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Sample records for maintaining genomic stability

  1. Maintaining Genome Stability in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Active maintenance of genome stability is a prerequisite for the development and function of the nervous system. The high replication index during neurogenesis and the long life of mature neurons highlight the need for efficient cellular programs to safeguard genetic fidelity. Multiple DNA damage response pathways ensure that replication stress and other types of DNA lesions such as oxidative damage do not impact neural homeostasis. Numerous human neurologic syndromes result from defective DNA damage signaling and compromised genome integrity. These syndromes can involve different neuropathology, which highlights the diverse maintenance roles required for genome stability in the nervous system. Understanding how DNA damage signaling pathways promote neural development and preserve homeostasis is essential for understanding fundamental brain function. PMID:24165679

  2. Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    of Helicases and Deaminases PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: XiaoJiang Chen CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0391 5c... deaminases . We will focus on AID and APOBEC3G to obtain purified deaminase proteins for the in vitro biochemical, functional, and structural

  3. Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    W81XWH-05-1-0391 TITLE: Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xiaojiang Chen...Helicases and Deaminases 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0391 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Xiaojiang Chen 5e...crystallize the proteins of deaminases . We will focus on AID and APOBEC3G to obtain purified deaminase proteins for the in vitro biochemical

  4. Modeling genomic data with type attributes, balancing stability and maintainability.

    PubMed

    Busch, Norbert; Wedemann, Gero

    2009-03-27

    . Stability and flexibility of the domain model is achieved by its separation into two model parts, the operational model and the knowledge model. These parts are connected by the meta model of the knowledge model to the whole domain model. This approach makes it possible to comply with the requirements of interoperability and flexibility in MB.

  5. ING2 controls the progression of DNA replication forks to maintain genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Larrieu, Delphine; Ythier, Damien; Binet, Romuald; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Sengupta, Sagar; Pedeux, Rémy

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitor of growth 2 (ING2) is a candidate tumour suppressor gene the expression of which is frequently lost in tumours. Here, we identified a new function for ING2 in the control of DNA replication and in the maintenance of genome stability. Global replication rate was markedly reduced during normal S-phase in small interfering RNA (siRNA) ING2 cells, as seen in a DNA fibre spreading experiment. Accordingly, we found that ING2 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and regulates its amount to the chromatin fraction, allowing normal replication progression and normal cell proliferation. Deregulation of DNA replication has been previously associated with genome instability. Hence, a high proportion of siRNA ING2 cells presented endoreduplication of their genome as well as an increased frequency of sister chromatid exchange. Thus, we propose for the first time that ING2 might function as a tumour suppressor gene by directly maintaining DNA integrity. PMID:19730436

  6. RECG Maintains Plastid and Mitochondrial Genome Stability by Suppressing Extensive Recombination between Short Dispersed Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Odahara, Masaki; Masuda, Yuichi; Sato, Mayuko; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Harada, Chizuru; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sekine, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of plastid and mitochondrial genome stability is crucial for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Recently, we have reported that RECA1 maintains mitochondrial genome stability by suppressing gross rearrangements induced by aberrant recombination between short dispersed repeats in the moss Physcomitrella patens. In this study, we studied a newly identified P. patens homolog of bacterial RecG helicase, RECG, some of which is localized in both plastid and mitochondrial nucleoids. RECG partially complements recG deficiency in Escherichia coli cells. A knockout (KO) mutation of RECG caused characteristic phenotypes including growth delay and developmental and mitochondrial defects, which are similar to those of the RECA1 KO mutant. The RECG KO cells showed heterogeneity in these phenotypes. Analyses of RECG KO plants showed that mitochondrial genome was destabilized due to a recombination between 8–79 bp repeats and the pattern of the recombination partly differed from that observed in the RECA1 KO mutants. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) instability was greater in severe phenotypic RECG KO cells than that in mild phenotypic ones. This result suggests that mitochondrial genomic instability is responsible for the defective phenotypes of RECG KO plants. Some of the induced recombination caused efficient genomic rearrangements in RECG KO mitochondria. Such loci were sometimes associated with a decrease in the levels of normal mtDNA and significant decrease in the number of transcripts derived from the loci. In addition, the RECG KO mutation caused remarkable plastid abnormalities and induced recombination between short repeats (12–63 bp) in the plastid DNA. These results suggest that RECG plays a role in the maintenance of both plastid and mitochondrial genome stability by suppressing aberrant recombination between dispersed short repeats; this role is crucial for plastid and mitochondrial functions. PMID:25769081

  7. Timeless Maintains Genomic Stability and Suppresses Sister Chromatid Exchange during Unperturbed DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Urtishak, Karen A; Smith, Kevin D; Chanoux, Rebecca A; Greenberg, Roger A; Johnson, F Brad; Brown, Eric J

    2009-03-27

    Genome integrity is maintained during DNA replication by coordination of various replisome-regulated processes. Although it is known that Timeless (Tim) is a replisome component that participates in replication checkpoint responses to genotoxic stress, its importance for genome maintenance during normal DNA synthesis has not been reported. Here we demonstrate that Tim reduction leads to genomic instability during unperturbed DNA replication, culminating in increased chromatid breaks and translocations (triradials, quadriradials, and fusions). Tim deficiency led to increased H2AX phosphorylation and Rad51 and Rad52 foci formation selectively during DNA synthesis and caused a 3-4-fold increase in sister chromatid exchange. The sister chromatid exchange events stimulated by Tim reduction were largely mediated via a Brca2/Rad51-dependent mechanism and were additively increased by deletion of the Blm helicase. Therefore, Tim deficiency leads to an increased reliance on homologous recombination for proper continuation of DNA synthesis. Together, these results indicate a pivotal role for Tim in maintaining genome stability throughout normal DNA replication.

  8. Physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required to maintain genomic stability in stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao-Sheng; Marbán, Eduardo

    2010-07-01

    Stem cell cytogenetic abnormalities constitute a roadblock to regenerative therapies. We investigated the possibility that reactive oxygen species (ROSs) influence genomic stability in cardiac and embryonic stem cells. Karyotypic abnormalities in primary human cardiac stem cells were suppressed by culture in physiological (5%) oxygen, but addition of antioxidants to the medium unexpectedly increased aneuploidy. Intracellular ROS levels were moderately decreased in physiological oxygen, but dramatically decreased by the addition of high-dose antioxidants. Quantification of DNA damage in cardiac stem cells and in human embryonic stem cells revealed a biphasic dose-dependence: antioxidants suppressed DNA damage at low concentrations, but potentiated such damage at higher concentrations. High-dose antioxidants decreased cellular levels of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and other DNA repair enzymes, providing a potential mechanistic basis for the observed effects. These results indicate that physiological levels of intracellular ROS are required to activate the DNA repair pathway for maintaining genomic stability in stem cells. The concept of an "oxidative optimum" for genomic stability has broad implications for stem cell biology and carcinogenesis.

  9. Alteration/deficiency in activation-3 (Ada3) plays a critical role in maintaining genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Sameer; Katafiasz, Bryan J.; Kumar, Rakesh; Wang, Jun; Mohibi, Shakur; Jain, Smrati; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju; Pandita, Tej K.; Dave, Bhavana J.; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation and DNA repair following damage are essential for maintaining genome integrity. DNA damage activates checkpoints in order to repair damaged DNA prior to exit to the next phase of cell cycle. Recently, we have shown the role of Ada3, a component of various histone acetyltransferase complexes, in cell cycle regulation, and loss of Ada3 results in mouse embryonic lethality. Here, we used adenovirus-Cre-mediated Ada3 deletion in Ada3fl/fl mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to assess the role of Ada3 in DNA damage response following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). We report that Ada3 depletion was associated with increased levels of phospho-ATM (pATM), γH2AX, phospho-53BP1 (p53BP1) and phospho-RAD51 (pRAD51) in untreated cells; however, radiation response was intact in Ada3−/− cells. Notably, Ada3−/− cells exhibited a significant delay in disappearance of DNA damage foci for several critical proteins involved in the DNA repair process. Significantly, loss of Ada3 led to enhanced chromosomal aberrations, such as chromosome breaks, fragments, deletions and translocations, which further increased upon DNA damage. Notably, the total numbers of aberrations were more clearly observed in S-phase, as compared with G₁ or G₂ phases of cell cycle with IR. Lastly, comparison of DNA damage in Ada3fl/fl and Ada3−/− cells confirmed higher residual DNA damage in Ada3−/− cells, underscoring a critical role of Ada3 in the DNA repair process. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for a novel role for Ada3 in maintenance of the DNA repair process and genomic stability. PMID:23095635

  10. Wuho Is a New Member in Maintaining Genome Stability through its Interaction with Flap Endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, I-Cheng; Chen, Betty Chamay; Shuai, Hung-Hsun; Chien, Fan-Ching; Chen, Peilin; Hsieh, Tao-shih

    2016-01-01

    Replication forks are vulnerable to wayward nuclease activities. We report here our discovery of a new member in guarding genome stability at replication forks. We previously isolated a Drosophila mutation, wuho (wh, no progeny), characterized by a severe fertility defect and affecting expression of a protein (WH) in a family of conserved proteins with multiple WD40 repeats. Knockdown of WH by siRNA in Drosophila, mouse, and human cultured cells results in DNA damage with strand breaks and apoptosis through ATM/Chk2/p53 signaling pathway. Mice with mWh knockout are early embryonic lethal and display DNA damage. We identify that the flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is one of the interacting proteins. Fluorescence microscopy showed the localization of WH at the site of nascent DNA synthesis along with other replication proteins, including FEN1 and PCNA. We show that WH is able to modulate FEN1’s endonucleolytic activities depending on the substrate DNA structure. The stimulatory or inhibitory effects of WH on FEN1’s flap versus gap endonuclease activities are consistent with the proposed WH’s functions in protecting the integrity of replication fork. These results suggest that wh is a new member of the guardians of genome stability because it regulates FEN1’s potential DNA cleavage threat near the site of replication. PMID:26751069

  11. SPAR1/RTEL1 maintains genomic stability by suppressing homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Louise J.; Youds, Jillian L.; Ward, Jordan D.; McIlwraith, Michael J.; O’Neil, Nigel J.; Petalcorin, Mark I.R.; Martin, Julie S.; Collis, Spencer J.; Cantor, Sharon B.; Auclair, Melissa; Tissenbaum, Heidi; West, Stephen C.; Rose, Ann M.; Boulton, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Inappropriate homologous recombination (HR) can cause gross chromosomal rearrangements that in mammalian cells may lead to tumorigenesis. In yeast, the Srs2 protein is an anti-recombinase that eliminates inappropriate recombination events, but the functional equivalent of Srs2 in higher eukaryotes has proven to be elusive. In this work, we identify C. elegans SPAR-1 as a functional analogue of Srs2 and describe its vertebrate counterpart, SPAR1/RTEL1, which is required for genome stability and tumour avoidance. We find that spar-1 mutant worms and SPAR1 knockdown human cells share characteristic phenotypes with yeast srs2 mutants, including inviability upon deletion of the sgs1/BLM homologue, hyper-recombination, and DNA damage sensitivity. In vitro, purified human SPAR1 antagonises HR by promoting the disassembly of D loop recombination intermediates in a reaction dependent upon ATP hydrolysis. We propose that loss of HR control following deregulation of SPAR1/RTEL1 may be a critical event that drives genome instability and cancer. PMID:18957201

  12. A yeast gene, MGS1, encoding a DNA-dependent AAA+ ATPase is required to maintain genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Hishida, Takashi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Ohno, Takayuki; Morishita, Takashi; Shinagawa, Hideo

    2001-01-01

    Changes in DNA superhelicity during DNA replication are mediated primarily by the activities of DNA helicases and topoisomerases. If these activities are defective, the progression of the replication fork can be hindered or blocked, which can lead to double-strand breaks, elevated recombination in regions of repeated DNA, and genome instability. Hereditary diseases like Werner's and Bloom's Syndromes are caused by defects in DNA helicases, and these diseases are associated with genome instability and carcinogenesis in humans. Here we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, MGS1 (Maintenance of Genome Stability 1), which encodes a protein belonging to the AAA+ class of ATPases, and whose central region is similar to Escherichia coli RuvB, a Holliday junction branch migration motor protein. The Mgs1 orthologues are highly conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The Mgs1 protein possesses DNA-dependent ATPase and single-strand DNA annealing activities. An mgs1 deletion mutant has an elevated rate of mitotic recombination, which causes genome instability. The mgs1 mutation is synergistic with a mutation in top3 (encoding topoisomerase III), and the double mutant exhibits severe growth defects and markedly increased genome instability. In contrast to the mgs1 mutation, a mutation in the sgs1 gene encoding a DNA helicase homologous to the Werner and Bloom helicases suppresses both the growth defect and the increased genome instability of the top3 mutant. Therefore, evolutionarily conserved Mgs1 may play a role together with RecQ family helicases and DNA topoisomerases in maintaining proper DNA topology, which is essential for genome stability. PMID:11459965

  13. Caenorhabditis elegans APN-1 plays a vital role in maintaining genome stability.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Chadi; Kassahun, Henok; Yang, Xiaoming; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Nilsen, Hilde; Ramotar, Dindial

    2010-02-04

    We previously showed that Caenorhabditis elegans APN-1, the only metazoan apurinic/apyrimidinc (AP) endonuclease belonging to the endonuclease IV family, can functionally rescue the DNA repair defects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants completely lacking AP endonuclease/3'-diesterase activities. While this complementation study provided the first evidence that APN-1 possesses the ability to act on DNA lesions that are processed by AP endonucleases/3'-diesterase activities, no former studies were conducted to examine its biological importance in vivo. Herein, we show that C. elegans knockdown for apn-1 by RNAi displayed phenotypes that are directly linked with a defect in maintaining the integrity of the genome. apn-1(RNAi) animals exhibited a 5-fold increase in the frequency of mutations at a gfp-lacZ reporter and showed sensitivities to DNA damaging agents such as methyl methane sulfonate and hydrogen peroxide that produce AP site lesions and strand breaks with blocked 3'-ends. The apn-1(RNAi) worms also displayed a delay in the division of the P1 blastomere, a defect that is consistent with the accumulation of unrepaired lesions. Longevity was only compromised, if the apn-1(RNAi) animals were challenged with the DNA damaging agents. We showed that apn-1(RNAi) knockdown suppressed formation of apoptotic corpses in the germline caused by an overburden of AP sites generated from uracil DNA glycosylase mediated removal of misincorporated uracil. Finally, we showed that depletion of APN-1 by RNAi partially rescued the lethality resulting from uracil misincorporation, suggesting that APN-1 is an important AP endonuclease for repair of misincorporated uracil.

  14. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Footitt, Steven; Bray, Clifford M; Finch-Savage, William E; West, Christopher E

    2016-08-23

    Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence. Mutant atr and atm seeds are highly resistant to aging, establishing ATM and ATR as determinants of seed viability. In response to aging, ATM delays germination, whereas atm mutant seeds germinate with extensive chromosomal abnormalities. This identifies ATM as a major factor that controls germination in aged seeds, integrating progression through germination with surveillance of genome integrity. Mechanistically, ATM functions through control of DNA replication in imbibing seeds. ATM signaling is mediated by transcriptional control of the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED 5, an essential factor required for the aging-induced delay to germination. In the soil seed bank, seeds exhibit increased transcript levels of ATM and ATR, with changes in dormancy and germination potential modulated by environmental signals, including temperature and soil moisture. Collectively, our findings reveal physiological functions for these sensor kinases in linking genome integrity to germination, thereby influencing seed quality, crucial for plant survival in the natural environment and sustainable crop production.

  15. DNA replication and homologous recombination factors: acting together to maintain genome stability.

    PubMed

    Aze, Antoine; Zhou, Jin Chuan; Costa, Alessandro; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2013-10-01

    Genome duplication requires the coordinated action of multiple proteins to ensure a fast replication with high fidelity. These factors form a complex called the Replisome, which is assembled onto the DNA duplex to promote its unwinding and to catalyze the polymerization of two new strands. Key constituents of the Replisome are the Cdc45-Mcm2-7-GINS helicase and the And1-Claspin-Tipin-Tim1 complex, which coordinate DNA unwinding with polymerase alpha-, delta-, and epsilon- dependent DNA polymerization. These factors encounter numerous obstacles, such as endogenous DNA lesions leading to template breakage and complex structures arising from intrinsic features of specific DNA sequences. To overcome these roadblocks, homologous recombination DNA repair factors, such as Rad51 and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex, are required to ensure complete and faithful replication. Consistent with this notion, many of the genes involved in this process result in lethal phenotypes when inactivated in organisms with complex and large genomes. Here, we summarize the architectural and functional properties of the Replisome and propose a unified view of DNA replication and repair processes.

  16. Polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase enables neurogenesis via multiple DNA repair pathways to maintain genome stability.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Mikio; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase (PNKP) is a DNA repair factor possessing both 5'-kinase and 3'-phosphatase activities to modify ends of a DNA break prior to ligation. Recently, decreased PNKP levels were identified as the cause of severe neuropathology present in the human microcephaly with seizures (MCSZ) syndrome. Utilizing novel murine Pnkp alleles that attenuate expression and a T424GfsX48 frame-shift allele identified in MCSZ individuals, we determined how PNKP inactivation impacts neurogenesis. Mice with PNKP inactivation in neural progenitors manifest neurodevelopmental abnormalities and postnatal death. This severe phenotype involved defective base excision repair and non-homologous end-joining, pathways required for repair of both DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Although mice homozygous for the T424GfsX48 allele were lethal embryonically, attenuated PNKP levels (akin to MCSZ) showed general neurodevelopmental defects, including microcephaly, indicating a critical developmental PNKP threshold. Directed postnatal neural inactivation of PNKP affected specific subpopulations including oligodendrocytes, indicating a broad requirement for genome maintenance, both during and after neurogenesis. These data illuminate the basis for selective neural vulnerability in DNA repair deficiency disease. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. SIRT1 collaborates with ATM and HDAC1 to maintain genomic stability in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dobbin, Matthew M; Madabhushi, Ram; Pan, Ling; Chen, Yue; Kim, Dohoon; Gao, Jun; Ahononu, Biafra; Pao, Ping-Chieh; Qiu, Yi; Zhao, Yingming; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Summary Defects in DNA repair have been linked to cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disease. Yet the mechanisms that protect neurons from genotoxic stress remain largely obscure. In this report, we characterize the roles of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase, SIRT1, in the neuronal response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We show that SIRT1 is rapidly recruited to DSBs in postmitotic neurons, where it exhibits a synergistic relationship with ATM. SIRT1 recruitment to breaks is ATM-dependent; however, SIRT1 also stimulates ATM auto-phosphorylation and activity and stabilizes ATM at DSB sites. Upon DSB induction, SIRT1 also binds the neuroprotective class I histone deacetylase, HDAC1. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates HDAC1 and stimulates its enzymatic activity, which is necessary for DSB repair through the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. HDAC1 mutants that mimic a constitutively acetylated state render neurons more susceptible to DNA damage, whereas pharmacological SIRT1 activators that promote HDAC1 deacetylation also reduce DNA damage in two mouse models of neurodegeneration. We propose that SIRT1 is an apical transducer of the DSB response and that SIRT1 activation offers an important therapeutic avenue in neurodegeneration. PMID:23852118

  18. EEPD1 Rescues Stressed Replication Forks and Maintains Genome Stability by Promoting End Resection and Homologous Recombination Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuehan; Lee, Suk-Hee; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Reinert, Brian L.; Cho, Ju Hwan; Xia, Fen; Jaiswal, Aruna Shanker; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Patel, Bhavita; Brantley, Alexis; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian; Pathak, Rupak; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Singh, Sudha; Kong, Kimi; Wu, Xaiohua; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Beissbarth, Timothy; Gaedcke, Jochen; Burma, Sandeep; Nickoloff, Jac A.; Hromas, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Replication fork stalling and collapse is a major source of genome instability leading to neoplastic transformation or cell death. Such stressed replication forks can be conservatively repaired and restarted using homologous recombination (HR) or non-conservatively repaired using micro-homology mediated end joining (MMEJ). HR repair of stressed forks is initiated by 5’ end resection near the fork junction, which permits 3’ single strand invasion of a homologous template for fork restart. This 5’ end resection also prevents classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ), a competing pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Unopposed NHEJ can cause genome instability during replication stress by abnormally fusing free double strand ends that occur as unstable replication fork repair intermediates. We show here that the previously uncharacterized Exonuclease/Endonuclease/Phosphatase Domain-1 (EEPD1) protein is required for initiating repair and restart of stalled forks. EEPD1 is recruited to stalled forks, enhances 5’ DNA end resection, and promotes restart of stalled forks. Interestingly, EEPD1 directs DSB repair away from cNHEJ, and also away from MMEJ, which requires limited end resection for initiation. EEPD1 is also required for proper ATR and CHK1 phosphorylation, and formation of gamma-H2AX, RAD51 and phospho-RPA32 foci. Consistent with a direct role in stalled replication fork cleavage, EEPD1 is a 5’ overhang nuclease in an obligate complex with the end resection nuclease Exo1 and BLM. EEPD1 depletion causes nuclear and cytogenetic defects, which are made worse by replication stress. Depleting 53BP1, which slows cNHEJ, fully rescues the nuclear and cytogenetic abnormalities seen with EEPD1 depletion. These data demonstrate that genome stability during replication stress is maintained by EEPD1, which initiates HR and inhibits cNHEJ and MMEJ. PMID:26684013

  19. MLL5 maintains genomic integrity by regulating the stability of the chromosomal passenger complex through a functional interaction with Borealin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Fei; Deng, Lih-Wen

    2012-10-01

    Mixed lineage leukemia 5 (MLL5) is a versatile nuclear protein associated with many cellular events. We have shown previously that phosphorylation of MLL5 by Cdk1 is required for mitotic entry. In this paper, the function of MLL5 in mitotic regulation is further explored. SiRNA-mediated downregulation of MLL5 caused improper chromosome alignment at metaphase and resulted in failure of DNA segregation and cytokinesis. Mechanistic studies revealed that the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), which plays a key role in chromosomal bi-orientation, was delocalized from the inner centromere region because of proteasome-mediated degradation in MLL5-depleted cells. Biochemical analyses further demonstrated that the central domain of MLL5 interacted with the C-terminus of Borealin, and the interaction is essential to maintain the stability of Borealin. Moreover, the mitotic defects in MLL5-depleted cells were rescued by overexpression of FLAG-MLL5, but not by a FLAG-MLL5 mutant that did not contain the central domain. Collectively, our results suggest that MLL5 functionally interacts with Borealin, facilitates the expression of CPC, and hence contributes to mitotic fidelity and genomic integrity.

  20. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome stability maintained over six passages through three different penaeid shrimp species.

    PubMed

    Sindhupriya, M; Saravanan, P; Otta, S K; Amarnath, C Bala; Arulraj, R; Bhuvaneswari, T; Praveena, P Ezhil; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

    2014-08-21

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology.

  1. A novel role for the Pol I transcription factor UBTF in maintaining genome stability through the regulation of highly transcribed Pol II genes

    PubMed Central

    Diesch, Jeannine; Lesmana, Analia; Poortinga, Gretchen; Hein, Nadine; Lidgerwood, Grace; Cameron, Donald P.; Ellul, Jason; Goodall, Gregory J.; Wong, Lee H.; Dhillon, Amardeep S.; Hamdane, Nourdine; Rothblum, Lawrence I.; Pearson, Richard B.; Haviv, Izhak; Moss, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms to coordinate programs of highly transcribed genes required for cellular homeostasis and growth are unclear. Upstream binding transcription factor (UBTF, also called UBF) is thought to function exclusively in RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-specific transcription of the ribosomal genes. Here, we report that the two isoforms of UBTF (UBTF1/2) are also enriched at highly expressed Pol II-transcribed genes throughout the mouse genome. Further analysis of UBTF1/2 DNA binding in immortalized human epithelial cells and their isogenically matched transformed counterparts reveals an additional repertoire of UBTF1/2-bound genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA damage response. As proof of a functional role for UBTF1/2 in regulating Pol II transcription, we demonstrate that UBTF1/2 is required for recruiting Pol II to the highly transcribed histone gene clusters and for their optimal expression. Intriguingly, lack of UBTF1/2 does not affect chromatin marks or nucleosome density at histone genes. Instead, it results in increased accessibility of the histone promoters and transcribed regions to micrococcal nuclease, implicating UBTF1/2 in mediating DNA accessibility. Unexpectedly, UBTF2, which does not function in Pol I transcription, is sufficient to regulate histone gene expression in the absence of UBTF1. Moreover, depletion of UBTF1/2 and subsequent reduction in histone gene expression is associated with DNA damage and genomic instability independent of Pol I transcription. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role for UBTF1 and UBTF2 in maintaining genome stability through coordinating the expression of highly transcribed Pol I (UBTF1 activity) and Pol II genes (UBTF2 activity). PMID:25452314

  2. Chromium and Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Many metals serve as micronutrients which protect against genomic instability. Chromium is most abundant in its trivalent and hexavalent forms. Trivalent chromium has historically been considered an essential element, though recent data indicate that while it can have pharmacological effects and value, it is not essential. There are no data indicating that trivalent chromium promotes genomic stability and, instead may promote genomic instability. Hexavalent chromium is widely accepted as highly toxic and carcinogenic with no nutritional value. Recent data indicate that it causes genomic instability and also has no role in promoting genomic stability. PMID:22192535

  3. S-phase-dependent p50/NF-кB1 phosphorylation in response to ATR and replication stress acts to maintain genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Clayton D; Kang, Shijun; Bernal, Giovanna M; Wahlstrom, Joshua S; Voce, David J; Cahill, Kirk E; Garofalo, Andrea; Raleigh, David R; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2015-01-01

    The apical damage kinase, ATR, is activated by replication stress (RS) both in response to DNA damage and during normal S-phase. Loss of function studies indicates that ATR acts to stabilize replication forks, block cell cycle progression and promote replication restart. Although checkpoint failure and replication fork collapse can result in cell death, no direct cytotoxic pathway downstream of ATR has previously been described. Here, we show that ATR directly reduces survival by inducing phosphorylation of the p50 (NF-κB1, p105) subunit of NF-кB and moreover, that this response is necessary for genome maintenance independent of checkpoint activity. Cell free and in vivo studies demonstrate that RS induces phosphorylation of p50 in an ATR-dependent but DNA damage-independent manner that acts to modulate NF-кB activity without affecting p50/p65 nuclear translocation. This response, evident in human and murine cells, occurs not only in response to exogenous RS but also during the unperturbed S-phase. Functionally, the p50 response results in inhibition of anti-apoptotic gene expression that acts to sensitize cells to DNA strand breaks independent of damage repair. Ultimately, loss of this pathway causes genomic instability due to the accumulation of chromosomal breaks. Together, the data indicate that during S-phase ATR acts via p50 to ensure that cells with elevated levels of replication-associated DNA damage are eliminated.

  4. Preventing Replication Fork Collapse to Maintain Genome Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, David

    2015-01-01

    Billions of base pairs of DNA must be replicated trillions of times in a human lifetime. Complete and accurate replication once and only once per cell division cycle is essential to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. Impediments to replication fork progression including difficult to replicate DNA sequences, conflicts with transcription, and DNA damage further add to the genome maintenance challenge. These obstacles frequently cause fork stalling, but only rarely cause a failure to complete replication. Robust mechanisms ensure that stalled forks remain stable and capable of either resuming DNA synthesis or being rescued by converging forks. However, when failures do happen the fork collapses leading to genome rearrangements, cell death and disease. Despite intense interest, the mechanisms to repair damaged replication forks, stabilize them, and ensure successful replication remain only partly understood. Different models of fork collapse have been proposed with varying descriptions of what happens to the DNA and replisome. Here, I will define fork collapse and describe what is known about how the replication checkpoint prevents it to maintain genome stability. PMID:25957489

  5. Mitosis, double strand break repair, and telomeres: a view from the end: how telomeres and the DNA damage response cooperate during mitosis to maintain genome stability.

    PubMed

    Cesare, Anthony J

    2014-11-01

    Double strand break (DSB) repair is suppressed during mitosis because RNF8 and downstream DNA damage response (DDR) factors, including 53BP1, do not localize to mitotic chromatin. Discovery of the mitotic kinase-dependent mechanism that inhibits DSB repair during cell division was recently reported. It was shown that restoring mitotic DSB repair was detrimental, resulting in repair dependent genome instability and covalent telomere fusions. The telomere DDR that occurs naturally during cellular aging and in cancer is known to be refractory to G2/M checkpoint activation. Such DDR-positive telomeres, and those that occur as part of the telomere-dependent prolonged mitotic arrest checkpoint, normally pass through mitosis without covalent ligation, but result in cell growth arrest in G1 phase. The discovery that suppressing DSB repair during mitosis may function primarily to protect DDR-positive telomeres from fusing during cell division reinforces the unique cooperation between telomeres and the DDR to mediate tumor suppression.

  6. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiayu; Xu, Weijiang; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Neng; Ni, Juan; Zou, Tianning; Liang, Ziqing; Wang, Xu; Fenech, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state). SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer. PMID:27347936

  7. Maintaining replication origins in the face of genomic change

    PubMed Central

    Di Rienzi, Sara C.; Lindstrom, Kimberly C.; Mann, Tobias; Noble, William S.; Raghuraman, M.K.; Brewer, Bonita J.

    2012-01-01

    Origins of replication present a paradox to evolutionary biologists. As a collection, they are absolutely essential genomic features, but individually are highly redundant and nonessential. It is therefore difficult to predict to what extent and in what regard origins are conserved over evolutionary time. Here, through a comparative genomic analysis of replication origins and chromosomal replication patterns in the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lachancea waltii, we assess to what extent replication origins survived genomic change produced from 150 million years of evolution. We find that L. waltii origins exhibit a core consensus sequence and nucleosome occupancy pattern highly similar to those of S. cerevisiae origins. We further observe that the overall progression of chromosomal replication is similar between L. waltii and S. cerevisiae. Nevertheless, few origins show evidence of being conserved in location between the two species. Among the conserved origins are those surrounding centromeres and adjacent to histone genes, suggesting that proximity to an origin may be important for their regulation. We conclude that, over evolutionary time, origins maintain sequence, structure, and regulation, but are continually being created and destroyed, with the result that their locations are generally not conserved. PMID:22665441

  8. WWOX guards genome stability by activating ATM.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Idit; Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hofmann, Thomas G; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) tend to break upon replication stress and have been suggested to be "hot spots" for genomic instability. Recent evidence, however, implies that in the wake of DNA damage, WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX, the gene product of the FRA16D fragile site), associates with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and regulates its activation to maintain genomic integrity.

  9. A control system for maintaining high stability in gas pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1987-09-01

    A pressure control system has been implemented on an experiment designed to detect the presence of fractional charges in bulk matter. The experiment utilizes a liquid-droplet generation technique requiring high-stability gas-pressure delivery to ensure accurate data collection. The pressure control system consists of a pressurized mercury reservoir containing a low-vapor-pressure, diffusion-pump oil. A commercially available differential pressure transducer, servo-driven valve, and controller sense the pressure fluctuations with respect to a static reference pressure. The system can maintain constant pressure to better than one part in 10,000 at working pressures in the range of 100 to 300 psi. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  10. The 3M complex maintains microtubule and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Yan, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Sinnott, Becky; Cappell, Kathryn M.; Yu, Yanbao; Mo, Jinyao; Duncan, Joseph A.; Chen, Xian; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Whitehurst, Angelique W.; Xiong, Yue

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 genes are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M and other growth retardation syndromes. The mechanism underlying the function of the three 3M genes in development is not known. We found that OBSL1 and CCDC8 form a complex with CUL7 and regulate the level and centrosomal localization of CUL7, respectively. CUL7 depletion results in altered microtubule dynamics, prometaphase arrest, tetraploidy and mitotic cell death. These defects are recaptured in CUL7 mutated 3M cells and can be rescued by wild-type, but not 3M patients-derived CUL7 mutants. Depletion of either OBSL1 or CCDC8 results in similar defects and sensitizes cells to microtubule damage as loss of CUL7 function. Microtubule damage reduces the level of CCDC8 that is required for the centrosomal localization of CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 proteins form a 3M complex that functions in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity and normal development. PMID:24793695

  11. WWOX guards genome stability by activating ATM

    PubMed Central

    Hazan, Idit; Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hofmann, Thomas G; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) tend to break upon replication stress and have been suggested to be “hot spots” for genomic instability. Recent evidence, however, implies that in the wake of DNA damage, WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX, the gene product of the FRA16D fragile site), associates with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and regulates its activation to maintain genomic integrity. PMID:27308504

  12. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  13. Why Mitochondria Must Fuse to Maintain Their Genome Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Vidoni, Sara; Zanna, Claudia; Sarzi, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity is a major challenge for cells to sustain energy production by respiration. Recent Advances: Recently, mitochondrial membrane dynamics emerged as a key process contributing to prevent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations. Indeed, both fundamental and clinical data suggest that disruption of mitochondrial fusion, related to mutations in the OPA1, MFN2, PINK1, and PARK2 genes, leads to the accumulation of mutations in the mitochondrial genome. Critical Issues: We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial fusion acts as a direct mechanism to prevent the generation of altered mtDNA and to eliminate mutated deleterious genomes either by trans-complementation or by mitophagy. Future Directions: Finally, we conclude this review with a short evolutionary comparison between the mechanisms involved in mitochondrial and bacterial modes of genome distribution and plasticity, highlighting possible common conserved processes required for the maintenance of their genome integrity, which should inspire our future investigations. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 379–388. PMID:23350575

  14. Does a vegetarian diet influence genomic stability?

    PubMed

    Kazimírová, Alena; Barancoková, Magdaléna; Volkovová, Katarína; Staruchová, Marta; Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, Marica; Wsólová, Ladislava; Collins, Andrew R; Dusinská, Mária

    2004-02-01

    The vegetarian lifestyle is supposedly healthy, and differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in biomarkers related to diseases such as cancer might be expected. To investigate the possible role of different diets in maintaining genomic stability. The vegetarian group, consisting of 24 volunteers (13 women and 11 men), were matched for age and sex with 24 volunteers (12 women and 12 men) with a traditional dietary habit. Among vegetarians there were 13 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (8 women, 5 men) with average length of vegetarian diet 10.8 years (ranging from 5 to 26) and 11 lacto-vegetarians (5 women, 6 men) with average length of vegetarian diet 8.2 years (ranging from 3 to15). All volunteers were nonsmokers, non-consumers of alcohol and had similar education and patterns of physical activity. Chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and DNA damage (strand breaks, oxidised bases and H(2)O(2)-sensitivity) were examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes of vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Plasma antioxidant status was assessed with the FRAP assay. We did not find any differences in percentage of cells with chromosome aberrations or in the frequency of micronuclei between vegetarians and non-vegetarians or between lacto-ovo and lacto-vegetarians. There was no statistically significant difference in total antioxidant capacity between the groups. The group with traditional dietary habits had significantly higher levels of oxidative DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidised purines, P = 0.005) compared with vegetarians. A significant positive correlation between age and oxidative DNA damage (net FPG-sensitive sites) was found in non-vegetarians, while there was an opposite trend towards a negative association in vegetarians. On the other hand chromosome aberrations correlated with age in vegetarians (r = 0.48, P = 0.017) but not in non-vegetarians. Our results indicate that a vegetarian diet can lead to a slight decrease in oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes, but other

  15. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase maintains active zone structure by stabilizing Bruchpilot

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Shaoyun; Ali, Yousuf O; Ruan, Kai; Zhai, R Grace

    2013-01-01

    Active zones are specialized presynaptic structures critical for neurotransmission. We show that a neuronal maintenance factor, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT), is required for maintaining active zone structural integrity in Drosophila by interacting with the active zone protein, Bruchpilot (BRP), and shielding it from activity-induced ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation. NMNAT localizes to the peri-active zone and interacts biochemically with BRP in an activity-dependent manner. Loss of NMNAT results in ubiquitination, mislocalization and aggregation of BRP, and subsequent active zone degeneration. We propose that, as a neuronal maintenance factor, NMNAT specifically maintains active zone structure by direct protein–protein interaction. PMID:23154466

  16. DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR Interplay Maintains Genome Integrity during Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Downing, Susanna M; Li, Yang; Brown, Eric J; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2017-01-25

    The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates a network of cellular processes that integrates cell-cycle control and DNA repair or apoptosis, which serves to maintain genome stability. DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase, encoded by PRKDC), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are related PI3K-like protein kinases and central regulators of the DDR. Defects in these kinases have been linked to neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental syndromes. In all cases, the key neuroprotective function of these kinases is uncertain. It also remains unclear how interactions between the three DNA damage-responsive kinases coordinate genome stability, particularly in a physiological context. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify the neural function of DNA-PKcs and the interplay between ATM and ATR during neurogenesis. We found that DNA-PKcs loss in the mouse sensitized neuronal progenitors to apoptosis after ionizing radiation because of excessive DNA damage. DNA-PKcs was also required to prevent endogenous DNA damage accumulation throughout the adult brain. In contrast, ATR coordinated the DDR during neurogenesis to direct apoptosis in cycling neural progenitors, whereas ATM regulated apoptosis in both proliferative and noncycling cells. We also found that ATR controls a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in cortical progenitors, independent of ATM and DNA-PKcs. These nonoverlapping roles were further confirmed via sustained murine embryonic or cortical development after all three kinases were simultaneously inactivated. Thus, our results illustrate how DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR have unique and essential roles during the DDR, collectively ensuring comprehensive genome maintenance in the nervous system.

  17. Distributive Effects of Forest Service Attempts to Maintain Community Stability

    Treesearch

    Steven E. Daniels; William F. Hyde; David N. Wear

    1991-01-01

    Community stability is an objective of USDA Forest Service timber sales. This paper examines that objective, and the success the Forest Service can have in attaining it, through its intended maintenance of a constant volume timber harvest schedule. We apply a three-factor, two-sector modified general equilibrium model with empirical evidence from the timber-based...

  18. Human CDK18 promotes replication stress signaling and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Giancarlo; Staples, Christopher J.; Ganesh, Anil; Patterson, Karl W.; Bryne, Dominic P.; Myers, Katie N.; Patil, Abhijit A.; Eyers, Claire E.; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J. Mark; Eyers, Patrick A.; Collis, Spencer J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate cell cycle checkpoints with DNA repair mechanisms that together maintain genome stability. However, the myriad mechanisms that can give rise to genome instability are still to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify CDK18 (PCTAIRE 3) as a novel regulator of genome stability, and show that depletion of CDK18 causes an increase in endogenous DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities. CDK18-depleted cells accumulate in early S-phase, exhibiting retarded replication fork kinetics and reduced ATR kinase signaling in response to replication stress. Mechanistically, CDK18 interacts with RAD9, RAD17 and TOPBP1, and CDK18-deficiency results in a decrease in both RAD17 and RAD9 chromatin retention in response to replication stress. Importantly, we demonstrate that these phenotypes are rescued by exogenous CDK18 in a kinase-dependent manner. Collectively, these data reveal a rate-limiting role for CDK18 in replication stress signalling and establish it as a novel regulator of genome integrity. PMID:27382066

  19. Human CDK18 promotes replication stress signaling and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Barone, Giancarlo; Staples, Christopher J; Ganesh, Anil; Patterson, Karl W; Bryne, Dominic P; Myers, Katie N; Patil, Abhijit A; Eyers, Claire E; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J Mark; Eyers, Patrick A; Collis, Spencer J

    2016-10-14

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate cell cycle checkpoints with DNA repair mechanisms that together maintain genome stability. However, the myriad mechanisms that can give rise to genome instability are still to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify CDK18 (PCTAIRE 3) as a novel regulator of genome stability, and show that depletion of CDK18 causes an increase in endogenous DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities. CDK18-depleted cells accumulate in early S-phase, exhibiting retarded replication fork kinetics and reduced ATR kinase signaling in response to replication stress. Mechanistically, CDK18 interacts with RAD9, RAD17 and TOPBP1, and CDK18-deficiency results in a decrease in both RAD17 and RAD9 chromatin retention in response to replication stress. Importantly, we demonstrate that these phenotypes are rescued by exogenous CDK18 in a kinase-dependent manner. Collectively, these data reveal a rate-limiting role for CDK18 in replication stress signalling and establish it as a novel regulator of genome integrity.

  20. Maintaining Genome Stability in Defiance of Mitotic DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Stefano; Gentili, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of decisions affecting cell viability and proliferation is based on prompt detection of the issue to be addressed, formulation and transmission of a correct set of instructions and fidelity in the execution of orders. While the first and the last are purely mechanical processes relying on the faithful functioning of single proteins or macromolecular complexes (sensors and effectors), information is the real cue, with signal amplitude, duration, and frequency ultimately determining the type of response. The cellular response to DNA damage is no exception to the rule. In this review article we focus on DNA damage responses in G2 and Mitosis. First, we set the stage describing mitosis and the machineries in charge of assembling the apparatus responsible for chromosome alignment and segregation as well as the inputs that control its function (checkpoints). Next, we examine the type of issues that a cell approaching mitosis might face, presenting the impact of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on the correct and timely functioning of pathways correcting errors or damage before chromosome segregation. We conclude this essay with a perspective on the current status of mitotic signaling pathway inhibitors and their potential use in cancer therapy. PMID:27493659

  1. Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    fission yeast cells by vortexing cells with glass beads in B88 lysis buffer (20 mM HEPES pH 7.0, 50 mM potassium acetate, 5 mM magnesium acetate, 100...from side chain to side chain . There are many positively charged residues located on the inner surface of the channel, generating a strongly positive...identified in the literature, particularly one associated with adenocarcinoma. We constructed this allele into Mcm4 in fission yeast to investigate

  2. Maintenance of genome stability in plants: repairing DNA double strand breaks and chromatin structure stability.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells are subject to high levels of DNA damage resulting from plant's obligatory dependence on sunlight and the associated exposure to environmental stresses like solar UV radiation, high soil salinity, drought, chilling injury, and other air and soil pollutants including heavy metals and metabolic by-products from endogenous processes. The irreversible DNA damages, generated by the environmental and genotoxic stresses affect plant growth and development, reproduction, and crop productivity. Thus, for maintaining genome stability, plants have developed an extensive array of mechanisms for the detection and repair of DNA damages. This review will focus recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms regulating plant genome stability in the context of repairing of double stand breaks and chromatin structure maintenance.

  3. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus stably clusters its genomes across generations to maintain itself extrachromosomally.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ya-Fang; Sugden, Arthur U; Fox, Kathryn; Hayes, Mitchell; Sugden, Bill

    2017-09-04

    Genetic elements that replicate extrachromosomally are rare in mammals; however, several human tumor viruses, including the papillomaviruses and the gammaherpesviruses, maintain their plasmid genomes by tethering them to cellular chromosomes. We have uncovered an unprecedented mechanism of viral replication: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) stably clusters its genomes across generations to maintain itself extrachromosomally. To identify and characterize this mechanism, we developed two complementary, independent approaches: live-cell imaging and a predictive computational model. The clustering of KSHV requires the viral protein, LANA1, to bind viral genomes to nucleosomes arrayed on both cellular and viral DNA. Clustering affects both viral partitioning and viral genome numbers of KSHV. The clustering of KSHV plasmids provides it with an effective evolutionary strategy to rapidly increase copy numbers of genomes per cell at the expense of the total numbers of cells infected. © 2017 Chiu et al.

  4. Menopause: Genome stability as new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Laven, Joop S E; Visser, Jenny A; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Vermeij, Wilbert P; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2016-10-01

    Menopause is defined as the age-dependent permanent cessation of menstruation and ovulation due to ovarian failure. Menopause occurs on average around the age of 51 years. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 44 genetic variants that are associated with age of onset of natural menopause. Genes linked with menopause can be classified into three major groups: genes implicated in genome stability (DNA repair), immune function and mitochondrial biogenesis. Biological and epidemiological data indicate that reproductive performance, age at menopause and longevity are interlinked through common genetic factors, which play a pivotal role in DNA repair and genome maintenance, which has been linked before with the process of ageing. Consequently, ageing of the soma as a result of inefficient DNA repair appears also to be responsible for failure to reproduce and the subsequent occurrence of menopause. In this way reproductive performance may be strongly linked to the physical condition of the soma and may be a very good predictor of general health in later life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromosome End Repair and Genome Stability in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Susannah F.; Reed, Jake; Alexander, Noah; Mason, Christopher E.; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum replicates within circulating red blood cells, where it is subjected to conditions that frequently cause DNA damage. The repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is thought to rely almost exclusively on homologous recombination (HR), due to a lack of efficient nonhomologous end joining. However, given that the parasite is haploid during this stage of its life cycle, the mechanisms involved in maintaining genome stability are poorly understood. Of particular interest are the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes, which contain the majority of the multicopy variant antigen-encoding genes responsible for virulence and disease severity. Here, we show that parasites utilize a competitive balance between de novo telomere addition, also called “telomere healing,” and HR to stabilize chromosome ends. Products of both repair pathways were observed in response to DSBs that occurred spontaneously during routine in vitro culture or resulted from experimentally induced DSBs, demonstrating that both pathways are active in repairing DSBs within subtelomeric regions and that the pathway utilized was determined by the DNA sequences immediately surrounding the break. In combination, these two repair pathways enable parasites to efficiently maintain chromosome stability while also contributing to the generation of genetic diversity. PMID:28790200

  6. ATR cooperates with CTC1 and STN1 to maintain telomeres and genome integrity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Kara A; Leehy, Katherine; Song, Xiangyu; Nelson, Andrew D; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2012-04-01

    The CTC1/STN1/TEN1 (CST) complex is an essential constituent of plant and vertebrate telomeres. Here we show that CST and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM] and Rad3-related) act synergistically to maintain telomere length and genome stability in Arabidopsis. Inactivation of ATR, but not ATM, temporarily rescued severe morphological phenotypes associated with ctc1 or stn1. Unexpectedly, telomere shortening accelerated in plants lacking CST and ATR. In first-generation (G1) ctc1 atr mutants, enhanced telomere attrition was modest, but in G2 ctc1 atr, telomeres shortened precipitously, and this loss coincided with a dramatic decrease in telomerase activity in G2 atr mutants. Zeocin treatment also triggered a reduction in telomerase activity, suggesting that the prolonged absence of ATR leads to a hitherto-unrecognized DNA damage response (DDR). Finally, our data indicate that ATR modulates DDR in CST mutants by limiting chromosome fusions and transcription of DNA repair genes and also by promoting programmed cell death in stem cells. We conclude that the absence of CST in Arabidopsis triggers a multifaceted ATR-dependent response to facilitate maintenance of critically shortened telomeres and eliminate cells with severe telomere dysfunction.

  7. Homoeologous shuffling and chromosome compensation maintain genome balance in resynthesized allopolyploid Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhiyong; Gaeta, Robert T; Pires, J Chris

    2011-05-10

    Polyploidy has contributed to the evolution of eukaryotes, particularly flowering plants. The genomic consequences of polyploidy have been extensively studied, but the mechanisms for chromosome stability and diploidization in polyploids remain largely unknown. By using new cytogenetic tools to identify all of the homoeologous chromosomes, we conducted a cytological investigation of 50 resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids across generations S(0:1) to S(5:6) and in the S(10:11) generation. Changes in copy number of individual chromosomes were detected in the S(0:1) generation and increased in subsequent generations, despite the fact that the mean chromosome number among lines was approximately 38. The chromosome complement of individual plants (segregants) ranged from 36 to 42, with a bias toward the accumulation of extra chromosomes. Karyotype analysis of the S(10:11) generation detected aneuploidy and inter- and intragenomic rearrangements, chromosome breakage and fusion, rDNA changes, and loss of repeat sequences. Chromosome sets with extensive homoeology showed the greatest instability. Dosage balance requirements maintained chromosome numbers at or near the tetraploid level, and the loss and gain of chromosomes frequently involved homoeologous chromosome replacement and compensation. These data indicate that early generations of resynthesized B. napus involved aneuploidy and gross chromosomal rearrangements, and that dosage balance mechanisms enforced chromosome number stability. Seed yield and pollen viability were inversely correlated with increasing aneuploidy, and the greatest fertility was observed in two lines that were additive for parental chromosomes. These data on resynthesized B. napus and the correlation of fertility with additive karyotypes cast light on the origins and establishment of natural B. napus.

  8. Ten years of maintaining and expanding a microbial genome and metagenome analysis system.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Victor M; Chen, I-Min A; Chu, Ken; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-11-01

    Launched in March 2005, the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system is a comprehensive data management system that supports multidimensional comparative analysis of genomic data. At the core of the IMG system is a data warehouse that contains genome and metagenome datasets sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute or provided by scientific users, as well as public genome datasets available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information Genbank sequence data archive. Genomes and metagenome datasets are processed using IMG's microbial genome and metagenome sequence data processing pipelines and are integrated into the data warehouse using IMG's data integration toolkits. Microbial genome and metagenome application specific data marts and user interfaces provide access to different subsets of IMG's data and analysis toolkits. This review article revisits IMG's original aims, highlights key milestones reached by the system during the past 10 years, and discusses the main challenges faced by a rapidly expanding system, in particular the complexity of maintaining such a system in an academic setting with limited budgets and computing and data management infrastructure.

  9. Population genomics of divergence within an obligate pollination mutualism: Selection maintains differences between Joshua tree species.

    PubMed

    Royer, Anne M; Streisfeld, Matthew A; Smith, Christopher Irwin

    2016-10-01

    Speciation is a complex process that can be shaped by many factors, from geographic isolation to interspecific interactions. In Joshua trees, selection from pollinators on style length has been hypothesized to contribute to the maintenance of differentiation between two hybridizing sister species. We used population genomics approaches to measure the extent of genetic differentiation between these species, test whether selection maintains differences between them, and determine whether genetic variants associated with style length show signatures of selection. Using restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD)-sequencing, we identified 9516 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the Joshua tree genome. We characterized the genomic composition of trees in a narrow hybrid zone and used genomic scans to search for signatures of selection acting on these SNPs. We used a genome-wide association study to identify SNPs associated with variation in phenotypic traits, including style length, and asked whether those SNPs were overrepresented among the group under selection. The two species were highly genetically differentiated (FST = 0.25), and hybrids were relatively rare in the hybrid zone. Approximately 20% of SNPs showed evidence of selection maintaining divergence. While SNPs associated with style length were overrepresented among those under selection (P < 0.0001), the same was true for SNPs associated with highly differentiated vegetative traits. The two species of Joshua tree are clearly genetically distinct, and selection is maintaining differences between them. We found that loci associated with differentiated traits were likely to be under selection. However, many traits other than style length appeared to be under selection. Together with the dearth of intermediate hybrids, these findings reveal that these taxa are more strongly diverged than previously suspected and that selection, likely on many targets, is maintaining separation where the two species meet and

  10. A Critical Balance: dNTPs and the Maintenance of Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Chen-Chun; Kearsey, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    A crucial factor in maintaining genome stability is establishing deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels within a range that is optimal for chromosomal replication. Since DNA replication is relevant to a wide range of other chromosomal activities, these may all be directly or indirectly affected when dNTP concentrations deviate from a physiologically normal range. The importance of understanding these consequences is relevant to genetic disorders that disturb dNTP levels, and strategies that inhibit dNTP synthesis in cancer chemotherapy and for treatment of other disorders. We review here how abnormal dNTP levels affect DNA replication and discuss the consequences for genome stability. PMID:28146119

  11. USP7 is essential for maintaining Rad18 stability and DNA damage tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zlatanou, A; Sabbioneda, S; Miller, E S; Greenwalt, A; Aggathanggelou, A; Maurice, M M; Lehmann, A R; Stankovic, T; Reverdy, C; Colland, F; Vaziri, C; Stewart, G S

    2016-02-25

    Rad18 functions at the cross-roads of three different DNA damage response (DDR) pathways involved in protecting stressed replication forks: homologous recombination repair, DNA inter-strand cross-link repair and DNA damage tolerance. Although Rad18 serves to facilitate replication of damaged genomes by promoting translesion synthesis (TLS), this comes at a cost of potentially error-prone lesion bypass. In contrast, loss of Rad18-dependent TLS potentiates the collapse of stalled forks and leads to incomplete genome replication. Given the pivotal nature with which Rad18 governs the fine balance between replication fidelity and genome stability, Rad18 levels and activity have a major impact on genomic integrity. Here, we identify the de-ubiquitylating enzyme USP7 as a critical regulator of Rad18 protein levels. Loss of USP7 destabilizes Rad18 and compromises UV-induced PCNA mono-ubiquitylation and Pol η recruitment to stalled replication forks. USP7-depleted cells also fail to elongate nascent daughter strand DNA following UV irradiation and show reduced DNA damage tolerance. We demonstrate that USP7 associates with Rad18 directly via a consensus USP7-binding motif and can disassemble Rad18-dependent poly-ubiquitin chains both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these observations identify USP7 as a novel component of the cellular DDR involved in preserving the genome stability.

  12. Roles of RECQ helicases in recombination based DNA repair, genomic stability and aging

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Ahn, Byungchan

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance of the stability of genetic material is an essential feature of every living organism. Organisms across all kingdoms have evolved diverse and highly efficient repair mechanisms to protect the genome from deleterious consequences of various genotoxic factors that might tend to destabilize the integrity of the genome in each generation. One such group of proteins that is actively involved in genome surveillance is the RecQ helicase family. These proteins are highly conserved DNA helicases, which have diverse roles in multiple DNA metabolic processes such as DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair. In humans, five RecQ helicases have been identified and three of them namely, WRN, BLM and RecQL4 have been linked to genetic diseases characterized by genome instability, premature aging and cancer predisposition. This helicase family plays important roles in various DNA repair pathways including protecting the genome from illegitimate recombination during chromosome segregation in mitosis and assuring genome stability. This review mainly focuses on various roles of human RecQ helicases in the process of recombination-based DNA repair to maintain genome stability and physiological consequences of their defects in the development of cancer and premature aging. PMID:19083132

  13. Roles of RECQ helicases in recombination based DNA repair, genomic stability and aging.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Ahn, Byungchan; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2009-06-01

    The maintenance of the stability of genetic material is an essential feature of every living organism. Organisms across all kingdoms have evolved diverse and highly efficient repair mechanisms to protect the genome from deleterious consequences of various genotoxic factors that might tend to destabilize the integrity of the genome in each generation. One such group of proteins that is actively involved in genome surveillance is the RecQ helicase family. These proteins are highly conserved DNA helicases, which have diverse roles in multiple DNA metabolic processes such as DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair. In humans, five RecQ helicases have been identified and three of them namely, WRN, BLM and RecQL4 have been linked to genetic diseases characterized by genome instability, premature aging and cancer predisposition. This helicase family plays important roles in various DNA repair pathways including protecting the genome from illegitimate recombination during chromosome segregation in mitosis and assuring genome stability. This review mainly focuses on various roles of human RecQ helicases in the process of recombination-based DNA repair to maintain genome stability and physiological consequences of their defects in the development of cancer and premature aging.

  14. Ancient hybridization and genomic stabilization in a swordtail fish.

    PubMed

    Schumer, Molly; Cui, Rongfeng; Powell, Daniel L; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A rapidly increasing body of work is revealing that the genomes of distinct species often exhibit hybrid ancestry, presumably due to postspeciation hybridization between closely related species. Despite the growing number of documented cases, we still know relatively little about how genomes evolve and stabilize following hybridization, and to what extent hybridization is functionally relevant. Here, we examine the case of Xiphophorus nezahualcoyotl, a teleost fish whose genome exhibits significant hybrid ancestry. We show that hybridization was relatively ancient and is unlikely to be ongoing. Strikingly, the genome of X. nezahualcoyotl has largely stabilized following hybridization, distinguishing it from examples such as human-Neanderthal hybridization. Hybridization-derived regions are remarkably distinct from other regions of the genome, tending to be enriched in genomic regions with reduced constraint. These results suggest that selection has played a role in removing hybrid ancestry from certain functionally important regions. Combined with findings in other systems, our results raise many questions about the process of genomic stabilization and the role of selection in shaping patterns of hybrid ancestry in the genome. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. How might flukes and tapeworms maintain genome integrity without a canonical piRNA pathway?

    PubMed

    Skinner, Danielle E; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Koziol, Uriel; Brehm, Klaus; Brindley, Paul J

    2014-03-01

    Surveillance by RNA interference is central to controlling the mobilization of transposable elements (TEs). In stem cells, Piwi argonaute (Ago) proteins and associated proteins repress mobilization of TEs to maintain genome integrity. This defense mechanism targeting TEs is termed the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. In this opinion article, we draw attention to the situation that the genomes of cestodes and trematodes have lost the piwi and vasa genes that are hallmark characters of the germline multipotency program. This absence of Piwi-like Agos and Vasa helicases prompts the question: how does the germline of these flatworms withstand mobilization of TEs? Here, we present an interpretation of mechanisms likely to defend the germline integrity of parasitic flatworms.

  16. How might flukes and tapeworms maintain genome integrity without a canonical piRNA pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Danielle E.; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Koziol, Uriel; Brehm, Klaus; Brindley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance by RNA interference is central to controlling the mobilization of transposable elements (TEs). In stem cells, Piwi argonaute (Ago) proteins and associated proteins repress mobilization of TEs to maintain genome integrity. This defense mechanism targeting TEs is termed the Piwi-interacting RNA (Piwi-piRNA) pathway. In this Opinion, we draw attention to the situation that the genomes of cestodes and trematodes have lost the piwi and vasa genes that are hallmark characters of the germline multipotency program. This absence of Piwi-like Agos and Vasa helicases prompts the question: how does the germline of these flatworms withstand mobilization of TEs? Here we present an interpretation of mechanisms likely to defend the germline integrity of parasitic flatworms. PMID:24485046

  17. TAO1 kinase maintains chromosomal stability by facilitating proper congression of chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Roshan L; Tamura, Naoka; Fries, Anna; Levin, Nicolas; Clark, Joanna; Draviam, Viji M

    2014-06-01

    Chromosomal instability can arise from defects in chromosome-microtubule attachment. Using a variety of drug treatments, we show that TAO1 kinase is required for ensuring the normal congression of chromosomes. Depletion of TAO1 reduces the density of growing interphase and mitotic microtubules in human cells, showing TAO1's role in controlling microtubule dynamics. We demonstrate the aneugenic nature of chromosome-microtubule attachment defects in TAO1-depleted cells using an error-correction assay. Our model further strengthens the emerging paradigm that microtubule regulatory pathways are important for resolving erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments and maintaining the integrity of the genome, regardless of the spindle checkpoint status.

  18. Stepping strategies used by post-stroke individuals to maintain margins of stability during walking.

    PubMed

    Hak, Laura; Houdijk, Han; van der Wurff, Peter; Prins, Maarten R; Mert, Agali; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2013-01-01

    People recovering from a stroke are less stable during walking compared to able-bodied controls. The purpose of this study was to examine whether and how post-stroke individuals adapt their steady-state gait pattern to maintain or increase their margins of stability during walking, and to examine how these strategies differ from strategies employed by able-bodied people. Ten post-stroke individuals and 9 age-matched able-bodied individuals walked on the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment. Medio-lateral translations of the walking surface were imposed to manipulate gait stability. To provoke gait adaptations, a gait adaptability task was used, in which subjects occasionally had to hit a virtual target with their knees. We measured medio-lateral and backward margins of stability, and the associated gait parameters walking speed, step length, step frequency, and step width. Post-stroke participants showed similar medio-lateral margins of stability as able-bodied people in all conditions. This was accomplished by a larger step width and a relatively high step frequency. Post-stroke participants walked overall slower and decreased walking speed and step length even further in response to both manipulations compared to able-bodied participants, resulting in a tendency towards an overall smaller backward margins of stability, and a significantly smaller backward margin of stability during the gait adaptability task. Post-stroke individuals have more difficulties regulating their walking speed, and the underlying parameters step frequency and step length, compared to able-bodied controls. These quantities are important in regulating the size of the backward margin of stability when walking in complex environments. © 2013.

  19. Genome Stability Pathways in Head and Neck Cancers

    PubMed Central

    O'Byrne, Kenneth J.; Panizza, Benedict; Richard, Derek J.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic instability underlies the transformation of host cells toward malignancy, promotes development of invasion and metastasis and shapes the response of established cancer to treatment. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of genomic stability in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), with an emphasis on DNA repair pathways. HNSCC is characterized by distinct profiles in genome stability between similarly staged cancers that are reflected in risk, treatment response and outcomes. Defective DNA repair generates chromosomal derangement that can cause subsequent alterations in gene expression, and is a hallmark of progression toward carcinoma. Variable functionality of an increasing spectrum of repair gene polymorphisms is associated with increased cancer risk, while aetiological factors such as human papillomavirus, tobacco and alcohol induce significantly different behaviour in induced malignancy, underpinned by differences in genomic stability. Targeted inhibition of signalling receptors has proven to be a clinically-validated therapy, and protein expression of other DNA repair and signalling molecules associated with cancer behaviour could potentially provide a more refined clinical model for prognosis and treatment prediction. Development and expansion of current genomic stability models is furthering our understanding of HNSCC pathophysiology and uncovering new, promising treatment strategies. PMID:24364026

  20. DNA damage responses by human ELG1 in S phase are important to maintain genomic integrity.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Nilabja; Banerjee, Soma; Lee, Kyoo-young; Wincovitch, Stephen; Pak, Evgenia; Nakanishi, Koji; Jasin, Maria; Dutra, Amalia; Myung, Kyungjae

    2009-10-01

    Genomic integrity depends on DNA replication, recombination and repair, particularly in S phase. We demonstrate that a human homologue of yeast Elg1 plays an important role in S phase to preserve genomic stability. The level of ELG1 is induced during recovery from a variety of DNA damage. In response to DNA damage, ELG1 forms distinct foci at stalled DNA replication forks that are different from DNA double strand break foci. Targeted gene knockdown of ELG1 resulted in spontaneous foci formation of gamma-H2AX, 53BP1 and phosphorylated-ATM that mark chromosomal breaks. Abnormal chromosomes including fusions, inversions and hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents were also observed in cells expressing low level of ELG1 by targeted gene knockdown. Knockdown of ELG1 by siRNA reduced homologous recombination frequency in the I-SceI induced double strand break-dependent assay. In contrast, spontaneous homologous recombination frequency and sister chromatin exchange rate were upregulated when ELG1 was silenced by shRNA. Taken together, we propose that ELG1 would be a new member of proteins involved in maintenance of genomic integrity.

  1. The RNAPII-CTD Maintains Genome Integrity through Inhibition of Retrotransposon Gene Expression and Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Aristizabal, Maria J.; Negri, Gian Luca; Kobor, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) contains a unique C-terminal domain that is composed of heptapeptide repeats and which plays important regulatory roles during gene expression. RNAPII is responsible for the transcription of most protein-coding genes, a subset of non-coding genes, and retrotransposons. Retrotransposon transcription is the first step in their multiplication cycle, given that the RNA intermediate is required for the synthesis of cDNA, the material that is ultimately incorporated into a new genomic location. Retrotransposition can have grave consequences to genome integrity, as integration events can change the gene expression landscape or lead to alteration or loss of genetic information. Given that RNAPII transcribes retrotransposons, we sought to investigate if the RNAPII-CTD played a role in the regulation of retrotransposon gene expression. Importantly, we found that the RNAPII-CTD functioned to maintaining genome integrity through inhibition of retrotransposon gene expression, as reducing CTD length significantly increased expression and transposition rates of Ty1 elements. Mechanistically, the increased Ty1 mRNA levels in the rpb1-CTD11 mutant were partly due to Cdk8-dependent alterations to the RNAPII-CTD phosphorylation status. In addition, Cdk8 alone contributed to Ty1 gene expression regulation by altering the occupancy of the gene-specific transcription factor Ste12. Loss of STE12 and TEC1 suppressed growth phenotypes of the RNAPII-CTD truncation mutant. Collectively, our results implicate Ste12 and Tec1 as general and important contributors to the Cdk8, RNAPII-CTD regulatory circuitry as it relates to the maintenance of genome integrity. PMID:26496706

  2. Genomic regulatory blocks encompass multiple neighboring genes and maintain conserved synteny in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kikuta, Hiroshi; Laplante, Mary; Navratilova, Pavla; Komisarczuk, Anna Z.; Engström, Pär G.; Fredman, David; Akalin, Altuna; Caccamo, Mario; Sealy, Ian; Howe, Kerstin; Ghislain, Julien; Pezeron, Guillaume; Mourrain, Philippe; Ellingsen, Staale; Oates, Andrew C.; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard; Foucher, Isabelle; Adolf, Birgit; Geling, Andrea; Lenhard, Boris; Becker, Thomas S.

    2007-01-01

    We report evidence for a mechanism for the maintenance of long-range conserved synteny across vertebrate genomes. We found the largest mammal-teleost conserved chromosomal segments to be spanned by highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), their developmental regulatory target genes, and phylogenetically and functionally unrelated “bystander” genes. Bystander genes are not specifically under the control of the regulatory elements that drive the target genes and are expressed in patterns that are different from those of the target genes. Reporter insertions distal to zebrafish developmental regulatory genes pax6.1/2, rx3, id1, and fgf8 and miRNA genes mirn9-1 and mirn9-5 recapitulate the expression patterns of these genes even if located inside or beyond bystander genes, suggesting that the regulatory domain of a developmental regulatory gene can extend into and beyond adjacent transcriptional units. We termed these chromosomal segments genomic regulatory blocks (GRBs). After whole genome duplication in teleosts, GRBs, including HCNEs and target genes, were often maintained in both copies, while bystander genes were typically lost from one GRB, strongly suggesting that evolutionary pressure acts to keep the single-copy GRBs of higher vertebrates intact. We show that loss of bystander genes and other mutational events suffered by duplicated GRBs in teleost genomes permits target gene identification and HCNE/target gene assignment. These findings explain the absence of evolutionary breakpoints from large vertebrate chromosomal segments and will aid in the recognition of position effect mutations within human GRBs. PMID:17387144

  3. Neogenin recruitment of the WAVE regulatory complex maintains adherens junction stability and tension

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Natalie K.; Fok, Ka Wai; White, Amanda; Wilson, Nicole H.; O'Leary, Conor J.; Cox, Hayley L.; Michael, Magdalene; Yap, Alpha S.; Cooper, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    To maintain tissue integrity during epithelial morphogenesis, adherens junctions (AJs) must resist the mechanical stresses exerted by dynamic tissue movements. Junctional stability is dependent on actomyosin contractility within the actin ring. Here we describe a novel function for the axon guidance receptor, Neogenin, as a key component of the actin nucleation machinery governing junctional stability. Loss of Neogenin perturbs AJs and attenuates junctional tension. Neogenin promotes actin nucleation at AJs by recruiting the Wave regulatory complex (WRC) and Arp2/3. A direct interaction between the Neogenin WIRS domain and the WRC is crucial for the spatially restricted recruitment of the WRC to the junction. Thus, we provide the first example of a functional WIRS–WRC interaction in epithelia. We further show that Neogenin regulates cadherin recycling at the AJ. In summary, we identify Neogenin as a pivotal component of the AJ, where it influences both cadherin dynamics and junctional tension. PMID:27029596

  4. Cloning, Stability, and Modification of Mycoplasma hominis Genome in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Rideau, Fabien; Le Roy, Chloé; Descamps, Elodie C T; Renaudin, Hélène; Lartigue, Carole; Bébéar, Cécile

    2017-05-19

    Mycoplasma hominis is a minimal human pathogen that is responsible for genital and neonatal infections. Despite many attempts, there is no efficient genetic tool to manipulate this bacterium, limiting most investigations of its pathogenicity and its uncommon energy metabolism that relies on arginine. The recent cloning and subsequent engineering of other mycoplasma genomes in yeast opens new possibilities for studies of the genomes of genetically intractable organisms. Here, we report the successful one-step cloning of the M. hominis PG21 genome in yeast using the transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning method. At low passages, the M. hominis genome cloned into yeast displayed a conserved size. However, after ∼60 generations in selective media, this stability was affected, and large degradation events were detected, raising questions regarding the stability of large heterologous DNA molecules cloned in yeast and the need to minimize host propagation. Taking these results into account, we selected early passage yeast clones and successfully modified the M. hominis PG21 genome using the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool, available in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Complete M. hominis PG21 genomes lacking the adhesion-related vaa gene were efficiently obtained.

  5. Regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases are crucial for maintaining genome integrity in S phase

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Halfdan; Nähse, Viola; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Groth, Petra; Clancy, Trevor; Lees, Michael; Jørgensen, Mette; Helleday, Thomas; Syljuåsen, Randi G.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is of critical importance to cells. To identify key regulators of genomic integrity, we screened a human cell line with a kinome small interfering RNA library. WEE1, a major regulator of mitotic entry, and CHK1 were among the genes identified. Both kinases are important negative regulators of CDK1 and -2. Strikingly, WEE1 depletion rapidly induced DNA damage in S phase in newly replicated DNA, which was accompanied by a marked increase in single-stranded DNA. This DNA damage is dependent on CDK1 and -2 as well as the replication proteins MCM2 and CDT1 but not CDC25A. Conversely, DNA damage after CHK1 inhibition is highly dependent on CDC25A. Furthermore, the inferior proliferation of CHK1-depleted cells is improved substantially by codepletion of CDC25A. We conclude that the mitotic kinase WEE1 and CHK1 jointly maintain balanced cellular control of Cdk activity during normal DNA replication, which is crucial to prevent the generation of harmful DNA lesions during replication. PMID:20194642

  6. Kaposi’s sarcoma–associated herpesvirus stably clusters its genomes across generations to maintain itself extrachromosomally

    DOE PAGES

    Chiu, Ya-Fang; Sugden, Arthur U.; Fox, Kathryn; ...

    2017-07-10

    Genetic elements that replicate extrachromosomally are rare in mammals; however, several human tumor viruses, including the papillomaviruses and the gammaherpesviruses, maintain their plasmid genomes by tethering them to cellular chromosomes. We have uncovered an unprecedented mechanism of viral replication: Kaposi’s sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV) stably clusters its genomes across generations to maintain itself extrachromosomally. To identify and characterize this mechanism, we developed two complementary, independent approaches: live-cell imaging and a predictive computational model. The clustering of KSHV requires the viral protein, LANA1, to bind viral genomes to nucleosomes arrayed on both cellular and viral DNA. Clustering affects both viral partitioning andmore » viral genome numbers of KSHV. The clustering of KSHV plasmids provides it with an effective evolutionary strategy to rapidly increase copy numbers of genomes per cell at the expense of the total numbers of cells infected.« less

  7. LRF maintains genome integrity by regulating the non-homologous end joining pathway of DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Song; Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Rass, Emilie; Guan, Yinghua; Wang, Guocan; Hobbs, Robin M.; Rajendran, Anbazhagan; Xie, Anyong; Shah, Jagesh V.; Davis, Anthony J.; Scully, Ralph; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) is a POZ/BTB and Krüppel (POK) transcriptional repressor characterized by context-dependent key roles in cell fate decision and tumorigenesis. Here we demonstrate an unexpected transcription-independent function for LRF in the classical non-homologous end joining (cNHEJ) pathway of double-strand break (DSB) repair. We find that LRF loss in cell lines and mouse tissues results in defective cNHEJ, genomic instability and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. Mechanistically, we show that LRF binds and stabilizes DNA-PKcs on DSBs, in turn favouring DNA-PK activity. Importantly, LRF loss restores ionizing radiation sensitivity to p53 null cells, making LRF an attractive biomarker to direct p53-null LRF-deficient tumours towards therapeutic treatments based on genotoxic agents or PARP inhibitors following a synthetic lethal strategy. PMID:26446488

  8. LRF maintains genome integrity by regulating the non-homologous end joining pathway of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Song; Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Rass, Emilie; Guan, Yinghua; Wang, Guocan; Hobbs, Robin M; Rajendran, Anbazhagan; Xie, Anyong; Shah, Jagesh V; Davis, Anthony J; Scully, Ralph; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2015-10-08

    Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) is a POZ/BTB and Krüppel (POK) transcriptional repressor characterized by context-dependent key roles in cell fate decision and tumorigenesis. Here we demonstrate an unexpected transcription-independent function for LRF in the classical non-homologous end joining (cNHEJ) pathway of double-strand break (DSB) repair. We find that LRF loss in cell lines and mouse tissues results in defective cNHEJ, genomic instability and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. Mechanistically, we show that LRF binds and stabilizes DNA-PKcs on DSBs, in turn favouring DNA-PK activity. Importantly, LRF loss restores ionizing radiation sensitivity to p53 null cells, making LRF an attractive biomarker to direct p53-null LRF-deficient tumours towards therapeutic treatments based on genotoxic agents or PARP inhibitors following a synthetic lethal strategy.

  9. Maintaining the Phenotype Stability of Chondrocytes Derived from MSCs by C-Type Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Quan; Qian, Zhiyong; Liu, Donghua; Sun, Jie; Xu, Juan; Guo, Ximin

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a critical role in cartilage tissue engineering. However, MSCs-derived chondrocytes or cartilage tissues are not stable and easily lose the cellular and cartilage phenotype during long-term culture in vitro or implantation in vivo. As a result, chondrocytes phenotypic instability can contribute to accelerated ossification. Thus, it is a big challenge to maintain their correct phenotype for engineering hyaline cartilage. As one member of the natriuretic peptide family, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is found to correlate with the development of the cartilage, affect the chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation. Besides, based on its biological effects on protection of extracellular matrix of cartilage and inhibition of mineralization, we hypothesize that CNP may contribute to the stability of chondrocyte phenotype of MSCs-derived chondrocytes. PMID:28337152

  10. Roles of human POLD1 and POLD3 in genome stability.

    PubMed

    Tumini, Emanuela; Barroso, Sonia; -Calero, Carmen Pérez; Aguilera, Andrés

    2016-12-15

    DNA replication is essential for cellular proliferation. If improperly controlled it can constitute a major source of genome instability, frequently associated with cancer and aging. POLD1 is the catalytic subunit and POLD3 is an accessory subunit of the replicative Pol δ polymerase, which also functions in DNA repair, as well as the translesion synthesis polymerase Pol ζ, whose catalytic subunit is REV3L. In cells depleted of POLD1 or POLD3 we found a differential but general increase in genome instability as manifested by DNA breaks, S-phase progression impairment and chromosome abnormalities. Importantly, we showed that both proteins are needed to maintain the proper amount of active replication origins and that POLD3-depletion causes anaphase bridges accumulation. In addition, POLD3-associated DNA damage showed to be dependent on RNA-DNA hybrids pointing toward an additional and specific role of this subunit in genome stability. Interestingly, a similar increase in RNA-DNA hybrids-dependent genome instability was observed in REV3L-depleted cells. Our findings demonstrate a key role of POLD1 and POLD3 in genome stability and S-phase progression revealing RNA-DNA hybrids-dependent effects for POLD3 that might be partly due to its Pol ζ interaction.

  11. Roles of human POLD1 and POLD3 in genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Tumini, Emanuela; Barroso, Sonia; -Calero, Carmen Pérez; Aguilera, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for cellular proliferation. If improperly controlled it can constitute a major source of genome instability, frequently associated with cancer and aging. POLD1 is the catalytic subunit and POLD3 is an accessory subunit of the replicative Pol δ polymerase, which also functions in DNA repair, as well as the translesion synthesis polymerase Pol ζ, whose catalytic subunit is REV3L. In cells depleted of POLD1 or POLD3 we found a differential but general increase in genome instability as manifested by DNA breaks, S-phase progression impairment and chromosome abnormalities. Importantly, we showed that both proteins are needed to maintain the proper amount of active replication origins and that POLD3-depletion causes anaphase bridges accumulation. In addition, POLD3-associated DNA damage showed to be dependent on RNA-DNA hybrids pointing toward an additional and specific role of this subunit in genome stability. Interestingly, a similar increase in RNA-DNA hybrids-dependent genome instability was observed in REV3L-depleted cells. Our findings demonstrate a key role of POLD1 and POLD3 in genome stability and S-phase progression revealing RNA-DNA hybrids-dependent effects for POLD3 that might be partly due to its Pol ζ interaction. PMID:27974823

  12. The deubiquitinase USP21 maintains the stemness of mouse embryonic stem cells via stabilization of Nanog

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jiali; Liu, Jian; Chen, Cong; Liu, Zhenping; Jiang, Cong; Chu, Hongshang; Pan, Weijuan; Wang, Xinbo; Zhang, Lingqiang; Li, Bin; Jiang, Cizhong; Ge, Xin; Xie, Xin; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Nanog is a master pluripotency factor of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Stable expression of Nanog is essential to maintain the stemness of ESCs. However, Nanog is a short-lived protein and quickly degraded by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system. Here we report that the deubiquitinase USP21 interacts with, deubiquitinates and stabilizes Nanog, and therefore maintains the protein level of Nanog in mouse ESCs (mESCs). Loss of USP21 results in Nanog degradation, mESCs differentiation and reduces somatic cell reprogramming efficiency. USP21 is a transcriptional target of the LIF/STAT3 pathway and is downregulated upon differentiation. Moreover, differentiation cues promote ERK-mediated phosphorylation and dissociation of USP21 from Nanog, thus leading to Nanog degradation. In addition, USP21 is recruited to gene promoters by Nanog to deubiquitinate histone H2A at K119 and thus facilitates Nanog-mediated gene expression. Together, our findings provide a regulatory mechanism by which extrinsic signals regulate mESC fate via deubiquitinating Nanog. PMID:27886188

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of Human MicroRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Li, Zhixin; Zhou, Shixin; Wen, Jinhua; Geng, Bin; Yang, Jichun; Cui, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    Increasing studies have shown that microRNA (miRNA) stability plays important roles in physiology. However, the global picture of miRNA stability remains largely unknown. Here, we had analyzed genome-wide miRNA stability across 10 diverse cell types using miRNA arrays. We found that miRNA stability shows high dynamics and diversity both within individual cells and across cell types. Strikingly, we observed a negative correlation between miRNA stability and miRNA expression level, which is different from current findings on other biological molecules such as proteins and mRNAs that show positive and not negative correlations between stability and expression level. This finding indicates that miRNA has a distinct action mode, which we called “rapid production, rapid turnover; slow production, slow turnover.” This mode further suggests that high expression miRNAs normally degrade fast and may endow the cell with special properties that facilitate cellular status-transition. Moreover, we revealed that the stability of miRNAs is affected by cohorts of factors that include miRNA targets, transcription factors, nucleotide content, evolution, associated disease, and environmental factors. Together, our results provided an extensive description of the global landscape, dynamics, and distinct mode of human miRNA stability, which provide help in investigating their functions in physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:24187663

  14. Grazing maintains native plant diversity and promotes community stability in an annual grassland.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jared J; Hernández, Daniel L; Pasari, Jae R; Zavaleta, Erika S

    2015-07-01

    Maintaining native biodiversity in grasslands requires management and mitigation of anthropogenic changes that have altered resource availability, grazing regimes, and community composition. In California (USA), high levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition have facilitated the invasion of exotic grasses, posing a threat to the diverse plant and insect communities endemic to serpentine grasslands. Cattle grazing has been employed to mitigate the consequences of exotic grass invasion, but the ecological effects of grazing in this system are not fully understood. To characterize the effects of realistic N deposition on serpentine plant communities and to evaluate the efficacy of grazing as a management tool, we performed a factorial experiment adding N and excluding large herbivores in California's largest serpentine grassland. Although we observed significant interannual variation in community composition related to climate in our six-year study, exotic cover was consistently and negatively correlated with native plant richness. Sustained low-level N addition did not influence plant community composition, but grazing reduced grass abundance while maintaining greater native forb cover, native plant diversity, and species richness in comparison to plots excluding large herbivores. Furthermore, grazing increased the temporal stability of plant communities by decreasing year-to-year variation in native forb cover, native plant diversity, and native species richness. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that moderate-intensity cattle grazing can be used to restrict the invasive potential of exotic grasses and maintain native plant communities in serpentine grasslands. We hypothesize that the reduced temporal variability in serpentine plant communities managed by grazing may directly benefit populations of the threatened Edith's Bay checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis).

  15. The effects of mercury on genomic stability in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taşpınar, Mahmut Sinan; Sıǧmaz, Burcu; Aǧar, Güleray; Aydın, Murat

    2017-04-01

    It is a true that heavy metals have an effect plant species like affecting all of the living organisms into the existing environments. Heavy metals have hazardous effects on living organism. Several plant species have been used bio-indicators in order to determine the effects on genetic toxicity of heavy metal pollution so far. The aim of this paper detects the effects of Mercury chloride (HgCl2) were investigated on genetic stability/or DNA damage in maize seedlings. The results showed that all mercury doses used cause a decrease in the genomic template stability, while they cause an increase in the RAPDs profile changes (DNA damage).

  16. Drosophila Homolog of FMRP Maintains Genome Integrity by Interacting with Piwi.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangfang; Lu, Falong; Li, Peixue; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Wang, Qifu; Cao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yong Q

    2016-01-20

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX), the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the absence of the evolutionally conserved fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). While neuronal functions of FMRP have been intensively studied for the last two decades, its role in non-neuronal cells remains poorly understood. Piwi, a key component of the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, plays an essential role in germline development. In the present study, we report that similar to piwi, dfmr1, the Drosophila homolog of human FMR1, is required for transposon suppression in the germlines. Genetic analyses showed that dfmr1 and piwi act synergistically in heterochromatic silencing, and in inhibiting the differentiation of primordial germline cells and transposon expression. Northern analyses showed that roo piRNA expression levels are reduced in dfmr1 mutant ovaries, suggesting a role of dfmr1 in piRNA biogenesis. Biochemical analysis demonstrated a physical interaction between dFMRP and Piwi via their N-termini. Taken together, we propose that dFMRP cooperates with Piwi in maintaining genome integrity by regulating heterochromatic silencing in somatic cells and suppressing transposon activity via the piRNA pathway in germlines.

  17. Usp7 protects genomic stability by regulating Bub3

    PubMed Central

    Giovinazzi, Serena; Sirleto, Pietro; Aksenova, Vasilisa; Morozov, Viacheslav M.; Zori, Roberto; Reinhold, William C.; Ishov, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    USP7 (Ubiquitin Specific processing Protease-7) is a deubiquitinase which, over the past decade emerged as a critical regulator of cellular processes. Deregulation of USP7 activity has been linked to cancer, making USP7 inhibition an appealing anti-cancer strategy. The identification of novel USP7 substrates and additional USP7-dependent cellular activities will broaden our knowledge towards potential clinical application of USP7 inhibitors. Results presented in this study uncover a novel and pivotal function of USP7 in the maintenance of genomic stability. Upon USP7 depletion we observed prolonged mitosis and mitotic abnormalities including micronuclei accumulation, lagging chromosomes and karyotype instability. Inhibition of USP7 with small molecule inhibitors stabilizes cyclin B and causes mitotic abnormalities. Our results suggest that these USP7-dependent effects are mediated by decreased levels of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) component Bub3, which we characterized as an interacting partner and substrate of USP7. In silico analysis across the NCI-60 panels of cell lines supports our results where lower levels of USP7 strongly correlate with genomic instability. In conclusion, we identified a novel role of USP7 as regulator of the SAC component Bub3 and genomic stability. PMID:25003721

  18. Usp7 protects genomic stability by regulating Bub3.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzi, Serena; Sirleto, Pietro; Aksenova, Vasilisa; Morozov, Viacheslav M; Zori, Roberto; Reinhold, William C; Ishov, Alexander M

    2014-06-15

    USP7 (Ubiquitin Specific processing Protease-7) is a deubiquitinase which, over the past decade emerged as a critical regulator of cellular processes. Deregulation of USP7 activity has been linked to cancer, making USP7 inhibition an appealing anti-cancer strategy. The identification of novel USP7 substrates and additional USP7-dependent cellular activities will broaden our knowledge towards potential clinical application of USP7 inhibitors. Results presented in this study uncover a novel and pivotal function of USP7 in the maintenance of genomic stability. Upon USP7 depletion we observed prolonged mitosis and mitotic abnormalities including micronuclei accumulation, lagging chromosomes and karyotype instability. Inhibition of USP7 with small molecule inhibitors stabilizes cyclin B and causes mitotic abnormalities. Our results suggest that these USP7-dependent effects are mediated by decreased levels of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) component Bub3, which we characterized as an interacting partner and substrate of USP7. In silico analysis across the NCI-60 panels of cell lines supports our results where lower levels of USP7 strongly correlate with genomic instability. In conclusion, we identified a novel role of USP7 as regulator of the SAC component Bub3 and genomic stability.

  19. Crossbreeding effect on genome stability in pig (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Ciotola, Francesca; Albarella, Sara; Scopino, Giuseppe; Carpino, Santo; Monaco, Francesco; Peretti, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploid cell percentages and frequencies of CAs and SCEs were investigated in 10 Calabrian pigs, 10 LW pigs and 19 Calabrian x LW crossbred pigs, in order to compare genome stability between an autochthonous pig breed and a highly selected one and to verify if genome stability of their progeny, as other phenotypic traits, are influenced by heterosis. The mean number of cells per animal with structural aberrations, excluding gaps, was 6.20 +/- 2.39, 4.90 +/- 2.02 and 4.52 +/- 3.34 in Calabrian, LW and crossbred pigs, respectively, while the mean number of total CAs without gaps was 0.14 +/- 0.38, 0.11 +/- 0.35 and 0.11 +/- 0.35, respectively. The mean number of SCEs was 7.30 +/- 3.24 in Calabrian pigs, 6.45 +/- 2.74 in LW pigs and 6.28 +/- 2.90 in the crossbred ones. Percentages of cells with aneuploidy were 7.30, 10.10 and 10.79 in Calabrian, LW and crossbred pigs, respectively. In particular, the Calabrian breed showed higher values compared to LW in each test, however, there were statistically significant differences only in the mean number of SCEs per cell (P<0.01). In addition, there is a positive effect of crossbreeding on baseline levels of genome stability in the crossbred group that shows in all tests, excluding gaps, mean values of cellular or chromosome damage similar to the LW group.

  20. The use of genomic coancestry matrices in the optimisation of contributions to maintain genetic diversity at specific regions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Romano, Fernando; Villanueva, Beatriz; Fernández, Jesús; Woolliams, John A; Pong-Wong, Ricardo

    2016-01-13

    Optimal contribution methods have proved to be very efficient for controlling the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and therefore, for maintaining genetic diversity. These methods have usually relied on pedigree information for estimating genetic relationships between animals. However, with the large amount of genomic information now available such as high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips that contain thousands of SNPs, it becomes possible to calculate more accurate estimates of relationships and to target specific regions in the genome where there is a particular interest in maximising genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using genomic coancestry matrices for: (1) minimising the loss of genetic variability at specific genomic regions while restricting the overall loss in the rest of the genome; or (2) maximising the overall genetic diversity while restricting the loss of diversity at specific genomic regions. Our study shows that the use of genomic coancestry was very successful at minimising the loss of diversity and outperformed the use of pedigree-based coancestry (genetic diversity even increased in some scenarios). The results also show that genomic information allows a targeted optimisation to maintain diversity at specific genomic regions, whether they are linked or not. The level of variability maintained increased when the targeted regions were closely linked. However, such targeted management leads to an important loss of diversity in the rest of the genome and, thus, it is necessary to take further actions to constrain this loss. Optimal contribution methods also proved to be effective at restricting the loss of diversity in the rest of the genome, although the resulting rate of coancestry was higher than the constraint imposed. The use of genomic matrices when optimising contributions permits the control of genetic diversity and inbreeding at specific regions of the

  1. The contribution of dormant origins to genome stability: from cell biology to human genetics.

    PubMed

    Alver, Robert C; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J Julian

    2014-07-01

    The ability of a eukaryotic cell to precisely and accurately replicate its DNA is crucial to maintain genome stability. Here we describe our current understanding of the process by which origins are licensed for DNA replication and review recent work suggesting that fork stalling has exerted a strong selective pressure on the positioning of licensed origins. In light of this, we discuss the complex and disparate phenotypes observed in mouse models and humans patients that arise due to defects in replication licensing proteins. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The contribution of dormant origins to genome stability: From cell biology to human genetics

    PubMed Central

    Alver, Robert C.; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J. Julian

    2014-01-01

    The ability of a eukaryotic cell to precisely and accurately replicate its DNA is crucial to maintain genome stability. Here we describe our current understanding of the process by which origins are licensed for DNA replication and review recent work suggesting that fork stalling has exerted a strong selective pressure on the positioning of licensed origins. In light of this, we discuss the complex and disparate phenotypes observed in mouse models and humans patients that arise due to defects in replication licensing proteins. PMID:24767947

  3. Efficient affinity maturation of antibody variable domains requires co-selection of compensatory mutations to maintain thermodynamic stability

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Mark C.; Li, Lijuan; Garde, Shekhar; Wilen, Rebecca; Tessier, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of antibodies to accumulate affinity-enhancing mutations in their complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) without compromising thermodynamic stability is critical to their natural function. However, it is unclear if affinity mutations in the hypervariable CDRs generally impact antibody stability and to what extent additional compensatory mutations are required to maintain stability during affinity maturation. Here we have experimentally and computationally evaluated the functional contributions of mutations acquired by a human variable (VH) domain that was evolved using strong selections for enhanced stability and affinity for the Alzheimer’s Aβ42 peptide. Interestingly, half of the key affinity mutations in the CDRs were destabilizing. Moreover, the destabilizing effects of these mutations were compensated for by a subset of the affinity mutations that were also stabilizing. Our findings demonstrate that the accumulation of both affinity and stability mutations is necessary to maintain thermodynamic stability during extensive mutagenesis and affinity maturation in vitro, which is similar to findings for natural antibodies that are subjected to somatic hypermutation in vivo. These findings for diverse antibodies and antibody fragments specific for unrelated antigens suggest that the formation of the antigen-binding site is generally a destabilizing process and that co-enrichment for compensatory mutations is critical for maintaining thermodynamic stability. PMID:28349921

  4. The Deubiquitinase USP9X Maintains DNA Replication Fork Stability and DNA Damage Checkpoint Responses by Regulating CLASPIN during S-Phase.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Edel; Gaboriau, David; Rainey, Michael D; Restuccia, Umberto; Bachi, Angela; Santocanale, Corrado

    2016-04-15

    Coordination of the multiple processes underlying DNA replication is key for maintaining genome stability and preventing tumorigenesis. CLASPIN, a critical player in replication fork stabilization and checkpoint responses, must be tightly regulated during the cell cycle to prevent the accumulation of DNA damage. In this study, we used a quantitative proteomics approach and identified USP9X as a novel CLASPIN-interacting protein. USP9X is a deubiquitinase involved in multiple signaling and survival pathways whose tumor suppressor or oncogenic activity is highly context dependent. We found that USP9X regulated the expression and stability of CLASPIN in an S-phase-specific manner. USP9X depletion profoundly impairs the progression of DNA replication forks, causing unscheduled termination events with a frequency similar to CLASPIN depletion, resulting in excessive endogenous DNA damage. Importantly, restoration of CLASPIN expression in USP9X-depleted cells partially suppressed the accumulation of DNA damage. Furthermore, USP9X depletion compromised CHK1 activation in response to hydroxyurea and UV, thus promoting hypersensitivity to drug-induced replication stress. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for USP9X in the maintenance of genomic stability during DNA replication and provide potential mechanistic insights into its tumor suppressor role in certain malignancies. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2384-93. ©2016 AACR.

  5. Nutrients drive transcriptional changes that maintain metabolic homeostasis but alter genome architecture in Microcystis

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Morgan M; Dearth, Stephen P; Dill, Brian D; Li, Zhou; Larsen, Kristen M; Campagna, Shawn R; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa is a globally distributed bloom-forming organism that degrades freshwater systems around the world. Factors that drive its dispersion, diversification and success remain, however, poorly understood. To develop insight into cellular-level responses to nutrient drivers of eutrophication, RNA sequencing was coupled to a comprehensive metabolomics survey of M. aeruginosa sp. NIES 843 grown in various nutrient-reduced conditions. Transcriptomes were generated for cultures grown in nutrient-replete (with nitrate as the nitrogen (N) source), nitrogen-reduced (with nitrate, urea or ammonium acting as the N sources) and phosphate-reduced conditions. Extensive expression differences (up to 696 genes for urea-grown cells) relative to the control treatment were observed, demonstrating that the chemical variant of nitrogen available to cells affected transcriptional activity. Of particular note, a high number of transposase genes (up to 81) were significantly and reproducibly up-regulated relative to the control when grown on urea. Conversely, phosphorus (P) reduction resulted in a significant cessation in transcription of transposase genes, indicating that variation in nutrient chemistry may influence transcription of transposases and may impact the highly mosaic genomic architecture of M. aeruginosa. Corresponding metabolomes showed comparably few differences between treatments, suggesting broad changes to gene transcription are required to maintain metabolic homeostasis under nutrient reduction. The combined observations provide novel and extensive insight into the complex cellular interactions that take place in this important bloom-forming organism during variable nutrient conditions and highlight a potential unknown molecular mechanism that may drive Microcystis blooms and evolution. PMID:24858783

  6. Cyanobacteria Maintain Constant Protein Concentration despite Genome Copy-Number Variation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-Yu; O'Shea, Erin K

    2017-04-18

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has multiple copies of its single chromosome, and the copy number varies in individual cells, providing an ideal system to study the effect of genome copy-number variation on cell size and gene expression. Using single-cell fluorescence imaging, we found that protein concentration remained constant across individual cells regardless of genome copy number. Cell volume and the total protein amount from a single gene were both positively, linearly correlated with genome copy number, suggesting that changes in cell volume play an important role in buffering genome copy-number variance. This study provides a quantitative examination of gene expression regulation in cells with variable genome copies and sheds light on the compensation mechanisms for variance in genome copy number. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Holliday junction processing enzymes as guardians of genome stability.

    PubMed

    Sarbajna, Shriparna; West, Stephen C

    2014-09-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are four-stranded DNA intermediates that arise during the recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Their timely removal is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation and genome stability. In mammalian cells, HJs are processed by the BTR (BLM-topoisomerase IIIα-RMI1-RMI2) complex, the SLX-MUS (SLX1-SLX4-MUS81-EME1) complex, and the GEN1 resolvase. Recent studies have linked the deficiency of one or more of these enzymes to perturbed DNA replication, impaired crosslink repair, chromosomal instability, and defective mitoses, coupled with the transmission of widespread DNA damage and high levels of mortality. We review these key advances and how they have cemented the status of HJ-processing enzymes as guardians of genome integrity and viability in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using genome-wide measures of coancestry to maintain diversity and fitness in endangered and domestic pig populations

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Groenen, Martien A.M.; de Cara, M. Angeles R.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and breeding programs aim at maintaining the most diversity, thereby avoiding deleterious effects of inbreeding while maintaining enough variation from which traits of interest can be selected. Theoretically, the most diversity is maintained using optimal contributions based on many markers to calculate coancestries, but this can decrease fitness by maintaining linked deleterious variants. The heterogeneous patterns of coancestry displayed in pigs make them an excellent model to test these predictions. We propose methods to measure coancestry and fitness from resequencing data and use them in population management. We analyzed the resequencing data of Sus cebifrons, a highly endangered porcine species from the Philippines, and genotype data from the Pietrain domestic breed. By analyzing the demographic history of Sus cebifrons, we inferred two past bottlenecks that resulted in some inbreeding load. In Pietrain, we analyzed signatures of selection possibly associated with commercial traits. We also simulated the management of each population to assess the performance of different optimal contribution methods to maintain diversity, fitness, and selection signatures. Maximum genetic diversity was maintained using marker-by-marker coancestry, and least using genealogical coancestry. Using a measure of coancestry based on shared segments of the genome achieved the best results in terms of diversity and fitness. However, this segment-based management eliminated signatures of selection. We demonstrate that maintaining both diversity and fitness depends on the genomic distribution of deleterious variants, which is shaped by demographic and selection histories. Our findings show the importance of genomic and next-generation sequencing information in the optimal design of breeding or conservation programs. PMID:26063737

  9. The centriolar satellite protein Cep131 is important for genome stability.

    PubMed

    Staples, Christopher J; Myers, Katie N; Beveridge, Ryan D D; Patil, Abhijit A; Lee, Alvin J X; Swanton, Charles; Howell, Michael; Boulton, Simon J; Collis, Spencer J

    2012-10-15

    The centrosome acts as a centre for microtubule organisation and plays crucial roles in cell polarity, migration, growth and division. Cep131 has recently been described as a basal body component essential for cilium formation, but its function in non-ciliogenic cells is unknown. We identified human Cep131 (also known as AZI1) in a screen for regulators of genome stability. We show that centrosomal localisation of Cep131 is cell-cycle-regulated and requires both an intact microtubule network and a functional dynein-dynactin transport system. Cep131 is recruited to centriolar satellites by PCM1, and localised to the centriolar core region by both pericentrin and Cep290. Depletion of Cep131 results in a reduction in proliferation rate, centriole amplification, an increased frequency of multipolar mitosis, chromosomal instability and an increase in post-mitotic DNA damage. These data therefore highlight the importance of human Cep131 for maintaining genomic integrity.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of ageing: linking environmental inputs to genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Benayoun, Bérénice A; Pollina, Elizabeth A; Brunet, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Ageing is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Here, we review the chromatin-based epigenetic changes that occur during ageing, the role of chromatin modifiers in modulating lifespan and the importance of epigenetic signatures as biomarkers of ageing. We also discuss how epigenome remodelling by environmental stimuli affects several aspects of transcription and genomic stability, with important consequences for longevity, and outline epigenetic differences between the 'mortal soma' and the 'immortal germ line'. Finally, we discuss the inheritance of characteristics of ageing and potential chromatin-based strategies to delay or reverse hallmarks of ageing or age-related diseases.

  11. Epigenetic regulation of ageing: linking environmental inputs to genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Benayoun, Bérénice A.; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Brunet, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Preface Ageing is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Here, we review the chromatin-based epigenetic changes that occur during ageing, the role of chromatin modifiers in modulating lifespan and the importance of epigenetic signatures as biomarkers of ageing. We also discuss how epigenome remodeling by environmental stimuli impacts several aspects of transcription and genomic stability, with important consequences on longevity, and outline epigenetic differences between the ‘mortal soma’ and the ‘immortal germline’. Finally, we discuss the inheritance of ageing characteristics and potential chromatin-based strategies to delay or reverse hallmarks of ageing or age-related diseases. PMID:26373265

  12. Drosophila MOF controls Checkpoint protein2 and regulates genomic stability during early embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Results Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation suggesting its role in response to genotoxic stress. A drastic decrease in the fall out nuclei in the syncytial embryos derived from mof1/+; mnkp6/+ females further confirms the role of DNA damage response gene Chk2 to ensure the removal of abnormal nuclei from the embryonic precursor pool and maintain genome stability. The fact that mof mutants undergo DNA damage has been further elucidated by the increased number of single and double stranded DNA breaks. Conclusion mof mutants exhibited genomic instability as evidenced by the occurance of frequent mitotic bridges in anaphase, asynchronous nuclear divisions, disruption of cytoskeleton, inactivation of centrosomes finally leading to DNA damage. Our findings are consistent to what has been reported earlier in mammals that; reduced levels of MOF resulted in increased genomic instability while total loss resulted in lethality. The study can be further extended using Drosophila as model system and carry

  13. Drosophila MOF controls Checkpoint protein2 and regulates genomic stability during early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pushpavalli, Sreerangam N C V L; Sarkar, Arpita; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Chowdhury, Debabani Roy; Bhadra, Utpal; Pal-Bhadra, Manika

    2013-01-24

    In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation suggesting its role in response to genotoxic stress. A drastic decrease in the fall out nuclei in the syncytial embryos derived from mof¹/+; mnkp⁶/+ females further confirms the role of DNA damage response gene Chk2 to ensure the removal of abnormal nuclei from the embryonic precursor pool and maintain genome stability. The fact that mof mutants undergo DNA damage has been further elucidated by the increased number of single and double stranded DNA breaks. mof mutants exhibited genomic instability as evidenced by the occurance of frequent mitotic bridges in anaphase, asynchronous nuclear divisions, disruption of cytoskeleton, inactivation of centrosomes finally leading to DNA damage. Our findings are consistent to what has been reported earlier in mammals that; reduced levels of MOF resulted in increased genomic instability while total loss resulted in lethality. The study can be further extended using Drosophila as model system and carry out the interaction of MOF

  14. Mitotic accumulation of dimethylated lysine 79 of histone H3 is important for maintaining genome integrity during mitosis in human cells.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Brent J; McManus, Kirk J

    2015-02-01

    The loss of genome stability is an early event that drives the development and progression of virtually all tumor types. Recent studies have revealed that certain histone post-translational modifications exhibit dynamic and global increases in abundance that coincide with mitosis and exhibit essential roles in maintaining genomic stability. Histone H2B ubiquitination at lysine 120 (H2Bub1) is regulated by RNF20, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is altered in many tumor types. Through an evolutionarily conserved trans-histone pathway, H2Bub1 is an essential prerequisite for subsequent downstream dimethylation events at lysines 4 (H3K4me2) and 79 (H3K79me2) of histone H3. Although the role that RNF20 plays in tumorigenesis has garnered much attention, the downstream components of the trans-histone pathway, H3K4me2 and H3K79me2, and their potential contributions to genome stability remain largely overlooked. In this study, we employ single-cell imaging and biochemical approaches to investigate the spatial and temporal patterning of RNF20, H2Bub1, H3K4me2, and H3K79me2 throughout the cell cycle, with a particular focus on mitosis. We show that H2Bub1, H3K4me2, and H3K79me2 exhibit distinct temporal progression patterns throughout the cell cycle. Most notably, we demonstrate that H3K79me2 is a highly dynamic histone post-translational modification that reaches maximal abundance during mitosis in an H2Bub1-independent manner. Using RNAi and chemical genetic approaches, we identify DOT1L as a histone methyltransferase required for the mitotic-associated increases in H3K79me2. We also demonstrate that the loss of mitotic H3K79me2 levels correlates with increases in chromosome numbers and increases in mitotic defects. Collectively, these data suggest that H3K79me2 dynamics during mitosis are normally required to maintain genome stability and further implicate the loss of H3K79me2 during mitosis as a pathogenic event that contributes to the development and progression of tumors.

  15. Sde2: A novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Sugioka-Sugiyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Sde2 is essential for telomere silencing. {yields} Sde2 is involved in the maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} Sde2 promotes the recruitment of SHREC, a histone deacetylase complex, to telomeres. -- Abstract: Telomeres, specialized domains assembled at the ends of linear chromosomes, are essential for genomic stability in eukaryotes. The formation and maintenance of telomeres are governed by numerous factors such as telomeric repeats, telomere-binding proteins, heterochromatin proteins, and telomerase. Here, we report Sde2, a novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A deficiency in sde2 results in the derepression of the ura4{sup +} gene inserted near telomeric repeats, and the noncoding transcripts from telomeric regions accumulate in sde2{Delta} cells. The loss of Sde2 function compromises transcriptional silencing at telomeres, and this silencing defect is accompanied by increased levels of acetylated histone H3K14 and RNA polymerase II occupancy at telomeres as well as reduced recruitment of the SNF2 ATPase/histone deacetylase-containing complex SHREC to telomeres. Deletion of sde2 also leads to a higher frequency of mitotic minichromosome loss, and sde2{Delta} cells often form asci that contain spores in abnormal numbers, shapes, or both. In addition, sde2{Delta} cells are highly sensitive to several stresses, including high/low temperatures, bleomycin, which induces DNA damage, and thiabendazole, a microtubule-destabilizing agent. Furthermore, Sde2 genetically interacts with the telomere regulators Taz1, Pof3, and Ccq1. These findings demonstrate that Sde2 cooperates with other telomere regulators to maintain functional telomeres, thereby preventing genomic instability.

  16. Stability domains of actin genes and genomic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlon, E.; Dkhissi, A.; Malki, M. Lejard; Blossey, R.

    2007-11-01

    In eukaryotic genes, the protein coding sequence is split into several fragments, the exons, separated by noncoding DNA stretches, the introns. Prokaryotes do not have introns in their genomes. We report calculations of the stability domains of actin genes for various organisms in the animal, plant, and fungi kingdoms. Actin genes have been chosen because they have been highly conserved during evolution. In these genes, all introns were removed so as to mimic ancient genes at the time of the early eukaryotic development, i.e., before intron insertion. Common stability boundaries are found in evolutionarily distant organisms, which implies that these boundaries date from the early origin of eukaryotes. In general, the boundaries correspond with intron positions in the actins of vertebrates and other animals, but not much for plants and fungi. The sharpest boundary is found in a locus where fungi, algae, and animals have introns in positions separated by one nucleotide only, which identifies a hot spot for insertion. These results suggest that some introns may have been incorporated into the genomes through a thermodynamically driven mechanism, in agreement with previous observations on human genes. They also suggest a different mechanism for intron insertion in plants and animals.

  17. Maintaining a Sense of Control in the Context of Cognitive Challenge: Greater Stability in Control Beliefs Benefits Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2013-01-01

    We considered the functional role of control beliefs for cognitive performance by focusing on patterns of stability across multiple trials increasing in level of difficulty. We assessed 56 adults aged 18-88 on working memory tasks. We examined stability vs. lability (intraindividual variability, IIV) in control beliefs and the relationships with anxiety, distraction, and performance. Age was positively associated with IIV in control and performance, and IIV increased with task difficulty. Those maintaining stable control beliefs had better performance, and showed less anxiety and distraction. Those with lower stability and less control showed steeper declines in performance and increases in distraction. The findings suggest that stability of control beliefs may serve a protective function in the context of cognitively challenging tasks. PMID:23745114

  18. FANCJ is essential to maintain microsatellite structure genome-wide during replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Barthelemy, Joanna; Hanenberg, Helmut; Leffak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite DNAs that form non-B structures are implicated in replication fork stalling, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and human disease. Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited disorder in which mutations in at least nineteen genes are responsible for the phenotypes of genome instability and cancer predisposition. FA pathway proteins are active in the resolution of non-B DNA structures including interstrand crosslinks, G quadruplexes and DNA triplexes. In FANCJ helicase depleted cells, we show that hydroxyurea or aphidicolin treatment leads to loss of microsatellite polymerase chain reaction signals and to chromosome recombination at an ectopic hairpin forming CTG/CAG repeat in the HeLa genome. Moreover, diverse endogenous microsatellite signals were also lost upon replication stress after FANCJ depletion, and in FANCJ null patient cells. The phenotype of microsatellite signal instability is specific for FANCJ apart from the intact FA pathway, and is consistent with DSBs at microsatellites genome-wide in FANCJ depleted cells following replication stress. PMID:27179029

  19. Effects of antioxidants on the quality and genomic stability of induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lan; Kawakatsu, Miho; Guo, Chao-Wan; Urata, Yoshishige; Huang, Wen-Jing; Ali, Haytham; Doi, Hanako; Kitajima, Yuriko; Tanaka, Takayuki; Goto, Shinji; Ono, Yusuke; Xin, Hong-Bo; Hamano, Kimikazu; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Effects of antioxidants on the quality and genomic stability of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were investigated with two human iPS cell lines (201B7 and 253G1). Cells used in this study were expanded from a single colony of each cell line with the addition of proprietary antioxidant supplement or homemade antioxidant cocktail in medium, and maintained in parallel for 2 months. The cells grew well in all culture conditions and kept “stemness”. Although antioxidants modestly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, there were no differences in the expression of 53BP1 and pATM, two critical molecules related with DNA damage and repair, under various culture conditions. CGH analysis showed that the events of genetic aberrations were decreased only in the 253G1 iPS cells with the addition of homemade antioxidant cocktail. Long-term culture will be necessary to confirm whether low dose antioxidants improve the quality and genomic stability of iPS cells. PMID:24445363

  20. The aging clock and circadian control of metabolism and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Belancio, Victoria P; Blask, David E; Deininger, Prescott; Hill, Steven M; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that aging is characterized by a gradual decline in the efficiency and accuracy of biological processes, leading to deterioration of physiological functions and development of age-associated diseases. Age-dependent accumulation of genomic instability and development of metabolic syndrome are well-recognized components of the aging phenotype, both of which have been extensively studied. Existing findings strongly support the view that the integrity of the cellular genome and metabolic function can be influenced by light at night (LAN) and associated suppression of circadian melatonin production. While LAN is reported to accelerate aging by promoting age-associated carcinogenesis in several animal models, the specific molecular mechanism(s) of its action are not fully understood. Here, we review literature supporting a connection between LAN-induced central circadian disruption of peripheral circadian rhythms and clock function, LINE-1 retrotransposon-associated genomic instability, metabolic deregulation, and aging. We propose that aging is a progressive decline in the stability, continuity, and synchronization of multi-frequency oscillations in biological processes to a temporally disorganized state. By extension, healthy aging is the ability to maintain the most consistent, stable, and entrainable rhythmicity and coordination of these oscillations, at the molecular, cellular, and systemic levels.

  1. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    DOE PAGES

    Walworth, Nathan; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; ...

    2015-03-23

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20–25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and nonpathogenic, free-living bacteria. In this paper, we use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus, both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% ofmore » the noncoding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and twofold higher than that found in the gene-dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium noncoding RNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences, lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Finally, our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high-fidelity replication allowed the unusual “inflation” of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.« less

  2. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    SciTech Connect

    Walworth, Nathan; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F.; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Land, Miriam L.; Woyke, Tanja; Hutchins, David A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Webb, Eric A.

    2015-03-23

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20–25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and nonpathogenic, free-living bacteria. In this paper, we use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus, both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the noncoding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and twofold higher than that found in the gene-dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium noncoding RNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences, lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Finally, our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high-fidelity replication allowed the unusual “inflation” of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.

  3. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    SciTech Connect

    Walworth, Nathan G.; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F.; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L.; Woyke, Tanja; Hutchins, David A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Webb, Eric A.

    2015-04-07

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance due to its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20-25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and non-pathogenic, free-living bacteria. We use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the non-coding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and two fold higher than that found in the gene dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium ncRNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high fidelity replication allowed the unusual ‘inflation’ of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.

  4. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Walworth, Nathan; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Woyke, Tanja; Hutchins, David A; Hess, Wolfgang R; Webb, Eric A

    2015-04-07

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20-25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and nonpathogenic, free-living bacteria. We use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus, both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the noncoding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and twofold higher than that found in the gene-dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium noncoding RNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences, lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high-fidelity replication allowed the unusual "inflation" of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.

  5. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Walworth, Nathan; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F.; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Land, Miriam L.; Woyke, Tanja; Hutchins, David A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Webb, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20–25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and nonpathogenic, free-living bacteria. We use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus, both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the noncoding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and twofold higher than that found in the gene-dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium noncoding RNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences, lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high-fidelity replication allowed the unusual “inflation” of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle. PMID:25831533

  6. The homologous recombination component EEPD1 is required for genome stability in response to developmental stress of vertebrate embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Changzoon; Wu, Yuehan; Lee, Suk-Hee; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Reinert, Brian L.; Jaiswal, Aruna Shanker; Nickoloff, Jac A.; Hromas, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stressed replication forks can be conservatively repaired and restarted using homologous recombination (HR), initiated by nuclease cleavage of branched structures at stalled forks. We previously reported that the 5′ nuclease EEPD1 is recruited to stressed replication forks, where it plays critical early roles in HR initiation by promoting fork cleavage and end resection. HR repair of stressed replication forks prevents their repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), which would cause genome instability. Rapid cell division during vertebrate embryonic development generates enormous pressure to maintain replication speed and accuracy. To determine the role of EEPD1 in maintaining replication fork integrity and genome stability during rapid cell division in embryonic development, we assessed the role of EEPD1 during zebrafish embryogenesis. We show here that when EEPD1 is depleted, zebrafish embryos fail to develop normally and have a marked increase in death rate. Zebrafish embryos depleted of EEPD1 are far more sensitive to replication stress caused by nucleotide depletion. We hypothesized that the HR defect with EEPD1 depletion would shift repair of stressed replication forks to unopposed NHEJ, causing chromosome abnormalities. Consistent with this, EEPD1 depletion results in nuclear defects including anaphase bridges and micronuclei in stressed zebrafish embryos, similar to BRCA1 deficiency. These results demonstrate that the newly characterized HR protein EEPD1 maintains genome stability during embryonic replication stress. These data also imply that the rapid cell cycle transit seen during embryonic development produces replication stress that requires HR to resolve. PMID:26900729

  7. Systematic characterization of deubiquitylating enzymes for roles in maintaining genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Ryotaro; Wijnhoven, Paul; le Sage, Carlos; Tjeertes, Jorrit; Galanty, Yaron; Forment, Josep V.; Clague, Michael J.; Urbé, Sylvie; Jackson, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are perhaps the most toxic of all DNA lesions, with defects in the DNA damage response to DSBs being associated with various human diseases. Although it is known that DSB repair pathways are tightly regulated by ubiquitylation, we do not yet have a comprehensive understanding of how deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) function in DSB responses. Here, by carrying out a multi-dimensional screening strategy for human DUBs, we identify several with hitherto unknown links to DSB repair, the G2/M DNA-damage checkpoint and genome-integrity maintenance. Phylogenetic analyses reveal functional clustering within certain DUB subgroups, suggesting evolutionally conserved functions and/or related modes-of action. Furthermore, we establish that the DUB UCHL5 regulates DSB resection and repair by homologous recombination through protecting its interactor, NFRKB, from degradation. Collectively our findings extend the list of DUBs promoting the maintenance of genome integrity, and highlight their potential as therapeutic targets for cancer. PMID:25194926

  8. Anomalously enhanced hydration of aqueous electrolyte solution in hydrophobic carbon nanotubes to maintain stability.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Tomonori

    2014-02-24

    An understanding of the structure and behavior of electrolyte solutions in nanoenvironements is crucial not only for a wide variety of applications, but also for the development of physical, chemical, and biological processes. We demonstrate the structure and stability of electrolyte in carbon nanotubes using hybrid reverse Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray diffraction patterns. Hydrogen bonds between water are adequately formed in carbon nanotubes, although some hydrogen bonds are restricted by the interfaces of carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen bonding network of water in electrolyte in the carbon nanotubes is further weakened. On the other hand, formation of the ion hydration shell is significantly enhanced in the electrolyte in the carbon nanotubes in comparison to ion hydration in bulk electrolyte. The significant hydrogen bond and hydration shell formation are a result of gaining stability in the hydrophobic nanoenvironment. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Stretch sensitive reflexes as an adaptive mechanism for maintaining limb stability.

    PubMed

    Shemmell, Jonathan; Krutky, Matthew A; Perreault, Eric J

    2010-10-01

    The often studied stretch reflex is fundamental to the involuntary control of posture and movement. Nevertheless, there remains controversy regarding its functional role. Many studies have demonstrated that stretch reflexes can be modulated in a task appropriate manner. This review focuses on modulation of the long-latency stretch reflex, thought to be mediated, at least in part, by supraspinal pathways. For example, this component of the stretch reflex increases in magnitude during interactions with compliant environments, relative to its sensitivity during interactions with rigid environments. This suggests that reflex sensitivity increases to augment limb stability when that stability is not provided by the environment. However, not all results support the stabilizing role of stretch reflexes. Some studies have demonstrated that involuntary responses within the time period corresponding to the long-latency reflex can destabilize limb posture. We propose that this debate stems from the fact that multiple perturbation-sensitive pathways can contribute to the long-latency stretch reflex and that these pathways have separate functional roles. The presented studies suggest that neural activity occurring within the period normally ascribed to the long-latency stretch reflex is highly adaptable to current task demands and possibly should be considered more intelligent than "reflexive". Copyright 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteoglycans maintain lung stability in an elastase-treated mouse model of emphysema.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ayuko; Majumdar, Arnab; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2014-07-01

    Extracellular matrix remodeling and tissue rupture contribute to the progression of emphysema. Lung tissue elasticity is governed by the tensile stiffness of fibers and the compressive stiffness of proteoglycans. It is not known how proteoglycan remodeling affects tissue stability and destruction in emphysema. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of remodeled proteoglycans in alveolar stability and tissue destruction in emphysema. At 30 days after treatment with porcine pancreatic elastase, mouse lung tissue stiffness and alveolar deformation were evaluated under varying tonicity conditions that affect the stiffness of proteoglycans. Proteoglycans were stained and measured in the alveolar walls. Computational models of alveolar stability and rupture incorporating the mechanical properties of fibers and proteoglycans were developed. Although absolute tissue stiffness was only 24% of normal, changes in relative stiffness and alveolar shape distortion due to changes in tonicity were increased in emphysema (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). Glycosaminoglycan amount per unit alveolar wall length, which is responsible for proteoglycan stiffness, was higher in emphysema (P < 0.001). Versican expression increased in the tissue, but decorin decreased. Our network model predicted that the rate of tissue deterioration locally governed by mechanical forces was reduced when proteoglycan stiffness was increased. Consequently, this general network model explains why increasing proteoglycan deposition protects the alveolar walls from rupture in emphysema. Our results suggest that the loss of proteoglycans observed in human emphysema contributes to disease progression, whereas treatments that promote proteoglycan deposition in the extracellular matrix should slow the progression of emphysema.

  11. Stretch sensitive reflexes as an adaptive mechanism for maintaining limb stability

    PubMed Central

    Shemmell, Jonathan; Krutky, Matthew A.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    The often studied stretch reflex is fundamental to the involuntary control of posture and movement. Nevertheless, there remains controversy regarding its functional role. Many studies have demonstrated that stretch reflexes can be modulated in a task appropriate manner. This review focuses on modulation of the long latency stretch reflex, thought to be mediated, at least in part, by supraspinal pathways. For example, this component of the stretch reflex increases in magnitude during interactions with compliant environments, relative to the sensitivity during interactions with rigid environments. This suggests that reflex sensitivity increases to augment limb stability when that stability is not provided by the environment. However, not all results support the stabilizing role of stretch reflexes. Some studies have demonstrated that involuntary responses within the time period corresponding to the long latency reflex can destabilize limb posture. We propose that this debate stems from the fact that multiple perturbation-sensitive pathways can contribute to the long latency stretch reflex and that these pathways have separate functional roles. The presented studies suggest that neural activity occurring within the period normally ascribed to the long latency stretch reflex is highly adaptable to current task demands and possibly should be considered more intelligent than “reflexive.” PMID:20434396

  12. Proteoglycans Maintain Lung Stability in an Elastase-Treated Mouse Model of Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ayuko; Majumdar, Arnab; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix remodeling and tissue rupture contribute to the progression of emphysema. Lung tissue elasticity is governed by the tensile stiffness of fibers and the compressive stiffness of proteoglycans. It is not known how proteoglycan remodeling affects tissue stability and destruction in emphysema. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of remodeled proteoglycans in alveolar stability and tissue destruction in emphysema. At 30 days after treatment with porcine pancreatic elastase, mouse lung tissue stiffness and alveolar deformation were evaluated under varying tonicity conditions that affect the stiffness of proteoglycans. Proteoglycans were stained and measured in the alveolar walls. Computational models of alveolar stability and rupture incorporating the mechanical properties of fibers and proteoglycans were developed. Although absolute tissue stiffness was only 24% of normal, changes in relative stiffness and alveolar shape distortion due to changes in tonicity were increased in emphysema (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). Glycosaminoglycan amount per unit alveolar wall length, which is responsible for proteoglycan stiffness, was higher in emphysema (P < 0.001). Versican expression increased in the tissue, but decorin decreased. Our network model predicted that the rate of tissue deterioration locally governed by mechanical forces was reduced when proteoglycan stiffness was increased. Consequently, this general network model explains why increasing proteoglycan deposition protects the alveolar walls from rupture in emphysema. Our results suggest that the loss of proteoglycans observed in human emphysema contributes to disease progression, whereas treatments that promote proteoglycan deposition in the extracellular matrix should slow the progression of emphysema. PMID:24450478

  13. The Second Subunit of DNA Polymerase Delta Is Required for Genomic Stability and Epigenetic Regulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jinkui; Lai, Jinsheng; Gong, Zhizhong

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase δ plays crucial roles in DNA repair and replication as well as maintaining genomic stability. However, the function of POLD2, the second small subunit of DNA polymerase δ, has not been characterized yet in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). During a genetic screen for release of transcriptional gene silencing, we identified a mutation in POLD2. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing indicated that POLD2 is not involved in the regulation of DNA methylation. POLD2 genetically interacts with Ataxia Telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related and DNA polymerase α. The pold2-1 mutant exhibits genomic instability with a high frequency of homologous recombination. It also exhibits hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging reagents and short telomere length. Whole-genome chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing analyses suggest that pold2-1 changes H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 modifications, and these changes are correlated with the gene expression levels. Our study suggests that POLD2 is required for maintaining genome integrity and properly establishing the epigenetic markers during DNA replication to modulate gene expression. PMID:27208288

  14. Blockade of Pachytene piRNA Biogenesis Reveals a Novel Requirement for Maintaining Post-Meiotic Germline Genome Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ke; Wang, P. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs are a diverse class of small non-coding RNAs implicated in the silencing of transposable elements and the safeguarding of genome integrity. In mammals, male germ cells express two genetically and developmentally distinct populations of piRNAs at the pre-pachytene and pachytene stages of meiosis, respectively. Pre-pachytene piRNAs are mostly derived from retrotransposons and required for their silencing. In contrast, pachytene piRNAs originate from ∼3,000 genomic clusters, and their biogenesis and function remain enigmatic. Here, we report that conditional inactivation of the putative RNA helicase MOV10L1 in mouse spermatocytes produces a specific loss of pachytene piRNAs, significant accumulation of pachytene piRNA precursor transcripts, and unusual polar conglomeration of Piwi proteins with mitochondria. Pachytene piRNA–deficient spermatocytes progress through meiosis without derepression of LINE1 retrotransposons, but become arrested at the post-meiotic round spermatid stage with massive DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that MOV10L1 acts upstream of Piwi proteins in the primary processing of pachytene piRNAs and suggest that, distinct from pre-pachytene piRNAs, pachytene piRNAs fulfill a unique function in maintaining post-meiotic genome integrity. PMID:23166510

  15. Genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis of CMS-D2 and its maintainer and restorer lines in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Xuexian; Guo, Liping; Qi, Tingxiang; Wang, Hailin; Zhang, Jinfa; Xing, Chaozhu

    2017-06-08

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) conferred by the cytoplasm from Gossypium harknessii (D2) is an important system for hybrid seed production in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum). The male sterility of CMS-D2 (i.e., A line) can be restored to fertility by a restorer (i.e., R line) carrying the restorer gene Rf1 transferred from the D2 nuclear genome. However, the molecular mechanisms of CMS-D2 and its restoration are poorly understood. In this study, a genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in flower buds among the isogenic fertile R line and sterile A line derived from a backcross population (BC8F1) and the recurrent parent, i.e., the maintainer (B line). A total of 1464 DEGs were identified among the three isogenic lines, and the Rf1-carrying Chr_D05 and its homeologous Chr_A05 had more DEGs than other chromosomes. The results of GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed differences in circadian rhythm between the fertile and sterile lines. Eleven DEGs were selected for validation using qRT-PCR, confirming the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. Through genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis, the differential expression profiles of CMS-D2 and its maintainer and restorer lines in Upland cotton were identified. Our results provide an important foundation for further studies into the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between the restorer gene Rf1 and the CMS-D2 cytoplasm.

  16. The importance of frictional interactions in maintaining the stability of the twining habit.

    PubMed

    Silk, Wendy K; Holbrook, N Michele

    2005-11-01

    The stability of twining vines under gravitational loads suggests an important role for friction. The coefficient of friction, μ, between vine stems and wood is high, often five times greater than between leather and wood, as determined by slip tests on an inclined plane. Stem trichomes function like ratchets to facilitate climbing upward (or to facilitate slipping if the stem is inverted). A mathematical model predicts large masses (kg) must be applied to the base of a twining vine to cause slipping. Vines slip as predicted when μ is low and arc length on the pole is short, and they break before slipping when μ is large or arc length is long. In contrast, twining vines are unstable in compression, collapsing when small masses (<10 g) are hung from the top of the vine. However, if the loads are applied below the uppermost gyre, the stabilizing tensional effect dominates. Therefore, in nature vines twining on a cylindrical support are stable under gravitational loads, unless these loads occur near the apex. A corollary is that a short apical coil can hold up large masses of maturing shoot.

  17. STUbLs in chromatin and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Garza, Renee; Pillus, Lorraine

    2013-02-01

    Chromatin structure and function is based on the dynamic interactions between nucleosomes and chromatin-associated proteins. In addition to the other post-translational modifications considered in this review issue of Biopolymers, ubiquitin and SUMO proteins also have prominent roles in chromatin function. A specialized form of modification that involves both, referred to as SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligation, or STUbL [Perry, Tainer, and Boddy, Trends Biochem Sci, 2008, 33, 201-208], has significant effects on nuclear functions, ranging from gene regulation to genomic stability. Intersections between SUMO and ubiquitin in protein modification have been the subject of a recent comprehensive review [Praefcke, Hofmann, and Dohmen, Trends Biochem Sci, 2012, 37, 23-31]. Our goal here is to focus on features of enzymes with STUbL activity that have been best studied, particularly in relation to their nuclear functions in humans, flies, and yeasts. Because there are clear associations of disease and development upon loss of STUbL activities in metazoans, learning more about their function, regulation, and substrates will remain an important goal for the future. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: From Injury to Genomic Stability.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe da Silva; de Paoli, Flavia; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; da Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza

    2017-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth cause of death in the world and it is currently presenting a major global public health challenge, causing premature death from pathophysiological complications and rising economic and social burdens. COPD develops from a combination of factors following exposure to pollutants and cigarette smoke, presenting a combination of both emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis, which causes lung airflow limitations that are not fully reversible by bronchodilators. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the maintenance and amplification of inflammation in tissue injury, and also induces DNA damages. Once the DNA molecule is damaged, enzymatic mechanisms act in order to repair the DNA molecule. These mechanisms are specific to repair of oxidative damages, such as nitrogen base modifications, or larger DNA damages, such as double-strand breaks. In addition, there is an enzymatic mechanism for the control of telomere length. All these mechanisms contribute to cell viability and homeostasis. Thus, therapies based on modulation of DNA repair and genomic stability could be effective in improving repair and recovery of lung tissue in patients with COPD.

  19. A Wheat SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE Gene Enhances Seedling Growth and Abiotic Stress Resistance by Modulating Redox Homeostasis and Maintaining Genomic Integrity[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuantao; Liu, Shuwei; Wang, Mei; Wei, Tiandi; Meng, Chen; Wang, Meng; Xia, Guangmin

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth inhibition is a common response to salinity. Under saline conditions, Shanrong No. 3 (SR3), a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) introgression line, performs better than its parent wheat variety Jinan 177 (JN177) with respect to both seedling growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Furthermore, the endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also elevated in SR3 relative to JN177. The SR3 allele of sro1, a gene encoding a poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain protein, was identified to be crucial for both aspects of its superior performance. Unlike RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 and other Arabidopsis thaliana SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE (SRO) proteins, sro1 has PARP activity. Both the overexpression of Ta-sro1 in wheat and its heterologous expression in Arabidopsis promote the accumulation of ROS, mainly by enhancing the activity of NADPH oxidase and the expression of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, in conjunction with the suppression of alternative oxidase expression. Moreover, it promotes the activity of ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes and GSH peroxidase cycle enzymes, which regulate ROS content and cellular redox homeostasis. sro1 is also found to be involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We show here that the wheat SRO has PARP activity; such activity could be manipulated to improve the growth of seedlings exposed to salinity stress by modulating redox homeostasis and maintaining genomic stability. PMID:24443520

  20. A wheat SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE gene enhances seedling growth and abiotic stress resistance by modulating redox homeostasis and maintaining genomic integrity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuantao; Liu, Shuwei; Wang, Mei; Wei, Tiandi; Meng, Chen; Wang, Meng; Xia, Guangmin

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth inhibition is a common response to salinity. Under saline conditions, Shanrong No. 3 (SR3), a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) introgression line, performs better than its parent wheat variety Jinan 177 (JN177) with respect to both seedling growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Furthermore, the endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also elevated in SR3 relative to JN177. The SR3 allele of sro1, a gene encoding a poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain protein, was identified to be crucial for both aspects of its superior performance. Unlike RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 and other Arabidopsis thaliana SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE (SRO) proteins, sro1 has PARP activity. Both the overexpression of Ta-sro1 in wheat and its heterologous expression in Arabidopsis promote the accumulation of ROS, mainly by enhancing the activity of NADPH oxidase and the expression of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, in conjunction with the suppression of alternative oxidase expression. Moreover, it promotes the activity of ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes and GSH peroxidase cycle enzymes, which regulate ROS content and cellular redox homeostasis. sro1 is also found to be involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We show here that the wheat SRO has PARP activity; such activity could be manipulated to improve the growth of seedlings exposed to salinity stress by modulating redox homeostasis and maintaining genomic stability.

  1. Histone H2B mono-ubiquitylation maintains genomic integrity at stalled replication forks.

    PubMed

    Northam, Matthew R; Trujillo, Kelly M

    2016-11-02

    Histone modifications play an important role in regulating access to DNA for transcription, DNA repair and DNA replication. A central player in these events is the mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub1), which has been shown to regulate nucleosome dynamics. Previously, it was shown that H2Bub1 was important for nucleosome assembly onto nascent DNA at active replication forks. In the absence of H2Bub1, incomplete chromatin structures resulted in several replication defects. Here, we report new evidence, which shows that loss of H2Bub1 contributes to genomic instability in yeast. Specifically, we demonstrate that H2Bub1-deficient yeast accumulate mutations at a high frequency under conditions of replicative stress. This phenotype is due to an aberrant DNA Damage Tolerance (DDT) response upon fork stalling. We show that H2Bub1 normally functions to promote error-free translesion synthesis (TLS) mediated by DNA polymerase eta (Polη). Without H2Bub1, DNA polymerase zeta (Polζ) is responsible for a highly mutagenic alternative mechanism. While H2Bub1 does not appear to regulate other DDT pathways, error-free DDT mechanisms are employed by H2Bub1-deficient cells as another means for survival. However, in these instances, the anti-recombinase, Srs2, is essential to prevent the accumulation of toxic HR intermediates that arise in an unconstrained chromatin environment.

  2. Drosophila bloom helicase maintains genome integrity by inhibiting recombination between divergent DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Michael; Kranz, Elisabeth; Woolcock, Katrina; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2008-12-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) can be repaired either via a sequence independent joining of DNA ends or via homologous recombination. We established a detection system in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of sequence constraints on the usage of the homology based DSB repair via single strand annealing (SSA), which leads to recombination between direct repeats with concomitant loss of one repeat copy. First of all, we find the SSA frequency to be inversely proportional to the spacer length between the repeats, for spacers up to 2.4 kb in length. We further show that SSA between divergent repeats (homeologous SSA) is suppressed in cell cultures and in vivo in a sensitive manner, recognizing sequence divergences smaller than 0.5%. Finally, we demonstrate that the suppression of homeologous SSA depends on the Bloom helicase (Blm), encoded by the Drosophila gene mus309. Suppression of homeologous recombination is a novel function of Blm in ensuring genomic integrity, not described to date in mammalian systems. Unexpectedly, distinct from its function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mismatch repair factor Msh2 encoded by spel1 does not suppress homeologous SSA in Drosophila.

  3. Genomic Imprinting of IGF2 Is Maintained in Infantile Hemangioma despite its High Level of Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Wylie-Sears, Jill; Boscolo, Elisa; Mulliken, John B; Bischoff, Joyce

    2004-01-01

    Hemangioma, the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by rapid growth and slow regression. Increased mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) has been detected in the proliferating phase by cDNA microarray analysis, but the underlying mechanism causing the increase remains unknown. Here, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, we show that IGF2 is highly expressed in both proliferating and involuting phase hemangioma, but is not detectable in other vascular lesions such as pyogenic granuloma, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, or in normal infant skin. Loss of imprinting of the Igf2 gene has been associated with IGF2 overexpression in a variety of childhood tumors. To determine if loss of imprinting and consequent bi-allelic expression might contribute to the increased expression of IGF2, we examined the genomic imprinting status of Igf2 in 48 individual hemangiomas. We determined allele-specific Igf2 expression using reverse transcriptase–PCR combined with analysis of an Apa I–sensitive restriction fragment length polymorphism. Similar to heterozygous normal skin controls, all 15 informative hemangiomas showed uniform mono-allelic expression of Igf2. Therefore, loss of imprinting is not involved in the increased expression of IGF2 in infantile hemangioma. PMID:15706404

  4. Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA–DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbale, Percy; Williams, Jessica S.; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Scott

    2013-12-22

    Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions used by ATP-dependent DNA ligases. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5'-adenylated (5'-AMP) DNA lesions. Aprataxin (APTX) reverses DNA adenylation but the context for deadenylation repair is unclear. Here we examine the importance of APTX to RNase-H2-dependent excision repair (RER) of a lesion that is very frequently introduced into DNA, a ribonucleotide. We show that ligases generate adenylated 5' ends containing a ribose characteristic of RNase H2 incision. APTX efficiently repairs adenylated RNA–DNA, and acting in an RNA–DNA damage response (RDDR), promotes cellular survival and prevents S-phase checkpoint activation in budding yeast undergoing RER. Structure–function studies of human APTX–RNA–DNA–AMP–Zn complexes define a mechanism for detecting and reversing adenylation at RNA–DNA junctions. This involves A-form RNA binding, proper protein folding and conformational changes, all of which are affected by heritable APTX mutations in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1. Together, these results indicate that accumulation of adenylated RNA–DNA may contribute to neurological disease.

  5. Histone H2B mono-ubiquitylation maintains genomic integrity at stalled replication forks

    PubMed Central

    Northam, Matthew R.; Trujillo, Kelly M.

    2016-01-01

    Histone modifications play an important role in regulating access to DNA for transcription, DNA repair and DNA replication. A central player in these events is the mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub1), which has been shown to regulate nucleosome dynamics. Previously, it was shown that H2Bub1 was important for nucleosome assembly onto nascent DNA at active replication forks. In the absence of H2Bub1, incomplete chromatin structures resulted in several replication defects. Here, we report new evidence, which shows that loss of H2Bub1 contributes to genomic instability in yeast. Specifically, we demonstrate that H2Bub1-deficient yeast accumulate mutations at a high frequency under conditions of replicative stress. This phenotype is due to an aberrant DNA Damage Tolerance (DDT) response upon fork stalling. We show that H2Bub1 normally functions to promote error-free translesion synthesis (TLS) mediated by DNA polymerase eta (Polη). Without H2Bub1, DNA polymerase zeta (Polζ) is responsible for a highly mutagenic alternative mechanism. While H2Bub1 does not appear to regulate other DDT pathways, error-free DDT mechanisms are employed by H2Bub1-deficient cells as another means for survival. However, in these instances, the anti-recombinase, Srs2, is essential to prevent the accumulation of toxic HR intermediates that arise in an unconstrained chromatin environment. PMID:27458205

  6. Morphogenetic and chemical stability of long-term maintained Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Abhishek; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants (transgenic Dhawal [DT] and transgenic Nirmal [NT]) obtained from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizognenes-mediated transformations, respectively, have been maintained in vitro for 5 years. Plants were studied at regular intervals for various parameters such as plant height, leaf size, multiplication rate, alkaloid profile and presence of marker genes. DT plant gradually lost the GUS gene expression and it was not detected in the fifth year while NT plant demonstrated the presence of genes rolA, rolB and rolC even in the fifth year, indicating the more stable nature of Ri transgene. Vindoline content in the DT was two times more than in non-transformed control plants. Alkaloid and tryptophan profiles were almost constant during the 5 years. The cluster analysis revealed that the DT plant is more close to the control Nirmal plant followed by NT plant.

  7. On the conformational stability of the smallest RNA kissing complexes maintained through two G·C base pairs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wally; Weerasekera, Akila; Kim, Chul-Hyun

    2017-01-29

    Two identical 5'GACG3' tetra-loop motifs with different stem sequences (called H2 and H3) are found in the 5' end region of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MMLV) genomic RNA. They play important roles in RNA dimerization and encapsidation through two identical tetra-loops (5'GACG3') forming a loop-to-loop kissing complex, the smallest RNA kissing complex ever found in nature. We examined the effects of a loop-closing base pair as well as a stem sequence on the conformational stability of the kissing complex. UV melting analysis and gel electrophoresis were performed on eight RNA sequences mimicking the H2 and H3 hairpin tetra-loops with variation in loop-closing base pairs. Our results show that changing the loop-closing base pair from the wildtype (5'A·U3' for H3, 5'U·A3' for H2) to 5'G·C3'/5'C·G3' has significant effect on the stability of the kissing complexes: the substitution to 5'C·G3' significantly decreases both thermal and mechanical stability, while switching to the 5'G·C3' significantly increases the mechanical stability only. The kissing complexes with the wildtype loop-closing base pairs (5'A·U3' for H3 and 5'U·A3' for H2) show different stability when attached to a different stem sequence (H2 stem vs. H3 stem). This suggests that not only the loop-closing base pair itself, but also the stem sequence, affects the conformational stability of the RNA kissing complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Current advances in DNA repair: regulation of enzymes and pathways involved in maintaining genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Neher, Tracy M; Turchi, John J

    2011-06-15

    Novel discoveries in the DNA repair field have lead to continuous and rapid advancement of our understanding of not only DNA repair but also DNA replication and recombination. Research in the field transcends numerous areas of biology, biochemistry, physiology, and medicine, making significant connections across these broad areas of study. From early studies conducted in bacterial systems to current analyses in eukaryotic systems and human disease, the innovative research into the mechanisms of repair machines and the consequences of ineffective DNA repair has impacted a wide scientific community. This Forum contains a select mix of primary research articles in addition to a number of timely reviews covering a subset of DNA repair pathways where recent advances and novel discoveries are improving our understanding of DNA repair, its regulation, and implications to human disease.

  9. The role of Cdh1p in maintaining genomic stability in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Karen E; Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2003-01-01

    Cdh1p, a substrate specificity factor for the cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), promotes exit from mitosis by directing the degradation of a number of proteins, including the mitotic cyclins. Here we present evidence that Cdh1p activity at the M/G(1) transition is important not only for mitotic exit but also for high-fidelity chromosome segregation in the subsequent cell cycle. CDH1 showed genetic interactions with MAD2 and PDS1, genes encoding components of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint that acts at metaphase to prevent premature chromosome segregation. Unlike cdh1delta and mad2delta single mutants, the mad2delta cdh1delta double mutant grew slowly and exhibited high rates of chromosome and plasmid loss. Simultaneous deletion of PDS1 and CDH1 caused extensive chromosome missegregation and cell death. Our data suggest that at least part of the chromosome loss can be attributed to kinetochore/spindle problems. Our data further suggest that Cdh1p and Sic1p, a Cdc28p/Clb inhibitor, have overlapping as well as nonoverlapping roles in ensuring proper chromosome segregation. The severe growth defects of both mad2delta cdh1delta and pds1delta cdh1dDelta strains were rescued by overexpressing Swe1p, a G(2)/M inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc28p/Clb. We propose that the failure to degrade cyclins at the end of mitosis leaves cdh1delta mutant strains with abnormal Cdc28p/Clb activity that interferes with proper chromosome segregation. PMID:14573464

  10. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes between a wheat K-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line and its maintainer line.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huitao; Cui, Peng; Zhan, Kehui; Lin, Qiang; Zhuo, Guoyin; Guo, Xiaoli; Ding, Feng; Yang, Wenlong; Liu, Dongcheng; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Aimin

    2011-03-29

    Plant mitochondria, semiautonomous organelles that function as manufacturers of cellular ATP, have their own genome that has a slow rate of evolution and rapid rearrangement. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), a common phenotype in higher plants, is closely associated with rearrangements in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and is widely used to produce F1 hybrid seeds in a variety of valuable crop species. Novel chimeric genes deduced from mtDNA rearrangements causing CMS have been identified in several plants, such as rice, sunflower, pepper, and rapeseed, but there are very few reports about mtDNA rearrangements in wheat. In the present work, we describe the mitochondrial genome of a wheat K-type CMS line and compare it with its maintainer line. The complete mtDNA sequence of a wheat K-type (with cytoplasm of Aegilops kotschyi) CMS line, Ks3, was assembled into a master circle (MC) molecule of 647,559 bp and found to harbor 34 known protein-coding genes, three rRNAs (18 S, 26 S, and 5 S rRNAs), and 16 different tRNAs. Compared to our previously published sequence of a K-type maintainer line, Km3, we detected Ks3-specific mtDNA (> 100 bp, 11.38%) and repeats (> 100 bp, 29 units) as well as genes that are unique to each line: rpl5 was missing in Ks3 and trnH was absent from Km3. We also defined 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 protein-coding, albeit functionally irrelevant, genes, and predicted 22 unique ORFs in Ks3, representing potential candidates for K-type CMS. All these sequence variations are candidates for involvement in CMS. A comparative analysis of the mtDNA of several angiosperms, including those from Ks3, Km3, rice, maize, Arabidopsis thaliana, and rapeseed, showed that non-coding sequences of higher plants had mostly divergent multiple reorganizations during the mtDNA evolution of higher plants. The complete mitochondrial genome of the wheat K-type CMS line Ks3 is very different from that of its maintainer line Km3, especially in non

  11. In vivo polyethylene bearing mobility is maintained in posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Komistek, Richard D; Dennis, Douglas A; Mahfouz, Mohamed R; Walker, Scott; Outten, Joel

    2004-11-01

    In vivo knee kinematics, including polyethylene bearing mobility, were determined in a group of nine patients implanted with a posterior stabilized, mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty. Each patient, while under fluoroscopic surveillance, did a weightbearing deep knee bend and was analyzed using a 3-D computer model-fitting technique. Patients were evaluated at three and 15 months postoperatively. All nine patients had polyethylene bearing rotation relative to the tibial tray at both times, with the maximum amount of polyethylene bearing rotation at any flexion interval averaging 8.5 (range, 5.2-15.5) and 9.8 (range, 4.8-14.2) at 3 and 15 months, respectively. Minimal rotation of the polyethylene bearing relative to the femoral component was observed, averaging only 1.9 and 1.0 of rotation from full extension to maximum knee flexion at three and 15 months, respectively. This study determined that the polyethylene bearing is primarily rotating relative to the tibia rather than the femoral component. Therefore, as the femoral component axially rotates, the polyethylene bearing is rotating a similar magnitude in the same direction. This should result in reduced shear stresses on the superior aspect of the polyethylene bearing, lessening polyethylene wear.

  12. Stress-induced phosphoprotein-1 maintains the stability of JAK2 in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Lin, Chiao-Yun; Chen, Shun-Hua; Sue, Shih-Che; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Wang, Hsin-Shih; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) − a co-chaperone of heat shock protein (HSP) 70/HSP90 – and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway occur in several tumors. Combined treatment with a HSP90 inhibitor and a JAK2 inhibitor exert synergistic anti-cancer effects. Here, we show that STIP1 stabilizes JAK2 protein in ovarian and endometrial cancer cells. Knock-down of endogenous STIP1 decreased JAK2 and phospho-STAT3 protein levels. The N-terminal fragment of STIP1 interacts with the N-terminus of JAK2, whereas the C-terminal DP2 domain of STIP1 mediates the interaction with HSP90 and STAT3. A peptide fragment in the DP2 domain of STIP1 (peptide 520) disrupted the interaction between STIP1 and HSP90 and induced cell death through JAK2 suppression. In an animal model, treatment with peptide 520 inhibited tumor growth. In summary, STIP1 modulates the function of the HSP90-JAK2-STAT3 complex. Peptide 520 may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of JAK2-overexpressing tumors. PMID:27409672

  13. Stag3 regulates microtubule stability to maintain euploidy during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mianqun; Dai, Xiaoxin; Sun, Yalu; Lu, Yajuan; Zhou, Changyin; Miao, Yilong; Wang, Ying; Xiong, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Stag3, a meiosis-specific subunit of cohesin complex, has been demonstrated to function in both male and female reproductive systems in mammals. However, its roles during oocyte meiotic maturation have not been fully defined. In the present study, we report that Stag3 uniquely accumulates on the spindle apparatus and colocalizes with microtubule fibers during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Depletion of Stag3 by gene-targeting morpholino disrupts normal spindle assembly and chromosome alignment in oocytes. We also find that depletion of Stag3 reduces the acetylated level of tubulin and microtubule resistance to microtubule depolymerizing drug, suggesting that Stag3 is required for microtubule stability. Consistent with these observations, kinetochore-microtubule attachment, an important mechanism controlling chromosome alignment, is severely impaired in Stag3-depleted oocytes, resultantly causing the significantly increased incidence of aneuploid eggs. Collectively, our data reveal that Stag3 is a novel regulator of microtubule dynamics to ensure euploidy during moue oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:27906670

  14. Embryonic lethal phenotype reveals a function of TDG in maintaining epigenetic stability.

    PubMed

    Cortázar, Daniel; Kunz, Christophe; Selfridge, Jim; Lettieri, Teresa; Saito, Yusuke; MacDougall, Eilidh; Wirz, Annika; Schuermann, David; Jacobs, Angelika L; Siegrist, Fredy; Steinacher, Roland; Jiricny, Josef; Bird, Adrian; Schär, Primo

    2011-02-17

    Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is a member of the uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily of DNA repair enzymes. Owing to its ability to excise thymine when mispaired with guanine, it was proposed to act against the mutability of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) deamination in mammalian DNA. However, TDG was also found to interact with transcription factors, histone acetyltransferases and de novo DNA methyltransferases, and it has been associated with DNA demethylation in gene promoters following activation of transcription, altogether implicating an engagement in gene regulation rather than DNA repair. Here we use a mouse genetic approach to determine the biological function of this multifaceted DNA repair enzyme. We find that, unlike other DNA glycosylases, TDG is essential for embryonic development, and that this phenotype is associated with epigenetic aberrations affecting the expression of developmental genes. Fibroblasts derived from Tdg null embryos (mouse embryonic fibroblasts, MEFs) show impaired gene regulation, coincident with imbalanced histone modification and CpG methylation at promoters of affected genes. TDG associates with the promoters of such genes both in fibroblasts and in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), but epigenetic aberrations only appear upon cell lineage commitment. We show that TDG contributes to the maintenance of active and bivalent chromatin throughout cell differentiation, facilitating a proper assembly of chromatin-modifying complexes and initiating base excision repair to counter aberrant de novo methylation. We thus conclude that TDG-dependent DNA repair has evolved to provide epigenetic stability in lineage committed cells.

  15. UVR2 ensures transgenerational genome stability under simulated natural UV-B in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Willing, Eva-Maria; Piofczyk, Thomas; Albert, Andreas; Winkler, J. Barbro; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Pecinka, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Ground levels of solar UV-B radiation induce DNA damage. Sessile phototrophic organisms such as vascular plants are recurrently exposed to sunlight and require UV-B photoreception, flavonols shielding, direct reversal of pyrimidine dimers and nucleotide excision repair for resistance against UV-B radiation. However, the frequency of UV-B-induced mutations is unknown in plants. Here we quantify the amount and types of mutations in the offspring of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and UV-B-hypersensitive mutants exposed to simulated natural UV-B over their entire life cycle. We show that reversal of pyrimidine dimers by UVR2 photolyase is the major mechanism required for sustaining plant genome stability across generations under UV-B. In addition to widespread somatic expression, germline-specific UVR2 activity occurs during late flower development, and is important for ensuring low mutation rates in male and female cell lineages. This allows plants to maintain genome integrity in the germline despite exposure to UV-B. PMID:27905394

  16. NDRG1 links p53 with proliferation-mediated centrosome homeostasis and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Croessmann, Sarah; Wong, Hong Yuen; Zabransky, Daniel J; Chu, David; Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Mohseni, Morassa; Rosen, D Marc; Scharpf, Robert B; Cidado, Justin; Cochran, Rory L; Parsons, Heather A; Dalton, W Brian; Erlanger, Bracha; Button, Berry; Cravero, Karen; Kyker-Snowman, Kelly; Beaver, Julia A; Kachhap, Sushant; Hurley, Paula J; Lauring, Josh; Park, Ben Ho

    2015-09-15

    The tumor protein 53 (TP53) tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently somatically altered gene in human cancers. Here we show expression of N-Myc down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is induced by p53 during physiologic low proliferative states, and mediates centrosome homeostasis, thus maintaining genome stability. When placed in physiologic low-proliferating conditions, human TP53 null cells fail to increase expression of NDRG1 compared with isogenic wild-type controls and TP53 R248W knockin cells. Overexpression and RNA interference studies demonstrate that NDRG1 regulates centrosome number and amplification. Mechanistically, NDRG1 physically associates with γ-tubulin, a key component of the centrosome, with reduced association in p53 null cells. Strikingly, TP53 homozygous loss was mutually exclusive of NDRG1 overexpression in over 96% of human cancers, supporting the broad applicability of these results. Our study elucidates a mechanism of how TP53 loss leads to abnormal centrosome numbers and genomic instability mediated by NDRG1.

  17. Foraging grass-cutting ants (Atta vollenweideri) maintain stability by balancing their loads with controlled head movements.

    PubMed

    Moll, Karin; Roces, Flavio; Federle, Walter

    2010-07-01

    Grass-cutting ants (Atta vollenweideri) carry leaf fragments several times heavier and longer than the workers themselves over considerable distances back to their nest. Workers transport fragments in an upright, slightly backwards-tilted position. To investigate how they maintain stability and control the carried fragment's position, we measured head and fragment positions from video recordings. Load-transporting ants often fell over, demonstrating the biomechanical difficulty of this behavior. Long fragments were carried at a significantly steeper angle than short fragments of the same mass. Workers did not hold fragments differently between the mandibles, but performed controlled up and down head movements at the neck joint. By attaching additional mass at the fragment's tip to load-carrying ants, we demonstrated that they are able to adjust the fragment angle. When we forced ants to transport loads across inclines, workers walking uphill carried fragments at a significantly steeper angle, and downhill at a shallower angle than ants walking horizontally. However, we observed similar head movements in unladen workers, indicating a generalized reaction to slopes that may have other functions in addition to maintaining stability. Our results underline the importance of proximate, biomechanical factors for the understanding of the foraging process in leaf-cutting ants.

  18. Alginate increases water stability whilst maintaining diet digestibility in farmed saltwater crocodiles ().

    PubMed

    Francis, Magdalene; Morel, Patrick C H; Wilkinson, Brian H P; Wester, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    Saltwater crocodile () farming in Papua New Guinea is an emerging industry that supplies high-quality skins to the fashion industry. Crocodiles are semiaquatic and fed high-quality feed made from extrudated animal byproducts (i.e., forced through a die at low pressure but not heat treated); however, it disintegrates on contact with water, and this leads to low utilization. Alginate is used extensively in food and pharmaceutical processes because it quickly forms a gel at room temperature; however, its effects on nutrient availability are equivocal, and its utility in crocodile diets is unknown. Extrudated chicken byproduct-based crocodile diets were formulated (as-fed) with and without 1.7 and 3.3% Na alginate with either CaCl or CaCO to cross-link. After immersion in water at 30°C for 24 h, feed retained on a 0.5-mm screen was measured to determine DM retention (DMR). Regardless of inclusion level, alginate addition resulted in a 13-fold increase in DMR ( < 0.05) when CaCO was used as a Ca source; however, CaCl use resulted in a much lower DMR. In a digestibility trial, 10 juvenile crocodiles (2.2 to 2.4 yr of age; 1.2 to 1.9 kg BW) were chosen from farm-raised stocks and fed extrudated chicken byproduct-based diets with and without 1.5% Na alginate and 1.9% CaCO. Animals fed 2% BW for 12 d and with excreta collected the last 5 d were slaughtered and had digesta sampled from the ileum. There were no differences in apparent ileal digestibilities of any AA, N (65.0 vs. 55.8%, SE = 12.2%), and OM (46.8 vs. 39.6%, SE = 12.8%) between diets with and without alginate, respectively. Total-tract digestibilities of OM (69.8 vs. 39.2%, SE = 9.1%) and energy (72.2 vs. 44.4%, SE = 8.3%), however, were greater in alginate-containing diets ( < 0.05). Our study showed that alginate addition to crocodile feed improved its stability in water and did not impair nutrient digestion. Application of these findings should greatly decrease feed wastage, which ultimately will benefit

  19. What can genome-wide association studies tell us about the evolutionary forces maintaining genetic variation for quantitative traits?

    PubMed

    Josephs, Emily B; Stinchcombe, John R; Wright, Stephen I

    2017-04-01

    Contents 21 I. 21 II. 22 III. 24 IV. 25 V. 29 30 References 30 SUMMARY: Understanding the evolutionary forces that shape genetic variation within species has long been a goal of evolutionary biology. Integrating data for the genetic architecture of traits from genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) along with the development of new population genetic methods for identifying selection in sequence data may allow us to evaluate the roles of mutation-selection balance and balancing selection in shaping genetic variation at various scales. Here, we review the theoretical predictions for genetic architecture and additional signals of selection on genomic sequence for the loci that affect traits. Next, we review how plant GWAS have tested for the signatures of various selective scenarios. Limited evidence to date suggests that within-population variation is maintained primarily by mutation-selection balance while variation across the landscape is the result of local adaptation. However, there are a number of inherent biases in these interpretations. We highlight these challenges and suggest ways forward to further understanding of the maintenance of variation. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Viral genome segmentation can result from a trade-off between genetic content and particle stability.

    PubMed

    Ojosnegros, Samuel; García-Arriaza, Juan; Escarmís, Cristina; Manrubia, Susanna C; Perales, Celia; Arias, Armando; Mateu, Mauricio García; Domingo, Esteban

    2011-03-01

    The evolutionary benefit of viral genome segmentation is a classical, yet unsolved question in evolutionary biology and RNA genetics. Theoretical studies anticipated that replication of shorter RNA segments could provide a replicative advantage over standard size genomes. However, this question has remained elusive to experimentalists because of the lack of a proper viral model system. Here we present a study with a stable segmented bipartite RNA virus and its ancestor non-segmented counterpart, in an identical genomic nucleotide sequence context. Results of RNA replication, protein expression, competition experiments, and inactivation of infectious particles point to a non-replicative trait, the particle stability, as the main driver of fitness gain of segmented genomes. Accordingly, measurements of the volume occupation of the genome inside viral capsids indicate that packaging shorter genomes involves a relaxation of the packaging density that is energetically favourable. The empirical observations are used to design a computational model that predicts the existence of a critical multiplicity of infection for domination of segmented over standard types. Our experiments suggest that viral segmented genomes may have arisen as a molecular solution for the trade-off between genome length and particle stability. Genome segmentation allows maximizing the genetic content without the detrimental effect in stability derived from incresing genome length.

  1. Viral Genome Segmentation Can Result from a Trade-Off between Genetic Content and Particle Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ojosnegros, Samuel; García-Arriaza, Juan; Escarmís, Cristina; Manrubia, Susanna C.; Perales, Celia; Arias, Armando; Mateu, Mauricio García; Domingo, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary benefit of viral genome segmentation is a classical, yet unsolved question in evolutionary biology and RNA genetics. Theoretical studies anticipated that replication of shorter RNA segments could provide a replicative advantage over standard size genomes. However, this question has remained elusive to experimentalists because of the lack of a proper viral model system. Here we present a study with a stable segmented bipartite RNA virus and its ancestor non-segmented counterpart, in an identical genomic nucleotide sequence context. Results of RNA replication, protein expression, competition experiments, and inactivation of infectious particles point to a non-replicative trait, the particle stability, as the main driver of fitness gain of segmented genomes. Accordingly, measurements of the volume occupation of the genome inside viral capsids indicate that packaging shorter genomes involves a relaxation of the packaging density that is energetically favourable. The empirical observations are used to design a computational model that predicts the existence of a critical multiplicity of infection for domination of segmented over standard types. Our experiments suggest that viral segmented genomes may have arisen as a molecular solution for the trade-off between genome length and particle stability. Genome segmentation allows maximizing the genetic content without the detrimental effect in stability derived from incresing genome length. PMID:21437265

  2. Strategies used by individuals with multiple sclerosis and with mild disability to maintain dynamic stability during a steering task.

    PubMed

    Denommé, Luke T; Mandalfino, Patricia; Cinelli, Michael E

    2014-06-01

    Changing direction during walking is a common task humans encounter every day. This destabilizing event requires the central nervous system (CNS) to quickly produce an appropriate response, maintain stability, and propel the body in the intended direction. Previous research has demonstrated that 'individuals with multiple sclerosis' (IwMS) with mild balance impairment display differences in gait characteristics during clinical tests compared with controls. The current study used dynamic stability margin [DSM, difference between COM (i.e. the weighted average of the central point of an individual's total body mass) and lateral BOS (i.e. the most lateral border of the foot that is in contact with the ground)] calculations in addition to gait kinematics to determine whether dynamic stability differences during a steering task were present between IwMS with mild balance impairment and 'healthy age-matched individuals' (HAMI) as well as between IwMS with mild balance impairment and 'community-dwelling older adults' (OA). All IwMS reported mild balance impairment with expanded disability status scale scores ranging between 1.0 and 3.0. The steering task required participants to walk 3 m towards a pressure sensitive trigger mat that would illuminate one of five lights to indicate the future direction of travel (i.e. straight, 45° or 60° to the left or right of the midline). Results revealed that IwMS displayed reduced walking speed and cadence during the approach phase in addition to a smaller DSM range (i.e. COM remained close to lateral BOS) during the entire steering task when compared with HAMI. However, when compared to OAs, IwMS did not display differences in any of the gait kinematics or DSM calculations. Findings suggest that the IwMS displayed a conservative gait strategy in order to maintain stability during the steering task. Lack of dynamic stability differences between IwMS and OAs indicate that both groups use similar strategies to adapt locomotion as a

  3. The cohesin complex prevents the end-joining of distant DNA double-strand ends in S phase: Consequences on genome stability maintenance.

    PubMed

    Gelot, Camille; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Lopez, Bernard S

    2016-07-03

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is essential for genome stability maintenance, but the joining of distant DNA double strand ends (DSEs) inevitably leads to genome rearrangements. Therefore, DSB repair should be tightly controlled to secure genome stability while allowing genetic variability. Tethering of the proximal ends of a 2-ended DSB limits their mobility, protecting thus against their joining with a distant DSE. However, replication stress generates DSBs with only one DSE, on which tethering is impossible. Consistently, we demonstrated that the joining of 2 DSBs only 3.2 kb apart is repressed in the S, but not the G1, phase, revealing an additional mechanism limiting DNA ends mobility in S phase. The cohesin complex, by maintaining the 2 sister chromatids linked, limits DSEs mobility and thus represses the joining of distant DSEs, while allowing that of adjacent DSEs. At the genome scale, the cohesin complex protects against deletions, inversions, translocations and chromosome fusion.

  4. Quorum Sensing Coordinates Cooperative Expression of Pyruvate Metabolism Genes To Maintain a Sustainable Environment for Population Stability.

    PubMed

    Hawver, Lisa A; Giulietti, Jennifer M; Baleja, James D; Ng, Wai-Leung

    2016-12-06

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial cell-cell communication system that regulates gene expression in response to population density to coordinate collective behaviors. Yet, the role of QS in resolving the stresses caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolic by-products at high cell density is not well defined. In response to cell density, QS could be involved in reprogramming of the metabolic network to maintain population stability. Using unbiased metabolomics, we discovered that Vibrio cholerae mutants genetically locked in a low cell density (LCD) QS state are unable to alter the pyruvate flux to convert fermentable carbon sources into neutral acetoin and 2,3-butanediol molecules to offset organic acid production. As a consequence, LCD-locked QS mutants rapidly lose viability when grown with fermentable carbon sources. This key metabolic switch relies on the QS-regulated small RNAs Qrr1-4 but is independent of known QS regulators AphA and HapR. Qrr1-4 dictate pyruvate flux by translational repression of the enzyme AlsS, which carries out the first step in acetoin and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. Consistent with the idea that QS facilitates the expression of a common trait in the population, AlsS needs to be expressed cooperatively in a group of cells. Heterogeneous populations with high percentages of cells not expressing AlsS are unstable. All of the cells, regardless of their respective QS states, succumb to stresses caused by toxic by-product accumulation. Our results indicate that the ability of the bacteria to cooperatively control metabolic flux through QS is critical in maintaining a sustainable environment and overall population stability. Our work reveals a novel role for Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing (QS) in relieving the stresses caused by toxic metabolite accumulation when the population becomes crowded through metabolic reprogramming. QS enables V. cholerae switching from a low cell density energy-generating metabolism that is beneficial to

  5. dAdd1 and dXNP prevent genome instability by maintaining HP1a localization at Drosophila telomeres.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Joselyn; Murillo-Maldonado, Juan Manuel; Bahena, Vanessa; Cruz, Ana Karina; Castañeda-Sortibrán, América; Rodriguez-Arnaiz, Rosario; Zurita, Mario; Valadez-Graham, Viviana

    2017-07-07

    Telomeres are important contributors to genome stability, as they prevent linear chromosome end degradation and contribute to the avoidance of telomeric fusions. An important component of the telomeres is the heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a). Mutations in Su(var)205, the gene encoding HP1a in Drosophila, result in telomeric fusions, retrotransposon regulation loss and larger telomeres, leading to chromosome instability. Previously, it was found that several proteins physically interact with HP1a, including dXNP and dAdd1 (orthologues to the mammalian ATRX gene). In this study, we found that mutations in the genes encoding the dXNP and dAdd1 proteins affect chromosome stability, causing chromosomal aberrations, including telomeric defects, similar to those observed in Su(var)205 mutants. In somatic cells, we observed that dXNP and dAdd1 participate in the silencing of the telomeric HTT array of retrotransposons, preventing anomalous retrotransposon transcription and integration. Furthermore, the lack of dAdd1 results in the loss of HP1a from the telomeric regions without affecting other chromosomal HP1a binding sites; mutations in dxnp also affected HP1a localization but not at all telomeres, suggesting a specialized role for dAdd1 and dXNP proteins in locating HP1a at the tips of the chromosomes. These results place dAdd1 as an essential regulator of HP1a localization and function in the telomere heterochromatic domain.

  6. Quorum Sensing Coordinates Cooperative Expression of Pyruvate Metabolism Genes To Maintain a Sustainable Environment for Population Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hawver, Lisa A.; Giulietti, Jennifer M.; Baleja, James D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial cell-cell communication system that regulates gene expression in response to population density to coordinate collective behaviors. Yet, the role of QS in resolving the stresses caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolic by-products at high cell density is not well defined. In response to cell density, QS could be involved in reprogramming of the metabolic network to maintain population stability. Using unbiased metabolomics, we discovered that Vibrio cholerae mutants genetically locked in a low cell density (LCD) QS state are unable to alter the pyruvate flux to convert fermentable carbon sources into neutral acetoin and 2,3-butanediol molecules to offset organic acid production. As a consequence, LCD-locked QS mutants rapidly lose viability when grown with fermentable carbon sources. This key metabolic switch relies on the QS-regulated small RNAs Qrr1-4 but is independent of known QS regulators AphA and HapR. Qrr1-4 dictate pyruvate flux by translational repression of the enzyme AlsS, which carries out the first step in acetoin and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. Consistent with the idea that QS facilitates the expression of a common trait in the population, AlsS needs to be expressed cooperatively in a group of cells. Heterogeneous populations with high percentages of cells not expressing AlsS are unstable. All of the cells, regardless of their respective QS states, succumb to stresses caused by toxic by-product accumulation. Our results indicate that the ability of the bacteria to cooperatively control metabolic flux through QS is critical in maintaining a sustainable environment and overall population stability. PMID:27923919

  7. Low income Russian families adopt effective behavioral strategies to maintain dietary stability in times of economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Dore, Anna R; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M

    2003-11-01

    The social, political and economic reforms of 1992 in Russia led to a decade of rising income inequality, unemployment and economic crises, the most severe of which occurred in 1998. This study assesses dietary trends for children in low and high income households during this politically and economically unstable period from 1994 to 2000. Several possible food-related behaviors were also assessed to evaluate coping strategies adopted in the face of decreasing economic stability. Low income children maintained a steady energy intake per kilogram weight throughout the study period (251.0-259.4 kJ/kg), whereas intake for high income children increased significantly to a per capital average of 297.1 kJ/kg by 2000. At the food group level, the trend in per capita intake for all food groups was maintained for low income children except for a 22% decrease in meat and poultry consumption (P < 0.01). Per capita intake increased over time for dairy products and eggs in the high income group (P < 0.01). A decrease in cost per kJ (rubles/kJ) was observed for both low and high income families (P < 0.01). These data suggest that Russian households were able to conserve the diet structure for children by using what appear to be food-related behavioral mechanisms during periods of economic crisis.

  8. Population genomics reveals that within-fungus polymorphism is common and maintained in populations of the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, Tania; Masclaux, Frédéric G; Rosikiewicz, Pawel; Pagni, Marco; Sanders, Ian R

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are symbionts of most plants, increasing plant growth and diversity. The model AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (isolate DAOM 197198) exhibits low within-fungus polymorphism. In contrast, another study reported high within-fungus variability. Experiments with other R. irregularis isolates suggest that within-fungus genetic variation can affect the fungal phenotype and plant growth, highlighting the biological importance of such variation. We investigated whether there is evidence of differing levels of within-fungus polymorphism in an R. irregularis population. We genotyped 20 isolates using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and developed novel approaches for characterizing polymorphism among haploid nuclei. All isolates exhibited higher within-isolate poly-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) densities than DAOM 197198 in repeated and non-repeated sites mapped to the reference genome. Poly-allelic SNPs were independently confirmed. Allele frequencies within isolates deviated from diploids or tetraploids, or that expected for a strict dikaryote. Phylogeny based on poly-allelic sites was robust and mirrored the standard phylogeny. This indicates that within-fungus genetic variation is maintained in AM fungal populations. Our results predict a heterokaryotic state in the population, considerable differences in copy number variation among isolates and divergence among the copies, or aneuploidy in some isolates. The variation may be a combination of all of these hypotheses. Within-isolate genetic variation in R. irregularis leads to large differences in plant growth. Therefore, characterizing genomic variation within AM fungal populations is of major ecological importance. PMID:26953600

  9. Highly Dynamic Interactions Maintain Kinetic Stability of the ClpXP Protease During the ATP-Fueled Mechanical Cycle.

    PubMed

    Amor, Alvaro J; Schmitz, Karl R; Sello, Jason K; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2016-06-17

    The ClpXP protease assembles in a reaction in which an ATP-bound ring hexamer of ClpX binds to one or both heptameric rings of the ClpP peptidase. Contacts between ClpX IGF-loops and clefts on a ClpP ring stabilize the complex. How ClpXP stability is maintained during the ATP-hydrolysis cycle that powers mechanical unfolding and translocation of protein substrates is poorly understood. Here, we use a real-time kinetic assay to monitor the effects of nucleotides on the assembly and disassembly of ClpXP. When ATP is present, complexes containing single-chain ClpX assemble via an intermediate and remain intact until transferred into buffers containing ADP or no nucleotides. ATP binding to high-affinity subunits of the ClpX hexamer prevents rapid dissociation, but additional subunits must be occupied to promote assembly. Small-molecule acyldepsipeptides, which compete with the IGF loops of ClpX for ClpP-cleft binding, cause exceptionally rapid dissociation of otherwise stable ClpXP complexes, suggesting that the IGF-loop interactions with ClpP must be highly dynamic. Our results indicate that the ClpX hexamer spends almost no time in an ATP-free state during the ATPase cycle, allowing highly processive degradation of protein substrates.

  10. Stability along with extreme variability in core genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Yuri I; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V

    2013-01-01

    The shape of the distribution of evolutionary distances between orthologous genes in pairs of closely related genomes is universal throughout the entire range of cellular life forms. The near invariance of this distribution across billions of years of evolution can be accounted for by the Universal Pace Maker (UPM) model of genome evolution that yields a significantly better fit to the phylogenetic data than the Molecular Clock (MC) model. Unlike the MC, the UPM model does not assume constant gene-specific evolutionary rates but rather postulates that, in each evolving lineage, the evolutionary rates of all genes change (approximately) in unison although the pacemakers of different lineages are not necessarily synchronized. Here, we dissect the nearly constant evolutionary rate distribution by comparing the genome-wide relative rates of evolution of individual genes in pairs or triplets of closely related genomes from diverse bacterial and archaeal taxa. We show that, although the gene-specific relative rate is an important feature of genome evolution that explains more than half of the variance of the evolutionary distances, the ranges of relative rate variability are extremely broad even for universal genes. Because of this high variance, the gene-specific rate is a poor predictor of the conservation rank for any gene in any particular lineage.

  11. Whole genome mapping as a fast-track tool to assess genomic stability of sequenced Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    PubMed

    Sabirova, Julia S; Xavier, Basil Britto; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi

    2014-10-08

    Whole genome (optical) mapping (WGM), a state-of-the-art mapping technology based on the generation of high resolution restriction maps, has so far been used for typing clinical outbreak strains and for mapping de novo sequence contigs in genome sequencing projects. We employed WGM to assess the genomic stability of previously sequenced Staphylococcus aureus strains that are commonly used in laboratories as reference standards. S. aureus strains (n = 12) were mapped on the Argus™ Optical Mapping System (Opgen Inc, Gaithersburg, USA). Assembly of NcoI-restricted DNA molecules, visualization, and editing of whole genome maps was performed employing MapManager and MapSolver softwares (Opgen Inc). In silico whole genome NcoI-restricted maps were also generated from available sequence data, and compared to the laboratory-generated maps. Strains showing differences between the two maps were resequenced using Nextera XT DNA Sample Preparation Kit and Miseq Reagent Kit V2 (MiSeq, Illumina) and de novo assembled into sequence contigs using the Velvet assembly tool. Sequence data were correlated with corresponding whole genome maps to perform contig mapping and genome assembly using MapSolver. Of the twelve strains tested, one (USA300_FPR3757) showed a 19-kbp deletion on WGM compared to its in silico generated map and reference sequence data. Resequencing of the USA300_FPR3757 identified the deleted fragment to be a 13 kbp-long integrative conjugative element ICE6013. Frequent subculturing and inter-laboratory transfers can induce genomic and therefore, phenotypic changes that could compromise the utility of standard reference strains. WGM can thus be used as a rapid genome screening method to identify genomic rearrangements whose size and type can be confirmed by sequencing.

  12. A Genome-wide siRNA Screen Reveals Diverse Cellular Processes and Pathways that Mediate Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Renee D.; Soni, Deena V.; Wollman, Roy; Hahn, Angela T.; Yee, Muh-Ching; Guan, Anna; Hesley, Jayne A.; Miller, Steven C.; Cromwell, Evan F.; Solow-Cordero, David E.; Meyer, Tobias; Cimprich, Karlene A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Signaling pathways that respond to DNA damage are essential for the maintenance of genome stability and are linked to many diseases, including cancer. Here, a genome-wide siRNA screen was employed to identify novel genes involved in genome stabilization by monitoring phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX, an early mark of DNA damage. We identified hundreds of genes whose down-regulation led to elevated levels of H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and revealed new links to cellular complexes and to genes with unclassified functions. We demonstrate a widespread role for mRNA processing factors in preventing DNA damage, which in some cases is caused by aberrant RNA-DNA structures. Furthermore, we connect increased γH2AX levels to the neurological disorder, Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) syndrome, and we find a role for several CMT proteins in the DNA damage response. These data indicate that preservation of genome stability is mediated by a larger network of biological processes than previously appreciated. PMID:19647519

  13. Hdac3 is essential for the maintenance of chromatin structure and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Bhaskara, Srividya; Knutson, Sarah K; Jiang, Guochun; Chandrasekharan, Mahesh B; Wilson, Andrew J; Zheng, Siyuan; Yenamandra, Ashwini; Locke, Kimberly; Yuan, Jia-Ling; Bonine-Summers, Alyssa R; Wells, Christina E; Kaiser, Jonathan F; Washington, M Kay; Zhao, Zhongming; Wagner, Florence F; Sun, Zu-Wen; Xia, Fen; Holson, Edward B; Khabele, Dineo; Hiebert, Scott W

    2010-11-16

    Hdac3 is essential for efficient DNA replication and DNA damage control. Deletion of Hdac3 impaired DNA repair and greatly reduced chromatin compaction and heterochromatin content. These defects corresponded to increases in histone H3K9,K14ac; H4K5ac; and H4K12ac in late S phase of the cell cycle, and histone deposition marks were retained in quiescent Hdac3-null cells. Liver-specific deletion of Hdac3 culminated in hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas HDAC3 expression was downregulated in only a small number of human liver cancers, the mRNA levels of the HDAC3 cofactor NCOR1 were reduced in one-third of these cases. siRNA targeting of NCOR1 and SMRT (NCOR2) increased H4K5ac and caused DNA damage, indicating that the HDAC3/NCOR/SMRT axis is critical for maintaining chromatin structure and genomic stability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inappropriate expression of the translation elongation factor 1A disrupts genome stability and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, Daniel J.; Stirpe, Mariarita; Rowe, Michelle; Howard, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The translation elongation factor eEF1A is one of the most abundant proteins found within cells, and its role within protein synthesis is well documented. Levels of eEF1A are tightly controlled, with inappropriate expression linked to oncogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which increased eEF1A expression alters cell behaviour are unknown. Our analyses in yeast suggest that elevation of eEF1A levels leads to stabilisation of the spindle pole body and changes in nuclear organisation. Elevation of the eEF1A2 isoform also leads to altered nuclear morphology in cultured human cells, suggesting a conserved role in maintaining genome stability. Gene expression and metabolomic analyses reveal that the level of eEF1A is crucial for the maintenance of metabolism and amino acid levels in yeast, most likely because of its role in the control of vacuole function. Increased eEF1A2 levels trigger lysosome biogenesis in cultured human cells, also suggesting a conserved role within metabolic control mechanisms. Taken together, our data suggest that the control of eEF1A levels is important for the maintenance of a number of cell functions beyond translation and that its de-regulation might contribute to its oncogenic properties. PMID:27807005

  15. Inappropriate expression of the translation elongation factor 1A disrupts genome stability and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Daniel J; Stirpe, Mariarita; Rowe, Michelle; Howard, Mark J; von der Haar, Tobias; Gourlay, Campbell W

    2016-12-15

    The translation elongation factor eEF1A is one of the most abundant proteins found within cells, and its role within protein synthesis is well documented. Levels of eEF1A are tightly controlled, with inappropriate expression linked to oncogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which increased eEF1A expression alters cell behaviour are unknown. Our analyses in yeast suggest that elevation of eEF1A levels leads to stabilisation of the spindle pole body and changes in nuclear organisation. Elevation of the eEF1A2 isoform also leads to altered nuclear morphology in cultured human cells, suggesting a conserved role in maintaining genome stability. Gene expression and metabolomic analyses reveal that the level of eEF1A is crucial for the maintenance of metabolism and amino acid levels in yeast, most likely because of its role in the control of vacuole function. Increased eEF1A2 levels trigger lysosome biogenesis in cultured human cells, also suggesting a conserved role within metabolic control mechanisms. Taken together, our data suggest that the control of eEF1A levels is important for the maintenance of a number of cell functions beyond translation and that its de-regulation might contribute to its oncogenic properties. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Inter- and intra-specific pan-genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: genome stability and adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) species complex. To reconstruct the evolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. and identify the genomic basis of its human virulence, we compared the genomes of 23 B. burgdorferi s.l. isolates from Europe and the United States, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi s.s., 14 isolates), B. afzelii (2), B. garinii (2), B. “bavariensis” (1), B. spielmanii (1), B. valaisiana (1), B. bissettii (1), and B. “finlandensis” (1). Results Robust B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. burgdorferi s.l. phylogenies were obtained using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms, despite recombination. Phylogeny-based pan-genome analysis showed that the rate of gene acquisition was higher between species than within species, suggesting adaptive speciation. Strong positive natural selection drives the sequence evolution of lipoproteins, including chromosomally-encoded genes 0102 and 0404, cp26-encoded ospC and b08, and lp54-encoded dbpA, a07, a22, a33, a53, a65. Computer simulations predicted rapid adaptive radiation of genomic groups as population size increases. Conclusions Intra- and inter-specific pan-genome sizes of B. burgdorferi s.l. expand linearly with phylogenetic diversity. Yet gene-acquisition rates in B. burgdorferi s.l. are among the lowest in bacterial pathogens, resulting in high genome stability and few lineage-specific genes. Genome adaptation of B. burgdorferi s.l. is driven predominantly by copy-number and sequence variations of lipoprotein genes. New genomic groups are likely to emerge if the current trend of B. burgdorferi s.l. population expansion continues. PMID:24112474

  17. Microsatellite interruptions stabilize primate genomes and exist as population-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms within individual human genomes.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D; Eckert, Kristin A

    2014-07-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ∼26,000-40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases α, β, or η. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase α, β, δ, κ, and η error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The

  18. The bornavirus-derived human protein EBLN1 promotes efficient cell cycle transit, microtubule organisation and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Katie N.; Barone, Giancarlo; Ganesh, Anil; Staples, Christopher J.; Howard, Anna E.; Beveridge, Ryan D.; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J. Mark; Collis, Spencer J.

    2016-01-01

    It was recently discovered that vertebrate genomes contain multiple endogenised nucleotide sequences derived from the non-retroviral RNA bornavirus. Strikingly, some of these elements have been evolutionary maintained as open reading frames in host genomes for over 40 million years, suggesting that some endogenised bornavirus-derived elements (EBL) might encode functional proteins. EBLN1 is one such element established through endogenisation of the bornavirus N gene (BDV N). Here, we functionally characterise human EBLN1 as a novel regulator of genome stability. Cells depleted of human EBLN1 accumulate DNA damage both under non-stressed conditions and following exogenously induced DNA damage. EBLN1-depleted cells also exhibit cell cycle abnormalities and defects in microtubule organisation as well as premature centrosome splitting, which we attribute in part, to improper localisation of the nuclear envelope protein TPR. Our data therefore reveal that human EBLN1 possesses important cellular functions within human cells, and suggest that other EBLs present within vertebrate genomes may also possess important cellular functions. PMID:27739501

  19. The bornavirus-derived human protein EBLN1 promotes efficient cell cycle transit, microtubule organisation and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Myers, Katie N; Barone, Giancarlo; Ganesh, Anil; Staples, Christopher J; Howard, Anna E; Beveridge, Ryan D; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J Mark; Collis, Spencer J

    2016-10-14

    It was recently discovered that vertebrate genomes contain multiple endogenised nucleotide sequences derived from the non-retroviral RNA bornavirus. Strikingly, some of these elements have been evolutionary maintained as open reading frames in host genomes for over 40 million years, suggesting that some endogenised bornavirus-derived elements (EBL) might encode functional proteins. EBLN1 is one such element established through endogenisation of the bornavirus N gene (BDV N). Here, we functionally characterise human EBLN1 as a novel regulator of genome stability. Cells depleted of human EBLN1 accumulate DNA damage both under non-stressed conditions and following exogenously induced DNA damage. EBLN1-depleted cells also exhibit cell cycle abnormalities and defects in microtubule organisation as well as premature centrosome splitting, which we attribute in part, to improper localisation of the nuclear envelope protein TPR. Our data therefore reveal that human EBLN1 possesses important cellular functions within human cells, and suggest that other EBLs present within vertebrate genomes may also possess important cellular functions.

  20. Filia is an ESC-specific regulator of DNA damage response and safeguards genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Wei-dao; Duan, Ying-liang; Lu, Yong-qing; Cun, Yi-xian; Li, Chao-hui; Guo, Kun; Nie, Wen-hui; Li, Lei; Zhang, Rugang; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) hold great promise in cell-based therapy, but the genomic instability seen in culture hampers full application. Greater understanding of the factors that regulate genomic stability in PSCs could help address this issue. Here we describe the identification of Filia as a specific regulator of genomic stability in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Filia expression is induced by genotoxic stress. Filia promotes centrosome integrity and regulates DNA damage response (DDR) through multiple pathways, including DDR signaling, cell cycle checkpoints and damage repair, ESC differentiation and apoptosis. Filia depletion causes ESC genomic instability, induces resistance to apoptosis and promotes malignant transformation. As part of its role in the DDR, Filia interacts with PARP1 and stimulates its enzymatic activity. Filia also constitutively resides on centrosomes and translocates to DNA damage sites and mitochondria, consistent with its multifaceted roles in regulating centrosome integrity, damage repair and apoptosis. PMID:25936915

  1. The unfolded protein response in fission yeast modulates stability of select mRNAs to maintain protein homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kimmig, Philipp; Diaz, Marcy; Zheng, Jiashun; Williams, Christopher C; Lang, Alexander; Aragón, Tomas; Li, Hao; Walter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) monitors the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In all organisms analyzed to date, the UPR drives transcriptional programs that allow cells to cope with ER stress. The non-conventional splicing of Hac1 (yeasts) and XBP1 (metazoans) mRNA, encoding orthologous UPR transcription activators, is conserved and dependent on Ire1, an ER membrane-resident kinase/endoribonuclease. We found that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe lacks both a Hac1/XBP1 ortholog and a UPR-dependent-transcriptional-program. Instead, Ire1 initiates the selective decay of a subset of ER-localized-mRNAs that is required to survive ER stress. We identified Bip1 mRNA, encoding a major ER-chaperone, as the sole mRNA cleaved upon Ire1 activation that escapes decay. Instead, truncation of its 3′ UTR, including loss of its polyA tail, stabilized Bip1 mRNA, resulting in increased Bip1 translation. Thus, S. pombe uses a universally conserved stress-sensing machinery in novel ways to maintain homeostasis in the ER. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00048.001 PMID:23066505

  2. Actomyosin drives cancer cell nuclear dysmorphia and threatens genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Tohru; Montagner, Marco; Serres, Murielle P.; Le Berre, Maël; Russell, Matt; Collinson, Lucy; Szuhai, Karoly; Howell, Michael; Boulton, Simon J.; Sahai, Erik; Petronczki, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Altered nuclear shape is a defining feature of cancer cells. The mechanisms underlying nuclear dysmorphia in cancer remain poorly understood. Here we identify PPP1R12A and PPP1CB, two subunits of the myosin phosphatase complex that antagonizes actomyosin contractility, as proteins safeguarding nuclear integrity. Loss of PPP1R12A or PPP1CB causes nuclear fragmentation, nuclear envelope rupture, nuclear compartment breakdown and genome instability. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of actomyosin contractility restores nuclear architecture and genome integrity in cells lacking PPP1R12A or PPP1CB. We detect actin filaments at nuclear envelope rupture sites and define the Rho-ROCK pathway as the driver of nuclear damage. Lamin A protects nuclei from the impact of actomyosin activity. Blocking contractility increases nuclear circularity in cultured cancer cells and suppresses deformations of xenograft nuclei in vivo. We conclude that actomyosin contractility is a major determinant of nuclear shape and that unrestrained contractility causes nuclear dysmorphia, nuclear envelope rupture and genome instability. PMID:28737169

  3. Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties Over 40 Million Years of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E. J.; Machone, Joshua F.; Patterson, Seantay D.; Price, Amber L.; Turner, Bryce A.; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K.; McCartha, Shannon R.; Walji, Tezin A.; Walker, Chelsea A.; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K.; Armstrong, Andrew R.; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J.; Barberi, Chelsea R.; Beck, Lauren R.; Blaker, Amanda L.; Blunden, Christopher E.; Brand, Jordan P.; Brock, Ethan J.; Brooks, Dana W.; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C.; Clark, Eric M.; Clark, Nicole B.; Collins, Ashley A.; Cotteleer, Rebecca J.; Cullimore, Peterson R.; Dawson, Seth G.; Docking, Carter T.; Dorsett, Sasha L.; Dougherty, Grace A.; Downey, Kaitlyn A.; Drake, Andrew P.; Earl, Erica K.; Floyd, Trevor G.; Forsyth, Joshua D.; Foust, Jonathan D.; Franchi, Spencer L.; Geary, James F.; Hanson, Cynthia K.; Harding, Taylor S.; Harris, Cameron B.; Heckman, Jonathan M.; Holderness, Heather L.; Howey, Nicole A.; Jacobs, Dontae A.; Jewell, Elizabeth S.; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A.; Kehoe, James L.; Koaches, Hannah C.; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J.; Kus, Jordan E.; Lammers, Jennifer A.; Leads, Rachel R.; Leatherman, Emily C.; Lippert, Rachel N.; Messenger, Gregory S.; Morrow, Adam T.; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J.; Potocny, Stephanie J.; Powers, Michelle K.; Reem, Rachel M.; Rennhack, Jonathan P.; Reynolds, Katherine R.; Reynolds, Lyndsey A.; Rhee, Dong K.; Rivard, Allyson B.; Ronk, Adam J.; Rooney, Meghan B.; Rubin, Lainey S.; Salbert, Luke R.; Saluja, Rasleen K.; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R.; Schulz, Robert W.; Smith, Karl E.; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R.; Tache, Melissa A.; Tewilliager, Ashley A.; Tilot, Amanda K.; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M.; Vylonis, Megan B.; Watson, David T.; Wurzler, Juliana A.; Wysocki, Lauren M.; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A.; Emerson, Julia A.; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J.; DiLorenzo, Lauren A.; Goeller, Katie L.; Macchi, Christopher R.; Muller, Sarah E.; Pasierb, Brittany D.; Sable, Joseph E.; Tucci, Jessica M.; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A.; Beken, Levent H.; Conturso, Alaina C.; Danner, Benjamin L.; DeMichele, Gabriella A.; Gonzales, Justin A.; Hammond, Maureen S.; Kelley, Colleen V.; Kelly, Elisabeth A.; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M.; McCabe, Nikie L.; Newman, Alyssa M.; Spaeder, Lindsay A.; Tumminello, Richard A.; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M.; Cristostomo, Michael C.; DaSilva, Paolo A.; Harker, Katherine S.; Jarrell, Jenifer N.; Jimenez, Luis A.; Katz, Brandon M.; Kennedy, William R.; Kolibas, Kimberly S.; LeBlanc, Mark T.; Nguyen, Trung T.; Nicolas, Daniel S.; Patao, Melissa D.; Patao, Shane M.; Rupley, Bryan J.; Sessions, Bridget J.; Weaver, Jennifer A.; Goodman, Anya L.; Alvendia, Erica L.; Baldassari, Shana M.; Brown, Ashley S.; Chase, Ian O.; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B.; Custer, Ashley F.; DiTommaso, Tia M.; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C.; Grove, Ryan A.; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S.; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L.; Hopkins, Barbara L.; Huerta, Vilma F.; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M.; Lee, Cassidy T.; Lewis, Benjamin M.; Lydon, Anniken M.; Maniaci, Brian J.; Mitchell, Ryan D.; Morlock, Elaine V.; Morris, William M.; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C.; Osterloh, Jeannette M.; Perez, Marcos A.; Presley, Jonathan D.; Randazzo, Matt J.; Regan, Melanie K.; Rossi, Franca G.; Smith, Melanie A.; Soliterman, Eugenia A.; Sparks, Ciani J.; Tran, Danny L.; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A.; Wong, Jeremy N.; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J.; Hoogewerf, Arlene J.; Ackerman, Cheri M.; Armistead, Isaac O.; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J.; Brouwer, Lindsay K.; Burkhart, Brandon J.; Bushhouse, Kelsey T.; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y. Y.; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M.; Darusz, Jess M.; Dauphin, Cory M.; Davis, Yelena P.; Diekema, Emily J.; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E. M.; Faber, Hayley M.; Faber, Katherine J.; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T.; Hammond, Brandy L.; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R.; Hilbrands, Julia A.; Howell, Emily J.; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A.; Jelsema, Timothy R.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Jones, Kelly K.; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D.; Menyes, Erika E.; Nollet, Eric A.; Plescher, Brittany E.; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L.; Schepers, Allison J.; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R.; Sterling, Allison M.; Tenney, Jenna C.; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E.; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P.; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K.; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A.; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E.; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R.; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I.; Boudoures, Anna L.; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S.; French, Kristin M.; Gill, Ishwar S.; Havill, Jessen T.; Johnson, Jaelyn L.; Keny, Lauren J.; Kerber, John M.; Klett, Bethany M.; Kufel, Christina N.; May, Francis J.; Mecoli, Jonathan P.; Merry, Callie R.; Meyer, Lauren R.; Miller, Emily G.; Mullen, Gregory J.; Palozola, Katherine C.; Pfeil, Jacob J.; Thomas, Jessica G.; Verbofsky, Evan M.; Spana, Eric P.; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I.N.; Fitzgibbons, John D.; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J.; Knouse, Kristin A.; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S.; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W.; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D.; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U.; Shuen, Jessica A.; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q.; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Burg, Martin G.; Adams, Stephanie J.; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E.; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Robertson, Gregory M.; Smith, Samuel I.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Sassu, Eric D.; Bhalla, Satish C.; Sharif, Karim A.; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S.; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Davis, Kristen C.; Dunham, Carrie A.; Grantham, Alaina J.; Hare, Amber N.; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Yu, Nicole S.; Kaehler, Marian M.; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A.; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Alica B.; Anderson, John E.; Barnett, Jason M.; Baumgardner, Jordan S.; Brown, Adam D.; Carney, Jordan E.; Chavez, Ramiro A.; Christgen, Shelbi L.; Christie, Jordan S.; Clary, Andrea N.; Conn, Michel A.; Cooper, Kristen M.; Crowley, Matt J.; Crowley, Samuel T.; Doty, Jennifer S.; Dow, Brian A.; Edwards, Curtis R.; Elder, Darcie D.; Fanning, John P.; Janssen, Bridget M.; Lambright, Anthony K.; Lane, Curtiss E.; Limle, Austin B.; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R.; McDonough, Alexa M.; Melton, Amy D.; Minnick, Phillip J.; Musick, Adam E.; Newhart, William H.; Noynaert, Joseph W.; Ogden, Bradley J.; Sandusky, Michael W.; Schmuecker, Samantha M.; Shipman, Anna L.; Smith, Anna L.; Thomsen, Kristen M.; Unzicker, Matthew R.; Vernon, William B.; Winn, Wesley W.; Woyski, Dustin S.; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J.; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M.; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R.; Johnson, Todd D.; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H.; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S.; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R.; Waggoner, Andrew W.; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K.; Hark, Amy T.; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E.; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E.; Smith, Mary A.; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C. P.; Johnson, Ashlee G.; White, Jackie X.; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Chau, Kim M.; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E. Gloria C.; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M.; Bahr, Thomas J.; Caesar, Nicole M.; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W.; Cognetti, Peter A.; English, Johnathan D.; Fadus, Matthew C.; Fick, Cameron N.; Freda, Philip J.; Hennessy, Bryan M.; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K.; King, Jessica E.; Knob, Christopher R.; Kraftmann, Karen J.; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N.; Minniti, Carl J.; Minton, Thomas F.; Moran, Joseph V.; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C.; Puetz, William J.; Robinson, Lauren M.; Rose, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Edward P.; Timko, Ashley S.; Paetkau, Don W.; Eisler, Heather L.; Aldrup, Megan E.; Bodenberg, Jessica M.; Cole, Mara G.; Deranek, Kelly M.; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M.; Eckardt, Alexandra K.; Ehret, Sharon C.; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D.; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L.; Light, Morgan R.; Meier, Anne C.; O’Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R.; Reilly, Mary T.; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L.; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M.; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R.; Herrick, Douglas A.; Khoury, Christopher B.; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A.; Lowell, Shannon M.; Reynolds, Thomas J.; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H.; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T.; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D.; Lopilato, Jane E.; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A.; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R.; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R.; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R.; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H.; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B.; Smith, Jonathan E.; Unruh, Anna K.; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E.; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J.; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T.; Moore, Zachary D.; Savell, Christopher D.; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M.; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F.; Horton, Lanor S.; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H.; Liu, James Z.; Mach, Sandy D.; Phan, Thu A.; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E.; Strelitz, Jean M.; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C.; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J.; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E.; Gross, Meleah J.; Gygi, Amber M.; Jackson, Lesley E.; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L.; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L.; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E.; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J. Devin; Stemler, Kristina M.; Throm, Allison A.; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T. Aaron; Williams, Mallory A.; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M.; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E.; Florian, Kayla A.; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S.; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W.; Pelchen, Carly E.; Yenerall, Paul M.; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R.; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M.; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G.; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V.; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O.; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O.; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J.; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J.; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M.; delValle, Frank R. Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I.; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D.; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D.; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P.; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A.; Colón-Cruz, Luis R.; Correa-Muller, Ana I.; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L.; Cruz-García, José M.; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M.; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J.; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M.; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N.; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L.; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A.; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A.; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M.; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N.; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G.; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C.; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I.; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M.; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G.; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S.; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T.; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E.; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O.; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M.; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E.; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L.; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N.; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L.; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E.; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M.; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P.; Torres-Castillo, José L.; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A.; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M.; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M.; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R.; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R.; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L.; Molleston, Jerome M.; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J.; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P.; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y.; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L.; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W.; Nagengast, Alexis A.; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J.; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L.; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L.; Adams, Ashley L.; Barnard, Brianna K.; Cheramie, Martin N.; Eime, Anne M.; Golden, Kathryn L.; Hawkins, Allyson P.; Hill, Jessica E.; Kampmeier, Jessica A.; Kern, Cody D.; Magnuson, Emily E.; Miller, Ashley R.; Morrow, Cody M.; Peairs, Julia C.; Pickett, Gentry L.; Popelka, Sarah A.; Scott, Alexis J.; Teepe, Emily J.; TerMeer, Katie A.; Watchinski, Carmen A.; Watson, Lucas A.; Weber, Rachel E.; Woodard, Kate A.; Barnard, Daron C.; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M.; McNeil, Gerard P.; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C.; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25–50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3–11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11–27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4–3.6 vs. 8.4–8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. PMID:25740935

  4. Drosophila muller f elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Reed, Laura K; Smith, Sheryl T; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E J; Machone, Joshua F; Patterson, Seantay D; Price, Amber L; Turner, Bryce A; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K; McCartha, Shannon R; Walji, Tezin A; Walker, Chelsea A; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K; Armstrong, Andrew R; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J; Barberi, Chelsea R; Beck, Lauren R; Blaker, Amanda L; Blunden, Christopher E; Brand, Jordan P; Brock, Ethan J; Brooks, Dana W; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C; Clark, Eric M; Clark, Nicole B; Collins, Ashley A; Cotteleer, Rebecca J; Cullimore, Peterson R; Dawson, Seth G; Docking, Carter T; Dorsett, Sasha L; Dougherty, Grace A; Downey, Kaitlyn A; Drake, Andrew P; Earl, Erica K; Floyd, Trevor G; Forsyth, Joshua D; Foust, Jonathan D; Franchi, Spencer L; Geary, James F; Hanson, Cynthia K; Harding, Taylor S; Harris, Cameron B; Heckman, Jonathan M; Holderness, Heather L; Howey, Nicole A; Jacobs, Dontae A; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A; Kehoe, James L; Koaches, Hannah C; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J; Kus, Jordan E; Lammers, Jennifer A; Leads, Rachel R; Leatherman, Emily C; Lippert, Rachel N; Messenger, Gregory S; Morrow, Adam T; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J; Potocny, Stephanie J; Powers, Michelle K; Reem, Rachel M; Rennhack, Jonathan P; Reynolds, Katherine R; Reynolds, Lyndsey A; Rhee, Dong K; Rivard, Allyson B; Ronk, Adam J; Rooney, Meghan B; Rubin, Lainey S; Salbert, Luke R; Saluja, Rasleen K; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R; Schulz, Robert W; Smith, Karl E; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R; Tache, Melissa A; Tewilliager, Ashley A; Tilot, Amanda K; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M; Vylonis, Megan B; Watson, David T; Wurzler, Juliana A; Wysocki, Lauren M; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A; Emerson, Julia A; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J; DiLorenzo, Lauren A; Goeller, Katie L; Macchi, Christopher R; Muller, Sarah E; Pasierb, Brittany D; Sable, Joseph E; Tucci, Jessica M; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A; Beken, Levent H; Conturso, Alaina C; Danner, Benjamin L; DeMichele, Gabriella A; Gonzales, Justin A; Hammond, Maureen S; Kelley, Colleen V; Kelly, Elisabeth A; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M; McCabe, Nikie L; Newman, Alyssa M; Spaeder, Lindsay A; Tumminello, Richard A; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M; Cristostomo, Michael C; DaSilva, Paolo A; Harker, Katherine S; Jarrell, Jenifer N; Jimenez, Luis A; Katz, Brandon M; Kennedy, William R; Kolibas, Kimberly S; LeBlanc, Mark T; Nguyen, Trung T; Nicolas, Daniel S; Patao, Melissa D; Patao, Shane M; Rupley, Bryan J; Sessions, Bridget J; Weaver, Jennifer A; Goodman, Anya L; Alvendia, Erica L; Baldassari, Shana M; Brown, Ashley S; Chase, Ian O; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B; Custer, Ashley F; DiTommaso, Tia M; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C; Grove, Ryan A; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L; Hopkins, Barbara L; Huerta, Vilma F; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M; Lee, Cassidy T; Lewis, Benjamin M; Lydon, Anniken M; Maniaci, Brian J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Morlock, Elaine V; Morris, William M; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C; Osterloh, Jeannette M; Perez, Marcos A; Presley, Jonathan D; Randazzo, Matt J; Regan, Melanie K; Rossi, Franca G; Smith, Melanie A; Soliterman, Eugenia A; Sparks, Ciani J; Tran, Danny L; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A; Wong, Jeremy N; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J; Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Ackerman, Cheri M; Armistead, Isaac O; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J; Brouwer, Lindsay K; Burkhart, Brandon J; Bushhouse, Kelsey T; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y Y; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M; Darusz, Jess M; Dauphin, Cory M; Davis, Yelena P; Diekema, Emily J; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E M; Faber, Hayley M; Faber, Katherine J; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T; Hammond, Brandy L; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R; Hilbrands, Julia A; Howell, Emily J; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A; Jelsema, Timothy R; Johnson, Benjamin K; Jones, Kelly K; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D; Menyes, Erika E; Nollet, Eric A; Plescher, Brittany E; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L; 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Eckdahl, Todd T; Poet, Jeffrey L; Allen, Alica B; Anderson, John E; Barnett, Jason M; Baumgardner, Jordan S; Brown, Adam D; Carney, Jordan E; Chavez, Ramiro A; Christgen, Shelbi L; Christie, Jordan S; Clary, Andrea N; Conn, Michel A; Cooper, Kristen M; Crowley, Matt J; Crowley, Samuel T; Doty, Jennifer S; Dow, Brian A; Edwards, Curtis R; Elder, Darcie D; Fanning, John P; Janssen, Bridget M; Lambright, Anthony K; Lane, Curtiss E; Limle, Austin B; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R; McDonough, Alexa M; Melton, Amy D; Minnick, Phillip J; Musick, Adam E; Newhart, William H; Noynaert, Joseph W; Ogden, Bradley J; Sandusky, Michael W; Schmuecker, Samantha M; Shipman, Anna L; Smith, Anna L; Thomsen, Kristen M; Unzicker, Matthew R; Vernon, William B; Winn, Wesley W; Woyski, Dustin S; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R; Johnson, Todd D; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R; Waggoner, Andrew W; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K; Hark, Amy T; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E; Smith, Mary A; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C P; Johnson, Ashlee G; White, Jackie X; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L M; Chau, Kim M; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E Gloria C; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M; Bahr, Thomas J; Caesar, Nicole M; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W; Cognetti, Peter A; English, Johnathan D; Fadus, Matthew C; Fick, Cameron N; Freda, Philip J; Hennessy, Bryan M; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K; King, Jessica E; Knob, Christopher R; Kraftmann, Karen J; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N; Minniti, Carl J; Minton, Thomas F; Moran, Joseph V; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C; Puetz, William J; Robinson, Lauren M; Rose, Thomas J; Sweeney, Edward P; Timko, Ashley S; Paetkau, Don W; Eisler, Heather L; Aldrup, Megan E; Bodenberg, Jessica M; Cole, Mara G; Deranek, Kelly M; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M; Eckardt, Alexandra K; Ehret, Sharon C; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L; Light, Morgan R; Meier, Anne C; O'Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R; Reilly, Mary T; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R; Herrick, Douglas A; Khoury, Christopher B; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A; Lowell, Shannon M; Reynolds, Thomas J; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D; Lopilato, Jane E; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B; Smith, Jonathan E; Unruh, Anna K; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T; Moore, Zachary D; Savell, Christopher D; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F; Horton, Lanor S; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H; Liu, James Z; Mach, Sandy D; Phan, Thu A; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E; Strelitz, Jean M; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E; Gross, Meleah J; Gygi, Amber M; Jackson, Lesley E; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J Devin; Stemler, Kristina M; Throm, Allison A; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T Aaron; Williams, Mallory A; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E; Florian, Kayla A; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W; Pelchen, Carly E; Yenerall, Paul M; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M; delValle, Frank R Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A; Colón-Cruz, Luis R; Correa-Muller, Ana I; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L; Cruz-García, José M; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P; Torres-Castillo, José L; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L; Molleston, Jerome M; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W; Nagengast, Alexis A; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L; Adams, Ashley L; Barnard, Brianna K; Cheramie, Martin N; Eime, Anne M; Golden, Kathryn L; Hawkins, Allyson P; Hill, Jessica E; Kampmeier, Jessica A; Kern, Cody D; Magnuson, Emily E; Miller, Ashley R; Morrow, Cody M; Peairs, Julia C; Pickett, Gentry L; Popelka, Sarah A; Scott, Alexis J; Teepe, Emily J; TerMeer, Katie A; Watchinski, Carmen A; Watson, Lucas A; Weber, Rachel E; Woodard, Kate A; Barnard, Daron C; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M; McNeil, Gerard P; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2015-03-04

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25-50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3-11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11-27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4-3.6 vs. 8.4-8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu.

  5. Zscan4 regulates telomere elongation and genomic stability in ES cells

    PubMed Central

    Zalzman, Michal; Falco, Geppino; Sharova, Lioudmila V.; Nishiyama, Akira; Thomas, Marshall; Lee, Sung-Lim; Stagg, Carole A.; Hoang, Hien G.; Yang, Hsih-Te; Indig, Fred E.; Wersto, Robert P.; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Exceptional genomic stability is one of the hallmarks of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. However, the genes contributing to this stability remain obscure. We previously identified Zscan4 as a specific marker for 2-cell embryo and ES cells. Here we show that Zscan4 is involved in telomere maintenance and long-term-genomic stability in ES cells. Only 5% of ES cells express Zscan4 at a given time, but nearly all ES cells activate Zscan4 at least once within nine passages. The transient Zscan4-positive state is associated with rapid telomere extension by telomere recombination and upregulation of meiosis-specific homologous recombination genes, which encode proteins that are colocalized with ZSCAN4 on telomeres. Furthermore, Zscan4 knockdown shortens telomeres, increases karyotype abnormalities and spontaneous sister chromatid exchange, and slows down cell proliferation until reaching crisis by eight passages. Together, our data reveal a unique mode of genome maintenance in ES cells. PMID:20336070

  6. Genomic Analysis by Deep Sequencing of the Probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 Harboring Nine Plasmids Reveals Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Fukao, Masanori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Morita, Hidetoshi; Toh, Hidehiro; Suda, Wataru; Kim, Seok-Won; Suzuki, Shigenori; Yakabe, Takafumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yajima, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We determined the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus brevis KB290, a probiotic lactic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fermented vegetable. The genome contained a 2,395,134-bp chromosome that housed 2,391 protein-coding genes and nine plasmids that together accounted for 191 protein-coding genes. KB290 contained no virulence factor genes, and several genes related to presumptive cell wall-associated polysaccharide biosynthesis and the stress response were present in L. brevis KB290 but not in the closely related L. brevis ATCC 367. Plasmid-curing experiments revealed that the presence of plasmid pKB290-1 was essential for the strain's gastrointestinal tract tolerance and tendency to aggregate. Using next-generation deep sequencing of current and 18-year-old stock strains to detect low frequency variants, we evaluated genome stability. Deep sequencing of four periodic KB290 culture stocks with more than 1,000-fold coverage revealed 3 mutation sites and 37 minority variation sites, indicating long-term stability and providing a useful method for assessing the stability of industrial bacteria at the nucleotide level. PMID:23544154

  7. The impact of the neisserial DNA uptake sequences on genome evolution and stability

    PubMed Central

    Treangen, Todd J; Ambur, Ole Herman; Tonjum, Tone; Rocha, Eduardo PC

    2008-01-01

    Background Efficient natural transformation in Neisseria requires the presence of short DNA uptake sequences (DUSs). Doubts remain whether DUSs propagate by pure selfish molecular drive or are selected for 'safe sex' among conspecifics. Results Six neisserial genomes were aligned to identify gene conversion fragments, DUS distribution, spacing, and conservation. We found a strong link between recombination and DUS: DUS spacing matches the size of conversion fragments; genomes with shorter conversion fragments have more DUSs and more conserved DUSs; and conversion fragments are enriched in DUSs. Many recent and singly occurring DUSs exhibit too high divergence with homologous sequences in other genomes to have arisen by point mutation, suggesting their appearance by recombination. DUSs are over-represented in the core genome, under-represented in regions under diversification, and absent in both recently acquired genes and recently lost core genes. This suggests that DUSs are implicated in genome stability rather than in generating adaptive variation. DUS elements are most frequent in the permissive locations of the core genome but are themselves highly conserved, undergoing mutation selection balance and/or molecular drive. Similar preliminary results were found for the functionally analogous uptake signal sequence in Pasteurellaceae. Conclusion As do many other pathogens, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae have hyperdynamic genomes that generate deleterious mutations by intrachromosomal recombination and by transient hypermutation. The results presented here suggest that transformation in Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae allows them to counteract the deleterious effects of genome instability in the core genome. Thus, rather than promoting hypervariation, bacterial sex could be regenerative. PMID:18366792

  8. Genomic stability in the archaeae Haloferax volcanii and Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed Central

    López-García, P; St Jean, A; Amils, R; Charlebois, R L

    1995-01-01

    Through hybridization of available probes, we have added nine genes to the macrorestriction map of the Haloferax mediterranei chromosome and five genes to the contig map of Haloferax volcanii. Additionally, we hybridized 17 of the mapped cosmid clones from H. volcanii to the H. mediterranei genome. The resulting 35-point chromosomal comparison revealed only two inversions and a few translocations. Forces known to promote rearrangement, common in the haloarchaea, have been ineffective in changing global gene order throughout the nearly 10(7) years of these species' divergent evolution. PMID:7868620

  9. Tobacco exposure results in increased E6 and E7 oncogene expression, DNA damage and mutation rates in cells maintaining episomal human papillomavirus 16 genomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lanlan; Griego, Anastacia M; Chu, Ming; Ozbun, Michelle A

    2014-10-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections are necessary but insufficient agents of cervical and other epithelial cancers. Epidemiological studies support a causal, but ill-defined, relationship between tobacco smoking and cervical malignancies. In this study, we used mainstream tobacco smoke condensate (MSTS-C) treatments of cervical cell lines that maintain either episomal or integrated HPV16 or HPV31 genomes to model tobacco smoke exposure to the cervical epithelium of the smoker. MSTS-C exposure caused a dose-dependent increase in viral genome replication and correspondingly higher early gene transcription in cells with episomal HPV genomes. However, MSTS-C exposure in cells with integrated HR-HPV genomes had no effect on genome copy number or early gene transcription. In cells with episomal HPV genomes, the MSTS-C-induced increases in E6 oncogene transcription led to decreased p53 protein levels and activity. As expected from loss of p53 activity in tobacco-exposed cells, DNA strand breaks were significantly higher but apoptosis was minimal compared with cells containing integrated viral genomes. Furthermore, DNA mutation frequencies were higher in surviving cells with HPV episomes. These findings provide increased understanding of tobacco smoke exposure risk in HPV infection and indicate tobacco smoking acts more directly to alter HR-HPV oncogene expression in cells that maintain episomal viral genomes. This suggests a more prominent role for tobacco smoke in earlier stages of HPV-related cancer progression. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Extraordinary genome stability in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Sung, Way; Tucker, Abraham E; Doak, Thomas G; Choi, Eunjin; Thomas, W Kelley; Lynch, Michael

    2012-11-20

    Mutation plays a central role in all evolutionary processes and is also the basis of genetic disorders. Established base-substitution mutation rates in eukaryotes range between ∼5 × 10(-10) and 5 × 10(-8) per site per generation, but here we report a genome-wide estimate for Paramecium tetraurelia that is more than an order of magnitude lower than any previous eukaryotic estimate. Nevertheless, when the mutation rate per cell division is extrapolated to the length of the sexual cycle for this protist, the measure obtained is comparable to that for multicellular species with similar genome sizes. Because Paramecium has a transcriptionally silent germ-line nucleus, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that natural selection operates on the cumulative germ-line replication fidelity per episode of somatic gene expression, with the germ-line mutation rate per cell division evolving downward to the lower barrier imposed by random genetic drift. We observe ciliate-specific modifications of widely conserved amino acid sites in DNA polymerases as one potential explanation for unusually high levels of replication fidelity.

  11. Extraordinary genome stability in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Way; Tucker, Abraham E.; Doak, Thomas G.; Choi, Eunjin; Thomas, W. Kelley; Lynch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Mutation plays a central role in all evolutionary processes and is also the basis of genetic disorders. Established base-substitution mutation rates in eukaryotes range between ∼5 × 10−10 and 5 × 10−8 per site per generation, but here we report a genome-wide estimate for Paramecium tetraurelia that is more than an order of magnitude lower than any previous eukaryotic estimate. Nevertheless, when the mutation rate per cell division is extrapolated to the length of the sexual cycle for this protist, the measure obtained is comparable to that for multicellular species with similar genome sizes. Because Paramecium has a transcriptionally silent germ-line nucleus, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that natural selection operates on the cumulative germ-line replication fidelity per episode of somatic gene expression, with the germ-line mutation rate per cell division evolving downward to the lower barrier imposed by random genetic drift. We observe ciliate-specific modifications of widely conserved amino acid sites in DNA polymerases as one potential explanation for unusually high levels of replication fidelity. PMID:23129619

  12. Small cell ovarian carcinoma: genomic stability and responsiveness to therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The biology of small cell ovarian carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT), which is a rare and aggressive form of ovarian cancer, is poorly understood. Tumourigenicity, in vitro growth characteristics, genetic and genomic anomalies, and sensitivity to standard and novel chemotherapeutic treatments were investigated in the unique SCCOHT cell line, BIN-67, to provide further insight in the biology of this rare type of ovarian cancer. Method The tumourigenic potential of BIN-67 cells was determined and the tumours formed in a xenograft model was compared to human SCCOHT. DNA sequencing, spectral karyotyping and high density SNP array analysis was performed. The sensitivity of the BIN-67 cells to standard chemotherapeutic agents and to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the JX-594 vaccinia virus was tested. Results BIN-67 cells were capable of forming spheroids in hanging drop cultures. When xenografted into immunodeficient mice, BIN-67 cells developed into tumours that reflected the hypercalcemia and histology of human SCCOHT, notably intense expression of WT-1 and vimentin, and lack of expression of inhibin. Somatic mutations in TP53 and the most common activating mutations in KRAS and BRAF were not found in BIN-67 cells by DNA sequencing. Spectral karyotyping revealed a largely normal diploid karyotype (in greater than 95% of cells) with a visibly shorter chromosome 20 contig. High density SNP array analysis also revealed few genomic anomalies in BIN-67 cells, which included loss of heterozygosity of an estimated 16.7 Mb interval on chromosome 20. SNP array analyses of four SCCOHT samples also indicated a low frequency of genomic anomalies in the majority of cases. Although resistant to platinum chemotherapeutic drugs, BIN-67 cell viability in vitro was reduced by >75% after infection with oncolytic viruses. Conclusions These results show that SCCOHT differs from high-grade serous carcinomas by exhibiting few chromosomal anomalies and lacking TP53

  13. Non-catalytic Roles For XPG with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Homologous Recombination and Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Trego, Kelly S.; Groesser, Torsten; Davalos, Albert R.; Parplys, Ann C.; Zhao, Weixing; Nelson, Michael R.; Hlaing, Ayesu; Shih, Brian; Rydberg, Björn; Pluth, Janice M.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia; Campisi, Judith; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY XPG is a structure-specific endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair, and incision-defective Xpg mutations cause the skin cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum. Truncating mutations instead cause the neurodevelopmental progeroid disorder Cockayne syndrome, but little is known about how XPG loss results in this devastating disease. We identify XPG as a partner of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in maintaining genomic stability through homologous recombination (HRR). XPG depletion causes DNA double-strand breaks, chromosomal abnormalities, cell-cycle delays, defective HRR, inability to overcome replication fork stalling, and replication stress. XPG directly interacts with BRCA2, RAD51, and PALB2, and XPG depletion reduces their chromatin binding and subsequent RAD51 foci formation. Upstream in HRR, XPG interacts directly with BRCA1. Its depletion causes BRCA1 hyper-phosphorylation and persistent chromatin binding. These unexpected findings establish XPG as an HRR protein with important roles in genome stability and suggest how XPG defects produce severe clinical consequences including cancer and accelerated aging. PMID:26833090

  14. Non-catalytic Roles for XPG with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Homologous Recombination and Genome Stability.

    PubMed

    Trego, Kelly S; Groesser, Torsten; Davalos, Albert R; Parplys, Ann C; Zhao, Weixing; Nelson, Michael R; Hlaing, Ayesu; Shih, Brian; Rydberg, Björn; Pluth, Janice M; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia; Campisi, Judith; Cooper, Priscilla K

    2016-02-18

    XPG is a structure-specific endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair, and incision-defective XPG mutations cause the skin cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum. Truncating mutations instead cause the neurodevelopmental progeroid disorder Cockayne syndrome, but little is known about how XPG loss results in this devastating disease. We identify XPG as a partner of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in maintaining genomic stability through homologous recombination (HRR). XPG depletion causes DNA double-strand breaks, chromosomal abnormalities, cell-cycle delays, defective HRR, inability to overcome replication fork stalling, and replication stress. XPG directly interacts with BRCA2, RAD51, and PALB2, and XPG depletion reduces their chromatin binding and subsequent RAD51 foci formation. Upstream in HRR, XPG interacts directly with BRCA1. Its depletion causes BRCA1 hyper-phosphorylation and persistent chromatin binding. These unexpected findings establish XPG as an HRR protein with important roles in genome stability and suggest how XPG defects produce severe clinical consequences including cancer and accelerated aging.

  15. Slx8 Removes Pli1-Dependent Protein-SUMO Conjugates Including SUMOylated Topoisomerase I to Promote Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Lorenz, Alexander; Bryer, Claire; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    The SUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligase Slx8 plays key roles in promoting genome stability, including the processing of trapped Topoisomerase I (Top1) cleavage complexes and removal of toxic SUMO conjugates. We show that it is the latter function that constitutes Slx8's primary role in fission yeast. The SUMO conjugates in question are formed by the SUMO ligase Pli1, which is necessary for limiting spontaneous homologous recombination when Top1 is present. Surprisingly there is no requirement for Pli1 to limit recombination in the vicinity of a replication fork blocked at the programmed barrier RTS1. Notably, once committed to Pli1-mediated SUMOylation Slx8 becomes essential for genotoxin resistance, limiting both spontaneous and RTS1 induced recombination, and promoting normal chromosome segregation. We show that Slx8 removes Pli1-dependent Top1-SUMO conjugates and in doing so helps to constrain recombination at RTS1. Overall our data highlight how SUMOylation and SUMO-dependent ubiquitylation by the Pli1-Slx8 axis contribute in different ways to maintain genome stability. PMID:23936535

  16. Microsatellite Interruptions Stabilize Primate Genomes and Exist as Population-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Individual Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E.; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ∼26,000–40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases α, β, or η. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase α, β, δ, κ, and η error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The

  17. Mechanisms of RecQ helicases in pathways of DNA metabolism and maintenance of genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudha; Doherty, Kevin M.; Brosh, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Helicases are molecular motor proteins that couple the hydrolysis of NTP to nucleic acid unwinding. The growing number of DNA helicases implicated in human disease suggests that their vital specialized roles in cellular pathways are important for the maintenance of genome stability. In particular, mutations in genes of the RecQ family of DNA helicases result in chromosomal instability diseases of premature aging and/or cancer predisposition. We will discuss the mechanisms of RecQ helicases in pathways of DNA metabolism. A review of RecQ helicases from bacteria to human reveals their importance in genomic stability by their participation with other proteins to resolve DNA replication and recombination intermediates. In the light of their known catalytic activities and protein interactions, proposed models for RecQ function will be summarized with an emphasis on how this distinct class of enzymes functions in chromosomal stability maintenance and prevention of human disease and cancer. PMID:16925525

  18. Mechanisms of RecQ helicases in pathways of DNA metabolism and maintenance of genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudha; Doherty, Kevin M; Brosh, Robert M

    2006-09-15

    Helicases are molecular motor proteins that couple the hydrolysis of NTP to nucleic acid unwinding. The growing number of DNA helicases implicated in human disease suggests that their vital specialized roles in cellular pathways are important for the maintenance of genome stability. In particular, mutations in genes of the RecQ family of DNA helicases result in chromosomal instability diseases of premature aging and/or cancer predisposition. We will discuss the mechanisms of RecQ helicases in pathways of DNA metabolism. A review of RecQ helicases from bacteria to human reveals their importance in genomic stability by their participation with other proteins to resolve DNA replication and recombination intermediates. In the light of their known catalytic activities and protein interactions, proposed models for RecQ function will be summarized with an emphasis on how this distinct class of enzymes functions in chromosomal stability maintenance and prevention of human disease and cancer.

  19. Multifunctional Role of ATM/Tel1 Kinase in Genome Stability: From the DNA Damage Response to Telomere Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a key regulator of the DNA double-strand-break response and belongs to the evolutionary conserved phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related protein kinases. ATM deficiency causes ataxia telangiectasia (AT), a genetic disorder that is characterized by premature aging, cerebellar neuropathy, immunodeficiency, and predisposition to cancer. AT cells show defects in the DNA damage-response pathway, cell-cycle control, and telomere maintenance and length regulation. Likewise, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, haploid strains defective in the TEL1 gene, the ATM ortholog, show chromosomal aberrations and short telomeres. In this review, we outline the complex role of ATM/Tel1 in maintaining genomic stability through its control of numerous aspects of cellular survival. In particular, we describe how ATM/Tel1 participates in the signal transduction pathways elicited by DNA damage and in telomere homeostasis and its importance as a barrier to cancer development. PMID:25247188

  20. Different genome-specific chromosome stabilities in synthetic Brassica allohexaploids revealed by wide crosses with Orychophragmus

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xian-Hong; Wang, Jing; Li, Zai-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims In sexual hybrids between cultivated Brassica species and another crucifer, Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), parental genome separation during mitosis and meiosis is under genetic control but this phenomenon varies depending upon the Brassica species. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in parental genome separation, complex hybrids between synthetic Brassica allohexaploids (2n = 54, AABBCC) from three sources and O. violaceus were obtained and characterized. Methods Genomic in situ hybridization, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) were used to explore chromosomal/genomic components and rRNA gene expression of the complex hybrids and their progenies. Key Results Complex hybrids with variable fertility exhibited phenotypes that were different from the female allohexaploids and expressed some traits from O. violaceus. These hybrids were mixoploids (2n = 34–46) and retained partial complements of allohexaploids, including whole chromosomes of the A and B genomes and some of the C genome but no intact O. violaceus chromosomes; AFLP bands specific for O. violaceus, novel for two parents and absent in hexaploids were detected. The complex hybrids produced progenies with chromosomes/genomic complements biased to B. juncea (2n = 36, AABB) and novel B. juncea lines with two genomes of different origins. The expression of rRNA genes from B. nigra was revealed in all allohexaploids and complex hybrids, showing that the hierarchy of nucleolar dominance (B. nigra, BB > B. rapa, AA > B. oleracea, CC) in Brassica allotetraploids was still valid in these plants. Conclusions The chromosomes of three genomes in these synthetic Brassica allohexaploids showed different genome-specific stabilities (B > A > C) under induction of alien chromosome elimination in crosses with O. violaceus, which was possibly affected by nucleolar dominance. PMID:19403626

  1. Identification of genomic regions for grain yield and yield stability and their epistatic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Autrique, Enrique; Singh, Ravi; Ellis, Marc; Singh, Sukhwinder; Dreisigacker, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The task of identifying genomic regions conferring yield stability is challenging in any crop and requires large experimental data sets in conjunction with complex analytical approaches. We report findings of a first attempt to identify genomic regions with stable expression and their individual epistatic interactions for grain yield and yield stability in a large elite panel of wheat under multiple environments via a genome wide association mapping (GWAM) approach. Seven hundred and twenty lines were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing technology and phenotyped for grain yield and phenological traits. High gene diversity (0.250) and a moderate genetic structure (five groups) in the panel provided an excellent base for GWAM. The mixed linear model and multi-locus mixed model analyses identified key genomic regions on chromosomes 2B, 3A, 4A, 5B, 7A and 7B. Further, significant epistatic interactions were observed among loci with and without main effects that contributed to additional variation of up to 10%. Simple stepwise regression provided the most significant main effect and epistatic markers resulting in up to 20% variation for yield stability and up to 17% gain in yield with the best allelic combination. PMID:28145508

  2. Regulation and Function of Cdt1; A Key Factor in Cell Proliferation and Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Pedro N.; Cook, Jeanette Gowen

    2016-01-01

    Successful cell proliferation requires efficient and precise genome duplication followed by accurate chromosome segregation. The Cdc10-dependent transcript 1 protein (Cdt1) is required for the first step in DNA replication, and in human cells Cdt1 is also required during mitosis. Tight cell cycle controls over Cdt1 abundance and activity are critical to normal development and genome stability. We review here recent advances in elucidating Cdt1 molecular functions in both origin licensing and kinetochore–microtubule attachment, and we describe the current understanding of human Cdt1 regulation. PMID:28025526

  3. Genome Stability of Lyme Disease Spirochetes: Comparative Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Luft, Benjamin J.; Schutzer, Steven E.; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Huang, Wai Mun; Vujadinovic, Marija; Aron, John K.; Vargas, Levy C.; Freeman, Sam; Radune, Diana; Weidman, Janice F.; Dimitrov, George I.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Sosa, Julia E.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Dunn, John J.; Fraser, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33–40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi ∼900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short ≤20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant. PMID:22432010

  4. Genome Stability of Lyme Disease Spirochetes: Comparative Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmids

    SciTech Connect

    Casjens S. R.; Dunn J.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W.-G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.; Gilcrease, E. B.; Huang, W. M.; Vujadinovic, M.; Aron, J. K.; Vargas, L. C.; Freeman, S.; Radune, D.; Weidman, J. F.; Dimitrov, G. I.; Khouri, H. M.; Sosa, J. E.; Halpin, R. A.; Fraser, C. M.

    2012-03-14

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33-40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi {approx}900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short {le}20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant.

  5. Analysis of bias thermal stability of interferometer fiber-optic gyroscope using a solid-core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuoming, Sun; Shuhua, Wang; Junwei, Li; Yazhou, Zhang; Dapeng, Chen

    2016-12-01

    Bias thermal stability of a fiber-optic gyroscope using polarization-maintaining photonic crystal (PM-PCF) was studied. The thermal sensitivity of birefringence in PM-PCF and polarization cross talking in fiber coil was measured. Using an OCDP method, the polarization cross talking causing phase error of the fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) was analyzed. The contrast experiment result of the FOGs with the PM-PCF coil and PMF coil showed that using PM-PCF instead of PMF can improve the FOG's bias thermal stability by about 50 %.

  6. X Chromosome Crossover Formation and Genome Stability in Caenorhabditis elegans Are Independently Regulated by xnd-1

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, T. Brooke; Mainpal, Rana; Amrit, Francis R. G.; Krause, Michael W.; Ghazi, Arjumand; Yanowitz, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    The germ line efficiently combats numerous genotoxic insults to ensure the high fidelity propagation of unaltered genomic information across generations. Yet, germ cells in most metazoans also intentionally create double-strand breaks (DSBs) to promote DNA exchange between parental chromosomes, a process known as crossing over. Homologous recombination is employed in the repair of both genotoxic lesions and programmed DSBs, and many of the core DNA repair proteins function in both processes. In addition, DNA repair efficiency and crossover (CO) distribution are both influenced by local and global differences in chromatin structure, yet the interplay between chromatin structure, genome integrity, and meiotic fidelity is still poorly understood. We have used the xnd-1 mutant of Caenorhabditis elegans to explore the relationship between genome integrity and crossover formation. Known for its role in ensuring X chromosome CO formation and germ line development, we show that xnd-1 also regulates genome stability. xnd-1 mutants exhibited a mortal germ line, high embryonic lethality, high incidence of males, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation. We discovered that a hypomorphic allele of mys-1 suppressed these genome instability phenotypes of xnd-1, but did not suppress the CO defects, suggesting it serves as a separation-of-function allele. mys-1 encodes a histone acetyltransferase, whose homolog Tip60 acetylates H2AK5, a histone mark associated with transcriptional activation that is increased in xnd-1 mutant germ lines, raising the possibility that thresholds of H2AK5ac may differentially influence distinct germ line repair events. We also show that xnd-1 regulated him-5 transcriptionally, independently of mys-1, and that ectopic expression of him-5 suppressed the CO defects of xnd-1. Our work provides xnd-1 as a model in which to study the link between chromatin factors, gene expression, and genome stability. PMID:27678523

  7. Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 peroxiredoxins contribute to the aerotolerance and genetic stability of the genomic magnetosome island.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xin; Wang, Kuan; Bo, Tao; Kou, Yanbo; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Guanjun

    2011-07-01

    The magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 can grow at variable oxygen concentrations, although the intracellular magnetic structures, magnetosomes, are only synthesized under microaerobic or anaerobic conditions. Three members of the peroxiredoxin family were identified in M. magneticum AMB-1. All purified recombinant proteins displayed thiol-dependent peroxidase activities. Allelic replacement mutagenesis revealed that, although the absence of the three peroxidase genes had no effect on either the growth or the formation of magnetosome under anaerobic conditions, the growth of mutants was compromised in an aerobic culture. Moreover, an accelerated loss in the genomic 'magnetosome island' (MAI) was observed in the null mutants cultured in the presence of oxygen. Taken together, these data suggest that the thiol-peroxidases identified act as key antioxidants in magnetotactic bacteria and, as a result, contribute to maintaining their capacity to synthesize magnetosome by shielding the genetic stability of the genomic MAI in adaptation to constant physiological change and stress. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in collagen with aging maintain molecular stability after overload: evidence from an in vitro tendon model.

    PubMed

    Willett, Thomas L; Labow, Rosalind S; Aldous, Ian G; Avery, Nick C; Lee, J Michael

    2010-03-01

    Soft tissue injuries are poorly understood at the molecular level. Previous work using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has shown that tendon collagen becomes less thermally stable with rupture. However, most soft tissue injuries do not result in complete tissue rupture but in damaging fiber overextension. Covalent crosslinking, which increases with animal maturity and age, plays an important role in collagenous fiber mechanics. It is also a determinant of tissue strength and is hypothesized to inhibit the loss of thermal stability of collagen due to mechanical damage. Controlled overextension without rupture was investigated to determine if overextension was sufficient to reduce the thermal stability of collagen in the bovine tail tendon (BTT) model and to examine the effects of aging on the phenomenon. Baseline data from DSC and hydrothermal isometric tension (HIT) techniques were compared between two groups: steers aged 24-30 months (young group), and skeletally mature bulls and oxen aged greater than five years (old group). Covalent crosslinks were quantified by ion exchange chromatography. Overextension resulted in reduced collagen thermal stability in the BTT model. The Young specimens, showing detectably lower tissue thermomechanical competence, lost more thermal stability with overextension than did the old specimens. The effect on old specimens, while smaller, was detectable. Multiple overextension cycles increased the loss of stability in the young group. Compositional differences in covalent crosslinking corresponded with tissue thermomechanical competence and therefore inversely with the loss of thermal stability. HIT testing gave thermal denaturation temperatures similar to those measured with DSC. The thermal stability of collagen was reduced by overextension of the tendon--without tissue rupture--and this effect was amplified by increased cycles of overextension. Increased tissue thermomechanical competence with aging seemed to mitigate the

  9. The DUF59 Family Gene AE7 Acts in the Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Pathway to Maintain Nuclear Genome Integrity in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dexian; Bernard, Delphine G.; Balk, Janneke; Hai, Huang; Cui, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms have evolved a set of strategies to safeguard genome integrity, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report that ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1/2 ENHANCER7 (AE7), an Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding a protein in the evolutionarily conserved Domain of Unknown Function 59 family, participates in the cytosolic iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly (CIA) pathway to maintain genome integrity. The severe ae7-2 allele is embryo lethal, whereas plants with the weak ae7 (ae7-1) allele are viable but exhibit highly accumulated DNA damage that activates the DNA damage response to arrest the cell cycle. AE7 is part of a protein complex with CIA1, NAR1, and MET18, which are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are involved in the biogenesis of cytosolic and nuclear Fe-S proteins. ae7-1 plants have lower activities of the cytosolic [4Fe-4S] enzyme aconitase and the nuclear [4Fe-4S] enzyme DNA glycosylase ROS1. Additionally, mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter ATM3/ABCB25, which is required for the activity of cytosolic Fe-S enzymes in Arabidopsis, also result in defective genome integrity similar to that of ae7-1. These results indicate that AE7 is a central member of the CIA pathway, linking plant mitochondria to nuclear genome integrity through assembly of Fe-S proteins. PMID:23104832

  10. Expression, tandem repeat copy number variation and stability of four macrosatellite arrays in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Deanna C; Alexander, Graham; Moseley, Shawn; Chadwick, Brian P

    2010-11-15

    Macrosatellites are some of the largest variable number tandem repeats in the human genome, but what role these unusual sequences perform is unknown. Their importance to human health is clearly demonstrated by the 4q35 macrosatellite D4Z4 that is associated with the onset of the muscle degenerative disease facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Nevertheless, many other macrosatellite arrays in the human genome remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the organization, tandem repeat copy number variation, transmission stability and expression of four macrosatellite arrays in the human genome: the TAF11-Like array located on chromosomes 5p15.1, the SST1 arrays on 4q28.3 and 19q13.12, the PRR20 array located on chromosome 13q21.1, and the ZAV array at 9q32. All are polymorphic macrosatellite arrays that at least for TAF11-Like and SST1 show evidence of meiotic instability. With the exception of the SST1 array that is ubiquitously expressed, all are expressed at high levels in the testis and to a lesser extent in the brain. Our results extend the number of characterized macrosatellite arrays in the human genome and provide the foundation for formulation of hypotheses to begin assessing their functional role in the human genome.

  11. Mining 3D genome structure populations identifies major factors governing the stability of regulatory communities

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chao; Li, Wenyuan; Tjong, Harianto; Hao, Shengli; Zhou, Yonggang; Li, Qingjiao; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Bing; Alber, Frank; Jasmine Zhou, Xianghong

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) genome structures vary from cell to cell even in an isogenic sample. Unlike protein structures, genome structures are highly plastic, posing a significant challenge for structure-function mapping. Here we report an approach to comprehensively identify 3D chromatin clusters that each occurs frequently across a population of genome structures, either deconvoluted from ensemble-averaged Hi-C data or from a collection of single-cell Hi-C data. Applying our method to a population of genome structures (at the macrodomain resolution) of lymphoblastoid cells, we identify an atlas of stable inter-chromosomal chromatin clusters. A large number of these clusters are enriched in binding of specific regulatory factors and are therefore defined as ‘Regulatory Communities.' We reveal two major factors, centromere clustering and transcription factor binding, which significantly stabilize such communities. Finally, we show that the regulatory communities differ substantially from cell to cell, indicating that expression variability could be impacted by genome structures. PMID:27240697

  12. Expression, tandem repeat copy number variation and stability of four macrosatellite arrays in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Macrosatellites are some of the largest variable number tandem repeats in the human genome, but what role these unusual sequences perform is unknown. Their importance to human health is clearly demonstrated by the 4q35 macrosatellite D4Z4 that is associated with the onset of the muscle degenerative disease facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Nevertheless, many other macrosatellite arrays in the human genome remain poorly characterized. Results Here we describe the organization, tandem repeat copy number variation, transmission stability and expression of four macrosatellite arrays in the human genome: the TAF11-Like array located on chromosomes 5p15.1, the SST1 arrays on 4q28.3 and 19q13.12, the PRR20 array located on chromosome 13q21.1, and the ZAV array at 9q32. All are polymorphic macrosatellite arrays that at least for TAF11-Like and SST1 show evidence of meiotic instability. With the exception of the SST1 array that is ubiquitously expressed, all are expressed at high levels in the testis and to a lesser extent in the brain. Conclusions Our results extend the number of characterized macrosatellite arrays in the human genome and provide the foundation for formulation of hypotheses to begin assessing their functional role in the human genome. PMID:21078170

  13. Genome stability is ensured by temporal control of kinetochore-microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Samuel F.; Thompson, Sarah L.; Manning, Amity L.; Compton, Duane A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Most solid tumors are aneuploid and many frequently mis-segregate chromosomes. This chromosomal instability is commonly caused by persistent maloriented attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. Chromosome segregation requires stable microtubule attachment at kinetochores, yet those attachments must be sufficiently dynamic to permit correction of malorientations. How this balance is achieved is unknown, and the permissible boundaries of attachment stability versus dynamics essential for genome stability remain poorly understood. Here we show that two microtubule-depolymerizing kinesins, Kif2b and MCAK, stimulate kinetochore-microtubule dynamics during distinct phases of mitosis to correct malorientations. Few-fold reductions in kinetochore-microtubule turnover, particularly in early mitosis, induce severe chromosome segregation defects. In addition, we show that stimulation of microtubule dynamics at kinetochores restores chromosome stability to chromosomally unstable tumor cell lines, establishing a causal relationship between deregulation of kinetochore-microtubule dynamics and chromosomal instability. Thus, temporal control of microtubule attachment to chromosomes during mitosis is central to genome stability in human cells. PMID:19060894

  14. Regulation and role of Arabidopsis CUL4-DDB1A-DDB2 in maintaining genome integrity upon UV stress.

    PubMed

    Molinier, Jean; Lechner, Esther; Dumbliauskas, Eva; Genschik, Pascal

    2008-06-13

    Plants use the energy in sunlight for photosynthesis, but as a consequence are exposed to the toxic effect of UV radiation especially on DNA. The UV-induced lesions on DNA affect both transcription and replication and can also have mutagenic consequences. Here we investigated the regulation and the function of the recently described CUL4-DDB1-DDB2 E3 ligase in the maintenance of genome integrity upon UV-stress using the model plant Arabidopsis. Physiological, biochemical, and genetic evidences indicate that this protein complex is involved in global genome repair (GGR) of UV-induced DNA lesions. Moreover, we provide evidences for crosstalks between GGR, the plant-specific photo reactivation pathway and the RAD1-RAD10 endonucleases upon UV exposure. Finally, we report that DDB2 degradation upon UV stress depends not only on CUL4, but also on the checkpoint protein kinase Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR). Interestingly, we found that DDB1A shuttles from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in an ATR-dependent manner, highlighting an upstream level of control and a novel mechanism of regulation of this E3 ligase.

  15. Inbreeding depression maintained by recessive lethal mutations interacting with stabilizing selection on quantitative characters in a partially self-fertilizing population.

    PubMed

    Lande, Russell; Porcher, Emmanuelle

    2017-03-21

    The bimodal distribution of fitness effects of new mutations and standing genetic variation, due to early-acting strongly deleterious recessive mutations and late-acting mildly deleterious mutations, is analyzed using the Kondrashov model for lethals (K), with either the infinitesimal model for selfing (IMS) or the Gaussian allele model (GAM) for quantitative genetic variance under stabilizing selection. In the combined models (KIMS and KGAM) high genomic mutation rates to lethals and weak stabilizing selection on many characters create strong interactions between early and late inbreeding depression, by changing the distribution of lineages selfed consecutively for different numbers of generations. Alternative stable equilibria can exist at intermediate selfing rates for a given set of parameters. Evolution of quantitative genetic variance under multivariate stabilizing selection can strongly influence the purging of nearly recessive lethals, and sometimes vice versa. If the selfing rate at the purging threshold for quantitative genetic variance in IMS or GAM alone exceeds that for nearly recessive lethals in K alone, then in KIMS and KGAM stabilizing selection causes selective interference with purging of lethals, increasing the mean number of lethals compared to K; otherwise, stabilizing selection causes selective facilitation in purging of lethals, decreasing the mean number of lethals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Cryo-electron Microscopy Reconstruction and Stability Studies of the Wild Type and the R432A Variant of Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 Reveal that Capsid Structural Stability Is a Major Factor in Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Drouin, Lauren M.; Lins, Bridget; Janssen, Maria; Bennett, Antonette; Chipman, Paul; McKenna, Robert; Chen, Weijun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Cardone, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising therapeutic gene delivery vectors and better understanding of their capsid assembly and genome packaging mechanism is needed for improved vector production. Empty AAV capsids assemble in the nucleus prior to genome packaging by virally encoded Rep proteins. To elucidate the capsid determinants of this process, structural differences between wild-type (wt) AAV2 and a packaging deficient variant, AAV2-R432A, were examined using cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction both at an ∼5.0-Å resolution (medium) and also at 3.8- and 3.7-Å resolutions (high), respectively. The high resolution structures showed that removal of the arginine side chain in AAV2-R432A eliminated hydrogen bonding interactions, resulting in altered intramolecular and intermolecular interactions propagated from under the 3-fold axis toward the 5-fold channel. Consistent with these observations, differential scanning calorimetry showed an ∼10°C decrease in thermal stability for AAV2-R432A compared to wt-AAV2. In addition, the medium resolution structures revealed differences in the juxtaposition of the less ordered, N-terminal region of their capsid proteins, VP1/2/3. A structural rearrangement in AAV2-R432A repositioned the βA strand region under the icosahedral 2-fold axis rather than antiparallel to the βB strand, eliminating many intramolecular interactions. Thus, a single amino acid substitution can significantly alter the AAV capsid integrity to the extent of reducing its stability and possibly rendering it unable to tolerate the stress of genome packaging. Furthermore, the data show that the 2-, 3-, and 5-fold regions of the capsid contributed to producing the packaging defect and highlight a tight connection between the entire capsid in maintaining packaging efficiency. IMPORTANCE The mechanism of AAV genome packaging is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the capsid determinants

  17. Rev3, the catalytic subunit of Polζ, is required for maintaining fragile site stability in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Audesh; Qin, Zhoushuai; Xiao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    It has been long speculated that mammalian Rev3 plays an important, yet unknown role(s) during mammalian development, as deletion of Rev3 causes embryonic lethality in mice, whereas no other translesion DNA synthesis polymerases studied to date are required for mouse embryo development. Here, we report that both subunits of Polζ (Rev3 and Rev7) show an unexpected increase in expression during G2/M phase, but they localize independently in mitotic cells. Experimental depletion of Rev3 results in a significant increase in anaphase bridges, chromosomal breaks/gaps and common fragile site (CFS) expression, whereas Rev7 depletion primarily causes lagging chromosome defect with no sign of CFS expression. The genomic instability induced by Rev3 depletion seems to be related to replication stress, as it is further enhanced on aphidicolin treatment and results in increased metaphase-specific Fanconi anemia complementation group D type 2 (FANCD2) foci formation, as well as FANCD2-positive anaphase bridges. Indeed, a long-term depletion of Rev3 in cultured human cells results in massive genomic instability and severe cell cycle arrest. The aforementioned observations collectively support a notion that Rev3 is required for the efficient replication of CFSs during G2/M phase, and that the resulting fragile site instability in Rev3 knockout mice may trigger cell death during embryonic development. PMID:23303771

  18. SIRT7 and the DEAD-box helicase DDX21 cooperate to resolve genomic R loops and safeguard genome stability.

    PubMed

    Song, Chenlin; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Voit, Renate; Grummt, Ingrid

    2017-08-08

    R loops are three-stranded nucleic acid structures consisting of an RNA:DNA heteroduplex and a "looped-out" nontemplate strand. As aberrant formation and persistence of R loops block transcription elongation and cause DNA damage, mechanisms that resolve R loops are essential for genome stability. Here we show that the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box RNA helicase DDX21 efficiently unwinds R loops and that depletion of DDX21 leads to accumulation of cellular R loops and DNA damage. Significantly, the activity of DDX21 is regulated by acetylation. Acetylation by CBP inhibits DDX21 activity, while deacetylation by SIRT7 augments helicase activity and overcomes R-loop-mediated stalling of RNA polymerases. Knockdown of SIRT7 leads to the same phenotype as depletion of DDX21 (i.e., increased formation of R loops and DNA double-strand breaks), indicating that SIRT7 and DDX21 cooperate to prevent R-loop accumulation, thus safeguarding genome integrity. Moreover, DDX21 resolves estrogen-induced R loops on estrogen-responsive genes in breast cancer cells, which prevents the blocking of transcription elongation on these genes. © 2017 Song et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Temperature sensitive influenza A virus genome replication results from low thermal stability of polymerase-cRNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Rosa M; Mullin, Anne E; Amorim, Maria Joao; Medcalf, Elizabeth; Tiley, Laurence S; Digard, Paul

    2006-08-25

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Influenza A virus is a determinant of viral pathogenicity and host range that is responsible for transcribing and replicating the negative sense segmented viral genome (vRNA). Transcription produces capped and polyadenylated mRNAs whereas genome replication involves the synthesis of an alternative plus-sense transcript (cRNA) with unmodified termini that is copied back to vRNA. Viral mRNA transcription predominates at early stages of viral infection, while later, negative sense genome replication is favoured. However, the "switch" that regulates the transition from transcription to replication is poorly understood. We show that temperature strongly affects the balance between plus and minus-sense RNA synthesis with high temperature causing a large decrease in vRNA accumulation, a moderate decrease in cRNA levels but (depending on genome segment) either increased or unchanged levels of mRNA. We found no evidence implicating cellular heat shock protein activity in this effect despite the known association of hsp70 and hsp90 with viral polymerase components. Temperature-shift experiments indicated that polymerase synthesised at 41 degrees C maintained transcriptional activity even though genome replication failed. Reduced polymerase association with viral RNA was seen in vivo and in confirmation of this, in vitro binding assays showed that temperature increased the rate of dissociation of polymerase from both positive and negative sense promoters. However, the interaction of polymerase with the cRNA promoter was particularly heat labile, showing rapid dissociation even at 37 degrees C. This suggested that vRNA synthesis fails at elevated temperatures because the polymerase does not bind the promoter. In support of this hypothesis, a mutant cRNA promoter with vRNA-like sequence elements supported vRNA synthesis at higher temperatures than the wild-type promoter. The differential stability of negative and positive sense polymerase

  20. Plants from Chernobyl zone could shed light on genome stability in radioactive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Galina; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Doonan, John

    2016-07-01

    For nearly 30 years, despite of chronic radiation, flora in Chernobyl zone continue to flourish, evidencing the adaptation of plants to such an environment. Keeping in mind interplanetary missions, this phenomenon is a challenge for plant space research since it highlights the possible mechanisms of genome protection and stabilization in harmful environment. Plants are sessile organisms and, contrary to animals, could not escape the external impact. Therefore, plants should evolve the robust system allowing DNA-protection against damage, which is of special interest. Our investigations show that Arabidopsis thaliana from Chernobyl zone tolerate radiomimetics and heavy metals better than control plants from non-polluted areas. Besides, its genome is less affected by such mutagens. qPCR investigations have revealed up-regulation of some genes involved in DNA damage response. In particular, expression of ATR is increased slightly and downstream expression of CycB1:1 gene is increased significantly after bleomycin treatment suggesting role of ATR-dependent pathway in genome stabilization. Several DNA repair pathways are known to exist in plants. We continue investigations on gene expression from different DNA repair pathways as well as cell cycle regulation and investigation of PCD hallmarks in order to reveal the mechanism of plant tolerance to radiation environment. Our investigations provide unique information for space researchers working on biotechnology of radiation tolerant plants.

  1. The Influence of Micronutrients in Cell Culture: A Reflection on Viability and Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Arigony, Ana Lúcia Vargas; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; Bordin, Diana Lilian; Prá, Daniel; Pêgas Henriques, João Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrients, including minerals and vitamins, are indispensable to DNA metabolic pathways and thus are as important for life as macronutrients. Without the proper nutrients, genomic instability compromises homeostasis, leading to chronic diseases and certain types of cancer. Cell-culture media try to mimic the in vivo environment, providing in vitro models used to infer cells' responses to different stimuli. This review summarizes and discusses studies of cell-culture supplementation with micronutrients that can increase cell viability and genomic stability, with a particular focus on previous in vitro experiments. In these studies, the cell-culture media include certain vitamins and minerals at concentrations not equal to the physiological levels. In many common culture media, the sole source of micronutrients is fetal bovine serum (FBS), which contributes to only 5–10% of the media composition. Minimal attention has been dedicated to FBS composition, micronutrients in cell cultures as a whole, or the influence of micronutrients on the viability and genetics of cultured cells. Further studies better evaluating micronutrients' roles at a molecular level and influence on the genomic stability of cells are still needed. PMID:23781504

  2. Ccdc13 is a novel human centriolar satellite protein required for ciliogenesis and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Staples, Christopher J; Myers, Katie N; Beveridge, Ryan D D; Patil, Abhijit A; Howard, Anna E; Barone, Giancarlo; Lee, Alvin J X; Swanton, Charles; Howell, Michael; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J Mark; Boulton, Simon J; Collis, Spencer J

    2014-07-01

    Here, we identify coiled-coil domain-containing protein 13 (Ccdc13) in a genome-wide RNA interference screen for regulators of genome stability. We establish that Ccdc13 is a newly identified centriolar satellite protein that interacts with PCM1, Cep290 and pericentrin and prevents the accumulation of DNA damage during mitotic transit. Depletion of Ccdc13 results in the loss of microtubule organisation in a manner similar to PCM1 and Cep290 depletion, although Ccdc13 is not required for satellite integrity. We show that microtubule regrowth is enhanced in Ccdc13-depleted cells, but slowed in cells that overexpress Ccdc13. Furthermore, in serum-starved cells, Ccdc13 localises to the basal body, is required for primary cilia formation and promotes the localisation of the ciliopathy protein BBS4 to both centriolar satellites and cilia. These data highlight the emerging link between DNA damage response factors, centriolar and peri-centriolar satellites and cilia-associated proteins and implicate Ccdc13 as a centriolar satellite protein that functions to promote both genome stability and cilia formation.

  3. The influence of micronutrients in cell culture: a reflection on viability and genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Arigony, Ana Lúcia Vargas; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; Machado, Miriana; Bordin, Diana Lilian; Bergter, Lothar; Prá, Daniel; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrients, including minerals and vitamins, are indispensable to DNA metabolic pathways and thus are as important for life as macronutrients. Without the proper nutrients, genomic instability compromises homeostasis, leading to chronic diseases and certain types of cancer. Cell-culture media try to mimic the in vivo environment, providing in vitro models used to infer cells' responses to different stimuli. This review summarizes and discusses studies of cell-culture supplementation with micronutrients that can increase cell viability and genomic stability, with a particular focus on previous in vitro experiments. In these studies, the cell-culture media include certain vitamins and minerals at concentrations not equal to the physiological levels. In many common culture media, the sole source of micronutrients is fetal bovine serum (FBS), which contributes to only 5-10% of the media composition. Minimal attention has been dedicated to FBS composition, micronutrients in cell cultures as a whole, or the influence of micronutrients on the viability and genetics of cultured cells. Further studies better evaluating micronutrients' roles at a molecular level and influence on the genomic stability of cells are still needed.

  4. Identification of Multiple Proteins Coupling Transcriptional Gene Silencing to Genome Stability in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hale, Christopher J; Potok, Magdalena E; Lopez, Jennifer; Do, Truman; Liu, Ao; Gallego-Bartolome, Javier; Michaels, Scott D; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are regulated by epigenetic marks that act to modulate transcriptional control as well as to regulate DNA replication and repair. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutation of the ATXR5 and ATXR6 histone methyltransferases causes reduction in histone H3 lysine 27 monomethylation, transcriptional upregulation of transposons, and a genome instability defect in which there is an accumulation of excess DNA corresponding to pericentromeric heterochromatin. We designed a forward genetic screen to identify suppressors of the atxr5/6 phenotype that uncovered loss-of-function mutations in two components of the TREX-2 complex (AtTHP1, AtSAC3B), a SUMO-interacting E3 ubiquitin ligase (AtSTUbL2) and a methyl-binding domain protein (AtMBD9). Additionally, using a reverse genetic approach, we show that a mutation in a plant homolog of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 enhances the atxr5/6 phenotype. Through characterization of these mutations, our results suggest models for the production atxr5 atxr6-induced extra DNA involving conflicts between the replicative and transcriptional processes in the cell, and suggest that the atxr5 atxr6 transcriptional defects may be the cause of the genome instability defects in the mutants. These findings highlight the critical intersection of transcriptional silencing and DNA replication in the maintenance of genome stability of heterochromatin.

  5. TRAIP is a PCNA-binding ubiquitin ligase that protects genome stability after replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Saskia; Smedegaard, Stine; Nakamura, Kyosuke; Mortuza, Gulnahar B.; Räschle, Markus; Ibañez de Opakua, Alain; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Feng, Yunpeng; Blanco, Francisco J.; Mann, Matthias; Montoya, Guillermo; Groth, Anja; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cellular genomes are highly vulnerable to perturbations to chromosomal DNA replication. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the processivity factor for DNA replication, plays a central role as a platform for recruitment of genome surveillance and DNA repair factors to replication forks, allowing cells to mitigate the threats to genome stability posed by replication stress. We identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAIP as a new factor at active and stressed replication forks that directly interacts with PCNA via a conserved PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) box motif. We show that TRAIP promotes ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling in human cells by facilitating the generation of RPA-bound single-stranded DNA regions upon replication stress in a manner that critically requires its E3 ligase activity and is potentiated by the PIP box. Consequently, loss of TRAIP function leads to enhanced chromosomal instability and decreased cell survival after replication stress. These findings establish TRAIP as a PCNA-binding ubiquitin ligase with an important role in protecting genome integrity after obstacles to DNA replication. PMID:26711499

  6. Plk1-mediated stabilization of 53BP1 through USP7 regulates centrosome positioning to maintain bipolarity.

    PubMed

    Yim, H; Shin, S-B; Woo, S U; Lee, P C-W; Erikson, R L

    2017-02-16

    Although 53BP1 has been established well as a mediator in DNA damage response, its function in mitosis is not clearly understood. We found that 53BP1 is a mitotic-binding partner of the kinases Plk1 and AuroraA, and that the binding with Plk1 increases the stability of 53BP1 by accelerating its interaction with the deubiquitinase USP7. Depletion of 53BP1 induces mitotic defects such as chromosomal missegregation, misorientation of spindle poles and the generation of extra centrosomes, which is similar phenotype to USP7-knockdown cells. In addition, 53BP1 depletion reduces the levels of p53 and centromere protein F (CENPF), interacting proteins of 53BP1. These phenotypes induced by 53BP1 depletion were rescued by expression of wild-type or phosphomimic mutant 53BP1 but not by expression of a dephosphomimic mutant. We propose that phosphorylation of 53BP1 at S380 accelerates complex formation with USP7 and CENPF to regulate their stability, thus having a crucial role in proper centrosome positioning, chromosomal alignment, and centrosome number.

  7. Paraffin Phase Change Material for Maintaining Temperature Stability of IceCube Type of CubeSats in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The MLA and IFA of the instrument on the IceCube require a 20 C temperature and a thermal stability of +/-1 C. The thermal environment of the ISS orbit for the IceCube is very unstable due to solar beta angles in the -75deg to +75deg range. Additionally the instrument is powered off in every eclipse to conserve electrical power. These two factors cause thermal instability to the MLA and IFA. This paper presents a thermal design of using mini paraffin PCM packs to meet the thermal requirements of these instrument components. With a 31 g mass plus a 30% margin of n-hexadecane, the MLA and IFA are powered on for 32.3 minutes in sunlight at a 0deg beta angle to melt the paraffin. The powered-on time increases to 38 minutes at a 75deg (+/-) beta angle. When the MLA and IFA are powered off, the paraffin freezes.

  8. System and method for tuning adjusting the central frequency of a laser while maintaining frequency stabilization to an external reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey (Inventor); Thorpe, James I. (Inventor); Numata, Kenji (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for stabilizing a laser to a frequency reference with an adjustable offset. The method locks a sideband signal generated by passing an incoming laser beam through the phase modulator to a frequency reference, and adjusts a carrier frequency relative to the locked sideband signal by changing a phase modulation frequency input to the phase modulator. The sideband signal can be a single sideband (SSB), dual sideband (DSB), or an electronic sideband (ESB) signal. Two separate electro-optic modulators can produce the DSB signal. The two electro-optic modulators can be a broadband modulator and a resonant modulator. With a DSB signal, the method can introduce two sinusoidal phase modulations at the phase modulator. With ESB signals, the method can further drive the optical phase modulator with an electrical signal with nominal frequency OMEGA(sub 1) that is phase modulated at a frequency OMEGA(sub 2)

  9. Local chromatin structure of heterochromatin regulates repeated DNA stability, nucleolus structure, and genome integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Jamy C.

    2007-01-01

    Heterochromatin constitutes a significant portion of the genome in higher eukaryotes; approximately 30% in Drosophila and human. Heterochromatin contains a high repeat DNA content and a low density of protein-encoding genes. In contrast, euchromatin is composed mostly of unique sequences and contains the majority of single-copy genes. Genetic and cytological studies demonstrated that heterochromatin exhibits regulatory roles in chromosome organization, centromere function and telomere protection. As an epigenetically regulated structure, heterochromatin formation is not defined by any DNA sequence consensus. Heterochromatin is characterized by its association with nucleosomes containing methylated-lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me), heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) that binds H3K9me, and Su(var)3-9, which methylates H3K9 and binds HP1. Heterochromatin formation and functions are influenced by HP1, Su(var)3-9, and the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. My thesis project investigates how heterochromatin formation and function impact nuclear architecture, repeated DNA organization, and genome stability in Drosophila melanogaster. H3K9me-based chromatin reduces extrachromosomal DNA formation; most likely by restricting the access of repair machineries to repeated DNAs. Reducing extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA stabilizes rDNA repeats and the nucleolus structure. H3K9me-based chromatin also inhibits DNA damage in heterochromatin. Cells with compromised heterochromatin structure, due to Su(var)3-9 or dcr-2 (a component of the RNAi pathway) mutations, display severe DNA damage in heterochromatin compared to wild type. In these mutant cells, accumulated DNA damage leads to chromosomal defects such as translocations, defective DNA repair response, and activation of the G2-M DNA repair and mitotic checkpoints that ensure cellular and animal viability. My thesis research suggests that DNA replication, repair, and recombination mechanisms in heterochromatin differ from those in

  10. High dispersal potential has maintained long-term population stability in the North Atlantic copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    PubMed Central

    Provan, Jim; Beatty, Gemma E.; Keating, Sianan L.; Maggs, Christine A.; Savidge, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The cool-water copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key species in North Atlantic marine ecosystems since it represents an important food resource for the developmental stages of several fish of major economic value. Over the last 40 years, however, data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey have highlighted a 70 per cent reduction in C. finmarchicus biomass, coupled with a gradual northward shift in the species's distribution, which have both been linked with climate change. To determine the potential for C. finmarchicus to track changes in habitat availability and maintain stable effective population sizes, we have assessed levels of gene flow and dispersal in current populations, as well as using a coalescent approach together with palaeodistribution modelling to elucidate the historical population demography of the species over previous changes in Earth's climate. Our findings indicate high levels of dispersal and a constant effective population size over the period 359 000–566 000 BP and suggest that C. finmarchicus possesses the capacity to track changes in available habitat, a feature that may be of crucial importance to the species's ability to cope with the current period of global climate change. PMID:18812293

  11. Death of PRDM9 coincides with stabilization of the recombination landscape in the dog genome.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Erik; Webster, Matthew T; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Ponting, Chris P; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of diverse eukaryotes has revealed that recombination events cluster in discrete genomic locations known as hotspots. In humans, a zinc-finger protein, PRDM9, is believed to initiate recombination in >40% of hotspots by binding to a specific DNA sequence motif. However, the PRDM9 coding sequence is disrupted in the dog genome assembly, raising questions regarding the nature and control of recombination in dogs. By analyzing the sequences of PRDM9 orthologs in a number of dog breeds and several carnivores, we show here that this gene was inactivated early in canid evolution. We next use patterns of linkage disequilibrium using more than 170,000 SNP markers typed in almost 500 dogs to estimate the recombination rates in the dog genome using a coalescent-based approach. Broad-scale recombination rates show good correspondence with an existing linkage-based map. Significant variation in recombination rate is observed on the fine scale, and we are able to detect over 4000 recombination hotspots with high confidence. In contrast to human hotspots, 40% of canine hotspots are characterized by a distinct peak in GC content. A comparative genomic analysis indicates that these peaks are present also as weaker peaks in the panda, suggesting that the hotspots have been continually reinforced by accelerated and strongly GC biased nucleotide substitutions, consistent with the long-term action of biased gene conversion on the dog lineage. These results are consistent with the loss of PRDM9 in canids, resulting in a greater evolutionary stability of recombination hotspots. The genetic determinants of recombination hotspots in the dog genome may thus reflect a fundamental process of relevance to diverse animal species.

  12. A highly conserved gene island of three genes on chromosome 3B of hexaploid wheat: diverse gene function and genomic structure maintained in a tightly linked block

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The complexity of the wheat genome has resulted from waves of retrotransposable element insertions. Gene deletions and disruptions generated by the fast replacement of repetitive elements in wheat have resulted in disruption of colinearity at a micro (sub-megabase) level among the cereals. In view of genomic changes that are possible within a given time span, conservation of genes between species tends to imply an important functional or regional constraint that does not permit a change in genomic structure. The ctg1034 contig completed in this paper was initially studied because it was assigned to the Sr2 resistance locus region, but detailed mapping studies subsequently assigned it to the long arm of 3B and revealed its unusual features. Results BAC shotgun sequencing of the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring) genome has been used to assemble a group of 15 wheat BACs from the chromosome 3B physical map FPC contig ctg1034 into a 783,553 bp genomic sequence. This ctg1034 sequence was annotated for biological features such as genes and transposable elements. A three-gene island was identified among >80% repetitive DNA sequence. Using bioinformatics analysis there were no observable similarity in their gene functions. The ctg1034 gene island also displayed complete conservation of gene order and orientation with syntenic gene islands found in publicly available genome sequences of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays, even though the intergenic space and introns were divergent. Conclusion We propose that ctg1034 is located within the heterochromatic C-band region of deletion bin 3BL7 based on the identification of heterochromatic tandem repeats and presence of significant matches to chromodomain-containing gypsy LTR retrotransposable elements. We also speculate that this location, among other highly repetitive sequences, may account for the relative stability in gene order and orientation within the gene

  13. A histone-fold complex and FANCM form a conserved DNA-remodeling complex to maintain genome stability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhijiang; Delannoy, Mathieu; Ling, Chen; Daee, Danielle; Osman, Fekret; Muniandy, Parameswary A; Shen, Xi; Oostra, Anneke B; Du, Hansen; Steltenpool, Jurgen; Lin, Ti; Schuster, Beatrice; Décaillet, Chantal; Stasiak, Andrzej; Stasiak, Alicja Z; Stone, Stacie; Hoatlin, Maureen E; Schindler, Detlev; Woodcock, Christopher L; Joenje, Hans; Sen, Ranjan; de Winter, Johan P; Li, Lei; Seidman, Michael M; Whitby, Matthew C; Myung, Kyungjae; Constantinou, Angelos; Wang, Weidong

    2010-03-26

    FANCM remodels branched DNA structures and plays essential roles in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. Here, we show that FANCM forms a conserved DNA-remodeling complex with a histone-fold heterodimer, MHF. We find that MHF stimulates DNA binding and replication fork remodeling by FANCM. In the cell, FANCM and MHF are rapidly recruited to forks stalled by DNA interstrand crosslinks, and both are required for cellular resistance to such lesions. In vertebrates, FANCM-MHF associates with the Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex, promotes FANCD2 monoubiquitination in response to DNA damage, and suppresses sister-chromatid exchanges. Yeast orthologs of these proteins function together to resist MMS-induced DNA damage and promote gene conversion at blocked replication forks. Thus, FANCM-MHF is an essential DNA-remodeling complex that protects replication forks from yeast to human.

  14. MicroRNAs down-regulate homologous recombination in the G1 phase of cycling cells to maintain genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Eun; Pan, Yunfeng; Park, Eunmi; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis; De, Subhajyoti; D'Andrea, Alan; Chowdhury, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB)s is restricted to the post-replicative phases of the cell cycle. Initiation of HR in the G1 phase blocks non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) impairing DSB repair. Completion of HR in G1 cells can lead to the loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH), which is potentially carcinogenic. We conducted a gain-of-function screen to identify miRNAs that regulate HR-mediated DSB repair, and of these miRNAs, miR-1255b, miR-148b*, and miR-193b* specifically suppress the HR-pathway in the G1 phase. These miRNAs target the transcripts of HR factors, BRCA1, BRCA2, and RAD51, and inhibiting miR-1255b, miR-148b*, and miR-193b* increases expression of BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51 specifically in the G1-phase leading to impaired DSB repair. Depletion of CtIP, a BRCA1-associated DNA end resection protein, rescues this phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of miR-1255b, miR-148b*, and miR-193b* in independent cohorts of ovarian tumors correlates with significant increase in LOH events/chromosomal aberrations and BRCA1 expression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02445.001 PMID:24843000

  15. A Role for the Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay Pathway in Maintaining Genome Stability in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    González-Huici, Víctor; Wang, Bin; Gartner, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is commonly used in cancer therapy and is a main source of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one of the most toxic forms of DNA damage. We have used Caenorhabditis elegans as an invertebrate model to identify novel factors required for repair of DNA damage inflicted by IR. We have performed an unbiased genetic screen, finding that smg-1 mutations confer strong hyper-sensitivity to IR. SMG-1 is a phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) involved in mediating nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of transcripts containing premature stop codons and related to the ATM and ATR kinases which are at the apex of DNA damage signaling pathways. Hyper-sensitivity to IR also occurs when other genes mediating NMD are mutated. The hyper-sensitivity to bleomycin, a drug known to induce DSBs, further supports that NMD pathway mutants are defective in DSB repair. Hyper-sensitivity was not observed upon treatment with alkylating agents or UV irradiation. We show that SMG-1 mainly acts in mitotically dividing germ cells, and during late embryonic and larval development. Based on epistasis experiments, SMG-1 does not appear to act in any of the three major pathways known to mend DNA DSBs, namely homologous recombination (HR), nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), and microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ). We speculate that SMG-1 kinase activity could be activated following DNA damage to phosphorylate specific DNA repair proteins and/or that NMD inactivation may lead to aberrant mRNAs leading to synthesis of malfunctioning DNA repair proteins. PMID:28634159

  16. A Role for the Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay Pathway in Maintaining Genome Stability in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    González-Huici, Víctor; Wang, Bin; Gartner, Anton

    2017-08-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is commonly used in cancer therapy and is a main source of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one of the most toxic forms of DNA damage. We have used Caenorhabditis elegans as an invertebrate model to identify novel factors required for repair of DNA damage inflicted by IR. We have performed an unbiased genetic screen, finding that smg-1 mutations confer strong hyper-sensitivity to IR. SMG-1 is a phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) involved in mediating nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of transcripts containing premature stop codons and related to the ATM and ATR kinases which are at the apex of DNA damage signaling pathways. Hyper-sensitivity to IR also occurs when other genes mediating NMD are mutated. The hyper-sensitivity to bleomycin, a drug known to induce DSBs, further supports that NMD pathway mutants are defective in DSB repair. Hyper-sensitivity was not observed upon treatment with alkylating agents or UV irradiation. We show that SMG-1 mainly acts in mitotically dividing germ cells, and during late embryonic and larval development. Based on epistasis experiments, SMG-1 does not appear to act in any of the three major pathways known to mend DNA DSBs, namely homologous recombination (HR), nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), and microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ). We speculate that SMG-1 kinase activity could be activated following DNA damage to phosphorylate specific DNA repair proteins and/or that NMD inactivation may lead to aberrant mRNAs leading to synthesis of malfunctioning DNA repair proteins. Copyright © 2017 González-Huici et al.

  17. Rational design of mutations that change the aggregation rate of a protein while maintaining its native structure and stability

    PubMed Central

    Camilloni, Carlo; Sala, Benedetta Maria; Sormanni, Pietro; Porcari, Riccardo; Corazza, Alessandra; De Rosa, Matteo; Zanini, Stefano; Barbiroli, Alberto; Esposito, Gennaro; Bolognesi, Martino; Bellotti, Vittorio; Vendruscolo, Michele; Ricagno, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of human diseases is associated with mutations that, destabilizing proteins native state, promote their aggregation. However, the mechanisms leading from folded to aggregated states are still incompletely understood. To investigate these mechanisms, we used a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to compare the native state dynamics of Beta-2 microglobulin (β2m), whose aggregation is associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, and its aggregation-resistant mutant W60G. Our results indicate that W60G low aggregation propensity can be explained, beyond its higher stability, by an increased average protection of the aggregation-prone residues at its surface. To validate these findings, we designed β2m variants that alter the aggregation-prone exposed surface of wild-type and W60G β2m modifying their aggregation propensity. These results allowed us to pinpoint the role of dynamics in β2m aggregation and to provide a new strategy to tune protein aggregation by modulating the exposure of aggregation-prone residues. PMID:27150430

  18. Rational design of mutations that change the aggregation rate of a protein while maintaining its native structure and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilloni, Carlo; Sala, Benedetta Maria; Sormanni, Pietro; Porcari, Riccardo; Corazza, Alessandra; De Rosa, Matteo; Zanini, Stefano; Barbiroli, Alberto; Esposito, Gennaro; Bolognesi, Martino; Bellotti, Vittorio; Vendruscolo, Michele; Ricagno, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    A wide range of human diseases is associated with mutations that, destabilizing proteins native state, promote their aggregation. However, the mechanisms leading from folded to aggregated states are still incompletely understood. To investigate these mechanisms, we used a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to compare the native state dynamics of Beta-2 microglobulin (β2m), whose aggregation is associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, and its aggregation-resistant mutant W60G. Our results indicate that W60G low aggregation propensity can be explained, beyond its higher stability, by an increased average protection of the aggregation-prone residues at its surface. To validate these findings, we designed β2m variants that alter the aggregation-prone exposed surface of wild-type and W60G β2m modifying their aggregation propensity. These results allowed us to pinpoint the role of dynamics in β2m aggregation and to provide a new strategy to tune protein aggregation by modulating the exposure of aggregation-prone residues.

  19. Genome-wide survey of interindividual differences of RNA stability in human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jubao; Shi, Jianxin; Ge, Xijin; Dölken, Lars; Moy, Winton; He, Deli; Shi, Sandra; Sanders, Alan R.; Ross, Jeff; Gejman, Pablo V.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which RNA stability differs between individuals and its contribution to the interindividual expression variation remain unknown. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of RNA stability in seven human HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and analyzed the effect of DNA sequence variation on RNA half-life differences. Twenty-six percent of the expressed genes exhibited RNA half-life differences between LCLs at a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, which accounted for ~ 37% of the gene expression differences between individuals. Nonsense polymorphisms were associated with reduced RNA half-lives. In genes presenting interindividual RNA half-life differences, higher coding GC3 contents (G and C percentages at the third-codon positions) were correlated with increased RNA half-life. Consistently, G and C alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in protein coding sequences were associated with enhanced RNA stability. These results suggest widespread interindividual differences in RNA stability related to DNA sequence and composition variation. PMID:23422947

  20. Synapse-Assembly Proteins Maintain Synaptic Vesicle Cluster Stability and Regulate Synaptic Vesicle Transport in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Stacey L.; Yorks, Rosalina M.; Morrison, Logan M.; Hoover, Christopher M.; Miller, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    The functional integrity of neurons requires the bidirectional active transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in axons. The kinesin motor KIF1A transports SVs from somas to stable SV clusters at synapses, while dynein moves them in the opposite direction. However, it is unclear how SV transport is regulated and how SVs at clusters interact with motor proteins. We addressed these questions by isolating a rare temperature-sensitive allele of Caenorhabditis elegans unc-104 (KIF1A) that allowed us to manipulate SV levels in axons and dendrites. Growth at 20° and 14° resulted in locomotion rates that were ∼3 and 50% of wild type, respectively, with similar effects on axonal SV levels. Corresponding with the loss of SVs from axons, mutants grown at 14° and 20° showed a 10- and 24-fold dynein-dependent accumulation of SVs in their dendrites. Mutants grown at 14° and switched to 25° showed an abrupt irreversible 50% decrease in locomotion and a 50% loss of SVs from the synaptic region 12-hr post-shift, with no further decreases at later time points, suggesting that the remaining clustered SVs are stable and resistant to retrograde removal by dynein. The data further showed that the synapse-assembly proteins SYD-1, SYD-2, and SAD-1 protected SV clusters from degradation by motor proteins. In syd-1, syd-2, and sad-1 mutants, SVs accumulate in an UNC-104-dependent manner in the distal axon region that normally lacks SVs. In addition to their roles in SV cluster stability, all three proteins also regulate SV transport. PMID:26354975

  1. The role of extrinsic ligaments in maintaining carpal stability - A prospective statistical analysis of 85 arthroscopic cases.

    PubMed

    Van Overstraeten, Luc; Camus, Emmanuel J

    2016-02-01

    Several biomechanical studies have shown that the scapholunate (SL) and lunotriquetral (LT) ligaments are not the only stabilizers of the proximal carpal row. However, no study has yet analyzed the range of ligament lesions leading to instability in vivo. Arthroscopy has been used to assess the condition of the wrist's extrinsic ligaments by palpating and tensioning the various ligament and capsule structures. In this prospective study, this arthroscopic method was used in 85 cases of wrist sprain without static instability to evaluate the correlation between lesions of the intrinsic and extrinsic carpal ligaments and carpal instability. In SL instability, a scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) lesion was statistically correlated with lesions of the long radiolunate ligament (P<0.05). There also was a statistically significant correlation between lesions of the SLIL and the radioscaphocapitate, scaphotrapezial and dorsal intercarpal ligaments. There was a correlation between the stage of SL instability and the number of lax extrinsic ligaments (P<0.05) but not with the severity of the extrinsic ligament lesions. In LT instability, a LT interosseous ligament lesion was statistically correlated with lesions of the dorsal intercarpal ligament (P<0.05). There also was a correlation between the stage of LT instability and the number (P<0.005) and severity (P<0.001) of the extrinsic ligament lesions. Arthroscopy can reveal hidden radiographic instability and can also be used to define the number and severity of injured ligaments. In carpal instability, a lesion of one intrinsic carpal ligament was associated with a lesion of one or more extrinsic ligaments. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Core binding factor β of osteoblasts maintains cortical bone mass via stabilization of Runx2 in mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kyung-Eun; Park, Na-Rae; Che, Xiangguo; Han, Min-Su; Jeong, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Park, Clara Yongjoo; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Kim, Jung-Eun; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Stein, Janet L; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S; Choi, Je-Yong

    2015-04-01

    Core binding factor beta (Cbfβ), the partner protein of Runx family transcription factors, enhances Runx function by increasing the binding of Runx to DNA. Null mutations of Cbfb result in embryonic death, which can be rescued by restoring fetal hematopoiesis but only until birth, where bone formation is still nearly absent. Here, we address a direct role of Cbfβ in skeletal homeostasis by generating osteoblast-specific Cbfβ-deficient mice (Cbfb(Δob/Δob) ) from Cbfb-floxed mice crossed with mice expressing Cre from the Col1a1 promoter. Cbfb(Δob/Δob) mice showed normal growth and development but exhibited reduced bone mass, particularly of cortical bone. The reduction of bone mass in Cbfb(Δob/Δob) mice is similar to the phenotype of mice with haploinsufficiency of Runx2. Although the number of osteoblasts remained unchanged, the number of active osteoblasts decreased in Cbfb(Δob/Δob) mice and resulted in lower mineral apposition rate. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the expression of osteogenic markers, including Runx2, osterix, osteocalcin, and osteopontin, was significantly repressed in Cbfb(Δob/Δob) mice compared with wild-type mice. Cbfβ deficiency also reduced Runx2 protein levels in osteoblasts. The mechanism was revealed by forced expression of Cbfβ, which increased Runx2 protein levels in vitro by inhibiting polyubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation. Collectively, these findings indicate that Cbfβ stabilizes Runx2 in osteoblasts by forming a complex and thus facilitates the proper maintenance of bone mass, particularly cortical bone.

  3. The spliceosome U2 snRNP factors promote genome stability through distinct mechanisms; transcription of repair factors and R-loop processing.

    PubMed

    Tanikawa, M; Sanjiv, K; Helleday, T; Herr, P; Mortusewicz, O

    2016-12-19

    Recent whole-exome sequencing of malignancies have detected recurrent somatic mutations in U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex (snRNP) components of the spliceosome. These factors have also been identified as novel players in the DNA-damage response (DDR) in several genome-wide screens and proteomic analysis. Although accumulating evidence implies that the spliceosome has an important role in genome stability and is an emerging hallmark of cancer, its precise role in DNA repair still remains elusive. Here we identify two distinct mechanisms of how spliceosome U2 snRNP factors contribute to genome stability. We show that the spliceosome maintains protein levels of essential repair factors, thus contributing to homologous recombination repair. In addition, real-time laser microirradiation analysis identified rapid recruitment of the U2 snRNP factor SNRPA1 to DNA-damage sites. Functional analysis of SNRPA1 revealed a more immediate and direct role in preventing R-loop-induced DNA damage. Our present study implies a complex interrelation between transcription, mRNA splicing and the DDR. Cells require rapid spatio-temporal coordination of these chromatin transactions to cope with various forms of genotoxic stress.

  4. The spliceosome U2 snRNP factors promote genome stability through distinct mechanisms; transcription of repair factors and R-loop processing

    PubMed Central

    Tanikawa, M; Sanjiv, K; Helleday, T; Herr, P; Mortusewicz, O

    2016-01-01

    Recent whole-exome sequencing of malignancies have detected recurrent somatic mutations in U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex (snRNP) components of the spliceosome. These factors have also been identified as novel players in the DNA-damage response (DDR) in several genome-wide screens and proteomic analysis. Although accumulating evidence implies that the spliceosome has an important role in genome stability and is an emerging hallmark of cancer, its precise role in DNA repair still remains elusive. Here we identify two distinct mechanisms of how spliceosome U2 snRNP factors contribute to genome stability. We show that the spliceosome maintains protein levels of essential repair factors, thus contributing to homologous recombination repair. In addition, real-time laser microirradiation analysis identified rapid recruitment of the U2 snRNP factor SNRPA1 to DNA-damage sites. Functional analysis of SNRPA1 revealed a more immediate and direct role in preventing R-loop-induced DNA damage. Our present study implies a complex interrelation between transcription, mRNA splicing and the DDR. Cells require rapid spatio-temporal coordination of these chromatin transactions to cope with various forms of genotoxic stress. PMID:27991914

  5. Studies on the molecular correlates of genomic stability in rat brain cells following Amalakirasayana therapy.

    PubMed

    Swain, Umakanta; Sindhu, Kiran Kumar; Boda, Ushasri; Pothani, Suresh; Giridharan, Nappan V; Raghunath, Manchala; Rao, Kalluri Subba

    2012-04-01

    Adult Wistar NIN (WNIN) rats (6 months old) of both sexes were orally fed Amalakirasayana at a dose of 4.5 g per kg body weight, five days in a week. The Amalakirasayana was prepared by Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala, India, which is considered as gold standard. After 3, 9 and 15 months of such therapeutic regime, rats were sacrificed and various tissues including brain were removed. Isolated cell suspensions of neurons and astroglia were prepared from the cerebral cortex. DNA damage, as a prime indicator of the status of genomic stability was measured in terms of single (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) through (a). The "comet" assay and (b). The biochemical methods utilizing the unique properties of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (pol I) and calf thymus terminal transferase. The results convincingly indicate that while in control animals, there was a distinct increase in DNA damage with age in neurons and astrocytes, rasayana fed animals showed significantly less DNA damage in brain cells demonstrating beneficial effects of Rasayana therapy towards maintenance of genomic stability. DNA-damage may be the proximal cause of aging and strategies to reduce the rate of aging could be based on this fact.

  6. Acute exposure to UVB has a more profound effect on plant genome stability than chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alex; Greer, Michael; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2006-12-01

    Environmental factors that damage DNA have various lengths of exposure and intensity levels. Although the results of increasing the intensity of a DNA damaging agent is often predictable, it is not clear whether the stage during development when the exposure is received has any influence on the amount of DNA damage. In this paper we analyzed the influence of UVB on the stability of Arabidopsis thaliana and the Nicotiana tabacum genomes. Our experiments showed that the acute exposure to UVB produces a significantly greater increase in homologous recombination frequency (HRF) and recombination rate (RR) compared with that produced by chronic exposure. The increase in HRF showed a positive correlation with UVB dose and a negative correlation with plant age. In other words, as the UVB dose was increased, there was a concomitant increase in HRF. Conversely, older plants had a lower HRF increase as compared to younger plants. Our experiments suggest that exposure to UVB makes the most significant impact on genome stability during the early stages of plant development.

  7. FANCD2 influences replication fork processes and genome stability in response to clustered DSBs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiayun; Su, Fengtao; Mukherjee, Shibani; Mori, Eiichiro; Hu, Burong; Asaithamby, Aroumougame

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a cancer predisposition syndrome and the factors defective in FA are involved in DNA replication, DNA damage repair and tumor suppression. Here, we show that FANCD2 is critical for genome stability maintenance in response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We found that FANCD2 is monoubiquitinated and recruited to the sites of clustered DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) specifically in S/G2 cells after high-LET radiation. Further, FANCD2 facilitated the repair of clustered DSBs in S/G2 cells and proper progression of S-phase. Furthermore, lack of FANCD2 led to a reduced rate of replication fork progression and elevated levels of both replication fork stalling and new origin firing in response to high-LET radiation. Mechanistically, FANCD2 is required for correct recruitment of RPA2 and Rad51 to the sites of clustered DSBs and that is critical for proper processing of clustered DSBs. Significantly, FANCD2-decifient cells exhibited defective chromosome segregation, elevated levels of chromosomal aberrations, and anchorage-independent growth in response to high-LET radiation. These findings establish FANCD2 as a key factor in genome stability maintenance in response to high-LET radiation and as a promising target to improve cancer therapy.

  8. FANCD2 influences replication fork processes and genome stability in response to clustered DSBs

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiayun; Su, Fengtao; Mukherjee, Shibani; Mori, Eiichiro; Hu, Burong; Asaithamby, Aroumougame

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a cancer predisposition syndrome and the factors defective in FA are involved in DNA replication, DNA damage repair and tumor suppression. Here, we show that FANCD2 is critical for genome stability maintenance in response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We found that FANCD2 is monoubiquitinated and recruited to the sites of clustered DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) specifically in S/G2 cells after high-LET radiation. Further, FANCD2 facilitated the repair of clustered DSBs in S/G2 cells and proper progression of S-phase. Furthermore, lack of FANCD2 led to a reduced rate of replication fork progression and elevated levels of both replication fork stalling and new origin firing in response to high-LET radiation. Mechanistically, FANCD2 is required for correct recruitment of RPA2 and Rad51 to the sites of clustered DSBs and that is critical for proper processing of clustered DSBs. Significantly, FANCD2-decifient cells exhibited defective chromosome segregation, elevated levels of chromosomal aberrations, and anchorage-independent growth in response to high-LET radiation. These findings establish FANCD2 as a key factor in genome stability maintenance in response to high-LET radiation and as a promising target to improve cancer therapy. PMID:26083937

  9. The human RecQ helicases BLM and RECQL4 cooperate to preserve genome stability.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Popuri, Venkateswarlu; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Shevelev, Igor; Ghosh, Avik K; Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Rossi, Marie L; Janscak, Pavel; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2012-08-01

    Bacteria and yeast possess one RecQ helicase homolog whereas humans contain five RecQ helicases, all of which are important in preserving genome stability. Three of these, BLM, WRN and RECQL4, are mutated in human diseases manifesting in premature aging and cancer. We are interested in determining to which extent these RecQ helicases function cooperatively. Here, we report a novel physical and functional interaction between BLM and RECQL4. Both BLM and RECQL4 interact in vivo and in vitro. We have mapped the BLM interacting site to the N-terminus of RECQL4, comprising amino acids 361-478, and the region of BLM encompassing amino acids 1-902 interacts with RECQL4. RECQL4 specifically stimulates BLM helicase activity on DNA fork substrates in vitro. The in vivo interaction between RECQL4 and BLM is enhanced during the S-phase of the cell cycle, and after treatment with ionizing radiation. The retention of RECQL4 at DNA double-strand breaks is shortened in BLM-deficient cells. Further, depletion of RECQL4 in BLM-deficient cells leads to reduced proliferative capacity and an increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. Together, our results suggest that BLM and RECQL4 have coordinated activities that promote genome stability.

  10. Life-history traits maintain the genomic integrity of sympatric species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) group on an isolated forest island

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Lisa M; Sperling, Felix AH

    2011-01-01

    Identification of widespread species collected from islands can be challenging due to the potential for local ecological and phenotypic divergence in isolated populations. We sought to determine how many species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) complex reside in Cypress Hills, an isolated remnant coniferous forest in western Canada. We integrated data on behavior, ecology, morphology, mitochondrial DNA, and simple sequence repeats, comparing Cypress Hills populations to those from other regions of North America to determine which species they resembled most. We identified C. fumiferana, C. occidentalis, C. lambertiana, and hybrid forms in Cypress Hills. Adult flight phenology and pheromone attraction were identified as key life-history traits involved in maintaining the genomic integrity of species. Our study highlights the importance of extensive sampling of both specimens and a variety of characters for understanding species boundaries in biodiversity research. PMID:22393489

  11. Life-history traits maintain the genomic integrity of sympatric species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) group on an isolated forest island.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Lisa M; Sperling, Felix Ah

    2011-10-01

    Identification of widespread species collected from islands can be challenging due to the potential for local ecological and phenotypic divergence in isolated populations. We sought to determine how many species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) complex reside in Cypress Hills, an isolated remnant coniferous forest in western Canada. We integrated data on behavior, ecology, morphology, mitochondrial DNA, and simple sequence repeats, comparing Cypress Hills populations to those from other regions of North America to determine which species they resembled most. We identified C. fumiferana, C. occidentalis, C. lambertiana, and hybrid forms in Cypress Hills. Adult flight phenology and pheromone attraction were identified as key life-history traits involved in maintaining the genomic integrity of species. Our study highlights the importance of extensive sampling of both specimens and a variety of characters for understanding species boundaries in biodiversity research.

  12. A FACS-Optimized Screen Identifies Regulators of Genome Stability in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Loll-Krippleber, Raphaël; Feri, Adeline; Nguyen, Marie; Maufrais, Corinne; Yansouni, Jennifer; d'Enfert, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) plays important roles in genome dynamics, notably, during tumorigenesis. In the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, LOH contributes to the acquisition of antifungal resistance. In order to investigate the mechanisms that regulate LOH in C. albicans, we have established a novel method combining an artificial heterozygous locus harboring the blue fluorescent protein and green fluorescent protein markers and flow cytometry to detect LOH events at the single-cell level. Using this fluorescence-based method, we have confirmed that elevated temperature, treatment with methyl methanesulfonate, and inactivation of the Mec1 DNA damage checkpoint kinase triggered an increase in the frequency of LOH. Taking advantage of this system, we have searched for C. albicans genes whose overexpression triggered an increase in LOH and identified four candidates, some of which are known regulators of genome dynamics with human homologues contributing to cancer progression. Hence, the approach presented here will allow the implementation of new screens to identify genes that are important for genome stability in C. albicans and more generally in eukaryotic cells. PMID:25595446

  13. A FACS-optimized screen identifies regulators of genome stability in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Loll-Krippleber, Raphaël; Feri, Adeline; Nguyen, Marie; Maufrais, Corinne; Yansouni, Jennifer; d'Enfert, Christophe; Legrand, Mélanie

    2015-03-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) plays important roles in genome dynamics, notably, during tumorigenesis. In the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, LOH contributes to the acquisition of antifungal resistance. In order to investigate the mechanisms that regulate LOH in C. albicans, we have established a novel method combining an artificial heterozygous locus harboring the blue fluorescent protein and green fluorescent protein markers and flow cytometry to detect LOH events at the single-cell level. Using this fluorescence-based method, we have confirmed that elevated temperature, treatment with methyl methanesulfonate, and inactivation of the Mec1 DNA damage checkpoint kinase triggered an increase in the frequency of LOH. Taking advantage of this system, we have searched for C. albicans genes whose overexpression triggered an increase in LOH and identified four candidates, some of which are known regulators of genome dynamics with human homologues contributing to cancer progression. Hence, the approach presented here will allow the implementation of new screens to identify genes that are important for genome stability in C. albicans and more generally in eukaryotic cells.

  14. BRCA2 coordinates the activities of cell-cycle kinases to promote genome stability.

    PubMed

    Yata, Keiko; Bleuyard, Jean-Yves; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Ralf, Christine; Katou, Yuki; Schwab, Rebekka A; Niedzwiedz, Wojciech; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Esashi, Fumiko

    2014-06-12

    Numerous human genome instability syndromes, including cancer, are closely associated with events arising from malfunction of the essential recombinase Rad51. However, little is known about how Rad51 is dynamically regulated in human cells. Here, we show that the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2, a key Rad51 binding partner, coordinates the activity of the central cell-cycle drivers CDKs and Plk1 to promote Rad51-mediated genome stability control. The soluble nuclear fraction of BRCA2 binds Plk1 directly in a cell-cycle- and CDK-dependent manner and acts as a molecular platform to facilitate Plk1-mediated Rad51 phosphorylation. This phosphorylation is important for enhancing the association of Rad51 with stressed replication forks, which in turn protects the genomic integrity of proliferating human cells. This study reveals an elaborate but highly organized molecular interplay between Rad51 regulators and has significant implications for understanding tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance in patients with BRCA2 deficiency.

  15. Stability of genomic imprinting in embryonic stem cells: lessons from assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Huntriss, John; Picton, Helen M

    2008-05-01

    Imprinted genes are expressed predominantly or exclusively from one allele only. This mode of gene expression makes the regulation of imprinted genes susceptible to epigenetic insults, which may in turn lead to disease. There is compelling experimental evidence that certain aspects of assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro cell culture may have adverse effects on the regulation of epigenetic information in mammalian embryos, including the disruption of imprinted genes and epigenetic regulators. Moreover, in humans, disorders of genomic imprinting have been reported in children conceived by ART. The derivation and in vitro culture of embryonic stem (ES) cells are potential points of origin for epigenetic abnormalities. There is evidence that defects of genomic imprinting occur in mouse embryonic stem cells, with similar data now emerging in related studies in non-human primate and human ES cells. It is therefore pertinent to rigorously assess the epigenetic status of all stem cells and their derivatives prior to their therapeutic use in humans. Focusing on the stability of genomic imprinting, this review discusses the current evidence for epigenetic disruption in mammalian embryonic stem cells in light of the epigenetic disruption observed in ART-derived mammalian embryos.

  16. Possible role of the WDR3 gene on genome stability in thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    García-Quispes, Wilser Andrés; Pastor, Susana; Galofré, Pere; Biarnés, Josefina; Castell, Joan; Velázquez, Antonia; Marcos, Ricard

    2012-01-01

    The role of the WDR3 gene on genomic instability has been evaluated in a group of 115 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. Genomic instability has been measured according to the response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to ionizing radiation (0.5 Gy). The response has been measured with the micronucleus (MN) test evaluating the frequency of binucleated cells with MN (BNMN), both before and after the irradiation. No differences between genotypes, for the BNMN frequencies previous the irradiation, were observed. Nevertheless significant decreases in DNA damage after irradiation were observed in individuals carrying the variant alleles for each of the three genotyped SNPs: rs3754127 [-8.85 (-15.01 to -2.70), P<0.01]; rs3765501 [-8.98 (-15.61 to -2.36), P<0.01]; rs4658973 [-8.70 (-14.94 to -2.46), P<0.01]. These values correspond to those obtained assuming a dominant model. This study shows for the first time that WDR3 can modulate genome stability.

  17. Conserved interaction of Ctf18-RFC with DNA polymerase ε is critical for maintenance of genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okimoto, Hiroko; Tanaka, Seiji; Araki, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Eiji; Tsurimoto, Toshiki

    2016-05-01

    Human Ctf18-RFC, a PCNA loader complex, interacts with DNA polymerase ε (Polε) through a structure formed by the Ctf18, Dcc1 and Ctf8 subunits. The C-terminal stretch of Ctf18, which is highly conserved from yeast to human, is necessary to form the Polε-capturing structure. We found that in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ctf18, Dcc1 and Ctf8 formed the same structure through the conserved C-terminus and interacted specifically with Polε. Thus, the specific interaction of Ctf18-RFC with Polε is a conserved feature between these proteins. A C-terminal deletion mutant of Ctf18 (ctf18(ΔC) ) exhibited the same high sensitivity to hydroxyurea as the complete deletion strain (ctf18Δ) or ATPase-deficient mutant (ctf18(K189A) ), but was somewhat less sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate than either of them. These phenotypes were also observed in dcc1Δ and ctf8Δ, predicted to be deficient in the interaction with Polε. Furthermore, both plasmid loss and gross chromosomal rearrangement (GCR) rates were increased in ctf18(ΔC) cells to the same extent as in ctf18Δ cells. These results indicate that the Ctf18-RFC/Polε interaction plays a crucial role in maintaining genome stability in budding yeast, probably through recruitment of this PCNA loader to the replication fork.

  18. A Whole Genome Screen for Minisatellite Stability Genes in Stationary-Phase Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Alver, Bonnie; Jauert, Peter A; Brosnan, Laura; O'Hehir, Melissa; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Myers, Chad L; Kirkpatrick, David T

    2013-04-09

    Repetitive elements comprise a significant portion of most eukaryotic genomes. Minisatellites, a type of repetitive element composed of repeat units 15-100 bp in length, are stable in actively dividing cells but change in composition during meiosis and in stationary-phase cells. Alterations within minisatellite tracts have been correlated with the onset of a variety of diseases, including diabetes mellitus, myoclonus epilepsy, and several types of cancer. However, little is known about the factors preventing minisatellite alterations. Previously, our laboratory developed a color segregation assay in which a minisatellite was inserted into the ADE2 gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to monitor alteration events. We demonstrated that minisatellite alterations that occur in stationary-phase cells give rise to a specific colony morphology phenotype known as blebbing. Here, we performed a modified version of the synthetic genetic array analysis to screen for mutants that produce a blebbing phenotype. Screens were conducted using two distinctly different minisatellite tracts: the ade2-min3 construct consisting of three identical 20-bp repeats, and the ade2-h7.5 construct, consisting of seven-and-a-half 28-bp variable repeats. Mutations in 102 and 157 genes affect the stability of the ade2-min3 and ade2-h7.5 alleles, respectively. Only seven hits overlapped both screens, indicating that different factors regulate repeat stability depending upon minisatellite size and composition. Importantly, we demonstrate that mismatch repair influences the stability of the ade2-h7.5 allele, indicating that this type of DNA repair stabilizes complex minisatellites in stationary phase cells. Our work provides insight into the factors regulating minisatellite stability.

  19. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; June Hahn, Sang; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations. PMID:24071737

  20. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; Hahn, Sang June; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-09-27

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations.

  1. The expanding universe of cohesin functions: a new genome stability caretaker involved in human disease and cancer.

    PubMed

    Mannini, Linda; Menga, Stefania; Musio, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Cohesin is responsible for sister chromatid cohesion, ensuring the correct chromosome segregation. Beyond this role, cohesin and regulatory cohesin genes seem to play a role in preserving genome stability and gene transcription regulation. DNA damage is thought to be a major culprit for many human diseases, including cancer. Our present knowledge of the molecular basis underlying genome instability is extremely limited. Mutations in cohesin genes cause human diseases such as Cornelia de Lange syndrome and Roberts syndrome/SC phocomelia, and all the cell lines derived from affected patients show genome instability. Cohesin mutations have also been identified in colorectal cancer. Here, we will discuss the human disorders caused by alterations of cohesin function, with emphasis on the emerging role of cohesin as a genome stability caretaker.

  2. Nuclear alpha spectrin: Critical roles in DNA interstrand cross-link repair and genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Non-erythroid alpha spectrin (αIISp) is a structural protein which we have shown is present in the nucleus of human cells. It interacts with a number of nuclear proteins such as actin, lamin, emerin, chromatin remodeling factors, and DNA repair proteins. αIISp’s interaction with DNA repair proteins has been extensively studied. We have demonstrated that nuclear αIISp is critical in DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair in S phase, in both genomic (non-telomeric) and telomeric DNA, and in maintenance of genomic stability following ICL damage to DNA. We have proposed that αIISp acts as a scaffold aiding to recruit repair proteins to sites of damage. This involvement of αIISp in ICL repair and telomere maintenance after ICL damage represents new and critical functions for αIISp. These studies have led to development of a model for the role of αIISp in DNA ICL repair. They have been aided by examination of cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), a repair-deficient genetic disorder in which a deficiency in αIISp leads to defective ICL repair in genomic and telomeric DNA, telomere dysfunction, and chromosome instability following DNA ICL damage. We have shown that loss of αIISp in FA cells is due to increased breakdown by the protease, µ-calpain. Importantly, we have demonstrated that this deficiency can be corrected by knockdown of µ-calpain and restoring αIISp levels to normal. This corrects a number of the phenotypic deficiencies in FA after ICL damage. These studies suggest a new and unexplored direction for therapeutically restoring genomic stability in FA cells and for correcting numerous phenotypic deficiencies occurring after ICL damage. Developing a more in-depth understanding of the importance of the interaction of αIISp with other nuclear proteins could significantly enhance our knowledge of the consequences of loss of αIISp on critical nuclear processes. PMID:27480253

  3. A genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screening method for protein stability reveals novel regulators of Cdc25A.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanzhong; Zhou, Liwen; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jinping; Zhang, Ruhua; Liang, Xiaoting; Wang, Li; Deng, Wuguo; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Huang, Haojie; Kang, Tiebang

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of stability is particularly crucial for unstable proteins in cells. However, a convenient and unbiased method of identifying regulators of protein stability remains to be developed. Recently, a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 library has been established as a genetic tool to mediate loss-of-function screening. Here, we developed a protein stability regulators screening assay (Pro-SRSA) by combining the whole-genome CRISPR-Cas9 library with a dual-fluorescence-based protein stability reporter and high-throughput sequencing to screen for regulators of protein stability. Using Cdc25A as an example, Cul4B-DDB1(DCAF8) was identified as a new E3 ligase for Cdc25A. Moreover, the acetylation of Cdc25A at lysine 150, which was acetylated by p300/CBP and deacetylated by HDAC3, prevented the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of Cdc25A by the proteasome. This is the first study to report that acetylation, as a novel posttranslational modification, modulates Cdc25A stability, and we suggest that this unbiased CRISPR-Cas9 screening method at the genome scale may be widely used to globally identify regulators of protein stability.

  4. ATMIN Is Required for Maintenance of Genomic Stability and Suppression of B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, Joanna I.; Sancho, Rocio; Kanu, Nnennaya; Bolland, Daniel J.; Yang, Fengtang; Rada, Cristina; Corcoran, Anne E.; Behrens, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Summary Defective V(D)J rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy or light chain (IgH or IgL) or class switch recombination (CSR) can initiate chromosomal translocations. The DNA-damage kinase ATM is required for the suppression of chromosomal translocations but ATM regulation is incompletely understood. Here, we show that mice lacking the ATM cofactor ATMIN in B cells (ATMINΔB/ΔB) have impaired ATM signaling and develop B cell lymphomas. Notably, ATMINΔB/ΔB cells exhibited defective peripheral V(D)J rearrangement and CSR, resulting in translocations involving the Igh and Igl loci, indicating that ATMIN is required for efficient repair of DNA breaks generated during somatic recombination. Thus, our results identify a role for ATMIN in regulating the maintenance of genomic stability and tumor suppression in B cells. PMID:21575860

  5. Phosphorylation of EB2 by Aurora B and CDK1 ensures mitotic progression and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Iimori, Makoto; Watanabe, Sugiko; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Sakasai, Ryo; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Temporal regulation of microtubule dynamics is essential for proper progression of mitosis and control of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins by phosphorylation is an essential component of this regulation. Here we show that Aurora B and CDK1 phosphorylate microtubule end-binding protein 2 (EB2) at multiple sites within the amino terminus and a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the calponin homology and end-binding homology domains. EB2 phosphorylation, which is strictly associated with mitotic entry and progression, reduces the binding affinity of EB2 for microtubules. Expression of non-phosphorylatable EB2 induces stable kinetochore microtubule dynamics and delays formation of bipolar metaphase plates in a microtubule binding-dependent manner, and leads to aneuploidy even in unperturbed mitosis. We propose that Aurora B and CDK1 temporally regulate the binding affinity of EB2 for microtubules, thereby ensuring kinetochore microtubule dynamics, proper mitotic progression and genome stability. PMID:27030108

  6. Phosphorylation of EB2 by Aurora B and CDK1 ensures mitotic progression and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Iimori, Makoto; Watanabe, Sugiko; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Sakasai, Ryo; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-03-31

    Temporal regulation of microtubule dynamics is essential for proper progression of mitosis and control of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins by phosphorylation is an essential component of this regulation. Here we show that Aurora B and CDK1 phosphorylate microtubule end-binding protein 2 (EB2) at multiple sites within the amino terminus and a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the calponin homology and end-binding homology domains. EB2 phosphorylation, which is strictly associated with mitotic entry and progression, reduces the binding affinity of EB2 for microtubules. Expression of non-phosphorylatable EB2 induces stable kinetochore microtubule dynamics and delays formation of bipolar metaphase plates in a microtubule binding-dependent manner, and leads to aneuploidy even in unperturbed mitosis. We propose that Aurora B and CDK1 temporally regulate the binding affinity of EB2 for microtubules, thereby ensuring kinetochore microtubule dynamics, proper mitotic progression and genome stability.

  7. Genetic stability of genome-scale deoptimized RNA virus vaccine candidates under selective pressure

    PubMed Central

    Le Nouën, Cyril; McCarty, Thomas; Brown, Michael; Smith, Melissa Laird; Lleras, Roberto; Dolan, Michael A.; Mehedi, Masfique; Yang, Lijuan; Luongo, Cindy; Liang, Bo; Munir, Shirin; DiNapoli, Joshua M.; Mueller, Steffen; Wimmer, Eckard; Collins, Peter L.; Buchholz, Ursula J.

    2017-01-01

    Recoding viral genomes by numerous synonymous but suboptimal substitutions provides live attenuated vaccine candidates. These vaccine candidates should have a low risk of deattenuation because of the many changes involved. However, their genetic stability under selective pressure is largely unknown. We evaluated phenotypic reversion of deoptimized human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidates in the context of strong selective pressure. Codon pair deoptimized (CPD) versions of RSV were attenuated and temperature-sensitive. During serial passage at progressively increasing temperature, a CPD RSV containing 2,692 synonymous mutations in 9 of 11 ORFs did not lose temperature sensitivity, remained genetically stable, and was restricted at temperatures of 34 °C/35 °C and above. However, a CPD RSV containing 1,378 synonymous mutations solely in the polymerase L ORF quickly lost substantial attenuation. Comprehensive sequence analysis of virus populations identified many different potentially deattenuating mutations in the L ORF as well as, surprisingly, many appearing in other ORFs. Phenotypic analysis revealed that either of two competing mutations in the virus transcription antitermination factor M2-1, outside of the CPD area, substantially reversed defective transcription of the CPD L gene and substantially restored virus fitness in vitro and in case of one of these two mutations, also in vivo. Paradoxically, the introduction into Min L of one mutation each in the M2-1, N, P, and L proteins resulted in a virus with increased attenuation in vivo but increased immunogenicity. Thus, in addition to providing insights on the adaptability of genome-scale deoptimized RNA viruses, stability studies can yield improved synthetic RNA virus vaccine candidates. PMID:28049853

  8. Transgenerational changes in the genome stability and methylation in pathogen-infected plants

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Alexander; Kathiria, Palak; Zemp, Franz J.; Yao, Youli; Pogribny, Igor; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we reported the generation of a virus-induced systemic signal that increased the somatic and meiotic recombination rates in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected tobacco plants. Here, we analyzed the progeny of plants that received the signal and found that these plants also have a higher frequency of rearrangements in the loci carrying the homology to LRR region of the gene of resistance to TMV (N-gene). Analysis of the stability of repetitive elements from Nicotiana tabacum loci and 5.8S ribosomal RNA loci did not show any changes. Further analysis of the changes in the progeny of infected plants revealed that they had substantially hypermethylated genomes. At the same time, loci-specific methylation analysis showed: (1) profound hypomethylation in several LRR-containing loci; (2) substantial hypermethylation of actin loci and (3) no change in methylation in the loci of repetitive elements from N. tabacum or 5.8S ribosomal RNA. Global genome hypermethylation of the progeny is believed to be part of a general protection mechanism against stress, whereas locus-specific hypomethylation is associated with a higher frequency of rearrangements. Increased recombination events combined with the specific methylation pattern induced by pathogen attack could be a sign of an adaptive response by plants. PMID:17311811

  9. Co-opting the Fanconi anemia genomic stability pathway enables herpesvirus DNA synthesis and productive growth.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Heidi; Savas, Jeffrey N; McKinney, Caleb; Chen, Yu-Hung; Yates, John R; Hukkanen, Veijo; Huang, Tony T; Mohr, Ian

    2014-07-03

    DNA damage associated with viral DNA synthesis can result in double-strand breaks that threaten genome integrity and must be repaired. Here, we establish that the cellular Fanconi anemia (FA) genomic stability pathway is exploited by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) to promote viral DNA synthesis and enable its productive growth. Potent FA pathway activation in HSV-1-infected cells resulted in monoubiquitination of FA effector proteins FANCI and FANCD2 (FANCI-D2) and required the viral DNA polymerase. FANCD2 relocalized to viral replication compartments, and FANCI-D2 interacted with a multisubunit complex containing the virus-encoded single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8. Significantly, whereas HSV-1 productive growth was impaired in monoubiquitination-defective FA cells, this restriction was partially surmounted by antagonizing the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a critical enzyme required for nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). This identifies the FA-pathway as a cellular factor required for herpesvirus productive growth and suggests that FA-mediated suppression of NHEJ is a fundamental step in the viral life cycle.

  10. YAP controls retinal stem cell DNA replication timing and genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Cabochette, Pauline; Vega-Lopez, Guillermo; Bitard, Juliette; Parain, Karine; Chemouny, Romain; Masson, Christel; Borday, Caroline; Hedderich, Marie; Henningfeld, Kristine A; Locker, Morgane; Bronchain, Odile; Perron, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    The adult frog retina retains a reservoir of active neural stem cells that contribute to continuous eye growth throughout life. We found that Yap, a downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, is specifically expressed in these stem cells. Yap knock-down leads to an accelerated S-phase and an abnormal progression of DNA replication, a phenotype likely mediated by upregulation of c-Myc. This is associated with an increased occurrence of DNA damage and eventually p53-p21 pathway-mediated cell death. Finally, we identified PKNOX1, a transcription factor involved in the maintenance of genomic stability, as a functional and physical interactant of YAP. Altogether, we propose that YAP is required in adult retinal stem cells to regulate the temporal firing of replication origins and quality control of replicated DNA. Our data reinforce the view that specific mechanisms dedicated to S-phase control are at work in stem cells to protect them from genomic instability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08488.001 PMID:26393999

  11. Co-opting the Fanconi Anemia Genomic Stability Pathway Enables Herpesvirus DNA Synthesis and Productive Growth

    PubMed Central

    Karttunen, Heidi; Savas, Jeffrey N.; McKinney, Caleb; Chen, Yu-Hung; Yates, John R.; Hukkanen, Veijo; Huang, Tony T.; Mohr, Ian

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA damage associated with viral DNA synthesis can result in double strand breaks that threaten genome integrity and must be repaired. Here, we establish that the cellular Fanconi Anemia (FA) genomic stability pathway is exploited by HSV1 to promote viral DNA synthesis and enable its productive growth. Potent FA pathway activation in HSV1-infected cells resulted in monoubiquitination of FA effector proteins, FANCI and FANCD2 (FANCI-D2) and required the viral DNA polymerase. FANCD2 relocalized to viral replication compartments and FANCI-D2 interacted with a multi-subunit complex containing the virus-encoded single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8. Significantly, while HSV1 productive growth was impaired in monoubiquitination-defective FA patient cells, this restriction was partially surmounted by antagonizing the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a critical enzyme required for non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). This identifies the FA-pathway as a new cellular factor required for herpesvirus productive growth and suggests that FA-mediated suppression of NHEJ is a fundamental step in the viral lifecycle. PMID:24954902

  12. Structural Stability, Transitions, and Interactions within SoxYZCD-Thiosulphate from Sulfurimonas denitrificans: An In Silico Molecular Outlook for Maintaining Environmental Sulphur Cycle.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sujay; Banerjee, Arundhati

    2016-01-01

    Thiosulphate oxidation (an essential mechanism) serves to maintain the global sulphur cycle. Earlier experimental and computational studies dealt with environmental thiosulphate oxidation but none dealt with thiosulphate oxidation from deep ocean belts. Wet-laboratory experimental research shows that epsilon-proteobacteria Sulfurimonas denitrificans possess sox (sulphur-oxidizing) operon and perform thiosulphate oxidation efficiently underneath the oceans. From this specific sox operon, SoxCD complex recycles the thiosulphate-bound SoxY from SoxYZ complex to balance the environmental sulphur cycle. So, four chief proteins were variedly modeled and relevant simulated interactive structures were obtained. The final simulated tetraprotein complex (SoxYZCD) from docked SoxYZ and SoxCD complexes was disclosed to be a highly interactive one with predominant ionic residues. Free energy of folding, solvent accessibility, and conformational shifts (coil-like conformation to helices and sheets) were observed in SoxYZ complex after interacting with SoxCD. The stability of the complex (SoxYZCD) after simulation was also observed through the electrostatic surface potential values. These evaluations were rationalized via biostatistics. This aids SoxCD for recycling SoxY along with thiosulphate, which remains interconnected by four H-bonds with SoxY. Therefore, this novel exploration is endowed with the detailed molecular viewpoint for maintaining the sulphur cycle (globally) including the ocean belts.

  13. Structural Stability, Transitions, and Interactions within SoxYZCD-Thiosulphate from Sulfurimonas denitrificans: An In Silico Molecular Outlook for Maintaining Environmental Sulphur Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Arundhati

    2016-01-01

    Thiosulphate oxidation (an essential mechanism) serves to maintain the global sulphur cycle. Earlier experimental and computational studies dealt with environmental thiosulphate oxidation but none dealt with thiosulphate oxidation from deep ocean belts. Wet-laboratory experimental research shows that epsilon-proteobacteria Sulfurimonas denitrificans possess sox (sulphur-oxidizing) operon and perform thiosulphate oxidation efficiently underneath the oceans. From this specific sox operon, SoxCD complex recycles the thiosulphate-bound SoxY from SoxYZ complex to balance the environmental sulphur cycle. So, four chief proteins were variedly modeled and relevant simulated interactive structures were obtained. The final simulated tetraprotein complex (SoxYZCD) from docked SoxYZ and SoxCD complexes was disclosed to be a highly interactive one with predominant ionic residues. Free energy of folding, solvent accessibility, and conformational shifts (coil-like conformation to helices and sheets) were observed in SoxYZ complex after interacting with SoxCD. The stability of the complex (SoxYZCD) after simulation was also observed through the electrostatic surface potential values. These evaluations were rationalized via biostatistics. This aids SoxCD for recycling SoxY along with thiosulphate, which remains interconnected by four H-bonds with SoxY. Therefore, this novel exploration is endowed with the detailed molecular viewpoint for maintaining the sulphur cycle (globally) including the ocean belts. PMID:27777586

  14. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase VHL Regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α to Maintain Regulatory T Cell Stability and Suppressive Capacity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee H; Elly, Chris; Park, Yoon; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2015-06-16

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a critical role in immune homeostasis; however, the mechanisms to maintain their function remain unclear. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL is essential for Treg cell function. Mice with Foxp3-restricted VHL deletion displayed massive inflammation associated with excessive Treg cell interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. VHL-deficient Treg cells failed to prevent colitis induction, but converted into Th1-like effector T cells. VHL intrinsically orchestrated such conversion under both steady and inflammatory conditions followed by Foxp3 downregulation, which was reversed by IFN-γ deficiency. Augmented hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-induced glycolytic reprogramming was required for IFN-γ production. Furthermore, HIF-1α bound directly to the Ifng promoter. HIF-1α knockdown or knockout could reverse the increased IFN-γ by VHL-deficient Treg cells and restore their suppressive function in vivo. These findings indicate that regulation of HIF-1α pathway by VHL is crucial to maintain the stability and suppressive function of Foxp3(+) T cells.

  15. E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α to maintain regulatory T cell stability and suppressive capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee H.; Elly, Chris; Park, Yoon; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells play a critical role in immune homeostasis; however, the mechanisms to maintain their function remain unclear. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL is essential for Treg cell function. Mice with Foxp3-restricted VHL deletion displayed massive inflammation associated with excessive Treg cell interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. VHL-deficient Treg cells failed to prevent colitis induction, but converted into Th1-like effector T cells. VHL intrinsically orchestrated such conversion under both steady and inflammatory conditions followed by Foxp3 downregulation, which was reversed by IFN-γ deficiency. Augmented hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-induced glycolytic reprogramming was required for IFN-γ production. Furthermore, HIF-1α bound directly to the Ifng promoter. HIF-1α knockdown or knockout could reverse the increased IFN-γ by VHL-deficient Treg cells and restore their suppressive function in vivo. These findings indicate that regulation of HIF-1α pathway by VHL is crucial to maintain the stability and suppressive function of Foxp3+ T cells. PMID:26084024

  16. Importance of the cell cycle phase for the choice of the appropriate DSB repair pathway, for genome stability maintenance: the trans-S double-strand break repair model.

    PubMed

    Delacôte, Fabien; Lopez, Bernard S

    2008-01-01

    A DNA double-strand break (DSB) is a highly harmful lesion that can lead to genome rearrangements. Two main pathways compete for DSB repair: homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Depending on the cell cycle phase, the choice of one DSB repair pathway over the other will secure genome stability maintenance or in contrast will increase the risk of genetic instability. HR with the sister chromatid is an efficient way to maintain genome stability, for damage occurring at a post-replication stage. However, in G(1) checkpoint-defective cells, DSBs produced in the G(1) phase and not repaired by NHEJ, can progress through S phase and be processed by HR in late S/G(2) phase. We propose the "trans-S DSB repair" model to account for these data. In this situation HR cannot use the sister chromatid (which is also broken at the same locus) and is thus forced to use ectopic homologous sequences dispersed through the genome, increasing the risk of genetic instability. This shows that the two DSB repair pathways can compete through the cell cycle and underlines the importance of the association between the cell cycle checkpoint and the appropriate DNA repair pathway for genome stability maintenance.

  17. Super DNAging-New insights into DNA integrity, genome stability and telomeres in the oldest old.

    PubMed

    Franzke, Bernhard; Neubauer, Oliver; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in DNA integrity, genome stability, and telomere length are strongly associated with the aging process, age-related diseases as well as the age-related loss of muscle mass. However, in people reaching an age far beyond their statistical life expectancy the prevalence of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes or dementia, is much lower compared to "averagely" aged humans. These inverse observations in nonagenarians (90-99 years), centenarians (100-109 years) and super-centenarians (110 years and older) require a closer look into dynamics underlying DNA damage within the oldest old of our society. Available data indicate improved DNA repair and antioxidant defense mechanisms in "super old" humans, which are comparable with much younger cohorts. Partly as a result of these enhanced endogenous repair and protective mechanisms, the oldest old humans appear to cope better with risk factors for DNA damage over their lifetime compared to subjects whose lifespan coincides with the statistical life expectancy. This model is supported by study results demonstrating superior chromosomal stability, telomere dynamics and DNA integrity in "successful agers". There is also compelling evidence suggesting that life-style related factors including regular physical activity, a well-balanced diet and minimized psycho-social stress can reduce DNA damage and improve chromosomal stability. The most conclusive picture that emerges from reviewing the literature is that reaching "super old" age appears to be primarily determined by hereditary/genetic factors, while a healthy lifestyle additionally contributes to achieving the individual maximum lifespan in humans. More research is required in this rapidly growing population of super old people. In particular, there is need for more comprehensive investigations including short- and long-term lifestyle interventions as well as investigations focusing on the mechanisms causing DNA damage, mutations, and telomere

  18. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-12-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains.

  19. Word Reading Fluency: Role of Genome-Wide Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Developmental Stability and Correlations with Print Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The genetic effects on individual differences in reading development were examined using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) in a twin sample. In unrelated individuals (one twin per pair, n = 2,942), the GCTA-based heritability of reading fluency was ~20%-29% at ages 7 and 12. GCTA bivariate results showed that the phenotypic stability of…

  20. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-12-22

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains.

  1. Word Reading Fluency: Role of Genome-Wide Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Developmental Stability and Correlations with Print Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The genetic effects on individual differences in reading development were examined using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) in a twin sample. In unrelated individuals (one twin per pair, n = 2,942), the GCTA-based heritability of reading fluency was ~20%-29% at ages 7 and 12. GCTA bivariate results showed that the phenotypic stability of…

  2. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains. PMID:26691589

  3. Rad54 is required for the normal development of male and female germ cells and contributes to the maintainance of their genome integrity after genotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Messiaen, S; Le Bras, A; Duquenne, C; Barroca, V; Moison, D; Déchamps, N; Doussau, M; Bauchet, A-L; Guerquin, M-J; Livera, G; Essers, J; Kanaar, R; Habert, R; Bernardino-Sgherri, J

    2013-01-01

    Rad54 is an important factor in the homologous recombination pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. However, Rad54 knockout (KO) mice do not exhibit overt phenotypes at adulthood, even when exposed to radiation. In this study, we show that in Rad54 KO mouse the germline is actually altered. Compared with the wild-type (WT) animals, these mice have less premeiotic germ cells. This germ cell loss is found as early as in E11.5 embryos, suggesting an early failure during mutant primordial germ cells development. Both testicular and ovarian KO germ cells exhibited high radiation sensitivity leading to a long-term gametogenesis defect at adulthood. The KO female germline was particularly affected displaying decreased litter size or sterility. Spermatogenesis recovery after irradiation was slower and incomplete in Rad54 KO mice compared with that of WT mice, suggesting that loss of germ stem cell precursors is not fully compensated along the successive rounds of spermatogenesis. Finally, spermatogenesis recovery after postnatal irradiation is in part regulated by glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in KO but not in irradiated WT mice, suggesting that Sertoli cell GDNF production is stimulated upon substantial germ cell loss only. Our findings suggest that Rad54 has a key function in maintaining genomic integrity of the developing germ cells. PMID:23949223

  4. Rad54 is required for the normal development of male and female germ cells and contributes to the maintainance of their genome integrity after genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Messiaen, S; Le Bras, A; Duquenne, C; Barroca, V; Moison, D; Déchamps, N; Doussau, M; Bauchet, A L; Guerquin, M J; Livera, G; Essers, J; Kanaar, R; Habert, R; Bernardino-Sgherri, J

    2013-08-15

    Rad54 is an important factor in the homologous recombination pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. However, Rad54 knockout (KO) mice do not exhibit overt phenotypes at adulthood, even when exposed to radiation. In this study, we show that in Rad54 KO mouse the germline is actually altered. Compared with the wild-type (WT) animals, these mice have less premeiotic germ cells. This germ cell loss is found as early as in E11.5 embryos, suggesting an early failure during mutant primordial germ cells development. Both testicular and ovarian KO germ cells exhibited high radiation sensitivity leading to a long-term gametogenesis defect at adulthood. The KO female germline was particularly affected displaying decreased litter size or sterility. Spermatogenesis recovery after irradiation was slower and incomplete in Rad54 KO mice compared with that of WT mice, suggesting that loss of germ stem cell precursors is not fully compensated along the successive rounds of spermatogenesis. Finally, spermatogenesis recovery after postnatal irradiation is in part regulated by glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in KO but not in irradiated WT mice, suggesting that Sertoli cell GDNF production is stimulated upon substantial germ cell loss only. Our findings suggest that Rad54 has a key function in maintaining genomic integrity of the developing germ cells.

  5. The KRAB Zinc Finger Protein Roma/Zfp157 Is a Critical Regulator of Cell-Cycle Progression and Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Teresa L.F.; Guilbaud, Guillaume; Blow, J. Julian; Sale, Julian E.; Watson, Christine J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Regulation of DNA replication and cell division is essential for tissue growth and maintenance of genomic integrity and is particularly important in tissues that undergo continuous regeneration such as mammary glands. We have previously shown that disruption of the KRAB-domain zinc finger protein Roma/Zfp157 results in hyperproliferation of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) during pregnancy. Here, we delineate the mechanism by which Roma engenders this phenotype. Ablation of Roma in MECs leads to unscheduled proliferation, replication stress, DNA damage, and genomic instability. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) depleted for Roma exhibit downregulation of p21Cip1 and geminin and have accelerated replication fork velocities, which is accompanied by a high rate of mitotic errors and polyploidy. In contrast, overexpression of Roma in MECs halts cell-cycle progression, whereas siRNA-mediated p21Cip1 knockdown ameliorates, in part, this phenotype. Thus, Roma is an essential regulator of the cell cycle and is required to maintain genomic stability. PMID:27149840

  6. A mobile threat to genome stability: The impact of non-LTR retrotransposons upon the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, Miriam K.; Batzer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    It is now commonly agreed that the human genome is not the stable entity originally presumed. Deletions, duplications, inversions, and insertions are common, and contribute significantly to genomic structural variations (SVs). Their collective impact generates much of the inter-individual genomic diversity observed among humans. Not only do these variations change the structure of the genome; they may also have functional implications, e.g. altered gene expression. Some SVs have been identified as the cause of genetic disorders, including cancer predisposition. Cancer cells are notorious for their genomic instability, and often show genomic rearrangements at the microscopic and submicroscopic level to which transposable elements (TEs) contribute. Here, we review the role of TEs in genome instability, with particular focus on non-LTR retrotransposons. Currently, three non-LTR retrotransposon families – long interspersed element 1 (L1), SVA (short interspersed element (SINE-R), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and Alu), and Alu (a SINE) elements – mobilize in the human genome, and cause genomic instability through both insertion- and post-insertion-based mutagenesis. Due to the abundance and high sequence identity of TEs, they frequently mislead the homologous recombination repair pathway into non-allelic homologous recombination, causing deletions, duplications, and inversions. While less comprehensively studied, non-LTR retrotransposon insertions and TE-mediated rearrangements are probably more common in cancer cells than in healthy tissue. This may be at least partially attributed to the commonly seen global hypomethylation as well as general epigenetic dysfunction of cancer cells. Where possible, we provide examples that impact cancer predisposition and/or development. PMID:20307669

  7. ARTEMIS stabilizes the genome and modulates proliferative responses in multipotent mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Maas, Sarah A; Donghia, Nina M; Tompkins, Kathleen; Foreman, Oded; Mills, Kevin D

    2010-10-27

    Unrepaired DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) cause chromosomal rearrangements, loss of genetic information, neoplastic transformation or cell death. The nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, catalyzing sequence-independent direct rejoining of DSBs, is a crucial mechanism for repairing both stochastically occurring and developmentally programmed DSBs. In lymphocytes, NHEJ is critical for both development and genome stability. NHEJ defects lead to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and lymphoid cancer predisposition in both mice and humans. While NHEJ has been thoroughly investigated in lymphocytes, the importance of NHEJ in other cell types, especially with regard to tumor suppression, is less well documented. We previously reported evidence that the NHEJ pathway functions to suppress a range of nonlymphoid tumor types, including various classes of sarcomas, by unknown mechanisms. Here we investigate roles for the NHEJ factor ARTEMIS in multipotent mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs), as putative sarcomagenic cells of origin. We demonstrate a key role for ARTEMIS in sarcoma suppression in a sensitized mouse tumor model. In this context, we found that ARTEMIS deficiency led to chromosomal damage but, paradoxically, enhanced resistance and proliferative potential in primary MSCs subjected to various stresses. Gene expression analysis revealed abnormally regulated stress response, cell proliferation, and signal transduction pathways in ARTEMIS-defective MSCs. Finally, we identified candidate regulatory genes that may, in part, mediate a stress-resistant, hyperproliferative phenotype in preneoplastic ARTEMIS-deficient MSCs. Our discoveries suggest that Art prevents genome damage and restrains proliferation in MSCs exposed to various stress stimuli. We propose that deficiency leads to a preneoplastic state in primary MSCs and is associated with aberrant proliferative control and cellular stress resistance. Thus, our data reveal surprising new roles for

  8. Impact of a hypomorphic Artemis disease allele on lymphocyte development, DNA end processing, and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Giblin, William; Kubec, Martina; Westfield, Gerwin; St Charles, Jordan; Chadde, Laurel; Kraftson, Stephanie; Sekiguchi, JoAnn

    2009-04-13

    Artemis was initially discovered as the gene inactivated in human radiosensitive T(-)B(-) severe combined immunodeficiency, a syndrome characterized by the absence of B and T lymphocytes and cellular hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. Hypomorphic Artemis alleles have also been identified in patients and are associated with combined immunodeficiencies of varying severity. We examine the molecular mechanisms underlying a syndrome of partial immunodeficiency caused by a hypomorphic Artemis allele using the mouse as a model system. This mutation, P70, leads to premature translation termination that deletes a large portion of a nonconserved C terminus. We find that homozygous Artemis-P70 mice exhibit reduced numbers of B and T lymphocytes, thereby recapitulating the patient phenotypes. The hypomorphic mutation results in impaired end processing during the lymphoid-specific DNA rearrangement known as V(D)J recombination, defective double-strand break repair, and increased chromosomal instability. Biochemical analyses reveal that the Artemis-P70 mutant protein interacts with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and retains significant, albeit reduced, exo- and endonuclease activities but does not undergo phosphorylation. Together, our findings indicate that the Artemis C terminus has critical in vivo functions in ensuring efficient V(D)J rearrangements and maintaining genome integrity.

  9. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Paul; Donatello, Simona; Connolly, Elizabeth; Griffin, Mairead; Dunne, Barbara; Burke, Louise; Flavin, Richard; Rizkalla, Hala; Ryan, Ciara; Hayes, Brian; D'Adhemar, Charles; Banville, Niamh; Faheem, Nazia; Muldoon, Cian; Gaffney, Eoin F.

    2011-01-01

    The Saint James's Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates. PMID

  10. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Mee, Blanaid C; Carroll, Paul; Donatello, Simona; Connolly, Elizabeth; Griffin, Mairead; Dunne, Barbara; Burke, Louise; Flavin, Richard; Rizkalla, Hala; Ryan, Ciara; Hayes, Brian; D'Adhemar, Charles; Banville, Niamh; Faheem, Nazia; Muldoon, Cian; Gaffney, Eoin F

    2011-12-01

    The Saint James's Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep(®) (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy(®) and QIAamp(®) (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect(®) (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software(®)). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A(260/280) values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates.

  11. Nuclear genome stability in long-term cultivated callus lines of Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn

    PubMed Central

    Rojek, Magdalena; Jaskowiak, Joanna; Milewska-Hendel, Anna; Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Kostyukova, Yulia; Kurczynska, Ewa; Rumyantseva, Natalya; Hasterok, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Long-term cultivated Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. (Tartary buckwheat) morphogenic and non-morphogenic callus lines are interesting systems for gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for the genetic stability and instability of a plant tissue culture. In this work, we used histological sections and transmission electron microscopy to identify and describe the morphology of the nuclei of all of the analysed callus lines. We demonstrated that the embryogenic callus cells had prominent round nuclei that did not contain heterochromatin clumps in contrast to the non-morphogenic callus lines, in which we found nuclei that had multiple lobes. Flow cytometry analysis revealed significant differences in the relative DNA content between the analysed calli. All of the analysed morphogenic callus lines had peaks from 2C to 8C as compared to the non-morphogenic callus lines, whose peaks did not reflect any regular DNA content and exceeded 8C and 16C for the line 6p1 and 16C and 32C for the callus line 10p2A. The results showed that non-morphogenic calli are of an aneuploid nature. The TUNEL test enabled us to visualise the nuclei that had DNA fragmentation in both the morphogenic and non-morphogenic lines. We revealed significantly higher frequencies of positively labelled nuclei in the non-morphogenic lines than in the morphogenic lines. In the case of the morphogenic lines, the highest observed frequency of TUNEL-positive nuclei was 7.7% for lines 2–3. In the non-morphogenic calli, the highest level of DNA damage (68.5%) was revealed in line 6p1. These results clearly indicate greater genome stability in the morphogenic lines. PMID:28278222

  12. Nuclear genome stability in long-term cultivated callus lines of Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Betekhtin, Alexander; Rojek, Magdalena; Jaskowiak, Joanna; Milewska-Hendel, Anna; Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Kostyukova, Yulia; Kurczynska, Ewa; Rumyantseva, Natalya; Hasterok, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Long-term cultivated Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. (Tartary buckwheat) morphogenic and non-morphogenic callus lines are interesting systems for gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for the genetic stability and instability of a plant tissue culture. In this work, we used histological sections and transmission electron microscopy to identify and describe the morphology of the nuclei of all of the analysed callus lines. We demonstrated that the embryogenic callus cells had prominent round nuclei that did not contain heterochromatin clumps in contrast to the non-morphogenic callus lines, in which we found nuclei that had multiple lobes. Flow cytometry analysis revealed significant differences in the relative DNA content between the analysed calli. All of the analysed morphogenic callus lines had peaks from 2C to 8C as compared to the non-morphogenic callus lines, whose peaks did not reflect any regular DNA content and exceeded 8C and 16C for the line 6p1 and 16C and 32C for the callus line 10p2A. The results showed that non-morphogenic calli are of an aneuploid nature. The TUNEL test enabled us to visualise the nuclei that had DNA fragmentation in both the morphogenic and non-morphogenic lines. We revealed significantly higher frequencies of positively labelled nuclei in the non-morphogenic lines than in the morphogenic lines. In the case of the morphogenic lines, the highest observed frequency of TUNEL-positive nuclei was 7.7% for lines 2-3. In the non-morphogenic calli, the highest level of DNA damage (68.5%) was revealed in line 6p1. These results clearly indicate greater genome stability in the morphogenic lines.

  13. Arabidopsis SYT1 maintains stability of cortical endoplasmic reticulum networks and VAP27-1-enriched endoplasmic reticulum–plasma membrane contact sites

    PubMed Central

    Siao, Wei; Wang, Pengwei; Voigt, Boris; Hussey, Patrick J.; Baluska, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) is localized on the endoplasmic reticulum–plasma membrane (ER–PM) contact sites in leaf and root cells. The ER–PM localization of Arabidopsis SYT1 resembles that of the extended synaptotagmins (E-SYTs) in animal cells. In mammals, E-SYTs have been shown to regulate calcium signaling, lipid transfer, and endocytosis. Arabidopsis SYT1 was reported to be essential for maintaining cell integrity and virus movement. This study provides detailed insight into the subcellular localization of SYT1 and VAP27-1, another ER–PM-tethering protein. SYT1 and VAP27-1 were shown to be localized on distinct ER–PM contact sites. The VAP27-1-enriched ER–PM contact sites (V-EPCSs) were always in contact with the SYT1-enriched ER–PM contact sites (S-EPCSs). The V-EPCSs still existed in the leaf epidermal cells of the SYT1 null mutant; however, they were less stable than those in the wild type. The polygonal networks of cortical ER disassembled and the mobility of VAP27-1 protein on the ER–PM contact sites increased in leaf cells of the SYT1 null mutant. These results suggest that SYT1 is responsible for stabilizing the ER network and V-EPCSs. PMID:27811083

  14. SHCBP1L, a conserved protein in mammals, is predominantly expressed in male germ cells and maintains spindle stability during meiosis in testis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxi; Shi, Xiaodan; Bi, Ye; Qi, Lin; Guo, Xuejiang; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Zuomin; Sha, Jiahao

    2014-06-01

    Male subfertility due to falling sperm counts has become an increasing problem over a short timescale (50-70 years). Recently, bioinformatics analysis of the human testis proteome has revealed the existence of human-testicular-predominantly-expressed-proteins, which are highly associated with spermatogenesis, although the functions of many of these proteins are still unknown. To understand the function of one of these proteins, SHCBP1L (1700012A16RIKEN), a knockout mouse was produced in which this gene was removed. Using this model, we showed that SHCBP1L binds to another protein, HSPA2, and maintains stability of the spindle. We showed that this complex was not present in knockout mice and that an abnormal number of spermatocytes were held in the early stages of meiosis. Many of these cells were undergoing programmed cell-death, or apoptosis, which is highly unusual for cells during the early stages of meiosis. We also found that proteins very similar to SHCBP1L exist in many other mammals. This led us to propose that SHCBP1L plays an important role in spermatogenesis in mammals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Stability of the mitochondrial genome requires an amino-terminal domain of yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanhong; Shadel, Gerald S.

    1999-01-01

    Mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) polymerases are related to bacteriophage RNA polymerases, but contain a unique amino-terminal extension of unknown origin and function. In addition to harboring mitochondrial targeting information, we show here that the amino-terminal extension of yeast mtRNA polymerase is required for a mtDNA maintenance function that is separable from the known RNA polymerization activity of the enzyme. Deletion of 185 N-terminal amino acids from the enzyme results in a temperature-sensitive mitochondrial petite phenotype, characterized by increased instability and eventual loss of the mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial transcription initiation in vivo is largely unaffected by this mutation and expression of just the amino-terminal portion of the protein in trans partially suppresses the mitochondrial defect, indicating that the amino-terminal extension of the enzyme harbors an independent functional domain that is required for mtDNA replication and/or stability. These results suggest that amino-terminal extensions present in mtRNA polymerases comprise functional domains that couple additional activities to the transcription process in mitochondria. PMID:10393945

  16. Chlorine ions but not sodium ions alter genome stability of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alex; Golubov, Andrey; Bilichak, Andriy; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2010-06-01

    Various environmental stresses influence plant genome stability. Most of these stresses, such as ionizing radiation, heavy metals and organic chemicals, represent potent DNA-damaging agents. Here, we show that exposure to NaCl, the stress that is not thought to cause direct DNA damage, results in an increase in the level of strand breaks and homologous recombination rates (RRs) in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The effect of salt stress on the RR was found to be primarily associated with Cl(-) ions, since exposure of plants to Na(2)SO(4) did not increase the RR, whereas exposure to MgCl(2) resulted in an increase. Changes in the number of strand breaks and in the RR were also paralleled by transcriptional activation of AtRad51 and down-regulation of AtKu70. The progeny of exposed plants exhibited higher RRs, higher expression of AtRad51, lower expression of AtKu70, higher tolerance to salt and methyl methane sulfate (MMS) stresses, as well as a higher increase in RR upon further exposure to stress. Our experiments showed that NaCl is a genotoxic stress that leads to somatic and transgenerational changes in recombination rates, and these changes are primarily triggered by exposure to Cl(-) ions.

  17. Phosphorylated SIRT1 associates with replication origins to prevent excess replication initiation and preserve genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Utani, Koichi; Fu, Haiqing; Jang, Sang-Min; Marks, Anna B.; Smith, Owen K.; Zhang, Ya; Redon, Christophe E.; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chromatin structure affects DNA replication patterns, but the role of specific chromatin modifiers in regulating the replication process is yet unclear. We report that phosphorylation of the human SIRT1 deacetylase on Threonine 530 (T530-pSIRT1) modulates DNA synthesis. T530-pSIRT1 associates with replication origins and inhibits replication from a group of ‘dormant’ potential replication origins, which initiate replication only when cells are subject to replication stress. Although both active and dormant origins bind T530-pSIRT1, active origins are distinguished from dormant origins by their unique association with an open chromatin mark, histone H3 methylated on lysine 4. SIRT1 phosphorylation also facilitates replication fork elongation. SIRT1 T530 phosphorylation is essential to prevent DNA breakage upon replication stress and cells harboring SIRT1 that cannot be phosphorylated exhibit a high prevalence of extrachromosomal elements, hallmarks of perturbed replication. These observations suggest that SIRT1 phosphorylation modulates the distribution of replication initiation events to insure genomic stability. PMID:28549174

  18. Interplay between arginine methylation and ubiquitylation regulates KLF4-mediated genome stability and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Gur, Mert; Zhou, Zhuan; Gamper, Armin; Hung, Mien-Chie; Fujita, Naoya; Lan, Li; Bahar, Ivet; Wan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    KLF4 is an important regulator of cell-fate decision, including DNA damage response and apoptosis. We identify a novel interplay between protein modifications in regulating KLF4 function. Here we show that arginine methylation of KLF4 by PRMT5 inhibits KLF4 ubiquitylation by VHL and thereby reduces KLF4 turnover, resulting in the elevation of KLF4 protein levels concomitant with increased transcription of KLF4-dependent p21 and reduced expression of KLF4-repressed Bax. Structure-based modelling and simulations provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of KLF4 recognition and catalysis by PRMT5. Following genotoxic stress, disruption of PRMT5-mediated KLF4 methylation leads to abrogation of KLF4 accumulation, which, in turn, attenuates cell cycle arrest. Mutating KLF4 methylation sites suppresses breast tumour initiation and progression, and immunohistochemical stain shows increased levels of both KLF4 and PRMT5 in breast cancer tissues. Taken together, our results point to a critical role for aberrant KLF4 regulation by PRMT5 in genome stability and breast carcinogenesis. PMID:26420673

  19. The common fragile site FRA16D gene product WWOX: roles in tumor suppression and genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Aqeilan, Rami I; Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Abu-Odeh, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    The fragile WWOX gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA16D, is frequently altered in human cancers. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, recent evidence has shown that the WWOX protein is essential for proper DNA damage response (DDR). Furthermore, the gene product, WWOX, has been associated with multiple protein networks, highlighting its critical functions in normal cell homeostasis. Targeted deletion of Wwox in murine models suggests its in vivo requirement for proper growth, metabolism, and survival. Recent molecular and biochemical analyses of WWOX functions highlighted its role in modulating aerobic glycolysis and genomic stability. Cumulatively, we propose that the gene product of FRA16D, WWOX, is a functionally essential protein that is required for cell homeostasis and that its deletion has important consequences that contribute to the neoplastic process. This review discusses the essential role of WWOX in tumor suppression and genomic stability and how its alteration contributes to cancer transformation.

  20. Structure/Function Analysis of Recurrent Mutations in SETD2 Protein Reveals a Critical and Conserved Role for a SET Domain Residue in Maintaining Protein Stability and Histone H3 Lys-36 Trimethylation.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Kathryn E; Fahey, Catherine C; Shinsky, Stephen A; Chiang, Yun-Chen J; DiFiore, Julia V; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Vo, Andy H; Shavit, Jordan A; Davis, Ian J; Strahl, Brian D; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2016-09-30

    The yeast Set2 histone methyltransferase is a critical enzyme that plays a number of key roles in gene transcription and DNA repair. Recently, the human homologue, SETD2, was found to be recurrently mutated in a significant percentage of renal cell carcinomas, raising the possibility that the activity of SETD2 is tumor-suppressive. Using budding yeast and human cell line model systems, we examined the functional significance of two evolutionarily conserved residues in SETD2 that are recurrently mutated in human cancers. Whereas one of these mutations (R2510H), located in the Set2 Rpb1 interaction domain, did not result in an observable defect in SETD2 enzymatic function, a second mutation in the catalytic domain of this enzyme (R1625C) resulted in a complete loss of histone H3 Lys-36 trimethylation (H3K36me3). This mutant showed unchanged thermal stability as compared with the wild type protein but diminished binding to the histone H3 tail. Surprisingly, mutation of the conserved residue in Set2 (R195C) similarly resulted in a complete loss of H3K36me3 but did not affect dimethylated histone H3 Lys-36 (H3K36me2) or functions associated with H3K36me2 in yeast. Collectively, these data imply a critical role for Arg-1625 in maintaining the protein interaction with H3 and specific H3K36me3 function of this enzyme, which is conserved from yeast to humans. They also may provide a refined biochemical explanation for how H3K36me3 loss leads to genomic instability and cancer. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Rtg2 protein links metabolism and genome stability in yeast longevity.

    PubMed Central

    Borghouts, Corina; Benguria, Alberto; Wawryn, Jaroslaw; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction induces a signaling pathway, which culminates in changes in the expression of many nuclear genes. This retrograde response, as it is called, extends yeast replicative life span. It also results in a marked increase in the cellular content of extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA circles (ERCs), which can cause the demise of the cell. We have resolved the conundrum of how these two molecular mechanisms of yeast longevity operate in tandem. About 50% of the life-span extension elicited by the retrograde response involves processes other than those that counteract the deleterious effects of ERCs. Deletion of RTG2, a gene that plays a central role in relaying the retrograde response signal to the nucleus, enhances the generation of ERCs in cells with (grande) or in cells without (petite) fully functional mitochondria, and it curtails the life span of each. In contrast, overexpression of RTG2 diminishes ERC formation in both grandes and petites. The excess Rtg2p did not augment the retrograde response, indicating that it was not engaged in retrograde signaling. FOB1, which is known to be required for ERC formation, and RTG2 were found to be in converging pathways for ERC production. RTG2 did not affect silencing of ribosomal DNA in either grandes or petites, which were similar to each other in the extent of silencing at this locus. Silencing of ribosomal DNA increased with replicative age in either the presence or the absence of Rtg2p, distinguishing silencing and ERC accumulation. Our results indicate that the suppression of ERC production by Rtg2p requires that it not be in the process of transducing the retrograde signal from the mitochondrion. Thus, RTG2 lies at the nexus of cellular metabolism and genome stability, coordinating two pathways that have opposite effects on yeast longevity. PMID:15020466

  2. Genome-health nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics: nutritional requirements or 'nutriomes' for chromosomal stability and telomere maintenance at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Bull, Caroline; Fenech, Michael

    2008-05-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that (a) risk for developmental and degenerative disease increases with more DNA damage, which in turn is dependent on nutritional status, and (b) the optimal concentration of micronutrients for prevention of genome damage is also dependent on genetic polymorphisms that alter the function of genes involved directly or indirectly in the uptake and metabolism of micronutrients required for DNA repair and DNA replication. The development of dietary patterns, functional foods and supplements that are designed to improve genome-health maintenance in individuals with specific genetic backgrounds may provide an important contribution to an optimum health strategy based on the diagnosis and individualised nutritional prevention of genome damage, i.e. genome health clinics. The present review summarises some of the recent knowledge relating to micronutrients that are associated with chromosomal stability and provides some initial insights into the likely nutritional factors that may be expected to have an impact on the maintenance of telomeres. It is evident that developing effective strategies for defining nutrient doses and combinations or 'nutriomes' for genome-health maintenance at the individual level is essential for further progress in this research field.

  3. The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Esquerré, Thomas; Bouvier, Marie; Turlan, Catherine; Carpousis, Agamemnon J; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2016-04-26

    Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and an atypical signaling protein CsrD, participate in the Csr system. Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype E. coli (MG1655) and isogenic mutant strains deficient in CsrA or CsrD activity demonstrating for the first time that CsrA and CsrD are global negative and positive regulators of transcription, respectively. The role of CsrA in transcription regulation may be indirect due to the 4.6-fold increase in csrD mRNA concentration in the CsrA deficient strain. Transcriptional action of CsrA and CsrD on a few genes was validated by transcriptional fusions. In addition to an effect on transcription, CsrA stabilizes thousands of mRNAs. This is the first demonstration that CsrA is a global positive regulator of mRNA stability. For one hundred genes, we predict that direct control of mRNA stability by CsrA might contribute to metabolic adaptation by regulating expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport independently of transcriptional regulation.

  4. The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Esquerré, Thomas; Bouvier, Marie; Turlan, Catherine; Carpousis, Agamemnon J.; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and an atypical signaling protein CsrD, participate in the Csr system. Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype E. coli (MG1655) and isogenic mutant strains deficient in CsrA or CsrD activity demonstrating for the first time that CsrA and CsrD are global negative and positive regulators of transcription, respectively. The role of CsrA in transcription regulation may be indirect due to the 4.6-fold increase in csrD mRNA concentration in the CsrA deficient strain. Transcriptional action of CsrA and CsrD on a few genes was validated by transcriptional fusions. In addition to an effect on transcription, CsrA stabilizes thousands of mRNAs. This is the first demonstration that CsrA is a global positive regulator of mRNA stability. For one hundred genes, we predict that direct control of mRNA stability by CsrA might contribute to metabolic adaptation by regulating expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport independently of transcriptional regulation. PMID:27112822

  5. Optical Materials with a Genome: Nanophotonics with DNA-Stabilized Silver Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copp, Stacy M.

    Fluorescent silver clusters with unique rod-like geometries are stabilized by DNA. The sizes and colors of these clusters, or AgN-DNA, are selected by DNA base sequence, which can tune peak emission from blue-green into the near-infrared. Combined with DNA nanostructures, AgN-DNA promise exciting applications in nanophotonics and sensing. Until recently, however, a lack of understanding of the mechanisms controlling AgN-DNA fluorescence has challenged such applications. This dissertation discusses progress toward understanding the role of DNA as a "genome" for silver clusters and toward using DNA to achieve atomic-scale precision of silver cluster size and nanometer-scale precision of silver cluster position on a DNA breadboard. We also investigate sensitivity of AgN-DNA to local solvent environment, with an eye toward applications in chemical and biochemical sensing. Using robotic techniques to generate large data sets, we show that fluorescent silver clusters are templated by certain DNA base motifs that select "magic-sized" cluster cores of enhanced stabilities. The linear arrangement of bases on the phosphate backbone imposes a unique rod-like geometry on the clusters. Harnessing machine learning and bioinformatics techniques, we also demonstrate that sequences of DNA templates can be selected to stabilize silver clusters with desired optical properties, including high fluorescence intensity and specific fluorescence wavelengths, with much higher rates of success as compared to current strategies. The discovered base motifs can be also used to design modular DNA host strands that enable individual silver clusters with atomically precise sizes to bind at specific programmed locations on a DNA nanostructure. We show that DNA-mediated nanoscale arrangement enables near-field coupling of distinct clusters, demonstrated by dual-color cluster assemblies exhibiting resonant energy transfer. These results demonstrate a new degree of control over the optical properties

  6. The effect of zinc sulphate and zinc carnosine on genome stability and cytotoxicity in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Razinah; Thomas, Philip; Zalewski, Peter; Graham, Robin D; Fenech, Michael

    2011-02-28

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential cofactor required by numerous enzymes that are essential for cell metabolism and the maintenance of DNA integrity. We investigated the effect of Zn deficiency or excess on genomic instability events and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds that minimize DNA-damage events. The effects of Zn sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and Zn carnosine (ZnC) on cell proliferation were investigated in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line. DNA damage was determined by the use of both the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. Zn-deficient medium (0μM) was produced using Chelex treatment, and the two Zn compounds (i.e. ZnSO(4) and ZnC) were tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 4.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 100.0μM. Results from an MTT assay showed that cell growth and viability were decreased in Zn-depleted cells (0μM) as well as at 32μM and 100μM for both Zn compounds (P<0.0001). DNA strand-breaks, as measured by the comet assay, were found to be increased in Zn-depleted cells compared with the other treatment groups (P<0.05). The CBMN-Cyt assay showed a significant increase in the frequency of both apoptotic and necrotic cells under Zn-deficient conditions (P<0.0001). Elevated frequencies of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBuds) were induced in Zn-depleted cells (P<0.0001), whereas genome damage was reduced in supplemented cultures for both Zn compounds at 4μM and 16μM, possibly suggesting that these concentrations may be optimal for genome stability. The potential protective effect of ZnSO(4) and ZnC was also investigated following exposure to 1.0Gy γ-radiation. Culture in medium containing these compounds at 4-32μM prior to irradiation displayed significantly reduced frequencies of MNi, NPBs and NBuds compared with cells maintained in 0μM medium (P<0.0001). Expression of γ-H2AX and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase measured by western blotting was increased in Zn

  7. Use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the stability of rabies virus genome in brains kept at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Rojas Anaya, Edith; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Banda Ruiz, Víctor Manuel; Hernández Baumgarten, Eliseo

    2006-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical climates, the shipment of animal brains for rabies diagnosis may be a problem because brain specimens sometimes arrive decomposed at the diagnostic laboratory. In this situation, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) may serve as a potential solution because of its high sensitivity. However, little is known about the stability of rabies viral RNA in decomposed brain tissue. To determine the stability of rabies virus genomic RNA in brain samples, 72 mice were inoculated with the challenge virus strain-11 of rabies virus. After incubation period, mice were euthanized to obtain their brains. These were categorized in 2 different groups. In the first group, 36 brains were kept at room temperature (25-27 degrees C) immediately after euthanasia. In the second group, the other 36 inoculated brains were frozen at -70 degrees C and later maintained at room temperature. In both groups, RT-PCR was performed at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 12, 16, 18, 23, and 26 by using primers previously described in the literature and a primer set specifically designed for a Mexican variant of vampire-bat rabies. Reverse-transcriptase PCR experiments were performed in 3 different inoculated brains, in which the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test was previously conducted to detect rabies viral antigen in the brains kept at room temperature and in the frozen brains. The DFA test resulted positive in both groups up to day 7. In brain samples stored at ambient temperature (25-27 degrees C), the intensity of the RT-PCR band started to diminish by day 12; however, rabies virus genome could be successfully amplified by RT-PCR up to 23 days. These results indicate that brain samples kept at ambient temperature (up to 27 degrees C) may reach a reference laboratory in an adequate state for rabies diagnosis by RT-PCR.

  8. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Genomic Stability Enhancement Effects of Zinc l-carnosine: A Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Agent?

    PubMed

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Chan, Kok Meng; Sharif, Razinah

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide, and the incidence and mortality rates of cancer are expected to rise tremendously in the near future. Despite a better understanding of cancer biology and advancement in cancer management, current strategies in cancer treatment remain costly and ineffective. Hence, instead of putting more efforts to search for new cancer cures, attention has now been shifted to the development of cancer chemopreventive agents as a preventive measure for cancer formation. It is well known that neoplastic transformation of cells is multifactorial, and the occurrence of oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and genomic instability events has been implicated in the carcinogenesis of cells. Zinc l-carnosine (ZnC), which is clinically used as gastric ulcer treatment in Japan, has been suggested to have the potential in preventing cancer development. Multiple studies have revealed that ZnC possesses potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and genomic stability enhancement effects. Thus, this review provides some mechanistic insight into the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and genomic stability enhancement effects of ZnC in relevance to its chemopreventive potential.

  9. Short loop length and high thermal stability determine genomic instability induced by G-quadruplex-forming minisatellites

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Aurèle; Adrian, Michael; Samazan, Frédéric; Heddi, Brahim; Hamon, Florian; Serero, Alexandre; Lopes, Judith; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Phan, Anh Tuân; Nicolas, Alain

    2015-01-01

    G-quadruplexes (G4) are polymorphic four-stranded structures formed by certain G-rich nucleic acids, with various biological roles. However, structural features dictating their formation and/or functionin vivo are unknown. InS. cerevisiae, the pathological persistency of G4 within the CEB1 minisatellite induces its rearrangement during leading-strand replication. We now show that several other G4-forming sequences remain stable. Extensive mutagenesis of the CEB25 minisatellite motif reveals that only variants with very short (≤ 4 nt) G4 loops preferentially containing pyrimidine bases trigger genomic instability. Parallel biophysical analyses demonstrate that shortening loop length does not change the monomorphic G4 structure of CEB25 variants but drastically increases its thermal stability, in correlation with thein vivo instability. Finally, bioinformatics analyses reveal that the threat for genomic stability posed by G4 bearing short pyrimidine loops is conserved inC. elegans and humans. This work provides a framework explanation for the heterogeneous instability behavior of G4-forming sequencesin vivo, highlights the importance of structure thermal stability, and questions the prevailing assumption that G4 structures with short or longer loops are as likely to formin vivo. PMID:25956747

  10. Genome-wide profiles of CtBP link metabolism with genome stability and epithelial reprogramming in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Di, Li-Jun; Byun, Jung S.; Wong, Madeline M.; Wakano, Clay; Taylor, Tara; Bilke, Sven; Baek, Songjoon; Hunter, Kent; Yang, Howard; Lee, Maxwell; Zvosec, Celia; Khramtsova, Galina; Cheng, Fan; Perou, Charles M.; Miller, C. Ryan; Raab, Rachel; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Gardner, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a NADH-dependent transcriptional repressor that links carbohydrate metabolism to epigenetic regulation by recruiting diverse histone modifying complexes to chromatin. Here, global profiling of CtBP in breast cancer cells reveals that it drives epithelial to mesenchymal transition, stem cell pathways, and genome instability. CtBP expression induces mesenchymal and stem cell-like features while CtBP depletion or caloric restriction reverses gene repression and increases DNA repair. Multiple members of the CtBP-targeted gene network are selectively down-regulated in aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Differential expression of CtBP-targeted genes predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients, and elevated levels of CtBP in patient tumors predict shorter median survival. Finally, both CtBP promoter targeting and gene repression can be reversed by small molecule inhibition. These findings define broad roles for CtBP in breast cancer biology and suggest novel chromatin-based strategies for pharmacologic and metabolic intervention in cancer. PMID:23385593

  11. Word Reading Fluency: Role of Genome-Wide Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Developmental Stability and Correlations With Print Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Harlaar, Nicole; Dale, Philip S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The genetic effects on individual differences in reading development were examined using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) in a twin sample. In unrelated individuals (one twin per pair, n = 2,942), the GCTA-based heritability of reading fluency was ~20%-29% at ages 7 and 12. GCTA bivariate results showed that the phenotypic stability of reading fluency from 7 to 12 years (r = 0.69) is largely driven by genetic stability (genetic r = 0.69). Genetic effects on print exposure at age 12 were moderate (~26%) and correlated with those influencing reading fluency at 12 (genetic r = 0.89), indicative of a gene–environment correlation. These findings were largely consistent with quantitative genetic twin analyses that used both twins in each pair (n = 1,066-1,409). PMID:24392801

  12. New functions of Ctf18-RFC in preserving genome stability outside its role in sister chromatid cohesion.

    PubMed

    Gellon, Lionel; Razidlo, David F; Gleeson, Olive; Verra, Lauren; Schulz, Danae; Lahue, Robert S; Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2011-02-10

    Expansion of DNA trinucleotide repeats causes at least 15 hereditary neurological diseases, and these repeats also undergo contraction and fragility. Current models to explain this genetic instability invoke erroneous DNA repair or aberrant replication. Here we show that CAG/CTG tracts are stabilized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the alternative clamp loader/unloader Ctf18-Dcc1-Ctf8-RFC complex (Ctf18-RFC). Mutants in Ctf18-RFC increased all three forms of triplet repeat instability--expansions, contractions, and fragility--with effect over a wide range of allele lengths from 20-155 repeats. Ctf18-RFC predominated among the three alternative clamp loaders, with mutants in Elg1-RFC or Rad24-RFC having less effect on trinucleotide repeats. Surprisingly, chl1, scc1-73, or scc2-4 mutants defective in sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) did not increase instability, suggesting that Ctf18-RFC protects triplet repeats independently of SCC. Instead, three results suggest novel roles for Ctf18-RFC in facilitating genomic stability. First, genetic instability in mutants of Ctf18-RFC was exacerbated by simultaneous deletion of the fork stabilizer Mrc1, but suppressed by deletion of the repair protein Rad52. Second, single-cell analysis showed that mutants in Ctf18-RFC had a slowed S phase and a striking G2/M accumulation, often with an abnormal multi-budded morphology. Third, ctf18 cells exhibit increased Rad52 foci in S phase, often persisting into G2, indicative of high levels of DNA damage. The presence of a repeat tract greatly magnified the ctf18 phenotypes. Together these results indicate that Ctf18-RFC has additional important functions in preserving genome stability, besides its role in SCC, which we propose include lesion bypass by replication forks and post-replication repair.

  13. The causes of replication stress and their consequences on genome stability and cell fate.

    PubMed

    Magdalou, Indiana; Lopez, Bernard S; Pasero, Philippe; Lambert, Sarah A E

    2014-06-01

    Alterations of the dynamics of DNA replication cause genome instability. These alterations known as "replication stress" have emerged as a major source of genomic instability in pre-neoplasic lesions, contributing to cancer development. The concept of replication stress covers a wide variety of events that distort the temporal and spatial DNA replication program. These events have endogenous or exogenous origins and impact globally or locally on the dynamics of DNA replication. They may arise within a short window of time (acute stress) or during each S phase (chronic stress). Here, we review the known situations in which the dynamics of DNA replication is distorted. We have united them in four main categories: (i) inadequate firing of replication origins (deficiency or excess), (ii) obstacles to fork progression, (iii) conflicts between replication and transcription and (iv) DNA replication under inappropriate metabolic conditions (unbalanced DNA replication). Because the DNA replication program is a process tightly regulated by many factors, replication stress often appears as a cascade of events. A local stress may prevent the completion of DNA replication at a single locus and subsequently compromise chromosome segregation in mitosis and therefore have a global effect on genome integrity. Finally, we discuss how replication stress drives genome instability and to what extent it is relevant to cancer biology.

  14. The role of DNA helicases and their interaction partners in genome stability and meiotic recombination in plants.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Alexander; Puchta, Holger

    2011-03-01

    DNA helicases are enzymes that are able to unwind DNA by the use of the energy-equivalent ATP. They play essential roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, and DNA recombination in all organisms. As homologous recombination occurs in somatic and meiotic cells, the same proteins may participate in both processes, albeit not necessarily with identical functions. DNA helicases involved in genome stability and meiotic recombination are the focus of this review. The role of these enzymes and their characterized interaction partners in plants will be summarized. Although most factors are conserved in eukaryotes, plant-specific features are becoming apparent. In the RecQ helicase family, Arabidopsis thaliana RECQ4A has been shown before to be the functional homologue of the well-researched baker's yeast Sgs1 and human BLM proteins. It was surprising to find that its interaction partners AtRMI1 and AtTOP3α are absolutely essential for meiotic recombination in plants, where they are central factors of a formerly underappreciated dissolution step of recombination intermediates. In the expanding group of anti-recombinases, future analysis of plant helicases is especially promising. While no FBH1 homologue is present, the Arabidopsis genome contains homologues of both SRS2 and RTEL1. Yeast and mammals, on the other hand. only possess homologues of either one or the other of these helicases. Plants also contain several other classes of helicases that are known from other organisms to be involved in the preservation of genome stability: FANCM is conserved with parts of the human Fanconi anaemia proteins, as are homologues of the Swi2/Snf2 family and of PIF1.

  15. European Chlamydia abortus livestock isolate genomes reveal unusual stability and limited diversity, reflected in geographical signatures.

    PubMed

    Seth-Smith, H M B; Busó, Leonor Sánchez; Livingstone, M; Sait, M; Harris, S R; Aitchison, K D; Vretou, Evangelia; Siarkou, V I; Laroucau, K; Sachse, K; Longbottom, D; Thomson, N R

    2017-05-04

    Chlamydia abortus (formerly Chlamydophila abortus) is an economically important livestock pathogen, causing ovine enzootic abortion (OEA), and can also cause zoonotic infections in humans affecting pregnancy outcome. Large-scale genomic studies on other chlamydial species are giving insights into the biology of these organisms but have not yet been performed on C. abortus. Our aim was to investigate a broad collection of European isolates of C. abortus, using next generation sequencing methods, looking at diversity, geographic distribution and genome dynamics. Whole genome sequencing was performed on our collection of 57 C. abortus isolates originating primarily from the UK, Germany, France and Greece, but also from Tunisia, Namibia and the USA. Phylogenetic analysis of a total of 64 genomes shows a deep structural division within the C. abortus species with a major clade displaying limited diversity, in addition to a branch carrying two more distantly related Greek isolates, LLG and POS. Within the major clade, seven further phylogenetic groups can be identified, demonstrating geographical associations. The number of variable nucleotide positions across the sampled isolates is significantly lower than those published for C. trachomatis and C. psittaci. No recombination was identified within C. abortus, and no plasmid was found. Analysis of pseudogenes showed lineage specific loss of some functions, notably with several Pmp and TMH/Inc proteins predicted to be inactivated in many of the isolates studied. The diversity within C. abortus appears to be much lower compared to other species within the genus. There are strong geographical signatures within the phylogeny, indicating clonal expansion within areas of limited livestock transport. No recombination has been identified within this species, showing that different species of Chlamydia may demonstrate different evolutionary dynamics, and that the genome of C. abortus is highly stable.

  16. DNA-PK-mediated phosphorylation of EZH2 regulates the DNA damage-induced apoptosis to maintain T-cell genomic integrity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Sun, H; Wang, J; Wang, H; Meng, L; Xu, C; Jin, M; Wang, B; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhu, T

    2016-01-01

    EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase whose functions in stem cells and tumor cells are well established. Accumulating evidence shows that EZH2 has critical roles in T cells and could be a promising therapeutic target for several immune diseases. To further reveal the novel functions of EZH2 in human T cells, protein co-immunoprecipitation combined mass spectrometry was conducted and several previous unknown EZH2-interacting proteins were identified. Of them, we focused on a DNA damage responsive protein, Ku80, because of the limited knowledge regarding EZH2 in the DNA damage response. Then, we demonstrated that instead of being methylated by EZH2, Ku80 bridges the interaction between the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex and EZH2, thus facilitating EZH2 phosphorylation. Moreover, EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity was enhanced when Ku80 was knocked down or DNA-PK activity was inhibited, suggesting DNA-PK-mediated EZH2 phosphorylation impairs EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. On the other hand, EZH2 inhibition increased the DNA damage level at the late phase of T-cell activation, suggesting EZH2 involved in genomic integrity maintenance. In conclusion, our study is the first to demonstrate that EZH2 is phosphorylated by the DNA damage responsive complex DNA-PK and regulates DNA damage-mediated T-cell apoptosis, which reveals a novel functional crosstalk between epigenetic regulation and genomic integrity. PMID:27468692

  17. Sirtuins in Cancer: a Balancing Act between Genome Stability and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seung Min; Haigis, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic instability and altered metabolism are key features of most cancers. Recent studies suggest that metabolic reprogramming is part of a systematic response to cellular DNA damage. Thus, defining the molecules that fine-tune metabolism in response to DNA damage will enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and have profound implications for the development of strategies for cancer therapy. Sirtuins have been established as critical regulators in cellular homeostasis and physiology. Here, we review the emerging data revealing a pivotal function of sirtuins in genome maintenance and cell metabolism, and highlight current advances about the phenotypic consequences of defects in these critical regulators in tumorigenesis. While many questions should be addressed about the regulation and context-dependent functions of sirtuins, it appears clear that sirtuins may provide a promising, exciting new avenue for cancer therapy. PMID:26420294

  18. The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA–protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA–protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability. PMID:22426535

  19. A LC3-interacting motif in the influenza A virus M2 protein is required to subvert autophagy and maintain virion stability.

    PubMed

    Beale, Rupert; Wise, Helen; Stuart, Amanda; Ravenhill, Benjamin J; Digard, Paul; Randow, Felix

    2014-02-12

    Autophagy recycles cellular components and defends cells against intracellular pathogens. While viruses must evade autophagocytic destruction, some viruses can also subvert autophagy for their own benefit. The ability of influenza A virus (IAV) to evade autophagy depends on the Matrix 2 (M2) ion-channel protein. We show that the cytoplasmic tail of IAV M2 interacts directly with the essential autophagy protein LC3 and promotes LC3 relocalization to the unexpected destination of the plasma membrane. LC3 binding is mediated by a highly conserved LC3-interacting region (LIR) in M2. The M2 LIR is required for LC3 redistribution to the plasma membrane in virus-infected cells. Mutations in M2 that abolish LC3 binding interfere with filamentous budding and reduce virion stability. IAV therefore subverts autophagy by mimicking a host short linear protein-protein interaction motif. This strategy may facilitate transmission of infection between organisms by enhancing the stability of viral progeny.

  20. Impaired genomic stability and increased oxidative stress exacerbate different features of Ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Shelly; Brenner, Ori; Amariglio, Ninette; Smorodinsky, Nechama I; Galron, Ronit; Carrion, Danaise V; Zhang, Weijia; Sharma, Girdhar G; Pandita, Raj K; Agarwal, Manjula; Elkon, Ran; Katzin, Nirit; Bar-Am, Irit; Pandita, Tej K; Kucherlapati, Raju; Rechavi, Gideon; Shiloh, Yosef; Barzilai, Ari

    2005-10-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a multisystem, cancer-predisposing genetic disorder caused by deficiency of the ATM protein. To dissect the A-T phenotype, we augmented specific features of the human disease by generating mouse strains that combine Atm deficiency with dysfunction of other proteins. Increasing oxidative stress by combining deficiencies in Atm and superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1) exacerbated growth retardation and markedly reduced the mean survival time following ionizing radiation. In contrast, increasing genomic instability by combining deficiencies of Atm and the mismatch repair protein Mlh1 caused a moderate increase in radiation sensitivity and dramatic increase in aggressive lymphomas, compared with thes Atm-/- single knockout. Remarkably, Atm, Mlh1 or Mlh1/Atm single or double heterozygosity did not significantly affect the life span of the various genotypes. Mlh1/Atm double null tumors were polyclonal, whereas the tumors in other genotypes were mono- or oligoclonal, demonstrating the high predisposition of thymocytes with this genotype to become malignant. Chromosomal aberrations in the tumors were localized mainly in chromosomes 12 and 15. The genomic region on chromosome 15, which contains the gene for the c-Myc oncoprotein, was commonly amplified, and elevated levels of the c-Myc protein were subsequently observed in the tumors. Our data suggest that impaired genomic instability is an important contributing factor to cancer predisposition in A-T, whereas oxidative stress is more important in the radiation sensitivity and growth retardation facets of this disease.

  1. Relative genomic stability of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells: analysis of ploidy, H19 long non-coding RNA and p53 activity.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Orly; Shoshani, Ofer; Sela, Meirav; Weinstock, Ada; Sadan, Tommy Weiss; Gur, Eyal; Zipori, Dov; Shani, Nir

    2014-12-17

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent and have been derived from various tissues. Although MSCs share many basic features, they often display subtle tissue specific differences. We previously demonstrated that bone marrow (BM) MSCs frequently become polyploid in culture. This tendency was mediated by a reduction in the expression of H19 long non-coding RNA during the transition from a diploid to a polyploid state. MSCs were derived from both BM and adipose tissue of mice and expanded under normoxic and hypoxic culture conditions. Cells were stained by propidium iodide and their ploidy was evaluated by FACS. Gene expression of independent MSC preparations was compared by quantitative real time PCR and protein expression levels by Western blot analysis. p53 silencing in MSCs was performed by a specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA). We set to examine whether genomic instability is common to MSCs originating from different tissues. It is demonstrated that adipose derived MSCs (ASCs) tend to remain diploid during culture while a vast majority of BM MSCs become polyploid. The diploid phenotype of ASCs is correlated with reduced H19 expression compared to BM MSCs. Under hypoxic conditions (3% oxygen) both ASCs and BM MSCs demonstrate increased RNA expression of H19 and Vascular endothelial growth factor A. Importantly, ASC gene expression is significantly less variable than BM MSCs under both oxygen conditions, indicating to their superior homogeneity. Gene expression analysis revealed that p53 target genes, often induced by DNA damage, are up-regulated in ASCs under basal conditions. However, p53 activation following treatment with DNA damaging agents was strongly elevated in BM MSCs compared to ASCs. We found that p53 is involved in maintaining the stable diploid state of ASCs as p53 shRNA induced ploidy changes in ASCs but not in BM MSCs. The increased genomic stability of murine ASCs together with their lower H19 expression and relative homogeneity suggest a

  2. CAPNS1 Regulates USP1 Stability and Maintenance of Genome Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Francesca; Peche, Leticia Y.; Klaric, Enio; Brancolini, Claudio; Myers, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Calpains regulate a wide spectrum of biological functions, including migration, adhesion, apoptosis, secretion, and autophagy, through the modulating cleavage of specific substrates. Ubiquitous microcalpain (μ-calpain) and millicalpain (m-calpain) are heterodimers composed of catalytic subunits encoded, respectively, by CAPN1 and CAPN2 and a regulatory subunit encoded by CAPNS1. Here we show that calpain is required for the stability of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP1 in several cell lines. USP1 modulates DNA replication polymerase choice and repair by deubiquitinating PCNA. The ubiquitinated form of the USP1 substrate PCNA is stabilized in CAPNS1-depleted U2OS cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), favoring polymerase-η loading on chromatin and increased mutagenesis. USP1 degradation directed by the cell cycle regulator APC/Ccdh1, which marks USP1 for destruction in the G1 phase, is upregulated in CAPNS1-depleted cells. USP1 stability can be rescued upon forced expression of calpain-activated Cdk5/p25, previously reported as a cdh1 repressor. These data suggest that calpain stabilizes USP1 by activating Cdk5, which in turn inhibits cdh1 and, consequently, USP1 degradation. Altogether these findings point to a connection between the calpain system and the ubiquitin pathway in the regulation of DNA damage response and place calpain at the interface between cell cycle modulation and DNA repair. PMID:23589330

  3. Genomic stability of Palmer amaranth plants derived by macro-vegetative propagation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Q-PCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were utilized to investigate genetic stability of Palmer amaranth cloned plants over 10 generations. Q-PCR analysis of DNA from parent Palmer amaranth plants was repeated and confidence levels for determining ...

  4. Maintenance of Genomic Stability in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells: Relevance in Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Giachino, Claudia; Orlando, Luca; Turinetto, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) rely on a distinctive genome caretaking network. In this review, we will discuss how mESCs functionally respond to DNA damage and describe several modifications in mESC DNA damage response, which accommodate dynamic cycling and preservation of genetic information. Subsequently, we will discuss how the transition from mESCs to adult stem/progenitor cells can be involved in the decline of tissue integrity and function in the elderly. PMID:23358251

  5. Formin-mediated actin polymerization at cell–cell junctions stabilizes E-cadherin and maintains monolayer integrity during wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Megha Vaman; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Cadherin-mediated cell–cell adhesion is required for epithelial tissue integrity in homeostasis, during development, and in tissue repair. E-cadherin stability depends on F-actin, but the mechanisms regulating actin polymerization at cell–cell junctions remain poorly understood. Here we investigated a role for formin-mediated actin polymerization at cell–cell junctions. We identify mDia1 and Fmnl3 as major factors enhancing actin polymerization and stabilizing E-cadherin at epithelial junctions. Fmnl3 localizes to adherens junctions downstream of Src and Cdc42 and its depletion leads to a reduction in F-actin and E-cadherin at junctions and a weakening of cell–cell adhesion. Of importance, Fmnl3 expression is up-regulated and junctional localization increases during collective cell migration. Depletion of Fmnl3 or mDia1 in migrating monolayers results in dissociation of leader cells and impaired wound repair. In summary, our results show that formin activity at epithelial cell–cell junctions is important for adhesion and the maintenance of epithelial cohesion during dynamic processes, such as wound repair. PMID:27440924

  6. Hsp90 transcriptionally and post-translationally regulates the expression of NDRG1 and maintains the stability of its modifying kinase GSK3beta.

    PubMed

    Banz, Vanessa M; Medová, Michaela; Keogh, Adrian; Furer, Cynthia; Zimmer, Yitzhak; Candinas, Daniel; Stroka, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NRDG1) is a stress-induced protein whose putative function is suppression of tumor metastasis. A recent proteonomic study showed NDRG1 interacts with the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). From their reported association, we investigated if NDRG1 is dependent on Hsp90 for its stability and is therefore a yet unidentified Hsp90 client protein. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous NDRG1 and Hsp90 physically associate in hepatocellular cancer cell lines. However, geldanamycin (GA)-mediated inhibition of Hsp90 did not disrupt their interaction or result in NDRG1 protein destabilization. On the contrary, inhibition of Hsp90 led to a transcriptional increase of NDRG1 protein which was associated with cell growth arrest. We also observed that GA inhibited the phosphorylation of NDRG1 by targeting its regulating kinases, serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3beta). We demonstrate that in the presence of GA, GSK3beta protein and activity were decreased thus indicating that Hsp90 is necessary for GSK3beta stability. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NDRG1 is not a classic client protein but interacts with Hsp90 and is still dually regulated by Hsp90 at a transcriptional and post-translational level. Finally, we suggest for the first time GSK3beta as a new client protein of Hsp90.

  7. Modifiers and Readers of DNA Modifications and Their Impact on Genome Structure, Expression, and Stability in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Anne K.; Zhang, Peng; Cardoso, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine base modifications in mammals underwent a recent expansion with the addition of several naturally occurring further modifications of methylcytosine in the last years. This expansion was accompanied by the identification of the respective enzymes and proteins reading and translating the different modifications into chromatin higher order organization as well as genome activity and stability, leading to the hypothesis of a cytosine code. Here, we summarize the current state-of-the-art on DNA modifications, the enzyme families setting the cytosine modifications and the protein families reading and translating the different modifications with emphasis on the mouse protein homologs. Throughout this review, we focus on functional and mechanistic studies performed on mammalian cells, corresponding mouse models and associated human diseases. PMID:27446199

  8. Dietary Vitamin D and Its Metabolites Non-Genomically Stabilize the Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weiquan; Bowman-Kirigin, Jay A.; Walker, Ashley E.; Tai, Zhengfu; Thomas, Kirk R.; Donato, Anthony J.; Lesniewski, Lisa A.; Li, Dean Y.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a known modulator of inflammation. Native dietary vitamin D3 is thought to be bio-inactive, and beneficial vitamin D3 effects are thought to be largely mediated by the metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3. Reduced serum levels of the most commonly measured precursor metabolite, 25(OH)D3, is linked to an increased risk of multiple inflammatory diseases, including: cardiovascular disease, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and sepsis. Common to all of these diseases is the disruption of endothelial stability and an enhancement of vascular leak. We previously performed an unbiased chemical suppressor screen on a genetic model of vascular instability, and identified cholecalciferol (D3, dietary Vitamin D3) as a factor that had profound and immediate stabilizing and therapeutic effects in that model. In this manuscript we show that the presumed inactive sterol, D3, is actually a potent and general mediator of endothelial stability at physiologically relevant concentrations. We further demonstrate that this phenomenon is apparent in vitamin D3 metabolites 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3, and that the effects are independent of the canonical transcription-mediated vitamin D pathway. Our data suggests the presence of an alternative signaling modality by which D3 acts directly on endothelial cells to prevent vascular leak. The finding that D3 and its metabolites modulate endothelial stability may help explain the clinical correlations between low serum vitamin D levels and the many human diseases with well-described vascular dysfunction phenotypes. PMID:26469335

  9. Effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on human rotavirus infectivity and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bin; Jin, Min; Yang, Dong; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Zhaoli; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xinwei; Qiu, Zhigang; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Junwen

    2013-06-15

    Despite the health risks posed by waterborne human rotavirus (HRV), little information is available concerning the effectiveness of chlorine or chlorine dioxide (ClO2), two common disinfectants of public water sources, against HRV and their effects on its genome remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of chlorine and ClO2 on purified HRV by using cell culture and RT-PCR to assess virus infectivity and genetic integrity, respectively. The disinfection efficacy of ClO2 was found to be higher than that of chlorine. According to the efficiency factor Hom model, Ct value (mg/L min) ranges required for a 4-log reduction of HRV at 20 °C by chlorine and ClO2 were 5.55-5.59 and 1.21-2.47 mg/L min, respectively. Detection of the 11 HRV genome segments revealed that damage to the 1227-2354 bp of the VP4 gene was associated with the disappearance of viral infectivity by chlorine. However, no complete accordance between culturing and RT-PCR assays was observed after treatment of HRV with ClO2. These results collectively indicate that the current practice of chlorine disinfection may be inadequate to manage the risk of waterborne HRV infection, and offer the potential to monitor the infectivity of HRV adapting PCR-based protocols in chlorine disinfection.

  10. Stability of a Pseudomonas putida KT2440 bacteriophage-carried genomic island and its impact on rhizosphere fitness.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Jose M; Soriano, María Isabel; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    The stability of seven genomic islands of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 with predicted potential for mobilization was studied in bacterial populations associated with the rhizosphere of corn plants by multiplex PCR. DNA rearrangements were detected for only one of them (GI28), which was lost at high frequency. This genomic island of 39.4 kb, with 53 open reading frames, shows the characteristic organization of genes belonging to tailed phages. We present evidence indicating that it corresponds to the lysogenic state of a functional bacteriophage that we have designated Pspu28. Integrated and rarely excised forms of Pspu28 coexist in KT2440 populations. Pspu28 is self-transmissible, and an excisionase is essential for its removal from the bacterial chromosome. The excised Pspu28 forms a circular element that can integrate into the chromosome at a specific location, att sites containing a 17-bp direct repeat sequence. Excision/insertion of Pspu28 alters the promoter sequence and changes the expression level of PP_1531, which encodes a predicted arsenate reductase. Finally, we show that the presence of Pspu28 in the lysogenic state has a negative effect on bacterial fitness in the rhizosphere under conditions of intraspecific competition, thus explaining why clones having lost this mobile element are recovered from that environment.

  11. Roles of POLD4, smallest subunit of DNA polymerase {delta}, in nuclear structures and genomic stability of human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qin Miao; Akashi, Tomohiro; Masuda, Yuji; Kamiya, Kenji; Takahashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Motoshi

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian DNA polymerase {delta} (pol {delta}) is essential for DNA replication, though the functions of this smallest subunit of POLD4 have been elusive. We investigated pol {delta} activities in vitro and found that it was less active in the absence of POLD4, irrespective of the presence of the accessory protein PCNA. shRNA-mediated reduction of POLD4 resulted in a marked decrease in colony formation activity by Calu6, ACC-LC-319, and PC-10 cells. We also found that POLD4 reduction was associated with an increased population of karyomere-like cells, which may be an indication of DNA replication stress and/or DNA damage. The karyomere-like cells retained an ability to progress through the cell cycle, suggesting that POLD4 reduction induces modest genomic instability, while allowing cells to grow until DNA damage reaches an intolerant level. Our results indicate that POLD4 is required for the in vitro pol {delta} activity, and that it functions in cell proliferation and maintenance of genomic stability of human cells.

  12. Parkin Regulates Mitosis and Genomic Stability through Cdc20/Cdh1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Baek; Kim, Jung Jin; Nam, Hyun-Ja; Gao, Bowen; Yin, Ping; Qin, Bo; Yi, Sang-Yeop; Ham, Hyoungjun; Evans, Debra; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Min; Liu, Tongzheng; Zhang, Haoxing; Billadeau, Daniel D; Wang, Liewei; Giaime, Emilie; Shen, Jie; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Jen, Jin; van Deursen, Jan M; Lou, Zhenkun

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin have been linked to familial Parkinson's disease. Parkin has also been implicated in mitosis through mechanisms that are unclear. Here we show that Parkin interacts with anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) coactivators Cdc20 and Cdh1 to mediate the degradation of several key mitotic regulators independent of APC/C. We demonstrate that ordered progression through mitosis is orchestrated by two distinct E3 ligases through the shared use of Cdc20 and Cdh1. Furthermore, Parkin is phosphorylated and activated by polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) during mitosis. Parkin deficiency results in overexpression of its substrates, mitotic defects, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. These results suggest that the Parkin-Cdc20/Cdh1 complex is an important regulator of mitosis.

  13. Genomic Stability of Lyophilized Sheep Somatic Cells before and after Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Iuso, Domenico; Czernik, Marta; Di Egidio, Fiorella; Sampino, Silvestre; Zacchini, Federica; Bochenek, Michal; Smorag, Zdzislaw; Modlinski, Jacek A.; Ptak, Grazyna; Loi, Pasqualino

    2013-01-01

    The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT). Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT. PMID:23308098

  14. Genomic stability of lyophilized sheep somatic cells before and after nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Iuso, Domenico; Czernik, Marta; Di Egidio, Fiorella; Sampino, Silvestre; Zacchini, Federica; Bochenek, Michal; Smorag, Zdzislaw; Modlinski, Jacek A; Ptak, Grazyna; Loi, Pasqualino

    2013-01-01

    The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT). Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT.

  15. The characterization of an intestine-like genomic signature maintained during Barrett’s-associated adenocarcinogenesis reveals an NR5A2-mediated promotion of cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Shane P.; Behan, Fiona M.; Kirca, Murat; Zaheer, Abdul; McGarrigle, Sarah A.; Reynolds, John V.; Vaz, Gisela M. F.; Senge, Mathias O.; Kelleher, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s oesophagus (BO), an intestinal-type metaplasia (IM), typically arising in conjunction with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, is a prominent risk factor for the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). The molecular similarities between IM and normal intestinal tissues are ill-defined. Consequently, the contribution of intestine-enriched factors expressed within BO to oncogenesis is unclear. Herein, using transcriptomics we define the intestine-enriched genes expressed in meta-profiles of BO and OAC. Interestingly, 77% of the genes differentially expressed in a meta-profile of BO were similarly expressed in intestinal tissues. Furthermore, 85% of this intestine-like signature was maintained upon transition to OAC. Gene networking analysis of transcription factors within this signature revealed a network centred upon NR5A2, GATA6 and FOXA2, whose over-expression was determined in a cohort of BO and OAC patients. Simulated acid reflux was observed to induce the expression of both NR5A2 and GATA6. Using siRNA-mediated silencing and an NR5A2 antagonist we demonstrate that NR5A2-mediated cancer cell survival is facilitated through augmentation of GATA6 and anti-apoptotic factor BCL-XL levels. Abrogation of NR5A2-GATA6 expression in conjunction with BCL-XL co-silencing resulted in synergistically increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and photo-dynamic therapeutics. These findings characterize the intestine-like signature associated with IM which may have important consequences to adenocarcinogenesis. PMID:27586588

  16. Computational methods and evaluation of RNA stabilization reagents for genome-wide expression studies.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Arvind A; Phadke, Ravindra P; Wheeler, David; Kalantre, Sagar; Gudipati, Mohanram; Bhagwat, Medha

    2003-11-01

    Gene expression studies require high quality messenger RNA (mRNA) in addition to other factors such as efficient primers and labeling reagents. To prevent RNA degradation and to improve the quality of gene array expression data, several commercial reagents have become available. We examined a conventional hot-phenol lysis method and RNA stabilization reagents, and generated comparative gene expression profiles from Escherichia coli cells grown on minimal medium. Our data indicate that certain RNA stabilization reagents induce stress responses and proper caution must be exercised during their use. We observed that the laboratory reagent (phenol/EtOH, 5:95, v/v) worked efficiently in isolating high quality mRNA and reproducibility was such that reliable gene expression profiles were generated. To assist in the analysis of gene expression data, we wrote a number of macros that use the most recent gene annotation and process data in accordance with gene function. Scripts were also written to examine the occurrence of artifacts, based on GC content, length of the individual open reading frame (ORF), its distribution on plus and minus DNA strands, and the distance from the replication origin.

  17. Deciphering the characteristics of soybean oleosome-associated protein in maintaining the stability of oleosomes as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Qi, Baokun; Ding, Jian; Wang, Zhongjiang; Li, Yang; Ma, Chuanguo; Chen, Fusheng; Sui, Xiaonan; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2017-10-01

    The understanding of the behavior of natural oleosomes is very important for leading to advancements in liposome manufacturing. Thus, the aims of this work was to evaluate the stable behaviors of oleosomes with regards to a wide pH range (2.0-11.0) using soybean oleosomes. The conformation changes and surface hydrophobicity of soybean oleosome-associated protein, and as well as ζ-potential and particle size distribution of oleosome were investigated. The particle size and ζ-potential of oleosomes, and surface hydrophobicity of oleosome-associated proteins were found to be readily affected by pHs. The secondary structure of oleosome-associated proteins was more susceptible to alkaline treatment than acidic treatment. The most stable oleosomes suspension was occurred at pH9.0. The electrostatic repulsion and hydrophobic interaction simultaneously affected the stability of oleosome. At pH2.0 to 6.0, acidic treatment did not significantly change the secondary structure of oleosome-associated proteins. With an increased treatment pH of 8.0-11.0, the contents of α-helix and random coil structures of oleosome-associated proteins decreased, while the amount of β-sheet structures increased. Results highlighted the interesting fact that the aggregation of oleosomes occurring at different pHs was attributed to the synergistic effects between conformation changes and interaction properties of oleosome-associated proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular chaperone Hsp90 stabilizes Pih1/Nop17 to maintain R2TP complex activity that regulates snoRNA accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rongmin; Kakihara, Yoshito; Gribun, Anna; Huen, Jennifer; Yang, Guocheng; Khanna, May; Costanzo, Michael; Brost, Renée L.; Boone, Charles; Hughes, Timothy R.; Yip, Christopher M.; Houry, Walid A.

    2008-01-01

    Hsp90 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that is involved in modulating a multitude of cellular processes. In this study, we identify a function for the chaperone in RNA processing and maintenance. This functionality of Hsp90 involves two recently identified interactors of the chaperone: Tah1 and Pih1/Nop17. Tah1 is a small protein containing tetratricopeptide repeats, whereas Pih1 is found to be an unstable protein. Tah1 and Pih1 bind to the essential helicases Rvb1 and Rvb2 to form the R2TP complex, which we demonstrate is required for the correct accumulation of box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins. Together with the Tah1 cofactor, Hsp90 functions to stabilize Pih1. As a consequence, the chaperone is shown to affect box C/D accumulation and maintenance, especially under stress conditions. Hsp90 and R2TP proteins are also involved in the proper accumulation of box H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs. PMID:18268103

  19. HDAC1/2-Dependent P0 Expression Maintains Paranodal and Nodal Integrity Independently of Myelin Stability through Interactions with Neurofascins

    PubMed Central

    Brügger, Valérie; Engler, Stefanie; Pereira, Jorge A.; Ruff, Sophie; Horn, Michael; Welzl, Hans; Münger, Emmanuelle; Vaquié, Adrien; Sidiropoulos, Páris N. M.; Egger, Boris; Yotovski, Peter; Filgueira, Luis; Somandin, Christian; Lühmann, Tessa C.; D’Antonio, Maurizio; Yamaguchi, Teppei; Matthias, Patrick; Suter, Ueli; Jacob, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies in adults is linked to maintenance mechanisms that are not well understood. Here, we elucidate a novel critical maintenance mechanism for Schwann cell (SC)–axon interaction. Using mouse genetics, ablation of the transcriptional regulators histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) in adult SCs severely affected paranodal and nodal integrity and led to demyelination/remyelination. Expression levels of the HDAC1/2 target gene myelin protein zero (P0) were reduced by half, accompanied by altered localization and stability of neurofascin (NFasc)155, NFasc186, and loss of Caspr and septate-like junctions. We identify P0 as a novel binding partner of NFasc155 and NFasc186, both in vivo and by in vitro adhesion assay. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HDAC1/2-dependent P0 expression is crucial for the maintenance of paranodal/nodal integrity and axonal function through interaction of P0 with neurofascins. In addition, we show that the latter mechanism is impaired by some P0 mutations that lead to late onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. PMID:26406915

  20. Low-level laser irradiation alters mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajano, L. A. S. N.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Silva, C. L.; Carvalho, L.; Mencalha, A. L.; Stumbo, A. C.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Low-level lasers are used for the treatment of diseases in soft and bone tissues, but few data are available regarding their effects on genomic stability. In this study, we investigated mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts exposed to low-level infrared laser. C2C12 myoblast cultures in different fetal bovine serum concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (10, 35 and 70 J cm-2), and collected for the evaluation of DNA repair gene expression. Laser exposure increased gene expression related to base excision repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1), nucleotide excision repair (excision repair cross-complementation group 1 and xeroderma pigmentosum C protein) and genomic stabilization (ATM serine/threonine kinase and tumor protein p53) in normal and low fetal bovine serum concentrations. Results suggest that genomic stability could be part of a biostimulation effect of low-level laser therapy in injured muscles.

  1. Transcription as a source of genome instability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nayun; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in genome sequence and structure contribute to somatic disease, affect the fitness of subsequent generations and drive evolutionary processes. The critical roles of highly accurate replication and efficient repair in maintaining overall genome integrity are well known, but the more localized stability costs associated with transcribing DNA into RNA molecules are less appreciated. Here we review the diverse ways that the essential process of transcription alters the underlying DNA template and thereby modifies the genetic landscape. PMID:22330764

  2. Heterochromatic genome stability requires regulators of histone H3 K9 methylation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jamy C; Karpen, Gary H

    2009-03-01

    Heterochromatin contains many repetitive DNA elements and few protein-encoding genes, yet it is essential for chromosome organization and inheritance. Here, we show that Drosophila that lack the Su(var)3-9 H3K9 methyltransferase display significantly elevated frequencies of spontaneous DNA damage in heterochromatin, in both somatic and germ-line cells. Accumulated DNA damage in these mutants correlates with chromosomal defects, such as translocations and loss of heterozygosity. DNA repair and mitotic checkpoints are also activated in mutant animals and are required for their viability. Similar effects of lower magnitude were observed in animals that lack the RNA interference pathway component Dcr2. These results suggest that the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways ensure heterochromatin stability.

  3. A Chaperone-Assisted Degradation Pathway Targets Kinetochore Proteins to Ensure Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Kriegenburg, Franziska; Jakopec, Visnja; Poulsen, Esben G.; Nielsen, Sofie Vincents; Roguev, Assen; Krogan, Nevan; Gordon, Colin; Fleig, Ursula; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Cells are regularly exposed to stress conditions that may lead to protein misfolding. To cope with this challenge, molecular chaperones selectively target structurally perturbed proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In mammals the co-chaperone BAG-1 plays an important role in this system. BAG-1 has two orthologues, Bag101 and Bag102, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that both Bag101 and Bag102 interact with 26S proteasomes and Hsp70. By epistasis mapping we identify a mutant in the conserved kinetochore component Spc7 (Spc105/Blinkin) as a target for a quality control system that also involves, Hsp70, Bag102, the 26S proteasome, Ubc4 and the ubiquitin-ligases Ubr11 and San1. Accordingly, chromosome missegregation of spc7 mutant strains is alleviated by mutation of components in this pathway. In addition, we isolated a dominant negative version of the deubiquitylating enzyme, Ubp3, as a suppressor of the spc7-23 phenotype, suggesting that the proteasome-associated Ubp3 is required for this degradation system. Finally, our data suggest that the identified pathway is also involved in quality control of other kinetochore components and therefore likely to be a common degradation mechanism to ensure nuclear protein homeostasis and genome integrity. PMID:24497846

  4. The evolution of genomic stability to a mechanism in reproduction and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Pedro-Antonio; Volko, Claus D; Schindler, Adolf E; Rohr, Uwe D

    2017-01-01

    There are two forms of immune defense, the specific or adaptive immune defense and the unspecific innate immune defense. Vaccination is utilized against specific bacteria via the adaptive immune system. The innate immunity DNA stress defense is a non-toxic mechanism developed in yeasts and conserved in mammals and in plants. Although the steroidal hormone cascade has overtaken the stress response and allows superfast response via non-genomic receptors, the old innate immunity response is still mediated via the steroidal hormones cascade. The classical drug/receptor model has provided for many solutions, however, in antibiotics, cancer, and in severe mental diseases this model reaches to certain limits. The NIH/Department of Mental Health has developed a new model that shows severe mental diseases may be immune diseases that can be treated by replacing old diseased nerve cells by new healthy nerve cells, where the old innate immunity may be exploited. This means that severe mental diseases are physical diseases. A newly developed model, where modifications of the steroidal hormone cascade help to understand bipolarity, schizophrenia, and PTSD in men and women can be transferred to gynecological hormone modifications in women, where innate immunity is mediated via the same steroidal hormone cascade. Treatment via immune response via the DNA cascade should be developed in cancer, infections and severe mental disease, because foreign cells or diseased cells may be removed by the unspecific innate immunity.

  5. Human Exonuclease 5 Is a Novel Sliding Exonuclease Required for Genome Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Justin L.; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Mayank; Wold, Marc S.; Pandita, Tej K.; Burgers, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we characterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae exonuclease 5 (EXO5), which is required for mitochondrial genome maintenance. Here, we identify the human homolog (C1orf176; EXO5) that functions in the repair of nuclear DNA damage. Human EXO5 (hEXO5) contains an iron-sulfur cluster. It is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-specific bidirectional exonuclease with a strong preference for 5′-ends. After loading at an ssDNA end, hEXO5 slides extensively along the ssDNA prior to cutting, hence the designation sliding exonuclease. However, the single-stranded binding protein human replication protein A (hRPA) restricts sliding and enforces a unique, species-specific 5′-directionality onto hEXO5. This specificity is lost with a mutant form of hRPA (hRPA-t11) that fails to interact with hEXO5. hEXO5 localizes to nuclear repair foci in response to DNA damage, and its depletion in human cells leads to an increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, in particular interstrand cross-linking-inducing agents. Depletion of hEXO5 also results in an increase in spontaneous and damage-induced chromosome abnormalities including the frequency of triradial chromosomes, suggesting an additional defect in the resolution of stalled DNA replication forks in hEXO5-depleted cells. PMID:23095756

  6. Use of high-throughput RT-qPCR to assess modulations of gene expression profiles related to genomic stability and interactions by cadmium.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bettina Maria; Neumann, Daniel; Piberger, Ann Liza; Risnes, Sarah Fremgaard; Köberle, Beate; Hartwig, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Predictive test systems to assess the mode of action of chemical carcinogens are urgently required. Within the present study, we applied the Fluidigm dynamic array on the BioMark™ HD System for quantitative high-throughput RT-qPCR analysis of 95 genes and 96 samples in parallel, selecting genes crucial for maintaining genomic stability, including stress response as well as DNA repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis and mitotic signaling. The specificity of each individually designed sequence-specific primer pair and their respective target amplicons were evaluated via melting curve analysis as part of qPCR and size verification via agarose gel electrophoresis. For each gene, calibration curves displayed high efficiencies and correlation coefficients in the identified linear dynamic range as well as low intra-assay variations. Data were processed via Fluidigm real-time PCR analysis and GenEx software, and results were depicted as relative gene expression according to the ΔΔC q method. Subsequently, gene expression analyses were conducted in cadmium-treated adenocarcinoma A549 and epithelial bronchial BEAS-2B cells. They revealed distinct dose- and time-dependent and also cell-type-specific gene expression patterns, including the induction of genes coding for metallothioneins, the oxidative stress response, cell cycle control, mitotic signaling and apoptosis. Interestingly, while genes coding for the DNA damage response were induced, distinct DNA repair genes were down-regulated at the transcriptional level. Thus, this approach provided a comprehensive overview on the interaction by cadmium with distinct signaling pathways, also reflecting molecular modes of action in cadmium-induced carcinogenicity. Therefore, the test system appears to be a promising tool for toxicological risk assessment.

  7. Living on the Edge: DNA Polymerase Lambda between Genome Stability and Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Barbara; Hübscher, Ulrich; Maga, Giovanni

    2017-09-08

    In human cells, only four DNA polymerases (pols) are necessary and sufficient for the duplication of the genetic information. However, more than a dozen DNA pols are required to maintain its integrity. Such a high degree of specialization makes DNA repair pols able to cope with specific lesions or repair pathways. On the other hand, the same DNA pols can have partially overlapping roles, which could result in possible conflicts of functions, if the DNA pols are not properly regulated. DNA pol λ is a typical example of such an enzyme. It is a multifunctional enzyme, endowed with special structural and biochemical properties, which make it capable of participating in different DNA repair pathways such as base excision repair, nonhomologous end joining, and translesion synthesis. However, when mutated or deregulated, DNA pol λ can also be a source of genetic instability. Its multiple roles in DNA damage tolerance and its ability in promoting tumor progression make it also a possible target for novel anticancer approaches.

  8. The Contribution of Tissue Level Organization to Genomic Stability Following Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Gamma and Proton Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheryl G. Burrell, Ph.D.

    2012-05-14

    The formation of functional tissue units is necessary in maintaining homeostasis within living systems, with individual cells contributing to these functional units through their three-dimensional organization with integrin and adhesion proteins to form a complex extra-cellular matrix (ECM). This is of particular importance in those tissues susceptible to radiation-induced tumor formation, such as epithelial glands. The assembly of epithelial cells of the thyroid is critical to their normal receipt of, and response to, incoming signals. Traditional tissue culture and live animals present significant challenges to radiation exposure and continuous sampling, however, the production of bioreactor-engineered tissues aims to bridge this gap by improve capabilities in continuous sampling from the same functional tissue, thereby increasing the ability to extrapolate changes induced by radiation to animals and humans in vivo. Our study proposes that the level of tissue organization will affect the induction and persistence of low dose radiation-induced genomic instability. Rat thyroid cells, grown in vitro as 3D tissue analogs in bioreactors and as 2D flask grown cultures were exposed to acute low dose (1, 5, 10 and 200 cGy) gamma rays. To assess immediate (6 hours) and delayed (up to 30 days) responses post-irradiation, various biological endpoints were studied including cytogenetic analyses, apoptosis analysis and cell viability/cytotoxicity analyses. Data assessing caspase 3/7 activity levels show that, this activity varies with time post radiation and that, overall, 3D cultures display more genomic instability (as shown by the lower levels of apoptosis over time) when compared to the 2D cultures. Variation in cell viability levels were only observed at the intermediate and late time points post radiation. Extensive analysis of chromosomal aberrations will give further insight on the whether the level of tissue organization influences genomic instability patterns after

  9. Sequence Variability of Borna Disease Virus: Resistance to Superinfection May Contribute to High Genome Stability in Persistently Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Formella, Stephan; Jehle, Christian; Sauder, Christian; Staeheli, Peter; Schwemmle, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The RNA genome of Borna disease virus (BDV) shows extraordinary stability in persistently infected cell cultures. We performed bottleneck experiments in which virus populations from single infected cells were allowed to spread through cultures of uninfected cells and in which RNase protection assays were used to identify virus variants with mutations in a 535-nucleotide fragment of the M-G open reading frames. In one of the cell cultures, the major virus species (designated 2/1) was a variant with two point mutations in the G open reading frame. When fresh cells were infected with a low dose of a virus stock prepared from 2/1-containing cells, only a minority of the resulting persistently infected cultures contained detectable levels of the variant, whereas the others all seemed to contain wild-type virus. The BDV variant 2/1 remained stable in the various persistently infected cell cultures, indicating that the cells were resistant to superinfection by wild-type virus. Indeed, cells persistently infected with prototype BDV He/80 were also found to resist superinfection with strain V and vice versa. Our screen for mutations in the viral M and G genes of different rat-derived BDV virus stocks revealed that only one of four stocks believed to contain He/80 harbored virus with the original sequence. Two stocks mainly contained a novel virus variant with about 3% sequence divergence, whereas the fourth stock contained a mixture of both viruses. When the mixture was inoculated into the brains of newborn mice, the novel variant was preferentially amplified. These results provide evidence that the BDV genome is mutating more frequently than estimated from its invariant appearance in persistently infected cell cultures and that resistance to superinfection might strongly select against novel variants. PMID:10933695

  10. Patterns of cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium in Silene latifolia: genomic heterogeneity and temporal stability

    PubMed Central

    Fields, P D; McCauley, D E; McAssey, E V; Taylor, D R

    2014-01-01

    Non-random association of alleles in the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, or cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD), is both an important component of a number of evolutionary processes and a statistical indicator of others. The evolutionary significance of cyto-nuclear LD will depend on both its magnitude and how stable those associations are through time. Here, we use a longitudinal population genetic data set to explore the magnitude and temporal dynamics of cyto-nuclear disequilibria through time. We genotyped 135 and 170 individuals from 16 and 17 patches of the plant species Silene latifolia in Southwestern VA, sampled in 1993 and 2008, respectively. Individuals were genotyped at 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mitochondrial gene, atp1. Normalized LD (D′) between nuclear and cytoplasmic loci varied considerably depending on which nuclear locus was considered (ranging from 0.005–0.632). Four of the 14 cyto-nuclear associations showed a statistically significant shift over approximately seven generations. However, the overall magnitude of this disequilibrium was largely stable over time. The observed origin and stability of cyto-nuclear LD is most likely caused by the slow admixture between anciently diverged lineages within the species' newly invaded range, and the local spatial structure and metapopulation dynamics that are known to structure genetic variation in this system. PMID:24002238

  11. Promotion of Homologous Recombination and Genomic Stability byRAD51AP1 via RAD51 Recombinase Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, Claudia; Dray, Eloise; Groesser, Torsten; San Filippo,Joseph; Shi, Idina; Collins, David W.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Williams,Gareth; Rydberg, Bjorn; Sung, Patrick; Schild, David

    2007-04-11

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs chromosome damage and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. RAD51 mediates the DNA strand pairing step in HR. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) is a RAD51-interacting protein whose function has remained elusive. Knockdown of RAD51AP1 in human cells by RNA interference engenders sensitivity to different types of genotoxic stress. Moreover, RAD51AP1-depleted cells are impaired for the recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break and exhibit chromatid breaks both spontaneously and upon DNA damaging treatment. Purified RAD51AP1 binds dsDNA and RAD51, and it greatly stimulates the RAD51-mediated D-loop reaction. Biochemical and cytological results show that RAD51AP1 functions at a step subsequent to the assembly of the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament. Our findings provide the first evidence that RAD51AP1 helps maintain genomic integrity via RAD51 recombinase enhancement.

  12. The histone-fold complex MHF is remodeled by FANCM to recognize branched DNA and protect genome stability.

    PubMed

    Fox, David; Yan, Zhijiang; Ling, Chen; Zhao, Ye; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Yang, Wei; Wang, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    Histone-fold proteins typically assemble in multiprotein complexes to bind duplex DNA. However, one histone-fold complex, MHF, associates with Fanconi anemia (FA) protein FANCM to form a branched DNA remodeling complex that senses and repairs stalled replication forks and activates FA DNA damage response network. How the FANCM-MHF complex recognizes branched DNA is unclear. Here, we solved the crystal structure of MHF and its complex with the MHF-interaction domain (referred to as MID) of FANCM, and performed structure-guided mutagenesis. We found that the MID-MHF complex consists of one histone H3-H4-like MHF heterotetramer wrapped by a single polypeptide of MID. We identified a zinc atom-liganding structure at the central interface between MID and MHF that is critical for stabilization of the complex. Notably, the DNA-binding surface of MHF was altered by MID in both electrostatic charges and allosteric conformation. This leads to a switch in the DNA-binding preference - from duplex DNA by MHF alone, to branched DNA by the MID-MHF complex. Mutations that disrupt either the composite DNA-binding surface or the protein-protein interface of the MID-MHF complex impaired activation of the FA network and genome stability. Our data provide the structural basis of how FANCM and MHF work together to recognize branched DNA, and suggest a novel mechanism by which histone-fold complexes can be remodeled by their partners to bind special DNA structures generated during DNA metabolism.

  13. Evidence of two mechanisms involved in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis decreased toxicity against mosquito larvae: Genome dynamic and toxins stability.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Jihen; Zribi Zghal, Raida; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir

    2015-07-01

    Biopesticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis are the most used and most successful around the world. This bacterium is characterized by a dynamic genome able to win or lose genetic materials which leads to a decrease in its effectiveness. The detection of such phenomena is of great importance to monitor the stability of B. thuringiensis strains in industrial production processes of biopesticides. New local B. thuringiensis israelensis isolates were investigated. They present variable levels of delta-endotoxins production and insecticidal activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Searching on the origin of this variability, molecular and biochemical analyses were performed. The obtained results describe two main reasons of the decrease of B. thuringiensis israelensis insecticidal activity. The first reason was the deletion of cry4Aa and cry10Aa genes from the 128-kb pBtoxis plasmid as evidenced in three strains (BLB124, BLB199 and BLB506) among five. The second was the early degradation of Cry toxins by proteases in larvae midgut mainly due to some amino acids substitutions evidenced in Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa δ-endotoxins detected in BLB356. Before biological treatment based on B. thuringiensis israelensis, the studies of microflore in each ecosystem have a great importance to succeed pest management programs.

  14. Redox regulation of genome stability by effects on gene expression, epigenetic pathways and DNA damage/repair

    PubMed Central

    Mikhed, Yuliya; Görlach, Agnes; Knaus, Ulla G.; Daiber, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (e.g. H2O2, nitric oxide) confer redox regulation of essential cellular signaling pathways such as cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis. In addition, classical regulation of gene expression or activity, including gene transcription to RNA followed by translation to the protein level, by transcription factors (e.g. NF-κB, HIF-1α) and mRNA binding proteins (e.g. GAPDH, HuR) is subject to redox regulation. This review will give an update of recent discoveries in this field, and specifically highlight the impact of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species on DNA repair systems that contribute to genomic stability. Emphasis will be placed on the emerging role of redox mechanisms regulating epigenetic pathways (e.g. miRNA, DNA methylation and histone modifications). By providing clinical correlations we discuss how oxidative stress can impact on gene regulation/activity and vise versa, how epigenetic processes, other gene regulatory mechanisms and DNA repair can influence the cellular redox state and contribute or prevent development or progression of disease. PMID:26079210

  15. Regular exercise participation improves genomic stability in diabetic patients: an exploratory study to analyse telomere length and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Dimauro, Ivan; Sgura, Antonella; Pittaluga, Monica; Magi, Fiorenza; Fantini, Cristina; Mancinelli, Rosa; Sgadari, Antonio; Fulle, Stefania; Caporossi, Daniela

    2017-06-23

    Physical activity has been demonstrated to be effective in the prevention and treatment of different chronic conditions, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, several studies highlighted how the beneficial effects of physical activity may be related to the stability of the DNA molecule, such as longer telomeric ends. Here we analyze the effect of exercise training on telomere length, spontaneous and H2O2-induced DNA damage, as well as the apoptosis level in leukocytes from untrained or trained T2D patients vs. age-matched control subjects (CS) (57-66 years). Moreover, expression analysis of selected genes belonging to DNA repair systems, cell cycle control, antioxidant and defence systems was performed. Subjects that participated in a regular exercise program showed a longer telomere sequence than untrained counterparts. Moreover, ex vivo treatment of leukocytes with H2O2 highlighted that: (1) oxidative DNA damage induced similar telomere attrition in all groups; (2) in T2D subjects, physical activity seemed to prevent a significant increase of genomic oxidative DNA damage induced by chronic exposure to pro-oxidant stimulus, and (3) decreased the sensitivity of leukocytes to apoptosis. Finally, the gene expression analysis in T2D subjects suggested an adaptive response to prolonged exercise training that improved the response of specific genes.

  16. Different genome stability proteins underpin primed and naïve adaptation in E. coli CRISPR-Cas immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ivančić-Baće, Ivana; Cass, Simon D; Wearne, Stephen J; Bolt, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is a prokaryotic immune system built from capture and integration of invader DNA into CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) loci, termed ‘Adaptation’, which is dependent on Cas1 and Cas2 proteins. In Escherichia coli, Cascade-Cas3 degrades invader DNA to effect immunity, termed ‘Interference’. Adaptation can interact with interference (‘primed’), or is independent of it (‘naïve’). We demonstrate that primed adaptation requires the RecG helicase and PriA protein to be present. Genetic analysis of mutant phenotypes suggests that RecG is needed to dissipate R-loops at blocked replication forks. Additionally, we identify that DNA polymerase I is important for both primed and naive adaptation, and that RecB is needed for naïve adaptation. Purified Cas1-Cas2 protein shows specificity for binding to and nicking forked DNA within single strand gaps, and collapsing forks into DNA duplexes. The data suggest that different genome stability systems interact with primed or naïve adaptation when responding to blocked or collapsed invader DNA replication. In this model, RecG and Cas3 proteins respond to invader DNA replication forks that are blocked by Cascade interference, enabling DNA capture. RecBCD targets DNA ends at collapsed forks, enabling DNA capture without interference. DNA polymerase I is proposed to fill DNA gaps during spacer integration. PMID:26578567

  17. The effects of dietary supplementation of methionine on genomic stability and p53 gene promoter methylation in rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Cátia Lira Do; Bueno, Rafaela de Barros E Lima; Burim, Regislaine Valéria; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2011-05-18

    Methionine is a component of one-carbon metabolism and a precursor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the methyl donor for DNA methylation. When methionine intake is high, an increase of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is expected. DNA methyltransferases convert SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). A high intracellular SAH concentration could inhibit the activity of DNA methyltransferases. Therefore, high methionine ingestion could induce DNA damage and change the methylation pattern of tumor suppressor genes. This study investigated the genotoxicity of a methionine-supplemented diet. It also investigated the diet's effects on glutathione levels, SAM and SAH concentrations and the gene methylation pattern of p53. Wistar rats received either a methionine-supplemented diet (2% methionine) or a control diet (0.3% methionine) for six weeks. The methionine-supplemented diet was neither genotoxic nor antigenotoxic to kidney cells, as assessed by the comet assay. However, the methionine-supplemented diet restored the renal glutathione depletion induced by doxorubicin. This fact may be explained by the transsulfuration pathway, which converts methionine to glutathione in the kidney. Methionine supplementation increased the renal concentration of SAH without changing the SAM/SAH ratio. This unchanged profile was also observed for DNA methylation at the promoter region of the p53 gene. Further studies are necessary to elucidate this diet's effects on genomic stability and DNA methylation.

  18. Profenofos induced modulation in physiological indices, genomic template stability and protein banding patterns of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Balkrishna; Chakraborty, Sindhunath; Singh, Savita; Mishra, Arun K

    2016-11-01

    To understand the mechanism underlying organophosphate pesticide toxicity, cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 was subjected to varied concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg L(-1)) of profenofos and the effects were investigated in terms of changes in cellular physiology, genomic template stability and protein expression pattern. The supplementation of profenofos reduced the growth, total pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency of the test organism in a dose dependent manner with maximum toxic effect at 30 mg L(-1). The high fluorescence intensity of 2', 7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate and increased production of malondialdehyde confirmed the prevalence of acute oxidative stress condition inside the cells of the cyanobacterium. Rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting and SDS-PAGE analyses showed a significant alteration in the banding patterns of DNA and proteins respectively. A marked increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase activity and a concomitant reduction in glutathione content indicated their possible role in supporting the growth of Anabaena 7120 up to 20 mg L(-1). These findings suggest that the uncontrolled use of profenofos in the agricultural fields may not only lead to the destruction of the cyanobacterial population, but it would also disturb the nutrient dynamics and energy flow.

  19. Different genome stability proteins underpin primed and naïve adaptation in E. coli CRISPR-Cas immunity.

    PubMed

    Ivančić-Baće, Ivana; Cass, Simon D; Wearne, Stephen J; Bolt, Edward L

    2015-12-15

    CRISPR-Cas is a prokaryotic immune system built from capture and integration of invader DNA into CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) loci, termed 'Adaptation', which is dependent on Cas1 and Cas2 proteins. In Escherichia coli, Cascade-Cas3 degrades invader DNA to effect immunity, termed 'Interference'. Adaptation can interact with interference ('primed'), or is independent of it ('naïve'). We demonstrate that primed adaptation requires the RecG helicase and PriA protein to be present. Genetic analysis of mutant phenotypes suggests that RecG is needed to dissipate R-loops at blocked replication forks. Additionally, we identify that DNA polymerase I is important for both primed and naive adaptation, and that RecB is needed for naïve adaptation. Purified Cas1-Cas2 protein shows specificity for binding to and nicking forked DNA within single strand gaps, and collapsing forks into DNA duplexes. The data suggest that different genome stability systems interact with primed or naïve adaptation when responding to blocked or collapsed invader DNA replication. In this model, RecG and Cas3 proteins respond to invader DNA replication forks that are blocked by Cascade interference, enabling DNA capture. RecBCD targets DNA ends at collapsed forks, enabling DNA capture without interference. DNA polymerase I is proposed to fill DNA gaps during spacer integration.

  20. Maintain Stability Operations Capability During Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    foolishness, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us…1 —Charles Dickens 21st Century Challenges Borrowing the opening...sentence from 19th Century British Author Charles Dickens ’, A Tale of Two Cities, seems appropriate as a framework for the United States of America’s...the world, and enjoy, as Dickens would say, “the best of times”, and why should the U.S. Joint force be concerned with integrated operations with our

  1. NUCKS1 is a novel RAD51AP1 paralog important for homologous recombination and genome stability

    SciTech Connect

    Parplys, Ann C.; Zhao, Weixing; Sharma, Neelam; Groesser, Torsten; Liang, Fengshan; Maranon, David G.; Leung, Stanley G.; Grundt, Kirsten; Dray, Eloïse; Idate, Rupa; Østvold, Anne Carine; Schild, David; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia

    2015-08-31

    NUCKS1 (nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1) is a 27 kD chromosomal, vertebrate-specific protein, for which limited functional data exist. Here, we demonstrate that NUCKS1 shares extensive sequence homology with RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), suggesting that these two proteins are paralogs. Similar to the phenotypic effects of RAD51AP1 knockdown, we find that depletion of NUCKS1 in human cells impairs DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and chromosome stability. Depletion of NUCKS1 also results in greatly increased cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC), and in increased levels of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromatid breaks. NUCKS1 is critical to maintaining wild type HR capacity, and, as observed for a number of proteins involved in the HR pathway, functional loss of NUCKS1 leads to a slow down in DNA replication fork progression with a concomitant increase in the utilization of new replication origins. Interestingly, recombinant NUCKS1 shares the same DNA binding preference as RAD51AP1, but binds to DNA with reduced affinity when compared to RAD51AP1. Finally, our results show that NUCKS1 is a chromatin-associated protein with a role in the DNA damage response and in HR, a DNA repair pathway critical for tumor suppression.

  2. NUCKS1 is a novel RAD51AP1 paralog important for homologous recombination and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Parplys, Ann C; Zhao, Weixing; Sharma, Neelam; Groesser, Torsten; Liang, Fengshan; Maranon, David G; Leung, Stanley G; Grundt, Kirsten; Dray, Eloïse; Idate, Rupa; Østvold, Anne Carine; Schild, David; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia

    2015-11-16

    NUCKS1 (nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1) is a 27 kD chromosomal, vertebrate-specific protein, for which limited functional data exist. Here, we demonstrate that NUCKS1 shares extensive sequence homology with RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), suggesting that these two proteins are paralogs. Similar to the phenotypic effects of RAD51AP1 knockdown, we find that depletion of NUCKS1 in human cells impairs DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and chromosome stability. Depletion of NUCKS1 also results in greatly increased cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC), and in increased levels of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromatid breaks. NUCKS1 is critical to maintaining wild type HR capacity, and, as observed for a number of proteins involved in the HR pathway, functional loss of NUCKS1 leads to a slow down in DNA replication fork progression with a concomitant increase in the utilization of new replication origins. Interestingly, recombinant NUCKS1 shares the same DNA binding preference as RAD51AP1, but binds to DNA with reduced affinity when compared to RAD51AP1. Our results show that NUCKS1 is a chromatin-associated protein with a role in the DNA damage response and in HR, a DNA repair pathway critical for tumor suppression. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. NUCKS1 is a novel RAD51AP1 paralog important for homologous recombination and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Parplys, Ann C.; Zhao, Weixing; Sharma, Neelam; Groesser, Torsten; Liang, Fengshan; Maranon, David G.; Leung, Stanley G.; Grundt, Kirsten; Dray, Eloïse; Idate, Rupa; Østvold, Anne Carine; Schild, David; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    NUCKS1 (nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1) is a 27 kD chromosomal, vertebrate-specific protein, for which limited functional data exist. Here, we demonstrate that NUCKS1 shares extensive sequence homology with RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), suggesting that these two proteins are paralogs. Similar to the phenotypic effects of RAD51AP1 knockdown, we find that depletion of NUCKS1 in human cells impairs DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and chromosome stability. Depletion of NUCKS1 also results in greatly increased cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC), and in increased levels of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromatid breaks. NUCKS1 is critical to maintaining wild type HR capacity, and, as observed for a number of proteins involved in the HR pathway, functional loss of NUCKS1 leads to a slow down in DNA replication fork progression with a concomitant increase in the utilization of new replication origins. Interestingly, recombinant NUCKS1 shares the same DNA binding preference as RAD51AP1, but binds to DNA with reduced affinity when compared to RAD51AP1. Our results show that NUCKS1 is a chromatin-associated protein with a role in the DNA damage response and in HR, a DNA repair pathway critical for tumor suppression. PMID:26323318

  4. Short-Term Genome Stability of Serial Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027 Isolates in an Experimental Gut Model and Recurrent Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, David W.; Walker, A. Sarah; Freeman, Jane; Baines, Simon D.; Fawley, Warren N.; Chilton, Caroline H.; Griffiths, David; Vaughan, Alison; Crook, Derrick W.; Peto, Tim E. A.; Wilcox, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile whole genome sequencing has the potential to identify related isolates, even among otherwise indistinguishable strains, but interpretation depends on understanding genomic variation within isolates and individuals. Methods Serial isolates from two scenarios were whole genome sequenced. Firstly, 62 isolates from 29 timepoints from three in vitro gut models, inoculated with a NAP1/027 strain. Secondly, 122 isolates from 44 patients (2–8 samples/patient) with mostly recurrent/on-going symptomatic NAP-1/027 C. difficile infection. Reference-based mapping was used to identify single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Results Across three gut model inductions, two with antibiotic treatment, total 137 days, only two new SNVs became established. Pre-existing minority SNVs became dominant in two models. Several SNVs were detected, only present in the minority of colonies at one/two timepoints. The median (inter-quartile range) [range] time between patients’ first and last samples was 60 (29.5–118.5) [0–561] days. Within-patient C. difficile evolution was 0.45 SNVs/called genome/year (95%CI 0.00–1.28) and within-host diversity was 0.28 SNVs/called genome (0.05–0.53). 26/28 gut model and patient SNVs were non-synonymous, affecting a range of gene targets. Conclusions The consistency of whole genome sequencing data from gut model C. difficile isolates, and the high stability of genomic sequences in isolates from patients, supports the use of whole genome sequencing in detailed transmission investigations. PMID:23691061

  5. The tumor suppressor SirT2 regulates cell cycle progression and genome stability by modulating the mitotic deposition of H4K20 methylation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The establishment of the epigenetic mark H4K20me1 (monomethylation of H4K20) by PR-Set7 during G2/M directly impacts S-phase progression and genome stability. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of this event are not well understood. Here we show that SirT2 regulates H4K20me1 depositi...

  6. Fetal mesenchymal stromal cells from cryopreserved human chorionic villi: cytogenetic and molecular analysis of genome stability in long-term cultures.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Emanuela Anna; Lazzati, Silvia; Iseppon, Federico; Manganini, Massimiliano; Marcato, Livia; Gariboldi, Marzia Bruna; Maggi, Federico; Grati, Francesca Romana; Simoni, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    First-trimester chorionic villi (CV) are an attractive source of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) for possible applications in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine. Human MSC from CV were monitored for genetic stability in long-term cultures. We set up a good manufacturing practice cryopreservation procedure for small amounts of native CV samples. After isolation, hMSC were in vitro cultured and analyzed for biological end points. Genome stability at different passages of expansion was explored by karyotype, genome-wide array-comparative genomic hybridization and microsatellite genotyping. Growth curve analysis revealed a high proliferative potential of CV-derived cells. Immunophenotyping showed expression of typical MSC markers and absence of hematopoietic markers. Analysis of multilineage potential demonstrated efficient differentiation into adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes and induction of neuro-glial commitment. In angiogenic experiments, differentiation in endothelial cells was detected by in vitro Matrigel assay after vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation. Data obtained from karyotyping, array-comparative genomic hybridization and microsatellite genotyping comparing early with late DNA passages did not show any genomic variation at least up to passage 10. Aneuploid clones appeared in four of 14 cases at latest passages, immediately before culture growth arrest. Our findings indicate that hCV-MSC are genetically stable in long-term cultures at least up to passage 10 and that it is possible to achieve clinically relevant amounts of hCV-MSC even after few stages of expansion. Genome abnormalities at higher passages can occasionally occur and are always associated with spontaneous growth arrest. Under these circumstances, hCV-MSC could be suitable for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome stability of Arabidopsis atm, ku80 and rad51b mutants: somatic and transgenerational responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Yao, Youli; Bilichak, Andriy; Titov, Viktor; Golubov, Andrey; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-06-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired via two main mechanisms: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Our previous work showed that exposure to abiotic stresses resulted in an increase in point mutation frequency (PMF) and homologous recombination frequency (HRF), and these changes were heritable. We hypothesized that mutants impaired in DSB recognition and repair would also be deficient in somatic and transgenerational changes in PMF and HRF. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the genome stability of the Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in ATM (communication between DNA strand break recognition and the repair machinery), KU80 (deficient in NHEJ) and RAD51B (deficient in HR repair) genes. We found that all three mutants exhibited higher levels of DSBs. Plants impaired in ATM had a lower spontaneous PMF and HRF, whereas ku80 plants had higher frequencies. Plants impaired in RAD51B had a lower HRF. HRF in wild-type, atm and rad51b plants increased in response to several abiotic stressors, whereas it did not increase in ku80 plants. The progeny of stressed wild-type and ku80 plants exhibited an increase in HRF in response to all stresses, and the increase was higher in ku80 plants. The progeny of atm plants showed an increase in HRF only when the parental generation was exposed to cold or flood, whereas the progeny of rad51b plants completely lacked a transgenerational increase in HRF. Our experiments showed that mutants impaired in the recognition and repair of DSBs exhibited changes in the efficiency of DNA repair as reflected by changes in strand breaks, point mutation and HRF. They also showed that the HR RAD51B protein and the protein ATM that recognized damaged DNA might play an important role in transgenerational changes in HRF.

  8. Defending the genome from the enemy within: mechanisms of retrotransposon suppression in the mouse germline.

    PubMed

    Crichton, James H; Dunican, Donncha S; Maclennan, Marie; Meehan, Richard R; Adams, Ian R

    2014-05-01

    The viability of any species requires that the genome is kept stable as it is transmitted from generation to generation by the germ cells. One of the challenges to transgenerational genome stability is the potential mutagenic activity of transposable genetic elements, particularly retrotransposons. There are many different types of retrotransposon in mammalian genomes, and these target different points in germline development to amplify and integrate into new genomic locations. Germ cells, and their pluripotent developmental precursors, have evolved a variety of genome defence mechanisms that suppress retrotransposon activity and maintain genome stability across the generations. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how retrotransposon activity is suppressed in the mammalian germline, how genes involved in germline genome defence mechanisms are regulated, and the consequences of mutating these genome defence genes for the developing germline.

  9. Mechanisms of genome instability induced by RNA-processing defects.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yujia A; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C

    2014-06-01

    The role of normal transcription and RNA processing in maintaining genome integrity is becoming increasingly appreciated in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. Several mutations in RNA biogenesis factors have been implicated in human cancers, but the mechanisms and potential connections to tumor genome instability are not clear. Here, we discuss how RNA-processing defects could destabilize genomes through mutagenic R-loop structures and by altering expression of genes required for genome stability. A compelling body of evidence now suggests that researchers should be directly testing these mechanisms in models of human cancer.

  10. Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies a Deletion in Protein Phosphatase 2A That Affects Its Stability and Localization in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huawen; Miller, Michelle L.; Granas, David M.; Dutcher, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool in the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions (indels) among mutant strains, which simplifies forward genetics approaches. However, identification of the causative mutation among a large number of non-causative SNPs in a mutant strain remains a big challenge. In the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we generated a SNP/indel library that contains over 2 million polymorphisms from four wild-type strains, one highly polymorphic strain that is frequently used in meiotic mapping, ten mutant strains that have flagellar assembly or motility defects, and one mutant strain, imp3, which has a mating defect. A comparison of polymorphisms in the imp3 strain and the other 15 strains allowed us to identify a deletion of the last three amino acids, Y313F314L315, in a protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2A3) in the imp3 strain. Introduction of a wild-type HA-tagged PP2A3 rescues the mutant phenotype, but mutant HA-PP2A3 at Y313 or L315 fail to rescue. Our immunoprecipitation results indicate that the Y313, L315, or YFLΔ mutations do not affect the binding of PP2A3 to the scaffold subunit, PP2A-2r. In contrast, the Y313, L315, or YFLΔ mutations affect both the stability and the localization of PP2A3. The PP2A3 protein is less abundant in these mutants and fails to accumulate in the basal body area as observed in transformants with either wild-type HA-PP2A3 or a HA-PP2A3 with a V310T change. The accumulation of HA-PP2A3 in the basal body region disappears in mated dikaryons, which suggests that the localization of PP2A3 may be essential to the mating process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the terminal YFL tail of PP2A3 is important in the regulation on Chlamydomonas mating. PMID:24086163

  11. Whole genome sequencing identifies a deletion in protein phosphatase 2A that affects its stability and localization in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huawen; Miller, Michelle L; Granas, David M; Dutcher, Susan K

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool in the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions (indels) among mutant strains, which simplifies forward genetics approaches. However, identification of the causative mutation among a large number of non-causative SNPs in a mutant strain remains a big challenge. In the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we generated a SNP/indel library that contains over 2 million polymorphisms from four wild-type strains, one highly polymorphic strain that is frequently used in meiotic mapping, ten mutant strains that have flagellar assembly or motility defects, and one mutant strain, imp3, which has a mating defect. A comparison of polymorphisms in the imp3 strain and the other 15 strains allowed us to identify a deletion of the last three amino acids, Y313F314L315, in a protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2A3) in the imp3 strain. Introduction of a wild-type HA-tagged PP2A3 rescues the mutant phenotype, but mutant HA-PP2A3 at Y313 or L315 fail to rescue. Our immunoprecipitation results indicate that the Y313, L315, or YFLΔ mutations do not affect the binding of PP2A3 to the scaffold subunit, PP2A-2r. In contrast, the Y313, L315, or YFLΔ mutations affect both the stability and the localization of PP2A3. The PP2A3 protein is less abundant in these mutants and fails to accumulate in the basal body area as observed in transformants with either wild-type HA-PP2A3 or a HA-PP2A3 with a V310T change. The accumulation of HA-PP2A3 in the basal body region disappears in mated dikaryons, which suggests that the localization of PP2A3 may be essential to the mating process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the terminal YFL tail of PP2A3 is important in the regulation on Chlamydomonas mating.

  12. Ex situ conservation of Ruscus aculeatus L. – ruscogenin biosynthesis, genome-size stability and propagation traits of tissue-cultured clones

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Teodora; Dimitrova, Dessislava; Gussev, Chavdar; Bosseva, Yulia; Stoeva, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Ruscus aculeatus L. is a perennial semi-shrub with distinctive leaf-like branches (cladodes). Rhizomes and roots contain steroidal saponins (ruscogenins) that are used in medicine and cosmetics for their anti-inflammatory, venotonic and antihaemorroidal activity. Problematic cultivation of the species causes in many countries unsustainable over-collection from the wild. Tissue culture propagation of R. aculeatus was carried out for conservation and propagation purposes. The impact of the clonal origin (genotype) on the ruscogenin biosynthesis, genome-size stability and propagation traits and morpho-physiological response to long-term cultivation in vitro was studied. Production of ruscogenins in fully developed regenerants was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Genome-size stability of the clones was assessed by flow cytometry. Slow growth and prolonged lag-phase were characteristic for the whole propagation cycle. Produced plantlets with well-defined organs were suitable for direct ex vitro planting. Genome DNA content of all clones was stable and comparable to native plants. Ruscogenin biosynthesis was clone-specific, presenting distinctive profiles of the cultures. Our results imply that clone origin and culture type might influence saponin biosynthesis in Ruscus. These traits should be considered in the ex situ conservation of the genetic diversity of this species and by production of planting material as well. PMID:26019616

  13. Synergistic roles of the E2 glycoprotein and 3' untranslated region in the increased genomic stability of chimeric classical swine fever virus with attenuated phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Li, Ling; Lei, Lei; Zhao, Cheng; Shen, Xiaofang; Zhao, Haizhong; Pan, Zishu

    2017-06-01

    The E2 glycoprotein and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are virulence determinants. To investigate the synergistic roles of E2 and 3'UTR for pathogenicity and genomic stability, a series of chimeric CSFVs were constructed by replacing the E2 gene and/or 3'UTR of virulent CSFV strain Shimen with the corresponding sequence of the lapinized 'Chinese' strain (C-strain) using a reverse genetic approach. The in vitro growth characterization and in vivo pathogenicity of the chimeric CSFVs were investigated. Our results demonstrated that the E2 glycoprotein mediates virus cell-to-cell spread and viral particle release and that the 3'UTR regulates viral RNA replication. The CSFV E2 and 3'UTR synergistically modulate infectious virus production, viral genomic stability in vitro, and attenuation in swine. This work contributes to our understanding of the structure and function of the CSFV genome and virus pathogenicity and will be useful for the development of a novel CSF vaccine.

  14. Involvement of Iron-Containing Proteins in Genome Integrity in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Caiguo

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome encodes numerous iron-containing proteins such as iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins and hemoproteins. These proteins generally utilize iron as a cofactor, and they perform critical roles in photosynthesis, genome stability, electron transfer, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to maintain iron homeostasis for the assembly of functional iron-containing proteins, thereby ensuring genome stability, cell development, and plant growth. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron-containing proteins and their functions involved in genome stability has expanded enormously. In this review, I provide the current perspectives on iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis, followed by a summary of iron-containing protein functions involved in genome stability maintenance and a discussion of their possible molecular mechanisms. PMID:27330736

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas moraviensis R28-S

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Hirokazu; Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Hughes, Julie; De Gelder, Leen; Stragier, Pieter; De Vos, Paul; Settles, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas moraviensis R28-S, isolated from the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Moscow, ID. The strain carries a native mercury resistance plasmid, poorly maintains introduced IncP-1 antibiotic resistance plasmids, and has been useful for studying the evolution of plasmid host range and stability. PMID:24558233

  16. 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability. Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, 14–18 March 2012.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher J; Ausió, Juan

    2012-06-01

    The 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability in Whistler, Canada, 14-18 March 2012, brought together 31 speakers from different nationalities. The organizing committee, led by Jim Davie (Chair) at the University of Manitoba (Manitoba, Canada), consisted of several established researchers in the fields of chromatin and epigenetics from across Canada. The meeting was centered on the contribution of epigenetics to gene expression, DNA damage and repair, and the role of environmental factors. A few interesting talks on replication added some insightful information on the controversial issue of histone post-translational modifications as genuine epigenetic marks that are inherited through cell division.

  17. Long-Term Stability of Human Genomic and Human Papillomavirus DNA Stored in BD SurePath and Hologic PreservCyt Liquid-Based Cytology Media

    PubMed Central

    Agreda, Patricia M.; Beitman, Gerard H.; Gutierrez, Erin C.; Harris, James M.; Koch, Kristopher R.; LaViers, William D.; Leitch, Sharon V.; Maus, Courtney E.; McMillian, Ray A.; Nussbaumer, William A.; Palmer, Marcus L. R.; Porter, Michael J.; Richart, Gregory A.; Schwab, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of storage at 2 to 8°C on the stability of human genomic and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA stored in BD SurePath and Hologic PreservCyt liquid-based cytology media. DNA retained the ability to be extracted and PCR amplified for more than 2.5 years in both medium types. Prior inability to detect DNA in archived specimens may have been due to failure of the extraction method to isolate DNA from fixed cells. PMID:23678069

  18. Stability of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Genome Revealed by Deep Sequencing of Strains Isolated from Different Hosts and following Passage in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Rima, Bert K.; Gatherer, Derek; Young, Daniel F.; Norsted, Hanna; Davison, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The strain diversity of a rubulavirus, parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), was investigated by comparing 11 newly determined and 6 previously published genome sequences. These sequences represent 15 PIV5 strains, of which 6 were isolated from humans, 1 was from monkeys, 2 were from pigs, and 6 were from dogs. Strain diversity is remarkably low, regardless of host, year of isolation, or geographical origin; a total of 7.8% of nucleotides are variable, and the average pairwise difference between strains is 2.1%. Variation is distributed unevenly across the PIV5 genome, but no convincing evidence of selection for antibody-mediated evasion in hemagglutinin-neuraminidase was found. The finding that some canine and porcine, but not primate, strains are mutated in the SH gene, and do not produce SH, raised the possibility that dogs (or pigs) may not be the natural host of PIV5. The genetic stability of PIV5 was also demonstrated during serial passage of one strain (W3) in Vero cells at a high multiplicity of infection, under conditions of competition with large proportions of defective interfering genomes. A similar observation was made for a strain W3 mutant (PIV5VΔC) lacking V gene function, in which the dominant changes were related to pseudoreversion in this gene. The mutations detected in PIV5VΔC during pseudoreversion, and also those characterizing the SH gene in canine and porcine strains, predominantly involved U-to-C transitions. This suggests an important role for biased hypermutation via an adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific (ADAR)-like activity. IMPORTANCE Here we report the sequence variation of 16 different isolates of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) that were isolated from a number of species, including humans, monkeys, dogs, and pigs, over 4 decades. Surprisingly, strain diversity was remarkably low, regardless of host, year of isolation, or geographical origin. Variation was distributed unevenly across the PIV5 genome, but no convincing evidence of

  19. Maintaining the unmethylated state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA

  20. MIPS plant genome information resources.

    PubMed

    Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Ernst, Rebecca; Schoof, Heiko; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2007-01-01

    The Munich Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) has been involved in maintaining plant genome databases since the Arabidopsis thaliana genome project. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable data sets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, for example from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and evaluated. In addition, model genomes also form a scaffold for comparative genomics, and much can be learned from genome-wide evolutionary studies.

  1. The tumor suppressor SirT2 regulates cell cycle progression and genome stability by modulating the mitotic deposition of H4K20 methylation

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Lourdes; Martínez-Redondo, Paloma; Marazuela-Duque, Anna; Vazquez, Berta N.; Dooley, Scott J.; Voigt, Philipp; Beck, David B.; Kane-Goldsmith, Noriko; Tong, Qiang; Rabanal, Rosa M.; Fondevila, Dolors; Muñoz, Purificación; Krüger, Marcus; Tischfield, Jay A.; Vaquero, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of the epigenetic mark H4K20me1 (monomethylation of H4K20) by PR-Set7 during G2/M directly impacts S-phase progression and genome stability. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of this event are not well understood. Here we show that SirT2 regulates H4K20me1 deposition through the deacetylation of H4K16Ac (acetylation of H4K16) and determines the levels of H4K20me2/3 throughout the cell cycle. SirT2 binds and deacetylates PR-Set7 at K90, modulating its chromatin localization. Consistently, SirT2 depletion significantly reduces PR-Set7 chromatin levels, alters the size and number of PR-Set7 foci, and decreases the overall mitotic deposition of H4K20me1. Upon stress, the interaction between SirT2 and PR-Set7 increases along with the H4K20me1 levels, suggesting a novel mitotic checkpoint mechanism. SirT2 loss in mice induces significant defects associated with defective H4K20me1–3 levels. Accordingly, SirT2-deficient animals exhibit genomic instability and chromosomal aberrations and are prone to tumorigenesis. Our studies suggest that the dynamic cross-talk between the environment and the genome during mitosis determines the fate of the subsequent cell cycle. PMID:23468428

  2. Regulation of recombination and genomic maintenance.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich

    2015-08-03

    Recombination is a central process to stably maintain and transmit a genome through somatic cell divisions and to new generations. Hence, recombination needs to be coordinated with other events occurring on the DNA template, such as DNA replication, transcription, and the specialized chromosomal functions at centromeres and telomeres. Moreover, regulation with respect to the cell-cycle stage is required as much as spatiotemporal coordination within the nuclear volume. These regulatory mechanisms impinge on the DNA substrate through modifications of the chromatin and directly on recombination proteins through a myriad of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and additional mechanisms. Although recombination is primarily appreciated to maintain genomic stability, the process also contributes to gross chromosomal arrangements and copy-number changes. Hence, the recombination process itself requires quality control to ensure high fidelity and avoid genomic instability. Evidently, recombination and its regulatory processes have significant impact on human disease, specifically cancer and, possibly, neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Subcellular integrities in Chroococcidiopsis sp. CCMEE 029 survivors after prolonged desiccation revealed by molecular probes and genome stability assays.

    PubMed

    Billi, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Desiccation-tolerant cells must either protect their cellular components from desiccation-induced damage and/or repair it upon rewetting. Subcellular damage to the anhydrobiotic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp. CCMEE 029 stored in the desiccated state for 4 years was evaluated at the single-cell level using fluorescent DNA strand breakage labelling, membrane integrity and potential related molecular probes, oxidant-sensing fluorochrome and redox dye. Covalent modifications of dried genomes were assessed by testing their suitability as PCR template. Results suggest that desiccation survivors avoid/and or limit genome fragmentation and genome covalent modifications, preserve intact plasma membranes and phycobiliprotein autofluorescence, exhibit spatially-reduced ROS accumulation and dehydrogenase activity upon rewetting. Damaged cells undergo genome fragmentation, loss of plasma membrane potential and integrity, phycobiliprotein bleaching, whole-cell ROS accumulation and lack respiratory activity upon rewetting. The co-occurrence of live and dead cells within dried aggregates of Chroococcidiopsis confirms that desiccation resistance is not a simple process and that subtle modifications to the cellular milieu are required to dry without dying. It rises also intriguing questions about the triggers of dead cells in response to drying. The capability of desiccation survivors to avoid and/or reduce subcellular damage, shows that protection mechanisms are relevant in the desiccation tolerance of this cyanobacterium.

  4. The structure of the human tRNALys3 anticodon bound to the HIV genome is stabilized by modified nucleosides and adjacent mismatch base pairs.

    PubMed

    Bilbille, Yann; Vendeix, Franck A P; Guenther, Richard; Malkiewicz, Andrzej; Ariza, Xavier; Vilarrasa, Jaume; Agris, Paul F

    2009-06-01

    Replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires base pairing of the reverse transcriptase primer, human tRNA(Lys3), to the viral RNA. Although the major complementary base pairing occurs between the HIV primer binding sequence (PBS) and the tRNA's 3'-terminus, an important discriminatory, secondary contact occurs between the viral A-rich Loop I, 5'-adjacent to the PBS, and the modified, U-rich anticodon domain of tRNA(Lys3). The importance of individual and combined anticodon modifications to the tRNA/HIV-1 Loop I RNA's interaction was determined. The thermal stabilities of variously modified tRNA anticodon region sequences bound to the Loop I of viral sub(sero)types G and B were analyzed and the structure of one duplex containing two modified nucleosides was determined using NMR spectroscopy and restrained molecular dynamics. The modifications 2-thiouridine, s(2)U(34), and pseudouridine, Psi(39), appreciably stabilized the interaction of the anticodon region with the viral subtype G and B RNAs. The structure of the duplex results in two coaxially stacked A-form RNA stems separated by two mismatched base pairs, U(162)*Psi(39) and G(163)*A(38), that maintained a reasonable A-form helix diameter. The tRNA's s(2)U(34) stabilized the interaction between the A-rich HIV Loop I sequence and the U-rich anticodon, whereas the tRNA's Psi(39) stabilized the adjacent mismatched pairs.

  5. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis reveals YRF1 gene copy number variation that modulates genetic stability in distillery yeasts.

    PubMed

    Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Adamczyk, Jagoda; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-10-13

    Industrial yeasts, economically important microorganisms, are widely used in diverse biotechnological processes including brewing, winemaking and distilling. In contrast to a well-established genome of brewer's and wine yeast strains, the comprehensive evaluation of genomic features of distillery strains is lacking. In the present study, twenty two distillery yeast strains were subjected to electrophoretic karyotyping and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The strains analyzed were assigned to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and grouped into four species categories: S. bayanus, S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. The genomic diversity was mainly revealed within subtelomeric regions and the losses and/or gains of fragments of chromosomes I, III, VI and IX were the most frequently observed. Statistically significant differences in the gene copy number were documented in six functional gene categories: 1) telomere maintenance via recombination, DNA helicase activity or DNA binding, 2) maltose metabolism process, glucose transmembrane transporter activity; 3) asparagine catabolism, cellular response to nitrogen starvation, localized in cell wall-bounded periplasmic space, 4) siderophore transport, 5) response to copper ion, cadmium ion binding and 6) L-iditol 2- dehydrogenase activity. The losses of YRF1 genes (Y' element ATP-dependent helicase) were accompanied by decreased level of Y' sequences and an increase in DNA double and single strand breaks, and oxidative DNA damage in the S. paradoxus group compared to the S. bayanus group. We postulate that naturally occurring diversity in the YRF1 gene copy number may promote genetic stability in the S. bayanus group of distillery yeast strains.

  6. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis reveals YRF1 gene copy number variation that modulates genetic stability in distillery yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Skoneczna, Adrianna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial yeasts, economically important microorganisms, are widely used in diverse biotechnological processes including brewing, winemaking and distilling. In contrast to a well-established genome of brewer's and wine yeast strains, the comprehensive evaluation of genomic features of distillery strains is lacking. In the present study, twenty two distillery yeast strains were subjected to electrophoretic karyotyping and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The strains analyzed were assigned to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and grouped into four species categories: S. bayanus, S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. The genomic diversity was mainly revealed within subtelomeric regions and the losses and/or gains of fragments of chromosomes I, III, VI and IX were the most frequently observed. Statistically significant differences in the gene copy number were documented in six functional gene categories: 1) telomere maintenance via recombination, DNA helicase activity or DNA binding, 2) maltose metabolism process, glucose transmembrane transporter activity; 3) asparagine catabolism, cellular response to nitrogen starvation, localized in cell wall-bounded periplasmic space, 4) siderophore transport, 5) response to copper ion, cadmium ion binding and 6) L-iditol 2- dehydrogenase activity. The losses of YRF1 genes (Y' element ATP-dependent helicase) were accompanied by decreased level of Y' sequences and an increase in DNA double and single strand breaks, and oxidative DNA damage in the S. paradoxus group compared to the S. bayanus group. We postulate that naturally occurring diversity in the YRF1 gene copy number may promote genetic stability in the S. bayanus group of distillery yeast strains. PMID:26384347

  7. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  8. The genome of Plasmodium cynomolgi is partitioned into separable domains which appear to differ in sequence stability.

    PubMed Central

    McCutchan, T F; Dame, J B; Gwadz, R W; Vernick, K D

    1988-01-01

    The genome of Plasmodium cynomolgi is partitioned into at least 7 distinct genetic domains. Each domain is apparently uniform in DNA density and is separable from the others by CsCl density centrifugation in the presence of Hoechst dye. The protein-encoding genes that were tested are localized in the two heaviest density domains (isochores). The ribosomal genes are in two lighter isochores as well as in one of the isochores that contains protein encoding genes. Telomeric sequences are mainly, if not exclusively, in the lightest isochores, indicating that position with regard to chromosome ends may correlate with density. Blocks of a tandemly-repeating sequence which mark genetically hypervariable chromosome regions in malaria parasites are located in all isochores. However, the rate of change associated with the blocks of sequence is much slower in some isochores than in others. This indicates that the rate of genetic change in these parasites may differ with isochore and chromosomal position. These results may also have more general biological implications since they suggest that the genetic instability often noted for tandem repeat sequences in the eukaryotic genome may be limited to only a distinct subset of the genomic complement of such sequence blocks. Images PMID:2837737

  9. Bacterial DNA repair genes and their eukaryotic homologues: 5. The role of recombination in DNA repair and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Nowosielska, Anetta

    2007-01-01

    Recombinational repair is a well conserved DNA repair mechanism present in all living organisms. Repair by homologous recombination is generally accurate as it uses undamaged homologous DNA molecule as a repair template. In Escherichia coli homologous recombination repairs both the double-strand breaks and single-strand gaps in DNA. DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) can be induced upon exposure to exogenous sources such as ionizing radiation or endogenous DNA-damaging agents including reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as during natural biological processes like conjugation. However, the bulk of double strand breaks are formed during replication fork collapse encountering an unrepaired single strand gap in DNA. Under such circumstances DNA replication on the damaged template can be resumed only if supported by homologous recombination. This functional cooperation of homologous recombination with replication machinery enables successful completion of genome duplication and faithful transmission of genetic material to a daughter cell. In eukaryotes, homologous recombination is also involved in essential biological processes such as preservation of genome integrity, DNA damage checkpoint activation, DNA damage repair, DNA replication, mating type switching, transposition, immune system development and meiosis. When unregulated, recombination can lead to genome instability and carcinogenesis.

  10. Genome Structure of the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and Its Stability on Metalliferous and Nonmetalliferous Soils1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mandáková, Terezie; Singh, Vasantika; Krämer, Ute; Lysak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens (formerly known as Thlaspi caerulescens), an extremophile heavy metal hyperaccumulator model plant in the Brassicaceae family, is a morphologically and phenotypically diverse species exhibiting metal tolerance and leaf accumulation of zinc, cadmium, and nickel. Here, we provide a detailed genome structure of the approximately 267-Mb N. caerulescens genome, which has descended from seven chromosomes of the ancestral proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7) through an unusually high number of pericentric inversions. Genome analysis in two other related species, Noccaea jankae and Raparia bulbosa, showed that all three species, and thus probably the entire Coluteocarpeae tribe, have descended from the proto-Calepineae Karyotype. All three analyzed species share the chromosome structure of six out of seven chromosomes and an unusually high metal accumulation in leaves, which remains moderate in N. jankae and R. bulbosa and is extreme in N. caerulescens. Among these species, N. caerulescens has the most derived karyotype, with species-specific inversions on chromosome NC6, which grouped onto its bottom arm functionally related genes of zinc and iron metal homeostasis comprising the major candidate genes NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE2 and ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE1. Concurrently, copper and organellar metal homeostasis genes, which are functionally unrelated to the extreme traits characteristic of N. caerulescens, were grouped onto the top arm of NC6. Compared with Arabidopsis thaliana, more distal chromosomal positions in N. caerulescens were enriched among more highly expressed metal homeostasis genes but not among other groups of genes. Thus, chromosome rearrangements could have facilitated the evolution of enhanced metal homeostasis gene expression, a known hallmark of metal hyperaccumulation. PMID:26195571

  11. Qualitative assessment of genotoxicity using random amplified polymorphic DNA: Comparison of genomic template stability with key fitness parameters in Daphnia magna exposed to benzo[a]pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Atienzar, F.A.; Conradi, M.; Evenden, A.J.; Jha, A.N.; Depledge, M.H.

    1999-10-01

    A method of DNA profiling using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to assess toxicant-induced DNA effects in laboratory populations of Daphnia magna exposed to varying concentrations of the genotoxic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene. These effects, represented by changes in the RAPD profiles, were compared with a number of key ecological fitness parameters (age-specific survival, age-specific fecundity, net reproductive rate, and intrinsic rate of population increase). Not only was the RAPD profiling method shown to be a rapid and reproducible assay of toxicant-induced DNA effects, but the qualitative measure of genomic template stability compared favorably with the traditional indices of fitness. The RAPD profiles, however, exhibited higher sensitivity in detecting toxic effects. The significance of these findings for future ecotoxicological studies is discussed.

  12. Ligninolytic peroxidase genes in the oyster mushroom genome: heterologous expression, molecular structure, catalytic and stability properties, and lignin-degrading ability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genome of Pleurotus ostreatus, an important edible mushroom and a model ligninolytic organism of interest in lignocellulose biorefineries due to its ability to delignify agricultural wastes, was sequenced with the purpose of identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for lignin degradation. Results Heterologous expression of the class II peroxidase genes, followed by kinetic studies, enabled their functional classification. The resulting inventory revealed the absence of lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and the presence of three versatile peroxidases (VPs) and six manganese peroxidases (MnPs), the crystal structures of two of them (VP1 and MnP4) were solved at 1.0 to 1.1 Å showing significant structural differences. Gene expansion supports the importance of both peroxidase types in the white-rot lifestyle of this fungus. Using a lignin model dimer and synthetic lignin, we showed that VP is able to degrade lignin. Moreover, the dual Mn-mediated and Mn-independent activity of P. ostreatus MnPs justifies their inclusion in a new peroxidase subfamily. The availability of the whole POD repertoire enabled investigation, at a biochemical level, of the existence of duplicated genes. Differences between isoenzymes are not limited to their kinetic constants. Surprising differences in their activity T50 and residual activity at both acidic and alkaline pH were observed. Directed mutagenesis and spectroscopic/structural information were combined to explain the catalytic and stability properties of the most interesting isoenzymes, and their evolutionary history was analyzed in the context of over 200 basidiomycete peroxidase sequences. Conclusions The analysis of the P. ostreatus genome shows a lignin-degrading system where the role generally played by LiP has been assumed by VP. Moreover, it enabled the first characterization of the complete set of peroxidase isoenzymes in a basidiomycete, revealing strong differences in stability properties and providing

  13. High protein-high red meat versus high carbohydrate weight loss diets do not differ in effect on genome stability and cell death in lymphocytes of overweight men.

    PubMed

    Benassi-Evans, Bianca; Clifton, Peter M; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer B; Fenech, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The importance of diet in DNA damage prevention is well established; however, the comparison of weight loss diets with different micronutrient and macronutrient profiles on genome stability in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) has not been studied. This study tested the hypothesis that genome stability in PBLs of overweight men who consume a high protein-high red meat (HP) weight loss diet is different from that of overweight men who consume a high carbohydrate (HC) weight loss diet. Thirty-three male subjects were randomly assigned to an HP or HC isocaloric energy-restricted dietary intervention for 12 weeks intensive weight loss and weight maintenance up to 52 weeks. Blood samples were collected at 0, 12 and 52 weeks. DNA damage in PBLs was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. Average weight loss after 12 weeks was 9.3 +/- 0.7 kg for both diets, with no further change at 52 weeks. Two-way analysis of variance showed no time or diet effect on micronucleus frequency (chromosome loss/breaks). There was a significant trend with time (P = 0.03) but not diet, for reduction of nuclear buds (gene amplification). There was a positive trend with time for increased nucleoplasmic bridges (chromosome rearrangement) (P = 0.051). Necrosis and apoptosis both significantly decreased with time (P = 0.037 and P = 0.007, respectively) with no diet effect. There was no significant effect of time or diet for nuclear division index, a biomarker of immune response. The results suggest that the effect of the HP weight loss diet on DNA damage measured using the CBMN-Cyt assay in PBLs was not different from that observed for the HC weight loss diet.

  14. The Zn-finger domain of MdmX suppresses cancer progression by promoting genome stability in p53-mutant cells

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevic, Z; Krzywicka-Racka, A; Sluder, G; Gallant, J; Jones, S N

    2016-01-01

    The MDMX (MDM4) oncogene is amplified or overexpressed in a significant percentage of human tumors. MDMX is thought to function as an oncoprotein by binding p53 tumor suppressor protein to inhibit p53-mediated transcription, and by complexing with MDM2 oncoprotein to promote MDM2-mediated degradation of p53. However, down-regulation or loss of functional MDMX has also been observed in a variety of human tumors that are mutated for p53, often correlating with more aggressive cancers and a worse patient prognosis. We have previously reported that endogenous levels of MdmX can suppress proliferation and promote pseudo-bipolar mitosis in primary and tumor cells derived from p53-deficient mice, and that MdmX-p53 double deficient mice succumb to spontaneously formed tumors more rapidly than p53-deficient mice. These results suggest that the MdmX oncoprotein may act as a tumor-suppressor in cancers with compromised p53 function. By using orthotopic transplantation and lung colonization assays in mice we now establish a p53-independent anti-oncogenic role for MdmX in tumor progression. We also demonstrate that the roles of MdmX in genome stability and in proliferation are two distinct functions encoded by the separate MdmX protein domains. The central Zn-finger domain suppresses multipolar mitosis and chromosome loss, whereas the carboxy-terminal RING domain suppresses proliferation of p53-deficient cells. Furthermore, we determine that it is the maintenance of genome stability that underlies MdmX role in suppression of tumorigenesis in hyperploid p53 mutant tumors. Our results offer a rationale for the increased metastatic potential of p53 mutant human cancers with aberrant MdmX function and provide a caveat for the application of anti-MdmX treatment of tumors with compromised p53 activity. PMID:27694836

  15. Genome Stability of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Based on Analysis of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes.

    PubMed

    Espínola, Emilio E

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus (H1N1), which arose in 2009, constituted the fourth pandemic after the cases of 1918, 1957, and 1968. This new variant was formed by a triple reassortment, with genomic segments from swine, avian, and human influenza origins. The objective of this study was to analyze sequences of hemagglutinin (n=2038) and neuraminidase (n=1273) genes, in order to assess the extent of diversity among circulating 2009-2010 strains, estimate if these genes evolved through positive, negative, or neutral selection models of evolution during the pandemic phase, and analyze the worldwide percentage of detection of important amino acid mutations that could enhance the viral performance, such as transmissibility or resistance to drugs. A continuous surveillance by public health authorities will be critical to monitor the appearance of new influenza variants, especially in animal reservoirs such as swine and birds, in order to prevent the potential animal-human transmission of viruses with pandemic potential.

  16. Maintaining DACUM Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    This document discusses the importance of maintaining the quality of DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analyses and presents a 2-page checklist detailing DACUM quality performance criteria. The introduction to the checklist discusses various "infractions" discovered during an analyses of some curriculum/program developers'…

  17. Diversity & Community: Maintaining Allegiances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Devon G.

    1990-01-01

    The quest for diversity must overcome the resistance of traditional White, male faculty to redefining the mission and curriculum of the liberal arts college. Change will be difficult, but it must occur if liberal arts colleges are to survive and maintain a central and relevant place in multicultural America. (MSE)

  18. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  19. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  20. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  1. The SET2-RPB1 interaction domain of human RECQ5 is important for transcription-associated genome stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Xu, Xiaohua; Liu, Yilun

    2011-05-01

    The conserved RECQ5 DNA helicase is a tumor suppressor in mammalian cells. Defects in RECQ5 lead to the accumulation of spontaneous DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) during replication, despite the fact that these cells are proficient in DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). The reason for this is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that these DSBs are linked to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-dependent transcription. In human RECQ5-depleted cells, active RNAPII accumulates on chromatin, and DNA breaks are associated with an RNAPII-dependent transcribed locus. Hence, transcription inhibition eliminates both active RNAPII and spontaneous DSB formation. In addition, the regulatory effect of RECQ5 on transcription and its interaction with RNAPII are enhanced in S-phase cells, supporting a role for RECQ5 in preventing transcription-associated DSBs during replication. Finally, we show that the SET2-RPB1 interaction (SRI) domain of human RECQ5 is important for suppressing spontaneous DSBs and the p53-dependent transcription stress response caused by the stalling of active RNAPII on DNA. Thus, our studies provide novel insights into a mechanism by which RECQ5 regulates the transcription machinery via its dynamic interaction with RNAPII, thereby preventing genome instability.

  2. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on norovirus infectivity and genome stability in strawberry puree and mineral water.

    PubMed

    Kovač, Katarina; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Raspor, Peter; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2012-01-03

    We report an evaluation of the effect of various combinations of pressures and times on the inactivation of norovirus (NoV) in two types of matrices that are important in NoV transmission: water and soft fruits. The human NoV surrogate murine norovirus was used as the model virus. The effect of HHP on the viral genome was evaluated by using RT real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), and infectivity assay was used to assess effects on the ability of the virus to attach to and replicate in cells. HHP treatments of 400 MPa for 2.5 min proved to be sufficient for efficient inactivation of NoV (>99.9% reduction). The efficacy of viral inactivation was highly dependent on the matrix in which the virus was present. Therefore, the effect of HHP should be carefully studied in all matrices to which HHP could potentially be applied. Finally, we found no consistent correlation between RT-qPCR and virus infectivity results, and consequently RT-qPCR is not a satisfactory tool for predicting risks to human health.

  3. Role of STN1 and DNA Polymerase α in Telomere Stability and Genome-Wide Replication in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Derboven, Elisa; Ekker, Heinz; Kusenda, Branislav; Bulankova, Petra; Riha, Karel

    2014-01-01

    The CST (Cdc13/CTC1-STN1-TEN1) complex was proposed to have evolved kingdom specific roles in telomere capping and replication. To shed light on its evolutionary conserved function, we examined the effect of STN1 dysfunction on telomere structure in plants. STN1 inactivation in Arabidopsis leads to a progressive loss of telomeric DNA and the onset of telomeric defects depends on the initial telomere size. While EXO1 aggravates defects associated with STN1 dysfunction, it does not contribute to the formation of long G-overhangs. Instead, these G-overhangs arise, at least partially, from telomerase-mediated telomere extension indicating a deficiency in C-strand fill-in synthesis. Analysis of hypomorphic DNA polymerase α mutants revealed that the impaired function of a general replication factor mimics the telomeric defects associated with CST dysfunction. Furthermore, we show that STN1-deficiency hinders re-replication of heterochromatic regions to a similar extent as polymerase α mutations. This comparative analysis of stn1 and pol α mutants suggests that STN1 plays a genome-wide role in DNA replication and that chromosome-end deprotection in stn1 mutants may represent a manifestation of aberrant replication through telomeres. PMID:25299252

  4. High definition viral vaccine strain identity and stability testing using full-genome population data--The next generation of vaccine quality control.

    PubMed

    Höper, Dirk; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas; Hanke, Dennis; von Messling, Veronika; Duchow, Karin; Beer, Martin; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2015-10-26

    Vaccines are the most effective prophylactic public health tools. With the help of vaccines, prevention of infectious disease spread and, in concert with other measures, even eradication has become possible. Until now, licensing and quality control require the determination of consensus genome sequences of replication competent infectious agents contained in vaccines. Recent improvements in sequencing technologies now enable the sequencing of complete genomes and the genetic analysis of populations with high reliability and resolution. The latter is particularly important for RNA viruses, which consist of fluctuating heterogeneous populations rather than genetically stable entities. This information now has to be integrated into the existing regulatory framework, challenging both licensing authorities and vaccine producers to develop new quality control criteria. Commercially available modified-live oral rabies vaccines and their precursor strains were deep-sequenced to assess strain identity and relations between strains based on population diversity. Strain relations were inferred based on the Manhattan distances calculated between the compositions of the viral populations of the strains. We provide a novel approach to assess viral strain relations with high resolution and reliability by deep sequencing with subsequent analysis of the overall genetic diversity within the viral populations. A comparison of our novel approach of inferring strain relations based on population data with consensus sequence analysis clearly shows that consensus sequence analysis of diverse viral populations can be misleading. Therefore, for quality control of viral vaccines deep sequencing analysis is to be preferred over consensus sequence analysis. The presented methodology allows for routine integration of deep sequencing data in vaccine quality control and licensing for highly reliable assessment of strain identity and stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sequence and expression analyses of KIX domain proteins suggest their importance in seed development and determination of seed size in rice, and genome stability in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jitendra Kumar; Agarwal, Pinky; Parida, Swarup; Bajaj, Deepak; Pasrija, Richa

    2013-08-01

    The KIX domain, which mediates protein-protein interactions, was first discovered as a motif in the large multidomain transcriptional activator histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP. Later, the domain was also found in Mediator subunit MED15, where it interacts with many transcription factors. In both proteins, the KIX domain is a target of activation domains of diverse transcription activators. It was found to be an essential component of several specific gene-activation pathways in fungi and metazoans. Not much is known about KIX domain proteins in plants. This study aims to characterize all the KIX domain proteins encoded by the genomes of Arabidopsis and rice. All identified KIX domain proteins are presented, together with their chromosomal locations, phylogenetic analysis, expression and SNP analyses. KIX domains were found not only in p300/CBP- and MED15-like plant proteins, but also in F-box proteins in rice and DNA helicase in Arabidopsis, suggesting roles of KIX domains in ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation and genome stability. Expression analysis revealed overlapping expression of OsKIX_3, OsKIX_5 and OsKIX_7 in different stages of rice seeds development. Moreover, an association analysis of 136 in silico mined SNP loci in 23 different rice genotypes with grain-length information identified three non-synonymous SNP loci in these three rice genes showing strong association with long- and short-grain differentiation. Interestingly, these SNPs were located within KIX domain encoding sequences. Overall, this study lays a foundation for functional analysis of KIX domain proteins in plants.

  6. Tissue aluminum concentration does not affect the genomic stability of ERBB2, C-MYC, and CCND1 genes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Peres, Raquel Mary; Cadore, Solange; Febraio, Stefanny; Heinrich, Juliana Karina; Serra, Katia Piton; Derchain, Sophie F M; Vassallo, José; Sarian, Luis Otavio

    2013-09-01

    It has long been hypothesized that body tissue uptake of aluminum may have biological implications in breast cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that aluminum may trigger genomic instability by interfering with DNA strands. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between aluminum concentrations in the peripheral and central areas of breast tumors with the instability of three key genes in breast cancer, ERBB2, C-MYC, and CCND1 and aneuploidy of the chromosomes harboring these genes. Tissue samples of 118 women treated for breast cancer were obtained. Evaluation of aluminum content was carried out using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A tissue microarray slide containing the tumor samples was used in FISH assays to assess ERBB2, C-MYC, and CCND1 expressions as well as the statuses of their respective chromosomes 17, 8, and 11. Clinicopathological data were obtained from patient's records. Aluminum levels of >2.0 mg/kg were found in 20.3 and 22.1% of the central and peripheral breast tumor areas, respectively. Amplification and/or aneuploid-positive statuses for ERBB2/CEP17, C-MYC/CEP8, and CCND1/CEP11 were detected in 24, 36.7, and 29.3% of the tumors, respectively. We found that aluminum concentration was not related to these altered gene statuses. Our findings suggest that aluminum concentration does not affect genomic stability in breast tissues. Tissue microenvironment modifications, due to the presence of aluminum compounds, seem more appealing as a possible target for future studies to determine the implications of aluminum in breast carcinogenesis.

  7. Local neutral networks help maintain inaccurately replicating ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2014-01-01

    The error threshold of replication limits the selectively maintainable genome size against recurrent deleterious mutations for most fitness landscapes. In the context of RNA replication a distinction between the genotypic and the phenotypic error threshold has been made; where the latter concerns the maintenance of secondary structure rather than sequence. RNA secondary structure is treated as a proxy for function. The phenotypic error threshold allows higher per digit mutation rates than its genotypic counterpart, and is known to increase with the frequency of neutral mutations in sequence space. Here we show that the degree of neutrality, i.e. the frequency of nearest-neighbour (one-step) neutral mutants is a remarkably accurate proxy for the overall frequency of such mutants in an experimentally verifiable formula for the phenotypic error threshold; this we achieve by the full numerical solution for the concentration of all sequences in mutation-selection balance up to length 16. We reinforce our previous result that currently known ribozymes could be selectively maintained by the accuracy known from the best available polymerase ribozymes. Furthermore, we show that in silico stabilizing selection can increase the mutational robustness of ribozymes due to the fact that they were produced by artificial directional selection in the first place. Our finding offers a better understanding of the error threshold and provides further insight into the plausibility of an ancient RNA world.

  8. NUCKS1 is a novel RAD51AP1 paralog important for homologous recombination and genome stability

    DOE PAGES

    Parplys, Ann C.; Zhao, Weixing; Sharma, Neelam; ...

    2015-08-31

    NUCKS1 (nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1) is a 27 kD chromosomal, vertebrate-specific protein, for which limited functional data exist. Here, we demonstrate that NUCKS1 shares extensive sequence homology with RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), suggesting that these two proteins are paralogs. Similar to the phenotypic effects of RAD51AP1 knockdown, we find that depletion of NUCKS1 in human cells impairs DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and chromosome stability. Depletion of NUCKS1 also results in greatly increased cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC), and in increased levels of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromatid breaks. NUCKS1 is critical to maintainingmore » wild type HR capacity, and, as observed for a number of proteins involved in the HR pathway, functional loss of NUCKS1 leads to a slow down in DNA replication fork progression with a concomitant increase in the utilization of new replication origins. Interestingly, recombinant NUCKS1 shares the same DNA binding preference as RAD51AP1, but binds to DNA with reduced affinity when compared to RAD51AP1. Finally, our results show that NUCKS1 is a chromatin-associated protein with a role in the DNA damage response and in HR, a DNA repair pathway critical for tumor suppression.« less

  9. Stability and fitness impact of the visually discernible Rosea1 marker in the Tobacco etch virus genome.

    PubMed

    Majer, Eszter; Daròs, José-Antonio; Zwart, Mark P

    2013-09-09

    Antirrhinum majus Rosea1 (Ros1) is an MYB-related transcription factor that induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in plant tissues, and has been shown to be suitable for visual tracking of virus infection in plants. However, activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis has far reaching effects on plant physiology and could consequently have negative effects on viral replication. Therefore, viruses carrying the Ros1 marker might have a low fitness and consequently rapidly lose the marker. To compare the stability of the Ros1 marker, we generated Tobacco etch virus (TEV) based constructs containing either Ros1 or the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) between the NIb and CP cistrons (TEV-Ros1 and TEV-eGFP, respectively). We measured the within-host competitive fitness of both viruses by direct competitions with a common competitor during infection of Nicotiana tabacum. The fitness of TEV-Ros1 was significantly lower than that of TEV-eGFP, and both recombinant viruses had a significantly lower fitness than the wild-type virus. Nevertheless, after seven weeks of infection in N. tabacum, similar levels of marker gene instability where found for both viruses. Despite lower fitness of the marked virus, Ros1 is therefore a viable alternative marker for tracking viral infection in plants.

  10. Stability and Fitness Impact of the Visually Discernible Rosea1 Marker in the Tobacco etch virus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Majer, Eszter; Daròs, José-Antonio; Zwart, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Antirrhinum majus Rosea1 (Ros1) is an MYB-related transcription factor that induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in plant tissues, and has been shown to be suitable for visual tracking of virus infection in plants. However, activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis has far reaching effects on plant physiology and could consequently have negative effects on viral replication. Therefore, viruses carrying the Ros1 marker might have a low fitness and consequently rapidly lose the marker. To compare the stability of the Ros1 marker, we generated Tobacco etch virus (TEV) based constructs containing either Ros1 or the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) between the NIb and CP cistrons (TEV-Ros1 and TEV-eGFP, respectively). We measured the within-host competitive fitness of both viruses by direct competitions with a common competitor during infection of Nicotiana tabacum. The fitness of TEV-Ros1 was significantly lower than that of TEV-eGFP, and both recombinant viruses had a significantly lower fitness than the wild-type virus. Nevertheless, after seven weeks of infection in N. tabacum, similar levels of marker gene instability where found for both viruses. Despite lower fitness of the marked virus, Ros1 is therefore a viable alternative marker for tracking viral infection in plants. PMID:24022073

  11. Gestures maintain spatial imagery.

    PubMed

    Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K

    2001-01-01

    Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.

  12. Base pairing between hepatitis C virus RNA and microRNA 122 3' of its seed sequence is essential for genome stabilization and production of infectious virus.

    PubMed

    Shimakami, Tetsuro; Yamane, Daisuke; Welsch, Christoph; Hensley, Lucinda; Jangra, Rohit K; Lemon, Stanley M

    2012-07-01

    MicroRNA 122 (miR-122) facilitates hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication by recruiting an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-like complex containing argonaute 2 (Ago2) to the 5' end of the HCV genome, thereby stabilizing the viral RNA. This requires base pairing between the miR-122 "seed sequence" (nucleotides [nt] 2 to 8) and two sequences near the 5' end of the HCV RNA: S1 (nt 22 to 28) and S2 (nt 38 to 43). However, recent reports suggest that additional base pair interactions occur between HCV RNA and miR-122. We searched 606 sequences from a public database (genotypes 1 to 6) and identified two conserved, putatively single-stranded RNA segments, upstream of S1 (nt 2 and 3) and S2 (nt 30 to 34), with potential for base pairing to miR-122 (nt 15 and 16 and nt 13 to 16, respectively). Mutagenesis and genetic complementation experiments confirmed that HCV nt 2 and 3 pair with nt 15 and 16 of miR-122 bound to S1, while HCV nt 30 to 33 pair with nt 13 to 16 of miR-122 at S2. In genotype 1 and 6 HCV, nt 4 also base pairs with nt 14 of miR-122. These 3' supplementary base pair interactions of miR-122 are functionally important and are required for Ago2 recruitment to HCV RNA by miR-122, miR-122-mediated stabilization of HCV RNA, and production of infectious virus. However, while complementary mutations at HCV nt 30 and 31 efficiently rescued the activity of a 15C,16C miR-122 mutant targeting S2, similar mutations at nt 2 and 3 failed to rescue Ago2 recruitment at S1. These data add to the current understanding of miR-122 interactions with HCV RNA but indicate that base pairing between miR-122 and the 5' 43 nt of the HCV genome is more complex than suggested by existing models.

  13. Base Pairing between Hepatitis C Virus RNA and MicroRNA 122 3′ of Its Seed Sequence Is Essential for Genome Stabilization and Production of Infectious Virus

    PubMed Central

    Shimakami, Tetsuro; Yamane, Daisuke; Welsch, Christoph; Hensley, Lucinda; Jangra, Rohit K.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA 122 (miR-122) facilitates hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication by recruiting an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-like complex containing argonaute 2 (Ago2) to the 5′ end of the HCV genome, thereby stabilizing the viral RNA. This requires base pairing between the miR-122 “seed sequence” (nucleotides [nt] 2 to 8) and two sequences near the 5′ end of the HCV RNA: S1 (nt 22 to 28) and S2 (nt 38 to 43). However, recent reports suggest that additional base pair interactions occur between HCV RNA and miR-122. We searched 606 sequences from a public database (genotypes 1 to 6) and identified two conserved, putatively single-stranded RNA segments, upstream of S1 (nt 2 and 3) and S2 (nt 30 to 34), with potential for base pairing to miR-122 (nt 15 and 16 and nt 13 to 16, respectively). Mutagenesis and genetic complementation experiments confirmed that HCV nt 2 and 3 pair with nt 15 and 16 of miR-122 bound to S1, while HCV nt 30 to 33 pair with nt 13 to 16 of miR-122 at S2. In genotype 1 and 6 HCV, nt 4 also base pairs with nt 14 of miR-122. These 3′ supplementary base pair interactions of miR-122 are functionally important and are required for Ago2 recruitment to HCV RNA by miR-122, miR-122-mediated stabilization of HCV RNA, and production of infectious virus. However, while complementary mutations at HCV nt 30 and 31 efficiently rescued the activity of a 15C,16C miR-122 mutant targeting S2, similar mutations at nt 2 and 3 failed to rescue Ago2 recruitment at S1. These data add to the current understanding of miR-122 interactions with HCV RNA but indicate that base pairing between miR-122 and the 5′ 43 nt of the HCV genome is more complex than suggested by existing models. PMID:22532678

  14. Histone Acetyl Transferase 1 Is Essential for Mammalian Development, Genome Stability, and the Processing of Newly Synthesized Histones H3 and H4

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Ge, Zhongqi; Sirbu, Bianca; Doughty, Cheryl; Agudelo Garcia, Paula A.; Schlederer, Michaela; Annunziato, Anthony T.; Cortez, David; Kenner, Lukas; Parthun, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferase 1 is an evolutionarily conserved type B histone acetyltransferase that is thought to be responsible for the diacetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 on lysines 5 and 12 during chromatin assembly. To understand the function of this enzyme in a complex organism, we have constructed a conditional mouse knockout model of Hat1. Murine Hat1 is essential for viability, as homozygous deletion of Hat1 results in neonatal lethality. The lungs of embryos and pups genetically deficient in Hat1 were much less mature upon histological evaluation. The neonatal lethality is due to severe defects in lung development that result in less aeration and respiratory distress. Many of the Hat1−/− neonates also display significant craniofacial defects with abnormalities in the bones of the skull and jaw. Hat1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are defective in cell proliferation and are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. In addition, the Hat1−/− MEFs display a marked increase in genome instability. Analysis of histone dynamics at sites of replication-coupled chromatin assembly demonstrates that Hat1 is not only responsible for the acetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 but is also required to maintain the acetylation of histone H3 on lysines 9, 18, and 27 during replication-coupled chromatin assembly. PMID:23754951

  15. Histone acetyl transferase 1 is essential for mammalian development, genome stability, and the processing of newly synthesized histones H3 and H4.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Ge, Zhongqi; Sirbu, Bianca; Doughty, Cheryl; Agudelo Garcia, Paula A; Schlederer, Michaela; Annunziato, Anthony T; Cortez, David; Kenner, Lukas; Parthun, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Histone acetyltransferase 1 is an evolutionarily conserved type B histone acetyltransferase that is thought to be responsible for the diacetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 on lysines 5 and 12 during chromatin assembly. To understand the function of this enzyme in a complex organism, we have constructed a conditional mouse knockout model of Hat1. Murine Hat1 is essential for viability, as homozygous deletion of Hat1 results in neonatal lethality. The lungs of embryos and pups genetically deficient in Hat1 were much less mature upon histological evaluation. The neonatal lethality is due to severe defects in lung development that result in less aeration and respiratory distress. Many of the Hat1(-/-) neonates also display significant craniofacial defects with abnormalities in the bones of the skull and jaw. Hat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are defective in cell proliferation and are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. In addition, the Hat1(-/-) MEFs display a marked increase in genome instability. Analysis of histone dynamics at sites of replication-coupled chromatin assembly demonstrates that Hat1 is not only responsible for the acetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 but is also required to maintain the acetylation of histone H3 on lysines 9, 18, and 27 during replication-coupled chromatin assembly.

  16. Genome-Wide Studies Reveal that H3K4me3 Modification in Bivalent Genes Is Dynamically Regulated during the Pluripotent Cell Cycle and Stabilized upon Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Grandy, Rodrigo A; Whitfield, Troy W; Wu, Hai; Fitzgerald, Mark P; VanOudenhove, Jennifer J; Zaidi, Sayyed K; Montecino, Martin A; Lian, Jane B; van Wijnen, André J; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2015-12-07

    Stem cell phenotypes are reflected by posttranslational histone modifications, and this chromatin-related memory must be mitotically inherited to maintain cell identity through proliferative expansion. In human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), bivalent genes with both activating (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications are essential to sustain pluripotency. Yet, the molecular mechanisms by which this epigenetic landscape is transferred to progeny cells remain to be established. By mapping genomic enrichment of H3K4me3/H3K27me3 in pure populations of hESCs in G2, mitotic, and G1 phases of the cell cycle, we found striking variations in the levels of H3K4me3 through the G2-M-G1 transition. Analysis of a representative set of bivalent genes revealed that chromatin modifiers involved in H3K4 methylation/demethylation are recruited to bivalent gene promoters in a cell cycle-dependent fashion. Interestingly, bivalent genes enriched with H3K4me3 exclusively during mitosis undergo the strongest upregulation after induction of differentiation. Furthermore, the histone modification signature of genes that remain bivalent in differentiated cells resolves into a cell cycle-independent pattern after lineage commitment. These results establish a new dimension of chromatin regulation important in the maintenance of pluripotency.

  17. Sgs1, a Homologue of the Bloom's and Werner's Syndrome Genes, Is Required for Maintenance of Genome Stability in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Watt, P. M.; Hickson, I. D.; Borts, R. H.; Louis, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SGS1 gene is homologous to Escherichia coli RecQ and the human BLM and WRN proteins that are defective in the cancer-prone disorder Bloom's syndrome and the premature aging disorder Werner's syndrome, respectively. While recQ mutants are deficient in conjugational recombination and DNA repair, Bloom's syndrome cell lines show hyperrecombination. Bloom's and Werner's syndrome cell lines both exhibit chromosomal instability. sgs1Δ strains show mitotic hyperrecombination, as do Bloom's cells. This was manifested as an increase in the frequency of interchromosomal homologous recombination, intrachromosomal excision recombination, and ectopic recombination. Hyperrecombination was partially independent of both RAD52 and RAD1. Meiotic recombination was not increased in sgs1Δ mutants, although meiosis I chromosome missegregation has been shown to be elevated. sgs1Δ suppresses the slow growth of a top3Δ strain lacking topoisomerase III. Although there was an increase in subtelomeric Y' instability in sgs1Δ strains due to hyperrecombination, no evidence was found for an increase in the instability of terminal telomeric sequences in a top3Δ or a sgs1Δ strain. This contrasts with the telomere maintenance defects of Werner's patients. We conclude that the SGS1 gene product is involved in the maintenance of genome stability in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8913739

  18. Identity, proliferation capacity, genomic stability and novel senescence markers of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from low volume of human bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Kundrotas, Gabrielis; Gasperskaja, Evelina; Slapsyte, Grazina; Gudleviciene, Zivile; Krasko, Jan; Stumbryte, Ausra; Liudkeviciene, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) hold promise for treating incurable diseases and repairing of damaged tissues. However, hBM-MSCs face the disadvantages of painful invasive isolation and limited cell numbers. In this study we assessed characteristics of MSCs isolated from residual human bone marrow transplantation material and expanded to clinically relevant numbers at passages 3-4 and 6-7. Results indicated that early passage hBM-MSCs are genomically stable and retain identity and high proliferation capacity. Despite the chromosomal stability, the cells became senescent at late passages, paralleling the slower proliferation, altered morphology and immunophenotype. By qRT-PCR array profiling, we revealed 13 genes and 33 miRNAs significantly differentially expressed in late passage cells, among which 8 genes and 30 miRNAs emerged as potential novel biomarkers of hBM-MSC aging. Functional analysis of genes with altered expression showed strong association with biological processes causing cellular senescence. Altogether, this study revives hBM as convenient source for cellular therapy. Potential novel markers provide new details for better understanding the hBM-MSC senescence mechanisms, contributing to basic science, facilitating the development of cellular therapy quality control, and providing new clues for human disease processes since senescence phenotype of the hematological patient hBM-MSCs only very recently has been revealed. PMID:26910916

  19. Preparation, characterization, and banking of clinical-grade cells for neural transplantation: Scale up, fingerprinting, and genomic stability of stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Natalwala, Ammar; Kunath, Tilo

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative condition that is characterized by the severe loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons, which innervate the striatum. Cell transplantation therapies to rebuild this dopaminergic network have been attempted for over 30 years. The most promising outcomes were observed when human fetal mesencephalic tissue was used as the source of cells for transplantation. However, reliance on terminations for a Parkinson's therapy presents significant logistical and ethical hurdles. An alternative source of transplantable mDA neurons is urgently needed, and the solution may come from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Protocols to differentiate hESCs/iPSCs toward mDA neurons are now robust and efficient, and upon grafting the cells rescue preclinical animal models of Parkinson's disease. The challenge now is to apply Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) to the academic discoveries and protocols to produce clinical-grade transplantable mDA cells. Major technical and logistical considerations include (i) source of hESC or iPSC line, (ii) GMP compliance of the differentiation protocol and all reagents, (iii) characterization of the cell product in terms of identity, safety, and efficacy, (iv) characterization of genomic state and stability, and (v) banking of a transplantation-ready cell product. Approaches and solutions to these challenges are reviewed here. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Catalytic function of the PR-Set7 histone H4 lysine 20 monomethyltransferase is essential for mitotic entry and genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Houston, Sabrina I; McManus, Kirk J; Adams, Melissa M; Sims, Jennifer K; Carpenter, Phillip B; Hendzel, Michael J; Rice, Judd C

    2008-07-11

    Histone-modifying enzymes play a critical role in modulating chromatin dynamics. In this report we demonstrate that one of these enzymes, PR-Set7, and its corresponding histone modification, the monomethylation of histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20), display a distinct cell cycle profile in mammalian cells: low at G1, increased during late S phase and G2, and maximal from prometaphase to anaphase. The lack of PR-Set7 and monomethylated H4K20 resulted in a number of aberrant phenotypes in several different mammalian cell types. These include the inability of cells to progress past G2, global chromosome condensation failure, aberrant centrosome amplification, and substantial DNA damage. By employing a catalytically dead dominant negative PR-Set7 mutant, we discovered that its mono-methyltransferase activity was required to prevent these phenotypes. Importantly, we demonstrate that all of the aberrant phenotypes associated with the loss of PR-Set7 enzymatic function occur independently of p53. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that PR-Set7 enzymatic activity is essential for mammalian cell cycle progression and for the maintenance of genomic stability, most likely by monomethylating histone H4K20. Our results predict that alterations of this pathway could result in gross chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy.

  1. Persistence drives gene clustering in bacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Gang; Rocha, Eduardo PC; Danchin, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    Background Gene clustering plays an important role in the organization of the bacterial chromosome and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain its extent. However, the controversies raised about the validity of each of these mechanisms remind us that the cause of this gene organization remains an open question. Models proposed to explain clustering did not take into account the function of the gene products nor the likely presence or absence of a given gene in a genome. However, genomes harbor two very different categories of genes: those genes present in a majority of organisms – persistent genes – and those present in very few organisms – rare genes. Results We show that two classes of genes are significantly clustered in bacterial genomes: the highly persistent and the rare genes. The clustering of rare genes is readily explained by the selfish operon theory. Yet, genes persistently present in bacterial genomes are also clustered and we try to understand why. We propose a model accounting specifically for such clustering, and show that indispensability in a genome with frequent gene deletion and insertion leads to the transient clustering of these genes. The model describes how clusters are created via the gene flux that continuously introduces new genes while deleting others. We then test if known selective processes, such as co-transcription, physical interaction or functional neighborhood, account for the stabilization of these clusters. Conclusion We show that the strong selective pressure acting on the function of persistent genes, in a permanent state of flux of genes in bacterial genomes, maintaining their size fairly constant, that drives persistent genes clustering. A further selective stabilization process might contribute to maintaining the clustering. PMID:18179692

  2. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  3. Global analysis of biogenesis, stability and sub-cellular localization of lncRNAs mapping to intragenic regions of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Ayupe, Ana C; Tahira, Ana C; Camargo, Lauren; Beckedorff, Felipe C; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Reis, Eduardo M

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that map to intragenic regions of the human genome with the same (intronic lncRNAs) or opposite orientation (antisense lncRNAs) relative to protein-coding mRNAs have been largely dismissed from biochemical and functional characterization due to the belief that they are mRNA precursors, byproducts of RNA splicing or simply transcriptional noise. In this work, we used a custom microarray to investigate aspects of the biogenesis, processing, stability, evolutionary conservation, and cellular localization of ∼6,000 intronic lncRNAs and ∼10,000 antisense lncRNAs. Most intronic (2,903 of 3,427, 85%) and antisense lncRNAs (4,945 of 5,214, 95%) expressed in HeLa cells showed evidence of 5′ cap modification, compatible with their transcription by RNAP II. Antisense lncRNAs (median t1/2 = 3.9 h) were significantly (p < 0.0001) more stable than mRNAs (median t1/2 = 3.2 h), whereas intronic lncRNAs (median t1/2 = 2.1 h) comprised a more heterogeneous class that included both stable (t1/2 > 3 h) and unstable (t1/2 < 1 h) transcripts. Intragenic lncRNAs display evidence of evolutionary conservation, have little/no coding potential and were ubiquitously detected in the cytoplasm. Notably, a fraction of the intronic and antisense lncRNAs (13 and 15%, respectively) were expressed from loci at which the corresponding host mRNA was not detected. The abundances of a subset of intronic/antisense lncRNAs were correlated (r ≥ |0.8|) with those of genes encoding proteins involved in cell division and DNA replication. Taken together, the findings of this study contribute novel biochemical and genomic information regarding intronic and antisense lncRNAs, supporting the notion that these classes include independently transcribed RNAs with potentials for exerting regulatory functions in the cell. PMID:26151857

  4. CDI Systems Are Stably Maintained by a Cell-Contact Mediated Surveillance Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Annette J.; Leung, Nicole Y.; Hayes, Christopher S.; Low, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems are widespread amongst Gram-negative bacteria where they play important roles in inter-cellular competition and biofilm formation. CDI+ bacteria use cell-surface CdiA proteins to bind neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains. CDI+ cells also express CdiI immunity proteins that specifically neutralize toxins delivered from adjacent siblings. Genomic analyses indicate that cdi loci are commonly found on plasmids and genomic islands, suggesting that these Type 5 secretion systems are spread through horizontal gene transfer. Here, we examine whether CDI toxin and immunity activities serve to stabilize mobile genetic elements using a minimal F plasmid that fails to partition properly during cell division. This F plasmid is lost from Escherichia coli populations within 50 cell generations, but is maintained in ~60% of the cells after 100 generations when the plasmid carries the cdi gene cluster from E. coli strain EC93. By contrast, the ccdAB "plasmid addiction" module normally found on F exerts only a modest stabilizing effect. cdi-dependent plasmid stabilization requires the BamA receptor for CdiA, suggesting that plasmid-free daughter cells are inhibited by siblings that retain the CDI+ plasmid. In support of this model, the CDI+ F plasmid is lost rapidly from cells that carry an additional cdiI immunity gene on a separate plasmid. These results indicate that plasmid stabilization occurs through elimination of non-immune cells arising in the population via plasmid loss. Thus, genetic stabilization reflects a strong selection for immunity to CDI. After long-term passage for more than 300 generations, CDI+ plasmids acquire mutations that increase copy number and result in 100% carriage in the population. Together, these results show that CDI stabilizes genetic elements through a toxin-mediated surveillance mechanism in which cells that lose the CDI system are detected and eliminated by their siblings

  5. The 3D folding of metazoan genomes correlates with the association of similar repetitive elements

    PubMed Central

    Cournac, Axel; Koszul, Romain; Mozziconacci, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The potential roles of the numerous repetitive elements found in the genomes of multi-cellular organisms remain speculative. Several studies have suggested a role in stabilizing specific 3D genomic contacts. To test this hypothesis, we exploited inter-chromosomal contacts frequencies obtained from Hi-C experiments and show that the folding of the human, mouse and Drosophila genomes is associated with a significant co-localization of several specific repetitive elements, notably many elements of the SINE family. These repeats tend to be the oldest ones and are enriched in transcription factor binding sites. We propose that the co-localization of these repetitive elements may explain the global conservation of genome folding observed between homologous regions of the human and mouse genome. Taken together, these results support a contribution of specific repetitive elements in maintaining and/or reshaping genome architecture over evolutionary times. PMID:26609133

  6. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  7. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    PubMed

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield.

  8. Effect of lead on phytotoxicity, growth, biochemical alterations and its role on genomic template stability in Sesbania grandiflora: a potential plant for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Malar, Srinivasan; Manikandan, Rajendiran; Favas, Paulo J C; Vikram Sahi, Shivendra; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2014-10-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating phytotoxicity of various concentrations of lead nitrate (0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000mgL(-1)) in Sesbania grandiflora. The seedling growth was significantly affected (46%) at 1000mgL(-1) lead (Pb) treatment. Accumulation of Pb content was high in root (118mgg(-1) dry weight) than in shoot (23mgg(-1) dry weight). The level of photosynthetic pigment contents was gradually increased with increasing concentrations of Pb. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased in both the leaves as well as roots at 600mgL(-1) Pb treatment and decreased at higher concentrations. The activity of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were positively correlated with Pb treatment while catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities increased up to 600mgL(-1) Pb treatment and then slightly decreased at higher concentrations. Isozyme banding pattern revealed the appearance of additional isoforms of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in Pb treated leaf tissues. Isozyme band intensity was more consistent with the respective changes in antioxidative enzyme activities. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability (GTS) was significantly affected based on Pb concentrations. The present results suggest that higher concentrations of Pb enhanced the oxidative damage by over production of ROS in S. grandiflora that had potential tolerance mechanism to Pb as evidenced by increased level of photosynthetic pigments, MDA content, and the level of antioxidative enzymes. Retention of high levels of Pb in root indicated that S. grandiflora has potential for phytoextracting heavy metals by rhizofiltration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Precision engineering for PRRSV resistance in pigs: Macrophages from genome edited pigs lacking CD163 SRCR5 domain are fully resistant to both PRRSV genotypes while maintaining biological function

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Ben; Mileham, Alan J.; Ait-Ali, Tahar; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV). PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5) region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro. CD163 is expressed at high levels on the surface of macrophages, particularly in the respiratory system. Here we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9 to pig zygotes, resulting in the generation of pigs with a deletion of Exon 7 of the CD163 gene, encoding SRCR5. Deletion of SRCR5 showed no adverse effects in pigs maintained under standard husbandry conditions with normal growth rates and complete blood counts observed. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were isolated from the animals and assessed in vitro. Both PAMs and macrophages obtained from PBMCs by CSF1 stimulation (PMMs) show the characteristic differentiation and cell surface marker expression of macrophages of the respective origin. Expression and correct folding of the SRCR5 deletion CD163 on the surface of macrophages and biological activity of the protein as hemoglobin-haptoglobin scavenger was confirmed. Challenge of both PAMs and PMMs with PRRSV genotype 1, subtypes 1, 2, and 3 and PMMs with PRRSV genotype 2 showed complete resistance to viral infections assessed by replication. Confocal microscopy revealed the absence of replication structures in the SRCR5 CD163 deletion macrophages, indicating an inhibition of infection prior to gene expression, i.e. at entry/fusion or unpacking stages. PMID:28231264

  10. Precision engineering for PRRSV resistance in pigs: Macrophages from genome edited pigs lacking CD163 SRCR5 domain are fully resistant to both PRRSV genotypes while maintaining biological function.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Christine; Lillico, Simon G; Reid, Elizabeth; Jackson, Ben; Mileham, Alan J; Ait-Ali, Tahar; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Archibald, Alan L

    2017-02-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV). PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5) region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro. CD163 is expressed at high levels on the surface of macrophages, particularly in the respiratory system. Here we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9 to pig zygotes, resulting in the generation of pigs with a deletion of Exon 7 of the CD163 gene, encoding SRCR5. Deletion of SRCR5 showed no adverse effects in pigs maintained under standard husbandry conditions with normal growth rates and complete blood counts observed. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were isolated from the animals and assessed in vitro. Both PAMs and macrophages obtained from PBMCs by CSF1 stimulation (PMMs) show the characteristic differentiation and cell surface marker expression of macrophages of the respective origin. Expression and correct folding of the SRCR5 deletion CD163 on the surface of macrophages and biological activity of the protein as hemoglobin-haptoglobin scavenger was confirmed. Challenge of both PAMs and PMMs with PRRSV genotype 1, subtypes 1, 2, and 3 and PMMs with PRRSV genotype 2 showed complete resistance to viral infections assessed by replication. Confocal microscopy revealed the absence of replication structures in the SRCR5 CD163 deletion macrophages, indicating an inhibition of infection prior to gene expression, i.e. at entry/fusion or unpacking stages.

  11. How homologous recombination maintains telomere integrity.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, Eliana M C; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes against loss of genetic information and inappropriate processing as damaged DNA and are therefore crucial to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. In addition to providing a pathway for genome-wide DNA repair, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in telomere replication and capping. Consistent with this, the genomic instability characteristic of HR-deficient cells and tumours is driven in part by telomere dysfunction. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which HR modulates the response to intrinsic cellular challenges that arise during telomere replication, as well as its impact on the assembly of telomere protective structures. How normal and tumour cells differ in their ability to maintain telomeres is deeply relevant to the search for treatments that would selectively eliminate cells whose capacity for HR-mediated repair has been compromised.

  12. A SNARE-Like Superfamily Protein SbSLSP from the Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Confers Salt and Drought Tolerance by Maintaining Membrane Stability, K+/Na+ Ratio, and Antioxidant Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dinkar; Yadav, Narendra Singh; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    About 1000 salt-responsive ESTs were identified from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata. Among these, a novel salt-inducible gene SbSLSP (Salicornia brachiata SNARE-like superfamily protein), showed up-regulation upon salinity and dehydration stress. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs related to abiotic stress in the putative promoter region supports our finding that SbSLSP gene is inducible by abiotic stress. The SbSLSP protein showed a high sequence identity to hypothetical/uncharacterized proteins from Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Eucalyptus grandis, and Prunus persica and with SNARE-like superfamily proteins from Zostera marina and Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatics analysis predicted a clathrin adaptor complex small-chain domain and N-myristoylation site in the SbSLSP protein. Subcellular localization studies indicated that the SbSLSP protein is mainly localized in the plasma membrane. Using transgenic tobacco lines, we establish that overexpression of SbSLSP resulted in elevated tolerance to salt and drought stress. The improved tolerance was confirmed by alterations in a range of physiological parameters, including high germination and survival rate, higher leaf chlorophyll contents, and reduced accumulation of Na+ ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, overexpressing lines also showed lower water loss, higher cell membrane stability, and increased accumulation of proline and ROS-scavenging enzymes. Overexpression of SbSLSP also enhanced the transcript levels of ROS-scavenging and signaling enzyme genes. This study is the first investigation of the function of the SbSLSP gene as a novel determinant of salinity/drought tolerance. The results suggest that SbSLSP could be a potential candidate to increase salinity and drought tolerance in crop plants for sustainable agriculture in semi-arid saline soil. PMID:27313584

  13. PICH and cotargeted Plk1 coordinately maintain prometaphase chromosome arm architecture.

    PubMed

    Kurasawa, Yasuhiro; Yu-Lee, Li-yuan

    2010-04-01

    To maintain genomic stability, chromosome architecture needs to be tightly regulated as chromosomes undergo condensation during prophase and separation during anaphase, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Plk1-binding protein PICH and Plk1 kinase coordinately maintain chromosome architecture during prometaphase. PICH knockdown results in a loss of Plk1 from the chromosome arm and an increase in highly disorganized "wavy" chromosomes that exhibit an "open" or "X-shaped" configuration, consistent with a loss of chromosome arm cohesion. Such chromosome disorganization occurs with essentially no change in the localization of condensin or cohesin on chromosomes. Interestingly, the chromosome disorganization could be prevented by treatment with a topoisomerase II inhibitor ICRF-193, suggesting that the PICH-Plk1 complex normally maintains chromosome architecture in a manner that involves topoisomerase II activity. PICH knockdown does not affect initial chromosome compaction at prophase but causes anaphase DNA bridge formation and failed abscission. Our studies suggest that the PICH-Plk1 complex plays a critical role in maintaining prometaphase chromosome architecture.

  14. PICH and Cotargeted Plk1 Coordinately Maintain Prometaphase Chromosome Arm Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Kurasawa, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    To maintain genomic stability, chromosome architecture needs to be tightly regulated as chromosomes undergo condensation during prophase and separation during anaphase, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Plk1-binding protein PICH and Plk1 kinase coordinately maintain chromosome architecture during prometaphase. PICH knockdown results in a loss of Plk1 from the chromosome arm and an increase in highly disorganized “wavy” chromosomes that exhibit an “open” or “X-shaped” configuration, consistent with a loss of chromosome arm cohesion. Such chromosome disorganization occurs with essentially no change in the localization of condensin or cohesin on chromosomes. Interestingly, the chromosome disorganization could be prevented by treatment with a topoisomerase II inhibitor ICRF-193, suggesting that the PICH–Plk1 complex normally maintains chromosome architecture in a manner that involves topoisomerase II activity. PICH knockdown does not affect initial chromosome compaction at prophase but causes anaphase DNA bridge formation and failed abscission. Our studies suggest that the PICH–Plk1 complex plays a critical role in maintaining prometaphase chromosome architecture. PMID:20130082

  15. Nuclear selenoproteins and genome maintenance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential metalloid required for the expression of selenoproteins. While cells are constantly challenged by clastogens of endogenous and exogenous origins, genome integrity is maintained by direct repair of DNA damage, redox balance, and epigenetic regulation. To date, only five selenoproteins are experimentally demonstrated to reside in nucleus, exclusively or partially, including selenoprotein H, methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase 1, glutathione peroxidase-4, thioredoxin reductase-1, and thioredoxin glutathione reductase. All these five selenoproteins have demonstrated or potential roles in redox regulation and genome maintenance. Selenoprotein H is known to transactivate the expression of a couple of genes against oxidative stress. The thioredoxin reductase-1b isoform delivers estrogen receptor-α and -β to the nucleus. Nuclear glutathione peroxidase-4 epigenetically and globally inhibits gene expression through the maintenance of chromatin compactness in testes. Continued studies on how these and additional nuclear selenoproteins regulate genome stability will have profound impact on advancing our understanding in selenium regulation of optimal health. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):5-12, 2016. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Lkb1 maintains Treg cell lineage identity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Luo, Yuechen; Guo, Wei; Niu, Qing; Xue, Ting; Yang, Fei; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Song; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jingru; Sun, Zhina; Zhao, Chunxiao; Huang, Huifang; Liao, Fang; Han, Zhongchao; Zhou, Dongming; Yang, Yongguang; Xu, Guogang; Cheng, Tao; Feng, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a distinct T-cell lineage characterized by sustained Foxp3 expression and potent suppressor function, but the upstream dominant factors that preserve Treg lineage-specific features are mostly unknown. Here, we show that Lkb1 maintains Treg cell lineage identity by stabilizing Foxp3 expression and enforcing suppressor function. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation Lkb1 protein expression is upregulated in Treg cells but not in conventional T cells. Mice with Treg cell-specific deletion of Lkb1 develop a fatal early-onset autoimmune disease, with no Foxp3 expression in most Treg cells. Lkb1 stabilizes Foxp3 expression by preventing STAT4-mediated methylation of the conserved noncoding sequence 2 (CNS2) in the Foxp3 locus. Independent of maintaining Foxp3 expression, Lkb1 programs the expression of a wide spectrum of immunosuppressive genes, through mechanisms involving the augmentation of TGF-β signalling. These findings identify a critical function of Lkb1 in maintaining Treg cell lineage identity. PMID:28621313

  17. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine

    PubMed Central

    Elsik, Christine G.; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M.; Unni, Deepak R.; Emery, Marianne L.; Nguyen, Hung N.; Hagen, Darren E.

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  18. Development of a duplex real-time RT-qPCR assay to monitor genome replication, gene expression and gene insert stability during in vivo replication of a prototype live attenuated canine distemper virus vector encoding SIV gag.

    PubMed

    Coleman, John W; Wright, Kevin J; Wallace, Olivia L; Sharma, Palka; Arendt, Heather; Martinez, Jennifer; DeStefano, Joanne; Zamb, Timothy P; Zhang, Xinsheng; Parks, Christopher L

    2015-03-01

    Advancement of new vaccines based on live viral vectors requires sensitive assays to analyze in vivo replication, gene expression and genetic stability. In this study, attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) was used as a vaccine delivery vector and duplex 2-step quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays specific for genomic RNA (gRNA) or mRNA have been developed that concurrently quantify coding sequences for the CDV nucleocapsid protein (N) and a foreign vaccine antigen (SIV Gag). These amplicons, which had detection limits of about 10 copies per PCR reaction, were used to show that abdominal cavity lymphoid tissues were a primary site of CDV vector replication in infected ferrets, and importantly, CDV gRNA or mRNA was undetectable in brain tissue. In addition, the gRNA duplex assay was adapted for monitoring foreign gene insert genetic stability during in vivo replication by analyzing the ratio of CDV N and SIV gag genomic RNA copies over the course of vector infection. This measurement was found to be a sensitive probe for assessing the in vivo genetic stability of the foreign gene insert.

  19. Bacterial Genome Instability

    PubMed Central

    Darmon, Elise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial genomes are remarkably stable from one generation to the next but are plastic on an evolutionary time scale, substantially shaped by horizontal gene transfer, genome rearrangement, and the activities of mobile DNA elements. This implies the existence of a delicate balance between the maintenance of genome stability and the tolerance of genome instability. In this review, we describe the specialized genetic elements and the endogenous processes that contribute to genome instability. We then discuss the consequences of genome instability at the physiological level, where cells have harnessed instability to mediate phase and antigenic variation, and at the evolutionary level, where horizontal gene transfer has played an important role. Indeed, this ability to share DNA sequences has played a major part in the evolution of life on Earth. The evolutionary plasticity of bacterial genomes, coupled with the vast numbers of bacteria on the planet, substantially limits our ability to control disease. PMID:24600039

  20. AAV genome loss from dystrophic mouse muscles during AAV-U7 snRNA-mediated exon-skipping therapy.

    PubMed

    Le Hir, Maëva; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Peccate, Cécile; Précigout, Guillaume; Davies, Kay E; Voit, Thomas; Garcia, Luis; Lorain, Stéphanie

    2013-08-01

    In the context of future adeno-associated viral (AAV)-based clinical trials for Duchenne myopathy, AAV genome fate in dystrophic muscles is of importance considering the viral capsid immunogenicity that prohibits recurring treatments. We showed that AAV genomes encoding non-therapeutic U7 were lost from mdx dystrophic muscles within 3 weeks after intramuscular injection. In contrast, AAV genomes encoding U7ex23 restoring expression of a slightly shortened dystrophin were maintained endorsing that the arrest of the dystrophic process is crucial for maintaining viral genomes in transduced fibers. Indeed, muscles treated with low doses of AAV-U7ex23, resulting in sub-optimal exon skipping, displayed much lower titers of viral genomes, showing that sub-optimal dystrophin restoration does not prevent AAV genome loss. We also followed therapeutic viral genomes in severe dystrophic dKO mice over time after systemic treatment with scAAV9-U7ex23. Dystrophin restoration decreased significantly between 3 and 12 months in various skeletal muscles, which was correlated with important viral genome loss, except in the heart. Altogether, these data show that the success of future AAV-U7 therapy for Duchenne patients would require optimal doses of AAV-U7 to induce substantial levels of dystrophin to stabilize the treated fibers and maintain the long lasting effect of the treatment.

  1. Intraclonal Genome Stability of the Metallo-β-lactamase SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277, an Endemic Clone Disseminated in Brazilian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Ana P. B.; Ortiz, Mauro F.; Martins, Willames M. B. S.; Morais, Guilherme L.; Fehlberg, Lorena C. C.; Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Ciapina, Luciane P.; Gales, Ana C.; Vasconcelos, Ana T. R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems represent the mainstay therapy for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance has jeopardized the clinical use of this important class of compounds. The production of SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase has been the most common mechanism of carbapenem resistance identified in P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centers. Interestingly, a single SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa clone belonging to the ST277 has been widely spread within the Brazilian territory. In the current study, we performed a next-generation sequencing of six SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 isolates. The core genome contains 5899 coding genes relative to the reference strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. A total of 26 genomic islands were detected in these isolates. We identified remarkable elements inside these genomic islands, such as copies of the blaSPM−1 gene conferring resistance to carbapenems and a type I-C CRISPR-Cas system, which is involved in protection of the chromosome against foreign DNA. In addition, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms causing amino acid changes in antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes. Together, these factors could contribute to the marked resistance and persistence of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 clone. A comparison of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 genomes showed that their core genome has a high level nucleotide similarity and synteny conservation. The variability observed was mainly due to acquisition of genomic islands carrying several antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:27994579

  2. Intraclonal Genome Stability of the Metallo-β-lactamase SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277, an Endemic Clone Disseminated in Brazilian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ana P B; Ortiz, Mauro F; Martins, Willames M B S; Morais, Guilherme L; Fehlberg, Lorena C C; Almeida, Luiz G P; Ciapina, Luciane P; Gales, Ana C; Vasconcelos, Ana T R

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems represent the mainstay therapy for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance has jeopardized the clinical use of this important class of compounds. The production of SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase has been the most common mechanism of carbapenem resistance identified in P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centers. Interestingly, a single SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa clone belonging to the ST277 has been widely spread within the Brazilian territory. In the current study, we performed a next-generation sequencing of six SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 isolates. The core genome contains 5899 coding genes relative to the reference strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. A total of 26 genomic islands were detected in these isolates. We identified remarkable elements inside these genomic islands, such as copies of the blaSPM-1 gene conferring resistance to carbapenems and a type I-C CRISPR-Cas system, which is involved in protection of the chromosome against foreign DNA. In addition, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms causing amino acid changes in antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes. Together, these factors could contribute to the marked resistance and persistence of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 clone. A comparison of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 genomes showed that their core genome has a high level nucleotide similarity and synteny conservation. The variability observed was mainly due to acquisition of genomic islands carrying several antibiotic resistance genes.

  3. Epigenetic regulation of heterochromatic DNA stability

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jamy C; Karpen, Gary H

    2010-01-01

    In this review we summarize recent studies that demonstrate the importance of epigenetic mechanisms for maintaining genome integrity, specifically with respect to repeated DNAs within heterochromatin. Potential problems that arise during replication, recombination, and repair of repeated sequences are counteracted by post-translational histone modifications and associated proteins, including the cohesins. These factors appear to ensure repeat stability by multiple mechanisms: suppressing homologous recombination, controlling the three-dimensional organization of damaged repeats to reduce the probability of aberrant recombination, and promoting the use of less problematic repair pathways. The presence of such systems may facilitate repeat and chromosome evolution, and their failure can lead to genome instability, chromosome rearrangements, and the onset of pathogenesis. PMID:18372168

  4. MLL5 maintains spindle bipolarity by preventing aberrant cytosolic aggregation of PLK1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Deng, Lih-Wen

    2016-03-28

    Faithful chromosome segregation with bipolar spindle formation is critical for the maintenance of genomic stability. Perturbation of this process often leads to severe mitotic failure, contributing to tumorigenesis. MLL5 has been demonstrated to play vital roles in cell cycle progression and the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we identify a novel interaction between MLL5 and PLK1 in the cytosol that is crucial for sustaining spindle bipolarity during mitosis. Knockdown of MLL5 caused aberrant PLK1 aggregation that led to acentrosomal microtubule-organizing center (aMTOC) formation and subsequent spindle multipolarity. Further molecular studies revealed that the polo-box domain (PBD) of PLK1 interacted with a binding motif on MLL5 (Thr887-Ser888-Thr889), and this interaction was essential for spindle bipolarity. Overexpression of wild-type MLL5 was able to rescue PLK1 mislocalization and aMTOC formation in MLL5-KD cells, whereas MLL5 mutants incapable of interacting with the PBD failed to do so. We thus propose that MLL5 preserves spindle bipolarity through maintaining cytosolic PLK1 in a nonaggregated form.

  5. An analysis of synteny of Arachis with Lotus and Medicago sheds new light on the structure, stability and evolution of legume genomes.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, David J; Moretzsohn, Marcio C; Madsen, Lene H; Sandal, Niels; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Guimarães, Patricia M; Hougaard, Birgit K; Fredslund, Jakob; Schauser, Leif; Nielsen, Anna M; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Cannon, Steven B; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-01-23

    Most agriculturally important legumes fall within two sub-clades of the Papilionoid legumes: the Phaseoloids and Galegoids, which diverged about 50 Mya. The Phaseoloids are mostly tropical and include crops such as common bean and soybean. The Galegoids are mostly temperate and include clover, fava bean and the model legumes Lotus and Medicago (both with substantially sequenced genomes). In contrast, peanut (Arachis hypogaea) falls in the Dalbergioid clade which is more basal in its divergence within the Papilionoids. The aim of this work was to integrate the genetic map of Arachis with Lotus and Medicago and improve our understanding of the Arachis genome and legume genomes in general. To do this we placed on the Arachis map, comparative anchor markers defined using a previously described bioinformatics pipeline. Also we investigated the possible role of transposons in the patterns of synteny that were observed. The Arachis genetic map was substantially aligned with Lotus and Medicago with most synteny blocks presenting a single main affinity to each genome. This indicates that the last common whole genome duplication within the Papilionoid legumes predated the divergence of Arachis from the Galegoids and Phaseoloids sufficiently that the common ancestral genome was substantially diploidized. The Arachis and model legume genomes comparison made here, together with a previously published comparison of Lotus and Medicago allowed all possible Arachis-Lotus-Medicago species by species comparisons to be made and genome syntenies observed. Distinct conserved synteny blocks and non-conserved regions were present in all genome comparisons, implying that certain legume genomic regions are consistently more stable during evolution than others. We found that in Medicago and possibly also in Lotus, retrotransposons tend to be more frequent in the variable regions. Furthermore, while these variable regions generally have lower densities of single copy genes than the more

  6. An analysis of synteny of Arachis with Lotus and Medicago sheds new light on the structure, stability and evolution of legume genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bertioli, David J; Moretzsohn, Marcio C; Madsen, Lene H; Sandal, Niels; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya CM; Guimarães, Patricia M; Hougaard, Birgit K; Fredslund, Jakob; Schauser, Leif; Nielsen, Anna M; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Cannon, Steven B; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Background Most agriculturally important legumes fall within two sub-clades of the Papilionoid legumes: the Phaseoloids and Galegoids, which diverged about 50 Mya. The Phaseoloids are mostly tropical and include crops such as common bean and soybean. The Galegoids are mostly temperate and include clover, fava bean and the model legumes Lotus and Medicago (both with substantially sequenced genomes). In contrast, peanut (Arachis hypogaea) falls in the Dalbergioid clade which is more basal in its divergence within the Papilionoids. The aim of this work was to integrate the genetic map of Arachis with Lotus and Medicago and improve our understanding of the Arachis genome and legume genomes in general. To do this we placed on the Arachis map, comparative anchor markers defined using a previously described bioinformatics pipeline. Also we investigated the possible role of transposons in the patterns of synteny that were observed. Results The Arachis genetic map was substantially aligned with Lotus and Medicago with most synteny blocks presenting a single main affinity to each genome. This indicates that the last common whole genome duplication within the Papilionoid legumes predated the divergence of Arachis from the Galegoids and Phaseoloids sufficiently that the common ancestral genome was substantially diploidized. The Arachis and model legume genomes comparison made here, together with a previously published comparison of Lotus and Medicago allowed all possible Arachis-Lotus-Medicago species by species comparisons to be made and genome syntenies observed. Distinct conserved synteny blocks and non-conserved regions were present in all genome comparisons, implying that certain legume genomic regions are consistently more stable during evolution than others. We found that in Medicago and possibly also in Lotus, retrotransposons tend to be more frequent in the variable regions. Furthermore, while these variable regions generally have lower densities of single copy genes

  7. Maintaining Stability During a Conducted-Ripple EMC Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorperian, Vatche

    2007-01-01

    An improved technique, and electronic circuitry to implement the technique, have been developed for a military-standard electromagnetic-compatibility (EMC) test in which one analyzes susceptibility to low-frequency ripple conducted into the equipment under test via a DC power line. In the traditional technique for performing the particular test, the ripple is coupled onto the DC power line via a transformer. Depending upon some design details of the equipment under test, the inductance of the transformer can contribute a degree of instability that results in an oscillation of amplitude large enough to destroy the equipment. It is usually possible to suppress the oscillation by connecting a damping resistor to the primary terminals of the ripple-injection transformer. However, it is important to emphasize the usually in the preceding sentence: sometimes, the resistive damping becomes insufficient to suppress destructive oscillation. In addition, undesirably, the resistor contributes to power dissipation and power demand, and thereby also necessitates the use of a larger ripple voltage amplifier. Yet another disadvantage of the transformer-coupling technique is that the transformer introduces low-frequency distortion of the injected ripple voltage. The improved technique makes it possible to inject ripple with very low distortion at low frequency, without inducing oscillation. In this technique, a transformer is not used: Instead, power is fed to the equipment under test via series power field-effect transistors (FETs) controlled by a summing operational amplifier. One of the inputs to the amplifier controls the DC component of the power-line voltage; the other input, generated by an external oscillator, controls the ripple component. The circuitry for implementing this technique includes panel displays, an internal power supply for the operational amplifier and panel displays, and amplitude controls for the DC and ripple powerline voltage components.

  8. Everyday Innovation--Pushing Boundaries While Maintaining Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippke, Lena; Wegener, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational teachers' everyday practices can constitute innovative learning spaces that help students to experience engagement and commitment towards education and thus increase their possibilities for completing their studies despite notable difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: Based on…

  9. Establishing and Maintaining Score Scale Stability and Reading Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patience, Wayne; Auchter, Joan

    A central aim in any assessment program is to ensure fair and stable scoring from administration to administration. When administrations are decentralized, not only in location, but in frequency and in logistical configuration, it is imperative to construct training, certifying, and monitoring systems that provide continuity between the original…

  10. Everyday Innovation--Pushing Boundaries While Maintaining Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippke, Lena; Wegener, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational teachers' everyday practices can constitute innovative learning spaces that help students to experience engagement and commitment towards education and thus increase their possibilities for completing their studies despite notable difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: Based on…

  11. Maintenance of Genome Integrity: How Mammalian Cells Orchestrate Genome Duplication by Coordinating Replicative and Specialized DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Ryan; Eckert, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Precise duplication of the human genome is challenging due to both its size and sequence complexity. DNA polymerase errors made during replication, repair or recombination are central to creating mutations that drive cancer and aging. Here, we address the regulation of human DNA polymerases, specifically how human cells orchestrate DNA polymerases in the face of stress to complete replication and maintain genome stability. DNA polymerases of the B-family are uniquely adept at accurate genome replication, but there are numerous situations in which one or more additional DNA polymerases are required to complete genome replication. Polymerases of the Y-family have been extensively studied in the bypass of DNA lesions; however, recent research has revealed that these polymerases play important roles in normal human physiology. Replication stress is widely cited as contributing to genome instability, and is caused by conditions leading to slowed or stalled DNA replication. Common Fragile Sites epitomize “difficult to replicate” genome regions that are particularly vulnerable to replication stress, and are associated with DNA breakage and structural variation. In this review, we summarize the roles of both the replicative and Y-family polymerases in human cells, and focus on how these activities are regulated during normal and perturbed genome replication. PMID:28067843

  12. Maintenance of Genome Integrity: How Mammalian Cells Orchestrate Genome Duplication by Coordinating Replicative and Specialized DNA Polymerases.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Ryan; Eckert, Kristin

    2017-01-06

    Precise duplication of the human genome is challenging due to both its size and sequence complexity. DNA polymerase errors made during replication, repair or recombination are central to creating mutations that drive cancer and aging. Here, we address the regulation of human DNA polymerases, specifically how human cells orchestrate DNA polymerases in the face of stress to complete replication and maintain genome stability. DNA polymerases of the B-family are uniquely adept at accurate genome replication, but there are numerous situations in which one or more additional DNA polymerases are required to complete genome replication. Polymerases of the Y-family have been extensively studied in the bypass of DNA lesions; however, recent research has revealed that these polymerases play important roles in normal human physiology. Replication stress is widely cited as contributing to genome instability, and is caused by conditions leading to slowed or stalled DNA replication. Common Fragile Sites epitomize "difficult to replicate" genome regions that are particularly vulnerable to replication stress, and are associated with DNA breakage and structural variation. In this review, we summarize the roles of both the replicative and Y-family polymerases in human cells, and focus on how these activities are regulated during normal and perturbed genome replication.

  13. Genome integrity and disease prevention in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Peter J

    2017-06-15

    Multiple DNA repair pathways maintain genome stability and ensure that DNA remains essentially unchanged over the life of a cell. Various human diseases occur if DNA repair is compromised, and most of these impact the nervous system, in some cases exclusively. However, it is often unclear what specific endogenous damage underpins disease pathology. Generally, the types of causative DNA damage are associated with replication, transcription, or oxidative metabolism; other direct sources of endogenous lesions may arise from aberrant topoisomerase activity or ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA. This review focuses on the etiology of DNA damage in the nervous system and the genome stability pathways that prevent human neurologic disease. © 2017 McKinnon; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Cognitive impairment, genomic instability and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Meramat, A; Rajab, N F; Shahar, S; Sharif, R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are often related to aging and micronutrient deficiencies. Various essential micronutrients in the diet are involved in age-altered biological functions such as, zinc, copper, iron, and selenium that play pivotal roles either in maintaining and reinforcing the antioxidant performances or in affecting the complex network of genes (nutrigenomic approach) involved in encoding proteins for biological functions. Genomic stability is one of the leading causes of cognitive decline and deficiencies or excess in trace elements are two of the factors relating to it. In this review, we report and discuss the role of micronutrients in cognitive impairment in relation to genomic stability in an aging population. Telomere integrity will also be discussed in relation to aging and cognitive impairment, as well as, the micronutrients related to these events. This review will provide an understanding on how these three aspects can relate with each other and why it is important to keep a homeostasis of micronutrients in relation to healthy aging. Micronutrient deficiencies and aging process can lead to genomic instability.

  15. Maintaining quality in online education.

    PubMed

    Moore, Janet C

    2007-01-01

    Higher education is adapting to new technologies and to the evolving pedagogies that accompany change. Maintaining quality begins with identifying purpose and assessing progress. Using the Sloan Consortium's quality framework, this article provides resources for measuring quality in online environments.

  16. Ligninolytic peroxidase genes in the oyster mushroom genome: heterologous expression, molecular structure, catalytic and stability properties, and lignin-degrading ability

    Treesearch

    Elena Fernández-Fueyo; Francisco J Ruiz-Dueñas; María Jesús Martinez; Antonio Romero; Kenneth E Hammel; Francisco Javier Medrano; Angel T. Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Background: The genome of Pleurotus ostreatus, an important edible mushroom and a model ligninolytic organism of interest in lignocellulose biorefineries due to its ability to delignify agricultural wastes, was sequenced with the purpose of identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for lignin degradation. ...

  17. An analysis of synteny of Arachis with Lotus and Medicago sheds new light on the structure, stability and evolution of legume genomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most agriculturally important legumes fall within the phaseoloids (containing beans) and galegoids (containing peas and clovers). A notable exception is peanut (Arachis hypogaea) which comes from a basally diverged tropical lineage. To improve our understanding of the Arachis genome, single-copy g...

  18. Final report. Human artificial episomal chromosome (HAEC) for building large genomic libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Michael H. Vos

    1999-12-09

    Collections of human DNA fragments are maintained for research purposes as clones in bacterial host cells. However for unknown reasons, some regions of the human genome appear to be unclonable or unstable in bacteria. Their team has developed a system using episomes (extrachromosomal, autonomously replication DNA) that maintains large DNA fragments in human cells. This human artificial episomal chromosomal (HAEC) system may prove useful for coverage of these especially difficult regions. In the broader biomedical community, the HAEC system also shows promise for use in functional genomics and gene therapy. Recent improvements to the HAEC system and its application to mapping, sequencing, and functionally studying human and mouse DNA are summarized. Mapping and sequencing the human genome and model organisms are only the first steps in determining the function of various genetic units critical for gene regulation, DNA replication, chromatin packaging, chromosomal stability, and chromatid segregation. Such studies will require the ability to transfer and manipulate entire functional units into mammalian cells.

  19. The role of stabilization centers in protein thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Magyar, Csaba; Gromiha, M. Michael; Sávoly, Zoltán; Simon, István

    2016-02-26

    The definition of stabilization centers was introduced almost two decades ago. They are centers of noncovalent long range interaction clusters, believed to have a role in maintaining the three-dimensional structure of proteins by preventing their decay due to their cooperative long range interactions. Here, this hypothesis is investigated from the viewpoint of thermal stability for the first time, using a large protein thermodynamics database. The positions of amino acids belonging to stabilization centers are correlated with available experimental thermodynamic data on protein thermal stability. Our analysis suggests that stabilization centers, especially solvent exposed ones, do contribute to the thermal stabilization of proteins. - Highlights: • Stabilization centers contribute to thermal stabilization of protein structures. • Stabilization center content correlates with melting temperature of proteins. • Exposed stabilization center content correlates with stability even in hyperthermophiles. • Stability changing mutations are frequently found at stabilization centers.

  20. Long-term cultured mesenchymal stem cells frequently develop genomic mutations but do not undergo malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Zhang, Z; Chi, Y; Zhang, Q; Xu, F; Yang, Z; Meng, L; Yang, S; Yan, S; Mao, A; Zhang, J; Yang, Y; Wang, S; Cui, J; Liang, L; Ji, Y; Han, Z-B; Fang, X; Han, Z C

    2013-01-01

    Cultured human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are being tested in several clinical trials and encouraging outcomes have been observed. To determine whether in vitro expansion influences the genomic stability of hUC-MSCs, we maintained nine hUC-MSC clones in long-term culture and comparatively analyzed them at early and late passages. All of the clones senesced in culture, exhibiting decreased telomerase activity and shortened telomeres. Two clones showed no DNA copy number variations (CNVs) at passage 30 (P30). Seven clones had ≥1 CNVs at P30 compared with P3, and one of these clones appeared trisomic chromosome 10 at the late passage. No tumor developed in immunodeficient mice injected with hUC-MSCs, regardless of whether the cells had CNVs at the late passage. mRNA-Seq analysis indicated that pathways of cell cycle control and DNA damage response were downregulated during in vitro culture in hUC-MSC clones that showed genomic instability, but the same pathways were upregulated in the clones with good genomic stability. These results demonstrated that hUC-MSCs can be cultured for many passages and attain a large number of cells, but most of the cultured hUC-MSCs develop genomic alterations. Although hUC-MSCs with genomic alterations do not undergo malignant transformation, periodic genomic monitoring and donor management focusing on genomic stability are recommended before these cells are used for clinical applications. PMID:24309937

  1. Maintaining oral health after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Hazel

    Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.

  2. Strategies for Maintaining Community Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Fred

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…

  3. Maintaining COTS-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    12-1 Maintaining COTS-Based Systems Dr. Mark R. Vigder John Dean National Research Council of Canada Institute for Information Technology Ottawa...evluton destifyng cand s yste dff uresamng sets ongoingoperato n.ts devhoisg Configuration magement Tracking versions of different COTS products

  4. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  5. Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnagey, William J.

    This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

  6. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  7. Paths from DNA damage an