissue of the adjacent sacral vertebrae. Biopsy and subsequent histopathologic examination led to definitive diagnosis of soft tissue hemangioma. While MRI is widely regarded as the gold standard imaging modality for evaluating hemangiomas, in this report we describe how CT can aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis when one encounters a vascular lesion with adjacent osseous changes. Furthermore, we review the literature as it pertains to the imaging of soft tissue hemangiomas that occur in proximity to osseous tissue, as well as correlate this case to current theories on the pathogenesis of hemangiomas

  3. In Vitro Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Different Storage Media.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media. Forty-five mature premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups according to the storage medium: milk (control), rice water and egg white. After placing extracted teeth for 30 min in storage media, the scrapings of the periodontal ligament (PDL) were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffer saline and were incubated for 30 min and centrifuged for 5 min at 800 rpm. Cell viability was analyzed by Trypan blue exclusion. Rice water had a significantly higher number of viable cells compared to egg white and milk. There was no statistically significant difference between egg white and milk. Rice water may be able to maintain PDL cell viability of avulsed teeth better than egg white or milk. PMID:27652702

  4. Hydrogen Supplementation of Preservation Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takuya; Onuma, Kenji; Kuzuno, Jun; Ujihira, Masanobu; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Sakai, Rina; Takaso, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Allogenic osteochondral tissue (OCT) is used for the treatment of large cartilage defects. Typically, OCTs collected during the disease-screening period are preserved at 4°C; however, the gradual reduction in cell viability during cold preservation adversely affects transplantation outcomes. Therefore, improved storage methods that maintain the cell viability of OCTs are needed to increase the availability of high-quality OCTs and improve treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether long-term hydrogen delivery to preservation solution improved the viability of rat OCTs during cold preservation. Hydrogen-supplemented Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution both significantly improved the cell viability of OCTs during preservation at 4°C for 21 days compared to nonsupplemented media. However, the long-term cold preservation of OCTs in DMEM containing hydrogen was associated with the most optimal maintenance of chondrocytes with respect to viability and morphology. Our findings demonstrate that OCTs preserved in DMEM supplemented with hydrogen are a promising material for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. PMID:25506061

  5. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong.

  6. Viability of bacteria in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Lysak, L. V.; Glukhova, T. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2014-04-01

    The viability of bacteria in oligotrofic bogs and fens was determined by the luminescent microscopy method with the help of a two-component fluorescent dye (L7012 LIVE/DEAD). Living bacterial cells were found in the entire peat profiles. Their portion was maximal (up to 60%) in the upper layers and did not exceed 25% in the lower layers. The portion of dead bacterial cells varied from 3 to 19%, and dormant cells constituted 25 to 95% of the total number of bacterial cells. The numbers of dormant cells increased down the profiles irrespectively of the peat type. The portion of nanoforms did not exceed 5% of the total. The cells of the nanoforms, unlike the bacteria of typical sizes, were characterized by their high viability (93-98%).

  7. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: Report of a case documented with clinical, radiographic, biochemical and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Kutluay Köklü, Harika; Cankal, Dilek A; Bozkaya, Süleyman; Ergün, Gülfem; Bar, Emre

    2013-02-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) has been described as a condition that characteristically affects the jaws of middle-aged black women. This condition has also been classified as gigantiform cementoma, chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis, sclerosing osteitis, multiple estenosis and sclerotic cemental masses. It usually exhibits as multiple radiopaque cementum-like masses distributed throughout the jaws. Radiographically, FCOD appears as dense, lobulated masses, often symmetrically located in various regions of the jaws. Computed tomography, because of its ability to give axial, sagittal, and frontal views, is useful in the evaluation of these lesions. This article reports the case of a 45-year-old white man who was diagnosed with FCOD on the basis of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and histological findings. It is of major importance to realize that all dentists have a unique opportunity as well as ethical obligation to assist in the struggle against wrong dental treatments that might save patients dental health. This case report illustrates the point that periapical radiolucencies may represent benign fibro-osseous lesions that may be overlooked or result in unnecessary endodontic treatment. Key words:Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid osseous dysplasia, fibro-osseous lesions. PMID:24455053

  8. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: Report of a case documented with clinical, radiographic, biochemical and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Kutluay Köklü, Harika; Cankal, Dilek A; Bozkaya, Süleyman; Ergün, Gülfem; Bar, Emre

    2013-02-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) has been described as a condition that characteristically affects the jaws of middle-aged black women. This condition has also been classified as gigantiform cementoma, chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis, sclerosing osteitis, multiple estenosis and sclerotic cemental masses. It usually exhibits as multiple radiopaque cementum-like masses distributed throughout the jaws. Radiographically, FCOD appears as dense, lobulated masses, often symmetrically located in various regions of the jaws. Computed tomography, because of its ability to give axial, sagittal, and frontal views, is useful in the evaluation of these lesions. This article reports the case of a 45-year-old white man who was diagnosed with FCOD on the basis of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and histological findings. It is of major importance to realize that all dentists have a unique opportunity as well as ethical obligation to assist in the struggle against wrong dental treatments that might save patients dental health. This case report illustrates the point that periapical radiolucencies may represent benign fibro-osseous lesions that may be overlooked or result in unnecessary endodontic treatment. Key words:Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid osseous dysplasia, fibro-osseous lesions.

  9. Reassessing the Aurignacian of Slovenia: techno-economic behaviour and direct dating of osseous projectile points.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Luc; Odar, Boštjan; Higham, Tom; Horvat, Aleksander; Pirkmajer, Darja; Turk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Palaeolithic of southern Central Europe has a long history of archaeological research. Particularly, the presence of numerous osseous projectile points in many early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) assemblages in this region has attracted the attention of the international research community. However, the scarcity of properly identified and well-dated Aurignacian contexts represents an obstacle for investigation of the nature and timing of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. In this context, the question of whether Neandertals made Aurignacian osseous projectile points, either on their own or as a consequence of cultural interaction with anatomically modern humans (AMH), still remains an open issue. Here we reassess the EUP record of Slovenia by evaluating the Aurignacian character of the assemblages from Potočka zijalka, Mokriška jama and Divje babe I in the light of their suggested roots in the local Mousterian. We provide a comprehensive description of the lithic industry from Potočka zijalka, which represents one of the rare EUP assemblages of southern Central Europe with a representative number of lithic artefacts to be analysed from the perspective of lithic technology and raw material economy. Our re-analysis of the Slovenian assemblages is backed by a series of 11 new ultrafiltered collagen 14C dates obtained directly on associated osseous projectile points from the studied assemblages. The Aurignacian of Potočka zijalka underlines the remarkable consistency of the Early Aurignacian with low typo-technological variability across Europe, resulting from a marked dependence on transported toolkits and raw material conservation. The new radiocarbon determinations for the Aurignacian of Slovenia appear to post-date the 34-32 ka BP (thousands of years before present) threshold for the last Neandertals in the region. Although not falsified, the hypothesis of Aurignacian bone tools in southern Central Europe as a product of late Neandertals is not

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Osseous Biopsy in Children With Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Jan; Tzaribachev, Nikolay; Thomas, Christoph; Wehrmann, Manfred; Horger, Marius S.; Carrino, John A.; Koenig, Claudius W.; Pereira, Philippe L.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To report the safety and diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MRI)-guided core biopsy of osseous lesions in children with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) that were visible on MRI but were occult on radiography and computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of MRI-guided osseous biopsy performed in seven children (four girls and three boys; mean age 13 years (range 11 to 14) with CRMO was performed. Indication for using MRI guidance was visibility of lesions by MRI only. MRI-guided procedures were performed with 0.2-Tesla (Magnetom Concerto; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; n = 5) or 1.5-T (Magnetom Espree; Siemens; n = 2) open MRI systems. Core needle biopsy was obtained using an MRI-compatible 4-mm drill system. Conscious sedation or general anesthesia was used. Parameters evaluated were lesion visibility, technical success, procedure time, complications and microbiology, cytology, and histopathology findings. Results: Seven of seven (100%) targeted lesions were successfully visualized and sampled. All obtained specimens were sufficient for histopathological analysis. Length of time of the procedures was 77 min (range 64 to 107). No complications occurred. Histopathology showed no evidence of malignancy, which was confirmed at mean follow-up of 50 months (range 28 to 78). Chronic nonspecific inflammation characteristic for CRMO was present in four of seven (58%) patients, and edema with no inflammatory cells was found in three of seven (42%) patients. There was no evidence of infection in any patient. Conclusion: MRI-guided osseous biopsy is a safe and accurate technique for the diagnosis of pediatric CRMO lesions that are visible on MRI only.

  11. Arthroscopic Trans-osseous Suture of Peripheral Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear.

    PubMed

    Jegal, Midum; Heo, Kang; Kim, Jong Pil

    2016-10-01

    The importance of foveal repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) on stability of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) has been emphasized with increasing knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of the TFCC and DRUJ. Although both open and arthroscopic techniques have been described for improving DRUJ stability, there has been a marked evolution of arthroscopic TFCC repair technique with successful clinical outcome. Recently, an arthroscopic trans-osseous technique has been described to repair foveal tears of the TFCC. The advantage of the technique is that it allows for anatomical repair of both the superficial and deep layers. This article describes the details of this novel technique. PMID:27595945

  12. Benign osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis: a review of CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Loftus, Michael L; Wladyka, Christopher; Hentel, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the standard of care for evaluation and follow-up for a wide range of abdominal and pelvic pathology. Many incidental osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis are detected on these studies, most of which have a benign etiology. However, most of these studies are interpreted by nonmusculoskeletal radiologists, who may not be familiar with the CT appearances of these benign musculoskeletal abnormalities. Uncertainty often leads to mischaracterization or unnecessary follow-up, resulting in increased health care costs and patient anxiety. This article reviews the CT appearance of the benign musculoskeletal entities that occur in pelvis.

  13. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: A rare case report evaluated with cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Eren; Bağlar, Serdar; Ciftci, Mehmet Ertugrul; Ozcan, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year-old systemically healthy female patient presented to our department. Cone-beam computed tomographic images showed multiple well-defined sclerotic masses with radiolucent border in both right and left molar regions of the mandible. These sclerotic masses were surrounded by a thin radiolucent border. We diagnosed the present pathology as florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and decided to follow the patient without taking biopsy. For the patient, who did not have any clinical complaints, radiographic followupis recommended twice a year. The responsibility of the dentist is to ensure the follow-up of the diagnosed patients and take necessary measures for preventing the infections.

  14. Benign osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis: a review of CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Loftus, Michael L; Wladyka, Christopher; Hentel, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the standard of care for evaluation and follow-up for a wide range of abdominal and pelvic pathology. Many incidental osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis are detected on these studies, most of which have a benign etiology. However, most of these studies are interpreted by nonmusculoskeletal radiologists, who may not be familiar with the CT appearances of these benign musculoskeletal abnormalities. Uncertainty often leads to mischaracterization or unnecessary follow-up, resulting in increased health care costs and patient anxiety. This article reviews the CT appearance of the benign musculoskeletal entities that occur in pelvis. PMID:25433854

  15. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: A rare case report evaluated with cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Eren; Bağlar, Serdar; Ciftci, Mehmet Ertugrul; Ozcan, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year-old systemically healthy female patient presented to our department. Cone-beam computed tomographic images showed multiple well-defined sclerotic masses with radiolucent border in both right and left molar regions of the mandible. These sclerotic masses were surrounded by a thin radiolucent border. We diagnosed the present pathology as florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and decided to follow the patient without taking biopsy. For the patient, who did not have any clinical complaints, radiographic followupis recommended twice a year. The responsibility of the dentist is to ensure the follow-up of the diagnosed patients and take necessary measures for preventing the infections. PMID:27601835

  16. [Retroperitoneal benign cyst with osseous metaplasia as the cause of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali; Clausen, Marianne Engell; Achiam, Michael

    2014-12-15

    A 27-year-old female patient with no previous medical history, presented a computed tomography displaying a calcified retroperitoneal cyst. The patient had experienced occasional abdominal pain in her right side. The tumour was found in the retroperitoneum, was non-adherent to neighbouring organs and was excised laparoscopically without postoperative complications. Histology revealed a benign, cystic mass, with calcification and osseous metaplasia in the cyst wall, and no epithelia. The material of the cyst was amorphic and necrotic. No other retroperitoneal masses alike has been described in the literature.

  17. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: A rare case report evaluated with cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Eren; Bağlar, Serdar; Ciftci, Mehmet Ertugrul; Ozcan, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year-old systemically healthy female patient presented to our department. Cone-beam computed tomographic images showed multiple well-defined sclerotic masses with radiolucent border in both right and left molar regions of the mandible. These sclerotic masses were surrounded by a thin radiolucent border. We diagnosed the present pathology as florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and decided to follow the patient without taking biopsy. For the patient, who did not have any clinical complaints, radiographic followupis recommended twice a year. The responsibility of the dentist is to ensure the follow-up of the diagnosed patients and take necessary measures for preventing the infections.

  18. Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) due to a recurrent filamin A (FLNA) mutation

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Torrado, Maria; Fernandez, Maria del Carmen; Tello, Ana Maria; Arberas, Claudia L; Cardinale, Antonella; Piccolo, Pasquale; Bacino, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is an X-linked dominant syndrome with distal limb anomalies, pigmentary skin defects, digital fibromas, and generalized bone involvement due to a recurrent mutation in the filamin A (FLNA) gene. We here report the mutation c.5217G>A in FLNA in three families with TODPD and we found possible germline and somatic mosaicism in two out of the three families. The occurrence of somatic and germline mosaicism for TODPD indicates that caution should be taken in counseling recurrence risks for these conditions upon presentation of an isolated case. PMID:25614868

  19. Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) due to a recurrent filamin A (FLNA) mutation.

    PubMed

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Torrado, Maria; Fernandez, Maria Del Carmen; Tello, Ana Maria; Arberas, Claudia L; Cardinale, Antonella; Piccolo, Pasquale; Bacino, Carlos A

    2014-11-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is an X-linked dominant syndrome with distal limb anomalies, pigmentary skin defects, digital fibromas, and generalized bone involvement due to a recurrent mutation in the filamin A (FLNA) gene. We here report the mutation c.5217G>A in FLNA in three families with TODPD and we found possible germline and somatic mosaicism in two out of the three families. The occurrence of somatic and germline mosaicism for TODPD indicates that caution should be taken in counseling recurrence risks for these conditions upon presentation of an isolated case.

  20. Clinical, radiographic, and histological findings of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hee; Song, Byeong-Chul; Kim, Sun-Ho; Park, Yang-Soon

    2011-09-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasias are a group of disorders known to originate from periodontal ligament tissue and involve, essentially, the same pathological process. They are usually classified into three main groups: periapical, florid, and focal cemental dysplasias depending on their extent and radiographic appearances. Radiographically, florid cementoosseous dysplasia (FCOD) appears as dense, lobulated masses, often symmetrically located in various regions of the jaws. The best management for the asymptomatic FCOD patient consists of regular recall examinations with prophylaxis. The management of the symptomatic patient is more difficult. A case of FCOD occurring in a 52-year-old edentulous Korean female is reported which is rare with regard to race and sex.

  1. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: A rare case report evaluated with cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Eren; Bağlar, Serdar; Ciftci, Mehmet Ertugrul; Ozcan, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year-old systemically healthy female patient presented to our department. Cone-beam computed tomographic images showed multiple well-defined sclerotic masses with radiolucent border in both right and left molar regions of the mandible. These sclerotic masses were surrounded by a thin radiolucent border. We diagnosed the present pathology as florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and decided to follow the patient without taking biopsy. For the patient, who did not have any clinical complaints, radiographic followupis recommended twice a year. The responsibility of the dentist is to ensure the follow-up of the diagnosed patients and take necessary measures for preventing the infections. PMID:27601835

  2. Familial florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: a rare manifestation in an Indian family.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Adit; Agarwal, Rahul; Soni, Romesh; Sachan, Avesh; Shivakumar, G C; Chaturvedi, T P

    2012-01-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is one of the uncommon dysplasias affecting the maxillofacial region. The age group may vary from 19 to 76 years and typically presents in the 4th and 5th decades. In most cases patients do not have hereditary basis of disease, and only a few familial cases have been documented. As far as we know this is the 1st reported case of familial FCOD in an Indian family. The mother and son exhibited multiple sclerotic masses in both jaws. The mode of transmission appeared to be autosomal dominant with variable phenotypic expression.

  3. Management of Osseous and Soft-Tissue Ankle Equinus During Total Ankle Replacement.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S; Simonson, Devin C

    2015-10-01

    Obtaining functional alignment of a total ankle replacement, including physiologic sagittal plane range of motion, is paramount for a successful outcome. This article reviews the literature on techniques available for correction of osseous and soft-tissue equinus at the time of index total ankle replacement. These techniques include anterior tibiotalar joint cheilectomy, posterior superficial muscle compartment lengthening, posterior ankle capsule release, and release of the posterior portions of the medial and lateral collateral ligament complexes. The rationale for these procedures and the operative sequence of events for these procedures are presented.

  4. Association of migraine-like headaches with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Donmez, Osman; Sloan, Emily A; Elizondo, Leah I; Huang, Cheng; André, Jean-Luc; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Cockfield, Sandra; Cordeiro, Isabel; Deschenes, Georges; Fründ, Stefan; Kaitila, Ilkka; Lama, Giuliana; Lamfers, Petra; Lücke, Thomas; Milford, David V; Najera, Lydia; Rodrigo, Francisco; Saraiva, Jorge M; Schmidt, Beate; Smith, Graham C; Stajic, Nastasa; Stein, Anja; Taha, Doris; Wand, Dorothea; Armstrong, Dawna; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2005-06-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, nephropathy, and T-cell deficiency. SIOD is caused by mutations in the putative chromatin remodeling protein SMARCAL1. We report an 8-year-old boy with SIOD and recurrent, severe, refractory migraine-like headaches. Through a retrospective questionnaire-based study, we found that refractory and severely disabling migraine-like headaches occur in nearly half of SIOD patients. We have also found that the vasodilator minoxidil provided symptomatic relief for one patient. We hypothesize that these headaches may arise from an intrinsic vascular, neuroimmune, or neurovascular defect resulting from loss of SMARCAL1 function. PMID:15884045

  5. Noninclusion-body infantile digital fibromatosis: a lesion heralding terminal osseous dysplasia and pigmentary defects syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drut, Ricardo; Pedemonte, Luis; Rositto, Alicia

    2005-04-01

    This report describes the histologic and immunohistochemical features of a peculiar type of digital fibroma that shares some clinical and microscopic features with the more common inclusion-body type infantile digital fibromatosis. However, this type does not exhibit inclusion bodies and its cells are reactive for vimentin but not for actin. Significantly, it presents in combination with a constellation of other clinical findings, i.e., mainly positional and bone abnormalities of the fingers and toes, and skin pigmentary defects. Thus, noninclusion-body digital fibromatosis may represent the first clue for the diagnosis of the so-called terminal osseous dysplasia and pigmentary defects syndrome.

  6. Artificial Evolution by Viability Rather than Competition

    PubMed Central

    Maesani, Andrea; Fernando, Pradeep Ruben; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design. PMID:24489790

  7. Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.

    PubMed

    Maesani, Andrea; Fernando, Pradeep Ruben; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design. PMID:24489790

  8. High-resolution CT analysis of facial struts in trauma: 1. Osseous and soft-tissue complications

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, L.R.; Manor, W.F.; Turski, P.A.; Strother, C.M.

    1983-03-01

    In six cadavers, high-resolution thin-section computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate the sequelae of experimentally produced facial trauma. As confirmed by pluridirectional tomography, CT was an effective imaging method for the detection and classification of facial fractures. The ability of CT to simultaneously depict both osseous and soft-tissue structures expands the role that diagnostic radiology can play in the evaluation of the traumatized face. A method of evaluation is presented in which the face is geometrically conceptualized as a series of triplanar (horizontal, sagittal, and coronal) osseous struts. Sequential, systematic assessment of each strut for fracture and its adjacent soft tissue for injury can facilitate evaluation of the traumatized face. Using this approach the osseous and soft-tissue complications arising from experimentally produced trauma are reviewed and illustrated with CT.

  9. Rapid determination of yeast viability

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.S.; Robinson, F.M.; Wang, H.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A modified simple staining method using Methylene blue to distinguish between live and dead cells has been developed. Methylene blue (0.025%, w/v) in full strength Ringer solution with 1% glucose (w/v) added is used as the standard staining solution. Satisfactory and reproducible results can be obtained through microscopic examination using this staining method. The ratio of viable cells to nonviable cells is constant for at least two days if the proper environmental conditions are provided. This method was used to demonstrate the effects of various factors that influence yeast viability.

  10. Maintaining Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... center but can also be done in nursing facilities, hospitals, or at home. Book a PFF Ambassador for your event. Call 844.TalkPFF > Life with PF About PF Treatment Options Clinical Trials Maintaining Your Health Find Medical Care Support Groups PFF ...

  11. Attritional rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by an osseous spur more than 30 years after wrist injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Kohji; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Moritomo, Hisao; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    A 46-year-old woman sustained a rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon more than 30 years after wrist injury. She was successfully treated with palmaris longus tendon graft and excision of the osseous spur. Attrition of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by a newly formed osseous spur was the major mechanism.

  12. Treatment of an intrabony osseous lesion associated with a palatoradicular groove

    PubMed Central

    Suchetha, A.; Heralgi, Rashmi; Bharwani, Ashit G.; Mundinamane, Darshan

    2012-01-01

    Various root developmental anomalies like palatoradicular groove (PRG) have been associated with worsening of periodontal condition. The aim of the present case report is to describe the regenerative surgical treatment of periodontal and osseous lesion associated with the subgingival extension of PRG. A 23-year-old female patient reported with pain in upper incisor teeth region. On clinical and radiological examination, a deep endosseous defect was found distal to maxillary right lateral incisor that was etiologically associated with the presence of a PRG. Treatment procedures consisted of: Regenerative periodontal therapy using Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and hydroxyapatite (HA) bone graft and 2) flattening of the radicular portion of the palatal groove. The clinical examination at 1 year revealed shallow residual probing depth (3 mm) and no increase in gingival recession. The radiographic examination showed reduction in the radiolucency suggesting bone fill. A PRG may serve as a pathway for the development of a periodontal osseous defect. The combination of GTR and HA may be clinically and radiographically efficacious in the treatment of such a defect. PMID:23230377

  13. Clinical repair of an osseous defect associated with a cemental tear: a case report.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Paulo M; Pirih, Flavia Q M; Wolinsky, Lawrence E; Lekovic, Vojislav; Kamrath, Heidi; White, Shane N

    2003-02-01

    Cemental tears have been described as detachment of cementum caused by trauma or aging. They often result in severe periodontal lesions that may necessitate the extraction of the affected tooth. This case report describes the clinical resolution of a periodontal lesion associated with a cemental tear. A maxillary central incisor was subjected to endodontic treatment twice with no resolution of a deep distobuccal pocket and a palatal sinus tract from its apical region. The preoperative differential diagnosis for the condition present on the tooth included a vertical fracture and a combined periodontal-endodontic lesion. Surgical exploration of the area revealed a cemental tear on the apical third of the tooth. The cementum fragments were removed, root-end resection was performed, and the osseous lesion was treated with an osseous graft and guided tissue regeneration. Clinical examination of the area 1 year after surgery revealed resolution of both the prior pocket and sinus tract. Radiographic examination of the area showed increased radiopacity in the area of the original lesion, suggesting bone fill.

  14. Biodegradable mesoporous calcium-magnesium silicate-polybutylene succinate scaffolds for osseous tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Biao; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Quanxiang; Ji, Jiajin; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The structural features of bone engineering scaffolds are expected to exhibit osteoinductive behavior and promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we employed synthesized ordered mesoporous calcium-magnesium silicate (om-CMS) and polybutylene succinate (PBSu) to develop a novel scaffold with potential applications in osseous tissue engineering. The characteristics, in vitro bioactivity of om-CMS/PBSu scaffold, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells to the composite were investigated. Our results showed that the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold possesses a large surface area and highly ordered channel pores, resulting in improved degradation and biocompatibility compared to the PBSu scaffold. Moreover, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold exhibited significantly higher bioactivity and induced apatite formation on its surface after immersion in the simulated body fluid. In addition, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold provided a high surface area for cell attachment and released Ca, Mg, and Si ions to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The unique surface characteristics and higher biological efficacy of the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold suggest that it has great potential for being developed into a system that can be employed in osseous tissue engineering. PMID:26604746

  15. Biodegradable mesoporous calcium–magnesium silicate-polybutylene succinate scaffolds for osseous tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Biao; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Quanxiang; Ji, Jiajin; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The structural features of bone engineering scaffolds are expected to exhibit osteoinductive behavior and promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we employed synthesized ordered mesoporous calcium–magnesium silicate (om-CMS) and polybutylene succinate (PBSu) to develop a novel scaffold with potential applications in osseous tissue engineering. The characteristics, in vitro bioactivity of om-CMS/PBSu scaffold, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells to the composite were investigated. Our results showed that the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold possesses a large surface area and highly ordered channel pores, resulting in improved degradation and biocompatibility compared to the PBSu scaffold. Moreover, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold exhibited significantly higher bioactivity and induced apatite formation on its surface after immersion in the simulated body fluid. In addition, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold provided a high surface area for cell attachment and released Ca, Mg, and Si ions to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The unique surface characteristics and higher biological efficacy of the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold suggest that it has great potential for being developed into a system that can be employed in osseous tissue engineering. PMID:26604746

  16. Measurements of deformations in osseous structures and implants by digital speckle interferometry (DSPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Rosario; González-Peña, Rolando; Cibrián, Rosa; Buendía, Mateo; Mínguez, Fe; Laguía, Manuel; Molina, Teresa; Marti, Luis; Esteve, José; Caballero, José; Micó, Vicente; Sanjuan, Elena

    2006-09-01

    Knowledge of how osseous structures and implants behave under deforming stress is an interesting point when evaluating the response of an implanted prosthesis. The failure of an implant is not always due to the great stress a structure may be subjected to at a particular moment, but rather to the effects of deterioration associated with lesser stress but which is continuously applied. Therefore it is helpful to know how bones and implants respond to this lesser stress. Digital speckle interferometry (DSPI) is suitable for this type of determination, as it is a highly sensitive, non-invasive optical technique. In this study we present the results we obtained when determining the elasticity of a sample of a macerated human radius, a titanium implant and a titanium screw used to treat the fractures of this bone. The correlation ratios we obtained in determining Young's modulus were in the order of r=0.994. Models were made of these structures using the finite elements method (FEM) with the aid of the ANSYS 10.0 program, applying Young's modulus values determined by DSPI. With a view to monitoring the accuracy of the FEM models of the bone and the implant elements we designed a flexion experiment to obtain the DSPI values in and out of plane. The high degree of concordance between the results of both methods makes it possible to continue studying osseous samples with a fixed implant, and also other implants made of different alloys.

  17. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  18. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  19. Acoustic Levitator Maintains Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Transducer loading characteristics allow resonance tracked at high temperature. Acoustic-levitation chamber length automatically adjusted to maintain resonance at constant acoustic frequency as temperature changes. Developed for containerless processing of materials at high temperatures, system does not rely on microphones as resonance sensors, since microphones are difficult to fabricate for use at temperatures above 500 degrees C. Instead, system uses acoustic transducer itself as sensor.

  20. Direct bonded space maintainers.

    PubMed

    Santos, V L; Almeida, M A; Mello, H S; Keith, O

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically a bonded space maintainer, which would reduce chair-side time and cost. Sixty appliances were fabricated from 0.7 mm stainless steel round wire and bonded using light-cured composite to the two teeth adjacent to the site of extraction of a posterior primary tooth. Twenty males and sixteen females (age range 5-9-years-old) were selected from the Pedodontic clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro. The sixty space maintainers were divided into two groups according to the site in which they were placed: a) absent first primary molar and b) absent second primary molar. Impressions and study models were obtained prior to and 6 months after bonding the appliances. During this period only 8.3% of failures were observed, most of them from occlusal or facial trauma. Student t-test did not show statistically significant alterations in the sizes of the maintained spaces during the trial period.

  1. Morphological assessment of embryo viability.

    PubMed

    Abeyta, Michael; Behr, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Morphological assessment is discussed in the context of significant literature at all stages of in vitro development, beginning with the oocyte and culminating at the blastocyst stage. Current evidence is used to debate the inclusion of commonly observed morphological features in grading schemes. The biological rationale behind observed phenomena such as multinucleation and fragmentation are also explored. Current limitations as well as technological advancements that increase our ability to assess viability are highlighted. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between developmental timing and assessment schemes. Failure to standardize assessment timing and inclusion criteria is glaring weaknesses of the literature that currently make consensus unattainable. Mounting evidence suggests that the future of static assessment is very likely to be influenced by information gathered from preimplantation genetic screening and other invasive techniques as well as from continuous monitoring tools such as time lapse.

  2. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with peripheral cemento-osseous reactive proliferation: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Aparna; Slater, Lee J; Hamao-Sakamoto, Aya; Waters, Patrick; Kessler, Harvey P; Wright, John M

    2016-09-01

    Two cases of a rare variant of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor encompassed by a prominent reactive cemento-osseous proliferation are reported. This unique variant of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor has only been seen twice in the authors' collective experience. Literature documenting the histopathologic patterns of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor and the occurrence of other combined lesions other is reviewed and discussed. PMID:26899293

  3. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with peripheral cemento-osseous reactive proliferation: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Aparna; Slater, Lee J; Hamao-Sakamoto, Aya; Waters, Patrick; Kessler, Harvey P; Wright, John M

    2016-09-01

    Two cases of a rare variant of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor encompassed by a prominent reactive cemento-osseous proliferation are reported. This unique variant of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor has only been seen twice in the authors' collective experience. Literature documenting the histopathologic patterns of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor and the occurrence of other combined lesions other is reviewed and discussed.

  4. Reagan: Maintain Antarctic program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan has decided that the United States should maintain an ‘active and influential presence’ in Antarctica to support the nation's interests. Following a review of a study by the Antarctica Policy Group, Reagan issued a memorandum, dated February 5, to the heads of 14 government agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Office of Management and Budget.The U.S. presence in Antarctica ‘shall include the conduct of scientific activities in major disciplines; year-round occupation of the South Pole and two coastal stations; and availability of related necessary logistics support,’ wrote the President. In addition, NSF should continue to budget for the entire U.S. program in Antarctica. Short-term programs by other agencies require the recommendation of the Antarctica Policy Group and should be coordinated within the framework of NSF logistics support.

  5. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images. PMID:26545466

  6. A rare case of extra nodal Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated multifocal osseous manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maharshi H; Jambhekar, Kedar R; Pandey, Tarun; Ram, Roopa

    2015-01-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) or Rosai–Dorfman disease is a non-neoplastic condition which typically presents as massive, bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and can involve multiple extranodal organ systems such as skin, eyes, and upper respiratory tract in about 28% cases. Bone lesions in association with nodal disease are seen in less than 10% cases. Isolated bone involvement as the only manifestation of SHML is extremely rare, with less than 50 cases reported in the literature. We report a very uncommon case of Rosai–Dorfman disease with isolated multifocal osseous involvement as the only presenting feature, involving about 10 different sites with no lymphadenopathy or other organ system involvement. PMID:26288524

  7. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images.

  8. Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gerusa O.M.; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N. R.; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453

  9. Misdiagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia leading to unnecessary root canal treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jong-Ki; Shin, Su-Jung

    2013-08-01

    This case report demonstrates an unnecessary endodontic treatment of teeth with florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) due to a misdiagnosis as periapical pathosis and emphasizes the importance of correct diagnosis to avoid unnecessary treatment. A 30-year-old woman was referred to our institution for apicoectomies of the mandibular left canine and both the lateral incisors. The periapical lesions associated with these teeth had failed to resolve after root canal treatment over a 3-year period. Radiographic examinations revealed multiple lesions on the right canine, the second premolar, and both first molars as well as the anterior region of the mandible. Based on clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations, the patient condition was diagnosed as FCOD. The patient has been monitored for 2 years. To avoid unnecessary invasive treatment, accurate diagnosis is essential before treatment is carried out in managing FCOD. PMID:24010083

  10. Misdiagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia leading to unnecessary root canal treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jong-Ki; Shin, Su-Jung

    2013-08-01

    This case report demonstrates an unnecessary endodontic treatment of teeth with florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) due to a misdiagnosis as periapical pathosis and emphasizes the importance of correct diagnosis to avoid unnecessary treatment. A 30-year-old woman was referred to our institution for apicoectomies of the mandibular left canine and both the lateral incisors. The periapical lesions associated with these teeth had failed to resolve after root canal treatment over a 3-year period. Radiographic examinations revealed multiple lesions on the right canine, the second premolar, and both first molars as well as the anterior region of the mandible. Based on clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations, the patient condition was diagnosed as FCOD. The patient has been monitored for 2 years. To avoid unnecessary invasive treatment, accurate diagnosis is essential before treatment is carried out in managing FCOD.

  11. Endometrial Osseous Metaplasia—A Rare Presentation of Polymenorrhagia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yogesh Kumar; Hakim, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial ossification is a rare entity in which bones are found in the uterus. Exact aetiopathogenesis is not known but the most accepted theory is metaplasia of stromal cells into osteoblast cells result in the formation of bones. The possibility of malignant mixed mullerian tumour should be in the mind of clinician and pathologist while making diagnosis. We hereby report an extremely rare case, which is among very few reported cases in the world, in which endometrial ossification presented in a perimenopausal female with polymenorrhagia. A 41-year-old multiparous patient presented with irregular bleeding per vaginum for the past two years. She was found to be a case of endometrial calcification with osseous metaplasia with presence of bones varying from 7mm – 1.5 cms size in the uterine cavity. She was successfully managed by total abdominal hysterectomy. PMID:26023606

  12. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Characterized by Abundant Stromal Components with Chondroid and Osseous Metaplasia in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Ryosuke; YAMADA, Naoaki; KITAMORI, Takashi; KITAMORI, Fumiyo; SATO, Kazunari; DOI, Takuya; WAKO, Yumi; SATO, Junko; TSUCHITANI, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A dog developed a cervical mass, and computed tomography verified a mass surrounding the trachea with some pulmonary masses. Histopathologically, the cervical mass was composed of malignant neoplastic cells showing follicular appearance which reacted positive for thyroglobulin on immunohistochemistry. A characteristic feature of the tumor was abundant and metaplastic stromal components. Anastomosed collagenous tissues connecting to capsule of the tumor were abundant in the stroma. In parts of the collagenous tissues, mature cartilages and bones were continuously formed. There was no cellular atypia or invasion in the components. We diagnosed this case as follicular thyroid carcinoma with metaplastic stroma. This is the first case report that characterizes stromal components with chondroid and osseous metaplasia in a canine thyroid carcinoma. PMID:24805905

  13. Microparticulate Cortical Allograft: An Alternative to Autograft in the Treatment of Osseous Defects

    PubMed Central

    Temple, H. Thomas; Malinin, Theodore I

    2008-01-01

    Benign bone tumors are commonly diagnosed and treated. Following tumor removal, the defect in the bone can be filled with auto- or allografts, (degradable) bone substitutes or non-degradable polymethylmethacrylate. The ideal substitute for this purpose should provide immediate structural support and readily incorporate into bone over a short period of time. Experimentally, microparticulate allograft has been shown to incorporate quickly in metaphyseal and metadiaphyseal cortico-cancellous defects in primates [1]. Using a combination of small allogeneic cortical graft particles (< 250 µm), bone defects were filled following intralesional excision in 97 consecutive patients with benign and low grade malignant tumors and tumor-like conditions of bone. The clinical results and rate of radiographic incorporation and osseous consolidation were recorded and analyzed. These patients underwent 104 procedures in which osseous defects were packed with microparticulate allograft. The follow-up was from 23 to 49 months. There were 94 (90.3%) closed defects and 10 (9.7%) open defects. The average size of the grafted defect was 42.8 cm3 (0.48 - 315.0 cm3). Internal fixation was used in 11 of the 104 procedures (10.6 %). Radiographically, incorporation was observed in 91% of patients and consolidation in 60%. There were eleven failures (10.6 %), eight (72 %) due to tumor recurrence. Seven of eight patients with tumor recurrence underwent a second resection and grafting procedure that resulted in allograft incorporation and defect healing. There were two deep infections requiring debridement with retention of the graft; both resolved with satisfactory healing. Both incorporation and consolidation were observed in over 90% of patients with a low rate of complications. The use of small-particle cortical allograft proved to be an effective alternative to autogenous bone graft in patients with metaphyseal and metadiaphyseal surgical bone defects. PMID:19478936

  14. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  15. Metabolomic assessment of embryo viability.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Asli; Seli, Emre

    2014-03-01

    Preimplantation embryo metabolism demonstrates distinctive characteristics associated with the developmental potential of embryos. On this basis, metabolite content of culture media was hypothesized to reflect the implantation potential of individual embryos. This hypothesis was tested in consecutive studies reporting a significant association between culture media metabolites and embryo development or clinical pregnancy. The need for a noninvasive, reliable, and rapid embryo assessment strategy promoted metabolomics studies in vitro fertilization (IVF) in an effort to increase success rates of single embryo transfers. With the advance of analytical techniques and bioinformatics, commercial instruments were developed to predict embryo viability using spectroscopic analysis of surplus culture media. However, despite the initial promising results from proof-of-principal studies, recent randomized controlled trials using commercial instruments failed to show a consistent benefit in improving pregnancy rates when metabolomics is used as an adjunct to morphology. At present, the application of metabolomics technology in clinical IVF laboratory requires the elimination of factors underlying inconsistent findings, when possible, and development of reliable predictive models accounting for all possible sources of bias throughout the embryo selection process. PMID:24515909

  16. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

  17. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  18. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  19. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  20. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p < 0.001) indicated that at 1 h there was no difference in the effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  1. Strategies for periodontal ligament cell viability: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Mousumi; Chaitra, TR; Chaudhary, Seema; Manuja, Naveen; Sinha, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    The long-term success of the reimplanted teeth is related to the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability. Dental tissues are unique in comparison to most other tissues in the body due to their marked capacity for regeneration. Understanding the circumstances leading to repair and regeneration in oral tissues has been a formidable challenge. Numerous storage media have been introduced by many authors that help to maintain the PDL cell viability. To present an overview of the various available storage media. A literature search for the past 20 years was performed across the Internet database (Pubmed) and relevant citations using the keywords PDL cell viability, tooth avulsion, storage media, and the combination of all to retrieve around (n=225) citations. Articles that included follow-up of intervention for avulsed and re-implanted teeth were considered (n=44) and some literature review from well-known text books were considered. Literature supports that moist storage appears to be a more productive approach to optimize PDL cell survival. However, no medium is ideal and in vivo studies are inadequate. PMID:22025820

  2. Maintaining the unmethylated state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA

  3. Soy milk as a storage medium to preserve human fibroblast cell viability: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Moura, Camilla Christian Gomes; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Reis, Manuella Verdinelli de Paula; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Soares, Carlos José

    2012-01-01

    Soy milk (SM) is widely consumed worldwide as a substitute for cow milk. It is a source of vitamins, carbohydrates and sugars, but its capacity to preserve cell viability has not been evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of SM to maintain the viability of human fibroblasts at short periods compared with different cow milks. Human mouth fibroblasts were cultured and stored in the following media at room temperature: 10% Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) (positive control group); long shelf-life ultra-high temperature whole cow milk (WM); long shelf-life ultra-high temperature skim cow milk (SKM); powdered cow milk (PM); and soy milk (SM). After 5, 15, 30 and 45 min, cell viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test with post-analysis using the Dunn's method (α=0.05). SKM showed the lowest capacity to maintain cell viability in all analyzed times (p<0.05). At 30 and 45 min, the absorbance levels in control group (DMEM) and SM were significantly higher than in SKM (p<0.05). Cell viability decreased along the time (5-45 min). The results indicate that SM can be used as a more adequate storage medium for avulsed teeth. SKM was not as effective in preserving cell viability as the cell culture medium and SM.

  4. Microencapsulation in Alginate and Chitosan Microgels to Enhance Viability of Bifidobacterium longum for Oral Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Timothy W.; Üçok, Elif F.; Tiani, Kendra A.; McClements, David J.; Sela, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms are incorporated into a wide variety of foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals to promote human health and wellness. However, maintaining bacterial cell viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit remains a challenge. Encapsulation of bifidobacteria within food-grade hydrogel particles potentially mitigates their sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies and strains were encapsulated in core-shell microgels consisting of an alginate core and a microgel shell. Encapsulated obligate anaerobes Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum exhibited differences in viability in a strain-dependent manner, without a discernable relationship to subspecies lineage. This includes viability under aerobic storage conditions and modeled gastrointestinal tract conditions. Coating alginate microgels with chitosan did not improve viability compared to cells encapsulated in alginate microgels alone, suggesting that modifying the surface charge alone does not enhance delivery. Thus hydrogel beads have great potential for improving the stability and efficacy of bifidobacterial probiotics in various nutritional interventions. PMID:27148184

  5. Modified bonded bridge space maintainer.

    PubMed

    Liegeois, F; Limme, M

    1999-01-01

    The premature loss of primary teeth can create the need for space maintenance and restoration of function. This article presents a fixed bonded space maintainer, which allows space to be maintained with economy of dental tissues.

  6. Clinical evaluation of bioactive glass in the treatment of periodontal osseous defects in humans.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, T B; Mellonig, J T; Meffert, R M; Jones, A A; Nummikoski, P V; Cochran, D L

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the use of bioactive glass to demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) in the treatment of human periodontal osseous defects. Fifteen systemically healthy patients (6 males and 9 females, aged 30 to 63) with moderate to advanced adult periodontitis were selected for the study. All patients underwent initial therapy, which included scaling and root planing, oral hygiene instruction, and an occlusal adjustment when indicated, followed by re-evaluation 4 to 6 weeks later. Paired osseous defects in each subject were randomly selected to receive grafts of bioactive glass or DFDBA. Both soft and hard tissue measurements were taken the day of surgery (baseline) and at the 6-month re-entry surgery. The clinical examiner was calibrated and blinded to the surgical procedures, while the surgeon was masked to the clinical measurements. Statistical analysis was performed by using the paired Student's t test. The results indicated that probing depths were reduced by 3.07 +/- 0.80 mm with the bioactive glass and 2.60 +/- 1.40 mm with DFDBA. Sites grafted with bioactive glass resulted in 2.27 +/- 0.88 mm attachment level gain, while sites grafted with DFDBA had a 1.93 +/- 1.33 mm gain in attachment. Bioactive glass sites displayed 0.53 +/- 0.64 mm of crestal resorption and 2.73 mm bone fill. DFDBA-grafted sites experienced 0.80 +/- 0.56 mm of crestal resorption and 2.80 mm defect fill. The use of bioactive glass resulted in 61.8% bone fill and 73.33% defect resolution. DFDBA-grafted defects showed similar results, with 62.5% bone fill and 80.87% defect resolution. Both treatments provided soft and hard tissue improvements when compared to baseline (P < or = 0.0001). No statistical difference was found when comparing bioactive glass to DFDBA; however, studies with larger sample sizes may reveal true differences between the materials. This study suggests that bioactive glass is capable of producing results in the short term (6 months

  7. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous and Nonosseous Materials Using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and Multivariate Statistical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-11-01

    Identification of osseous materials is generally established on gross anatomical features. However, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic and may require chemical analysis. This research was designed to assess the use of scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), elemental analysis, and multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis) for discrimination of osseous and nonosseous materials of similar chemical composition. Sixty samples consisting of osseous (human and nonhuman bone and dental) and non-osseous samples were assessed. After outliers were removed a high overall correct classification of 97.97% was achieved, with 99.86% correct classification for osseous materials. In addition, a blind study was conducted using 20 samples to assess the applicability for using this method to classify unknown materials. All of the blind study samples were correctly classified resulting in 100% correct classification, further demonstrating the efficiency of SEM/EDX and statistical analysis for differentiation of osseous and nonosseous materials. PMID:26234321

  8. From the Archives of the AFIP. Pediatric orbit tumors and tumorlike lesions: osseous lesions of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ellen M; Murphey, Mark D; Specht, Charles S; Cube, Regino; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2008-01-01

    Many extraocular masses involving the pediatric orbit have an osseous origin. The most common is the dermoid inclusion cyst; these cystic lesions may contain lipid and are most often found near the zygomaticofrontal suture, adjacent to an indolent-appearing erosion of bone. Some primary bone lesions may involve the orbit, producing a lytic or dense lesion with enlargement of the bone; these lesions include fibrous dysplasia, juvenile ossifying fibroma, and osteosarcoma. Fibrous dysplasia tends to produce a mass of ground-glass appearance with longitudinal osseous expansion, whereas juvenile ossifying fibroma is likely to produce a mixed lytic and sclerotic lesion and focal osseous enlargement. Osteosarcoma causes marked bone destruction and variable osteoid production. Langerhans cell histiocytosis, an idiopathic reticuloendothelial proliferative disorder, tends to involve the bones of the skull, especially the lateral orbital roof; it produces lytic destruction of bone with a sclerotic rim and a large intraorbital soft-tissue mass. Granulocytic sarcoma is a solid tumor that may occur in children with myelogenous leukemia. These tumors tend to arise in the subperiosteum of the lateral orbital wall, although they usually do not disrupt the bone. Finally, the orbit is a common site for bone metastases from neuroblastoma, which cause aggressive periosteal reaction in the orbital roof or lateral wall. The last three conditions are often bilateral. At imaging evaluation, osseous lesions may appear similar to each other and to nonosseous masses of the orbit. Knowledge of the pathologic features of these tumors and how these features are reflected in their imaging appearances may help radiologists differentiate them.

  9. Distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass in international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players.

    PubMed

    Higham, D G; Pyne, D B; Anson, J M; Dziedzic, C E; Slater, G J

    2014-06-01

    Differences in the body composition of international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players, and between players of different positions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the quantity and regional distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass between playing units in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens. Male Rugby Union (n=21 forwards, 17 backs) and Rugby Sevens (n=11 forwards, 16 backs) players from the Australian national squads were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The digital image of each player was partitioned into anatomical regions including the arms, legs, trunk, and android and gynoid regions. Compared with backs, forwards in each squad were heavier and exhibited higher absolute regional fat (Union 43-67%; ±~17%, range of % differences; ±~95% confidence limits (CL); Sevens 20-26%; ±~29%), non-osseous lean (Union 14-22%; ±~5.8%; Sevens 6.9-8.4%; ±~6.6%) and bone mineral (Union 12-26%; ±~7.2%; Sevens 5.0-11%; ±~7.2%) mass. When tissue mass was expressed relative to regional mass, differences between Rugby Sevens forwards and backs were mostly unclear. Rugby Union forwards had higher relative fat mass (1.7-4.7%; ±~1.9%, range of differences; ±~95% CL) and lower relative non-osseous lean mass (-4.2 to -1.8%; ±~1.8%) than backs in all body regions. Competing in Rugby Union or Rugby Sevens characterized the distribution of fat and non-osseous lean mass to a greater extent than a player's positional group, whereas the distribution of bone mineral mass was associated more with a player's position. Differences in the quantity and distribution of tissues appear to be related to positional roles and specific demands of competition in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens.

  10. Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.

    PubMed

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers. PMID:24673547

  11. Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.

    PubMed

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers.

  12. Osseous Consolidation of an Aseptic Delayed Union of a Lower Leg Fracture after Parathyroid Hormone Therapy – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Radmer, Sebastian; Andresen, Reimer; Schober, Hans-Christof

    2016-01-01

    The absence of osseous consolidation of a fracture within the normal time period is defined as delayed union or non-union. Both for the patient and from a socio-economic point of view, impaired fracture healing represents a major problem. Risk factors for a delayed fracture healing are insufficient immobilisation, poor adaptation of the fracture surfaces, interposition of soft tissue in the fracture gap, as well as circulation disturbances, metabolic disease, smoking and infections. In animal studies, a positive effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on fracture healing has been shown. PTH has a direct stimulatory effect on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, it appears to influence the effect of osseous growth factors. Few cases with the empiric off-label use of PTH that showed a tendency to support delayed or non-union fractures have been published. We report about a patient with a fracture of the lower leg and no osseous consolidation after 7 months. Four Months after therapy with 20 μg teriparatide per day for 8 weeks the fracture was consolidated and the patient had regained full and pain free weight bearing capacity of the leg with no reported side effects. PMID:27630919

  13. Osseous Consolidation of an Aseptic Delayed Union of a Lower Leg Fracture after Parathyroid Hormone Therapy – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Radmer, Sebastian; Andresen, Reimer; Schober, Hans-Christof

    2016-01-01

    The absence of osseous consolidation of a fracture within the normal time period is defined as delayed union or non-union. Both for the patient and from a socio-economic point of view, impaired fracture healing represents a major problem. Risk factors for a delayed fracture healing are insufficient immobilisation, poor adaptation of the fracture surfaces, interposition of soft tissue in the fracture gap, as well as circulation disturbances, metabolic disease, smoking and infections. In animal studies, a positive effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on fracture healing has been shown. PTH has a direct stimulatory effect on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, it appears to influence the effect of osseous growth factors. Few cases with the empiric off-label use of PTH that showed a tendency to support delayed or non-union fractures have been published. We report about a patient with a fracture of the lower leg and no osseous consolidation after 7 months. Four Months after therapy with 20 μg teriparatide per day for 8 weeks the fracture was consolidated and the patient had regained full and pain free weight bearing capacity of the leg with no reported side effects.

  14. Osseous Consolidation of an Aseptic Delayed Union of a Lower Leg Fracture after Parathyroid Hormone Therapy - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kastirr, Ilko; Radmer, Sebastian; Andresen, Reimer; Schober, Hans-Christof

    2016-07-01

    The absence of osseous consolidation of a fracture within the normal time period is defined as delayed union or non-union. Both for the patient and from a socio-economic point of view, impaired fracture healing represents a major problem. Risk factors for a delayed fracture healing are insufficient immobilisation, poor adaptation of the fracture surfaces, interposition of soft tissue in the fracture gap, as well as circulation disturbances, metabolic disease, smoking and infections. In animal studies, a positive effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on fracture healing has been shown. PTH has a direct stimulatory effect on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, it appears to influence the effect of osseous growth factors. Few cases with the empiric off-label use of PTH that showed a tendency to support delayed or non-union fractures have been published. We report about a patient with a fracture of the lower leg and no osseous consolidation after 7 months. Four Months after therapy with 20 μg teriparatide per day for 8 weeks the fracture was consolidated and the patient had regained full and pain free weight bearing capacity of the leg with no reported side effects. PMID:27630919

  15. Idiosyncratic Presentation of Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia – An in Depth Analysis Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pachigolla, Ramaswamy; Govada, Vanya Mahitha; Alapati, Satish; Balla, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    Bone dysplasias comprise of a condition where the normal bone is replaced with fibrous tissue. Periapical Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia (PCOD) is a benign fibro-osseous condition where bone tissue is supplanted with fibrous tissue and cementum-like material. This condition affects mostly mandibular anterior region and rarely occurs in the maxilla. PCOD is seen above 30 years of age and has slight female predilection. Generally the teeth related to such lesions appear to be vital and are usually asymptomatic. These lesions are mostly seen during routine radiographic examination whose presentation may vary from complete radiolucency to dense radiopacity. The advent of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has brought a massive change in the field of dentistry which has become an important tool for diagnosis. Hence we hereby present an unusual case of cemento-osseous dysplasia in an unfamiliar location with an atypical presentation. The shape of the pathology was completely idiosyncratic and different from an orthodox lesion of COD, as the lesion was observed to grow out of the palatal surface with a prominent palatal expansion. This case highlights the importance of CBCT in radiographic diagnosis and in evaluating the characteristics of such lesion, which present with high diagnostic dilemma. PMID:27437374

  16. Histologic Evaluation of Osseous Regeneration Following Combination Therapy With Platelet-Rich Plasma and Bio-Oss in a Rat Calvarial Critical-Size Defect Model.

    PubMed

    DeNicolo, Philip J; Guyton, M Kelly; Cuenin, Michael F; Hokett, Steven D; Sharawy, Mohamed; Borke, James; McPherson, James C

    2015-10-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autogenous source of growth factors shown to facilitate human bone growth. Bio-Oss, an osteoconductive xenograft, is used clinically to regenerate periodontal defects, restore dental alveolar ridges, and facilitate sinus-lift procedures. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether a combination of PRP and Bio-Oss would enhance bone regeneration better than either material alone. PRP and/or Bio-Oss were administered in an 8-mm critical-size defect (CSD) rat calvarial model of bone defect between 2 polytetrafluoroethylene membranes to prevent soft tissue incursion. Eight weeks after the induction of the CSD, histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and analyzed via light microscopy. Qualitative analyses revealed new bone regeneration in all 4 groups. The Bio-Oss and PRP plus Bio-Oss groups demonstrated greater areas of closure in the defects than the control or PRP-only groups because of the space-maintaining ability of Bio-Oss. The groups grafted with Bio-Oss showed close contact with new bone growth throughout the defects, suggesting a stronger graft. The use of PRP alone or in combination with Bio-Oss, however, did not appear to enhance osseous regeneration at 8 weeks. Areas grafted with Bio-Oss demonstrated greater space-maintaining capacity than controls, and PRP was an effective vehicle for placement of the Bio-Oss. However, at 8 weeks this study was unable to demonstrate a significant advantage of using PRP plus Bio-Oss over using Bio-Oss alone.

  17. A method to analyze, sort, and retain viability of obligate anaerobic microorganisms from complex microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Anne W; Crow, Matthew J; Wadey, Brian; Arens, Christina; Turkarslan, Serdar; Stolyar, Sergey; Elliott, Nicholas; Petersen, Timothy W; van den Engh, Ger; Stahl, David A; Baliga, Nitin S

    2015-10-01

    A high speed flow cytometric cell sorter was modified to maintain a controlled anaerobic environment. This technology enabled coupling of the precise high-throughput analytical and cell separation capabilities of flow cytometry to the assessment of cell viability of evolved lineages of obligate anaerobic organisms from cocultures.

  18. A Resorbable Calcium-Deficient Hydroxyapatite Hydrogel Composite for Osseous Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, Stacy A; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Benson, Roberto S.; Evans, Barbara R; Rawn, Claudia J

    2009-01-01

    It was previously discovered that the unique structure and chemistry of bacterial cellulose (BC) permits the formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) nanocrystallites under aqueous conditions at ambient pH and temperature. In this study, BC was chemically modified via a limited periodate oxidation reaction to render the composite degradable and thus more suitable for bone regeneration. While native BC does not degrade in mammalian systems, periodate oxidation yields dialdehyde cellulose which breaks down at physiological pH. The composite was characterized by tensile testing, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that oxidized BC retains its structure and could biomimetically form CdHAP. Degradation behavior was analyzed by incubating the samples in simulated physiological fluid (pH 7.4) at 37 C under static and dynamic conditions. The oxidized BC and oxidized BC-CdHAP composites both lost significant mass after exposure to the simulated physiological environment. Examination of the incubation solutions by UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that, while native BC released only small amounts of soluble cellulose fragments, oxidized cellulose releases carbonyl containing degradation products as well as soluble cellulose fragments. By entrapping CdHAP in a degradable hydrogel carrier, this composite should elicit bone regeneration then resorb over time to be replaced by new osseous tissue.

  19. Intra-Osseous Jaw Lesions in Paediatric Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya. B.; Arora, Shelly; Singh, Hanspal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to comprehensively analyze the distribution of intra-osseous paediatric jaw lesions (0-16 years) and to correlate the same with the data which has been published in the literature. Study Design: A total of 171 hard tissue paediatric pathologies obtained from the archives of Department of Oral Pathology, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, India were retrospectively reviewed over a period of 6 years. All the cases were analyzed for gender, site, radiographic findings, histopathological diagnosis, treatment modality and recurrence rate. Results: The present study revealed 54/171 odontogenic cysts, 45/171 odontogenic tumours, 33/171 bone pathologies, 2 malignant tumours, 1 connective tissue pathology and 36/171 miscellaneous category cases. The highlights of this analysis showed a relatively higher incidence of odontogenic tumours (26.3%) as compared to those seen in other studies which have been published in literature. KCOT and ameloblastoma (solid and unicystic) were the most frequently diagnosed tumours. Also, one case of dentigerous cyst which was converted into calcifying ghost cell odontogenic tumour was a unique feature which was noted in the current study. Conclusion: In the current study, a preponderance of odontogenic pathosis was seen in the paediatric age group which was studied. PMID:24783141

  20. Anomalous composition of musculature of the first dorsal fibro-osseous compartment of the wrist.

    PubMed

    Dhuria, Ruchi; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar; Rath, Gayatri

    2012-06-01

    The anomalous orientation of musculature of the first dorsal fibro-osseous compartment of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervian's stenosing tenosynovitis and reconstructive surgeries. Split insertion of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) is commonly found in chimpanzees, gorillas and gibbons. A comparable identical pattern of anomalous slips in humans is of anthropological and phylogenetic importance and could be a result of atavism. This case report describes an unusual fused muscle belly of the APL and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), which split into three slips--medial, intermediate and lateral. Further, the medial slip was seen to divide into two tendons, inserting on the base of the first metacarpal along with the intermediate slip. The lateral slip divided into three tendons, inserting into the base of the proximal phalanx, base of the first metacarpal and abductor pollicis brevis muscle. The fusion and unusual insertion pattern of the APL and EPB merits documentation for reconstructive procedures such as tendon transfer and interposition arthroplasty. PMID:22711053

  1. Use of polymethylmethacrylate in large osseous defects in the foot and ankle following tumor excision.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J L; Jaffe, K A

    1999-01-01

    Foot and ankle surgeons are occasionally confronted with having to fill large defects following excision of osseous lesions. This can prove to be quite challenging to the surgeon in regards to the requirement of large amounts of autogenous, allographic, or synthetic bone graft material. The amount of time spent nonweightbearing postoperatively can be quite prolonged, and the evaluation for tumor recurrence at the graft--host interface is difficult to ascertain. Polymethylmethacrylate has been used extensively in orthopedic surgery for many years in a safe manner for total joint replacement. It has also been used to fill large defects following tumor excision (i.e., giant cell tumor) and as an alternative to bone graft. This article briefly reviews the concepts of using polymethylmethacrylate in this manner and presents the use of polymethylmethacrylate in the treatment of foot and ankle lesions with three case presentations. The authors' purpose for this paper is to simply expand on the current medical literature available regarding the use of polymethylmethacrylate in the foot and ankle and to increase the awareness of foot and ankle surgeons regarding its use as a treatment alternative. A follow-up to this article is planned to present a larger patient population, longer term follow-up, and outcomes data. PMID:10384360

  2. An evaluation of tricalcium phosphate implants in human periodontal osseous defects of two patients.

    PubMed

    Baldock, W T; Hutchens, L H; McFall, W T; Simpson, D M

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic implant material in periodontal osseous defects. Thirteen defects in two patients were treated with mucoperiosteal flaps and placement of TCP. The defects were evaluated clinically and radiographically utilizing standardized probe placement and radiographic technique. Clinically, there was a mean probing pocket reduction of 4.5 mm as a result of a mean gain of clinical probing attachment level of 2.0 mm and a mean gingival recession of 2.5 mm. Radiographically, there was a mean "fill" of 1.8 mm. Six teeth were removed by block biopsy for histologic analysis, three at 3 months, one at 6 months and two a 9 months. The TCP particles were well tolerated and encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue, but the particles did not stimulate new bone growth. The junctional epithelium ended 1.62 mm coronal to the apical extent of a reference notch placed at the base of the defect. Although new cementum was observed, there was limited evidence of new attachment. PMID:3856005

  3. Anetoderma in a patient with terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects.

    PubMed

    Connor, Cody J; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Ciliberto, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is a rare, X-linked syndrome classically characterized by distal limb anomalies, pigmented skin defects of the face, and recurrent digital fibromas. X-inactivation plays a major role in determining the range of phenotypic expression. Thus, patients can demonstrate a wide spectrum of disease severity, making accurate diagnosis more challenging. Recent studies have identified a FLNA c.5217G>A mutation as the cause of TODPD, allowing for diagnostic genetic testing. We present a case of molecularly confirmed TODPD in a girl with the 47,XXX chromosomal complement and deformities of the hands and feet, craniofacial abnormalities, and discolored, linear facial lesions. Skin biopsy of the patient's facial lesion revealed absent papillary dermal elastic fibers, consistent with anetoderma, which contrasts with the dermal hypoplasia described in the only other such facial biopsy reported in the literature. The finding of absent elastic fibers in the skin lesions suggests that mutated filamin A, in part, exerts its effects through dysregulated elastin biology, which may explain the nature of many connective tissue pleotropic effects in FLNA-related disorders. PMID:26059211

  4. Reduced elastogenesis: a clue to the arteriosclerosis and emphysematous changes in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arteriosclerosis and emphysema develop in individuals with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), a multisystem disorder caused by biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1). However, the mechanism by which the vascular and pulmonary disease arises in SIOD remains unknown. Methods We reviewed the records of 65 patients with SMARCAL1 mutations. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on autopsy tissue from 4 SIOD patients. Results Thirty-two of 63 patients had signs of arteriosclerosis and 3 of 51 had signs of emphysema. The arteriosclerosis was characterized by intimal and medial hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers, and the pulmonary disease was characterized by panlobular enlargement of air spaces. Consistent with a cell autonomous disorder, SMARCAL1 was expressed in arterial and lung tissue, and both the aorta and lung of SIOD patients had reduced expression of elastin and alterations in the expression of regulators of elastin gene expression. Conclusions This first comprehensive study of the vascular and pulmonary complications of SIOD shows that these commonly cause morbidity and mortality and might arise from impaired elastogenesis. Additionally, the effect of SMARCAL1 deficiency on elastin expression provides a model for understanding other features of SIOD. PMID:22998683

  5. Enamel structure and composition in the tricho-dento-osseous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spangler, G S; Hall, K I; Kula, K; Hart, T C; Wright, J T

    1998-01-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by curly hair, hypoplastic enamel, taurodontism, and dense bone. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the enamel defects in a TDO population in North Carolina. Twelve TDO teeth and 12 normal teeth were examined. The enamel thickness was decreased in all TDO teeth ranging from having no enamel to about 60% the thickness of normal teeth. Half of the TDO teeth had primarily prismless enamel while the remainder had at least occasional areas of prismatic enamel. TDO enamel crystallites appeared similar to normal crystallites with TEM. The mineral per volume of TDO enamel (n = 9) (68.5%) was significantly less, on average, compared with normal enamel (n = 8) (84.5). The genetic mutation responsible for the TDO phenotype results in alteration of a developmental pathway(s) common to hair, teeth and bone. This further illustrates that these embryologically diverse tissues share common developmental controls at the molecular level. PMID:11062998

  6. Strontium-89 therapy for the treatment of huge osseous metastases in prostate carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WENJIE; ZHAO, WEIWEI; JIA, ZHIYUN; DENG, HOUFU

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a growing public health problem. The palliation of pain in patients with painful bone metastases is of primary importance in the clinical management of advanced cancer. Internal therapy with radionuclides, which concentrate at sites of increased bone turnover, is used to control pain and improve quality of life as an alternative to conventional therapies. In the present study, we report the case of a 52-year-old male who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer. The patient presented with severe pain in multiple areas, but particularly in the right hip. A whole-body bone scan revealed that the right hip, ilium and ischium were covered with huge metastatic lesions. Treatment with radionuclide strontium-89 chloride (89Sr) resulted in a partial response which was confirmed by the successful relief of pain and other imaging modalities. No significant change in the leukocyte or thrombocyte levels was observed. The results of the present study indicate that systemic radionuclide therapy using 89Sr is an effective, well-tolerated and safe palliative treatment in patients with huge osseous metastases in prostate carcinoma. PMID:23404044

  7. Compromised Osseous Healing of Dental Extraction Sites in Zoledronic Acid-Treated Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kubek, Daniel J.; Burr, David B.; Ruggiero, Salvatore L.; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The goal of this study was to document how treatment with a bisphosphonate affects the bone tissue following dental extraction. METHODS Skeletally mature female beagle dogs were either untreated controls (CON) or treated with intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL). Following the extraction of the 4th premolars, healing was allowed for 4 or 8 weeks. Properties of the extraction site were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dynamic histomorphometry. RESULTS The initial infilling of the extraction socket with bone was not affected by ZOL but subsequent removal of this bone was significantly suppressed compared to CON. After 8-weeks of healing, the alveolar cortical bone adjacent to the extraction socket had a remodeling rate of ~50%/year in CON animals while ZOL-treated animals had a rate of < 1%/year. One ZOL-treated animal developed exposed bone post-extraction which eventually led to the formation of a sequestrum. Assessment of the sequestrum with micro-CT and histology showed that it had features consistent with those reported in humans with osteonecrosis of the jaw. CONCLUSIONS These results, showing significantly compromised post-extraction osseous healing as well as presence of exposed bone and development of a sequestrum in one ZOL animal, provide a building block toward understanding the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:20458574

  8. Comparison of renal and osseous binding of parathyroid hormone and hormonal fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Demay, M.; Mitchell, J.; Goltzman, D.

    1985-11-01

    The authors compared receptor binding and adenylate cyclase stimulation of intact bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH)-(1-84) and the synthetic amino-terminal fragments, bPTH-(1-34) and rat PTH (rPTH)-(1-34). In both canine renal membranes and cloned rat osteosarcoma cells the amino-terminal fragments bound to a single order of sites; the affinity of rPTH-(1-34) exceeded that of bPTH-(1-34), correlating with its higher potency in stimulating adenylate cyclase. In studies with oxidized bPTH-(1--84), the middle and carboxyl regions of intact PTH were found to bind to both tissues but with higher affinity to osteosarcoma cells than to renal membranes. Our results demonstrate that rPTH-(1--34) is the most favorable probe of amino-terminal PTH binding and the most potent of the PTH peptides in stimulating renal and osseous adenylate cyclase. The results also show that midregion and carboxyl determinants within intact PTH contribute to hormone binding, which does not correlate with adenylate cyclase activation and appears more significant for skeletal than for renal binding.

  9. Impacts of early viability selection on management of inbreeding and genetic diversity in conservation.

    PubMed

    Grueber, Catherine E; Hogg, Carolyn J; Ivy, Jamie A; Belov, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is a crucial goal of intensive management of threatened species, particularly for those populations that act as sources for translocation or re-introduction programmes. Most captive genetic management is based on pedigrees and a neutral theory of inheritance, an assumption that may be violated by selective forces operating in captivity. Here, we explore the conservation consequences of early viability selection: differential offspring survival that occurs prior to management or research observations, such as embryo deaths in utero. If early viability selection produces genotypic deviations from Mendelian predictions, it may undermine management strategies intended to minimize inbreeding and maintain genetic diversity. We use empirical examples to demonstrate that straightforward approaches, such as comparing litter sizes of inbred vs. noninbred breeding pairs, can be used to test whether early viability selection likely impacts estimates of inbreeding depression. We also show that comparing multilocus genotype data to pedigree predictions can reveal whether early viability selection drives systematic biases in genetic diversity, patterns that would not be detected using pedigree-based statistics alone. More sophisticated analysis combining genomewide molecular data with pedigree information will enable conservation scientists to test whether early viability selection drives deviations from neutrality across wide stretches of the genome, revealing whether this form of selection biases the pedigree-based statistics and inference upon which intensive management is based.

  10. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid improves viability of artificial RBCs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin Hee; Yoon, Kang Jun; Lim, Key-Hwan; Um, Yun Jung; Cho, Jin Gu; Jo, Young Joon; Park, Sang Gyu

    2016-09-30

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known to prevent apoptosis through the Bax pathway and to promote neovascularization by enhancing the mobilization of stem cells, their differentiation. This study was performed to investigate the effect of TUDCA on erythropoiesis in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Since erythropoiesis of CD34(+) HSCs is divided into four phases, the total cell number, viable cell number, cell viability, cell morphology, and expressed erythroid markers in each phase were examined. The number of viable control cells and their viability did not differ from those of the TUDCA-treated cells in phase I and II. However, TUDCA increased cell viability compared to the control in phases III and IV. Cell distribution differed that the immature erythroid cell number was higher for the TUDCA-treated cells than for the control cells until phase III, but all developed into RBCs in the last. The final RBC number and viability was significantly higher in TUDCA-treated cells compared to the control cells. Taken together, we suggest that TUDCA addition to cell cultures for artificial RBC production could be used as a new protocol for improving the viability of RBCs. PMID:27596970

  11. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid improves viability of artificial RBCs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin Hee; Yoon, Kang Jun; Lim, Key-Hwan; Um, Yun Jung; Cho, Jin Gu; Jo, Young Joon; Park, Sang Gyu

    2016-09-30

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known to prevent apoptosis through the Bax pathway and to promote neovascularization by enhancing the mobilization of stem cells, their differentiation. This study was performed to investigate the effect of TUDCA on erythropoiesis in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Since erythropoiesis of CD34(+) HSCs is divided into four phases, the total cell number, viable cell number, cell viability, cell morphology, and expressed erythroid markers in each phase were examined. The number of viable control cells and their viability did not differ from those of the TUDCA-treated cells in phase I and II. However, TUDCA increased cell viability compared to the control in phases III and IV. Cell distribution differed that the immature erythroid cell number was higher for the TUDCA-treated cells than for the control cells until phase III, but all developed into RBCs in the last. The final RBC number and viability was significantly higher in TUDCA-treated cells compared to the control cells. Taken together, we suggest that TUDCA addition to cell cultures for artificial RBC production could be used as a new protocol for improving the viability of RBCs.

  12. Mps1 kinase regulates tumor cell viability via its novel role in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Ling, Y; Guo, Y; Bai, Y; Shi, X; Gong, F; Tan, P; Zhang, Y; Wei, C; He, X; Ramirez, A; Liu, X; Cao, C; Zhong, H; Xu, Q; Ma, R Z

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mitotic kinase monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) for tumor therapy has been investigated for many years. Although it was suggested that Mps1 regulates cell viability through its role in spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), the underlying mechanism remains less defined. In an endeavor to reveal the role of high levels of mitotic kinase Mps1 in the development of colon cancer, we unexpectedly found the amount of Mps1 required for cell survival far exceeds that of maintaining SAC in aneuploid cell lines. This suggests that other functions of Mps1 besides SAC are also employed to maintain cell viability. Mps1 regulates cell viability independent of its role in cytokinesis as the genetic depletion of Mps1 spanning from metaphase to cytokinesis affects neither cytokinesis nor cell viability. Furthermore, we developed a single-cycle inhibition strategy that allows disruption of Mps1 function only in mitosis. Using this strategy, we found the functions of Mps1 in mitosis are vital for cell viability as short-term treatment of mitotic colon cancer cell lines with Mps1 inhibitors is sufficient to cause cell death. Interestingly, Mps1 inhibitors synergize with microtubule depolymerizing drug in promoting polyploidization but not in tumor cell growth inhibition. Finally, we found that Mps1 can be recruited to mitochondria by binding to voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) via its C-terminal fragment. This interaction is essential for cell viability as Mps1 mutant defective for interaction fails to main cell viability, causing the release of cytochrome c. Meanwhile, deprivation of VDAC1 can make tumor cells refractory to loss of Mps1-induced cell death. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of the novel mitochondrial function Mps1 is sufficient to kill tumor cells. PMID:27383047

  13. Critical reappraisal of primary osseous composite sarcoma (malignant mesenchymoma) - analysis of four cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louis T C

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with recent terminology, it is proposed that malignant mesenchymoma should be renamed 'composite sarcoma' and defined as 'a sarcoma composed of two or more cellular types each of which is sufficiently differentiated to permit clear recognition of its histogenetic type microscopically, immunohistochemically or ultrastructurally; excluding fibrosarcomatous and high-grade pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcomatous component, dedifferentiated sarcoma and the combination of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma which is regarded as a single histogenetic type'. Four cases of primary osseous composite sarcoma (POCS) were identified among 928 primary bone sarcomas. Their age ranged from 10 to 87 years, peak incidence in the second decade with equal sex distribution. Most presented with pain, commonest in the knee, affecting the metaphysis, appearing radiologically as expansile infiltrative osteolytic lesions with cortical erosion, periosteal reaction, variable extent of osteoblastic areas and soft tissue extension. All contained variable amounts of conventional high-grade osteosarcoma with or without chondrosarcoma component; the other constituents were liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. In all cases, Ki67 proliferative index was over 35%, there was no CDK4 and MDM2 amplification. The absence of low-grade component supported the de novo origin of POCS rather than derivation from divergent dedifferentiation. The two older patients with hitherto undescribed osteoleiomyosarcoma died 2 and 10 months after operation, whereas the two younger with osteorhabdomyosarcoma and osteoliposarcoma enjoyed disease-free survival at 16 and 6 years after chemotherapy despite the latter showing lung metastasis at presentation. Identification of the different lines of differentiation together with their approximate amounts and histological grades is therefore mandatory for POCS as multi-agent chemotherapy catered for each sarcoma component might offer hope for long

  14. Passive Entrapment of Tumor Cells Determines Metastatic Dissemination to Spinal Bone and Other Osseous Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Piffko, Andras; Hoffmann, Christian J.; Harms, Christoph; Vajkoczy, Peter; Czabanka, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    During the metastatic process tumor cells circulate in the blood stream and are carried to various organs. In order to spread to different organs tumor cell—endothelial cell interactions are crucial for extravasation mechanisms. It remains unclear if tumor cell dissemination to the spinal bone occurs by passive entrapment of circulating tumor cells or by active cellular mechanisms mediated by cell surface molecules or secreted factors. We investigated the seeding of three different tumor cell lines (melanoma, lung and prostate carcinoma) to the microvasculature of different organs. Their dissemination was compared to biologically passive microbeads. The spine and other organs were resected three hours after intraarterial injection of tumor cells or microbeads. Ex vivo homogenization and fluorescence analysis allowed quantification of tumor cells or microbeads in different organs. Interestingly, tumor cell distribution to the spinal bone was comparable to dissemination of microbeads independent of the tumor cell type (melanoma: 5.646% ± 7.614%, lung: 6.007% ± 1.785%, prostate: 3.469% ± 0.602%, 7 μm beads: 9.884% ± 7.379%, 16 μm beads: 7.23% ± 1.488%). Tumor cell seeding differed significantly between tumor cells and microbeads in all soft tissue organs. Moreover, there were significant differences between the different tumor cell lines in their dissemination behaviour to soft tissue organs only. These findings demonstrate that metastatic dissemination of tumor cells to spinal bone and other osseous organs is mediated by passive entrapment of tumor cells similar to passive plugging of microvasculature observed after intraarterial microbeads injection. PMID:27603673

  15. Passive Entrapment of Tumor Cells Determines Metastatic Dissemination to Spinal Bone and Other Osseous Tissues.

    PubMed

    Broggini, Thomas; Piffko, Andras; Hoffmann, Christian J; Harms, Christoph; Vajkoczy, Peter; Czabanka, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    During the metastatic process tumor cells circulate in the blood stream and are carried to various organs. In order to spread to different organs tumor cell-endothelial cell interactions are crucial for extravasation mechanisms. It remains unclear if tumor cell dissemination to the spinal bone occurs by passive entrapment of circulating tumor cells or by active cellular mechanisms mediated by cell surface molecules or secreted factors. We investigated the seeding of three different tumor cell lines (melanoma, lung and prostate carcinoma) to the microvasculature of different organs. Their dissemination was compared to biologically passive microbeads. The spine and other organs were resected three hours after intraarterial injection of tumor cells or microbeads. Ex vivo homogenization and fluorescence analysis allowed quantification of tumor cells or microbeads in different organs. Interestingly, tumor cell distribution to the spinal bone was comparable to dissemination of microbeads independent of the tumor cell type (melanoma: 5.646% ± 7.614%, lung: 6.007% ± 1.785%, prostate: 3.469% ± 0.602%, 7 μm beads: 9.884% ± 7.379%, 16 μm beads: 7.23% ± 1.488%). Tumor cell seeding differed significantly between tumor cells and microbeads in all soft tissue organs. Moreover, there were significant differences between the different tumor cell lines in their dissemination behaviour to soft tissue organs only. These findings demonstrate that metastatic dissemination of tumor cells to spinal bone and other osseous organs is mediated by passive entrapment of tumor cells similar to passive plugging of microvasculature observed after intraarterial microbeads injection. PMID:27603673

  16. Doxycycline-tricalcium phosphate composite graft facilitates osseous healing in advanced periodontal furcation defects.

    PubMed

    Pepelassi, E M; Bissada, N F; Greenwell, H; Farah, C F

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a tricalcium phosphate, plaster of paris, and doxycycline composite graft to surgical debridement alone in the treatment of Class II and Class III furcation defects. Fifteen patients with adult periodontitis and at least two mandibular molars with Class II or III furcation defects were selected. A total of 40 sites were treated: 26 were Class II defects and 14 were Class III. Following initial therapy one site was randomly selected to receive the composite graft while the remaining site served as the surgically debrided control. Osseous healing was evaluated by direct measurements from an acrylic stent at the time of graft surgery and at the 6-month reentry. Following surgery each patient was placed on doxycycline 100mg/day for 10 days. The absence of clinical inflammation and infection during the healing process provided additional substantiation of the biocompatibility of the grafting materials. Results after 6 months indicated that sites treated with the composite graft had improved defect fill, defect resolution, probing depths, and clinical attachment levels when compared to the surgically debrided controls. Defect fill was 3.7 times greater in grafted sites and these sites were 4.0 times more likely to have 50% or greater defect fill. The effect of grafting was more pronounced in Class III defects where horizontal defect fill and gain of clinical attachment was achieved only in grafted sites. The plaster of paris functioned well as a binder, preventing particle scatter and facilitating graft retention. Additionally the plaster served as a vehicle to carry and retain the doxycycline at the treated site. These short-term results point to the potential of a composite graft containing tricalcium phosphate, plaster of paris, and doxycycline in promoting healing of furcation lesions. PMID:2027058

  17. Assessing Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Orthognathic Surgery and Osseous Genioplasty.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Jonathan A; Albino, Frank P; Mathis, Ryan K; Scott, Amie M; Gamble, Laurie; Baker, Stephen B

    2015-11-01

    Primary outcomes for orthognathic surgery and genioplasty patients include satisfaction with appearance, improved motor function, and enhanced quality of life. The goal of this study was to assess outcomes among patients undergoing these procedures, and to highlight the potential use of FACE-Q instrument for use in patients with dentofacial deformities. A total of 56 patients presenting for orthognathic surgery and/or osseous genioplasty completed the FACE-Q during preoperative and/or at postoperative visits. FACE-Q scores increased following surgery in satisfaction with facial appearance overall (+24.5, P < 0.01), satisfaction with lower face and jawline (+40.7, P < 0.01), and in all satisfaction with chin items (profile, prominence, shape, and overall). Patients also demonstrated increased social confidence (+8.9, P = 0.29). There was no improvement in psychologic well-being (-0.8, P = 0.92). All 3 surgical groups of patients experienced gains in satisfaction with appearance following surgery. Patients who underwent orthognathic surgery either alone or in combination with genioplasty demonstrated statistically significant improvements in satisfaction with facial appearance overall (P < 0.01 for both groups), whereas patients who underwent genioplasty alone did not (P = 0.13). In addition, patients who underwent orthognathic surgery combined with genioplasty demonstrated greater improvement in satisfaction with chin than patients who underwent genioplasty alone. In conclusion, patients who underwent orthognathic surgery and/or genioplasty demonstrated improvement in appearance and social confidence. The use of this model supports the successful outcomes possible for patients undergoing these procedures.

  18. Basilar membrane and osseous spiral lamina motion in human cadavers with air and bone conduction stimuli.

    PubMed

    Stenfelt, Stefan; Puria, Sunil; Hato, Naohito; Goode, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    It is generally accepted that bone conduction (BC) stimuli yield a traveling wave on the basilar membrane (BM) and hence stimulate the cochlea by the same mechanisms as normal air conduction (AC). The basis for this is the ability to cancel or mask a BC tone with an AC tone and the ability to generate two tone distortion products with a BC tone and an AC tone. The hypothesis is proposed that BC stimulates the BM not only through the hydrodynamics of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani, but also through osseous spiral lamina (OSL) vibrations. To test this hypothesis the BM and OSL response with AC as well as BC stimulation was measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Human temporal bones mounted on a shaker were used to record the velocities of the bone per se, the BM and the OSL. The measurements were then converted to relative BM and OSL velocities. The results from the basal turn of the cochlea show similar behavior with AC and BC stimulation. The motion of the OSL at the edge where it connects to the BM is in phase and is typically 6 dB lower than the BM motion. With BC stimulation, there is less phase accumulation in the OSL after the cochlea is drained; the OSL moves due to inertial forces and resonates at approximately 7 kHz. Inertial vibration of the OSL may partially contribute to the total response of BC sound, especially at the high frequencies, although current models of the cochlea assume a rigid OSL. The measurements reported here can be used to include a flexible OSL in cochlear models.

  19. Poxvirus viability and signatures in historical relics.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Andrea M; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L; Davidson, Whitni B; Paddock, Christopher D; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K

    2014-02-01

    Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it.

  20. Poxvirus Viability and Signatures in Historical Relics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L.; Davidson, Whitni B.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Damon, Inger K.

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it. PMID:24447382

  1. Cell-Directed Assembly of Lipid-Silica Nanostructures Providing Extended Cell Viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baca, Helen K.; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Lopez, Deanna; Flemming, Jeb; Dunphy, Darren; Singh, Seema; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Nanguo; Fan, Hongyou; López, Gabriel P.; Brozik, Susan M.; Werner-Washburne, Margaret; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-07-01

    Amphiphilic phospholipids were used to direct the formation of biocompatible, uniform silica nanostructures in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacterial cell lines. The cell surfaces organize multilayered phospholipid vesicles that interface coherently with the silica host and help relieve drying stresses that develop with conventional templates. These host structures maintain cell accessibility, addressability, and viability in the absence of buffer or an external fluidic architecture. The cell surfaces are accessible and can be used to localize added proteins, plasmids, and nanocrystals. Prolonged cell viability combined with reporter protein expression enabled stand-alone cell-based sensing.

  2. Non-disruptive measurement system of cell viability in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, F.; Nelsen, B. L.; Baselt, T.; Berger, T.; Wiele, M.; Prade, I.; Hartmann, P.

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient and oxygen transport, as well as the removal of metabolic waste are essential processes to support and maintain viable tissue. Current bioreactor technology used to grow tissue cultures in vitro has a fundamental limit to the thickness of tissues. Based on the low diffusion limit of oxygen a maximum tissue thickness of 200 μm is possible. The efficiency of those systems is currently under investigation. During the cultivation process of the artificial tissue in bioreactors, which lasts 28 days or longer, there are no possibilities to investigate the viability of cells. This work is designed to determine the influence of a non-disruptive cell viability measuring system on cellular activity. The measuring system uses a natural cellular marker produced during normal metabolic activity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a coenzyme naturally consumed and produced during cellular metabolic processes and has thoroughly been studied to determine the metabolic state of a cell. Measuring the fluorescence of NADH within the cell represents a non-disruptive marker for cell viability. Since the measurement process is optical in nature, NADH fluorescence also provides a pathway for sampling at different measurement depths within a given tissue sample. The measurement system we are using utilizes a special UV light source, to excite the NADH fluorescence state. However, the high energy potentially alters or harms the cells. To investigate the influence of the excitation signal, the cells were irradiated with a laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm and examined for cytotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a non-cytotoxic system that is applicable for large-scale operations during drug-tissue interaction testing.

  3. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term viability. 971.5 Section...-term viability. (a) Reasonable investment. (1) Proposed revitalization costs for viability must be... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  4. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  5. Anoxia and glucose supplementation preserve neutrophil viability and function.

    PubMed

    Monceaux, Valérie; Chiche-Lapierre, Clarisse; Chaput, Catherine; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Taylor, Cormac T; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noelle; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Marteyn, Benoit S

    2016-08-18

    Functional studies of human neutrophils and their transfusion for clinical purposes have been hampered by their short life span after isolation. Here, we demonstrate that neutrophil viability is maintained for 20 hours in culture media at 37°C under anoxic conditions with 3 mM glucose and 32 μg/mL dimethyloxalylglycine supplementation, as evidenced by stabilization of Mcl-1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and pro-caspase-3. Notably, neutrophil morphology (nucleus shape and cell-surface markers) and functions (phagocytosis, degranulation, calcium release, chemotaxis, and reactive oxygen species production) were comparable to blood circulating neutrophils. The observed extension in neutrophil viability was reversed upon exposure to oxygen. Extending neutrophil life span allowed efficient transfection of plasmids (40% transfection efficiency) and short interfering RNA (interleukin-8, PCNA, and Bax), as a validation of effective and functional genetic manipulation of neutrophils both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, transfusion of conditioned neutrophils in a neutropenic guinea pig model increased bacterial clearance of Shigella flexneri upon colonic infection, strongly suggesting that these conditioned neutrophils might be suitable for transfusion purposes. In summary, such conditioning of neutrophils in vitro should facilitate their study and offer new opportunities for genetic manipulation and therapeutic use. PMID:27402974

  6. Comparison of the Copan eSwab System with an Agar Swab Transport System for Maintenance of Fastidious Anaerobic Bacterium Viability.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Leoncio, Eliza S; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2016-05-01

    We compared the eSwab system to a swab with an anaerobic transport semisolid agar system for their capacities to maintain the viability of 20 species of fastidious anaerobes inoculated on the bench and held at ambient or refrigerator temperature for 24 or 48 h. On average, both systems maintained similar viabilities among analogous groups of organisms at both temperatures, although there were quantitative differences among some species.

  7. Comparison of the Copan eSwab System with an Agar Swab Transport System for Maintenance of Fastidious Anaerobic Bacterium Viability

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Leoncio, Eliza S.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the eSwab system to a swab with an anaerobic transport semisolid agar system for their capacities to maintain the viability of 20 species of fastidious anaerobes inoculated on the bench and held at ambient or refrigerator temperature for 24 or 48 h. On average, both systems maintained similar viabilities among analogous groups of organisms at both temperatures, although there were quantitative differences among some species. PMID:26888906

  8. Osseous Hodgkin's lymphoma-review of literature and report of an unusual case presenting as a large ulcerofungating sternal mass.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Puri, Tarun; Goyal, Shikha; Haresh, K P; Gupta, Ruchika; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2008-09-01

    Osseous involvement in Hodgkin's lymphoma is uncommon. The most common location is vertebral, primarily in the thoracolumbar region, followed by pelvis, ribs, femur, sternum, clavicle and skull in decreasing incidence. We herein illustrate the salient features of the disease citing a case of a disseminated Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as a large ulcerofungating sternal mass mimicking chronic tubercular osteomyelitis. The case report highlights the importance of clinical suspicion of unusual presentation of lymphohematopoietic tumors of the bone especially in developing countries, where chronic granulomatous disease is preponderant. PMID:18619936

  9. Application of laser therapy in the surgical treatment of periodontal osseous defects with the Bio-Oss Spongiosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We have made an investigation on three-wall and four-wall osseous defects on which a surgical treatment was conducted with application of Bio-Oss ( Geistlich ) and laser therapy. After conducting of clinical oral hygiene to the patients and curettage with flap, a Bio-Oss Spongiosa of Geistlich is applied. We have conducted the laser therapy pre- and postoperative scanning with power density of 100 mW/cm2 on scheme. The patients were traced out within 1 year. The obtained results showed that the application of laser therapy gives anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect.

  10. Viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that teleparallel F(T) theories of gravity combined with Loop Quantum Cosmology support a Matter Bounce Scenario which is an alternative to the inflation scenario in the Big Bang paradigm. It is checked that these bouncing models provide theoretical data that fits well with the current observational data, allowing the viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario.

  11. Storage and Viability of Hedychium Pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychium species generally flower in the summer and fall, but some bloom in winter and spring times. The different flowering times of the species implies that there is a need to find a way for storing and conserving viable pollen. The maintenance of pollen viability depends on several factors, incl...

  12. Observability in strategic models of viability selection.

    PubMed

    Gámez, M; Carreño, R; Kósa, A; Varga, Z

    2003-10-01

    Strategic models of frequency-dependent viability selection, in terms of mathematical systems theory, are considered as a dynamic observation system. Using a general sufficient condition for observability of nonlinear systems with invariant manifold, it is studied whether, observing certain phenotypic characteristics of the population, the development of its genetic state can be recovered, at least near equilibrium.

  13. The Viability of "Roe v. Wade."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belson, Nicole

    1989-01-01

    Examines four issues involved in "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services:" (1) the preamble to the 1986 Missouri statute on abortion, (2) prohibiting public employees from performing abortions, (3) public funds for encouraging abortion, and (4) gestational age and viability provision. Focuses on the effects on the continuing vitality of the…

  14. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Zanatta, G.; Steffens, D.; Braghirolli, D.I.; Fernandes, R.A.; Netto, C.A.; Pranke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage. PMID:22183245

  15. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, G; Steffens, D; Braghirolli, D I; Fernandes, R A; Netto, C A; Pranke, P

    2012-02-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  16. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228. PMID:25709309

  17. Simple fixed functional space maintainer.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228.

  18. Native Chondrocyte Viability during Cartilage Lesion Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Kumkum; McRury, Ian D.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Morgan, Roy E.; Augé, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Early surgical intervention for articular cartilage disease is desirable before full-thickness lesions develop. As early intervention treatments are designed, native chondrocyte viability at the treatment site before intervention becomes an important parameter to consider. The purpose of this study is to evaluate native chondrocyte viability in a series of specimens demonstrating the progression of articular cartilage lesions to determine if the chondrocyte viability profile changes during the evolution of articular cartilage disease to the level of surface fibrillation. Design: Osteochondral specimens demonstrating various degrees of articular cartilage damage were obtained from patients undergoing knee total joint replacement. Three groups were created within a patient harvest based on visual and tactile cues commonly encountered during surgical intervention: group 1, visually and tactilely intact surfaces; group 2, visually intact, tactilely soft surfaces; and group 3, surface fibrillation. Confocal laser microscopy was performed following live/dead cell viability staining. Results: Groups 1 to 3 demonstrated viable chondrocytes in all specimens, even within the fibrillated portions of articular cartilage, with little to no evidence of dead chondrocytes. Chondrocyte viability profile in articular cartilage does not appear to change as disease lesion progresses from normal to surface fibrillation. Conclusions: Fibrillated partial-thickness articular cartilage lesions are a good therapeutic target for early intervention. These lesions retain a high profile of viable chondrocytes and are readily diagnosed by visual and tactile cues during surgery. Early intervention should be based on matrix failure rather than on more aggressive procedures that further corrupt the matrix and contribute to chondrocyte necrosis of contiguous untargeted cartilage. PMID:26069561

  19. Carpal boss in chronic wrist pain and its association with partial osseous coalition and osteoarthritis - A case report with focus on MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Poh, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The carpal boss is a bony prominence at the dorsal aspect of the 2(nd) and/or 3(rd) carpometacarpal joint, which has been linked to various etiologies, including trauma, os styloideum, osteophyte formation, and partial osseous coalition. It may result in symptoms through secondary degeneration, ganglion formation, bursitis, or extensor tendon abnormalities by altered biomechanics of wrist motion. We present a case of symptomatic carpal boss with the finding of a partial osseous coalition at the 2(nd) carpometacarpal (metacarpal-trapezoid) joint and highlight the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of carpal boss impingement and secondary osteoarthritis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in the literature describing the imaging findings of partial osseous coalition and degenerative osteoarthritis in relation to carpal boss.

  20. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage.

    PubMed

    den Boer, Susanne P A; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Baer, Boris

    2009-06-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. Here we show that in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) secretions of the male accessory glands, the major contributors towards seminal fluid, enhance sperm survival. We further demonstrate that the protein fraction of the male accessory gland secretion is indeed important for achieving the maximal effect on sperm survival. After sperm storage, the queens also provide sperm with secretions from spermathecal glands and we show that these secretions have a comparable positive effect on sperm viability. SDS gels show that the proteomic profiles of accessory gland secretion and spermathecal fluid secretion hardly overlap, which suggests that males and females use different proteins to enhance sperm viability during, respectively, ejaculation and final sperm storage.

  1. A study of different buffers to maximize viability of an oral Shigella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi; Lal, Manjari; Van De Verg, Lillian L; Venkatesan, Malabi M

    2015-11-17

    Live, whole cell killed and subunit vaccines are being developed for diarrheal diseases caused by V. cholerae, Shigella species, ETEC, and Campylobacter. Some of these vaccines can be administered orally since this route best mimics natural infection. Live vaccines administered orally have to be protected from the harsh acidic gastric environment. Milk and bicarbonate solutions have been administered to neutralize the stomach acid. For many Shigella vaccine trials, 100-120 ml of a bicarbonate solution is ingested followed by the live vaccine candidate, which is delivered in 30 ml of bicarbonate, water or saline. It is not clear if maximum bacterial viability is achieved under these conditions. Also, volumes of neutralizing buffer that are optimal for adults may be unsuitable for children and infants. To address these questions, we performed studies to determine the viability and stability of a Shigella sonnei vaccine candidate, WRSS1, in a mixture of different volumes of five different buffer solutions added to hydrochloric acid to simulate gastric acidity. Among the buffers tested, bicarbonate solution, rotavirus buffer and CeraVacx were better at neutralizing acid and maintaining the viability of WRSS1. Also, a much smaller volume of the neutralizing buffer was sufficient to counteract stomach acid while maintaining bacterial viability.

  2. Zinc Restored the Decreased Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Viability under Atherosclerotic Calcification Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mee-Young; Kwun, In-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is considered to be involved in maintaining healthy vascular condition. Atherosclerotic calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) occurs via the mechanism of cell death; therefore, cell viability is a critical factor for preventing VSMC calcification. In this study, we tested whether zinc affected VSMC viability under both normal physiological non-calcifying (0 mM P) and atherosclerotic calcifying conditions (3 and 5 mM P), since VSMC physiological characters change during the VSMC calcification process. The study results showed that an optimal zinc level (15 μM) restored the decreased VSMC viability which was induced under low zinc levels (0 and 1 μM) and calcifying conditions (3 and 5 mM P) at 9 and 15 days culture. This zinc-protecting effect for VSMC viability is more prominent under atherosclerotic calcifying condition (3 and 5 mM P) than normal condition (0 mM P). Also, the increased VSMC viability was consistent with the decreased Ca and P accumulation in VSMC cell layers. The results suggested that zinc could be an effective biomineral for preventing VSMC calcification under atherosclerotic calcifying conditions. PMID:25580404

  3. Fibroblast Viability after Storage at 20 °C in Milk, Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and Coconut Water.

    PubMed

    Souza, Beatriz Dulcineia Mendes de; Alves, Ana Maria Hecke; Santos, Luciane Geanini Pena Dos; Simões, Claudia Maria de Oliveira; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various storage media at 20 °C in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) over time. HPLF were maintained at 20 °C in skim milk (SM), whole milk (WM), freshly prepared Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Save-A-Tooth(r), natural coconut water (NCW), coconut water industrialized (ICW) and tap water (negative control) for 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Cells maintained in Minimal Essential Medium (MEM-37) at 37 °C served as a positive control. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Scheffe test (α = 5%). From 24 h, NCW was significantly better in maintaining cell viability than all other tested storage media (p<0.05). SM and WM were significantly better than HBSS for up to 72 h. Save-A-Tooth(r) and ICW were the worst conservation storage media. In conclusion, the effectiveness of the tested storage media to maintain the viability of the periodontal ligament cells was as follows, in a descending order: NCW > MEM-37> SM and IM> HBSS> ICW > Save-A-Tooth(r)> tap water. PMID:27652701

  4. Maintaining qualification for 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    After initial acceptance in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, hospitals and health systems should monitor and take steps to maintain their disproportionate share hospital status to continue to qualify for participation. Proactively managing the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Ratio will ensure the organization avoids an unexpected decline in the Medicare portion of its 340B patient base. Even with the surge resulting from Medicaid expansion, tracking patient eligibility for Medicare/ SSI to ensure all patients who qualify are appropriately enrolled in the program is an important step in maintaining 340B program eligibility. PMID:27183761

  5. Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Cone Photoreceptor Viability.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongwei; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the retina, TH signaling plays a central role in cone opsin expression. TH signaling inhibits S opsin expression, stimulates M opsin expression, and promotes dorsal-ventral opsin patterning. TH signaling has also been associated with cone photoreceptor viability. Treatment with thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) or induction of high T3 by deleting the hormone-inactivating enzyme type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) causes cone death in mice. This effect is reversed by deletion of the TH receptor (TR) gene. Consistent with the T3 treatment effect, suppressing TH signaling preserves cones in mouse models of retinal degeneration. The regulation of cone survival by TH signaling appears to be independent of its regulatory role in cone opsin expression. The mechanism by which TH signaling regulates cone viability remains to be identified. The current understanding of TH signaling regulation in photoreceptor viability suggests that suppressing TH signaling locally in the retina may represent a novel strategy for retinal degeneration management. PMID:26427466

  6. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  7. Radiation Propulsion For Maintaining Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Brief report proposes radiative propulsion systems for maintaining precise orbits of spacecraft. Radiation from electrical heaters directed outward by paraboloidal reflectors to produce small forces to oppose uncontrolled drag and solar-radiative forces perturbing orbits. Minimizes or eliminates need to fire rocket thrusters to correct orbits.

  8. Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnagey, William J.

    This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

  9. A thermal vacuum-UV solar simulator test system for assessing microbiological viability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.; Wardle, M. D.; Taylor, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    Microorganisms were exposed to a simulated space environment in order to assess the photobiological effect of broad spectrum, nonionizing solar electromagnetic radiation in terms of viability. A thermal vacuum chamber capable of maintaining a vacuum of 0.000133n/sq m and an ultraviolet rich solar simulator were the main ingredients of the test system. Results to date indicate the system to be capable of providing reliable microbiological data.

  10. Activation of salt-inducible kinase 2 promotes the viability of peritoneal mesothelial cells exposed to stress of peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H-H; Lin, C-Y; Su, S-H; Chuang, C-T; Chang, Y-L; Lee, T-Y; Lee, S-C; Chang, C-J

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining mesothelial cell viability is critical to long-term successful peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment. To clarify the viability mechanism of peritoneal mesothelial cells under PD solutions exposure, we examined the mechanisms of cellular response to this stress conditions. Here we report that the proteasome activity is inhibited when treated with PD solutions. Proteasome inhibition-mediated activation of salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2), an endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein, is important for mesothelial cell viability. SIK2 is mobilized to promote autophagy and protect the cells from apoptosis under PD solution or MG132 treatment. Immunofluorescence staining showed that SIK2 is colocalized with LC3B in the autophagosomes of mesothelial cells treated with PD solution or derived from patients undergoing PD treatment. SIK2 activation is likely via a two-step mechanism, upstream kinases relieving the autoinhibitory conformation of SIK2 molecule followed by autophosphorylation of Thr175 and activation of kinase activity. These results suggest that activation of SIK2 is required for the cell viability when proteasome activity is inhibited by PD solutions. Maintaining or boosting the activity of SIK2 may promote peritoneal mesothelial cell viability and evolve as a potential therapeutic target for maintaining or restoring peritoneal membrane integrity in PD therapy. PMID:27441650

  11. Efficient intracellular delivery of molecules with high cell viability using nanosecond-pulsed laser-activated carbon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Aritra; Kelly, Sean C; Dwivedi, Nishant; Thadhani, Naresh; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2014-03-25

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5-9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability.

  12. Efficient Intracellular Delivery of Molecules with High Cell Viability Using Nanosecond-Pulsed Laser-Activated Carbon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5–9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. PMID:24547946

  13. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  14. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  15. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  16. Impact of intra- and extra-osseous soft tissue composition on changes in bone mineral density with weight loss and regain.

    PubMed

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Later, Wiebke; Schautz, Britta; Lagerpusch, Merit; Goele, Kristin; Heller, Martin; Glüer, Claus-C; Müller, Manfred J

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies report a significant gain in bone mineral density (BMD) after diet-induced weight loss. This might be explained by a measurement artefact. We therefore investigated the impact of intra- and extra-osseous soft tissue composition on bone measurements by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a longitudinal study of diet-induced weight loss and regain in 55 women and 17 men (19-46 years, BMI 28.2-46.8 kg/m(2)). Total and regional BMD were measured before and after 12.7 ± 2.2 week diet-induced weight loss and 6 months after significant weight regain (≥30%). Hydration of fat free mass (FFM) was assessed by a 3-compartment model. Skeletal muscle (SM) mass, extra-osseous adipose tissue, and bone marrow were measured by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mean weight loss was -9.2 ± 4.4 kg (P < 0.001) and was followed by weight regain in a subgroup of 24 subjects (+6.3 ± 2.9 kg; P < 0.001). With weight loss, bone marrow and extra-osseous adipose tissue decreased whereas BMD increased at the total body, lumbar spine, and the legs (women only) but decreased at the pelvis (men only, all P < 0.05). The decrease in BMD(pelvis) correlated with the loss in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (P < 0.05). Increases in BMD(legs) were reversed after weight regain and inversely correlated with BMD(legs) decreases. No other associations between changes in BMD and intra- or extra-osseous soft tissue composition were found. In conclusion, changes in extra-osseous soft tissue composition had a minor contribution to changes in BMD with weight loss and decreases in bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) were not related to changes in BMD.

  17. Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2007-01-15

    We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

  18. Case presentation of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia with concomitant cemento-ossifying fibroma discovered during implant explantation.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Robert C; Dixon, Douglas R; Goksel, Tamer; Castle, James T; Henry, Walter A

    2013-03-01

    A 39-year-old African American woman presented for treatment of a symptomatic mandibular right first molar with a large, periapical radiolucency. After initial attempts at endodontic therapy, this tooth was ultimately extracted owing to unabated symptoms. The extraction site underwent ridge preservation grafting, implant placement, and restoration. After 26 months of implant function, the patient returned with clinical symptoms of pain, buccal swelling, and the sensation of a "loose" implant. This case report details a diagnosis of 2 distinct disease entities associated with the implant site, a cemento-ossifying fibroma and florid cemento-osseous dysplasia of the mandible. This diagnosis was determined from clinical, surgical, radiographic, and histopathologic evidence after biopsy and removal of the previously osseointegrated implant following postinsertion failure by fibrous encapsulation. Before implant therapy, it is essential to conduct a thorough radiographic evaluation of any dental arch with suspected bony lesions to prevent implant failure.

  19. Microcephaly, ectodermal dysplasia, multiple skeletal anomalies and distinctive facial appearance: delineation of cerebro-dermato-osseous-dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Pascolini, Giulia; Parisi, Valentina; Sana, Maria Elena; Novelli, Antonio; Nürnberg, Peter; Iascone, Maria; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In 1980, a novel multiple malformation syndrome has been described in a 17-year-old woman with micro- and turricephaly, intellectual disability, distinctive facial appearance, congenital atrichia, and multiple skeletal anomalies mainly affecting the limbs. Four further sporadic patients and a couple of affected sibs are also reported with a broad clinical variability. Here, we describe a 4-year-old girl strikingly resembling the original report. Phenotype comparison identified a recurrent pattern of multisystem features involving the central nervous system, and skin and bones in five sporadic patients (including ours), while the two sibs and a further sporadic case show significant phenotypic divergence. Marked clinical variability within the same entity versus syndrome splitting is discussed and the term "cerebro-dermato-osseous dysplasia" is introduced to define this condition.

  20. The homing of bone marrow MSCs to non-osseous sites for ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive calcium phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guodong; Habibovic, Pamela; Bao, Chongyun; Hu, Jing; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Yuan, Huipin; Chen, Wenchuan; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are promising for bone repair. There is no direct proof that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) home to non-osseous sites and participate in ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive bioceramics. The objective of this study was to use a sex-mismatched beagle dog model to investigate BMSC homing via blood circulation to participate in ectopic bone formation via osteoinductive biomaterial. BMSCs of male dogs were injected into female femoral marrow cavity. The survival and stable chimerism of donor BMSCs in recipients were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules were implanted in dorsal muscles of female dogs. Y chromosomes were detected in samples harvested from female dogs which had received male BMSCs. At 4 weeks, cells with Y-chromosomes were distributed in the new bone matrix throughout the BCP granule implant. At 6 weeks, cells with Y chromosomes were present in newly mineralized woven bone. TRAP positive osteoclast-like cells were observed in 4-week implants, and the number of such cells decreased from 4 to 6 weeks. These results show that osteoprogenitors were recruited from bone marrow and homed to ectopic site to serve as a cell source for calcium phosphate-induced bone formation. In conclusion, BMSCs were demonstrated to migrate from bone marrow through blood circulation to non-osseous bioceramic implant site to contribute to ectopic bone formation in a canine model. BCP induced new bone in muscles without growth factor delivery, showing excellent osteoinductivity that could be useful for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23298780

  1. Comparative effects of autologous and homologous seminal plasma on the viability of largely extended boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Caballero, I; Vazquez, J M; Centurión, F; Rodríguez-Martinez, H; Parrilla, I; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Martinez, E A

    2004-10-01

    Sperm handling, associated to artificial reproduction technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or the use of flow cytometry for cell analysis or sorting imposes volumetric extension of the sperm suspension and decreases sperm viability, presumably because of the removal of seminal plasma (SP) components. This study evaluated whether a 10% v/v of autologous SP (retrieved from the same donor boar) or homologous SP (e.g. from any of the four fertile boars included, other than the one providing the spermatozoa) would differently affect the viability of boar spermatozoa subjected to large extension in a simple saline medium [phosphate-buffered saline and 0.1% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), PBSm] to a concentration of 0.3 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml and incubated for 2 h at 30 degrees C. Sperm viability was monitored as membrane integrity [using the fluorophore carboxyfluorescein diacetate (C-FDA) and propidium iodide (PI)], mitochondrial function (using the fluorophore R-123) and motility characteristics [using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA)]. Substraction of the SP and extension followed by incubation in PBSm significantly (p < 0.05) decreased sperm viability, which could be restored by addition of autologous SP. Furthermore, exposure of the extended spermatozoa to homologous SP (from any other individual boar) significantly (p < 0.05) varied with the source of the sire; some boars exerting beneficial effects (even surpassing the effects of the autologous SP; p < 0.05) while at least one boar negatively (p < 0.05) influencing the viability of the incubated spermatozoa. It is concluded that SP should be present when incubating highly extended spermatozoa. As a result of the obvious differences among boars, it would be advantageous to examine the ability of SP to maintain sperm viability prior to the use of SP pools during sperm handling in vitro. PMID:15367272

  2. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  3. Viability of human adenovirus from hospital fomites.

    PubMed

    Ganime, Ana Carolina; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Santos, Marisa; Costa Filho, Rubens; Leite, José Paulo G; Miagostovich, Marize P

    2014-12-01

    The monitoring of environmental microbial contamination in healthcare facilities may be a valuable tool to determine pathogens transmission in those settings; however, such procedure is limited to bacterial indicators. Viruses are found commonly in those environments and are rarely used for these procedures. The aim of this study was to assess distribution and viability of a human DNA virus on fomites in an Adult Intensive Care Unit of a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) were investigated in 141 fomites by scraping the surface area and screening by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using TaqMan® System (Carlsbad, CA). Ten positive samples were selected for virus isolation in A549 and/or HEp2c cell lines. A total of 63 samples (44.7%) were positive and presented viral load ranging from 2.48 × 10(1) to 2.1 × 10(3) genomic copies per millilitre (gc/ml). The viability was demonstrated by integrated cell culture/nested-PCR in 5 out of 10 samples. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed all samples as HAdV and characterized one of them as specie B, serotype 3 (HAdV-3). The results indicate the risk of nosocomial transmission via contaminated fomites and point out the use of HAdV as biomarkers of environmental contamination.

  4. Viability of preserved Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts

    PubMed Central

    Surl, Chan-Gu; Kim, Se-Min

    2003-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the viability and infectivity of oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi that had been stored from 1 to 40 months at 4℃ preserved in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution. Oocysts of C. baileyi were purified from the feces of experimentally infected chickens using discontinuous sucrose gradients. Subsequently, the purified oocysts were suspended in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution at a concentration of 1 × 107 organism/ml, and their viabilities were assessed by nucleic acid staining, histologic examination, and infectivity to 2-day-old chickens. All chickens inoculated with oocysts that had been stored for 1-18 months developed patent infections, while chickens infected with older oocysts remained uninfected. Between 5.8% and 82.2% of the oocysts, stored at 4℃ in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution, were found to be viable, as determined by nucleic acid staining. Parasite colonization in the bursa of Fabricius was detected in the microvillus border of bursal epithelium. The finding that C. baileyi oocysts remain infective to chickens for at least 18 months offers important time-saving advantages to investigators who frequently require large numbers of oocysts. PMID:14699260

  5. Limit of viability: The Swiss experience.

    PubMed

    Berger, T M; Roth-Kleiner, M

    2016-09-01

    Progress made in the field of perinatology over the past four decades has led to unprecedented low mortality rates for extremely low birth weight infants. However, because rates of important short-term complications and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors have remained high, the best approach to borderline viable infants continues to be debated. Not surprisingly, guidelines from various national medical societies for the care of infants born at the limit of viability vary considerably. In 2002, the first Swiss recommendations for the care of borderline viable infants were published. They had been developed by a multidisciplinary team of experts from the fields of obstetrics, pediatrics, and neonatology. Despite the availability of national guidelines, center-to-center outcome variability has since persisted, suggesting that care for the most immature infants is not only evidence-based and guideline-driven but also strongly influenced by local neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) culture. In 2011, revised national recommendations for perinatal care at the limit of viability between 22 and 26 completed weeks of gestation were published. It remains to be seen whether this has led to more uniform outcomes across the Swiss centers in the years that followed. PMID:27476994

  6. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  7. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence.

  8. Orimulsion -- Viability as a repowering fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.

    1996-12-31

    Orimulsion, an emulsion of natural bitumen and water produced in the Orinoco region of Venezuela, has been established as a viable fuel alternative for boilers. In terms of the fluidity property, Orimulsion is similar to oil. The same basic firing principles, therefore, apply to both fuels, thus affording an opportunity for consideration of Orimulsion as a repowering fuel in existing fossil fuel-fired boilers. The objective of this paper is to examine the viability of utilizing Orimulsion as a repowering fuel. The information presented in this paper is based on many years of Bechtel`s involvement with Orimulsion, which has included detailed technical and economic evaluation of Orimulsion switch in existing power plants, developmental activities for new power plant projects considering Orimulsion as the primary fuel, and assistance in the evaluation of Orimulsion test burn results.

  9. Metabolic viability of Escherichia coli trapped by dielectrophoresis in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Donato, Sandra S; Chu, Virginia; Prazeres, Duarte M F; Conde, Joao P

    2013-02-01

    The spatial and temporal control of biological species is essential in complex microfluidic biosystems. In addition, if the biological species is a cell, microfluidic handling must ensure that the cell's metabolic viability is maintained. The use of DEP for cell manipulation in microfluidics has many advantages because it is remote and fast, and the voltages required for cell trapping scale well with miniaturization. In this paper, the conditions for bacterial cell (Escherichia coli) trapping using a quadrupole electrode configuration in a PDMS microfluidic channel were developed both for stagnant and for in-flow fluidic situations. The effect of the electrical conductivity of the fluid, the applied electric field and frequency, and the fluid-flow velocity were studied. A dynamic exchange between captured and free-flowing cells during DEP trapping was demonstrated. The metabolic activity of trapped cells was confirmed by using E. coli cells genetically engineered to express green fluorescent protein under the control of an inducible promoter. Noninduced cells trapped by negative DEP and positive DEP were able to express green fluorescent protein minutes after the inducer was inserted in the microchannel system immediately after DEP trapping. Longer times of trapping prior to exposure to the inducer indicated first a degradation of the cell metabolic activity and finally cell death. PMID:23175163

  10. Integrating watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative risk assessments of pollution and data related to the effectiveness of mitigating best management practices (BMPs) are important aspects of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control efforts, particularly those driven by specific water quality objectives and by measurable improvement goals...

  11. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective was to update the 2001 systematic review conducted by the Institute For Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) on the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in assessing myocardial viability. The update consisted of a review and analysis of the research evidence published since the 2001 ICES review to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PET in detecting left ventricular (LV) viability and predicting patient outcomes after revascularization in comparison with other noninvasive techniques. Background Left Ventricular Viability Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the contractile ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in poor functional capacity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in elderly Canadians. In more than two-thirds of cases, heart failure is secondary to coronary heart disease. It has been shown that dysfunctional myocardium resulting from coronary heart disease (CAD) may recover contractile function (i.e. considered viable). Dysfunctional but viable myocardium may have been stunned by a brief episode of ischemia, followed by restoration of perfusion, and may regain function spontaneously. It is believed that repetitive stunning results in hibernating myocardium that will only regain contractile function upon revascularization. For people with CAD and severe LV dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) refractory to medical therapy, coronary artery bypass and heart transplantation are the only treatment options. The opportunity for a heart transplant is limited by scarcityof donor hearts. Coronary artery bypass in these patients is associated with high perioperative complications; however, there is evidence that revascularization in the presence of dysfunctional but viable myocardium is associated with survival benefits and lower rates of cardiac events. The assessment of left

  12. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    effectiveness and safety of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the assessment of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effectiveness of FDG PET viability imaging, the following outcomes are examined: the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET for predicting functional recovery; the impact of PET viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other patient outcomes); and the contribution of PET viability imaging to treatment decision making and subsequent patient outcomes. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by the heart’s inability to maintain adequate blood circulation through the body leading to multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. Patients with heart failure experience poor functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, more than 71,000 Canadians died from cardiovascular disease, of which, 54% were due to ischemic heart disease. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease (CAD)1 is the primary cause of heart failure accounting for more than 70% of cases. The prevalence of heart failure was estimated at one percent of the Canadian population in 1989. Since then, the increase in the older population has undoubtedly resulted in a substantial increase in cases. Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis: one-year mortality rates were 32.9% and 31.1% for men and women, respectively in Ontario between 1996 and 1997. Treatment Options In general, there are three options for the treatment of heart failure: medical treatment, heart transplantation, and revascularization for those with CAD as the underlying cause. Concerning medical treatment, despite recent advances, mortality remains high among treated patients, while, heart transplantation is affected by the limited availability of donor hearts and consequently has long

  13. Viability of probiotic bacteria in maple sap products under storage and gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Khalf, Moustafa; Dabour, Nassra; Kheadr, Ehab; Fliss, Ismaïl

    2010-10-01

    This study was undertaken to develop new probiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%) were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 10⁷-10⁸ CFU/ml. Viability was assessed over four weeks of storage at 4 °C and under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions using dynamic gastrointestinal model known as TIM-1. Viability was maintained throughout the storage period at the same order of 10⁷ to 10⁸ CFU/ml. Inulin significantly enhanced the survivability during passage through the gastrointestinal tract simulator. The developed products could be an excellent alternative for delivering probiotics, especially for individuals suffering from lactose intolerance to dairy products. PMID:20965125

  14. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-12-31

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  15. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  16. Hydroelectric redevelopment maintains heritage values

    SciTech Connect

    Bulkovshteyn, L.; Chidiac, M.; Hall, W.

    1995-12-31

    The Seymour GS is an 80 year old generating station on the historic Trent-Severn Waterway in Ontario, Canada. The rehabilitation at Seymour was approved by Provincial and Federal authorities on condition that the original appearance of the building be maintained. The capacity of the Generating Station (GS) is being uprated from 3.15 MW to 5.7 MW, by replacing five vertical double runner Francis units with five horizontal Kaplan turbines. The replacement of vertical Francis units with horizontal Kaplan units, necessitated an extensive and innovative demolition approach for the substructure modification. The new turbines required a powerhouse base slab 3.5 m below the grade of the original slab. This required removal of the existing slabs and foundation rock along with most of the interior powerhouse walls. The type of modification and demolition were carefully chosen to accommodate a very tight schedule dictated by the requirement of the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), where in-water work is restricted to certain months of the year.

  17. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  18. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  19. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  20. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  1. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  2. Cardiac Mr For The Assessment Of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han W.; Kim, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on delayed contrast enhanced MRI (DE-MRI) to assess myocardial viability. We start by discussing previous literature that evaluated the potential importance of myocardial viability testing and follow up with the more recent Surgical Treatment for Heart Disease Trial (STICH) trial results. We then provide an overview of the basic concepts and technical aspects of the current DE-MRI technique and review the initial studies demonstrating that DE-MRI before coronary revascularization can predict functional improvement. Finally, we use DE-MRI as a paradigm to discuss physiological insights into viability assessment and examine common assumptions in the metrics used to evaluate viability techniques. PMID:24066200

  3. Ovarian Fluid Mediates the Temporal Decline in Sperm Viability in a Fish with Sperm Storage

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:23691216

  4. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  5. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  6. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7795421

  7. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals for treatment of osseous metastases, Part 1: α therapy with 223Ra-dichloride.

    PubMed

    Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Larson, Steven M; Carrasquillo, Jorge A

    2014-02-01

    Metastatic disease to bone is commonly seen in the advanced stages of many cancers. The cardinal symptom, pain, is often the cause of significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. Treatment of bone pain includes nonsteroidal analgesics and opiates; however, long-term use of these drugs is commonly associated with significant side effects, and tolerance is common. External-beam radiation therapy is effective mainly in localized disease sites. Bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals are beneficial in the management of patients with multiple metastatic lesions. This article focuses on the 3 most commonly used agents: the Food and Drug Administration-approved (89)Sr-chloride, (153)Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), and (223)Ra-dichloride. We will discuss the physical characteristics, clinical data, dosage, and administration of these agents, including optimal patient selection and toxicity associated with their use. These radioactive agents have proven efficacy in the treatment of painful osseous metastases from prostate cancer and breast cancer. Significant recent advances include use of these agents in combination with chemotherapy and the use of the α emitter (223)Ra-dichloride in prostate cancer, primarily to improve survival and skeletal related events. The review is presented in 2 parts. The first will discuss the characteristics and clinical use of (223)Ra-dichloride, and the second will discuss the β emitters (89)Sr and (153)Sm-EDTMP.

  8. Diagnostic and mutational spectrum of progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) and other forms of GNAS-based heterotopic ossification.

    PubMed

    Adegbite, N S; Xu, M; Kaplan, F S; Shore, E M; Pignolo, R J

    2008-07-15

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a rare, disabling disease of heterotopic ossification (HO) that progresses from skin and subcutaneous tissues into deep skeletal muscle. POH occurs in the absence of multiple developmental features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) or hormone resistance, clinical manifestations that are also associated with GNAS inactivation. However, occasional patients with AHO and pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a/c (PHP1a/c; AHO features plus hormone resistance) have also been described who have progressive HO. This study was undertaken to define the diagnostic and mutational spectrum of POH and progressive disorders of HO, and to distinguish them from related disorders in which HO remains confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissues. We reviewed the charts of 111 individuals who had cutaneous and subcutaneous ossification. All patients were assessed for eight characteristics: age of onset of HO, presence and location of HO, depth of HO, type of HO, progression of HO, features of AHO, PTH resistance, and GNAS mutation analysis. We found, based on clinical criteria, that POH and progressive HO syndromes are at the severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of GNAS-inactivating conditions associated with extra-skeletal ossification. While most individuals with superficial or progressive ossification had mutations in GNAS, there were no specific genotype-phenotype correlations that distinguished the more progressive forms of HO (e.g., POH) from the non-progressive forms (osteoma cutis, AHO, and PHP1a/c).

  9. Insights into the renal pathogenesis in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia: A renal histological characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Sanjay; Javidan, Ashkan; Boivin, Felix; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Lukic, Dusan; Svajger, Bruno; Chu, Stephanie; Baradaran-Heravi, Alireza; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Rosenblum, Norman D; Bridgewater, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a pleiotropic disorder caused by mutations in the SWI/SNF2-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like-1 (SMARCAL1) gene, with multiple clinical features, notably end-stage renal disease. Here we characterize the renal pathology in SIOD patients. Our analysis of SIOD patient renal biopsies demonstrates the tip and collapsing variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Additionally, electron microscopy revealed numerous glomerular abnormalities most notably in the podocyte and Bowman's capsule. To better understand the role of SMARCAL1 in the pathogenesis of FSGS, we defined SMARCAL1 expression in the developing and mature kidney. In the developing fetal kidney, SMARCAL1 is expressed in the ureteric epithelium, stroma, metanephric mesenchyme, and in all stages of the developing nephron, including the maturing glomerulus. In postnatal kidneys, SMARCAL1 expression is localized to epithelial tubules of the nephron, collecting ducts, and glomerulus (podocytes and endothelial cells). Interestingly, not all cells within the same lineage expressed SMARCAL1. In renal biopsies from SIOD patients, TUNEL analysis detected marked increases in DNA fragmentation. Our results highlight the cells that may contribute to the renal pathogenesis in SIOD. Further, we suggest that disruptions in genomic integrity during fetal kidney development contribute to the pathogenesis of FSGS in SIOD patients.

  10. Terminal osseous dysplasia and pigmentary defects: clinical characterization of a novel male lethal X-linked syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bacino, C A; Stockton, D W; Sierra, R A; Heilstedt, H A; Lewandowski, R; Van den Veyver, I B

    2000-09-11

    We describe a new syndrome of distal limb anomalies and pigmentary skin defects in 10 females of a large, four-generation pedigree. The family was ascertained through a 4-month-old infant girl with multiple anomalies, including hypertelorism, iris colobomas, low-set ears, midface hypoplasia, punched-out pigmentary abnormalities over the face and scalp, generalized brachydactyly, and digital fibromatosis. No affected males were identified in this pedigree. Affected females had a lower than normal male-to-female ratio of liveborn offspring, and some of them also had a history of several miscarriages. These findings, together with a significant variability in the phenotype of the affected females, suggest that this condition is inherited in an X-linked dominant fashion, with prenatal male lethality, and that X-inactivation plays an important role in the phenotypic expression of the disease. The syndrome has been described twice in the literature, but only in sporadic cases; it was therefore not recognized as a mendelian entity. Because the most consistent findings are anomalies of the distal skeleton of the limbs and localized pigmentary abnormalities of the skin, we named the syndrome "terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects." This condition, though rare, can be added to the small group of male lethal X-linked dominant disorders in humans.

  11. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Todd W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  12. Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, G.; Anderson, C.; Henricson, J.; Leahy, M.; O'Doherty, J.; Sjöberg, F.

    2008-09-01

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0-4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  13. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  14. Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.

    PubMed

    Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers.

  15. Optimizing conservation strategies for Mexican freetailed bats: a population viability and ecosystem services approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Svancara, Colleen; McCracken, Gary; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Mattson, Brady; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul; Amy Russell,; Semmens, Darius J.; Rodrigo A. Medellín,

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning can be challenging due to the need to balance biological concerns about population viability with social concerns about the benefits biodiversity provide to society, often while operating under a limited budget. Methods and tools that help prioritize conservation actions are critical for the management of at-risk species. Here, we use a multi-attribute utility function to assess the optimal maternity roosts to conserve for maintaining the population viability and the ecosystem services of a single species, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana). Mexican free-tailed bats provide ecosystem services such as insect pest-suppression in agricultural areas and recreational viewing opportunities, and may be threatened by climate change and development of wind energy. We evaluated each roost based on five attributes: the maternity roost’s contribution to population viability, the pest suppression ecosystem services to the surrounding area provided by the bats residing in the roost, the ecotourism value of the roost, the risks posed to each roost structure, and the risks posed to the population of bats residing in each roost. We compared several scenarios that prioritized these attributes differently, hypothesizing that the set of roosts with the highest rankings would vary according to the conservation scenario. Our results indicate that placing higher values on different roost attributes (e.g. population importance over ecosystem service value) altered the roost rankings. We determined that the values placed on various conservation objectives are an important determinant of habitat planning.

  16. Cell viability of acute myeloid leukaemia blasts in culture correlates with treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Maha, Abdullah; Cheong, Soon-Keng; Leong, Chooi-Fun; Seow, Heng-Fong

    2008-02-01

    Despite the advances in understanding the pathophysiology of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), the cure rate for acute myeloid leukaemia patients remains low. Cytogenetic abnormalities and age are the prognostic factors that guide treatment decisions. However, many AML patients still die. The biological factors that influence treatment outcome are largely unknown. Thus, the objective of our study was to use the in vitro viability test to correlate with treatment outcome. Acute myeloid leukaemia blasts demonstrated differing ability to survive in culture. Our examination of blast phenotype at various days in culture showed two possible growth directions. First, cells underwent maturation by increased expression of CD16 and down-regulated CD34 (a haemopoietic stem cell marker). These cells also appeared to have undergone apoptosis. Alternatively, cells continued to survive in culture and maintained high expression of CD34. An MTT assay was carried out to determine viability after three days of culture. Lower optical density values were obtained for samples that underwent apoptosis and higher values were obtained for samples that survived in culture. Apoptosis was measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. A comparison between results of MTT assay and duration of disease free survival revealed that a higher viability in vitro correlated significantly with shorter survival duration in the patient (R -0.761, p=0.002, n=13). Thus, this study further supports the hypothesis that AML patients with poor survival may be related to having blasts with a biologically more immature or stem cell-like nature.

  17. Population viability analysis: using a modeling tool to assess the viability of tapir populations in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Desbiez, Arnaud Leonard Jean

    2012-12-01

    A population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted of the lowland tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest of the Pontal do Paranapanema region, Brazil, including Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) and surrounding forest fragments. Results from the model projected that the population of 126 tapirs in MDSP is likely to persist over the next 100 years; however, 200 tapirs would be required to maintain a viable population. Sensitivity analysis showed that sub-adult mortality and adult mortality have the strongest influence on the dynamics of lowland tapir populations. High road-kill has a major impact on the MDSP tapir population and can lead to population extinction. Metapopulation modeling showed that dispersal of tapirs from MDSP to the surrounding fragments can be detrimental to the overall metapopulation, as fragments act as sinks. Nevertheless, the model showed that under certain conditions the maintenance of the metapopulation dynamics might be determinant for the persistence of tapirs in the region, particularly in the smaller fragments. The establishment of corridors connecting MDSP to the forest fragments models resulted in an increase in the stochastic growth rate, making tapirs more resilient to threats and catastrophes, but only if rates of mortality were not increased when using corridors. The PVA showed that the conservation of tapirs in the Pontal region depends on: the effective protection of MDSP; maintenance and, whenever possible, enhancement of the functional connectivity of the landscape, reducing mortality during dispersal and threats in the unprotected forest fragments; and neutralization of all threats affecting tapirs in the smaller forest fragments. PMID:23253367

  18. Population viability analysis: using a modeling tool to assess the viability of tapir populations in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Desbiez, Arnaud Leonard Jean

    2012-12-01

    A population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted of the lowland tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest of the Pontal do Paranapanema region, Brazil, including Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) and surrounding forest fragments. Results from the model projected that the population of 126 tapirs in MDSP is likely to persist over the next 100 years; however, 200 tapirs would be required to maintain a viable population. Sensitivity analysis showed that sub-adult mortality and adult mortality have the strongest influence on the dynamics of lowland tapir populations. High road-kill has a major impact on the MDSP tapir population and can lead to population extinction. Metapopulation modeling showed that dispersal of tapirs from MDSP to the surrounding fragments can be detrimental to the overall metapopulation, as fragments act as sinks. Nevertheless, the model showed that under certain conditions the maintenance of the metapopulation dynamics might be determinant for the persistence of tapirs in the region, particularly in the smaller fragments. The establishment of corridors connecting MDSP to the forest fragments models resulted in an increase in the stochastic growth rate, making tapirs more resilient to threats and catastrophes, but only if rates of mortality were not increased when using corridors. The PVA showed that the conservation of tapirs in the Pontal region depends on: the effective protection of MDSP; maintenance and, whenever possible, enhancement of the functional connectivity of the landscape, reducing mortality during dispersal and threats in the unprotected forest fragments; and neutralization of all threats affecting tapirs in the smaller forest fragments.

  19. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  20. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be

  1. Copper-doped borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with improved angiogenic and osteogenic capacity for repairing osseous defects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the use of synthetic biomaterials to deliver inorganic ions that are known to stimulate angiogenesis and osteogenesis in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effects of varying amounts of copper in a bioactive glass on the response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in vitro and on blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects in vivo. Porous scaffolds of a borosilicate bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 36B2O3, 18SiO2, 2P2O5, mol.%) doped with 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0wt.% CuO were created using a foam replication method. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the scaffolds released Cu ions into the medium and converted to hydroxyapatite. At the concentrations used, the Cu in the glass was not toxic to the hBMSCs cultured on the scaffolds in vitro. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the hBMSCs and the expression levels of angiogenic-related genes (vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor) and osteogenic-related genes (runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin) increased significantly with increasing amount of Cu in the glass. When implanted in rat calvarial defects in vivo, the scaffolds (3wt.% CuO) significantly enhanced both blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in the defects at 8weeks post-implantation. These results show that doping bioactive glass implants with Cu is a promising approach for enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the healing of osseous defects.

  2. Treatment of oligodontia with endo-osseous fixtures: experience in eight consecutive patients at the end of dental growth.

    PubMed

    Becelli, Roberto; Morello, Roberto; Renzi, Giancarlo; Dominici, Chiara

    2007-11-01

    Clinical manifestations of oligodontia consist in agenesia of multiple teeth eventually with deciduous retained teeth, atrophy of alveolar ridge, aberrations of teeth dimension, and shape, with consequent aesthetic and functional defects. The first choice treatment is based on a team collaboration of maxillo-facial surgeon, orthodontist, and prosthodontist, and is conditioned by various clinical parameters as number and site of lacking teeth, age and dental development of patients, eventual alveolar ridge atrophy. Treatment planning should be individualized for each patient. In our experience, based on 8 consecutive patients at the end of dental growth affected by oligodontia, endo-osseous fixtures positioning was carried out in consideration of long-lasting stability and optimal aesthetical characteristics. In 5 patients rehabilitative preprosthetic surgical procedures were performed, consisting in 2 sinus lift with immediate positioning of 3 fixtures in both cases, 4 heterologous bone graft in postextractive sites with retained ankylotic deciduous teeth and 1 positioning of reabsorbable biomembrane. A temporary removable denture was positioned immediately after surgery in order to obtain a prompt aesthetical and psychosocial restore. Osseointegration ratio as observed at 8.5 years follow-up was analyzed according to surgical variables and differences in prosthetic rehabilitation (fixtures supporting single crown versus multiple crowns). Successful osteointegration was observed at 8.5 years mean follow-up in 58 fixtures, corresponding to a 96.6% ratio. Failure of integration was encountered in fixtures immediately positioned in postextractive sites having a mild grade of bone atrophy, supporting single crown. A rate of success of 100% was observed in cases of immediate or delayed positioning in postextractive or traditional sites.Fixtures positioning in patients affected by isolated oligodontia, without malformative syndromes, and at the end of dental development

  3. Osseous Pseudoprogression in Vertebral Bodies Treated with Stereotactic Radiosurgery: A Secondary Analysis of Prospective Phase I/II Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Behrang; Beaman, Charles B.; Madewell, John E.; Allen, Pamela K.; Rhines, Laurence D.; Tatsui, Claudio E.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Li, Jing; Brown, Paul D.; Ghia, Amol J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Osseous pseudoprogression (OPP) on MRI can mimic true progression in lesions treated with spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS). Our aim is to describe the prevalence and time course of OPP, in order to assist radiologists in assessment of post-SSRS patients. Materials and Methods A secondary analysis of two prospective trials was performed. MRIs before and after SSRS were assessed for response. OPP was defined as transient growth in signal abnormality centered at the lesion with a sustained decline on follow-up MRI that was not attributable to chemotherapy. Results From the initial set of 223 patients, 37 lesions in 36 patients met inclusion criteria and were selected for secondary analysis. Five of the 37 lesions (14%) demonstrated OPP and 9 demonstrated progressive disease. There was significant association between single-fraction therapy and the development of OPP (p=0.01), and there was a significant difference in OPP-free survival between single- and multi-fraction regimens (p=0.0052). In lesions demonstrating OPP, time to peak size occurred between 9.7 and 24.4 weeks after SSRS (mean: 13.9 weeks, 95% CI: 8.6–19.1 weeks). The peak lesion size was between 4–10 mm larger than baseline. Most lesions returned to baseline size between 23–52.4 weeks following SSRS. Conclusions Progression on MRI obtained between 3 and 6 months following SSRS should be treated with caution, as OPP may be seen in > 1/3 of these lesions. Single-fraction SSRS may be associated with OPP. The possibility of OPP should be incorporated into prospective criteria for assessment of local control following SSRS. PMID:26494690

  4. Progressive osseous heteroplasia is not a Mendelian trait but a type 2 segmental manifestation of GNAS inactivation disorders: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Happle, Rudolf

    2016-05-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a segmental disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification that extends from dermal and subcutaneous tissues to deeper structures. So far, it has been taken as a rarely occurring bone disease with autosomal dominant inheritance. Here, arguments are presented in favor of the alternative concept that the disorder is merely a type 2 segmental manifestation of autosomal dominant GNAS inactivation disorders. Type 2 segmental mosaicism arises, in a heterozygous embryo, from a somatic mutational event that occurs at an early developmental stage, resulting in loss of the corresponding wild-type allele and giving rise to a homozygous or hemizygous cell clone. As a characteristic feature, such type 2 segmental involvement is far more pronounced than the type 1 segmental mosaicism as noted in otherwise healthy individuals. The concept of type 2 segmental mosaicism has been proven at the molecular level in six human traits including neurofibromatosis 1, Hailey-Hailey disease, and Gorlin syndrome. In POH, molecular proof of principle is so far lacking. The following lines of reasoning, however, support the hypothesis that POH can be explained by a similar mechanism. Firstly, POH has been found to be associated with different phenotypes caused by inactivating GNAS mutations, which is why it cannot be categorized as one distinct Mendelian trait. Secondly, POH occurs as a rather rare complication of these autosomal dominant traits, which is not compatible with the assumption of a separate Mendelian disorder. Thirdly, in a case of plate-like osteoma that represents a more superficial variant of POH, molecular proof of the concept of type 2 segmental manifestation has already been provided, and the available literature suggests that POH can be best explained by a similar mechanism. Moreover, findings obtained in animal experiments support the assumption that human POH represents such superimposed segmental manifestation of

  5. Long-term two-photon fluorescence imaging of mammalian embryos without compromising viability

    PubMed Central

    Squirrell, Jayne M.; Wokosin, David L.; White, John G.; Bavister, Barry D.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for fluorescence imaging of living mammalian cells is maintaining viability following prolonged exposure to excitation illumination. We have monitored the dynamics of mitochondrial distribution in hamster embryos at frequent intervals over 24 h using two-photon microscopy (1,047 nm) while maintaining blastocyst, and even fetal, developmental competence. In contrast, confocal imaging for only 8 h inhibits development, even without fluorophore excitation. Photo-induced production of H2O2 may account, in part, for this inhibition. Thus, two-photon microscopy, but not confocal microscopy, has permitted long-term fluorescence observations of the dynamics of three-dimensional cytoarchitecture in highly photosensitive specimens such as mammalian embryos. PMID:10429240

  6. An Optimized Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold Supports Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Viability and Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Jones, T. D.; Kefi, A.; Sun, S.; Cho, M.; Alapati, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. HyStem-C™ is a commercially available injectable hydrogel composed of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), hyaluronan (HA), and gelatin (Gn). These components can be mechanically tuned to enhance cell viability and spreading. Methods. The concentration of PEGDA with an added disulfide bond (PEGSSDA) was varied from 0.5 to 8.0% (w/v) to determine the optimal concentration for injectable clinical application. We evaluated the cell viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) embedded in 2% (w/v) PEGSSDA-HA-Gn hydrogels. Volume ratios of HA : Gn from 100 : 0 to 25 : 75 were varied to encourage hDPSC spreading. Fibronectin (Fn) was added to our model to determine the effect of extracellular matrix protein concentration on hDPSC behavior. Results. Our preliminary data suggests that the hydrogel gelation time decreased as the PEGSSDA cross-linker concentration increased. The PEGSSDA-HA-Gn was biocompatible with hDPSCs, and increased ratios of HA : Gn enhanced cell viability for 14 days. Additionally, cell proliferation with added fibronectin increased significantly over time at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μg/mL in PEGDA-HA-Gn hydrogels, while cell spreading significantly increased at Fn concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that PEG-based injectable hydrogels maintain hDPSC viability and facilitate cell spreading, mainly in the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. PMID:27294191

  7. Influence of boundary-layer dynamics on pollen dispersion and viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, Raymond W.; Viner, Brian J.; Westgate, Mark E.

    2013-04-01

    Adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns that GM traits can accidentally cross into conventional crops or wild relatives through the transport of wind-borne pollen. In order to evaluate this risk it is necessary to account both for dispersion of the pollen grains and environmental influences on pollen viability. The Lagrangian approach is suited to this problem because it allows tracking the environmental temperature and moisture that pollen grains experience as they travel. Taking advantage of this capability we have combined a high-resolution version of the WRF meteorological model with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model to predict maize pollen dispersion and viability. WRF is used to obtain fields of wind, turbulence kinetic energy, temperature, and humidity which are then used as input to the Lagrangian dispersion model. The dispersion model in turn predicts transport of a statistical sample of a pollen cloud from source plants to receptors. We also use the three-dimensional temperature and moisture fields from WRF to diagnose changes in moisture content of the pollen grains and consequent loss of viability. Results show that turbulent motions in the convective boundary layer counteract the large terminal velocity of maize pollen grains and lift them to heights of several hundred meters, so that they can be transported long distances before settling to the ground. We also found that pollen lifted into the upper part of the boundary layer remains more viable than has been inferred using surface observations of temperature and humidity. This is attributed to the thermal and moisture structure that typifies the daytime atmospheric boundary layer, producing an environment of low vapor pressure deficit in the upper boundary layer which helps maintain pollen viability.

  8. Prolonged viability of human organotypic skin explant in culture method (hOSEC)*

    PubMed Central

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; de Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Aguiar, Andréia Fernanda Carvalho Leone; Guedes, Flávia Araújo; Leite, Marcel Nani; Passos, Williane Rodrigues; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Das, Pranab Kummar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, the cosmetic industry is overwhelmed in keeping up with the safety assessment of the increasing number of new products entering the market. To meet such demand, research centers have explored alternative methods to animal testing and also the large number of volunteers necessary for preclinical and clinical tests. OBJECTIVES: This work describes the human skin ex-vivo model (hOSEC: Human Organotypic Skin Explant Culture) as an alternative to test the effectiveness of cosmetics and demonstrate its viability through cutaneous keratinocytes' proliferative capacity up to 75 days in culture. METHODS: The skin explants obtained from surgeries were cultured in CO2-humid incubator. After 1, 7, 30 and 75 days in culture, skin fragments were harvested for analysis with histomorphological exam (HE staining) on all days of follow-up and immunohistochemistry for Ck5/6, Ck10 and Ki-67 only on the 75th day. RESULTS: On the 7th day, the epidermis was perfect in the dermoepidermal junction, showing the viability of the model. On the 30th day, the epidermis was thicker, with fewer layers on the stratum corneum, although the cutaneous structure was unaltered. On the 75th day, the skin became thinner but the dermoepidermal junctions were preserved and epidermal proliferation was maintained. After the 75th day on culture, the skin was similar to normal skin, expressing keratinocytes with Ck5/6 on supra-basal layers; Ck10 on differentiated layers; and viability could be assessed by the positivity of basal cells by Ki-67. CONCLUSION: The hOSEC model seems a good alternative to animal testing; it can be used as a preclinical test analogous to clinical human skin test with similar effectiveness and viability proven by immunohistological analyses. PMID:26131864

  9. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

    2007-04-06

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads to

  10. Oxygen delivery from hyperbarically loaded microtanks extends cell viability in anoxic environments.

    PubMed

    Cook, Colin A; Hahn, Kathryn C; Morrissette-McAlmon, Justin B F; Grayson, Warren L

    2015-06-01

    Oxygen diffusion limitations within nascent tissue engineered (TE) grafts lead to the development of hypoxic regions, cell death, and graft failure. Previous efforts have been made to deliver oxygen within TE scaffolds, including peroxide-doping, perfluorocarbons, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, to mitigate these effects and help maintain post transplantation cell viability, but these have suffered from significant drawbacks. Here we present a novel approach utilizing polymeric hollow-core microspheres that can be hyperbarically loaded with oxygen and subsequently provide prolonged oxygen delivery. These oxygen carriers are termed, microtanks. With an interest in orthopedic applications, we combined microtanks within polycaprolactone to form solid phase constructs with oxygen delivery capabilities. The mathematical laws governing oxygen delivery from microtank-loaded constructs are developed along with empirical validation. Constructs achieved periods of oxygen delivery out to 6 days, which was shown to prolong the survival of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as to enhance their cellular morphology under anoxic conditions. The results of this study suggest the microtank approach may be a feasible means of maintaining cell viability in TE scaffolds during the critical period of vascularization in vivo.

  11. Oxygen Delivery from Hyperbarically Loaded Microtanks Extends Cell Viability in Anoxic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Colin A.; Hahn, Kathryn C.; Morrissette-McAlmon, Justin B.F.; Grayson, Warren L.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen diffusion limitations within nascent tissue engineered (TE) grafts lead to the development of hypoxic regions, cell death, and graft failure. Previous efforts have been made to deliver oxygen within TE scaffolds, including peroxide-doping, perfluorocarbons, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, to mitigate these effects and help maintain post transplantation cell viability, but these have suffered from significant drawbacks. Here we present a novel approach utilizing polymeric hollow-core microspheres that can be hyperbarically loaded with oxygen and subsequently provide prolonged oxygen delivery. These oxygen carriers are termed, microtanks. With an interest in orthopedic applications, we combined microtanks within polycaprolactone to form solid phase constructs with oxygen delivery capabilities. The mathematical laws governing oxygen delivery from microtank-loaded constructs are developed along with empirical validation. Constructs achieved periods of oxygen delivery out to 6 days, which was shown to prolong the survival of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as to enhance their cellular morphology under anoxic conditions. The results of this study suggest the microtank approach may be a feasible means of maintaining cell viability in TE scaffolds during the critical period of vascularization in vivo. PMID:25818444

  12. Frequency-dependent viability in mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Curtsinger, J W; Sheen, F M

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the effects of genotypic frequencies on egg-to-adult viabilities in pairwise combinations of four strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The experiments involved mixture of a total of 42,000 eggs in varying proportions under controlled densities and observation of surviving adults. Viabilities were found to depend on frequencies in several genotypic combinations. In the most extreme case, the absolute viability of cn;bw females increased monotonically from 54% when common to 70% when rare. The results illustrate several statistical and methodological problems that might explain why some experiments have failed to detect frequency-dependent viabilities. These problems include heterogeneity between replications, sex differences in susceptibility to competition, and strong dependence of the experimental outcome on the choice of competitor genotypes. PMID:1901577

  13. [Myocardial viability, its importance for the therapeutic decision].

    PubMed

    Alexánderson, Erick; Ricalde, Alejandro; Meave, Aloha

    2005-01-01

    Myocardial viability detection is essential in patients with history of myocardial infarction whom develop ventricular dysfunction. Its detection influences the therapeutic decisions and the prognosis. Medical therapy in patients with ventricular dysfunction due to myocardial infarction and myocardial viability has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates than revascularization therapy, as well as improvements in the systolic function. Several imaging techniques used in the recognition of myocardial viability are available; these techniques are based on the assessment of the ventricular motion posterior to inotropic agents stimulation or on the demonstration of metabolic activity at the dysfunctional regions. In this study, some important aspects of each technique are reviewed, doing special emphasis in the utility of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which has been considered as the "gold standard" in the detection of myocardial viability. PMID:15909735

  14. Safeguarding tissue viability services in today's NHS: JWC conference report.

    PubMed

    Cowan, T

    2008-05-01

    The increasing business orientation of the NHS poses a challenge to wound-care practitioners. At a recent JWC conference, speakers and delegates discussed how we can adapt to this new climate to protect and expand tissue viability services.

  15. A mathematical model for predicting the viability of airborne viruses.

    PubMed

    Posada, J A; Redrow, J; Celik, I

    2010-03-01

    A mathematical model was developed to predict the viability of airborne viruses. The model uses water activity as the primary independent variable and an exponential decay function for the viability of the virus. This model was tested using published experimental data obtained by different investigators for influenza, Langat and polio viruses. The aerosolized media were modelled as a binary solution of water and sodium chloride. The water activity is related directly to the solute concentration in the binary solution. The minimum viability usually occurred just above the efflorescence point, which is the relative humidity at which the solution crystallizes. The relationship between water activity and relative humidity is based on the Köhler theory, whereby the Kelvin term was taken into account. Physical explanations are provided on the variation of viral viability at different relative humidity levels. The predictions obtained by the proposed mathematical model compare well with most of the published experimental data.

  16. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed.

  17. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  18. Flow Cytometry Approach to Quantify the Viability of Milk Somatic Cell Counts after Various Physico-Chemical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Richoux, Romain; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Boutinaud, Marion; Mayol, Jean-François; Gagnaire, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry has been used as a routine method to count somatic cells in milk, and to ascertain udder health and milk quality. However, few studies investigate the viability of somatic cells and even fewer at a subpopulation level to follow up how the cells can resist to various stresses that can be encountered during technological processes. To address this issue, a flow cytometry approach was used to simultaneously identify cell types of bovine milk using cell-specific antibodies and to measure the cell viability among the identified subpopulations by using a live/dead cell viability kit. Confirmation of the cell viability was performed by using conventional microscopy. Different physico-chemical treatments were carried out on standardized cell samples, such as heat treatment, various centrifugation rates and storage in milk or in PBS pH 7.4 for three days. Cytometry gating strategy was developed by using blood cell samples stored at 4°C in PBS and milk cell samples heat-treated at 80°C for 30 min as a control for the maximum (95.9%) and minimum (0.7%) values of cell viability respectively. Cell viability in the initial samples was 39.5% for all cells and varied for each cell population from 26.7% for PMNs, to 32.6% for macrophages, and 58.3% for lymphocytes. Regarding the physico-chemical treatments applied, somatic cells did not sustain heat treatment at 60°C and 80°C in contrast to changes in centrifugation rates, for which only the higher level, i.e. 5000×g led to a cell viability decrease, down to 9.4%, but no significant changes within the cell subpopulation distribution were observed. Finally, the somatic cells were better preserved in milk after 72h storage, in particular PMNs, that maintained a viability of 34.0 ± 2.9% compared to 4.9±1.9% in PBS, while there was almost no changes for macrophages (41.7 ± 5.7% in milk vs 31.2 ± 2.4% in PBS) and lymphocytes (25.3 ± 3.0% in milk vs 11.4 ± 3.1% in PBS). This study provides a new array to better

  19. In vitro radiolabel uptake viability assay for Onchocerca microfilariae

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, H.L.; Wakeman, J.M.; Crouch, R.K.; James, E.R.

    1989-02-01

    A radiolabel uptake viability assay for Onchocerca cervicalis using (/sup 3/H)2-deoxy-D-glucose in Hanks' balanced salt solution, pH 7.5, at 30 C is described and compared to the traditional visual motility assay. A correlation of r = 0.92 between the assays was found, with the radiolabel uptake method apparently a more sensitive indicator of microfilarial viability.

  20. Neonatal ethical issues: viability, advance directives, family centered care.

    PubMed

    Sudia-Robinson, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues in perinatal and NICU settings can arise from a variety of situations. This article focuses on issues surrounding viability and the incorporation of advance directives and family-centered care. Prenatal education about infant viability, probable scenarios, and parental involvement in decision-making are addressed. Considerations for advance directives for complex births and critical decisions at the time of birth are also discussed. Implications for nurses and suggested dialogue strategies are provided. PMID:21407121

  1. [Fibro-osseous pseudo-tumor of the fingers. A little known entity. A case of an 11 year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Aboujaoude, J; Bocquet, L; Oberlin, C

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a case of fibro-osseous pseudo-tumour affecting a long finger. This is a rare tumour difficult to diagnose. Complete excision of the tumour was delayed till two years after its appearance as it's true nature had not been recognised at the time of the initial histopathologic examination. It is a benign tumour with a good prognosis as it does not undergo malignant degeneration and does not recur locally if excision has been complete. Errors in interpretation of the histopathologic picture have, in the past, led to unwarranted amputations of the involved fingers.

  2. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  3. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    PubMed

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

  4. Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

  5. Motility, viability, and calcium in the sperm cells.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Jorge

    2014-04-01

    Sperm cells are complicated in vitro models. Their viability is limited, and physiology is complex. The study of their properties is of great application in the animal production as viable and functional gametes are essential. It has been shown that the decrease of sperm cell viability parallels an increase of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reactive oxygen species is secondary to normal metabolic processes of the cell-like flagellar movement. There is evidence of strategies that reduce ROS levels by using exogenous or endogenous antioxidants with the intention that seminal plasma protects the sperm cells and increases viability. Perhaps viability can increase by reducing that flagellar movement which is regulated by calcium. The phenomenon has not been fully characterized, but it is established that in certain mammalian models, the entrance of calcium via specific channels such as CATsper or voltage-dependent channels, signals flagellar movement. Previous reports have indicated that a change in the concentration of calcium or if the temperature is altered, the function of mammal sperm cells is reduced or blocked and viability prolonged. Fish sperm can remain immobile for several weeks but when activated the number of mobile and viable sperm is reduced at a faster rate. However, if the cells are not mobilized the semen can be preserved for longer periods. As presented in this paper, this supports the notion that by modulating calcium channels to reduce motility the viability of these cells can increase.

  6. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records. 784.12 Section 784.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining...

  7. An Unexpected Effect: Restitution Maintains Object Throwing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mary

    1988-01-01

    This study examined effects of restitution on object throwing behavior of an adolescent male with severe mental retardation. Restitution was shown to maintain throwing behavior. When the subject was not forced to pick up what he threw (no restitution), throwing dropped to zero and was maintained at a very low rate. (Author/PB)

  8. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  9. 42 CFR 431.230 - Maintaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintaining services. 431.230 Section 431.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Applicants and Recipients Procedures § 431.230 Maintaining services. (a) If the agency mails the 10-day or...

  10. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Painful Osseous Metastases: A Multi-center American College of Radiology Imaging Network Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Liu, Dawei; Hartfeil, Donna; Hanna, Lucy; Blume, Jeffrey D.; Ahrar, Kamran; Lopez, Robert; Safran, Howard; DiPetrillo, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine if radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can safely reduce pain from osseous metastatic disease. Methods A single arm prospective trial in patients with a single painful bone metastasis with unremitting pain of at least a score above 50 on a pain scale of 0–100. Percutaneous CT guided RFA of the bone metastasis to temperatures above 60 degrees Celsius was performed. Endpoints were the toxicity and pain effects of RFA before and at 2 weeks, one and three months after RFA. Results 55 patients completed RFA. Grade 3 toxicities occurred in 3 of 55 patients (5%). RFA reduced pain at 1- and 3-month for all pain assessment measures. The average increase in pain relief from pre-RFA to 1-month follow-up is 26.27 (95% CI, 17.65 to 34.89, P<0.0001) and the increase from pre-RFA to 3-month follow-up is 16.38 (95% CI, 3.37 to 29.39, P=0.02). The average decrease in pain intensity from pre-RFA to 1-month follow-up was 26.9 (P<0.0001) and 14.2 for 3-month follow-up (P=0.02). The odds of being in lower pain severity at 1-month follow-up is 14.03 (95% CI, 2.33 to 25.73, P<0.0001) times higher than that at pre-RFA, and the odds at 3-month follow-up is 8.00 (95% CI, 0.85 to 15.15, P<0.001) times higher than that at pre-RFA. The average increase in mood from pre-RFA to 1-month follow-up was 19.9 (P<0.0001) and 14.9 for 3-month follow-up (P=0.005). Conclusion This cooperative group trial strongly suggests that RFA can safely palliate pain from bone metastases. PMID:20041484

  11. Comparison of reintroduction and enhancement effects on metapopulation viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Metapopulation viability depends upon a balance of extinction and colonization of local habitats by a species. Mechanisms that can affect this balance include physical characteristics related to natural processes (e.g. succession) as well as anthropogenic actions. Plant restorations can help to produce favorable metapopulation dynamics and consequently increase viability; however, to date no studies confirm this is true. Population viability analysis (PVA) allows for the use of empirical data to generate theoretical future projections in the form of median time to extinction and probability of extinction. In turn, PVAs can inform and aid the development of conservation, recovery, and management plans. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) is a dune endemic that exhibited metapopulation dynamics. We projected viability of three natural and two restored populations with demographic data spanning 15–23 years to determine the degree the addition of reintroduced population affects metapopulation viability. The models were validated by comparing observed and projected abundances and adjusting parameters associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity to improve model performance. Our chosen model correctly predicted yearly population abundance for 60% of the population-years. Using that model, 50-year projections showed that the addition of reintroductions increases metapopulation viability. The reintroduction that simulated population performance in early-successional habitats had the maximum benefit. In situ enhancements of existing populations proved to be equally effective. This study shows that restorations can facilitate and improve metapopulation viability of species dependent on metapopulation dynamics for survival with long-term persistence of C. pitcheri in Indiana likely to depend on continued active management.

  12. Clinical Evaluation of Tuberculosis Viability Microscopy for Assessing Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sumona; Sherman, Jonathan M.; Bravard, Marjory A.; Valencia, Teresa; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is difficult to determine whether early tuberculosis treatment is effective in reducing the infectiousness of patients' sputum, because culture takes weeks and conventional acid-fast sputum microscopy and molecular tests cannot differentiate live from dead tuberculosis. Methods. To assess treatment response, sputum samples (n = 124) from unselected patients (n = 35) with sputum microscopy–positive tuberculosis were tested pretreatment and after 3, 6, and 9 days of empiric first-line therapy. Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy with fluorescein diacetate, quantitative culture, and acid-fast auramine microscopy were all performed in triplicate. Results. Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy predicted quantitative culture results such that 76% of results agreed within ±1 logarithm (rS = 0.85; P < .0001). In 31 patients with non-multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, viability and quantitative culture results approximately halved (both 0.27 log reduction, P < .001) daily. For patients with non-MDR tuberculosis and available data, by treatment day 9 there was a >10-fold reduction in viability in 100% (24/24) of cases and quantitative culture in 95% (19/20) of cases. Four other patients subsequently found to have MDR tuberculosis had no significant changes in viability (P = .4) or quantitative culture (P = .6) results during early treatment. The change in viability and quantitative culture results during early treatment differed significantly between patients with non-MDR tuberculosis and those with MDR tuberculosis (both P < .001). Acid-fast microscopy results changed little during early treatment, and this change was similar for non-MDR tuberculosis vs MDR tuberculosis (P = .6). Conclusions. Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy is a simple test that within 1 hour predicted quantitative culture results that became available weeks later, rapidly indicating whether patients were responding to tuberculosis therapy

  13. Yoghurt fermented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus H+ -ATPase-defective mutants exhibits enhanced viability of Bifidobacterium breve during storage.

    PubMed

    Ongol, Martin Patrick; Sawatari, Yuki; Ebina, Yoshiko; Sone, Teruo; Tanaka, Michiko; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi; Asano, Kozo

    2007-05-30

    Persistent acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during refrigerated storage is a major cause of reduced viability of probiotic strains such as Bifidobacterium breve in yoghurt. It was established that H+ -ATPase-defective mutants of lactic acid bacteria have reduced growth and metabolism in low pH environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of post-acidification and maintenance of B. breve viability in yoghurt fermented by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus mutants with reduced membrane-bound H+ -ATPase activity during refrigerated storage. Spontaneous neomycin mutants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus that had a significantly (P < or = 0.05) reduced H+ -ATPase activity were successfully isolated. Yoghurt fermented using L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus SBT0164 No. 55-1 (mutant) starter culture had markedly reduced post-acidification and maintained viability (> or = 10(8) CFU/ml) of both Bifidobacteruim breve JCM 1192(T) and Bifidobacteruim breve JCM 7017 during storage at 10 degrees C for 21 days. These results clearly showed that yoghurt fermented by mutants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with reduced membrane-bound H+ -ATPase activity has reduced post-acidification that prolongs viability of B. breve in yoghurt during refrigerated storage.

  14. Effect of doping in carbon nanotubes on the viability of biomimetic chitosan-carbon nanotubes-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-García, Abril; Mota-Morales, Josué D; Quintero-Ortega, Iraís A; García-Carvajal, Zaira Y; Martínez-López, V; Ruvalcaba, Erika; Landa-Solís, Carlos; Solis, Lilia; Ibarra, Clemente; Gutiérrez, María C; Terrones, Mauricio; Sanchez, Isaac C; del Monte, Francisco; Velasquillo, María C; Luna-Bárcenas, G

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of biomimetic chitosan/multiwall carbon nanotubes/nano-hydroxyapatite (CTS/MWCNT/nHAp) scaffolds and their viability for bone tissue engineering applications. The cryogenic process ice segregation-induced self-assembly (ISISA) was used to fabricate 3D biomimetic CTS scaffolds. Proper combination of cryogenics, freeze-drying, nature and molecular ratio of solutes give rise to 3D porous interconnected scaffolds with clusters of nHAp distributed along the scaffold surface. The effect of doping in CNT (e.g. with oxygen and nitrogen atoms) on cell viability was tested. Under the same processing conditions, pore size was in the range of 20-150 μm and irrespective on the type of CNT. Studies on cell viability with scaffolds were carried out using human cells from periosteum biopsy. Prior to cell seeding, the immunophenotype of mesenchymal periosteum or periosteum-derived stem cells (MSCs-PCs) was characterized by flow cytometric analysis using fluorescence-activated and characteristic cell surface markers for MSCs-PCs. The characterized MSCs-PCs maintained their periosteal potential in cell cultures until the 2nd passage from primary cell culture. Thus, the biomimetic CTS/MWCNT/nHAp scaffolds demonstrated good biocompatibility and cell viability in all cases such that it can be considered as promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23894015

  15. Relative shortening and functional tethering of spinal cord in adolescent scoliosis - Result of asynchronous neuro-osseous growth, summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE.

    PubMed

    Chu, Winnie Cw; Lam, Wynnie Mw; Ng, Bobby Kw; Tze-Ping, Lam; Lee, Kwong-Man; Guo, Xia; Cheng, Jack Cy; Burwell, R Geoffrey; Dangerfield, Peter H; Jaspan, Tim

    2008-01-01

    There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE) introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has been designated as an on-line Delphi discussion. The Statement for this debate was written by Dr WCW Chu and colleagues who examine the spinal cord to vertebral growth interaction during adolescence in scoliosis. Using the multi-planar reconstruction technique of magnetic resonance imaging they investigated the relative length of spinal cord to vertebral column including ratios in 28 girls with AIS (mainly thoracic or double major curves) and 14 age-matched normal girls. Also evaluated were cerebellar tonsillar position, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), and clinical neurological examination. In severe AIS compared with normal controls, the vertebral column is significantly longer without detectable spinal cord lengthening. They speculate that anterior spinal column overgrowth relative to a normal length spinal cord exerts a stretching tethering force between the two ends, cranially and caudally leading to the initiation and progression of thoracic AIS. They support and develop the Roth-Porter concept of uncoupled neuro-osseous growth in the pathogenesis of AIS which now they prefer to term 'asynchronous neuro-osseous growth'. Morphological evidence about the curve apex suggests that the spinal cord is also affected, and a 'double pathology' is suggested. AIS is viewed as a disorder with a wide spectrum and a common neuroanatomical abnormality namely, a spinal cord of normal length but short relative to an abnormally lengthened anterior vertebral column. Neuroanatomical changes and/or abnormal neural function may be expressed only in severe cases. This asynchronous neuro-osseous growth concept is regarded as

  16. [Discordant pattern, visual identification of myocardial viability with PET].

    PubMed

    Alexánderson, E; Ricalde, A; Zerón, J; Talayero, J A; Cruz, P; Adame, G; Mendoza, G; Meave, A

    2006-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) as a non-invasive imaging method for studying cardiac perfusion and metabolism has turned into the gold standard for detecting myocardial viability. The utilization of 18 FDG as a tracer for its identification permits to spot the use of exogenous glucose by the myocardium segments. By studying and comparing viability and perfusion results, for which the latter uses tracers such as 13N-ammonia, three different patterns for myocardial viability evaluation arise:. transmural concordant pattern, non-transmural concordant pattern, and the discordant pattern; the last one exemplifies the hibernating myocardium and proves the presence of myocardial viability. The importance of its detection is fundamental for the study of an ischemic patient, since it permits the establishment of and exact diagnosis, prognosis, and the best treatment option. It also allows foreseeing functional recovery of the affected region as well as the ejection fraction rate after revascularization treatment if this is determined as necessary. All these elements regarding viability are determinant in order to reduce adverse events and help improving patients' prognosis. PMID:17315610

  17. Keys to Maintaining a Good Banking Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Suggests strategies for finding an appropriate bank for a day care center, maintaining a good relationship with a bank once one has been selected, and obtaining and repaying a day care center loan. (SKC)

  18. Sources and Information: Maintaining Institutional Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jim; Zwemer, Diane

    1985-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of ERIC materials dealing with the community college mission, educational quality, maintaining an effective faculty, effects and management of retrenchment, and the state role in community college education. (LAL)

  19. Ecology: Tribal Warfare Maintains Microbial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Greig, Duncan; Goddard, Matthew

    2015-07-20

    When two tribes of Myxococcus bacteria attack each other, the most numerous usually wins. Established colonies can therefore resist invaders by outnumbering them. This shows how positive frequency dependence can maintain diversity across spatially structured environments. PMID:26196492

  20. Ecology: Tribal Warfare Maintains Microbial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Greig, Duncan; Goddard, Matthew

    2015-07-20

    When two tribes of Myxococcus bacteria attack each other, the most numerous usually wins. Established colonies can therefore resist invaders by outnumbering them. This shows how positive frequency dependence can maintain diversity across spatially structured environments.

  1. Older Runners Can Maintain Their 'Fuel Efficiency'

    MedlinePlus

    ... of oxygen consumption is what researchers call "running economy." They found that even though the gait of ... still maintain youthful energy levels, or good running economy, while exercising. "There's good evidence that it's never ...

  2. Influence of Waveform on Cell Viability during Ultrasound Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliev, Timur; Feril, Loreto B.; McLean, Donald A.; Tachibana, Katsuro; Campbell, Paul A.

    2011-09-01

    We examined the role of ultrasound standing waves, and their travelling wave counterparts, on cell viability in an in-vitro insonation apparatus. Furthermore, the effect of distinct waveforms (sine and top-hat) was also explored, together with the role of microbubble presence. Measurements of cell viability in standing wave scenarios demonstrated a relatively higher rate of lysis (63.13±10.89% remaining viable) compared with the travelling wave data, where 96.22±4.0% remained viable. Significant differences were also seen as a function of waveform, where insonations employing top-hat wave shapes resulted in an average end stage viability of 30.31±5.71% compared with 61.94±14.28% in the sinusoidal counterparts.

  3. Multimodality imaging in the assessment of myocardial viability

    PubMed Central

    Partington, Sara L.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure due to coronary artery disease continues to increase, and it portends a worse prognosis than non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Revascularization improves prognosis in these high-risk patients who have evidence of viability; therefore, optimal assessment of myocardial viability remains essential. Multiple imaging modalities exist for differentiating viable myocardium from scar in territories with contractile dysfunction. Given the multiple modalities available, choosing the best modality for a specific patient can be a daunting task. In this review, the physiology of myocardial hibernation and stunning will be reviewed. All the current methods available for assessing viability including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging with single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography imaging and cardiac computed tomography will be reviewed. The effectiveness of the various techniques will be compared, and the limitations of the current literature will be discussed. PMID:21069458

  4. Micro-organism and cell viability on antimicrobially modified titanium.

    PubMed

    Omori, S; Shibata, Y; Arimoto, T; Igarashi, T; Baba, K; Miyazaki, T

    2009-10-01

    When titanium is anodized by discharge in NaCl solution, both antimicrobial activity and osteoconductivity are conferred. The viability of adherent micro-organisms and cells on antimicrobial titanium remains uncertain. We hypothesized that a thin peroxidation barrier would efficiently destroy adherent bacteria, whereas adherent osteoblastic cells would be viable, since these cells adhere to the surface indirectly though serum proteins. The efficacy of antimicrobial titanium appears to be based on peroxidation, since peroxidation products were detected in parallel with the destruction of bacterial cell-surface structures. The peroxidation effect of antimicrobial titanium was confined to the surface within narrow limits. The viability of osteoblastic cells on the surface was strongly dependent on the presence of serum protein, whereas that of adherent Streptococcus mutans was not affected by the presence of serum proteins. Therefore, differences in the adherent systems used by bacteria and osteoblastic cells are important determinants of their viability on antimicrobial titanium.

  5. Dead or Alive: Molecular Assessment of Microbial Viability

    PubMed Central

    Meschke, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based analytical methods, ranging from species-targeted PCRs to metagenomics, have greatly expanded our understanding of microbiological diversity in natural samples. However, these methods provide only limited information on the activities and physiological states of microorganisms in samples. Even the most fundamental physiological state, viability, cannot be assessed cross-sectionally by standard DNA-targeted methods such as PCR. New PCR-based strategies, collectively called molecular viability analyses, have been developed that differentiate nucleic acids associated with viable cells from those associated with inactivated cells. In order to maximize the utility of these methods and to correctly interpret results, it is necessary to consider the physiological diversity of life and death in the microbial world. This article reviews molecular viability analysis in that context and discusses future opportunities for these strategies in genetic, metagenomic, and single-cell microbiology. PMID:25038100

  6. Viability and growth of clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Flournoy, D J; Jones, J B

    1985-08-01

    Studies were done on clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae to investigate viability and determine the effects of disc-agar diffusion (DAD) medium modification on antimicrobial susceptibility results. Most isolates were viable for two days in distilled water, up to a week on chocolate agar and months when frozen in skim milk at -70 degrees C. Differences in viability were not related to biotype, serotype, beta-lactamase production or site of isolation of isolates. Several medium modifications resulted in better growth of isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by DAD, but the zone sizes of inhibition differed from those of the recommended medium.

  7. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  8. Aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for viruses.

    PubMed

    Labib, Mahmoud; Zamay, Anna S; Muharemagic, Darija; Chechik, Alexey V; Bell, John C; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2012-02-21

    The development of aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for viruses (AptaVISens-V) is presented. Highly specific DNA aptamers to intact vaccinia virus were selected using cell-SELEX technique and integrated into impedimetric sensors via self-assembly onto a gold microelectrode. Remarkably, this aptasensor is highly selective and can successfully detect viable vaccinia virus particles (down to 60 virions in a microliter) and distinguish them from nonviable viruses in a label-free electrochemical assay format. It also opens a new venue for the development of a variety of viability sensors for detection of many microorganisms and spores.

  9. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-01-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis. PMID:27255403

  10. The Effect of Tuning Cold Plasma Composition on Glioblastoma Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term “plasma dosage” to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability. PMID:24878760

  11. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay; Reddy, Y. G.; Mittal, Rakesh; Agarwal, Vishal; Singh, Chanchal; Singh, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media. Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control); Group II: aloe vera (experimental); Group III: egg white (experimental)]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated. Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0), followed by egg white (100.9±6.3) and milk (101.1±7.3). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk. PMID:26877742

  12. Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Promotes Neuronal Viability and Activity of Hippocampal Neuronal Circuits In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Alcazar, Marta; Culley, Georgia; Lyckenvik, Tim; Mobarrez, Kristoffer; Bjorefeldt, Andreas; Wasling, Pontus; Seth, Henrik; Asztely, Frederik; Harrer, Andrea; Iglseder, Bernhard; Aigner, Ludwig; Hanse, Eric; Illes, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    For decades it has been hypothesized that molecules within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diffuse into the brain parenchyma and influence the function of neurons. However, the functional consequences of CSF on neuronal circuits are largely unexplored and unknown. A major reason for this is the absence of appropriate neuronal in vitro model systems, and it is uncertain if neurons cultured in pure CSF survive and preserve electrophysiological functionality in vitro. In this article, we present an approach to address how human CSF (hCSF) influences neuronal circuits in vitro. We validate our approach by comparing the morphology, viability, and electrophysiological function of single neurons and at the network level in rat organotypic slice and primary neuronal cultures cultivated either in hCSF or in defined standard culture media. Our results demonstrate that rodent hippocampal slices and primary neurons cultured in hCSF maintain neuronal morphology and preserve synaptic transmission. Importantly, we show that hCSF increases neuronal viability and the number of electrophysiologically active neurons in comparison to the culture media. In summary, our data indicate that hCSF represents a physiological environment for neurons in vitro and a superior culture condition compared to the defined standard media. Moreover, this experimental approach paves the way to assess the functional consequences of CSF on neuronal circuits as well as suggesting a novel strategy for central nervous system (CNS) disease modeling. PMID:26973467

  13. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-06-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis.

  14. In situ monitoring of surgical flap viability using THz imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Neha; Sung, Shijun; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the utility of reflective THz imaging to assess the viability of surgical flaps. Flap surgery is a technique where tissue is harvested from a donor site and moved to a recipient while keeping the blood supply intact. This technique is common in head and neck tumor resection surgery where the reconstruction of complex and sensitive anatomic structures is routine following the resection of large and/or invasive tumors. Successful flap surgery results in tissue that is sufficiently perfused with both blood and extracellular water. If insufficient fluid levels are maintained, the flap tissue becomes necrotic and must be excised immediately to prevent infection developing and spreading to the surrounding areas. The goal of this work is to investigate the hydration of surgical flaps and correlate image features to successful graft outcomes. Advancement flaps were created on the abdomens of rat models. One rat model was labeled control and care was taken to ensure a successful flap outcome. The flap on the second rat was compromised with restricted blood flow and allowed to fail. The flaps of both rats were imaged once a day over the course of a week at which point the compromised flap had begun to show signs of necrosis. Significant differences in tissue water content were observed between rats over the experimental period. The results suggest that THz imaging may enable early assessment of flap viability.

  15. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-01-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm(2)), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis. PMID:27255403

  16. Preservation of Rhizobium viability and symbiotic infectivity by suspension in water

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, D.K.; Wyza, R.E.; Mills, K.K.; Bauer, W.D.; Evans, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Three Rhizobium japonicum strains and two slow-growing cowpea-type Rhizobium strains were found to remain viable and able to rapidly nodulate their respective hosts after being stored in purified water at ambient temperatures for periods of 1 year and longer. Three fast-growing Rhizobium species did not remain viable under the same water storage conditions. After dilution of slow-growing Rhizobium strains with water to 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/ cells ml/sup -1/, the bacteria multiplied until the viable cell count reached levels of between 10/sub 6/ and 10/sup 7/ cells ml/sup -1/. The viable cell count subsequently remained fairly constant. When the rhizobia were diluted to 10/sup 7/ cells ml/sup -1/, they did not multiply, but full viability was maintained. If the rhizobia were washed and suspended at 10/sup 9/ cells ml/sup -1/, viability slowly declined to 10/sup 7/ cells ml/sup -1/ during 9 months of storage. Scanning electron microscopy showed that no major morphological changes took place during storage. Preservation of slow-growing rhizobia in water suspensions could provide a simple and inexpensive alternative to current methods for the preservation of rhizobia for legume inoculation. 25 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Dendrimer mediated clustering of bacteria: improved aggregation and evaluation of bacterial response and viability.

    PubMed

    Leire, Emma; Amaral, Sandra P; Louzao, Iria; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron; Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco

    2016-06-24

    Here, we evaluate how cationic gallic acid-triethylene glycol (GATG) dendrimers interact with bacteria and their potential to develop new antimicrobials. We demonstrate that GATG dendrimers functionalised with primary amines in their periphery can induce the formation of clusters in Vibrio harveyi, an opportunistic marine pathogen, in a generation dependent manner. Moreover, these cationic GATG dendrimers demonstrate an improved ability to induce cluster formation when compared to poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide) [p(DMAPMAm)], a cationic linear polymer previously shown to cluster bacteria. Viability of the bacteria within the formed clusters and evaluation of quorum sensing controlled phenotypes (i.e. light production in V. harveyi) suggest that GATG dendrimers may be activating microbial responses by maintaining a high concentration of quorum sensing signals inside the clusters while increasing permeability of the microbial outer membranes. Thus, the reported GATG dendrimers constitute a valuable platform for the development of novel antimicrobial materials that can target microbial viability and/or virulence. PMID:27127812

  18. Seed Aging: Chromosome Stability and Extended Viability of Seeds Stored Fully Imbided 1

    PubMed Central

    Villiers, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    Increase in moisture content of seeds of Lactuca sativa L. and Fraxinus americana L. in air-dry storage caused a rapid decline in longevity and an increase in the rate of accumulation of chromosome aberrations. Storage of seeds fully imbibed but unable to germinate allowed a high germination capacity to be maintained for long periods, together with a very low incidence of chromosome aberrations. Seedlings grown from dry-stored seeds showed an increase in morphological abnormalities with length of storage, whereas seedlings from imbibed-stored seeds appeared normal. It is suggested that in dry tissues, enzyme-controlled turnover and repair may be temporarily suspended, and that this may be an important factor in the loss of seed viability in storage. The effect of increasing seed longevity by lowering the moisture content of dry-stored seeds is discussed in relation to this hypothesis. The relevance of the proposal is also discussed in relation to ecological studies. Images PMID:16658808

  19. Impact of proliferation strategies on food web viability in a model with closed nutrient cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwabiński, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    A food web model with a closed nutrient cycle is presented and analyzed via Monte Carlo simulations. The model consists of three trophic levels, each of which is populated by animals of one distinct species. While the species at the intermediate level feeds on the basal species, and is eaten by the predators living at the highest level, the basal species itself uses the detritus of animals from higher levels as the food resource. The individual organisms remain localized, but the species can invade new lattice areas via proliferation. The impact of different proliferation strategies on the viability of the system is investigated. From the phase diagrams generated in the simulations it follows that in general a strategy with the intermediate level species searching for food is the best for the survival of the system. The results indicate that both the intermediate and top level species play a critical role in maintaining the structure of the system.

  20. Viability of human composite tissue model for experimental study of burns.

    PubMed

    Qu, Miao; Kruse, Stephan; Pitsch, Heinz; Pallua, Norbert; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies of burns are primarily performed with animal models that have important anatomical and physiological differences relative to human systems. The aim of this study was to develop a human experimental burn model using composite tissue obtained from bariatric surgery. We established a new protocol to maintain viable sections of human cutaneous and subcutaneous (sub/cutaneous) tissue in vitro. Under the conditions selected, multiparametric flow cytometry and histological analysis confirmed the viability and integrity of the human sub/cutaneous tissue for at least 5 days. Furthermore, we utilized a precision McKenna burner to inflict burns on the human tissue model under well-defined thermal conditions in vitro. Our data showed a localized, temporally restricted polarization of the resident macrophages in the subcutaneous human tissue in response to specific thermal forces. Therefore, our model provides a useful alternative to animal studies for further detailed investigations of human responses to injuries and treatments. PMID:27585227

  1. Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Iain; Chiu, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to…

  2. Proving the Viability of a School Choice Voucher. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A recent Pioneer Institute report written by Ken Ardon and Cara Stilling Candal, "Modeling Urban Scholarship Vouchers in Massachusetts," explores the viability of a school choice voucher program in the Commonwealth. Nationally, school choice has been shown to improve parent satisfaction and student achievement, reduce racial segregation,…

  3. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  4. Developing a Predictive Metric to Assess School Viability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, John T.; Tichy, Karen L.; Collins, Alan; Schwob, John

    2008-01-01

    This article examines a wide range of parish school indicators that can be used to predict long-term viability. The study reported in this article explored the relationship between demographic variables, financial variables, and parish grade school closures in the Archdiocese of Saint Louis. Specifically, this study investigated whether…

  5. Metam sodium reduces viability and infectivity of Eimeria oocysts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metam sodium (MS, sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) is a widely used soil pesticide. Fumigation or chemical sterilization of poultry litter containing infectious oocysts could be an effective strategy to block the transmission of avian coccidia. In the current study the effect of MS on the viability ...

  6. Proof of Economic Viability of Blended Learning Business Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druhmann, Carsten; Hohenberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on economically sustainable business models with respect to information technology is lacking in many aspects of proven approaches. In the following contribution the economic viability is valued based on a procedural model for design and evaluation of e-learning business models in the form of a case study. As a case study object a…

  7. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  8. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  9. Nuclear power options viability: Oak Ridge National Laboratory's study

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Seven criteria, augmented by desired characteristics, were established to assess the viability of nuclear reactors for the timeframe beginning at 2005 for the United States. Earlier nuclear power needs will be filled by LWRs. Several advanced concepts were selected, based on three ground rules, and assessed. It was concluded that there are several acceptable and viable concepts.

  10. Innovation in tissue viability documentation for acute services.

    PubMed

    Parnham, A

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses the developmental process, outcome and delivery of an innovative approach to standardising tissue viability documentation across two sites within Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, following the results of benchmarking pressure ulcer preventive care strategies and recommendations from pressure ulcer root cause analysis. It reflects upon the process, highlighting the lessons learnt.

  11. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  12. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  13. Effect of Lanthanide Complex Structure on Cell Viability and Association

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of hydrophobicity and charge on the cell viability and cell association of lanthanide metal complexes is presented. The terbium luminescent probes feature a macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylate ligand (DOTA) in which the hydrophobicity of the antenna and that of the carboxyamide pendant arms are independently varied. Three sensitizing antennas were investigated in terms of their function in vitro: 2-methoxyisophthalamide (IAM(OMe)), 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM), and 6-methylphenanthridine (Phen). Of these complexes, Tb-DOTA-IAM exhibited the highest quantum yield, although the higher cell viability and more facile synthesis of the structurally related Tb-DOTA-IAM(OMe) platform renders it more attractive. Further modification of this latter core structure with carboxyamide arms featuring hydrophobic benzyl, hexyl, and trifluoro groups as well as hydrophilic amino acid based moieties generated a family of complexes that exhibit high cell viability (ED50 > 300 μM) regardless of the lipophilicity or the overall complex charge. Only the hexyl-substituted complex reduced cell viability to 60% in the presence of 100 μM complex. Additionally, cellular association was investigated by ICP-MS and fluorescence microscopy. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic moieties did not increase cell association in comparison to the hydrophilic amino acid derivatives. It is thus postulated that the hydrophilic nature of the 2-methoxyisophthalamide antenna (IAM(OMe)) disfavors the cellular association of these complexes. As such, responsive luminescent probes based on this scaffold would be appropriate for the detection of extracellular species. PMID:24901440

  14. Bacterial plasmolysis as a physical indicator of viability.

    PubMed

    Korber, D R; Choi, A; Wolfaardt, G M; Caldwell, D E

    1996-11-01

    Bacterial plasmolytic response to osmotic stress was evaluated as a physical indicator of membrane integrity and hence cellular viability. Digital image analysis and either low-magnification dark-field, high-magnification phase-contrast, or confocal laser microscopy, in conjunction with pulse application of a 1.5 M NaCl solution, were used as a rapid, growth-independent method for quantifying the viability of attached biofilm bacteria. Bacteria were considered viable if they were capable of plasmolysis, as quantified by changes in cell area or light scattering. When viable Salmonella enteritidis biofilm cells were exposed to 1.5 M NaCl, an approximately 50% reduction in cell protoplast area (as determined by high-magnification phase-contrast microscopy) was observed. In contrast, heat- and formalin-killed S. enteritidis cells were unresponsive to NaCl treatment. Furthermore, the mean dark-field cell area of a viable, sessile population of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells (approximately 1,100 cells) increased by 50% as a result of salt stress, from 1,035 +/- 162 to 1,588 +/- 284 microns2, because of increased light scattering of the condensed, plasmolyzed cell protoplast. Light scattering of ethanol-killed control biofilm cells underwent little change following salt stress. When the results obtained with scanning confocal laser microscopy and a fluorescent viability probe were compared with the accuracy of plasmolysis as a viability indicator, it was found that the two methods were in close agreement. Used alone or in conjunction with fluorochemical probes, physical indicators of membrane integrity provided a rapid, direct, growth-independent method for determining the viability of biofilm bacteria known to undergo plasmolysis, and this method may have value during efficacy testing of biocides and other antimicrobial agents when nondestructive time course analyses are required.

  15. Bacterial plasmolysis as a physical indicator of viability

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, D.R.; Choi, A.; Wolfaardt, G.M.; Caldwell, D.E.

    1996-11-01

    Bacterial plasmolytic response to osmotic stress was evaluated as a physical indicator of membrane integrity and hence cellular viability. Digital image analysis and either low-magnification dark-field, high-magnification phase-contrast, or confocal laser microscopy, in conjunction with pulse application of a 1.5 NaCl solution, were used as a rapid, growth-independent method for quantifying the viability of attached biofilm bacteria. Bacteria were considered viable if they were capable of plasmolysis, as quantified by changes in cell area or light scattering. When viable Salmonella enteritidis biofilm cells were exposed to 1.5 M NaCl, and {approximately}50% reduction in cell protoplast area (as determined by high-magnification phase-contrast microscopy) was observed. In contrast, heat- and formalin-killed S. enteritidis cells were unresponsive to NaCl treatment. Furthermore, the mean dark-field cell area of a viable, sessile population of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells ({approximately}1,100 cells) increased by 50% as a result of salt stress, from 1,035 {+-} 162 to 1,588 {+-} 284 {mu}m{sup 2}, because of increased light scattering of the condensed, plasmolyzed cell protoplast. Light scattering of ethanol-killed control biofilm cells underwent little change following salt stress. When the results obtained with scanning confocal laser microscopy and a fluorescent viability probe were compared with the accuracy of plasmolysis as a viability indicator, it was found that the two methods were in close agreement. Used alone or in conjunction with fluorochemical probes, physical indicators of membrane integrity provided a rapid, direct, growth-independent method for determining the viability of biofilm bacteria known to undergo plasmolysis, and this method may have value during efficacy testing of biocides and other antimicrobial agents when nondestructive time course analyses and required. 42 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  17. The effect of phosphate based glasses on the formation and viability of oral bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, April Miranda

    glasses investigated exhibited some ability to reduce the viability of oral bacterial biofilms, silver glasses proving more effective, although they did not manage to maintain viable counts at the low levels initially observed.

  18. Increase in Periodontal Interleukin-1β Gene Expression Following Osseous Resective Surgery Using Conventional Rotary Instruments Compared with Piezosurgery: A Split-Mouth Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Aimetti, Mario; Ferrarotti, Francesco; Bergandi, Loredana; Saksing, Laura; Parducci, Francesca; Romano, Federica

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early inflammatory response following osseous resective surgery (ORS) with Piezosurgery compared to commonly used diamond burs. A sample was selected of 24 bilateral posterior sextants requiring ORS in 12 chronic periodontitis patients in a split-mouth design. In 12 sextants, bone recontouring was performed using a piezoelectric device. In the contralateral sextants, rotary instruments were used. Sextants treated with Piezosurgery obtained similar 12-month clinical results but lower postsurgical gene expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a well-known proinflammatory cytokine, and lower patient morbidity compared with sextants treated with rotary instruments. In spite of the longer surgical time, the use of Piezosurgery for ORS seems to promote more favorable wound healing compared with rotary instruments, as the lower pain and the low levels of IL-1β mRNA at the surgical sites suggest a milder underlying inflammatory response. PMID:27333006

  19. The Custom Endosteal Implant: histology and case report of a retrieved maxillary custom osseous-integrated implant nine years in service.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, William D; Krutchkoff, David J

    2014-04-01

    The Custom Endosteal Implant (CEI) is a custom-cast osseo-integrated implant that has evolved to replace the "old" fibro-integrated subperiosteal variant. This newly developed implant achieves osseous integration by utilizing a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating, and a specialized grafting technique that produces much improved success rates relative to its fibro-integrated subperiosteal predecessor. This case reported here represents a maxillary CEI implant that was placed and in functional service for 9 years before being retrieved and processed for histologic examination subsequent to the patient's demise. In addition, due to infection that occurred shortly after placement, an early provisional procedure with fluoridated HA was also performed. Histologic analysis of the postmortem specimen revealed a fully integrated new bone formation intimately surrounding the previously dehisced implant strut. The latter had previously been decontaminated and grafted with a thin layer of fluorapatite (FA) material. Results including histologic analysis confirmed complete osseo-integration of the implant following successful FA graft revision.

  20. Solitary Painful Osseous Metastases: Correlation of Imaging Features with Pain Palliation after Radiofrequency Ablation—A Multicenter American College of Radiology Imaging Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Guenette, Jeffrey P.; Lopez, Michael J.; Kim, Eunhee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the correlation of pre- and postablation imaging features with pain relief, pain intensity, and patient mood after radiofrequency (RF) ablation of solitary painful osseous metastases. Materials and Methods: This prospective, multicenter group trial was approved by each institutional review board. Participants were enrolled between November 1, 2001, and April 6, 2006. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects, and patient confidentiality protocols were followed in compliance with HIPAA. Computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation and contrast material–enhanced 1-month follow-up CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging were performed in 49 subjects (24 men, 25 women; age range, 34–83 years) with a confirmed malignant solitary bone lesion of maximum dimension of 8 cm or smaller that was causing intractable pain. Pain intensity and patient mood were measured before and after RF ablation. Tumor imaging features were recorded. Unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed-effects models, with a random intercept for each subject, were used to model patient mood, pain relief, and pain intensity scores at three times after ablation as a function of each tumor characteristic. Results: Decreased postablation tumor pain correlated with preablation tumor volume (P = .02) and pathologic fracture (P = .01), while pain relief correlated with pathologic fracture (P = .03) and percentage of bone-tumor interface (BTI) ablated (P = .02). Conversely, presence of an irregular rim after ablation (P = .02) and rim thickness (P = .01) correlated with increased pain. There was no evidence in this study that RF ablation of larger tumor percentage or larger volume leads to better pain relief or decreased pain (P > .05). Conclusion: Existing pathologic fracture and smaller tumor size appear to be predictive parameters of success when selecting patients for palliative RF ablation of painful solitary osseous metastases. Successful palliation also appears to be related

  1. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  2. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  3. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  4. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  5. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  6. Pedagogical Practices: Nurturing and Maintaining Democratic Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubler-Larimore, Lucretia Marie

    2011-01-01

    This case study examined the pedagogical practices of four teachers of one public elementary school whose mission seeks to nurture and maintain democratic habits for participation in a democratic society. Historically, public schools have been charged with the duty of preparing young minds to live within in a democratic society and as such this…

  7. Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

  8. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  9. Maintaining Effective Classroom Control in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E., Ed.; McCracken, J. David

    This handbook is designed to assist vocational teachers in maintaining effective classroom and laboratory control. Following an introduction to the topic, the importance of effective control and teacher attitude are overviewed. The third section offers definitions of discipline and "in loco parentis", a perspective on discipline, and reasons for…

  10. Maintaining standards of primary care in America

    PubMed Central

    Snider, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of present day attitudes toward maintaining standards of medical care in the United States is described, and the main methods identified. Their influence on current practice is discussed, and application made to the promotion of high standards of care in British general practice. PMID:317108

  11. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  12. Control system maintains selected liquid level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeson, R. L.; Schuck, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Single-sensor control system maintains liquid hydrogen at a preselected desired level within a tank, regardless of boiloff. It calibrates output in percentage. Thus, when the fuel is at the desired level, the system output will indicate 100 percent regardless of what percent of tank capacity the fuel has reached.

  13. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  14. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  15. How to Maintain a Social Reinforcement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkin, Ronald; And Others

    This manual presents methodology for maintaining a social reinforcement system after supervisors in industrial environments have been trained in behavior modification theory and application. The maintenance manual discusses monitoring, evaluation, and integration of a company's employee performance system with the social reinforcement system…

  16. Using genomic tools to maintain diversity and fitness in conservation programmes.

    PubMed

    de Cara, María Ángeles Rodríguez; Villanueva, Beatriz; Toro, Miguel Ángel; Fernández, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Conservation programmes aim at maximizing the survival probability of populations, by minimizing the loss of genetic diversity, which allows populations to adapt to changes, and controlling inbreeding increases. The best known strategy to achieve these goals is optimizing the contributions of the parents to minimize global coancestry in their offspring. Results on neutral scenarios showed that management based on molecular coancestry could maintain more diversity than management based on genealogical coancestry when a large number of markers were available. However, if the population has deleterious mutations, managing using optimal contributions can lead to a decrease in fitness, especially using molecular coancestry, because both beneficial and harmful alleles are maintained, compromising the long-term viability of the population. We introduce here two strategies to avoid this problem: The first one uses molecular coancestry calculated removing markers with low minor allele frequencies, as they could be linked to selected loci. The second one uses a coancestry based on segments of identity by descent, which measures the proportion of genome segments shared by two individuals because of a common ancestor. We compare these strategies under two contrasting mutational models of fitness effects, one assuming many mutations of small effect and another with few mutations of large effect. Using markers at intermediate frequencies maintains a larger fitness than using all markers, but leads to maintaining less diversity. Using the segment-based coancestry provides a compromise solution between maintaining diversity and fitness, especially when the population has some inbreeding load.

  17. Fetal viability as a threshold to personhood. A legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Peterfy, A

    1995-12-01

    This essay opens with an examination of US laws concerning fetal viability as they apply to induced abortion, to a mother's right to refuse medical treatment necessary to save the life of a fetus, and to the rights to file suit for the wrongful death of unborn children. The history of abortion policies in the US is traced from the common law period of the early 19th century to the restrictive post-Civil War laws and the decisions of the Supreme Court in Roe vs. Wade, which upheld the constitutionality of previability abortions; Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services, in which the Court assigned viability to the 20th week of pregnancy and acknowledged that States could have a compelling previability interest in the fetus; and the Casey decision, which provided tolerance for limits on the availability of abortion before viability as long as the limits did not create an "undue burden" on the woman seeking the abortion. Courts dealing with the issue of compelling a mother to undergo medical treatment to save her fetus have been inconsistent as they balanced the state's interest in the fetus against the mother's rights to privacy. Judges have tended to err on the side of forcing the medical interventions, but the most recent trend is against this sort of judgement. In these cases, fetal viability has also served as a dividing line. The inconsistency of the legal system is illustrated by the fact that, whereas the fetus now has a legal existence, wrongful death actions entered on behalf of a nonviable fetus have often been denied although courts have been more willing to extend protection to fetuses in wrongful death tort cases than in abortion or medical intervention cases. Criminal law has a unique set of rules for dealing with fetuses as some states have broadened their definitions of "homicide" to include fetuses, even nonviable fetuses. Courts, however, are reluctant to enlarge criminal statutes on their own. While the central position given to the role of

  18. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  19. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  20. A synthetic biochemistry molecular purge valve module that maintains redox balance.

    PubMed

    Opgenorth, Paul H; Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

    2014-01-01

    The greatest potential environmental benefit of metabolic engineering would be the production of high-volume commodity chemicals, such as biofuels. Yet, the high yields required for the economic viability of low-value chemicals is particularly hard to achieve in microbes owing to the myriad competing biochemical pathways. An alternative approach, which we call synthetic biochemistry, is to eliminate the organism by constructing biochemical pathways in vitro. Viable synthetic biochemistry, however, will require simple methods to replace the cellular circuitry that maintains cofactor balance. Here we design a simple purge valve module for maintaining NADP(+)/NADPH balance. We test the purge valve in the production of polyhydroxybutyryl bioplastic and isoprene--pathways where cofactor generation and utilization are unbalanced. We find that the regulatory system is highly robust to variations in cofactor levels and readily transportable. The molecular purge valve provides a step towards developing continuously operating, sustainable synthetic biochemistry systems.

  1. A synthetic biochemistry molecular purge valve module that maintains redox balance.

    PubMed

    Opgenorth, Paul H; Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

    2014-01-01

    The greatest potential environmental benefit of metabolic engineering would be the production of high-volume commodity chemicals, such as biofuels. Yet, the high yields required for the economic viability of low-value chemicals is particularly hard to achieve in microbes owing to the myriad competing biochemical pathways. An alternative approach, which we call synthetic biochemistry, is to eliminate the organism by constructing biochemical pathways in vitro. Viable synthetic biochemistry, however, will require simple methods to replace the cellular circuitry that maintains cofactor balance. Here we design a simple purge valve module for maintaining NADP(+)/NADPH balance. We test the purge valve in the production of polyhydroxybutyryl bioplastic and isoprene--pathways where cofactor generation and utilization are unbalanced. We find that the regulatory system is highly robust to variations in cofactor levels and readily transportable. The molecular purge valve provides a step towards developing continuously operating, sustainable synthetic biochemistry systems. PMID:24936528

  2. Hybrid Viability and Fertility in Co-occuring Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, E.; Garcia, C.; Yost, J.

    2012-12-01

    Similar species of plants can co-exist due to reproductive barriers that keep them from hybridizing. In the case of Lasthenia gracilis and L. californica, certain reproductive barriers allow them to co-exist at Jasper Ridge without hybridization. The two species are locally adapted to different regions of the same hillside, and have slight differences in flowering time but hybrids can be created at low rate in the green house. We tested the viability and fertility of green house produced hybrids to quantify post-zygotic reproductive isolation at Jasper Ridge. We planted 10 hybrid seeds and 10 control seeds from 11 different families. We measured the percent germination, survival to flowering and pollen fertility of the seeds. We expect lower germination, lower survival to flowering, and lower pollen viability of hybrid seeds as compared to control seeds.

  3. Myocardial Viability: From Proof of Concept to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Timothy C.; Hsu, Chijen; Denniss, Alan Robert

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can arise from myocardial stunning, hibernation, or necrosis. Imaging modalities have become front-line methods in the assessment of viable myocardial tissue, with the aim to stratify patients into optimal treatment pathways. Initial studies, although favorable, lacked sufficient power and sample size to provide conclusive outcomes of viability assessment. Recent trials, including the STICH and HEART studies, have failed to confer prognostic benefits of revascularisation therapy over standard medical management in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In lieu of these recent findings, assessment of myocardial viability therefore should not be the sole factor for therapy choice. Optimization of medical therapy is paramount, and physicians should feel comfortable in deferring coronary revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease with reduced LV systolic function. Newer trials are currently underway and will hopefully provide a more complete understanding of the pathos and management of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:27313943

  4. Myocardial Viability: From Proof of Concept to Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Aditya; Gan, Gary C H; Tan, Timothy C; Hsu, Chijen; Denniss, Alan Robert

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can arise from myocardial stunning, hibernation, or necrosis. Imaging modalities have become front-line methods in the assessment of viable myocardial tissue, with the aim to stratify patients into optimal treatment pathways. Initial studies, although favorable, lacked sufficient power and sample size to provide conclusive outcomes of viability assessment. Recent trials, including the STICH and HEART studies, have failed to confer prognostic benefits of revascularisation therapy over standard medical management in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In lieu of these recent findings, assessment of myocardial viability therefore should not be the sole factor for therapy choice. Optimization of medical therapy is paramount, and physicians should feel comfortable in deferring coronary revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease with reduced LV systolic function. Newer trials are currently underway and will hopefully provide a more complete understanding of the pathos and management of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:27313943

  5. Viability of vector-tensor theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Maroto, Antonio L. E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es

    2009-02-15

    We present a detailed study of the viability of general vector-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of an arbitrary temporal background vector field. We find that there are six different classes of theories which are indistinguishable from General Relativity by means of local gravity experiments. We study the propagation speeds of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations and obtain the conditions for classical stability of those models. We compute the energy density of the different modes and find the conditions for the absence of ghosts in the quantum theory. We conclude that the only theories which can pass all the viability conditions for arbitrary values of the background vector field are not only those of the pure Maxwell type, but also Maxwell theories supplemented with a (Lorentz type) gauge fixing term.

  6. Improving the financial viability of primary care health centers.

    PubMed

    Finkler, S A; Knickman, J R; Hanson, K L

    1994-01-01

    This article presents findings from a national demonstration program to improve the long-term financial viability of small not-for-profit primary care health centers. The program initiatives and their implementation are described in some detail. A standard pre/post study design was used to measure the impact of the initiatives on general outcome measures, financial ratios, and the utilization of management techniques. Overall, demonstration centers showed improvement over the study period. Notable short-term improvements included significant growth in the volume of patient visits and increased profit. Observed changes also revealed an increased use of sophisticated management techniques, expected to positively affect longer-term financial health. The findings suggest that improving the financial viability of health centers need not be expensive.

  7. Managing Self-Governing Primary Schools in the Locally Maintained, Grant-Maintained and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Les; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study that surveyed heads of locally maintained, grant-maintained, and private sector (British) primary schools concerning their management styles. Questionnaire and interview data suggest that autonomous primary schools are characterized by collective decision making and high job satisfaction levels. Private sector school heads'…

  8. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  9. Viability and DNA fragmentation in differently sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    De Ambrogi, M; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C

    2006-11-01

    Sperm cell defense against DNA damage relies on two factors: the tight packaging of chromatin, based on condensation and substitution of histones with protamines, and the antioxidant agents present in seminal plasma. These defenses are extremely important as mature sperm is unable to repair DNA damage and even if a successful fertilization occurs, embryo undergoes apoptosis at the time of genomic activation. Sex-sorting exposes spermatozoa to stress sources such as high pressure, laser beam and electrical charge. The aim of this work was to determine how sorting procedures affect viability and DNA integrity in boar spermatozoa, by using the newly developed Sperm-Sus-Halomax. Four sperm populations were considered: CONTROL (no treatment), REAL (sex-sorted semen), BULK (semen sorted without sex separation) and NO LASER (semen only exposed to the high pressure, but including also cells normally discarded from sex-sorting). A significantly (P=0.019) lower viability in NO LASER (64.71%) than in CONTROL (78.6%) and REAL (80.5%) groups was found; this was accompanied by a significantly (P=0.001) higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in NO LASER group (6.86%) respect to CONTROL (3.30%) and REAL (3.42%) groups. BULK group did not show any difference in viability or DFI as compared to the other groups. In conclusion, we may believe that sex-sorting procedure as a whole does not affect either viability or DFI and that shear mechanical forces are a relevant source of DNA damage for sorted semen. PMID:16814375

  10. Cell viability analysis using trypan blue: manual and automated methods.

    PubMed

    Louis, Kristine S; Siegel, Andre C

    2011-01-01

    One of the traditional methods of cell viability analysis is the use of trypan blue dye exclusion staining. This technique has been the standard methodology used in academic research laboratories and industrial biotechnology plants. Cells were routinely counted manually with a hemocytometer. In recent years, modern automated instrumentation has been introduced to supplement this traditional technique with the efficiency and reproducibility of computer control, advanced imaging, and automated sample handling.

  11. Assessing population viability while accounting for demographic and environmental uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Oppel, Steffen; Hilton, Geoff; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fenton, Calvin; Daley, James; Gray, Gerard; Vickery, Juliet; Gibbons, David

    2014-07-01

    Predicting the future trend and viability of populations is an essential task in ecology. Because many populations respond to changing environments, uncertainty surrounding environmental responses must be incorporated into population assessments. However, understanding the effects of environmental variation on population dynamics requires information on several important demographic parameters that are often difficult to estimate. Integrated population models facilitate the integration of time series data on population size and all existing demographic information from a species, allowing the estimation of demographic parameters for which limited or no empirical data exist. Although these models are ideal for assessments of population viability, they have so far not included environmental uncertainty. We incorporated environmental variation in an integrated population model to account for both demographic and environmental uncertainty in an assessment of population viability. In addition, we used this model to estimate true juvenile survival, an important demographic parameter for population dynamics that is difficult to estimate empirically. We applied this model to assess the past and future population trend of a rare island endemic songbird, the Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi, which is threatened by volcanic activity. Montserrat Orioles experienced lower survival in years with volcanic ashfall, causing periodic population declines that were compensated by higher seasonal fecundity in years with high pre-breeding season rainfall. Due to the inclusion of both demographic and environmental uncertainty in the model, the estimated population growth rate in the immediate future was highly imprecise (95% credible interval 0.844-1.105), and the probability of extinction after three generations (in the year 2028) was low (2.1%). This projection demonstrates that accounting for both demographic and environmental sources of uncertainty provides a more realistic assessment

  12. Establishing and maintaining a colony of planarians.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Néstor J; Nicolas, Cindy L; Adams, Dany S; Levin, Michael

    2008-10-01

    INTRODUCTIONTo provide sufficient material for experimentation, a laboratory needs to expand and maintain a colony of planarians. It is crucial to keep a stable, healthy population of animals in a consistent environment to avoid inter-animal variability and modifier effects that can mask true phenotypes from experimental perturbation. In this protocol, we describe basic procedures for establishing and maintaining healthy colonies of Dugesia japonica, Schmidtea mediterranea, and Girardia tigrina (commonly found in the wild and commercially available in the United States). Although the recommendations are based on our optimization of conditions for G. tigrina, many of the procedures (such as food preparation and feeding strategy) can be applied to other species. For best results, the culture water must be carefully monitored and adjusted for each species.

  13. Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya

    2013-08-01

    Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective. PMID:23986988

  14. Device Maintains Water At The Triple Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. W.; Burkett, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    Inexpensive device maintains water at 0.01 degree C for 10 weeks or longer. New device consists of four basic assemblies; small, commercial chest freezer containing insulated water tank; insulated copper cell holder; "ice switch" for cycling freezer compressor and externally-mounted air pump for circulation. Access hole in freezer lid allows triple point measurements without opening lid. Modified freezer used to calibrate standard platinum resistance thermomenters.

  15. Techniques to maintain functionality during degraded performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Joseph R.; White, Joshua S.

    2010-04-01

    In technology the notion of beyond state-of-the-art often begins when a paradigm is shifted. In this paper the authors present their work which has fundamentally enabled an enterprise to insure operational viability under the very real cyber facts: "we are under constant attack, it is a hostile space and we can control the point of contact." That point of contact is the optical bit stream which is currently beyond the scope of the standard cyber toolset. EverisTM, in working with our customers, has developed the tools to capture, view, analyze, and control the correlative (interdependent network, metadata, data and users) information as it traverses the core, regional, and global fiber optic networks. This capability to visualize below the operational picture afforded by current network intrusion detection systems can be combined with real-time intervention at the network core yielding prioritization, identification, and authentication of authentication. This directly translates into sophisticated end user interaction across the interdependencies often viewed as the "cloud". Everis has demonstrated unique applications based on this capability that includes mitigation of DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service), identification of "forged" IP (Internet Protocol) addresses, malicious executable destruction, WAN (Wide Area Network) IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) and connectionless routing vs. connection based switching.

  16. Formation of size-controllable spheroids using gingiva-derived stem cells and concave microwells: Morphology and viability tests

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SUNG-IL; YEO, SEONG-IL; KIM, BO-BAE; KO, YOUNGKYUNG; PARK, JUN-BEOM

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells have previously been isolated and characterized from the gingiva, and gingiva-derived stem cells have been applied for tissue engineering purposes. The present study was performed to generate size-controllable stem cell spheroids using concave microwells. Gingiva-derived stem cells were isolated, and the stem cells of 1×105 (group A) or 2×105 (group B) cells were seeded in polydimethylsiloxane-based, concave micromolds with 600 µm diameters. The morphology of the microspheres was viewed under an inverted microscope, and the changes in the diameter and cell viability were analyzed. The gingiva-derived stem cells formed spheroids in the concave microwells. The diameters of the spheroids were larger in group A compared to group B. No significant changes in shape or diameter were noted with increases in incubation time. Cell viability was higher in group B at each time point when compared with group A. Within the limits of the study, the size-controllable stem cell spheroids could be generated from gingival cells using microwells. The shape of the spheroids and their viability were clearly maintained during the experimental periods. PMID:26870343

  17. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, for aflatoxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L

    2015-05-01

    Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence. PMID:25700743

  18. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, for aflatoxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L

    2015-05-01

    Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence.

  19. Nuclear cardiac imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability

    PubMed Central

    Slart, R.H.J.A.; Bax, J.J.; van der Wall, E.E.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Jager, P.L.; Dierckx, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    An important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy is the assessment of myocardial viability. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischaemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularisation. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using 201thallium, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc- tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularisation. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, such as attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and noninvasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696432

  20. Enhancement of cell viability after treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bartl, J; Walitza, S; Grünblatt, E

    2014-01-24

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents and both environmental and genetic factors play major roles. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are postulated to contribute to the development of the infant brain and an imbalance in these may increase the risk of ADHD. In recent clinical studies, supplementation with PUFAs improved symptoms of ADHD in some cases. Similarly, some beneficial effects were observed with PUFA treatment in neuronal cell cultures. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a specific PUFA combination (available on the market as Equazen™ [Vifor Pharma, Switzerland]) along with iron, zinc, or vitamin B5 (vitB5) would produce an additive beneficial effect on the viability of rat pheochromocytoma-12 dopaminergic cells. The specific PUFA combination alone, as well as added to each of the three nutrients, was tested in a dose-response manner. The specific PUFAs significantly improved cell viability, starting at very low doses (100pM) from 60h up to 90h; while the combined treatment with vitB5 and minerals did not provide additional benefit. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the specific PUFAs on neuronal cell viability; although supplementation with minerals and vitB5 did not enhance this effect.

  1. Historical notes on immaturity. Part 1: measures of viability.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The interest in the limit of viability originated from various sources, including legal requirements, the rejection of mechnical life support, competition for resources, concerns about handicaps, and proximity to the fetus with its limited rights. Gestational age was determined from menstrual history by Hippocratic writers, who established the tenacious idea that 7-, but not 8-month infants could survive. Naegele's rule, already published by Boerhaave in 1744, was correct when applied to the last day of menstruation. Birth weight and length were not measured until the end of the 18(th) century. This remarkable disinterest resulted from superstition, grossly inaccurate measurements by the authorities Mauriceau and Smellie, and the conversion chaos of the pre-metric era. A table is provided with historic mass and length units allowing to determine birth weight and body length in the older literature. The idea of viability is a remnant of vitalism, a medical doctrine popularized in 1780 by Brown. Many short-lived statements defined its limit, but until now what was meant by viability remained nebulous.

  2. Metronidazole Decreases Viability of DLD-1 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sadowska, Anna; Krętowski, Rafał; Szynaka, Beata; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell (CRC) line. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. Cells were incubated with MTZ used in different concentrations for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The morphological changes in human DLD-1 cell line were defined by transmission electron microscope OPTON 900. The influence of MTZ on the apoptosis of DLD-1 cell lines was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while cell concentration, volume, and diameter were displayed by Scepter Cell Counter from Millipore. Our results show that cell viability was diminished in all experimental groups in comparison with the control, and the differences were statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in [3H]-thymidine incorporation in all experimental groups and times of observation. Cytofluorimetric assays demonstrated a statistically significant increase of apoptotic rate in MTZ concentrations 10 and 50 μg/mL after 24 hours; 0.1, 10, 50, and 250 μg/mL after 48 hours; and in all concentrations after 72 hours compared with control groups. In the ultrastructural studies, necrotic or apoptotic cells were occasionally seen. In conclusion, MTZ affects human CRC cell line viability. The reduction of cell viability was consistent with the apoptotic test. PMID:23777253

  3. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria.

  4. Thermal Pretreatment Improves Viability of Cryopreserved Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Nicola; Sun, Huan; Chatterjee, Anamika; Saha, Debapriya; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    A high survival rate of cryopreserved cells requires optimal cooling and thawing rates in the presence of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) or a combination of CPAs in adequate concentrations. One of the most widely used CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), however is toxic at high concentrations and has detrimental effects on cellular functions. Additional processing steps are necessary to remove the CPA after thawing, which make the process expensive and time consuming. Therefore it is of great interest to develop new cryoprotective strategies to replace the currently used CPAs or to reduce their concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate if thermal activation of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC ST-1.6R), prior to cryopreservation, could improve their post-thaw viability since the resulting heat shock protein expression acts as an intrinsic cellular protection mechanism. The results of this study suggest that both heat and cold shock pretreatments improve cryopreservation outcome of the HPMEC ST-1.6R cells. By re-cultivating cells after heat shock treatment before cryopreservation, a significant increase in cellular membrane integrity and adherence capacity could be achieved. However a combination of thermal activation and cryopreservation with alternative CPAs such as ectoine and L-proline could not further enhance the cell viability. The results of this study showed that pretreatment of endothelial cells with thermal activation could be used to reduce the Me2SO concentration required in order to preserve cell viability after cryopreservation. PMID:26419006

  5. Inhibiting ice recrystallization and optimization of cell viability after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Chaytor, Jennifer L; Tokarew, Jacqueline M; Wu, Luke K; Leclère, Mathieu; Tam, Roger Y; Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Guolla, Louise; von Moos, Elisabeth; Findlay, C Scott; Allan, David S; Ben, Robert N

    2012-01-01

    The ice recrystallization inhibition activity of various mono- and disaccharides has been correlated with their ability to cryopreserve human cell lines at various concentrations. Cell viabilities after cryopreservation were compared with control experiments where cells were cryopreserved with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The most potent inhibitors of ice recrystallization were 220 mM solutions of disaccharides; however, the best cell viability was obtained when a 200 mM d-galactose solution was utilized. This solution was minimally cytotoxic at physiological temperature and effectively preserved cells during freeze-thaw. In fact, this carbohydrate was just as effective as a 5% DMSO solution. Further studies indicated that the cryoprotective benefit of d-galactose was a result of its internalization and its ability to mitigate osmotic stress, prevent intracellular ice formation and/or inhibit ice recrystallization. This study supports the hypothesis that the ability of a cryoprotectant to inhibit ice recrystallization is an important property to enhance cell viability post-freeze-thaw. This cryoprotective benefit is observed in three different human cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the ability of a potential cryoprotectant to inhibit ice recrystallation may be used as a predictor of its ability to preserve cells at subzero temperatures.

  6. Thermal Pretreatment Improves Viability of Cryopreserved Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Nicola; Sun, Huan; Chatterjee, Anamika; Saha, Debapriya; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    A high survival rate of cryopreserved cells requires optimal cooling and thawing rates in the presence of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) or a combination of CPAs in adequate concentrations. One of the most widely used CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), however is toxic at high concentrations and has detrimental effects on cellular functions. Additional processing steps are necessary to remove the CPA after thawing, which make the process expensive and time consuming. Therefore it is of great interest to develop new cryoprotective strategies to replace the currently used CPAs or to reduce their concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate if thermal activation of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC ST-1.6R), prior to cryopreservation, could improve their post-thaw viability since the resulting heat shock protein expression acts as an intrinsic cellular protection mechanism. The results of this study suggest that both heat and cold shock pretreatments improve cryopreservation outcome of the HPMEC ST-1.6R cells. By re-cultivating cells after heat shock treatment before cryopreservation, a significant increase in cellular membrane integrity and adherence capacity could be achieved. However a combination of thermal activation and cryopreservation with alternative CPAs such as ectoine and L-proline could not further enhance the cell viability. The results of this study showed that pretreatment of endothelial cells with thermal activation could be used to reduce the Me2SO concentration required in order to preserve cell viability after cryopreservation.

  7. Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving.

    PubMed

    Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Shinar, David

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in maintaining alertness. The trivia AMT prevented driving performance deterioration, and increased alertness (measured by standardized HRV). The choice reaction time AMT was least demanding but also increased subjective sleepiness and reduced arousal (measured by alpha/beta ratio). The working memory AMT caused a significant decrement in driving speed, increased subjective fatigue, and was regarded by the participants as detrimental to driving. Trivia was preferred by the majority of the drivers over the other two AMTs. Experiment 2 further examined the utility of the trivia AMT. When the drivers engaged in the trivia AMT they maintained better driving performance and perceived the driving duration as shorter than the control condition. The two experiments demonstrated that AMTs can have a positive effect on alertness. The effect is localized in the sense that it does not persist beyond the period of the AMT activation.

  8. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  9. Therapeutic strategy for handling inherited retinal degenerations in a gene-independent manner using rod-derived cone viability factors.

    PubMed

    Léveillard, Thierry; Fridlich, Ram; Clérin, Emmanuelle; Aït-Ali, Najate; Millet-Puel, Géraldine; Jaillard, Céline; Yang, Ying; Zack, Donald; van-Dorsselaer, Alain; Sahel, José-Alain

    2014-03-01

    The most common hereditary retinal degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), leads to blindness by degeneration of cone photoreceptors. Meanwhile, genetic studies have shown that a significant proportion of RP genes is expressed only by rods, which raises the question of the mechanism leading to the degeneration of cones. Following the concept of sustainability factor cones, rods secrete survival factors that are necessary to maintain the cones, named Rod-derived Cone Viability Factors (RdCVFs). In patients suffering from RP, loss of rods results in the loss of RdCVFs expression and followed by cone degeneration. We have identified the bifunctional genes nucleoredoxin-like 1 and 2 that encode for, by differential splicing, a thioredoxin enzyme and a cone survival factor, respectively RdCVF and RdCVF2. The administration of these survival factors would maintain cones and central vision in most patients suffering from RP.

  10. Effect of low-level laser irradiation on proliferation and viability of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zaccara, Ivana Maria; Ginani, Fernanda; Mota-Filho, Haroldo Gurgel; Henriques, Águida Cristina Gomes; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão

    2015-12-01

    A positive effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the proliferation of some cell types has been observed, but little is known about its effect on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). The aim of this study was to identify the lowest energy density able to promote the proliferation of DPSCs and to maintain cell viability. Human DPSCs were isolated from two healthy third molars. In the third passage, the cells were irradiated or not (control) with an InGaAlP diode laser at 0 and 48 h using two different energy densities (0.5 and 1.0 J/cm²). Cell proliferation and viability and mitochondrial activity were evaluated at intervals of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the first laser application. Apoptosis- and cell cycle-related events were analyzed by flow cytometry. The group irradiated with an energy density of 1.0 J/cm² exhibited an increase of cell proliferation, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the control group at 72 and 96 h. No significant changes in cell viability were observed throughout the experiment. The distribution of cells in the cell cycle phases was consistent with proliferating cells in all three groups. We concluded that LLLI, particularly a dose of 1.0 J/cm², contributed to the growth of DPSCs and maintenance of its viability. This fact indicates this therapy to be an important future tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involving stem cells.

  11. Population viability impacts of habitat additions and subtractions: A simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species viability is influenced by the quality, quantity and configuration of habitat. For species at risk, a principal challenge is to identify landscape configurations that, if realized, would improve a population’s viability or restoration potential. Critical habitat patche...

  12. Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  13. Laboratory services: regaining and maintaining control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory staff, thereby safeguarding patient test results for their intended medical purpose. Design/methodology/approach - The authors address how quality can be maintained and if lost, how it can be regained. The methodology is based on the experience working in clinical laboratory diagnostics and is in accord with both international accreditation requirements and laboratory best practice guidelines. Findings - Monitoring test performance usually involves both prospective and retrospective IQC data analysis. The authors present a number of different approaches together with software tools currently available and emerging, that permit performance monitoring at the level of the individual analyser, across analysers and laboratories (networks). The authors make recommendations on the appropriate response to IQC rule warnings, failures and metrics that indicate analytical control loss, that either precludes further analysis, or signifies deteriorating performance and eventual unsuitability. The authors provide guidance on systematic troubleshooting, to identify undesirable performance and consider risk assessment preventive measures and continuous quality improvement initiatives; e.g., material acceptance procedures, as tools to help regain and maintain analytical control and minimise potential for patient harm. Practical implications - The authors provide a template for use by laboratory scientific personnel that ensures the optimal monitoring of analytical test performance and response when it changes undesirably. Originality/value - The proposed template has been designed to meet the International Organisation for Standardisation for medical laboratories ISO15189:2012 requirements and therefore includes the use of External Quality Assessment and patient results data, as an adjunct to IQC data. PMID

  14. Patients’ lived experiences regarding maintaining dignity

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Manookian, Arpi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of dignity is frequently emphasized as a basic patient’s right in national and international nursing codes of ethics and is indeed the essence and core of nursing care. It is therefore essential to explore the concept based on patients’ lived experiences in order to maintain and respect their dignity and consequently improve the quality of health services and patient satisfaction. The present study aimed to discover the lived experiences of Iranian patients regarding maintaining their dignity at the bedside. This qualitative study was conducted using an interpretive phenomenological approach. A total of 14 participants (9 women and 5 men) were purposefully selected, and data were collected through individual, semi-structured and deep interviews. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed by the Diekelman, Allen and Tanner approach. The findings of this study revealed three main themes and related subthemes regarding the meaning of preserving patients’ dignity. The first main theme was “exigency of preserving the innate human dignity” and comprised two subthemes: “respect for the intrinsic equality of all humans” and “treating the patient as a valued person, not an object”. The second theme was “service based on love and kindness” and included two subthemes: ‘being with the patient” and “inspiring the sense of being accepted and loved”. The third main theme emerged as “dignifying and transcendental professional service” and consisted of two subthemes: “professional commitment to uphold patients’ rights” and “enlightened practice”. This study revealed that the concept of maintaining patients’ dignity is related to health providers’ duty to preserve patients’ dignity and also their moral obligation to manifest the human love that is in their own as well as their patients’ nature. In conclusion, if nurses reflect on the transcendental nature of nursing care, they will value and prize their

  15. Mothers in prison: maintaining connections with children.

    PubMed

    Mignon, Sylvia I; Ransford, Paige

    2012-01-01

    The significant increase in the number of incarcerated women ensures that many children must live without their mothers for some period of time. Women in prison were interviewed about their efforts to maintain relationships with their children. Mail and telephone contacts were more frequent than actual visits. Almost one half of mothers had never received a visit from their children. This article identifies challenges to the development and maintenance of contact between incarcerated mothers and their children. Recommendations are made for correctional agencies to enhance opportunities for incarcerated mothers to foster positive connections with their children.

  16. Functional investigation of bone implant viability using radiotracers in a new model of osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schiper, Luis; Faintuch, Bluma Linkowski; da Silva Badaró, Roberto José; de Oliveira, Erica Aparecida; Chavez, Victor E. Arana; Chinen, Elisangela; Faintuch, Joel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Conventional imaging methods are excellent for the morphological characterization of the consequences of osteonecrosis; however, only specialized techniques have been considered useful for obtaining functional information. To explore the affinity of radiotracers for severely devascularized bone, a new mouse model of isolated femur implanted in a subcutaneous abdominal pocket was devised. To maintain animal mobility and longevity, the femur was harvested from syngeneic donors. Two technetium-99m-labeled tracers targeting angiogenesis and bone matrix were selected. METHODS: Medronic acid and a homodimer peptide conjugated with RGDfK were radiolabeled with technetium-99m, and biodistribution was evaluated in Swiss mice. The grafted and control femurs were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days, including computed tomography (CT) and histological analysis. RESULTS: Radiolabeling achieved high (>95%) radiochemical purity. The biodistribution confirmed good blood clearance 1 hour after administration. For 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC)-E-[c(RGDfK)2, remarkable renal excretion was observed compared to 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP), but the latter, as expected, revealed higher bone uptake. The results obtained in the control femur were equal at all time points. In the implanted femur, 99mTc-HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)2 uptake was highest after 15 days, consistent with early angiogenesis. Regarding 99mTc-MDP in the implant, similar uptake was documented at all time points, consistent with sustained bone viability; however, the uptake was lower than that detected in the control femur, as confirmed by histology. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Graft viability was successfully diagnosed using radiotracers in severely ischemic bone at all time points. 2) Analogously, indirect information about angiogenesis could be gathered using 999mTc-HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)2. 3) These techniques appear promising and warrant further studies to determine their potential clinical applications. PMID

  17. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Becker, Penny A; Miller, Philip S; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J; Wildt, David E; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed. PMID:22615933

  18. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Becker, Penny A; Miller, Philip S; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J; Wildt, David E; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.

  19. Pollen viability and storage temperature for Southern highbush and Rabbiteye blueberry breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen viability, as measured by tetrad germination, has been reported, but these studies focused on freshly collected pollen and did not address viability of pollen stored at different temperatures over time. Moreover, genetic differences in pollen viability have been reported in blueberry genotype...

  20. Monitoring viability of seeds in gene banks: developing software tools to increase efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the decline of seed viability is essential for effective long term seed storage in ex situ collections. Recent FAO Genebank Standards recommend monitoring intervals at one-third the time predicted for viability to fall to 85% of initial viability. This poster outlines the development of ...

  1. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  2. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  3. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    PubMed

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.

  4. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  5. Design guidelines for remotely maintained equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, T.W.; Evans, J.H.; Peishel, F.L.; Schrock, S.L.; Smith, G.E.; Macdonald, D.

    1988-11-01

    The CFRP has pioneered and developed the concept of totally remote operation and maintenance of process equipment in spent fuel reprocessing, using force-reflecting master/slave servomanipulators, coupled with television viewing, to extend human capabilities effectively throughout an uninhabitable environment. This concept enhances safeguard control of nuclear materials, provides for low-exposure of personnel to radiation and reliable recovery from unplanned events, ensures high plant availability, and aids eventual decommissioning of the plant. The results of this experience have been organized in this document to enable designers to consider this technology, not only in spent fuel reprocessing, but among various other situations that may be hazardous to personnel. This document is an expanded and updated version of an earlier design guide that was specific to fuel reprocessing requirements. The guidelines identified in the present document suggest a general approach to the design of effective, reliable, safe, remotely operated and maintained facilities. This document may be used broadly to apply remotely maintained equipment in hostile environments based on proven techniques, equipment, and well-established practices. The concepts are particularly applicable to large plant facilities where economy of scale is important. The theme emphasizes utilization of ordinary commercial tools, equipment, and materials widely available. 5 refs., 51 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE).

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M; Brick, Timothy R; Pritikin, Joshua N; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D; Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant's personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual's data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  7. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.

  8. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  9. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE).

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M; Brick, Timothy R; Pritikin, Joshua N; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D; Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant's personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual's data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies.

  10. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  11. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  12. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE)

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.; Brick, Timothy R.; Pritikin, Joshua N.; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D.; Maes, Hermine H.; Neale, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly-impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participants’ personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual’s data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  13. Design guidelines for remotely maintainable equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Manouchehri, Davoud

    1988-01-01

    The quantity and complexity of on-orbit assets will increase significantly over the next decade. Maintaining and servicing these costly assets represent a difficult challenge. Three general methods are proposed to maintain equipment while it is still in orbit: an extravehicular activity (EVA) crew can perform the task in an unpressurized maintenance area outside any space vehicle; an intravehicular activity (IVA) crew can perform the maintenance in a shirt sleeve environment, perhaps at a special maintenance work station in a space vehicle; or a telerobotic manipulator can perform the maintenance in an unpressurized maintenance area at a distance from the crew (who may be EVA, IVA, or on the ground). However, crew EVA may not always be possible; the crew may have other demands on their time that take precedence. In addition, the orbit of the tasks themselves may be impossible for crew entry. Also crew IVA may not always be possible as option for equipment maintenance. For example, the equipment may be too large to fit through the vehicle airlock. Therefore, in some circumstances, the third option, telerobotic manipulation, may be the only feasible option. Telerobotic manipulation has, therefore, an important role for on-orbit maintenance. It is not only used for the reasons outlined above, but also used in some cases as backup to the EVA crew in an orbit that they can reach.

  14. Air quality biomonitoring through pollen viability of Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Duro, Anna; Piccione, Vincenzo; Zampino, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    In this study, pollen viability and germination of three plant species, Cercis siliquastrum L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Spartium junceum L., belonging to the Fabaceae family, was evaluated in sites with different intensity of road traffic, constantly monitored with continuous analysers for air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))) by the Municipality of Catania. Two sites, in which road traffic was absent, were selected, too. The percentages of viable pollen by 2,3,5-trypheniltetrazolium chloride (TTC) test ranged from 59.0 to 90.2 % in C. siliquastrum, from 61.5 to 83.5 % in S. junceum and from 67.5 to 84.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The percentages of germination varied from 41.0 to 72.7 % in C. siliquastrum, from 42.0 to 64.7 % in S. junceum and from 38.3 to 66.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The highest percentages of viable pollens were found in no-road traffic stations by either TTC or germination tests, while the lowest values were detected in a site characterised by heavy road traffic. In the monitored period (2007-2009), pollen viability, germinability and tube length of C. siliquastrum resulted in a significant negative correlation to CO, SO(2) and NO(2), whereas data from TTC and germination tests on S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia pollens were not well correlated to air pollutants. The results showed that pollen viability, germination and tube growth in C. siliquastrum were affected by air pollution. S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia were not very influenced by air pollutants, suggesting a different pollen sensitivity of these species.

  15. Cell Viability Assessment: Toward Content-Rich Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Christina Nicole; Antczak, Christophe; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Importance of the field Monitoring cell viability in vitro is critical in many areas of biomedical research, and the ultimate goal in drug discovery is the ability to predict the in vivo toxicology of drug candidates based on their toxicity profile in vitro. Over the last decade, the contribution of high-throughput screening (HTS) toward this goal has been tremendous, providing the ability to screen compounds in parallel against multiple cell types. However, the toxic effects of drug candidates uncovered during clinical trials are by far the main reason for their failure. Over the same period, our understanding of programmed cell death has evolved dramatically with the identification of critical control points in the cell death pathways. As a result, cell viability should no longer be characterized solely on the basis of discrete endpoint measurements such as membrane permeability. Areas covered in this review/What the reader will gain This review summarizes the traditional viability assays currently commercially available, focusing on methods amenable to high density format. Assays categorized into the following classes are discussed: dye exclusion assays, DNA condensation-based assays and assays monitoring a metabolic function. We describe each approach, and using case studies, we emphasize their limitations. Take home message Current low-content methods based on single parameter readouts are prone to error due to the heterogeneity of cell populations and the multi-faceted nature of cell death. High-content approaches based on continuous, multiplexed readouts are becoming increasingly important for monitoring multiple markers of cell death induction simultaneously, on a cell by cell basis. The use of such content-rich platforms is a necessity to predict the toxicology of drug candidates accurately. PMID:22823019

  16. Influence of electric current on bacterial viability in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, V; Elektorowicz, M; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2011-10-15

    Minimizing the influence of electric current on bacterial viability in the electro-technologies such as electrophoresis and electrocoagulation is crucial in designing and operating the electric hybrid wastewater treatment system. In this study the biomass from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was subjected to constant direct current and the bacterial viability was monitored against electrical intensity, duration as well as the spatial vicinity related to the electrodes. It was found that the bacterial viability was not significantly affected (less than 10% of death percentage) when the applied electric current density (CD) was less than 6.2 A/m2 after 4 h. The percentage of live cell dropped by 15% and 29% at CD of 12.3 A/m2 and 24.7 A/m2, respectively. The pH of electrolytic biomass fluid has shifted to alkaline (from nearly neutral to around pH 10) at CD above 12.3 A/m2, which could have been the contributing factor for the bacterial inactivation. The temperature change in the electrolytic media at all current densities during 4 h of experiment was less than 2 °C, thus temperature effects were negligible. Bacteria experienced different micro-environments in the electrochemical reactor. Bacterial cells on the cathode surface exhibited highest death rate, whereas bacteria outside the space between electrodes were the least affected. It was concluded that in an electro-technology integrated wastewater treatment process, sufficient mixing should be used to avoid localized inactivation of bacterial cells.

  17. Projecting the success of plant restoration with population viability analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, T.J.; Bowles, M.L.; McEachern, A.K.; Brigham, C.A.; Schwartz, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Conserving viable populations of plant species requires that they have high probabilities of long-term persistence within natural habitats, such as a chance of extinction in 100 years of less than 5% (Menges 1991, 1998; Brown 1994; Pavlik 1994; Chap. 1, this Vol.). For endangered and threatened species that have been severely reduces in range and whose habitats have been fragmented, important species conservation strategies may include augmenting existing populations or restoring new viable populations (Bowles and Whelan 1994; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Restoration objectives may include increasing population numbers to reduce extinction probability, deterministic manipulations to develop a staged cohort structure, or more complex restoration of a desired genetic structure to allow outcrossing or increase effective population size (DeMauro 1993, 1994; Bowles et al. 1993, 1998; Pavlik 1994; Knapp and Dyer 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). These efforts may require translocation of propagules from existing (in situ) populations, or from ex situ botanic gardens or seed storage facilities (Falk et al. 1996; Guerrant and Pavlik 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Population viability analysis (PVA) can provide a critical foundation for plant restoration, as it models demographic projections used to evaluate the probability of population persistence and links plant life history with restoration strategies. It is unknown how well artificially created populations will meet demographic modeling requirements (e.g., due to artificial cohort transitions) and few, if any, PVAs have been applied to restorations. To guide application of PVA to restored populations and to illustrate potential difficulties, we examine effects of planting different life stages, model initial population sizes needed to achieve population viability, and compare demographic characteristics between natural and restored populations. We develop and compare plant population restoration viability analysis (PRVA) case studies of

  18. [Ischemic heart disease (myocardial perfusion and viability): techniques and results].

    PubMed

    Croisille, P

    2004-10-01

    Over the last two decades, the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease have made tremendous progress, in particular with the help of the development of non-invasive methodologies for assessing myocardial perfusion and viability. Clinically, nuclear medicine techniques (particularly SPECT imaging) have predominated. With the recent technical developments allowing for a combined assessment of perfusion and irreversible damage with late enhancement imaging, MRI will now play a major role in the assessment of ischemic heart disease. PMID:15507837

  19. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    DOEpatents

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  20. Borderline viability: controversies in caring for the extremely premature infant.

    PubMed

    Leuthner, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Controversy surrounding the decision to resuscitate at the limits or borderline of viability has been at the center of neonatal ethical debate for decades. This debate has led to numerous reports from individual institutions, councils, and advisory committees that all have remarkable consistency in the development of gestational age-based guidelines. This article reviews legal or regulatory concerns that may contradict ethical discussion and guidelines, discriminatory and scientific basis concerns with consensus guidelines, and personal controversy about how to determine best interest. Guidelines are a reasonable place to start in helping determine parental authority and autonomy. The article also addresses controversies raised in counseling and costs.

  1. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  2. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold. PMID:22390713

  3. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  4. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  5. How homologous recombination maintains telomere integrity.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, Eliana M C; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes against loss of genetic information and inappropriate processing as damaged DNA and are therefore crucial to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. In addition to providing a pathway for genome-wide DNA repair, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in telomere replication and capping. Consistent with this, the genomic instability characteristic of HR-deficient cells and tumours is driven in part by telomere dysfunction. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which HR modulates the response to intrinsic cellular challenges that arise during telomere replication, as well as its impact on the assembly of telomere protective structures. How normal and tumour cells differ in their ability to maintain telomeres is deeply relevant to the search for treatments that would selectively eliminate cells whose capacity for HR-mediated repair has been compromised.

  6. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    PubMed

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use. PMID:21329438

  7. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    PubMed

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use.

  8. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  9. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  10. Selection of donor and organ viability criteria: expanding donation criteria.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, E; Andrés, A

    2007-01-01

    Donation criteria have been becoming more flexible over the years. Currently, the only absolute exclusion criteria are human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), uncontrolled tumor disease and bacterial or viral infections. ClinicaL. conditions dictate organ viability criteria: biochemical, morphological and functional, that must be fulfilled by the donors and their organs in order to focus the decision on which donor organs can be used. These criteria attempt to assure that the transplanted organs function after the extraction, transformation, implantation and reperfusion process without transmitting any infectious or tumour disease. In recent years, the gross and microscopic appearance has become one of the fundamental criteria for selection of potentially viable organs. At present, there is no age limit for hepatic and renal donation; the principal contra-indication is chronic organ damage. The use of each organ must be decided individually after a profound analysis of all the viability criteria, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the implant of a certain organ for the recipient. PMID:17702512

  11. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  12. Viability of bacteria in unused air filter media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, R.; Goppelsröder, A.; Umhauer, H.

    Different experimental techniques were applied to determine the effects of different air filter media on the viability of bacteria. Rinse suspensions of unused filter media were employed in standard inhibition tests to determine the effects of filter ingredients on bacterial growth under ideal nutritional conditions. Furthermore, a new test procedure was proposed and validated to determine the survival of viable microorganisms in fibrous air filters as a function of different parameters. Samples of filter media were challenged with microbial aerosols in an experimental set-up designed for measuring the collection efficiencies of fibrous filters. The loaded filter samples were then challenged with clean air under controlled conditions for a definite time span and numbers of viable microorganisms in the filter media were determined as colony forming units. The filter samples were retrieved from unused filter media usually employed in common air conditioning and ventilation systems. Under ideal nutritional and moisture conditions, growth of investigated microorganisms in nutrient broth and on nutrient agar was not inhibited by the inclusion of filter samples or rinse solutions of different filters in the growth medium with one exception. M. luteus and E. coli collected in air filter media and exposed to low air humidity (RH = 30-60%) showed a decline in their viability as a function of time (within 1 h). The decline rate was dependent on the type of bacteria employed and also the filter material itself.

  13. Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Matthew D.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-10-06

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available, being resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH. Such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case with B. anthracis. Thus, rapid analysis to determine a spore's viability in a given environment or after attempts to sterilize a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify viable vs. autoclaved (dead) B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus bacterial spores.

  14. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  15. Viability of Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast preserved by lyophilization and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    de Arruda Moura Pietrowski, Giovana; Grochoski, Mayara; Sartori, Gabriela Felkl; Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Hanseniaspora yeasts are known to produce volatile compounds that give fruity aromas in wine and fermented fruit. This study aimed to verify the feasibility of the Hanseniaspora uvarum strain that had been isolated and identified during a previous study and preserved by lyophilization and freezing at -80 °C (cryopreservation). This strain was assessed in relation to its macroscopic and microscopic morphology and for its ability to ferment apple must. After having been subjected to lyophilization and cryopreservation, viability was assessed in relation to these characteristics during 12 months of storage. The strain showed stable colonial features and its microscopic appearance was unchanged during all recoveries. The plate count results showed consistency in both processes. Regarding the fermentative capacity, the kinetic results showed 100% viability for the strain subjected to lyophilization, as well as for those preserved at -80 °C. These results demonstrate that the preservation methods used are compatible with the maintenance of the relevant characteristics of the strain for the period of evaluation of this study (12 months). PMID:26095929

  16. The evolutionary dynamics of haplodiploidy: Genome architecture and haploid viability

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, Heath; Hardy, Nate B.; Ross, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Haplodiploid reproduction, in which males are haploid and females are diploid, is widespread among animals, yet we understand little about the forces responsible for its evolution. The current theory is that haplodiploidy has evolved through genetic conflicts, as it provides a transmission advantage to mothers. Male viability is thought to be a major limiting factor; diploid individuals tend to harbor many recessive lethal mutations. This theory predicts that the evolution of haplodiploidy is more likely in male heterogametic lineages with few chromosomes, as genes on the X chromosome are often expressed in a haploid environment, and the fewer the chromosome number, the greater the proportion of the total genome that is X‐linked. We test this prediction with comparative phylogenetic analyses of mites, among which haplodiploidy has evolved repeatedly. We recover a negative correlation between chromosome number and haplodiploidy, find evidence that low chromosome number evolved prior to haplodiploidy, and that it is unlikely that diplodiploidy has reevolved from haplodiploid lineages of mites. These results are consistent with the predicted importance of haploid male viability. PMID:26462452

  17. Aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria.

    PubMed

    Labib, Mahmoud; Zamay, Anna S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Reshetneva, Irina T; Zamay, Galina S; Kibbee, Richard J; Sattar, Syed A; Zamay, Tatiana N; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2012-11-01

    The development of an aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria (AptaVISens-B) is presented. Highly specific DNA aptamers to live Salmonella typhimurium were selected via the cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. Twelve rounds of selection were performed; each comprises a positive selection step against viable S. typhimurium and a negative selection step against heat killed S. typhimurium and a mixture of related pathogens, including Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter freundii to ensure the species specificity of the selected aptamers. The DNA sequence showing the highest binding affinity to the bacteria was further integrated into an impedimetric sensor via self-assembly onto a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNP-SPCE). Remarkably, this aptasensor is highly selective and can successfully detect S. typhimurium down to 600 CFU mL(-1) (equivalent to 18 live cells in 30 μL of assay volume) and distinguish it from other Salmonella species, including S. enteritidis and S. choleraesuis. This report is envisaged to open a new venue for the aptamer-based viability sensing of a variety of microorganisms, particularly viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria, using a rapid, economic, and label-free electrochemical platform.

  18. Effects of Triclosan on Neural Stem Cell Viability and Survival.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo Kyung; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Yang, Sung Min; Bang, Minji; Choi, Chang Soon; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial or sanitizing agent used in personal care and household products such as toothpaste, soaps, mouthwashes and kitchen utensils. There are increasing evidence of the potentially harmful effects of triclosan in many systemic and cellular processes of the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of triclosan in the survivability of cultured rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Cortical cells from embryonic day 14 rat embryos were isolated and cultured in vitro. After stabilizing the culture, triclosan was introduced to the cells with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM and in varied time periods. Thereafter, cell viability parameters were measured using MTT assay and PI staining. TCS decreased the cell viability of treated NSC in a concentration-dependent manner along with increased expressions of apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, while reduced expression of Bcl2. To explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of TCS in NSC, we measured the activation of MAPKs and intracellular ROS. TCS at 50 μM induced the activations of both p38 and JNK, which may adversely affect cell survival. In contrast, the activities of ERK, Akt and PI3K, which are positively correlated with cell survival, were inhibited. Moreover, TCS at this concentration augmented the ROS generation in treated NSC and depleted the glutathione activity. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS can induce neurodegenerative effects in developing rat brains through mechanisms involving ROS activation and apoptosis initiation. PMID:26759708

  19. Nanoporous membrane-sealed microfluidic devices for improved cell viability.

    PubMed

    Masand, Shirley N; Mignone, Lindsay; Zahn, Jeffrey D; Shreiber, David I

    2011-12-01

    Cell-laden microfluidic devices have broad potential in various biomedical applications, including tissue engineering and drug discovery. However, multiple difficulties encountered while culturing cells within devices affecting cell viability, proliferation, and behavior has complicated their use. While active perfusion systems have been used to overcome the diffusive limitations associated with nutrient delivery into microchannels to support longer culture times, these systems can result in non-uniform oxygen and nutrient delivery and subject cells to shear stresses, which can affect cell behavior. Additionally, histological analysis of cell cultures within devices is generally laborious and yields inconsistent results due to difficulties in delivering labeling agents in microchannels. Herein, we describe a simple, cost-effective approach to preserve cell viability and simplify labeling within microfluidic networks without the need for active perfusion. Instead of bonding a microfluidic network to glass, PDMS, or other solid substrate, the network is bonded to a semi-permeable nanoporous membrane. The membrane-sealed devices allow free exchange of proteins, nutrients, buffers, and labeling reagents between the microfluidic channels and culture media in static culture plates under sterile conditions. The use of the semi-permeable membrane dramatically simplifies microniche cell culturing while avoiding many of the complications which arise from perfusion systems.

  20. The stewardship model: current viability for genetic biobank practice development.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw; Schepp, Karen; McGrath, Barbara; Mitchell, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The "stewardship model" of ethics relationships is a conceptual framework initially proposed by Jeffers in Advances in Nursing Science, 24(2), 2001. It conceptualized ethical responsibilities in the practice of systematic collection and storage of biospecimens in biobanks for future healthcare genetic research. Since the article's publication 8 years ago, genetic biobanks have grown in number around the world and discernible biobank relational conceptualizations were published. Nursing leadership adopted competency standards for all genetic nursing practices. The involvement of nurses has increased and is projected for further significant increase as biobank practices emerge from research into clinical care settings. This assessment of current viability of this previously established stewardship model offers fresh insights to existing and future nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was to analyze the original stewardship model's components, the relational parties, and characteristics; by contrasting those with proposed conceptualizations and existing biobank practices developed subsequent to its publication. The model's current viability and theoretical development status are assessed for its ability to support a future nursing evidence base for best practices. Proposals for the model's expansion are suggested.

  1. A New Methodology for Evaluation of Nematode Viability

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Mendes, Tiago Antônio Oliveira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes infections are responsible for debilitating conditions and economic losses in domestic animals as well as livestock and are considered an important public health problem due to the high prevalence in humans. The nematode resistance for drugs has been reported for livestock, highlighting the importance for development of new anthelmintic compounds. The aim of the current study was to apply and compare fluorimetric techniques using Sytox and propidium iodide for evaluating the viability of C. elegans larvae after treatment with anthelmintic drugs. These fluorescent markers were efficient to stain larvae treated with ivermectin and albendazole sulfoxide. We observed that densitometric values were proportional to the concentration of dead larvae stained with both markers. Furthermore, data on motility test presented an inverse correlation with fluorimetric data when ivermectin was used. Our results showed that lower concentrations of drugs were effective to interfere in the processes of cellular transport while higher drugs concentrations were necessary in order to result in any damage to cell integrity. The methodology described in this work might be useful for studies that aim to evaluate the viability of nematodes, particularly for testing of new anthelminthic compounds using an easy, economic, reproducible, and no time-consuming technique. PMID:25866820

  2. Effects of Triclosan on Neural Stem Cell Viability and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo Kyung; Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Yang, Sung Min; Bang, Minji; Choi, Chang Soon; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial or sanitizing agent used in personal care and household products such as toothpaste, soaps, mouthwashes and kitchen utensils. There are increasing evidence of the potentially harmful effects of triclosan in many systemic and cellular processes of the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of triclosan in the survivability of cultured rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Cortical cells from embryonic day 14 rat embryos were isolated and cultured in vitro. After stabilizing the culture, triclosan was introduced to the cells with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM and in varied time periods. Thereafter, cell viability parameters were measured using MTT assay and PI staining. TCS decreased the cell viability of treated NSC in a concentration-dependent manner along with increased expressions of apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, while reduced expression of Bcl2. To explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of TCS in NSC, we measured the activation of MAPKs and intracellular ROS. TCS at 50 μM induced the activations of both p38 and JNK, which may adversely affect cell survival. In contrast, the activities of ERK, Akt and PI3K, which are positively correlated with cell survival, were inhibited. Moreover, TCS at this concentration augmented the ROS generation in treated NSC and depleted the glutathione activity. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS can induce neurodegenerative effects in developing rat brains through mechanisms involving ROS activation and apoptosis initiation. PMID:26759708

  3. Effect of dopamine on viability of BHK-21 cells.

    PubMed

    Moshkov, D A; Abramova, M B; Shubina, V S; Lavrovskaya, V P; Pavlik, L L; Lezhnev, E I

    2010-09-01

    We studied the effects of dopamine added to culture medium on survival of floating or adherent BHK-21 cells differing by organization of actin cytoskeleton. The viability of floating cells more drastically decreased with increasing dopamine concentration and duration of exposure than that of adherent cells. The cells worse adhered to the substrate and formed a monolayer. The formed monolayer degrades, cell borders become blurred, cells, polygonal in the control, are rounded. Preliminary blockade of dopamine receptors with haloperidol, inessential for cell survival and morphology, does not prevent the destructive effect of dopamine on the cells. Ultrastructural study revealed increased density of filamentous actin threads in deep compartments of cell cytoplasm after dopamine treatment, this increase being more pronounced in cells grown in suspension. Bearing in mind the polymerizing effect of dopamine on globular actin in vitro and the fact that the content of this protein in floating cells is higher than in adherent cells, we can conclude that the decrease in viability of BHK-21 cells is caused by interaction of dopamine with cytoplasmic globular actin. PMID:21246101

  4. Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthew D. W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available. Spores are also resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH; such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case of B. anthracis. Thus, having rapid analytical methods to determine a spore's viability after attempts to clean a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify the viable vs. the autoclaved (dead) spores.

  5. Determination of Ancylostoma caninum ova viability using metabolic profiling.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Beale, D J; Ahmed, W; Karpe, A V; Magalhaes, R J Soares; Morrison, P D; Palombo, E A

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation between viable and non-viable hookworm ova in environmental samples is necessary in order to implement strategies to mitigate re-infections in endemic regions. In this study, an untargeted metabolic profiling method was developed that utilised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to investigate hookworm ova viability. Ancylostoma caninum was used to investigate the metabolites within viable and non-viable ova. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of the data resulted in the identification of 53 significant metabolites across all hookworm ova samples. The major compounds observed in viable and non-viable hookworm ova were tetradecanoic acid, commonly known as myristic acid [fold change (FC) = 0.4], and dodecanoic acid, commonly known as lauric acid (FC = 0.388). Additionally, the viable ova had self-protecting metabolites such as prostaglandins, a typical feature absent in non-viable ova. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolic profiling using GC-MS methods can be used to determine the viability of canine hookworm ova. Further studies are needed to assess the applicability of metabolic profiling using GC-MS to detect viable hookworm ova in the mixed (viable and non-viable) populations from environmental samples and identify the metabolites specific to human hookworm species. PMID:27236650

  6. The palliation of osseous metastasis with sup 32 P or sup 89 Sr compared with external beam and hemibody irradiation: A historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Montebello, J.F.; Hartson-Eaton, M. )

    1989-01-01

    Radiation is an effective modality for palliation of osseous metastases. In patients with a limited number of lesions, local external beam irradiation is the most expedient method of delivering radiation therapy. Complete or partial relief of pain will occur in 80-90% of patients. When metastases are widespread or when new sites continue to appear, localized external irradiation becomes logistically difficult. In such cases, hemibody irradiation has been effective with an overall response rate of 85%. However, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow and pulmonary toxicity may complicate therapy. In these cases, an effective alternative is systemic phosphorus-32 ({sup 32}P) or strontium-89 ({sup 89}Sr). Relief of pain in the range of 60-90% has been reported. Toxicity of {sup 32}P is largely that of bone marrow suppression, while {sup 89}Sr appears to be relatively marrow-sparing. In this review, we consider systemic {sup 32}P or {sup 89}Sr as viable options to external beam or hemibody irradiation in the presence of numerous bone metastases. 105 references.

  7. Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD): Follow-up of the first reported family, characterization of the radiological phenotype, and refinement of the linkage region.

    PubMed

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lachman, Ralph; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Leal, Suzanne M; Piccolo, Pasquale; Van Den Veyver, Ignatia B; Bacino, Carlos A

    2010-07-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is an X-linked dominant syndrome with distal limb anomalies and pigmentary skin defects. We have previously described this syndrome in several females from a large, four-generation pedigree. The presentation in the affected patients included multiple anomalies, hypertelorism, iris colobomas, punched-out pigmentary abnormalities over the face and scalp, brachydactyly, and digital fibromatosis. The phenotype was highly variable thus suggesting that X-inactivation plays an important role in the expression of the disease. Following our initial description of this condition there have been reports of more cases supporting the initial phenotypic description of this disease. We report on the follow-up of this family at about 10 years from the first evaluation. A detailed clinical follow-up and a review of the skeletal surveys suggests that although the most striking features involves the hands and feet, the skeletal involvement is more generalized and affects many other areas. Our previous linkage analysis has demonstrated mapping to Xq27.3-Xq28. Using a 6,056 SNP array, we have further refined the critical region within the Xq28 region. We have also excluded two candidate genes (FLNA and FAM58A) mapping in the critical region. The identification of the gene responsible for this rare condition will shed light on the molecular pathways leading to the various congenital anomalies of TODPD and will allow a more accurate genetic counseling to the affected individuals.

  8. Terminal Osseous Dysplasia With Pigmentary Defects (TODPD): Follow-Up of the First Reported Family, Characterization of the Radiological Phenotype, and Refinement of the Linkage Region

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lachman, Ralph; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Leal, Suzanne M.; Piccolo, Pasquale; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.; Bacino, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is an X-linked dominant syndrome with distal limb anomalies and pigmentary skin defects. We have previously described this syndrome in several females from a large, four-generation pedigree. The presentation in the affected patients included multiple anomalies, hypertelorism, iris colobomas, punched-out pigmentary abnormalities over the face and scalp, brachydactyly, and digital fibromatosis. The phenotype was highly variable thus suggesting that X-inactivation plays an important role in the expression of the disease. Following our initial description of this condition there have been reports of more cases supporting the initial phenotypic description of this disease. We report on the follow-up of this family at about 10 years from the first evaluation. A detailed clinical follow-up and a review of the skeletal surveys suggests that although the most striking features involves the hands and feet, the skeletal involvement is more generalized and affects many other areas. Our previous linkage analysis has demonstrated mapping to Xq27.3-Xq28. Using a 6,056 SNP array, we have further refined the critical region within the Xq28 region. We have also excluded two candidate genes (FLNA and FAM58A) mapping in the critical region. The identification of the gene responsible for this rare condition will shed light on the molecular pathways leading to the various congenital anomalies of TODPD and will allow a more accurate genetic counseling to the affected individuals. PMID:20583181

  9. Clinical Evaluation of Insulin like Growth Factor-I and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor with Alloplastic Bone Graft Material in the Management of Human Two Wall Intra-Osseous Defects

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Jaya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, emphasis on the use of growth factors for periodontal healing is gaining great momentum. Several growth factors showed promising results in periodontal regeneration. Aim This study was designed to compare the clinical outcomes of 0.8μg recombinant human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (rh-VEGF) and 10μg recombinant human Insulin Like Growth Factor-I (rh-IGF-I) with β-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) and Polylactide-Polyglycolide Acid (PLGA) membrane in two wall intra-osseous defects. Materials and Methods A total of 29 intra-osseous defects in 27 subjects were randomly divided into 3 test and 1 control group. Test group I (n=8) received rh-VEGF+ rh-IGF-I, Test group II (n=7) rh-VEGF, Test group III (n=7) rh-IGF-I and control group (n=7) with no growth factor, β-TCP and PLGA membrane was used in all the groups. Baseline soft tissue parameters including Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), and Gingival Recession (GR) at selected sites were recorded at baseline and at 6 months. Intrasurgically, intra-osseous component was calculated as a) Cemento-Enamel Junction to Bone Crest (CEJ to BC), b) Bone Crest to Base of the Defect (BC to BD) at baseline and at re-entry. The mean changes at baseline and after 6 months within each group were compared using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The mean changes for each parameter between groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Results After 6 months, maximum mean PPD reduction occurred in test group I followed by test group II, III and control group. Similar trend was observed in CAL gain. Non-significant GR was present in test group I and control group whereas in test group II and III GR was absent. The use of rh-VEGF+ rhIGF-I exhibited 95.8% osseous fill as compared to 54.8% in test group II, 52.7% in test group III and 41.1 % in the control group. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that, rh-IGF-I+rh-VEGF treated sites resulted in greater

  10. Maintaining osmotic balance with an aglomerular kidney.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M Danielle; Grosell, Martin

    2006-04-01

    The gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, is a marine teleost fish with an aglomerular kidney that is highly specialized to conserve water. Despite this adaptation, toadfish have the ability to survive when in dilute hypoosmotic seawater environments. The objectives of this study were to determine the joint role of the kidney and intestine in maintaining osmotic and ionic balance and to investigate whether toadfish take advantage of their urea production ability and use urea as an osmolyte. Toadfish were gradually acclimated to different salinities (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 22, 33, 50 and 70 ppt (1.5%, 7.5%, 15%, 30%, 45%, 67%, 100%, 151% and 212% seawater)) and muscle tissue, urine, blood and intestinal fluids were analyzed for ion and in some cases urea concentration. The renal and intestinal ionoregulatory processes of toadfish responded to changes in salinity and when gradually acclimated, toadfish maintain a relatively constant plasma osmolality at environmental salinities of 5 to 50 ppt. However, at salinities lower (2.5 ppt) or higher (70 ppt) than this range, a significant deviation from resting plasma and urine osmolality as well as changes in muscle water content was measured, suggesting osmoregulatory difficulties at these salinities. The renal system compensates for dilute seawater by reducing Na+ reabsorption by the bladder, which allowed excess water to be excreted. In the case of hypersalinity, Na+ reabsorption was increased, which resulted in a conservation of water and the concentration of Mg2+, Cl-, SO(4)2- and urea. A similar pattern was observed within the gastrointestinal system. Notably, Mg2+, HCO3- and SO4(2-) were the dominant ions in the intestinal fluid under control and hypersaline conditions due to the absorption of Na+, Cl- and water. When exposed to dilute seawater conditions, the absorption of Na+ was greatly reduced which likely increased water elimination. As a result of decreased environmental levels and a reduction in drinking rate, Mg2+ and

  11. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  12. Selection maintaining protein stability at equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Sanzo

    2016-02-21

    The common understanding of protein evolution has been that neutral mutations are fixed by random drift, and a proportion of neutral mutations depending on the strength of structural and functional constraints primarily determines evolutionary rate. Recently it was indicated that fitness costs due to misfolded proteins are a determinant of evolutionary rate and selection originating in protein stability is a driving force of protein evolution. Here we examine protein evolution under the selection maintaining protein stability. Protein fitness is a generic form of fitness costs due to misfolded proteins; s=κexp(ΔG/kT)(1-exp(ΔΔG/kT)), where s and ΔΔG are selective advantage and stability change of a mutant protein, ΔG is the folding free energy of the wildtype protein, and κ is a parameter representing protein abundance and indispensability. The distribution of ΔΔG is approximated to be a bi-Gaussian distribution, which represents structurally slightly- or highly-constrained sites. Also, the mean of the distribution is negatively proportional to ΔG. The evolution of this gene has an equilibrium point (ΔGe) of protein stability, the range of which is consistent with observed values in the ProTherm database. The probability distribution of Ka/Ks, the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate per site, over fixed mutants in the vicinity of the equilibrium shows that nearly neutral selection is predominant only in low-abundant, non-essential proteins of ΔGe>-2.5 kcal/mol. In the other proteins, positive selection on stabilizing mutations is significant to maintain protein stability at equilibrium as well as random drift on slightly negative mutations, although the average 〈Ka/Ks〉 is less than 1. Slow evolutionary rates can be caused by both high protein abundance/indispensability and large effective population size, which produces positive shifts of ΔΔG through decreasing ΔGe, and strong structural constraints, which directly make

  13. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif ‘YxxI’, suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  14. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  15. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom.

  16. Maintaining urban gas systems demands special technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Anglero, T.F. )

    1994-04-01

    Brooklyn Union Gas Co. has been providing gas to 50% of the population of New York City for the last 100 years. The company has constructed an elaborate gas distribution network that includes a gas main under nearly every city street in a service territory that includes Brooklyn, Staten Island and parts of Queens. Conventional ways of pipeline construction and maintenance are inadequate in today's environment of heightened competition, increased regulations and, most importantly, demanding customer expectations of quality service. As a result, Brooklyn Union Gas must use special construction and maintenance methods in its operations, and in particular trenchless technologies. Over the past 10 years the company has paid close attention to developing a variety of trenchless techniques. Like many gas distribution companies providing service in densely populated urban areas, Brooklyn Union must operate and maintain its gas distribution network in a challenging environment of increasing governmental regulation and escalating field construction costs. Technological innovation is not a luxury, but instead a necessity to achieve corporate growth, regulatory compliance and greater customer satisfaction. Trenchless technologies offset rising pipe installation costs and provide benefits both to the customer and the company. Of special value to Brooklyn Union is the development of systems that renovate old metal pipes by lining. Such techniques are described.

  17. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G.; Flavahan, William A.; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes – FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1 — elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  18. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  19. Generating and maintaining jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Youbong; Lee, Ilha

    2008-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a lipid-derived plant hormone that mediates diverse biological phenomena. It is one of major goals in JA research field to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of JA level. Recently we have demonstrated cooperative and differentiated roles of two chloroplast localized galactolipases, DGL (DONGLE) and DAD1 (DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE 1), for the regulation of JA content. The DGL maintains a basal level of JA in unwounded vegetative tissues, while the DAD1 is involved in JA production in floral tissues. The JA in vegetative tissues regulates cell expansion while the JA produced in flowers regulates pollen maturation. After wounding, the cooperative function of DGL and DAD1 causes drastic increase of JA. The analysis of induction kinetics showed that the two enzymes have temporally separated roles in wound response; DGL in early phase and DAD1 in late phase of JA production. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our recent findings and extend our working model for JA homeostasis in plants.

  20. Exploring how nurse lecturers maintain clinical credibility.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie T

    2005-01-01

    The role of the nurse lecturer is changing. There is growing pressure from the government and professionals alike to recruit nurse teachers who posses both practical and recent experience of nursing [Department of Health, 1999. Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Health Care. DOH, London; UKCC, 2000. Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting. UKCC, London]. Whilst much of the literature available suggests a growing concern amongst practitioners, students and nurse educationalists themselves about the importance of being ;clinically credible', what is not clear is how tangible it is to maintain currency and clinical credibility. In addition, the term ;clinical credibility' is in itself ill-defined. An exploratory study was undertaken within one higher education institution which sought to seek the views of nurse lecturers. The principles of ethnography were applied to this research. The sample included six of the most recently appointed nurse lecturers within one academic faculty who taught predominantly on pre-registration programmes. Data from individual and focus group interviews was analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. The findings are discussed which embrace the concepts of: working ;hands on' in the clinical area, clinical currency, transferability of skills, clinical visibility and role development. Recommendations for the development of professional practice are offered. PMID:19038175