Science.gov

Sample records for maintaining social order

  1. How to Maintain a Social Reinforcement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkin, Ronald; And Others

    This manual presents methodology for maintaining a social reinforcement system after supervisors in industrial environments have been trained in behavior modification theory and application. The maintenance manual discusses monitoring, evaluation, and integration of a company's employee performance system with the social reinforcement system…

  2. How to keep punishment to maintain cooperation: Introducing social vaccine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu

    2016-02-01

    Although there is much support for the punishment system as a sophisticated approach to resolving social dilemmas, more than a few researchers have also pointed out the limitations of such an approach. Second-order free riding is a serious issue facing the punishment system. Various pioneering works have suggested that an anti-social behavior or noise stemming from a mutation may, surprisingly, be helpful for avoiding second-order freeloaders. In this work, we show through mathematical analysis and an agent-based simulation of a model extending the meta-norms game that the coercive introduction of a small number of non-cooperators can maintain a cooperative regime robustly. This paradoxical idea was inspired by the effect of a vaccine, which is a weakened pathogen injected into a human body to create antibodies and ward off infection by that pathogen. Our expectation is that the coercive introduction of a few defectors, i.e., a social vaccine, will help maintain a highly cooperative regime because it will ensure that the punishment system works.

  3. [Social order, legitimacy, and physical violence as a social fact].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses theoretical as well as methodological issues of a general sociology of violence which aims at focusing on the dynamic relationship between social order, legitimacy, and physical violence. The article argues in favor of a relational approach consisting of a realistic appraisal (in an epistemological sense) of the actors' place in a locally ordered setting of relationships among objectified forms of social order, collective identities, and social interaction. The author's long term research objective is to develop a general sociology of violence grounded in social action theory, to form a basis for exploring the phenomena of physical violence in the neo-Durkheimian sense as social facts.

  4. School Bullying and Social and Moral Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical consideration of the ways in which school bullying relates to social and moral orders and the relations of power that are central to the upholding of such orders. Moving away from the focus on individual aggressive intentionality that has hitherto dominated school bullying research, the article argues that…

  5. Structural Marginality and the Urban Social Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapferer, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    This article argues for a redefinition of "Marginality" in terms of the principles that influence the developing order of the urban formation as a whole. The emerging social order and the political participation of residents of two shanty areas in Kabwe, Zambia are traced over a period of 40 years. (Author/EB)

  6. Emotional intelligence skills for maintaining social networks in healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Freshman, Brenda; Rubino, Louis

    2004-01-01

    For healthcare organizations to survive in these increasingly challenging times, leadership and management must face mounting interpersonal concerns. The authors present the boundaries of internal and external social networks with respect to leadership and managerial functions: Social networks within the organization are stretched by reductions in available resources and structural ambiguity, whereas external social networks are stressed by interorganizational competitive pressures. The authors present the development of emotional intelligence skills in employees as a strategic training objective that can strengthen the internal and external social networks of healthcare organizations. The authors delineate the unique functions of leadership and management with respect to the application of emotional intelligence skills and discuss training and future research implications for emotional intelligence skill sets and social networks.

  7. Chimpanzees’ socially maintained food preferences indicate both conservatism and conformity

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees remain fixed on a single strategy, even if a novel, more efficient, strategy is introduced. Previous studies reporting such findings have incorporated paradigms in which chimpanzees learn one behavioural method and then are shown a new one that the chimpanzees invariably do not adopt. This study provides the first evidence that chimpanzees show such conservatism even when the new method employs the identical required behaviour as the first, but for a different reward. Groups of chimpanzees could choose to exchange one of two types of inedible tokens, with each token type being associated with a different food reward: one type was rewarded with a highly preferred food (grape) and the other type was rewarded with a less preferred food (carrot). Individuals first observed a model chimpanzee from their social group trained to choose one of the two types of tokens. In one group, this token earned a carrot, while in the other, control, group the token earned a grape. In both groups, chimpanzees conformed to the trained model’s choice. This was especially striking for those gaining the pieces of carrot, the less favoured reward. This resulted in a population-level trend of food choices, even when counter to their original, individual, preferences. Moreover, the chimpanzees’ food preferences did not change over time, demonstrating that these results were not due to a simple shift in preferences. We discuss social factors apparent in the interactions and suggest that, despite seeming to be inefficient, in chimpanzees, conformity may benefit them, possibly by assisting with the maintenance of group relations. PMID:27011390

  8. Live-social-video reward maintains joystick task performance in bonnet macaques.

    PubMed

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1993-12-01

    A number of studies have now indicated that monkeys of several species will perform hundreds of food-rewarded joystick tasks on a daily basis. Our goal in this study was to identify the level of joystick task performance that could be maintained by 10 sec. of live, color video of a conspecific social group contingent upon the completion of a joystick task. The subjects were five individually housed bonnet macaques that were highly experienced on joystick tasks. Performance with social-video reward was compared to that maintained by a 190-mg banana-flavored pellet reward and to a nonreward condition. Comparable levels of task activity were maintained by both video and pellet reward, whereas task activity nearly ceased in the absence of reward. Four of the five monkeys increased their levels of task activity between the first and second weeks of social-video reward.

  9. Prevention Activities for Older Adults: Social Structures and Personal Competencies That Maintain Useful Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents conceptual reorientation for providing responsive psychological services to older adults, focusing on need to develop prevention programs that encourage maintenance of social roles. Discusses changes in social structures that encourage more active social engagement, with examples from housing options, part-time employment, and ways to…

  10. Maintaining Pedagogical Integrity of a Computer Mediated Course Delivery in Social Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Shelley; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Shircliffe, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming a face to face course to a computer mediated format in social foundations (interdisciplinary field in education), while maintaining pedagogical integrity, involves strategic collaboration between instructional technologists and content area experts. This type of planned partnership requires open dialogue and a mutual respect for prior…

  11. Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baigger, A.; Perony, N.; Reuter, M.; Leinert, V.; Melber, M.; Grünberger, S.; Fleischmann, D.; Kerth, G.

    2013-09-01

    Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations.

  12. Variable-time reinforcement schedules in the treatment of socially maintained problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Van Camp, C M; Lerman, D C; Kelley, M E; Contrucci, S A; Vorndran, C M

    2000-01-01

    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) consists of delivering a reinforcer on a time-based schedule, independent of responding. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of NCR as treatment for problem behavior have used fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement. In this study, the efficacy of NCR with variable-time (VT) schedules was evaluated by comparing the effects of VT and FT reinforcement schedules with 2 individuals who engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Both FT and VT schedules were effective in reducing problem behavior. These findings suggest that VT schedules can be used to treat problem behavior maintained by social consequences.

  13. Polarization-maintaining higher-order mode fiber module with anomalous dispersion at 1 μm.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S H M; Pedersen, M E V; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Yan, M F; Monberg, E M; Wisk, P W; Rottwitt, K

    2012-10-15

    This Letter demonstrates a polarization-maintaining higher-order mode fiber module that has anomalous dispersion at 1 μm. The group velocity dispersion of the module is measured, showing a split of the two polarization axes. The excellent polarization-maintaining properties of the relevant fiber modes for the higher-order mode fiber are likewise demonstrated employing a new simple method for the measurement of the beat length of higher-order modes at a single wavelength. The higher-order fiber module is intended for group velocity dispersion compensation.

  14. Energy policy in a changing social order

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

  15. Social Studies and the Social Order: Telling Stories of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Douglas; Chandler, Prentice

    2009-01-01

    The social studies profession has always been at its weakest in dealing with the analysis of racism and class (Ladson-Billings, 2003; Marshall, 2001), and the new technocratic atmosphere and discourse generated by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) will serve to make such analysis completely absent, despite the rhetoric of the National Council of the…

  16. Rank-Order Selection Is Capable of Maintaining All Genetic Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Christopher

    1978-01-01

    The fitness of organisms may be due chiefly to a fitness curve imposed on their ranking in the population with respect to heterozygosity. If this is so, then the number of polymorphisms that can be retained at a particular selective equilibrium increases as the square of the population size. All of the genetic variation that we currently observe and infer to exist can probably be maintained by selection in a population of about 10 5 individuals. Selection acting in this way is so strong that these polymorphisms can be expected to behave very differently from neutral ones. PMID:17248841

  17. Maintaining group memberships: social identity continuity predicts well-being after stroke.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Catherine; Holme, Abigail; Haslam, S Alexander; Iyer, Aarti; Jetten, Jolanda; Williams, W Huw

    2008-01-01

    A survey study of patients recovering from stroke (N = 53) examined the extent to which belonging to multiple groups prior to stroke and the maintenance of those group memberships (as measured by the Exeter Identity Transitions Scales, EXITS) predicted well-being after stroke. Results of correlation analysis showed that life satisfaction was associated both with multiple group memberships prior to stroke and with the maintenance of group memberships. Path analysis indicated that belonging to multiple groups was associated with maintained well-being because there was a greater likelihood that some of those memberships would be preserved after stroke-related life transition. Furthermore, it was found that cognitive failures compromised well-being in part because they made it hard for individuals to maintain group memberships post-stroke. These findings highlight the importance of social identity continuity in facilitating well-being following stroke and, more broadly, show the theoretical contribution that a social identity approach to mental health can make in the context of neuropsychological rehabilitation.

  18. Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2013-04-01

    Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is

  19. Stable fighting strategies to maintain social ranks in captive male Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiuxiang; Cody, Nicholas; Gong, Baocao; Xiang, Leilei

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted at the XINGLONGSHAN Musk Deer Farm of China from July to September 2008. Results showed that captive male musk deer exhibit aggressive dominance behavior, by which a stable social ranking is established. Generally, there were three types of aggression in agonistic interactions among males: attacking, displacing and threatening. Threatening was more frequently observed than displacing and attacking. When in conflict with other deer, high-rank males exhibited significantly more attacking than displacing and threatening. Moreover, no attacking occurred in low-rank and middle-rank males, but these individuals initiated significantly more threatening displays than high-rank individuals. Among musk deer groups with different social ranks, there were no significant differences between threats received by middle-rank and low-rank groups, but attacks directed to high-rank males was significantly lower than displacing and threatening behaviors. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that when a captive male musk deer population is assembled, individuals should be diversified in fighting ability and level of aggression. In particular, deer with higher aggression should not be enclosed with deer with similar tendencies, but should be enclosed with individuals with lower fighting levels. This should maintain stable social structures within captive musk deer groups and improve the overall welfare of captive musk deer.

  20. Gender and the Social Order in Early Modern England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amussen, Susan Dwyer

    The place of the family and the relationship between gender and social order in England between 1560 and 1725 are examined. The fear of disorder so prevalent in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was caused by the doubling of the population and extremely poor economic conditions. In the attempt to enforce order, the analogy between…

  1. Social support: An approach to maintaining the health of women who have experienced stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Allahdadian, Maryam; Irajpour, Alireza; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stillbirth is one of the deepest losses that can inflict a broad range of cognitive, mental, spiritual, and physical turmoil. Many researchers believe that the failure to provide the care required by health teams during the hard times is the main determinant of maternal mental health in the future. In other words, social support can significantly improve the mental health outcomes of mothers after stillbirth. This study aimed to explore social support to aid mothers in adaptation after the experience of stillbirth. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis in which 15 women who had experienced stillbirth participated. They were selected through purposeful sampling method. Data were gathered by individual interviews recorded on audiotapes, transcribed, and analyzed. Interview transcriptions were coded and then classified. Finally, two main categories and five subcategories emerged. Results: Analysis of participants’ viewpoints and their statements about social support led to the emergence of the two main categories of support from relatives and support from social support systems with two and three subcategories, respectively. Analysis of findings showed that mothers experiencing stillbirth need the support of their spouse and family and friends through sympathizing, in performing everyday activities and to escape loneliness. These women require support from a peer group to exchange experiences and from trauma counseling centers to meet their needs. Conclusions: It seems necessary to revise and modify the care plan in the experience of stillbirth using these results and, of course, to be considered by a panel of experts in order to provide social support to these women. Thus, midwives and healthcare provider can act, based on the development and strengthening of social protection of women experiencing stillbirth, to provide these women with effective and appropriate care. PMID:26257802

  2. Bats are able to maintain long-term social relationships despite the high fission–fusion dynamics of their groups

    PubMed Central

    Kerth, Gerald; Perony, Nicolas; Schweitzer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Elephants, dolphins, as well as some carnivores and primates maintain social links despite their frequent splitting and merging in groups of variable composition, a phenomenon known as fission–fusion. Information on the dynamics of social links and interactions among individuals is of high importance to the understanding of the evolution of animal sociality, including that of humans. However, detailed long-term data on such dynamics in wild mammals with fully known demography and kin structures are scarce. Applying a weighted network analysis on 20 500 individual roosting observations over 5 years, we show that in two wild Bechstein's bat colonies with high fission–fusion dynamics, individuals of different age, size, reproductive status and relatedness maintain long-term social relationships. In the larger colony, we detected two stable subunits, each comprising bats from several family lineages. Links between these subunits were mainly maintained by older bats and persisted over all years. Moreover, we show that the full details of the social structure become apparent only when large datasets are used. The stable multi-level social structures in Bechstein's bat colonies resemble that of elephants, dolphins and some primates. Our findings thus may shed new light on the link between social complexity and social cognition in mammals. PMID:21307051

  3. A comparison of responding maintained under second-order schedules of intramuscular cocaine injection or food presentation in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J L

    1979-01-01

    Key pressing by squirrel monkeys was maintained under second-order schedules of either intramuscular cocaine injection or food presentation. Under one schedule, each completion of a 10-response fixed-ratio unit produced a brief visual stimulus; the first fixed-ratio unit completed after 30 minutes elapsed produced the stimulus paired with either cocaine injection or food presentation. Generally, short pauses followed by high rates of responding were maintained within the fixed-ratio units, and responding was positively accelerated over the 30-minute interval. Under another schedule, each completion of a 3-minute fixed-interval unit produced the brief stimulus; completion of the 10th fixed-interval unit produced the stimulus paired with either cocaine injection or food presentation. Generally, short pauses followed by high rates of responding were maintained within the fixed-ratio units, and responding was positively accelerated over the 30-minute interval. Under another schedule, each completion of a 3-minute fixed-interval unit produced the brief stimulus; completion of the 10th fixed-interval unit produced the stimulus paired with either cocaine injection or food presentation. Rates of responding increased within the fixed-interval units, and to a greater extent over the entire 10 fixed-interval units. Patterns of responding depended more on the schedule of reinforcement than on whether cocaine or food maintained responding. Omitting the brief stimuli following all but the last fixed-ratio or fixed-interval units decreased average rates and altered the patterns of responding. Substituting a visual stimulus that was never paired with cocaine or food following all but the last fixed-ratio or fixed-interval units decreased response rates to a lesser extent and did not substantially alter patterns of responding. When the duration of the paired stimulus was varied from .3 to 30.0 seconds, the highest response rates occurred at intermediate durations (1.0 to 10

  4. Social Justice and Social Order: Binding Moralities across the Political Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between political ideology and endorsement of a range of moral principles. Political liberals and conservatives did not differ on intrapersonal or interpersonal moralities, which require self-regulation. However differences emerged on collective moralities, which involve social regulation. Contrary to Moral Foundations Theory, both liberals and conservatives endorsed a group-focused binding morality, specifically Social Justice and Social Order respectively. Libertarians were the group without a binding morality. Although Social Justice and Social Order appear conflictual, analyses based on earlier cross-cultural work on societal tightness-looseness suggest that countries actually benefit in terms of economic success and societal well-being when these group-based moralities co-exist and serve as counterweights in social regulation. PMID:27031103

  5. Social Justice and Social Order: Binding Moralities across the Political Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2016-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between political ideology and endorsement of a range of moral principles. Political liberals and conservatives did not differ on intrapersonal or interpersonal moralities, which require self-regulation. However differences emerged on collective moralities, which involve social regulation. Contrary to Moral Foundations Theory, both liberals and conservatives endorsed a group-focused binding morality, specifically Social Justice and Social Order respectively. Libertarians were the group without a binding morality. Although Social Justice and Social Order appear conflictual, analyses based on earlier cross-cultural work on societal tightness-looseness suggest that countries actually benefit in terms of economic success and societal well-being when these group-based moralities co-exist and serve as counterweights in social regulation.

  6. [Humors and odors: body order and social order in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Lima, T A

    Archeological diggings in household garbage deposits from nineteenth-century Rio have uncovered an abundance of equipment used in the elimination of fecal material and phlegm. These findings formed the basis for an analysis and interpretation of the era's attitudes regarding body fluids, as adopted when the mentalities of the new 'bourgeois' segments - then undergoing a process of rise and consolidation - were impregnated by Hippocratic humoralism. The text shows how the introduction of a 'body order' was fundamental in building and keeping the social order in the nineteenth century. It likewise shows how the ideology of hygienization was one of the most important and efficacious strategies for underpinning the bourgeoisie's (victorious) project to achieve hegemony.

  7. Using Videoconferencing to Establish and Maintain a Social Presence in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Robert A.; Wieland, Regi L.

    2010-01-01

    Successful operation of videoconferencing technology for interactive learning demands preparation and scheduling. Well-organized strategies for interaction assist faculty in meeting individual student needs and developing the "social presence" necessary to facilitate quality online learning. Organizations can be proactive by offering…

  8. Maintaining Long-Distance Friendships: Communication Practices for Seeking and Providing Social Support across Geographic Divides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobburi, Patipan

    2012-01-01

    People seek and provide support through their personal social network, especially when they must cope with stress, deal with an emergency, or need help. Coping with a new culture or new environment is a stressful situation that sojourner students must face. Support through friendship plays an important role in facing such new situations. Focusing…

  9. Social Media and the U.S. Army: Maintaining a Balance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    concerned that the news media and Taliban would exploit the sailors’ Facebook profiles . Major Juanita Chang, Director of Online and Social Media in the...September 31, 2010). 2 help take down the Facebook profiles of the two sailors.2 In February 2010, the Department of Defense issued a memorandum

  10. [Social order, stability, and certainty violence and social power in early modern history].

    PubMed

    Pröve, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a comprehensive critique of historical research focussing on the mutual relations between social power and violence. According to the methodological initial hypothesis, due to the inadequate distinction between indigenious concept (from sources) and heuristic (from reseach) in the historical sciences, there have been very few valuable insights into these relations to date. In order to expand the research focus which is the objective of this article, the analysis draws on the two actor-centric reference systems of "certainty" and "order". The key idea behind this, operationalizing certainty/uncertainty by means of order/disorder, is a promising way of programmatically combining a vertical and horizontal network of relationships of power, violence, certainty, and order.

  11. Doing psychology, doing inequality: rethinking the role of psychology in creating and maintaining social inequality.

    PubMed

    Sadi-Nakar, Merav

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between psychological disciplines and inequality has been a subject of great scholarly interest in the last several decades. Most works on the subject analyze macro features of psychological disciplines (mainly their evaluative tools, theoretical assumptions, and disciplinary power) and criticize them as biased against minorities. This paper re-examines the relationship between psychology and inequality from a micro, face-to-face standpoint. Drawing on close observations of 33 placement committees in which professionals from various psychological fields (psychology, social work, school counseling, etc.) discuss children’s eligibility for special education services, it portrays the actual doing of psychology as an inconsistent and malleable endeavor. In contrast to the macro-oriented research on the relationship between psychology and inequality, it shows that in actual face-to-face interactions, professionals use different types of folk concerns that often exchange formal evaluative criteria, theoretical assumptions or professional authority in final placement decisions. By revealing the different folk considerations professionals use to sort and analyze working- versus middle-class parents, this project adds an essential layer to scholarly understanding of the relationship between psychological practice and inequality.

  12. Sub-100 fs pulses from an all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillator with an anomalous dispersion higher-order-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, A J; Zhu, L; Israelsen, S Møller; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Unterhuber, A; Kautek, W; Rottwitt, K; Baltuška, A; Fernández, A

    2015-10-05

    We present an Yb-fiber oscillator with an all-polarization-maintaining cavity with a higher-order-mode fiber for dispersion compensation. The polarization maintaining higher order mode fiber introduces not only negative second order dispersion but also negative third order dispersion in the cavity, in contrast to dispersion compensation schemes used in previous demonstrations of all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillators. The performance of the saturable absorber mirror modelocked oscillator, that employs a free space scheme for coupling onto the saturable absorber mirror and output coupling, was investigated for different settings of the intracavity dispersion. When the cavity is operated with close to zero net dispersion, highly stable 0.5-nJ pulses externally compressed to sub-100-fs are generated. These are to our knowledge the shortest pulses generated from an all-polarization-maintaining Yb-fiber oscillator. The spectral phase of the output pulses is well behaved and can be compensated such that wing-free Fourier transform limited pulses can be obtained. Further reduction of the net intracavity third order dispersion will allow generating broader output spectra and consequently shorter pulses, without sacrificing pulse fidelity.

  13. The Social and Academic Consequences of Birth Order: Real, Artifactual, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Examined impact of birth order on social skills and academic performance of children and adolescents (N=3,568). Results revealed no significant relationship between birth order and academic performance but did reveal a significant positive relationship between birth order and social skills. Leadership skills were related to birth order for males.…

  14. Socialization and the Symbolic Order of the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapferer, Judith L.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes two private, secondary school rituals to determine why private schools are more effective than state schools in socializing students into acceptance of and support for the culture of the school. (Author/MW)

  15. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia.

  16. School Crime and the Social Order of the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianni, Francis A. J.; Reuss-Ianni, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Recent research is beginning to shed some light on the nature and extent of violence and crime in American schools, the role that schools themselves play in producing, aggravating, or reducing school crime, and how changes in the schools can remedy social control problems. Data from these studies indicate that: (1) despite public opinion, school…

  17. Order from noise: Toward a social theory of geographic information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, B.S.; Chrisman, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the so-called Information Age, it is surprising that the concept of information is imprecisely defined and almost taken for granted. Historic and recent geographic information science (GIScience) literature relies on two conflicting metaphors, often espoused by the same author in adjacent paragraphs. The metaphor of invariance, derived from telecommunications engineering, defines information as a thing to be transported without loss through a conduit. Another metaphor, originating in the utopian movements of the 19th century, locates information within a hierarchy of refinement-a stopping place on the path to convert mere data into higher forms of knowledge and perhaps to wisdom. Both metaphors rely on long-forgotten debates outside geography and preclude us from seeing that there are important social and ethical concerns in the relationship between geographic information technologies and society. We examine the conflicts between competing metaphors and propose a social theory of geographic information. ?? 2006 by Association of American Geographers.

  18. Selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate both first-order and second-order social dilemma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Pengbi; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-11-21

    Punishment, especially selfish punishment, has recently been identified as a potent promoter in sustaining or even enhancing the cooperation among unrelated individuals. However, without other key mechanisms, the first-order social dilemma and second-order social dilemma are still two enduring conundrums in biology and the social sciences even with the presence of punishment. In the present study, we investigate a spatial evolutionary four-strategy prisoner׳s dilemma game model with avoiding mechanism, where the four strategies are cooperation, defection, altruistic and selfish punishment. By introducing the low level of random mutation of strategies, we demonstrate that the presence of selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate the two kinds of social dilemmas for various parametrizations. In addition, we propose an extended pair approximation method, whose solutions can essentially estimate the dynamical behaviors and final evolutionary frequencies of the four strategies. At last, considering the analogy between our model and the classical Lotka-Volterra system, we introduce interaction webs based on the spatial replicator dynamics and the transformed payoff matrix to qualitatively characterize the emergent co-exist strategy phases, and its validity are supported by extensive simulations.

  19. Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…

  20. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  1. The origin of ethics and social order in a society without state power.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K

    1999-06-01

    How ethics and social order in a society without state power had originated and developed is one of enigmas which human beings have tried to solve for a long time. Several theories on the origin of social order have been proposed since the "Social Contract" theory of Thomas Hobbes. According to Hobbes, as a society without state power is in a condition called war, a social contract among men is the origin of social order in a society where every man is against every man. Rousseau says that when human beings reach the stage in which they live in a permanent neighborhood, a property system is introduced. Then, too much ambition and avarice of man who has possessions compel him to propose the formation of a political institution, providing social order which enables him to keep his possessions. According to Nietzsche, the principle of equilibrium, that is, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth is an important concept for the oldest theory of low and morality as well as the basis of justice. The sense of superiority and nobility which a strong man brave enough to take revenge feels is the origin of the antithesis "good" and "bad". Girard says that the sacred violence wielded by the community to sacrifice a surrogate victim brings about social order in a society without state power. All the aforementioned theories seem to have failed to find out that a society without state power has its own ethics that had spontaneously developed on the pagan culture. Previously, I indicated that a society without state power or a society where state power cannot function well, such as the tribal society in northern Albania, has ethics which is based on the ancient concepts of "Guest-god", "food (commensality)" and "blood". In the present paper, I propose a new theory on the origin of ethics and social order, using the model of ethics of the Kanun.

  2. An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

  3. Care Orders as Successful Interventions: The Social Workers' Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pösö, Tarja; Eronen, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the outcomes of care orders from the point of view of social workers. The aim is to cast light on the "black box" of substitute care by analysing the practice-based view on outcome in order to contribute to the complex debate on the relations of care and outcome. The article is based on a study using a survey, focus…

  4. Gender identity, nationalism, and social action among Jewish and Arab women in Israel: redefining the social order?

    PubMed

    Moore, D

    2000-01-01

    In the study this article explores, the meaning of gender identity for religious and secular Jewish and Arab women in Israeli society is examined. The study focuses on how Israeli women, rank gender identity, relative to other identities like being Jewish/Arab, being Israeli/Palestinian, religious or secular, of a certain ethnic group, and political identity. It examines the characteristics of gender identity and the attitudes that are associated with it. The analysis shows that the hierarchies of identities are different for religious and secular Jewish and Arab women, and that this is related to having different sociopolitical attitudes (e.g., Women's social and political involvement, social obedience, social influence). Thus, the hierarchy of identities and the sociopolitical attitudes of religious women indicate a more consensual acceptance of the social order than the hierarchy of identities and the sociopolitical attitudes of secular women, especially among Arab women.

  5. Language, Parents' Involvement, and Social Justice: The Fight for Maintaining Minority Home Language: A Chinese-Language Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuxiang

    2009-01-01

    English-only policies and the expiration of the "Bilingual Education Act," which is now replaced by "No Child Left Behind," make it clear that English is the official language of schools in the United States with the emphasis moved from the goal of maintaining students' home languages while learning English to a focus of ignoring minority…

  6. Maintaining the Social Flow of Evidence-Informed Palliative Care: Use and Misuse of YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Jamwal, Nisha Rani; Kumar, Senthil Paramasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review article is aimed to explore the use of the social media website YouTube (www.youtube.com) as an evidence resource in palliative care, for patients and caregivers, students and professionals, and providers and policy-makers in developing countries’ settings. The reviewed evidence reiterated the role of this social media website in palliative care practice, education and research in the area of cancer. Efficacy studies on impact of such media on palliative care delivery in developing countries are still lacking. PMID:26962290

  7. Maintaining the Social Flow of Evidence-Informed Palliative Care: Use and Misuse of YouTube.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Nisha Rani; Kumar, Senthil Paramasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review article is aimed to explore the use of the social media website YouTube (www.youtube.com) as an evidence resource in palliative care, for patients and caregivers, students and professionals, and providers and policy-makers in developing countries' settings. The reviewed evidence reiterated the role of this social media website in palliative care practice, education and research in the area of cancer. Efficacy studies on impact of such media on palliative care delivery in developing countries are still lacking.

  8. "Standing Porter at the Door of Thought": The Social Order of the Christian Science Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    This examination of the social order of the Church of Christ, Scientist, provides a valuable learning opportunity for leaders of any organizational entity--or for any student of organizational communication/behavior. The study addresses labor, trust, power, and legitimization of activity within the church. It raises the issue of whether Christian…

  9. Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jonathan; Bradford, Ben

    2009-09-01

    Public confidence in policing is receiving increasing attention from UK social scientists and policy-makers. The criminal justice system relies on legitimacy and consent to an extent unlike other public services: public support is vital if the police and other criminal justice agencies are to function both effectively and in accordance with democratic norms. Yet we know little about the forms of social perception that stand prior to public confidence and police legitimacy. Drawing on data from the 2003/2004 British Crime Survey and the 2006/2007 London Metropolitan Police Safer Neighbourhoods Survey, this paper suggests that people think about their local police in ways less to do with the risk of victimization (instrumental concerns about personal safety) and more to do with judgments of social cohesion and moral consensus (expressive concerns about neighbourhood stability, cohesion and loss of collective authority). Across England and Wales the police may not primarily be seen as providers of a narrow sense of personal security, held responsible for crime and safety. Instead the police may stand as symbolic 'moral guardians' of social stability and order, held responsible for community values and informal social controls. We also present evidence that public confidence in the London Metropolitan Police Service expresses broader social anxieties about long-term social change. We finish our paper with some thoughts on a sociological analysis of the cultural place of policing: confidence (and perhaps ultimately the legitimacy of the police) might just be wrapped up in broader public concerns about social order and moral consensus.

  10. Adaptation to low body temperature influences pulmonary surfactant composition thereby increasing fluidity while maintaining appropriately ordered membrane structure and surface activity.

    PubMed

    Suri, Lakshmi N M; McCaig, Lynda; Picardi, Maria V; Ospina, Olga L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Staples, James F; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-07-01

    The interfacial surface tension of the lung is regulated by phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant films. Small changes in temperature affect surfactant structure and function in vitro. We compared the compositional, thermodynamic and functional properties of surfactant from hibernating and summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) with porcine surfactant to understand structure-function relationships in surfactant membranes and films. Hibernating squirrels had more surfactant large aggregates with more fluid monounsaturated molecular species than summer-active animals. The latter had more unsaturated species than porcine surfactant. Cold-adapted surfactant membranes displayed gel-to-fluid transitions at lower phase transition temperatures with reduced enthalpy. Both hibernating and summer-active squirrel surfactants exhibited lower enthalpy than porcine surfactant. LAURDAN fluorescence and DPH anisotropy revealed that surfactant bilayers from both groups of squirrels possessed similar ordered phase characteristics at low temperatures. While ground squirrel surfactants functioned well during dynamic cycling at 3, 25, and 37 degrees C, porcine surfactant demonstrated poorer activity at 3 degrees C but was superior at 37 degrees C. Consequently the surfactant composition of ground squirrels confers a greater thermal flexibility relative to homeothermic mammals, while retaining tight lipid packing at low body temperatures. This may represent the most critical feature contributing to sustained stability of the respiratory interface at low lung volumes. Thus, while less effective than porcine surfactant at 37 degrees C, summer-active surfactant functions adequately at both 37 degrees C and 3 degrees C allowing these animals to enter hibernation. Here further compositional alterations occur which improve function at low temperatures by maintaining adequate stability at low lung volumes and when temperature increases during arousal from

  11. Intimate Partner Violence Victims Seeking a Temporary Restraining Order: Social Support and Resilience Attenuating Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Jose, Rupa; Novaco, Raymond W

    2016-12-01

    Social support has been found in many studies to be a protective factor for those exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), but personal resilience has received far less attention. The present study concerns 136 female IPV victims seeking a temporary restraining order (TRO) from a Family Justice Center (FJC). The relationships between IPV victimization, social support, resilience, and psychological distress were examined. Hierarchical regressions found that both perceived social support and self-reported resilience were inversely associated with distress symptoms. Higher social support was associated with lower trauma symptoms, controlling for abuse history, demographics, and resilience. Higher resilience was associated with lower mood symptoms and lower perceived stress, controlling for abuse history, demographics, and social support. No significant associations were recorded for anger symptoms. These findings suggest that fostering resilience can have important health benefits for IPV victims, above and beyond the well-known benefits of social support. Ways that resilience might be cultivated in this population and other implications for practice are discussed.

  12. Physical and social functional abilities seem to be maintained by a multifaceted randomized controlled nutritional intervention among old (>65 years) Danish nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Beck, Anne Marie; Damkjaer, Karin; Sørbye, Liv W

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to test the hypothesis that a multifaceted 11 weeks randomized controlled intervention would have a significant influence of functional abilities in old nursing home residents. Participants were 121 old (>65 years) residents in seven Danish nursing homes. The intervention consisted of nutrition (chocolate, homemade oral supplements), group exercise (moderate intensity) and oral care. Measurements taken were weight, body mass index (BMI), energy and protein intake, and functional abilities (activities of daily living=ADL, cognitive performance, and social engagement). The results showed that the nutrition and exercise were well accepted. After 11 weeks the change in % weight (1.3 vs. -0.6%, p=0.005), % BMI (0.4 vs. -0.2%, p=0.003), energy intake (0.7 vs. -0.3 MJ/day, p=0.084) and protein intake (5 vs. -2g/day, p=0.012) was higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Also, after 11 weeks, social and physical function had decreased in the control group but was unchanged in the intervention group. The difference between groups was significant in relation to social engagement (p=0.009). After the end of the intervention both groups had lost weight and physical function. Cognitive performance did not change, at any time. In conclusion, it seems possible to maintain social (and physical) functional abilities in old nursing home residents by means of a multifaceted intervention.

  13. Increasing returns to scale: The solution to the second-order social dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hang; Chen, Shu; Luo, Jun; Tan, Fei; Jia, Yongmin; Chen, Yefeng

    2016-01-01

    Humans benefit from extensive cooperation; however, the existence of free-riders may cause cooperation to collapse. This is called the social dilemma. It has been shown that punishing free-riders is an effective way of resolving this problem. Because punishment is costly, this gives rise to the second-order social dilemma. Without exception, existing solutions rely on some stringent assumptions. This paper proposes, under very mild conditions, a simple model of a public goods game featuring increasing returns to scale. We find that punishers stand out and even dominate the population provided that the degree of increasing returns to scale is large enough; consequently, the second-order social dilemma dissipates. Historical evidence shows that people are more willing to cooperate with others and punish defectors when they suffer from either internal or external menaces. During the prehistoric age, the abundance of contributors was decisive in joint endeavours such as fighting floods, defending territory, and hunting. These situations serve as favourable examples of public goods games in which the degrees of increasing returns to scale are undoubtedly very large. Our findings show that natural selection has endowed human kind with a tendency to pursue justice and punish defection that deviates from social norms. PMID:27535087

  14. Social (dis)order and psychosocial trauma: Look earlier, look outside, and look beyond the persons.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Amalio; Blanco, Rubén; Díaz, Darío

    2016-04-01

    The most common and extreme suffering humankind has ever experienced comes from interpersonal and collective intentional violence. In dealing with traumatic outcomes psychology must overcome the mutually constitutive interaction between the (dis)order of a given macro or microsocial context and the mental health of the persons living in it. Social psychologist Ignacio Martín-Baró addressed in a preferential way the study of civil war in El Salvador in terms of intergroup hostility and polarization. He also approached the aftereffects of war by means of a theoretical core assumption: that traumatic experience rooted in collective violence (a human-made stressor) should be understood bearing in mind its social roots (pretraumatic situation), its personal and collective harm (collective injury), and the destruction of the social fabric. These are the arguments for his conceptualization of psychosocial trauma. Twenty-six years after the violent murder of Martín-Baró, along with 5 Jesuit priests, a housekeeper, and his teenage daughter, the current authors have adopted his general framework. Based on new theoretical insights and supporting data, the authors propose an expanded 4-dimension theoretical argument on psychosocial trauma: (a) pretrauma conditions based on social distress, (b) shared network of fear leading to breakdown of core social assumptions, (c) the outgroup as a target of negative emotions, and (d) destruction of family ties and community networks.

  15. The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

  16. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    PubMed

    Chase, Ivan D; Lindquist, W Brent

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  17. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs. PMID:27410230

  18. Social and emotional loneliness and self-reported difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) in a sample of Norwegian university students.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Amie C; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Sivertsen, Børge; Knapstad, Marit; Øverland, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Social and emotional loneliness negatively impact several areas of health, including sleep. However, few comprehensive population-based studies have evaluated this relationship. Over 12,000 students aged 21-35 years who participated in the student survey for higher education in Norway (the SHoT study) were assessed. Loneliness was assessed using the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale. Difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) was assessed by a single-item subjective response on the depression scale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25). Social loneliness was associated with more serious DIMS (unadjusted proportional odds-ratio [OR] = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.46-2.95). This association was attenuated following adjustment for anxiety (adjusted OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.75-2.10) and depression (adjusted OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.34-1.63), however was not substantially altered when all demographics and psychological distress were accounted for (fully adjusted OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.30-1.63). Emotional loneliness was also associated with more serious DIMS (unadjusted proportional OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 2.12-2.57). Adjustment for anxiety (adjusted OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.78-2.15) and depression (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.48-1.80) attenuated, but did not extinguish this relationship in the fully adjusted model (adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.31). Mediation analyses revealed that the social loneliness-DIMS association was fully attributed to psychological distress, while the emotional loneliness-DIMS association was only partially mediated, and a direct association was still observed. Associations between social and emotional loneliness and subjective DIMS were embedded in a larger pattern of psychological distress. Mitigating underlying feelings of loneliness may reduce potentially deleterious effects on sleep health and psychological wellbeing in young adults.

  19. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients’ religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients’ religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism. The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or χ2 test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions. A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P = 0.02), unemployment (P = 0.02), admission diagnosis of “nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency” (P = 0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P < 0.01) were significantly associated with signing of DNR orders. Patients’ religious background of Buddhism/Daoism (P = 0.04), married marital status (P = 0.02), and admission diagnosis of “postoperative, major surgery” (P = 0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay. This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social

  20. From higher order thinking to higher order behavior: exploring the relationship between early cognitive skills and social competence in black boys.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties.

  1. More than mere numbers: the impact of lethal control on the social stability of a top-order predator.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Ritchie, Euan G; Read, John; O'Neill, Adam J

    2009-09-02

    Population control of socially complex species may have profound ecological implications that remain largely invisible if only their abundance is considered. Here we discuss the effects of control on a socially complex top-order predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). Since European occupation of Australia, dingoes have been controlled over much of the continent. Our aim was to investigate the effects of control on their abundance and social stability. We hypothesized that dingo abundance and social stability are not linearly related, and proposed a theoretical model in which dingo populations may fluctuate between three main states: (A) below carrying capacity and socially fractured, (B) above carrying capacity and socially fractured, or (C) at carrying capacity and socially stable. We predicted that lethal control would drive dingoes into the unstable states A or B, and that relaxation of control would allow recovery towards C. We tested our predictions by surveying relative abundance (track density) and indicators of social stability (scent-marking and howling) at seven sites in the arid zone subject to differing degrees of control. We also monitored changes in dingo abundance and social stability following relaxation and intensification of control. Sites where dingoes had been controlled within the previous two years were characterized by low scent-marking activity, but abundance was similar at sites with and without control. Signs of social stability steadily increased the longer an area was allowed to recover from control, but change in abundance did not follow a consistent path. Comparison of abundance and stability among all sites and years demonstrated that control severely fractures social groups, but that the effect of control on abundance was neither consistent nor predictable. Management decisions involving large social predators must therefore consider social stability to ensure their conservation and ecological functioning.

  2. "This villa life": town planning, suburbs and the "new social order" in early twentieth-century Sydney.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In Australia, social reformers approached the new century and post-First World War reconstruction with the hope of establishing a "new social order" based on national efficiency and class harmony. This was to be delivered through the new science of town planning. The would-be reformers posited themselves as an intellectual vanguard which would provide leadership and assist in establishing an enlightened bureaucracy of professional public servants who would also lead the way to social betterment. Their project, however, had collapsed by the end of the war. Lacking collective political clout, the nascent planning professionals' influence declined as the political environment became more conservative in the 1920s. Reformist and radical features of town planning were stripped from suburban agendas. Suburbs, once held up as the cradle of the 'new social order', were to become places for quarantining class and reinvigorating liberalism.

  3. Global Connectivity and Government Capacity: Social Networks, Order, Change, and Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    sociology forged by digital network relationships has emerged in its own virtual spatial commons made up of data, bits, and bytes. Such affordable...society is connected via social media and digital communication networks (Internet and the World Wide Web [WWW]), and the institutional capacity of...Huntington’s main thesis argument postulates that: Social and economic change—urbanization, increases in literacy and education, industrialization

  4. First- and second-order sociality determine survival and reproduction in cooperative cichlids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative breeders serve as a model to study the evolution of cooperation, where costs and benefits of helping are typically scrutinized at the level of group membership. However, cooperation is often observed in multi-level social organizations involving interactions among individuals at various levels. Here, we argue that a full understanding of the adaptive value of cooperation and the evolution of complex social organization requires identifying the effect of different levels of social organization on direct and indirect fitness components. Our long-term field data show that in the cooperatively breeding, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, both large group size and high colony density significantly raised group persistence. Neither group size nor density affected survival at the individual level, but they had interactive effects on reproductive output; large group size raised productivity when local population density was low, whereas in contrast, small groups were more productive at high densities. Fitness estimates of individually marked fish revealed indirect fitness benefits associated with staying in large groups. Inclusive fitness, however, was not significantly affected by group size, because the direct fitness component was not increased in larger groups. Together, our findings highlight that the reproductive output of groups may be affected in opposite directions by different levels of sociality, and that complex forms of sociality and costly cooperation may evolve in the absence of large indirect fitness benefits and the influence of kin selection. PMID:26582022

  5. First- and second-order sociality determine survival and reproduction in cooperative cichlids.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, Arne; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-11-22

    Cooperative breeders serve as a model to study the evolution of cooperation, where costs and benefits of helping are typically scrutinized at the level of group membership. However, cooperation is often observed in multi-level social organizations involving interactions among individuals at various levels. Here, we argue that a full understanding of the adaptive value of cooperation and the evolution of complex social organization requires identifying the effect of different levels of social organization on direct and indirect fitness components. Our long-term field data show that in the cooperatively breeding, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, both large group size and high colony density significantly raised group persistence. Neither group size nor density affected survival at the individual level, but they had interactive effects on reproductive output; large group size raised productivity when local population density was low, whereas in contrast, small groups were more productive at high densities. Fitness estimates of individually marked fish revealed indirect fitness benefits associated with staying in large groups. Inclusive fitness, however, was not significantly affected by group size, because the direct fitness component was not increased in larger groups. Together, our findings highlight that the reproductive output of groups may be affected in opposite directions by different levels of sociality, and that complex forms of sociality and costly cooperation may evolve in the absence of large indirect fitness benefits and the influence of kin selection.

  6. Finding a place to connect: A qualitative study exploring the influences of the physical and social environments on spouses' opportunities to maintain relationships when visiting a partner with dementia living in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Førsund, Linn Hege; Ytrehus, Siri

    2016-06-17

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how physical and social environments influence spouses' opportunities to maintain relationships when visiting a partner with dementia living in long-term care. Interviews with 15 spouses whose partners lived in long-term care facilities for persons with dementia, observations of physical environments and participant observations were conducted. The results showed how finding a place for spouses to connect in the long-term care facility was important in maintaining relationships. Access to individual rooms was an important feature that enabled connections throughout the phases of dementia, whereas common areas appeared more difficult to use because small spaces limited private interactions. Health personnel were important in sustaining spouses' abilities to maintain their relationships in long-term care facilities for persons with dementia.

  7. Analysis of Social Variables when an Initial Functional Analysis Indicates Automatic Reinforcement as the Maintaining Variable for Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Stephanie A. Contrucci; Triggs, Mandy

    2009-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) that occurs at high rates across all conditions of a functional analysis can suggest automatic or multiple functions. In the current study, we conducted a functional analysis for 1 individual with SIB. Results indicated that SIB was, at least in part, maintained by automatic reinforcement. Further analyses using…

  8. The Impact of the Social Order to Increase Enrollment in Programs of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolotareva, Angelina V.; Bayborodova, Liudmila V.; Lehomzeva, Elena N.; Sukhanova, Yulia V.; Razumova, Anzhelika B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the social demand impact on increasing the children's enrollment of supplementary education programs. The survey has involved children of younger and middle school age (n = 2,206), high school students (n = 2,162), and parents of children of preschool (n = 313), younger and middle school age (n = 262). The…

  9. Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

    This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and…

  10. The Contribution of Distance Education in Providing Education for a Just Social Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    Concerned with the means by which distance education programs can be used to further social justice in various parts of the world, this paper considers both the generally recognized strengths of and some potential problems in three aspects of such programs--access, curriculum, and a monopolistic tendency. It draws on the experience of the…

  11. The Effect of Federal Desegregation Orders on Social Studies Instruction in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patrick

    This study examines the effect of school desegregation upon instructional content, teacher qualifications and assignments, and teacher and student attitudes in social studies classes. Questionnaires, interviews, and classroom observations were the techniques employed to gather data from 85 Negro and white teachers, 120 Negro and 95 white students,…

  12. The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills during the Middle School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths' functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n =…

  13. Role-separating ordering in social dilemmas controlled by topological frustration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Marco A.; Perc, Matjaž; Wardil, Lucas; Szolnoki, Attila; da Silva Júnior, Elton J.; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2017-03-01

    ``Three is a crowd" is an old proverb that applies as much to social interactions as it does to frustrated configurations in statistical physics models. Accordingly, social relations within a triangle deserve special attention. With this motivation, we explore the impact of topological frustration on the evolutionary dynamics of the snowdrift game on a triangular lattice. This topology provides an irreconcilable frustration, which prevents anticoordination of competing strategies that would be needed for an optimal outcome of the game. By using different strategy updating protocols, we observe complex spatial patterns in dependence on payoff values that are reminiscent to a honeycomb-like organization, which helps to minimize the negative consequence of the topological frustration. We relate the emergence of these patterns to the microscopic dynamics of the evolutionary process, both by means of mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. For comparison, we also consider the same evolutionary dynamics on the square lattice, where of course the topological frustration is absent. However, with the deletion of diagonal links of the triangular lattice, we can gradually bridge the gap to the square lattice. Interestingly, in this case the level of cooperation in the system is a direct indicator of the level of topological frustration, thus providing a method to determine frustration levels in an arbitrary interaction network.

  14. The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills During the Middle School Years.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths' functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n = 445) or to control (n = 446) conditions. In contrast to prior findings of the effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention during the elementary school years, the current findings indicate that Fast Track had little overall impact on children's functioning in these domains during this age period. There were positive intervention effects on only 2 of 17 outcomes examined. Although the intervention had positive impact on children's hyperactive and self-reported delinquent behaviors in seventh grade, there were no intervention effects on other externalizing behavior problems or on social skills, and there was a negative intervention effect on children's involvement with deviant peers during this age period.

  15. Cooperation in social dilemmas: free riding may be thwarted by second-order reward rather than by punishment.

    PubMed

    Kiyonari, Toko; Barclay, Pat

    2008-10-01

    Cooperation among nonrelatives can be puzzling because cooperation often involves incurring costs to confer benefits on unrelated others. Punishment of noncooperators can sustain otherwise fragile cooperation, but the provision of punishment suffers from a "second-order" free-riding problem because nonpunishers can free ride on the benefits from costly punishment provided by others. One suggested solution to this problem is second-order punishment of nonpunishers; more generally, the threat or promise of higher order sanctions might maintain the lower order sanctions that enforce cooperation in collective action problems. Here the authors report on 3 experiments testing people's willingness to provide second-order sanctions by having participants play a cooperative game with opportunities to punish and reward each other. The authors found that people supported those who rewarded cooperators either by rewarding them or by punishing nonrewarders, but people did not support those who punished noncooperators--they did not reward punishers or punish nonpunishers. Furthermore, people did not approve of punishers more than they did nonpunishers, even when nonpunishers were clearly unwilling to use sanctions to support cooperation. The results suggest that people will much more readily support positive sanctions than they will support negative sanctions.

  16. Act No. 8/1988 on infractions and sanctions in the social order, 7 April 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Act sets forth infractions and sanctions with respect to labor and social security. Among other things, it classifies the following as very serious offenses: 1) unilateral decisions of employers involving discrimination, either favorable or adverse, in the matter of compensation, hours, training, promotion, and other labor conditions with respect to sex and kinship with other workers; and 2) establishment of conditions through advertising, offers of work, or any other means that constitute discrimination, either favorable or adverse, with respect to access to employment for reasons of sex or kinship with other workers. The following persons will also be considered to have committed very serious infractions: 1) employers who use foreign workers without having first obtained the proper work permit or its renewal; they will incur an infraction for each foreign worker so employed; 2) foreigners who exercise in Spain any lucrative, labor, or professional activity for themselves without having obtained the proper permit or renewed it; and 3) real or legal persons who promote, facilitate, or protect the work of foreigners in Spain without the proper work permit. The Act sets penalties for these infractions ranging from 500,001 pesetas to 15,000,000 pesetas depending on attenuating or aggravating circumstances. In addition, employers committing these infractions are 1) automatically to lose benefits derived from employment programs from the time the infraction was committed and 2) to be excluded from access to such benefits for a maximum period of one year.

  17. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  18. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients' religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients' religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism.The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or χ test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions.A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P = 0.02), unemployment (P = 0.02), admission diagnosis of "nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency" (P = 0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P < 0.01) were significantly associated with signing of DNR orders. Patients' religious background of Buddhism/Daoism (P = 0.04), married marital status (P = 0.02), and admission diagnosis of "postoperative, major surgery" (P = 0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay.This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social support was significantly

  19. Manufacturing Technology Support (MATES) II Task Order 0006: Air Force Technology and Industrial Base Research and Analysis. Subtask Order 0004: Study on Supply Chains and Social Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    tapping into the volume and tone of conversations within the ESN platform as well as across the internet . Finally, current industrial base analysis...preferred method of connection, conversation and collaboration for millions of people worldwide – and the number one use of the Internet by far. The...class performers are “…currently leveraging supplier B2B social efforts to improve intelligence and supply chain operations” (Aberdeen Group, 2012

  20. Create and Maintain Content

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find resources and guidance on writing for the web, keeping your content relevant, using social media, meeting accessibility standards, and how to transform your content into the WebCMS to meet One EPA Web standards.

  1. Maintaining DACUM Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    This document discusses the importance of maintaining the quality of DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analyses and presents a 2-page checklist detailing DACUM quality performance criteria. The introduction to the checklist discusses various "infractions" discovered during an analyses of some curriculum/program developers'…

  2. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  3. Exploring the Construction of Social Class in Educational Discourse: The Rational Order of the Nation State versus Global Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Naz

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to create intellectual space in which issues of social inequality and education can be analyzed and discussed in relation to the multifaceted and multi-levelled complexities of the modern world. It is divided into three sections. Section One locates the concept of social class in the context of the modern nation state during the…

  4. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  5. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  6. The Concept of Order in Ancient China: A Curriculum Unit for History and Social Studies, Grades 6-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Adrian; Chu, Richard

    This unit addresses the questions of how and why people create order in a world whose randomness and order are for individuals to interpret. This unit uses the Han Dynasty of China as an example of one country's attempt to create such order and unite China successfully for over 400 years. The activities in this unit examine order in politics, in…

  7. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  8. Integration: Maintaining the Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Wayne M.

    This address asserts that the profession of school administrator cannot reach full maturity unless it recognizes, one and for all, that separate schools are as unsound educationally as they are legally and morally; unless it decreases the deliberation and increases the speed which it brings leadership to America's major unresolved social,…

  9. Maintaining Wellbeing during Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, P. Nancey; Machin, M. Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A survey of 371 unemployed people in South East Queensland explored whether deprivation of the latent benefits of employment was able to predict psychological distress after controlling for other key correlates. A standard multiple regression found that the latent benefits (time structure, social contact, collective purpose, enforced activity, and…

  10. 'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development.

  11. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  12. Maintaining the unmethylated state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA

  13. 25 CFR 11.447 - Maintaining a public nuisance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maintaining a public nuisance. 11.447 Section 11.447 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.447 Maintaining a public nuisance. A person who permits...

  14. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    PubMed

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use.

  15. Maintaining oral health after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Hazel

    Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.

  16. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  17. Strategies for Maintaining Community Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Fred

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…

  18. Maintaining COTS-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    12-1 Maintaining COTS-Based Systems Dr. Mark R. Vigder John Dean National Research Council of Canada Institute for Information Technology Ottawa...evluton destifyng cand s yste dff uresamng sets ongoingoperato n.ts devhoisg Configuration magement Tracking versions of different COTS products

  19. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  20. Functional analysis screening for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Querim, Angie C; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J; Ortega, Javier Virués; Hurl, Kylee E

    2013-01-01

    A common finding in previous research is that problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement continues to occur in the alone condition of a functional analysis (FA), whereas behavior maintained by social reinforcement typically is extinguished. Thus, the alone condition may represent an efficient screening procedure when maintenance by automatic reinforcement is suspected. We conducted a series of 5-min alone (or no-interaction) probes for 30 cases of problem behavior and compared initial predictions of maintenance or extinction to outcomes obtained in subsequent FAs. Results indicated that data from the screening procedure accurately predicted that problem behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement in 21 of 22 cases and by social reinforcement in 7 of 8 cases. Thus, results of the screening accurately predicted the function of problem behavior (social vs. automatic reinforcement) in 28 of 30 cases.

  1. [Social palliation].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Holger; Langkilde, Lisbeth

    2007-10-29

    In the WHO's definition of palliative care, social support plays an important part. When a person is dying, social issues regarding the present and future wellbeing of his/her family will often be of great concern. Social aspects of palliation can be divided into two major areas--social counselling and psycho-social work. The first concerns help to maintain an income and to establish sufficient help to enable the dying person and his/her family to live as well as possible. The second involves help to deal with the new and difficult situation for both the dying person and his/her family.

  2. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  3. [Trace elements maintaining the vital functions].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yasuaki

    2016-07-01

    In a healthy condition, trace elements constituting the living body are regulated and maintained their balance of each other and their range of physiological optimum concentration in order to maintain the normal vital functions. When the optimum conditions of their balance and their homeostasis, however, are broken down by deficiency or excess of certain trace element, an excess accumulation or deficiency of specified element is induced and it follows that peculiar disease is caused according to function of each specified element. Generally, the disturbance of major elements such as O, C, H, N, Ca, P will induce a nutrition lesion and electrolytic abnormality, and the disturbance of 10 trace elements such as Fe, F, Si, Zn, Sr, Rb, Br, Pb, Mn, Cu being at ppm order and 14 ultra-trace elements such as Al, Cd, Sn, Ba, Hg, Se, I, Mo, Ni, B, Cr, As, Co, V being at ppb order will give rise to functional disorder of enzyme and physiological active substance in living body.

  4. Maintaining the Defense Industrial Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-02

    34 43 Utilizing concurrent engineering , development times are reduced by up to 40%.44 Japan’s auto industry use of concurrent engineering is a factor in... Developing this prescription for maintaining the defense industrial base involves a two step process. First, it is important to establish the current...increased. The skills required to work with advanced aerospace composite materials are unique to the industry . Developing 8 -1777 profiiency in this

  5. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  6. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  7. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  8. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE)

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.; Brick, Timothy R.; Pritikin, Joshua N.; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D.; Maes, Hermine H.; Neale, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly-impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participants’ personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual’s data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  9. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE).

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M; Brick, Timothy R; Pritikin, Joshua N; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D; Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant's personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual's data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies.

  10. How to maintain chain drives

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L. )

    1992-06-18

    Properly selected and maintained chain drives can be expected to give thousands of hours of reliable service. Selection is usually done just once. This paper reports on good maintenance which must be done regularly to keep the drive operating. An effective maintenance program for roller chain should include correct type and adequate amounts of lubrication, replacement of worn chains and sprockets, and elimination of drive interferences. It is important to set u a lubrication and inspection/correction schedule to ensure that all required maintenance is carried out.

  11. Key role of social work in effective communication and conflict resolution process: Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program in New York and shared medical decision making at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Patricia A; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Leven, David C

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the development of the Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program and recent landmark legislation in New York State in the context of advance care planning and shared medical decision making at the end of life. Social workers are central health care professionals in working with patients, families, practitioners, health care agents, and surrogates in the health systems and in the communication and conflict resolution process that is integral to health care decision making. The critical importance of ethics and end-of-life training and education for social workers is also addressed. Data from a pilot study evaluating interdisciplinary ethics training on legal and ethical content in communication and conflict resolution skills in health care decision making are reported. Recommendations are made for research on education and training of social workers, and investigation of the role and influence of systems in shaping social work involvement in end-of-life and palliative care.

  12. [Organization and character of measures to realize and conduct medical examinations of workers in Krasnoyarsk area according to Russian Health and Social Development Ministry Order No. 302n (12/04/2011)].

    PubMed

    Tereshchenko, Iu A; Zakharinskaia, O N; Demko, I V; Fedoreev, R V; Zaĭtsev, N G

    2013-01-01

    The article presents organizational, informational, educational and methodic measures accomplished in Krasnoyarsk area, aimed to timely and high-quality fulfil the Russian Health and Social Development Ministry Order No 302n (12/04/2011) in its part concerning procedure of mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations of workers.

  13. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  14. When to maintain centrifugal pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Karassik, I.J.

    1993-04-01

    Centrifugal pumps comprise critical maintenance equipment. The rationale of when to maintain them relates to a spreading tendency to contain costs in the face of tight money. Plant managers are thus entitled to a thorough analysis of whether reduced expenditures truly lower costs or actually hinder maintenance and increase costs. Absence of such an analysis hides the fact that proper and timely maintenance has a double effect: it not only reduces power consumption but also extends equipment life, and thus reduces the frequency of labor and material expenditures for scheduled or crisis maintenance. Centrifugal pump maintenance can demonstrate well the validity of this observation. The paper discusses: restoring internal clearances; real cost of renewing clearances; and monitoring clearances and pump performance.

  15. Installing and maintaining gear pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmire, K.

    1996-03-01

    While not as common as centrifugal pumps in the CPI, gear pumps play important roles in handling many of today`s more difficult-to-pump fluids. Because they operate at lower speeds -- generally, 900 rpm or less -- their seals and bearings tend to last longer than those of centrifugal models. In addition, unlike centrifugal pumps, gear pumps` flows are independent of their systems` pressure curves, and they can handle a wider range of viscosities. Although high-flow, low-head applications remain the domain of centrifugal pumps, the use of gear pumps is increasing in the chemical process industries (CPI). While some application boundaries between gears and centrifugals are blurring, there are some crucial differences between the way the two are operated and maintained -- for example, where pressure relief is concerned. This article provides a general summary of gear pump characteristics and applications, highlighting critical aspects of installation, operation and maintenance.

  16. What Does God Know? Supernatural Agents' Access to Socially Strategic and Non-Strategic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Finkel, Daniel N.; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B.; Sosis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about…

  17. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  18. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  19. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  20. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  1. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  2. Patients’ lived experiences regarding maintaining dignity

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Manookian, Arpi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of dignity is frequently emphasized as a basic patient’s right in national and international nursing codes of ethics and is indeed the essence and core of nursing care. It is therefore essential to explore the concept based on patients’ lived experiences in order to maintain and respect their dignity and consequently improve the quality of health services and patient satisfaction. The present study aimed to discover the lived experiences of Iranian patients regarding maintaining their dignity at the bedside. This qualitative study was conducted using an interpretive phenomenological approach. A total of 14 participants (9 women and 5 men) were purposefully selected, and data were collected through individual, semi-structured and deep interviews. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed by the Diekelman, Allen and Tanner approach. The findings of this study revealed three main themes and related subthemes regarding the meaning of preserving patients’ dignity. The first main theme was “exigency of preserving the innate human dignity” and comprised two subthemes: “respect for the intrinsic equality of all humans” and “treating the patient as a valued person, not an object”. The second theme was “service based on love and kindness” and included two subthemes: ‘being with the patient” and “inspiring the sense of being accepted and loved”. The third main theme emerged as “dignifying and transcendental professional service” and consisted of two subthemes: “professional commitment to uphold patients’ rights” and “enlightened practice”. This study revealed that the concept of maintaining patients’ dignity is related to health providers’ duty to preserve patients’ dignity and also their moral obligation to manifest the human love that is in their own as well as their patients’ nature. In conclusion, if nurses reflect on the transcendental nature of nursing care, they will value and prize their

  3. Does PKM(zeta) maintain memory?

    PubMed

    Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-06-01

    Work on the long-term stability of memory has identified a potentially critical role for protein kinase Mzeta (PKMζ) in maintaining established memory. PKMζ, an autonomously active isoform of PKC, is hypothesized to sustain those changes that occurred during memory formation in order to preserve the memory engram over time. Initial studies investigating the role of PKMζ were largely successful in demonstrating a role for the kinase in memory maintenance; disrupting PKMζ activity with ζ-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) was successful in disrupting a variety of established associations in a number of key brain regions. More recent work, however, has questioned both the role of PKMζ in memory maintenance and the effectiveness of ZIP as a specific inhibitor of PKMζ activity. Here, we outline the research both for and against the idea that PKMζ is a memory maintenance mechanism and discuss how these two lines of research can be reconciled. We conclude by proposing a number of studies that would help to clarify the role of PKMζ in memory and define other mechanisms the brain may use to maintain memory.

  4. Social Representations as Dynamic Social Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Pascal; Latane, Bibb

    1996-01-01

    Describes Social Representation Theory (SRT), an important and controversial development in European social constructivism. Argues that, although SRT and Dynamic Social Impact Theory (DSIT) come from different research traditions, they are complementary. Maintains that DSIT goes further in providing a clear mechanism for how dialog creates…

  5. Maintaining the Telescope Bibliography at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.

    2010-10-01

    The library profession benefits tremendously from ever-changing web technologies. In maintaining a telescope bibliography, web-publishing revolutionized the way librarians track relevant publications. Thanks to the search abilities provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, arXiv, publishers, as well as Google Scholar, and other such resources, online searching for Gemini-based publications has replaced the tedious perusing of print journals. However, we should keep in mind that online searching is neither flawless nor simple — different content providers require different search strategies. Sometimes the retrievals are not as complete as one expects. Information providers should be constantly improving their searching abilities in order to make the task of electronic publication tracking more reliable and efficient.

  6. The Lower-Order Expectations of High-Stakes Tests: A Four-State Analysis of Social Studies Standards and Test Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Scott W.; Patterson, Nancy; Blankenship, Whitney; Blevins, Brooke; DiCamillo, Lorrei; Gerwin, David; Gradwell, Jill M.; Gunn, John; Maddox, Lamont; Salinas, Cinthia; Saye, John; Stoddard, Jeremy; Sullivan, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    This study indicates that the state-mandated high-stakes social studies assessments in four states do not require students to demonstrate that they have met the cognitive demands articulated in the state-mandated learning standards. Further, the assessments do not allow students to demonstrate the critical thinking skills required by the…

  7. We Call It "Our Language": A Children's Swahili Pidgin Transforms Social and Symbolic Order on a Remote Hillside in Up-Country Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Perry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a rare Swahili pidgin created by two five-year-old boys, one American and one African. The discussion examines the linguistic and social factors affecting the "origins, maintenance, change and loss" (Hymes 1971) of their language and the place it created for their friendship. This place, constructed by and through language,…

  8. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  9. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA.

  10. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  11. Photonics: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Information Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Photonics Maintaining Competitiveness in the Information Era \\ATIONAL RESEIARCII COUVIIII, -mail Photonics: Maintaining Competitiveness in the... Information Era Panel on Photonics Science and Tcchnology Assessment Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical

  12. Breeding maintainer lines for hybrid rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintainer lines are a component of 3-line hybrid rice production, necessary to perpetuate the male-sterile (MS) line. In practice, it is often the maintainer that is bred with an array of desirable traits, then male-sterility is transferred in through several backcrosses with the new maintainer to...

  13. An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Recruitment Patterns on RDS Estimates among a Socially Ordered Population of Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Yamanis, Thespina J.; Merli, M. Giovanna; Neely, William Whipple; Tian, Felicia Feng; Moody, James; Tu, Xiaowen; Gao, Ersheng

    2013-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method for recruiting “hidden” populations through a network-based, chain and peer referral process. RDS recruits hidden populations more effectively than other sampling methods and promises to generate unbiased estimates of their characteristics. RDS’s faithful representation of hidden populations relies on the validity of core assumptions regarding the unobserved referral process. With empirical recruitment data from an RDS study of female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai, we assess the RDS assumption that participants recruit nonpreferentially from among their network alters. We also present a bootstrap method for constructing the confidence intervals around RDS estimates. This approach uniquely incorporates real-world features of the population under study (e.g., the sample’s observed branching structure). We then extend this approach to approximate the distribution of RDS estimates under various peer recruitment scenarios consistent with the data as a means to quantify the impact of recruitment bias and of rejection bias on the RDS estimates. We find that the hierarchical social organization of FSWs leads to recruitment biases by constraining RDS recruitment across social classes and introducing bias in the RDS estimates. PMID:24288418

  14. An Evaluation of Strategies to Maintain Mands at Practical Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidener, Tina M.; Shabani, Daniel B.; Carr, James E.; Roland, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to teach individuals with developmental disabilities to request stimuli they are motivated to obtain (mand), it is often necessary to initially deliver the item requested immediately and frequently. This may result in an undesirably high rate of mands that is impractical to maintain. The purpose of the current investigation was to extend…

  15. War and Peace Studies: War and War Prevention. World Order. Preliminary Edition, 1974-75. History and Social Science Resource Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Albert

    A central purpose of this curriculum resource is to help students at the secondary level gain mental images, concepts, vocabulary, and learning skills they can use to comprehend the rather vast idea of world order and gain a world perspective on contemporary affairs. Emphasis is on presenting learning experiences designed to arouse controversy,…

  16. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  17. Making views self-maintainable for data warehousing

    SciTech Connect

    Quass, D.; Widom, J.; Gupta, A.; Mumick, I.S.

    1996-12-31

    A data warehouse stores materialized views over data from one or more sources in order to provide fast access to the integrated data, regardless of the availability of the data sources. Warehouse views need to be maintained in response to changes to the base data in the sources. Except for very simple views, maintaining a warehouse view requires access to data that is not available in the view itself. Hence, to maintain the view, one either has to query the data sources or store auxiliary data in the warehouse. We show that by using key and referential integrity constraints, we often can maintain a select-project-join view without going to the data sources or replicating the base relations in their entirety in the warehouse. We derive a set of auxiliary views such that the warehouse view and the auxiliary views together are self-maintainable-they can be maintained without going to the data sources or replicating all base data. In addition, our technique can be applied to simplify traditional materialized view maintenance by exploiting key and referential integrity constraints.

  18. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  19. Order, topology and preference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sertel, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some standard order-related and topological notions, facts, and methods are brought to bear on central topics in the theory of preference and the theory of optimization. Consequences of connectivity are considered, especially from the viewpoint of normally preordered spaces. Examples are given showing how the theory of preference, or utility theory, can be applied to social analysis.

  20. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-10

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  1. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  2. Reply to Thornton, "Social Studies Misunderstood."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Kieran

    1984-01-01

    In this ongoing debate, Egan still maintains that because social studies is based on incorrect theories of child learning and aims to socialize and because the idea of social studies is confusing, the discipline should be allowed to die. (RM)

  3. Job-related social networks and communication technology.

    PubMed

    Nelson Bryen, Diane; Potts, Blyden B; Carey, Allison C

    2006-03-01

    In order to examine the social networks of individuals who rely on AAC, 38 adults who used AAC provided information about how they developed and maintained job-related social networks and how communication technologies helped them to do so. The respondents met new people who might become part of their job-related networks during social events with family or friends, as well as at meetings, conferences, and workshops. They also frequently used generic communication technologies such as the phone, email, computer, and the Internet to maintain contact with people in their social networks. Findings suggest that land-line telephones, email, and the Internet were used by the largest percentage of respondents, with email and the Internet used most frequently to contact the largest number of people. Qualitative data provided information about the use of technology for enhancing participants' job-related networks and suggestions for new or improved technologies.

  4. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  5. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  6. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  7. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records. 784.12 Section 784.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining...

  8. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining records. 1430.508 Section 1430.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under...

  9. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining records. 1430.508 Section 1430.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under...

  10. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise’s Expressive Order (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social behavior is continually regulated to maintain an affective tone compatible with whatever social roles or identities define the situation. We outline the intellectual history of the proposed dimensions and of the idea that each social action invites an action from the other that has a particular location along these dimensions. We also relate these ideas to the Affect-as-Information hypothesis, an approach that often guides research in psychology on the role of affect in regulating judgment and thought. PMID:18461152

  11. Treating problem behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Cipani, E; Spooner, F

    1997-01-01

    The examination of controlling contingencies in an analysis of problem behavior has been an important clinical topic of discussion in the field of developmental disabilities for many years. We know that problem behavior may be maintained by positive reinforcement or by negative reinforcement. From a clinical perspective, we seem to know more about behavioral techniques that are used when the problem behavior is maintained by positive reinforcement that we understand about those techniques that may be applied when a problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement. In this paper, we identify four treatment techniques that may be applied when problem; behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement: (a) functional communication training; (b) behavioral momentum; (c) differential reinforcement or an alternative escape behavior; and (d) errorless learning. Each of the four techniques will be defined, applications and guidelines for use delineated.

  12. Maintainability planning for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The planned NASA Space Station, which is expected to have many years of on-orbit operation, for the first time confronts spacecraft designers with major questions of maintainability in design. A Maintainability Guidelines Document has been distributed to all Space Station Definition and Preliminary Design personnel of the Space Station Program Office. Trade studies are being performed to determine the most economical balance between initial (reliability) cost and life cycle cost (crew time and replacement hardware) costs.

  13. Evidence-Based Social Communication Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laci; Kuhn, Michelle; Ledbetter-Cho, Katherine; Gevarter, Cindy; O'Reilly, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in social communication skills are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and include deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, non-verbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, and developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships. In order to improve outcomes for children with ASD, much research has been focused on developing effective interventions to treat these social communication deficits. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the evidence-based practices found within the intervention literature that specifically targets social communication impairments and provide an overview of these strategies. Four relevant themes regarding evidence-based social communication interventions are considered and discussed: (a) social communication outcomes and practices relevant to different stages of development, (b) practices that both reduce interfering behaviors and improve social communication skills,

  14. Spatially ordered treemaps.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jo; Dykes, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Existing treemap layout algorithms suffer to some extent from poor or inconsistent mappings between data order and visual ordering in their representation, reducing their cognitive plausibility. While attempts have been made to quantify this mismatch, and algorithms proposed to minimize inconsistency, solutions provided tend to concentrate on one-dimensional ordering. We propose extensions to the existing squarified layout algorithm that exploit the two-dimensional arrangement of treemap nodes more effectively. Our proposed spatial squarified layout algorithm provides a more consistent arrangement of nodes while maintaining low aspect ratios. It is suitable for the arrangement of data with a geographic component and can be used to create tessellated cartograms for geovisualization. Locational consistency is measured and visualized and a number of layout algorithms are compared. CIELab color space and displacement vector overlays are used to assess and emphasize the spatial layout of treemap nodes. A case study involving locations of tagged photographs in the Flickr database is described.

  15. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  16. Explaining Social Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of social constructivism (SC) maintain that objects exist only after they enter communicative space. At one level an object's existence is determined through an individual's sensory perception; through communicative acts, both intra- and interpersonally, they are defined and eventually embody meaning. The social process of defining…

  17. Predictors of maintained high-risk behaviors among impoverished women.

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, A M; Bennett, C; Leake, B

    1995-01-01

    The researchers sought to explore and describe the demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral factors associated with the continued risky behavior of a convenience sample of homeless and drug-addicted women two to four weeks after they had completed an AIDS education program. The sample included 942 crack users and 767 women who had multiple sex partners. Analyses revealed that impoverished women who maintained multiple sexual partners were less likely to be in drug recovery programs than in homeless shelters. They were more likely to share needles and be involved sexually with male injection drug users compared with impoverished women who did not maintain multiple sexual partners. Persistent crack users were older than those who reported cessation of crack use, were more often African American, and were more likely to have sex partners who were injecting drug users. Women who demonstrated less improvement in depression and distress scores, concerns, use of affective coping, appraisal of threat, and social support were more likely to maintain crack use and multiple partners. The study's implications for the design of intervention programs aimed at risk reduction based on ethnicity are discussed. PMID:7480615

  18. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  19. Quantifying edge significance on maintaining global connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yuhua; Li, Yebin; Zhang, Min; Ma, Guoshuai; Lu, Furong

    2017-01-01

    Global connectivity is a quite important issue for networks. The failures of some key edges may lead to breakdown of the whole system. How to find them will provide a better understanding on system robustness. Based on topological information, we propose an approach named LE (link entropy) to quantify the edge significance on maintaining global connectivity. Then we compare the LE with the other six acknowledged indices on the edge significance: the edge betweenness centrality, degree product, bridgeness, diffusion importance, topological overlap and k-path edge centrality. Experimental results show that the LE approach outperforms in quantifying edge significance on maintaining global connectivity. PMID:28349923

  20. Determining system maintainability as a probability

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.; Atwood, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Maintainability has often been defined in principle as the probability that a system or component can be repaired in a specific time given that it is in a failed state, but presented in practice in terms of mean-time-to-repair. In this paper, formulas are developed for maintainability as a probability, analogous to those for reliability and availability. This formulation is expressed in terms of cut sets, and leads to a natural definition of unmaintainability importance for cut sets and basic events. 6 refs.

  1. Fibromyalgia as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel

    2004-10-01

    Abnormal activity of the sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic pain syndromes. This article reviews the animal studies of sympathetically induced pain behavior, the controversy of sympathetically maintained pain in clinical practice, and the dysautonomic nature of fibromyalgia (FM). FM has neuropathic pain features (stimuli-independent pain state accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias). The proposal of FM as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome is based on the controlled studies showing that patients with FM display signs of relentless sympathetic hyperactivity and that the pain is submissive to sympathetic blockade and is rekindled by norepinephrine injections. Dysautonomia also may explain the multisystem features of FM.

  2. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  3. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  4. Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

  5. Treating Problem Behaviors Maintained by Negative Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio; Spooner, Fred

    1997-01-01

    Identifies four treatment techniques that may be applied when problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement: (1) functional communication training; (2) behavioral momentum; (3) differential reinforcement or an alternative escape behavior; and (4) errorless learning. Each of the techniques is defined, and applications and guidelines for…

  6. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  7. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  8. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  9. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  10. Building and Maintaining Digital Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Joann M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services that provide subject expertise and information referral over the Internet to their users. Describes the history of digital reference, how digital reference services work, and explains a six-step process for building and maintaining digital reference services, including training, planning, and evaluating. (LRW)

  11. Maintaining Effective Classroom Control in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E., Ed.; McCracken, J. David

    This handbook is designed to assist vocational teachers in maintaining effective classroom and laboratory control. Following an introduction to the topic, the importance of effective control and teacher attitude are overviewed. The third section offers definitions of discipline and "in loco parentis", a perspective on discipline, and reasons for…

  12. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  13. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  14. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  15. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  16. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  17. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  18. Citizenship, Social Justice, and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that social justice is a legitimate goal of schooling and should be included in the curriculum. Discusses aspects of social justice including distributive justice and equality of educational opportunity. Maintains that Western educational systems have many possibilities for achieving social justice through the curriculum. (CFR)

  19. 4 CFR 200.3 - Privacy Act records maintained by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, unless expressly authorized by statute... Executive Order of the President. In addition, the Board shall maintain all records that are used in...

  20. 4 CFR 200.3 - Privacy Act records maintained by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, unless expressly authorized by statute... Executive Order of the President. In addition, the Board shall maintain all records that are used in...

  1. 4 CFR 200.3 - Privacy Act records maintained by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, unless expressly authorized by statute... Executive Order of the President. In addition, the Board shall maintain all records that are used in...

  2. Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya

    2013-08-01

    Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective.

  3. Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast Leonard Smith Pembroke College Oxford University St Aldates Oxford OX1 3LB England phone... Oxford University ,Pembroke College,St Aldates,Oxford OX1 3LB England, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...in my group. REFERENCES Clarke, L. (1999) Rogue Thermocouple Detection. MSc Thesis, Mathematical Institute, Oxford University . Hansen J. and L. A

  4. Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast Leonard Smith Pembroke College Oxford University St. Aldates Oxford OX1 1DW United Kingdom...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Pembroke College, Oxford University ,,St...evaluation: l-shadowing, probabilistic prediction and weather forecasting. D.Phil Thesis, Oxford University . Lorenz, E. (1995) Predictability-a Partially

  5. Device Maintains Water At The Triple Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. W.; Burkett, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    Inexpensive device maintains water at 0.01 degree C for 10 weeks or longer. New device consists of four basic assemblies; small, commercial chest freezer containing insulated water tank; insulated copper cell holder; "ice switch" for cycling freezer compressor and externally-mounted air pump for circulation. Access hole in freezer lid allows triple point measurements without opening lid. Modified freezer used to calibrate standard platinum resistance thermomenters.

  6. Maintainability Prediction and Analysis Study. Revision A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    SS- 6b SECTION 1.0 INTRiODUCTION This document presents the results of a study to develop and document an improved maintainability prediction and...include operations on other RIs called out in the jth fault iscolation result . Tmujn Average time to perform the ruth corrective maintenance step for...of the study however, as the resulting time standards are used as Inputs In computing disassembly, interchange, and reassembly times for the

  7. Maintaining Multimedia Data in a Geospatial Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    in a GIS are stored in two-dimensional space, which adds to the complexities faced in simulating a databases’ workload when the data is three...browsing, geocoding , reverse geocoding , flood risk, land information management, and toxic spill analysis. Jackpine was more in-depth than this thesis...benchmark testing. A. OVERVIEW In creating a GIS that maintains multimedia data, it is first important to note that the actual multimedia data is

  8. Interventions to Maintain Mobility: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lesley A.; Schmidt, Erica L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Mobility, in broad terms, includes everything from the ability to move within your immediate environment (e.g., get out of bed) to the ability to drive across the country. Mobility is essential to maintaining independence and wellbeing, particularly for older adults. This is highlighted by the large number of interventions developed for older adults with the goal of maintaining such mobility. The current paper reviews the state of the science with respect to mobility interventions. Inclusion criteria for the review were: (1) articles must have been peer-reviewed; (2) interventions were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); (3) studies included a mobility outcome such as lifespace, driving, or walking ability, (4) studies included a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults (e.g., not investigations of disease conditions); and (5) studies reported enough empirical data and detail such that results could potentially be replicated. Three main types of interventions were identified: cognitive training, educational interventions, and exercise interventions. A detailed summary and evaluation of each type of intervention, and the current evidence regarding its effectiveness in maintaining mobility, are discussed. Several interventions show clear evidence of effectiveness, and thus are prime areas for translation of results to the older population. Needs and issues for future intervention research are also detailed. PMID:23083492

  9. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Maintain Learning Set Despite Second-Order Stimulus-Response Spatial Discontiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    In many discrimination-learning tests, spatial separation between stimuli and response loci disrupts performance in rhesus macaques. However, monkeys are unaffected by such stimulus-response spatial discontiguity when responses occur through joystick-based computerized movement of a cursor. To examine this discrepancy, five monkeys were tested on…

  10. Low-loss air-core polarization maintaining terahertz fiber.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guobin; Gong, Yandong; Shum, Ping; Yu, Xia; Hu, JuanJuan; Wang, Guanghui; Ong Ling Chuen, Michael; Paulose, Varghese

    2008-09-01

    We propose a low-loss air-core polarization maintaining polymer fiber for terahertz (THz) wave guiding. The periodic arrangement of square holes with round corners in the cladding offers a bandgap effect for mode guiding. Numerical simulations show that the bandgap effect repels the modal power from the absorbent background polymers, resulting in a significant suppression of absorption loss of the polymers by a factor of more than 25. The phase-index birefringence of the proposed THz fiber is in the order of 10(-3).

  11. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  12. Early Predictors of Impaired Social Functioning in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, Laura A.; Seil, Shannon K.; Calonder, Laura A.; Madrid, Jesus E.; Bone, Kyle J.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Garner, Joseph P.; Capitanio, John P.; Parker, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social cognition impairments but its basic disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the absence of animal models that manifest behavioral phenotypes relevant to ASD. Rhesus monkeys are an ideal model organism to address this barrier to progress. Like humans, rhesus monkeys are highly social, possess complex social cognition abilities, and exhibit pronounced individual differences in social functioning. Moreover, we have previously shown that Low-Social (LS) vs. High-Social (HS) adult male monkeys exhibit lower social motivation and poorer social skills. It is not known, however, when these social deficits first emerge. The goals of this study were to test whether juvenile LS and HS monkeys differed as infants in their ability to process social information, and whether infant social abilities predicted later social classification (i.e., LS vs. HS), in order to facilitate earlier identification of monkeys at risk for poor social outcomes. Social classification was determined for N = 25 LS and N = 25 HS male monkeys that were 1–4 years of age. As part of a colony-wide assessment, these monkeys had previously undergone, as infants, tests of face recognition memory and the ability to respond appropriately to conspecific social signals. Monkeys later identified as LS vs. HS showed impairments in recognizing familiar vs. novel faces and in the species-typical adaptive ability to gaze avert to scenes of conspecific aggression. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression using infant social ability measures perfectly predicted later social classification of all N = 50 monkeys. These findings suggest that an early capacity to process important social information may account for differences in rhesus monkeys’ motivation and competence to establish and maintain social relationships later in life. Further development of this model will facilitate identification of novel biological targets

  13. Teaching and Maintaining Ethical Behavior in a Professional Organization

    PubMed Central

    Brodhead, Matthew T.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to continuing education mandates by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), behavior-analytic professional organizations may adopt systems that teach and maintain ethical behavior in its employees. Systems of ethical supervision and management may allow for an organization to customize training that prevents ethical misconduct by employees. These systems may also allow supervisors to identify ethical problems in their infancy, allowing the organization to mitigate concerns before they further develop. Systems of ethical management and supervision also may help to improve services and promote consumer protection. Additional benefits might include both avoiding litigation and loss of consumers and income. These systems may promote the field of Behavior Analysis as a desirable, consumer-friendly approach to solving socially significant behavior problems. PMID:23730470

  14. Laboratory services: regaining and maintaining control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory staff, thereby safeguarding patient test results for their intended medical purpose. Design/methodology/approach - The authors address how quality can be maintained and if lost, how it can be regained. The methodology is based on the experience working in clinical laboratory diagnostics and is in accord with both international accreditation requirements and laboratory best practice guidelines. Findings - Monitoring test performance usually involves both prospective and retrospective IQC data analysis. The authors present a number of different approaches together with software tools currently available and emerging, that permit performance monitoring at the level of the individual analyser, across analysers and laboratories (networks). The authors make recommendations on the appropriate response to IQC rule warnings, failures and metrics that indicate analytical control loss, that either precludes further analysis, or signifies deteriorating performance and eventual unsuitability. The authors provide guidance on systematic troubleshooting, to identify undesirable performance and consider risk assessment preventive measures and continuous quality improvement initiatives; e.g., material acceptance procedures, as tools to help regain and maintain analytical control and minimise potential for patient harm. Practical implications - The authors provide a template for use by laboratory scientific personnel that ensures the optimal monitoring of analytical test performance and response when it changes undesirably. Originality/value - The proposed template has been designed to meet the International Organisation for Standardisation for medical laboratories ISO15189:2012 requirements and therefore includes the use of External Quality Assessment and patient results data, as an adjunct to IQC data.

  15. [DGSMP - Interdisciplinarity to Advance Social Medicine and Prevention of Illness].

    PubMed

    Gaertner, T; Mittelstaedt, G v

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) refers back to a tradition of over more than 100 years, nevertheless having a critical look at it. As a scientific medical society the DGSMP promotes cross-sectoral configuration of contemporary social medicine to the benefit of both, general welfare and individual health in form of prevention, rehabilitation, re-integration, palliation and long-term care. Human medicine is the lead discipline in the interdisciplinary approach by the DGSMP in order to create - facing the dynamics in the health care system - professional prerequisites to maintain and update solidarity and equity in medical services on a scientific basis.

  16. Practical circular-polarization-maintaining optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Huang, H C

    1997-09-20

    The author describes a new idea for making circular-polarization-maintaining optical fiber with an existing fabrication technique. The method simply requires one to spin at a constant rate a special preform consisting of only one off-axis stress-applying element in addition to the on-axis core. Measurements taken with such a fiber specimen verify the existence of circular eigenmodes, the ease of joining or splicing two fiber segments, the tolerance to macrobending with a small radius, etc. Good agreement exists between the experimental data and the theoretical analysis. Prospective applications are discussed.

  17. Maintainability design of underground mining equipment. Volume 2. Maintainability design guidelines. Research report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, E.J.; Unger, R.

    1989-09-01

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) determine the extent to which maintainability design concepts and principles have been applied to the design of underground coal mining equipment, (2) try to assess its impact on productivity and personnel safety, and (3) develop maintainability guidelines to enhance the design of new or rebuilt equipment. An equipment design review was completed at ten operational coal mines. The purpose was to identify design approaches and features that enhanced and degraded the maintenance process. Mine management, safety, and maintenance personnel were also interviewed to identify machine specific design problems. Six original equipment manufacturers were visited and the procedures used to enhance the maintainability of their equipment discussed. Volume I of the Final Technical Report presents an overview of procedures and protocol used and a summary of the findings. Volume II includes the maintainability design guide for mobile underground mining equipment.

  18. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  19. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  20. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  1. Design guidelines for remotely maintained equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, T.W.; Evans, J.H.; Peishel, F.L.; Schrock, S.L.; Smith, G.E.; Macdonald, D.

    1988-11-01

    The CFRP has pioneered and developed the concept of totally remote operation and maintenance of process equipment in spent fuel reprocessing, using force-reflecting master/slave servomanipulators, coupled with television viewing, to extend human capabilities effectively throughout an uninhabitable environment. This concept enhances safeguard control of nuclear materials, provides for low-exposure of personnel to radiation and reliable recovery from unplanned events, ensures high plant availability, and aids eventual decommissioning of the plant. The results of this experience have been organized in this document to enable designers to consider this technology, not only in spent fuel reprocessing, but among various other situations that may be hazardous to personnel. This document is an expanded and updated version of an earlier design guide that was specific to fuel reprocessing requirements. The guidelines identified in the present document suggest a general approach to the design of effective, reliable, safe, remotely operated and maintained facilities. This document may be used broadly to apply remotely maintained equipment in hostile environments based on proven techniques, equipment, and well-established practices. The concepts are particularly applicable to large plant facilities where economy of scale is important. The theme emphasizes utilization of ordinary commercial tools, equipment, and materials widely available. 5 refs., 51 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Furloughs and Faculty Management of Time: Maintaining Quality in an Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Loring; Hohman, Melinda; Mathiesen, Sally; Finnegan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous Web-based survey was used to gather the perceptions and experiences from 114 faculty members teaching in 16 social work programs in the California State University system about the effect of severe budget cuts on their educational activities. Most respondents reported they worked on their furlough days and maintained the same or…

  3. Effects of Multisensory Environments on Stereotyped Behaviours Assessed as Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lindsay; Trusler, Karen; Furniss, Frederick; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the sensory equipment provided in a multi-sensory environment (MSE) and the level of social contact provided on levels of stereotyped behaviours assessed as being maintained by automatic reinforcement. Method: Stereotyped and engaged behaviours of two young people with severe…

  4. 41 CFR 102-37.190 - What records must a SASP maintain on authorized screeners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What records must a SASP maintain on authorized screeners? 102-37.190 Section 102-37.190 Public Contracts and Property Management... driver's license or social security numbers. In the case of donee screeners, you should place...

  5. The role of infrasounds in maintaining whale herds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Roger S.

    2004-05-01

    For whales and dolphins a basic social unit is the herd. In several species, herds have been observed to maintain the same speed, direction, and membership overnight, and while swimming in waters of near-zero visibility-evidence that individuals can stay together using nonvisual cues. The most likely such cue is sound. If whale herds are held together with sound, yet we define herds as groups of whales seen moving together, then we are using visual criteria to judge what is an acoustic phenomenon, and our conclusions about a most basic unit of cetacean social structure, the herd, are at least incomplete, and, quite possibly, worthless. By calling herds, heards, we remind ourselves that sound controls herd size. We then consider that some whale infrasound can propagate across deep water at useful intensities (even in today's ship-noise-polluted ocean) for thousands of kilometers. The distance to which blue and fin whale sounds propagate before falling below background noise is given, and the possible advantages these whales obtain from such sounds is explored. The conclusion is that by sharing information on food finds infrasonically, fin and blue whales may have developed a way to divide up the food resources of an entire ocean.

  6. The role of infrasounds in maintaining whale herds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Roger S.

    2001-05-01

    For whales and dolphins a basic social unit is the herd. In several species, herds have been observed to maintain the same speed, direction, and membership overnight, and while swimming in waters of near-zero visibility-evidence that individuals can stay together using nonvisual cues. The most likely such cue is sound. If whale herds are held together with sound, yet we define herds as groups of whales seen moving together, then we are using visual criteria to judge what is an acoustic phenomenon, and our conclusions about a most basic unit of cetacean social structure, the herd, are at least incomplete, and, quite possibly, worthless. By calling herds, heards, we remind ourselves that sound controls herd size. We then consider that some whale infrasound can propagate across deep water at useful intensities (even in today's ship-noise-polluted ocean) for thousands of kilometers. The distance to which blue and fin whale sounds propagate before falling below background noise is given, and the possible advantages these whales obtain from such sounds is explored. The conclusion is that by sharing information on food finds infrasonically, fin and blue whales may have developed a way to divide up the food resources of an entire ocean.

  7. [Comparison of the effects of exchange forms on social solidarity].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Misato; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2012-04-01

    Although social solidarity is an essential component that helps maintaining social order, what produces solidarity and how does it work have not been fully investigated. We conducted an experiment to examine whether experiencing different forms of social exchange produces different levels of solidarity. We compared four forms of social exchange: reciprocal exchange (exchange resources without negotiation), negotiated exchange (with negotiation), pure-generalized exchange (giver can choose who to give) and chain-generalized exchange (giver cannot choose who to give). Two dimensions classify these exchanges: the number of players (two vs. more than two), and involvement of negotiation. Reciprocal and negotiated exchanges occur within dyads, while pure- and chain-generalized exchanges involve three or more players. Only the negotiated exchange involves negotiation process; the other exchanges are purely unilateral giving. Participants played a one-shot social dilemma game (SDG) before and after social exchange session. The more the players cooperated in SDG, the stronger the social solidarity. Results show that the cooperation rate in SDG increased more in the reciprocal, pure- and chain-generalized exchange conditions than that in the negotiated exchange condition, suggesting that social solidarity is facilitated by experiencing social exchange which does not involve negotiation.

  8. Examining self-protection measures guarding Adult Protective Services social workers against compassion fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal characteristics and professional factors to develop boundary-setting mechanisms that protected them from experiencing the deleterious symptoms and effects of compassion fatigue. Implications center around the elements needed to implement boundaries in order to maintain a separation between the work and home environment. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  9. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  10. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  11. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    PubMed

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  12. How homologous recombination maintains telomere integrity.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, Eliana M C; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes against loss of genetic information and inappropriate processing as damaged DNA and are therefore crucial to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. In addition to providing a pathway for genome-wide DNA repair, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in telomere replication and capping. Consistent with this, the genomic instability characteristic of HR-deficient cells and tumours is driven in part by telomere dysfunction. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which HR modulates the response to intrinsic cellular challenges that arise during telomere replication, as well as its impact on the assembly of telomere protective structures. How normal and tumour cells differ in their ability to maintain telomeres is deeply relevant to the search for treatments that would selectively eliminate cells whose capacity for HR-mediated repair has been compromised.

  13. Maintaining control is team's vital role.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Liz; Frankel, Chris; Johns, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    In an environment where there is an ever-increasing use of reliable electronic control, it is easy to become complacent about the need for in-depth knowledge of how the controls actually work. After all, experts who can diagnose and fix such systems are only a phone call away, and a new unit can easily be fitted. Sometimes this is not the case at Bendigo Health, as we have a number of systems with a "black box" set of controls that can take days, or weeks, to fix, and cannot be fixed locally. To better manage and maintain our infrastructure, the Buildings & Infrastructure Department at Bendigo Health includes a number of employees who concentrate on building management systems (BMS). The BMS group plays a vital role in the complete lifecycle of projects that include control and monitoring of the plant within the hospital setting. A good example of this role was in the design, build, installation and commissioning, of two new negative pressure suites at Bendigo Health. The BMS group's involvement in this particular project included the door interlocking, the air conditioning and exhaust fan control, and a comprehensive alarm panel and overrides, all of which can be monitored centrally via the existing BMS system. The involvement of the BMS group, following the DHS guidelines, resulted in the architect and consulting engineers revisiting their designs and improving them to the benefit of both patient care and staff safety. The advantages of projects such as the negative pressure suites installed by the BMS group include the fact that that the hospital gains facilities that work correctly and according to industry guidelines; and the design, installation, and controls of the plant are understood by the people who will be maintaining the infrastructure. This paper will provide an overview of the work undertaken by the BMS group at Bendigo Health, using the negative pressure suites as an exemplar.

  14. Domain specificity in social interactions, social thought, and social development.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    J. E. Grusec and M. Davidov (this issue) have taken good steps in formulating a domain-specific view of parent-child interactions. This commentary supports the introduction of domain specificity to analyses of parenting. Their formulation is an advance over formulations that characterized parental practices globally. This commentary calls for inclusion of definitions of the classification system of domain-specific interactions and criteria for each domain. It is also maintained that Grusec and Davidov's domains of social interaction imply that processes of development are involved, along with socialization; that bidirectionality in parent-child relations needs to be extended to include mutual influences and the construction of domains of social thought; and that conflicts and opposition within families coexist with compliance and social harmony.

  15. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  16. [Maintaining epidural anesthesia by the midwife].

    PubMed

    Dörfling, C; Nolte, A G

    1990-12-01

    Epidural anaesthesia as a method of pain relief during labour has lately become very popular. Statistics show that in some labour units up to 70 per cent of all patients undergo epidural anaesthesia. The popularity of this method can be attributed to its effectiveness in relieving pain during labour. The anaesthetist commences an epidural block by introducing an epidural catheter into the epidural space. The anaesthetist administers the test dose and the first therapeutic dose. Within a short duration of time (10 to 20 minutes) the patient can already experience the numbing effect of the anaesthetic. This anaesthetic loses its numbing effect within two to three hours and effective pain relief can only be achieved by administering a further dose of local anaesthetic via the epidural catheter. This procedure can be repeated between three to six times during the average duration of labour. Alternatively, a continuous epidural infusion procedure can be used. The last method, however, sometimes requires the administration of additional epidural "top-ups". There are some risks in administering additional "top-up" dosages. The possibility exists of the anaesthetic causing a spinal block as a result of being administered into the spinal fluid. The "top-up" can also cause convulsions if administered intravenously. In some units it is expected of the midwife to maintain epidural anaesthesia on prescription by the doctor. These side-effects can, however, also occur when the patient is being treated by medical personnel with ample experience and knowledge. It is expected of some midwives to maintain an epidural block on prescription by the anaesthetist. If the midwife lacks the necessary knowledge of epidural anaesthetic and its maintenance, she might unintentionally administer the local anaesthetic into the spinal fluid or intravascularly. This might cause a threat to the mother's and baby's lives. This research covers the maintenance of epidural anaesthesia as carried out by

  17. Work Adjustment of the Methadone-Maintained Corporate Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankowitz, Robert; Randell, Joan

    1977-01-01

    The work adjustment of 26 methadone-maintained corporate employees was evaluated. Results indicated: (a) relative to their nonmethadone-maintained coworkers, the methadone-maintained employees had comparable job performance and superior punctuality and attendance; and (b) the methadone-maintained skilled laborers were satisfied with their…

  18. Anatomizing the Ocean's role in maintaining the pacific decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia-Yuh; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-05-01

    The role of ocean dynamics in maintaining the Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) was investigated based on simulation results from the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean general circulation model developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A long-term control simulation of the LANL-POP model forced by a reconstructed coupled wind stress field over the period 1949-2001 showed that the ocean model not only simulates a reasonable climatology, but also produces a climate variability pattern very similar to observed PDV. In the Equatorial Pacific (EP) region, the decadal warming is confined in the thin surface layer. Beneath the surface, a strong compensating cooling, accompanied by a basin-wide-scale overturning circulation in opposition to the mean flow, occurs in the thermocline layer. In the North Pacific (NP) region, the decadal variability nonetheless exhibits a relatively monotonous pattern, characterized by the dominance of anomalous cooling and eastward flows. A term balance analysis of the perturbation heat budget equation was conducted to highlight the ocean's role in maintaining the PDV-like variability over the EP and NP regions. The analyses showed that strong oceanic adjustment must occur in the equatorial thermocline in association with the anomalous overturning circulation in order to maintain the PDV-like variability, including a flattening of the equatorial thermocline slpoe and an enhancement of the upper ocean's stratification (stability), as the climate shifts from a colder regime toward a warmer one. On the other hand, the oceanic response in the extratropical region seems to be confined to the surface layer, without much participation from the subsurface oceanic dynamics.

  19. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  20. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  1. Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S

    2013-10-31

    Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant three-dimensional associations in the mouse bone marrow among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal bone marrow. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2 (also known as CSPG4)(+) pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated leptin receptor (LEPR)(+) cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of the HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2(+) periarteriolar niches to LEPR(+) perisinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2(+) cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in the bone marrow. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable for maintaining HSC quiescence.

  2. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif ‘YxxI’, suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  3. Attaining and maintaining data integrity with configuration management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, Dorothy J.; Jeane, Shirley A.

    1993-08-01

    Managers and scientists are concerned about data integrity because they draw conclusions from data that can have far reaching effects. Projects managers use Configuration Management to insure that hardware, software, and project information are controlled. They have not, as yet, applied its rigorously to data. However, there is ample opportunity in the data collection and production process to jeopardize data integrity. Environmental changes, tampering and production problems can all affect data integrity. There are four functions included in the Configuration Management process: configuration identification, control, auditing and status accounting. These functions provide management the means to attain data integrity and the visibility into engineering processes needed to maintain data integrity. When project managers apply Configuration Management processes to data, the data user can trace back through history to validate data integrity. The user knows that the project allowed only orderly changes to the data. He is assured that project personnel followed procedures to maintain data quality. He also has access to status information about the data. The user receives data products with a known integrity level and a means to assess the impact of past events ont he conclusions derived from the data. To obtain these benefits, project managers should apply the Configuration Management discipline to data.

  4. The human brain maintains contradictory and redundant auditory sensory predictions.

    PubMed

    Pieszek, Marika; Widmann, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants' task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound) as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound) elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]). Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density) equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.

  5. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-09

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 10(9) kW(-1). Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

  6. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109 kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

  7. Maintaining relational continuity with the deceased on Facebook.

    PubMed

    DeGroot, Jocelyn M

    2012-01-01

    Scholars have noted that communication helps maintain relational continuity despite physical absence; yet, the specific role of communication in continuing a relationship with the deceased has not been analyzed. In this study, messages directed to the deceased on Facebook memorial group walls were examined to explore how grieving individuals utilize Facebook memorial groups in order to make sense of the death of a loved one and reconnect with the deceased. Using a grounded theory approach, message topics and apparent grief-related functions served by messages were identified and characterized. Initial observation revealed that grieving individuals wrote to the deceased as if the deceased could read the messages, which is a unique type of communication. The communication written to the deceased individuals appeared to serve two functions for those writing the messages: (1) Sensemaking; and (2) Continuing Bonds, or upholding relational continuity, with the deceased.

  8. Social anxiety and the interpretation of positive social events.

    PubMed

    Alden, Lynn E; Taylor, Charles T; Mellings, Tanna M J B; Laposa, Judith M

    2008-05-01

    We report four independent studies that examined the relationship between social interaction anxiety and the tendency to interpret positive social events in a threat-maintaining manner. Study 1 described the development of a scale that measures negative interpretations of positive social events, the interpretation of positive events scale (IPES). Study 2 cross-validated the structure of the IPES and established that social interaction anxiety explained significant variance in negative interpretations of positive social events beyond negative affect in general. Study 3 demonstrated that negative interpretation of positive events was significantly greater in a clinical sample of patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) than a matched group of non-anxious community controls. In addition, within the GSAD group, the IPES was associated with negative social predictions following a positive interaction. Finally, study 4 confirmed that negative interpretations of positive social events mediated the relationship between social interaction anxiety and low positive affect.

  9. What's your personal social media strategy?

    PubMed

    Dutta, Soumitra

    2010-11-01

    Social media are changing the way we do business and how leaders are perceived, from the shop floor to the CEO suite. But whereas the best businesses are creating comprehensive strategies in thi area, research suggests that few corporate Leaders have a social media presence--say, a Facebook or Linked in of page--and that those do don't use it strategically. Today's leaders must embrace social media for three reasons, First, they provide a low-cost, highly accessible platform on which to build your personal brand, communicating who you are both within and outside your company. Second, they allow you to engage rapidly and simultaneously with peers, employees, customers, and the broader public--in order to leverage relationships, show commitment to a cause, and demonstrate a capacity for reflection. Third, they give you an opportunity to learn from instant information and unvarnished feedback. To formulate your personal social media strategy, it helps to clarify your goals (personal, professional, or both), desired audience (private or public), and resources (can you justify using your company's?). You must also consider the risks of maintaining a large number of connections and of sharing content online. Active participation in social media can be a powerful tool--the difference between leading effectively and ineffectively, and between advancing and faltering in the pursuit of your goals.

  10. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.

  11. Maintaining professional activity during breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ganem, G; Antoine, E-C; Touboul, C; Naman, H; Dohollou, N; Facchini, T; Coscas, Y; Lortholary, A; Catala, S; Jacquot, S; Lhomel, C; Eisinger, F

    2016-05-01

    The question of returning to work and pursuing professional activity during cancer treatment is an increasingly important consideration. The present work focuses on factors affecting the feasibility of maintaining professional activity during treatment for breast cancer, for women who wished to do so. Written questionnaires were collected from 216 patients between March and November 2012. Since the onset of their treatment, 31.4% of the women (68/216) had not been on sick-leave. The main factors associated with the pursuit of professional activity were: considering the availability of their physician to answer questions as unimportant [OR = 18.83 (3.60-98.53); P ≤ 0.05]; considering the diagnosis of cancer as likely to have a weak impact on career perspectives [OR = 4.07 (2.49-6.64); P ≤ 0.05]; not having any children in the household [OR = 3.87 (2.38-6.28); P ≤ 0.05]; being in a managerial position [OR = 3.13 (1.88-5.21); P ≤ 0.05]. Negative predictive factors were: physician mentioning adverse effects of the treatment [OR = 0.31 (0.16-0.58); P ≤ 0.05], and patient rating workload as high [OR = 0.26 (0.15-0.46); P ≤ 0.05]. As a result of advances in therapeutic strategies, more patients will expect healthcare professionals, as well as employers and occupational health societies, to prioritise issues pertaining to the maintenance of professional activities during cancer treatment.

  12. Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that—in both the foraging and the casino frames—participants’ choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  13. Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; White, Emily K; Menatti, Andrew R; Weeks, Justin W; Iacovino, Juliette M; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-08-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N=236; N=136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms.

  14. Social Networking and the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of Adolescents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Amanda; Bower, Julie; Carroll, Annemaree

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social networking tools and sites are changing the way young people build and maintain their social connections with others (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). This study utilised a new measure, The Self in a Social Context, Virtual Connectedness subscale (SSC-VC subscale), to examine the effects of social networking tools and sites on…

  15. Design and Application of the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Terry, Michelle; Crillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce; Maxwell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conducting human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will present unique challenges in the areas of supportability and maintainability. The durations of proposed missions can be relatively long and re-supply of logistics, including maintenance and repair items, will be limited or non-existent. In addition, mass and volume constraints in the transportation system will limit the total amount of logistics that can be flown along with the crew. These constraints will require that new strategies be developed with regards to how spacecraft systems are designed and maintained. NASA is currently developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) as an initial step in defining future human missions. These DRMs establish destinations and concepts of operation for future missions, and begin to define technology and capability requirements. Because of the unique supportability challenges, historical supportability data and models are not directly applicable for establishing requirements for beyond LEO missions. However, supportability requirements could have a major impact on the development of the DRMs. The mass, volume, and crew resources required to support the mission could all be first order drivers in the design of missions, elements, and operations. Therefore, there is a need for enhanced analysis capabilities to more accurately establish mass, volume, and time requirements for supporting beyond LEO missions. Additionally, as new technologies and operations are proposed to reduce these requirements, it is necessary to have accurate tools to evaluate the efficacy of those approaches. In order to improve the analysis of supportability requirements for beyond LEO missions, the Space Missions Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool (EMAT). This tool is a probabilistic simulator that evaluates the need for repair and maintenance activities during space missions and the logistics and crew

  16. Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences. PMID:22478112

  17. Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

  18. The Rebirth of Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Richard G.; Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that research on political socialization began in the late 1950s and died a premature death in the 1970s. Discusses the field's origins and downfall, and predicts a rebirth in a new and sustainable form. Outlines changes in secondary school political science education and political socialization research in other nations. (CFR)

  19. Mental Models in Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Santamaria, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors introduce a new way to analyze cognitive change during social interactions, based on the mental model theory of reasoning. From this approach, cognitive performance can be improved for solving problems that require multiple models when participants in a social interaction group maintain qualitatively different models of…

  20. [Drug addicts with severe mental disorders can be helped by programs using moderate means. Good results when psychiatric, social and drug abuse services cooperate].

    PubMed

    Palmstierna, T; Gadd, K; Norman, C; Svensson, J

    2000-05-03

    Dependency disorders are more common than expected in psychiatric populations. Untreated, dual diagnosis leads to severe social and psychiatric deterioration. Nine treatment resistant, homeless, drug addicts suffering from chronic psychotic disorders were selected to take part in a case management program, integrating social services with regular psychiatric treatment. All but one were greatly improved in general terms as well as regarding their ability to maintain an ordered life style. The need for institutional care decreased dramatically.

  1. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Maintaining Mitochondrial Health in Peripheral Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peripheral neuropathies are a group of diseases characterized by malfunctioning of peripheral nervous system. Neuropathic pain, one of the core manifestations of peripheral neuropathy remains as the most severe disabling condition affecting the social and daily routine life of patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. Method: The current review is aimed at unfolding the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerve damage and to discuss on the probable therapeutic strategies against neuronal mitotoxicity. The article also highlights the therapeutic significance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial environment in neuronal cells via pharmacological management in context of peripheral neuropathies. Results: Aberrant cellular signaling coupled with changes in neurotransmission, peripheral and central sensitization are found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of variant toxic neuropathies. Current research reports have indicated the possible involvement of mitochondria mediated redox imbalance as one of the principal causes of neuropathy aetiologies. In addition to imbalance in redox homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction is also responsible for alterations in physiological bioenergetic metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy pathways. Conclusions: In spite of various etiological factors, mitochondrial dysfunction has been found to be a major pathomechanism underlying the neuronal dysfunction associated with peripheral neuropathies. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondria either directly or indirectly is expected to yield therapeutic relief from various primary and secondary mitochondrial diseases. PMID:26818748

  2. Measuring and assessing maintainability at the end of high level design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    Software architecture appears to be one of the main factors affecting software maintainability. Therefore, in order to be able to predict and assess maintainability early in the development process we need to be able to measure the high-level design characteristics that affect the change process. To this end, we propose a measurement approach, which is based on precise assumptions derived from the change process, which is based on Object-Oriented Design principles and is partially language independent. We define metrics for cohesion, coupling, and visibility in order to capture the difficulty of isolating, understanding, designing and validating changes.

  3. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central processing... the company owns and operates....

  4. What does God know? Supernatural agents' access to socially strategic and non-strategic information.

    PubMed

    Purzycki, Benjamin G; Finkel, Daniel N; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B; Sosis, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about supernatural agents' socially strategic knowledge more quickly than non-strategic knowledge. Furthermore, agents' knowledge of immoral and uncooperative social behaviors should be especially accessible to people. To examine these hypotheses, we measured response-times to questions about the knowledge attributed to four different agents--God, Santa Claus, a fictional surveillance government, and omniscient but non-interfering aliens--that vary in their omniscience, moral concern, ability to punish, and how supernatural they are. As anticipated, participants respond more quickly to questions about agents' socially strategic knowledge than non-strategic knowledge, but only when agents are able to punish.

  5. 22 CFR 171.2 - Types of records maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.2 Types of records maintained. Most of the records maintained by the Department pertain to the formulation and execution of U.S. foreign policy... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of records maintained. 171.2 Section...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  9. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested...

  10. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Through a commitment to high performance, school districts are discovering that smart energy choices can create lasting benefits for students, communities, and the environment. For example, an energy efficient school district with 4,000 students can save as much as $160,000 a year in energy costs. Over 10 years, those savings can reach $1.6 million, translating into the ability to hire more teachers, purchase more textbooks and computers, or invest in additional high performance facilities. Beyond these bottomline benefits, schools can better foster student health, decrease absenteeism, and serve as centers of community life. The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools Program promotes a 30 percent improvement in existing school energy use. It also encourages the building of new schools that exceed code (ASHRAE 90.11999) by 50 percent or more. The program provides resources like this Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools to assist school decisionmakers in planning, financing, operating, and maintaining energy efficient, high performance schools. It also offers education and training for building industry professionals. Operations and maintenance refer to all scheduled and unscheduled actions for preventing equipment failure or decline with the goal of increasing efficiency, reliability, and safety. A preventative maintenance program is the organized and planned performance of maintenance activities in order to prevent system or production problems or failures from occurring. In contrast, deferred maintenance or reactive maintenance (also called diagnostic or corrective maintenance) is conducted to address an existing problem. This guide is a primary resource for developing and implementing a districtor schoolwide operations and maintenance (O&M) program that focuses on energy efficiency. The EnergySmart Schools Solutions companion CD contains additional supporting information for design, renovation, and retrofit projects. The objective of

  11. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  12. Is the cold chain for vaccines maintained in general practice?

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, E A; Booy, R; Stirzaker, L; Wilkes, S; Battersby, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the cold chain for vaccines and compliance with the local code of practice for storage. DESIGN--In a random sample of general practices orders for live vaccines (oral polio and measles, mumps, and rubella) were accompanied by a cold chain monitor which was activated on leaving the supplying pharmacy. The monitors were read at specified intervals and when all vaccines in the order had been used. Structured interview was used to check compliance with the local code of practice on storage. SETTING--West Berkshire and Aylesbury Vale district health authorities. SUBJECTS--16 (25%) general practices in West Berkshire, and 13 (50%) in Aylesbury Vale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Compliance with code of practice. Changes in the cold chain monitor. RESULTS--For six key requirements within the code of practice compliance varied from 70% to 0%. Only 16 of 29 practices had a named person responsible for vaccine storage and only four were aware of the local code of practice. Vaccine was stored for longer and more breaks in the cold chain occurred in West Berkshire than in Aylesbury Vale. The potency of some vaccines in 10 of 26 orders became suspect before use. CONCLUSIONS--Knowledge of appropriate management of the cold chain in two districts was poor. Breaks in the chain were more frequent and compromised potency more likely when vaccine had been stored for more than eight weeks. Problems in maintaining the cold chain indicate the need for continuing audit, which should become a prerequisite for payments to general practitioners for immunisation. PMID:8369691

  13. Academic Practices to Gain and Maintain Student-Teacher Connectedness and Classroom Behavioral Management, Related to Educator Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Leslie Threadgill

    2015-01-01

    Connectedness and classroom management has been defined as the ability to relate to students and keep order and maintain successful relationships with individuals. This qualitative study utilized surveys, questionnaires, interviews, and observations to examine the best practices implemented by educators to develop and maintain connections with…

  14. Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.

    The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as…

  15. Music listening for maintaining attention of older adults with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    Twelve older adults with cognitive impairments who were participants in weekly community-based group music therapy sessions, 6 older adults in an Alzheimer's caregivers' group, and 6 college student volunteers listened to a 3.5 minute prepared audiotape of instrumental excerpts of patriotic selections. The tape consisted of 7 excerpts ranging from 18 s to 34 s in duration. Each music excerpt was followed by a 7-9 s period of silence, a "wait" excerpt. Listeners were instructed to move a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) to the name of the music excerpt depicted on the CRDI overlay when they heard a music excerpt. Likewise, they were instructed to move the dial to the word "WAIT" when there was no music. They were also instructed to maintain the dial position for the duration of each music or silence excerpt. Statistical analysis indicated no significant differences between the caregivers' and the college students' group means for total dial changes, correct and incorrect recognitions, correct and incorrect responses to silence excerpts, and reaction times. The mean scores of these 2 groups were combined and compared with the mean scores of the group of elderly adults with cognitive impairments. The mean total dial changes were significantly lower for the listeners with cognitive impairments, resulting in significant differences in all of the other response categories except incorrect recognitions. In addition, their mean absence of response to silence excerpts was significantly higher than their mean absence of responding to music excerpts. Their mean reaction time was significantly slower than the comparison group's reaction time. To evaluate training effects, 10 of the original 12 music therapy participants repeated the listening task with assistance from the therapist (treatment) immediately following the first listening (baseline). A week later the order was reversed for the 2 listening trials. Statistical and graphic analysis of responses between

  16. Social Structure and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    1971-01-01

    Drawing on examples and evidence from social science research on the diffusion of ideas, social movements, and several other related fields, nine propositions dealing with the interrelationships between social structure and social change are explored. (Author/MB)

  17. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  18. A discrete time-space geography for epidemiology: from mixing groups to pockets of local order in pandemic simulations.

    PubMed

    Holm, Einar; Timpka, Toomas

    2007-01-01

    The World Health Organization urges all nations to develop and maintain national influenza preparedness plans. Important components of such plans are forecasts of morbidity and mortality based on local social and geographic conditions. Most methodologies for simulations of epidemic outbreaks are implicitly based on the assumption that the frequency and duration of social contacts that lead to disease transmission is affected by geography, i.e. the spatial distribution of physical meeting places. In order to increase the effectiveness of the present methods for simulation of infectious disease outbreaks, the aim of this study is to examine two social geographic issues related to such models. We display how the social geographic characteristics of mixing networks, in particular when these significantly deviate from the random-mixing norm, can be represented in order to enhance the understanding and prediction of epidemic patterns in light of a possible future destructive influenza pandemic. We conclude that social geography, social networks and simulation models of directly transmitted infectious diseases are fundamentally linked.

  19. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It should be supported if it is

  20. Evaluation of the Rate of Problem Behavior Maintained by Different Reinforcers across Preference Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Fragale, Christina L.; Aguilar, Jeannie M.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem…

  1. Functional analysis and treatment of arranging and ordering by individuals with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nicole M; Thompson, Rachel H; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin; Stocco, Corey S

    2012-01-01

    Of the diagnostic features of autism, relatively little research has been devoted to restricted and repetitive behavior, particularly topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior such as rigidity in routines or compulsive-like behavior (e.g., arranging objects in patterns or rows). Like vocal or motor stereotypy, topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior may be associated with negative outcomes such as interference with skill acquisition, negative social consequences, and severe problem behavior associated with interruption of restricted and repetitive behavior. In the present study, we extended functional analysis methodology to the assessment and treatment of arranging and ordering for 3 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. For all 3 participants, arranging and ordering was found to be maintained by automatic reinforcement, and treatments based on function reduced arranging and ordering.

  2. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF ARRANGING AND ORDERING BY INDIVIDUALS WITH AN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nicole M; Thompson, Rachel H; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin; Stocco, Corey S

    2012-01-01

    Of the diagnostic features of autism, relatively little research has been devoted to restricted and repetitive behavior, particularly topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior such as rigidity in routines or compulsive-like behavior (e.g., arranging objects in patterns or rows). Like vocal or motor stereotypy, topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior may be associated with negative outcomes such as interference with skill acquisition, negative social consequences, and severe problem behavior associated with interruption of restricted and repetitive behavior. In the present study, we extended functional analysis methodology to the assessment and treatment of arranging and ordering for 3 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. For all 3 participants, arranging and ordering was found to be maintained by automatic reinforcement, and treatments based on function reduced arranging and ordering. PMID:22403446

  3. [Poverty, social exclusion, social capital and health].

    PubMed

    Del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Social capital is the social structure which facilitates the actions of individuals, stimulates production and allows for success. Poverty maintains basic needs unmet (food, health, autonomy) over time and unvoluntarily. Social exclusion does not allow individuals to participate in society. The following dimensions are assessed: financial poverty, social inclusion, employment, health and education. Social participation, work integration, empowerment, self-esteem, and personal achievement should be promoted. In Europe 15% of people is exposed to poverty; in Spain corresponding figures are 13.4%, while for the elderly reached 21%. Extreme poverty affects 6.2% population and severe poverty 14.2%. Women and those living in Andalusia, Canary Islands and Extremadura are particularly affected, health inequality are for elderly, immigration, gender, social class, and should be reduced 10% for 2010. The Gini indez measures the income distribution; in the European Union (EU) it is 0.29 while in Spain is 0.33. Poverty and health are inversely correlated, health care expenditure in Spain is 7.5% og GDP. Life expectancy in U.E. is 75.5 years for men and 81.6 years for women, while in Spain it is 78 and 83.1 respectively. Infant mortality in EU is 4.5/1000, 4.1 per thousand in Spain. Lastly, the number of children per women in EU is 1.47 and in Spain 1.3.

  4. Issues and Methods for Assessing COTS Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidewind, Norman F.; Nikora, Allen P.

    1998-01-01

    Many vendors produce products that are not domain specific (e.g., network server) and have limited functionality (e.g., mobile phone). In contrast, many customers of COTS develop systems that am domain specific (e.g., target tracking system) and have great variability in functionality (e.g., corporate information system). This discussion takes the viewpoint of how the customer can ensure the quality of COTS components. In evaluating the benefits and costs of using COTS, we must consider the environment in which COTS will operate. Thus we must distinguish between using a non-mission critical application like a spreadsheet program to produce a budget and a mission critical application like military strategic and tactical operations. Whereas customers will tolerate an occasional bug in the former, zero tolerance is the rule in the latter. We emphasize the latter because this is the arena where there are major unresolved problems in the application of COTS. Furthermore, COTS components may be embedded in the larger customer system. We refer to these as embedded systems. These components must be reliable, maintainable, and available, and must be with the larger system in order for the customer to benefit from the advertised advantages of lower development and maintenance costs. Interestingly, when the claims of COTS advantages are closely examined, one finds that to a great extent these COTS components consist of hardware and office products, not mission critical software [1]. Obviously, COTS components are different from custom components with respect to one or more of the following attributes: source, development paradigm, safety, reliability, maintainability, availability, security, and other attributes. However, the important question is whether they should be treated differently when deciding to deploy them for operational use; we suggest the answer is no. We use reliability as an example to justify our answer. In order to demonstrate its reliability, a COTS

  5. The Effects of Presentation Order in Multitrial Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Anthony J.

    The experiment tested the effects of presentation word orders in a multitrial free-recall task. Three types of presentation were used: (1) randomized; (2) constant order; and (3) maintained order (maintenance of subjects order of recall on the subsequent presentation). In addition, the effects of number of recalls per presentation (1 or 3) were…

  6. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.24 Central processing of orders. (a) A supplier that has one or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  7. Flower color polymorphism maintained by overdominant selection in Sisyrinchium sp.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Kawata, Masakado

    2015-11-01

    Negative frequency-dependent selection derived from positive frequency-dependent foraging is the best-known selection force maintaining genetic polymorphism within a population. However, in flowering plants, positive frequency-dependent foraging by pollinators is expected to accelerate the loss of low-frequency morphs by conferring a fitness advantage to the common morph, leading to monomorphism. In Japan, a non-native species, Sisyrinchium sp., exhibits conspicuous flower color polymorphism within a population comprising both purple morphs (homozygous recessive) and white morphs (heterozygous or homozygous dominant). Here we quantified genotype-specific reproductive success in order to reveal the contribution of overdominant selection on the maintenance of flower color polymorphism in this species. In artificial pollination experiments using individuals with identified genotypes, female reproductive success was higher in the heterozygote than in either homozygote. The frequency of purple morphs in natural populations (ca. 31%) is similar to the frequency predicted by overdominant selection (25%). Our results suggest that overdominant selection contributes to the maintenance of color morphs in the natural population of this species.

  8. Education and a New International Economic Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debeauvais, Michel

    1982-01-01

    Examines how Third World education systems reproduce social and economic inequalities; how the international economic order is founded on unfair mechanisms that perpetuate inequality; and the role that groups in the United Nations family must play in the establishment of a New International Economic Order. (RM)

  9. Maintaining Our Priorities: Transforming a Force for the Counterinsurgency War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-10

    JMO Operational Art Research Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maintaining Our Priorities : Transforming a Force for...298 (Rev. 8-98) NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. Maintaining Our Priorities : Transforming a Force for the Counterinsurgency War by...limited in accordance with the DON ISPR, show Distribution Statement here. Abstract Maintaining Our Priorities : Transforming a Force for the

  10. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure...

  11. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure...

  12. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure...

  13. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure...

  14. 36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... responsibilities for maintenance of records in all formats within each agency component, including designation of... on handling and protecting records; (f) Maintain records and nonrecord materials separately,...

  15. Social Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald W.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social forces and social pathologies figure prominently in the dynamics of suicide. Gives several examples of "social suicide," including mass suicide, organizational self-destruction, social analogues to individual suicide, and military suicide. Claims that suicide prevention requires social, economic, and cultural transformations at…

  16. The Social Climbing Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardoscia, Marco; De Luca, Giancarlo; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Tessone, Claudio J.

    2013-05-01

    The structure of societies depends, to some extent, on the incentives of the individuals they are composed of. We study a stylized model of this interplay, that suggests that the more individuals aim at climbing the social hierarchy, the more society's hierarchy gets strong. Such a dependence is sharp, in the sense that a persistent hierarchical order emerges abruptly when the preference for social status gets larger than a threshold. This phase transition has its origin in the fact that the presence of a well defined hierarchy allows agents to climb it, thus reinforcing it, whereas in a "disordered" society it is harder for agents to find out whom they should connect to in order to become more central. Interestingly, a social order emerges when agents strive harder to climb society and it results in a state of reduced social mobility, as a consequence of ergodicity breaking, where climbing is more difficult.

  17. The Importance of Social Connectedness in Building Age-Friendly Communities

    PubMed Central

    Emlet, Charles A.; Moceri, Joane T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further elucidate the importance of social relationships and social connectedness with aging in place and in developing elder-friendly communities. The process used in this study was inclusive of younger adults (age 40–65) as well as older adults (65+) in order to further understand how they envision a community that could support their own aging in place. A community forum, using the World Café format, was conducted in order to engage community members, 40 years and older, in conversation about the importance of social connectedness in elder-friendly communities. A second purpose of this forum was to obtain data on what would keep aging boomers in their community as they age. Three major themes emerged from qualitative analysis of the forum: social reciprocity, meaningful interactions, and structural needs/barriers. The results of this study reinforce the importance of social connectedness in creating and maintaining elder-friendly communities for older adults, as well as soon-to-be retired individuals, wishing to maintain life connectedness to their community. The study suggests the possibility of using more nontraditional research techniques (such as the World Café process) for gathering community level data. PMID:22162807

  18. The importance of social connectedness in building age-friendly communities.

    PubMed

    Emlet, Charles A; Moceri, Joane T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further elucidate the importance of social relationships and social connectedness with aging in place and in developing elder-friendly communities. The process used in this study was inclusive of younger adults (age 40-65) as well as older adults (65+) in order to further understand how they envision a community that could support their own aging in place. A community forum, using the World Café format, was conducted in order to engage community members, 40 years and older, in conversation about the importance of social connectedness in elder-friendly communities. A second purpose of this forum was to obtain data on what would keep aging boomers in their community as they age. Three major themes emerged from qualitative analysis of the forum: social reciprocity, meaningful interactions, and structural needs/barriers. The results of this study reinforce the importance of social connectedness in creating and maintaining elder-friendly communities for older adults, as well as soon-to-be retired individuals, wishing to maintain life connectedness to their community. The study suggests the possibility of using more nontraditional research techniques (such as the World Café process) for gathering community level data.

  19. Evaluation of the rate of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers across preference assessments.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE RATE OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY DIFFERENT REINFORCERS ACROSS PREFERENCE ASSESSMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. PMID:22219533

  1. Systems and methods for maintaining multiple objects within a camera field-of-view

    DOEpatents

    Gans, Nicholas R.; Dixon, Warren

    2016-03-15

    In one embodiment, a system and method for maintaining objects within a camera field of view include identifying constraints to be enforced, each constraint relating to an attribute of the viewed objects, identifying a priority rank for the constraints such that more important constraints have a higher priority that less important constraints, and determining the set of solutions that satisfy the constraints relative to the order of their priority rank such that solutions that satisfy lower ranking constraints are only considered viable if they also satisfy any higher ranking constraints, each solution providing an indication as to how to control the camera to maintain the objects within the camera field of view.

  2. Maintenance of cultural diversity: social roles, social networks, and cognitive networks.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino suggests that patterns that give rise to group-level cultural traits can also increase individual-level cultural diversity. I distinguish social roles and related social network structures and discuss ways in which each might maintain diversity. I suggest that cognitive analogs of "cohesion," a property of networks that helps maintenance of diversity, might mediate the effects of social roles on diversity.

  3. Analyzing Social Media and Learning through Content and Social Network Analysis: A Faceted Methodological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruzd, Anatoliy; Paulin, Drew; Haythornthwaite, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In just a short period, social media have altered many aspects of our daily lives, from how we form and maintain social relationships to how we discover, access, and share information online. Now social media are also affecting how we teach and learn. In this paper, we discuss methods that can help researchers and educators evaluate and understand…

  4. Social phobia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment ... social events. Causes People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be ...

  5. Social Reconstruction: The Controversy over the Textbooks of Harold Rugg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagenstos, Naida Tushnet

    The paper examines the controversy over the use of Harold Rugg's textbooks in the social studies curriculum during the 1930s and 40s. The first section discusses the philosophy of social reconstruction maintaining that teachers and students should be in the forefront of social change. Rugg's major contribution to social reconstruction was a…

  6. Social Indicators and Social Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Denis F.

    The paper identifies major types of social indicators and explains how they can be used in social forecasting. Social indicators are defined as statistical measures relating to major areas of social concern and/or individual well being. Examples of social indicators are projections, forecasts, outlook statements, time-series statistics, and…

  7. Experiences of Habitual Physical Activity in Maintaining Roles and Functioning among Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Svantesson, Ulla; Willén, Carin

    2016-01-01

    Physically active older adults have reduced risk of functional restrictions and role limitations. Several aspects may interrelate and influence habitual physical activity (PA). However, older adults' own perspectives towards their PA need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of habitual physical activity in maintaining roles and functioning among older adult Palestinians ≥60 years. Data were collected through in-depth interviews based on a narrative approach. Seventeen participants were recruited (aged 64–84 years). Data were analyzed using a narrative interpretative method. Findings. Three central narratives were identified, “keep moving, stay healthy,” “social connectedness, a motive to stay active,” and “adapting strategies to age-related changes.” Conclusion. Habitual physical activity was perceived as an important factor to maintain functioning and to preserve active roles in older adults. Walking was the most prominent pattern of physical activity and it was viewed as a vital tool to maintain functioning among the older adults. Social connectedness was considered as a contributing factor to the status of staying active. To adapt the process of age-related changes in a context to stay active, the participants have used different adapting strategies, including protective strategy, awareness of own capabilities, and modifying or adopting new roles. PMID:28078141

  8. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments.

  9. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments. PMID:25586099

  10. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  11. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  12. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  13. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  14. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  15. Minuteman 2020: Maintaining the Operational Army National Guard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Minuteman 2020: Maintaining the Operational Army National Guard by Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan M. Stubbs United States...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) xx-03-2013 2. REPORT TYPE STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Minuteman ...UU 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Minuteman 2020: Maintaining the

  16. Maintaining Institutional Integrity. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Donald E., Ed.; Vaughan, George B., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of articles addresses ways in which community colleges can maintain institutional integrity while at the same time adapting the colleges' mission to a changing environment. The following articles are included: (1) "The Search for Mission and Integrity: A Retrospective View," by Jennings L. Wagoner, Jr.; (2) "Maintaining Open Access…

  17. 33 CFR 118.5 - Penalty for failure to maintain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.5 Penalty for failure to maintain. Any person required to maintain lights and other signals upon any bridge or abutment over or in the navigable waters of the United... and regulations relating to the same is subject to a penalty as provided in 14 U.S.C. 85....

  18. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintaining required production records. 870.22... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.22 Maintaining required production records. (a) If you engage in or conduct a surface...

  19. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintaining required production records. 870.22... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.22 Maintaining required production records. (a) If you engage in or conduct a surface...

  20. Leveraging Emerging Technology to Maintain Corporate Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Abstract and Outline for 13th ICCRTS For the paper entitled: Leveraging Emerging Technology to Maintain Corporate...AND SUBTITLE Leveraging Emerging Technology to Maintain Corporate Situational Awareness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 13th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposia (ICCRTS 2008

  1. Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant species diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory has outpaced empirical research in pursuit of identifying mechanisms maintaining species diversity. Here we demonstrate how data from diversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to test maintenance of diversity theory. We predict that grassland plant diversity can be maintained by...

  2. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... later. (e) If you do not maintain or make available your books and records as required in this section... may inspect and copy any of your books or records that are necessary to substantiate the accuracy of....S.C. 552a) and the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552). (d) You must maintain your books...

  3. The missing link: leadership, identity, and the social brain.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Mark

    2012-05-01

    How the cohesion of a social network is being maintained in spite of having different layers of social interaction is an important question. I argue that the evolution of both (political) hierarchy and social identity play a crucial role in scaling up and bonding social networks. Together they are missing links in the social brain hypothesis, and further research is needed to understand the functions of leadership and social identity.

  4. Order and Containment in Concurrent System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    determined at compile time. How the source code of a program is written determines what the containment constraints will be. Order constraints between...searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send...38 2.2.3 Conservative Compile Time Deadlock Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.2.4 Communication Semantics

  5. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  6. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Jamie; Toon, Troy; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology that was developed to allocate reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program's subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. Allocating is an iterative process; as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases this provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. Trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper will discuss the value of modifying reliability and maintainability allocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  7. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Troy; Toon, Jamie; Conner, Angelo C.; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program’s subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  8. Family Generated and Delivered Social Story Intervention: Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization of Social Skills in Youths with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcay-Gül, Seray; Tekin-Iftar, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) family members were able to learn to write a social story and deliver social story intervention to teach social skills to their children (age 12 to 16) with ASD, (b) youths with ASD acquired and maintained the targeted social skills and generalized these skills across novel situations. Multiple…

  9. Social supports and prevention strategies as adjuncts and alternatives to sedation and anesthesia for people with special needs.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Paul; Miller, Christine

    2009-01-01

    People with special needs are assuming a more prominent place in our society. The number of people living in communities with medical, physical, and psychological conditions is increasing dramatically. In spite of the advances that people with special needs have made in recognition of their right to live in society and access services open to other people, their oral health is still significantly poorer than that of other groups. There are a number of modalities that can complement or replace pharmacological interventions and allow individuals to have dental treatment in a dental office or clinic. These include behavioral or psychological interventions and social support and prevention strategies. Social supports include care management and integration of oral health services with general health and social service systems. Preventive programs using modern "medical model" oral health prevention strategies also have the potential to reduce the burden of disease among people with special needs and therefore reduce the need for dental procedures. A social support system using community-based Dental Hygienists acting as Dental Coordinators, is described along with outcomes demonstrating improved oral health for people with special needs living in community residential care facilities. Combined social support systems and community prevention strategies have the potential to reduce the need for pharmacological interventions in order to maintain oral health in populations of people with special needs. Social supports and modern preventive strategies must be included in the range of options available in communities in order to improve and maintain oral health for people with special needs.

  10. Using Photovoice as a Tool to Engage Social Work Students in Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peabody, Carolyn G.

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure that social workers graduating from social work programs embrace social justice's central role in their professional careers, educators must find creative, theoretically grounded, practice-relevant ways of conveying this value and socializing social work students. This article describes the use of Photovoice as one tool for…

  11. Establishing and maintaining cell polarity with mRNA localization in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justinn; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Shidlovskii, Yulii; Schedl, Paul

    2016-03-01

    How cell polarity is established and maintained is an important question in diverse biological contexts. Molecular mechanisms used to localize polarity proteins to distinct domains are likely context-dependent and provide a feedback loop in order to maintain polarity. One such mechanism is the localized translation of mRNAs encoding polarity proteins, which will be the focus of this review and may play a more important role in the establishment and maintenance of polarity than is currently known. Localized translation of mRNAs encoding polarity proteins can be used to establish polarity in response to an external signal, and to maintain polarity by local production of polarity determinants. The importance of this mechanism is illustrated by recent findings, including orb2-dependent localized translation of aPKC mRNA at the apical end of elongating spermatid tails in the Drosophila testis, and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA in Drosophila follicle and embryonic epithelia.

  12. Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and Its Benefits for Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial…

  13. Components for Maintaining and Publishing Earth Science Vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J. D.; Yu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shared vocabularies are an important aid to geoscience data interoperability. Many organizations maintain useful vocabularies, with Geologic Surveys having a particularly long history of vocabulary and lexicon development. However, the mode of publication is heterogeneous, ranging from PDFs and HTML web pages, spreadsheets and CSV, through various user-interfaces and APIs. Update and maintenance ranges from tightly-governed and externally opaque, through various community processes, all the way to crowd-sourcing ('folksonomies'). A general expectation, however, is for greater harmonization and vocabulary re-use. In order to be successful this requires (a) standardized content formalization and APIs (b) transparent content maintenance and versioning. We have been trialling a combination of software dealing with registration, search and linking. SKOS is designed for formalizing multi-lingual, hierarchical vocabularies, and has been widely adopted in earth and environmental sciences. SKOS is an RDF vocabulary, for which SPARQL is the standard low-level API. However, for interoperability between SKOS vocabulary sources, a SKOS-based API (i.e. based on the SKOS predicates prefLabel, broader, narrower, etc) is required. We have developed SISSvoc for this purpose, and used it to deploy a number of vocabularies on behalf of the IUGS, ICS, NERC, OGC, the Australian Government, and CSIRO projects. SISSvoc Search provides simple search UI on top of one or more SISSvoc sources. Content maintenance is composed of many elements, including content-formalization, definition-update, and mappings to related vocabularies. Typically there is a degree of expert judgement required. In order to provide confidence in users, two requirements are paramount: (i) once published, a URI that denotes a vocabulary item must remain dereferenceable; (ii) the history and status of the content denoted by a URI must be available. These requirements match the standard 'registration' paradigm which is

  14. Social state representation in prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naotaka; Hihara, Sayaka; Nagasaka, Yasuo; Iriki, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    One of the cardinal mental faculties of humans and other primates is social brain function, the collective name assigned to the distributed system of social cognitive processes that orchestrate our sophisticated adaptive social behavior. These must include processes for recognizing current social context and maintaining an internal representation of the current social state as a reference for decision-making. But how and where the brain processes such social-state information is unknown. To home in on the neural substrates of social-state representation, the activity of 196 prefrontal (PFC) neurons was recorded from two monkeys simultaneously during a food-grab task under varying social conditions. Of PFC neurons, 39% showed activity modulation during movement-free periods and seemed to be representing current social state. The direction of modulation was opposite between the dominant and submissive monkeys: During social engagement, PFC activity increased in the dominant monkey and was suppressed in the submissive monkey. The modulation was consistently observed in additional PFC neurons (27/72) in additional pairings with two other monkeys. Notably, PFC activity in one formerly submissive monkey switched to dominant modulation mode when he was paired with a new monkey of lower social status. These findings suggest that PFC, as part of a larger social brain network, maintains a multistate classification of social context for use as a behavioral reference for social decision-making.

  15. Physical objects as vehicles of cultural transmission: maintaining harmony and uniqueness through colored geometric patterns.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Keiko; Miyamoto, Yuri; Rule, Nicholas O; Toriyama, Rie

    2014-02-01

    We examined how cultural values of harmony and uniqueness are represented and maintained through physical media (i.e., colorings of geometric patterns) and how individuals play an active role in selecting and maintaining such cultural values. We found that colorings produced by European American adults and children were judged as more unique, whereas colorings produced by Japanese adults and children were judged as more harmonious, reflecting cultural differences in values. Harmony undergirded Japanese participants' preferences for colorings, whereas uniqueness undergirded European American participants' preferences for colorings. These cultural differences led participants to prefer own-culture colorings over other-culture colorings. Moreover, bicultural participants' preferences acculturated according to their identification with their host culture. Furthermore, child rearers in Japan and Canada gave feedback about the children's colorings that were consistent with their culture's values. These findings suggest that simple geometric patterns can embody cultural values that are socialized and reinforced from an early age.

  16. "Maintaining connections but wanting more": the continuity of familial relationships among assisted-living residents.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Catherine J; Ihara, Emily S; Cusick, Alison; Park, Nan Sook

    2012-01-01

    Social support is a key component of well-being for older adults, particularly for those who have moved from independent living to assisted living involving a transformation of roles, relationships, and responsibilities. Twenty-nine assisted-living facility residents were interviewed to understand the perceived continuity of relationships with family and friends. An inductive approach to thematic analysis revealed 1 main theme and 3 subthemes. The main theme that emerged was: maintaining connections but wanting more. Residents appreciated maintaining connections with family and friends, but often expressed feelings of discontentment with the continuity of former relationships. The subthemes included: appreciating family and friends, waiting for more, and losing control. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  17. The Neuroendocrinology of Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P.; Cole, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed. PMID:25148851

  18. The neuroendocrinology of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

    2015-01-03

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed.

  19. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  20. Safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication establishes common safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle Program. NASA Centers shall use this publication both as the basis for negotiating safety, reliability, maintainability and quality requirements with Shuttle Program contractors and as the guideline for conduct of program safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities at the Centers. Centers shall assure that applicable provisions of the publication are imposed in lower tier contracts. Centers shall give due regard to other Space Shuttle Program planning in order to provide an integrated total Space Shuttle Program activity. In the implementation of safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities, consideration shall be given to hardware complexity, supplier experience, state of hardware development, unit cost, and hardware use. The approach and methods for contractor implementation shall be described in the contractors safety, reliability, maintainability and quality plans. This publication incorporates provisions of NASA documents: NHB 1700.1 'NASA Safety Manual, Vol. 1'; NHB 5300.4(IA), 'Reliability Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'; and NHB 5300.4(1B), 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'. It has been tailored from the above documents based on experience in other programs. It is intended that this publication be reviewed and revised, as appropriate, to reflect new experience and to assure continuing viability.

  1. Social Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

  2. 76 FR 38046 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Assignment of Order Codes (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... responsible for maintaining order code assignments. The order code procedures are moved from the DFARS to its... agreement. In addition, the procedures and addresses for order code monitors are moved to the...

  3. Functional analysis of inappropriate social interactions in students with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of socially appropriate responding. Our results show that social positive reinforcers can be identified for inappropriate social interactions and that appropriate social behaviors can be sensitive to reinforcement contingency reversals.

  4. Reliability and maintainability data acquisition in equipment development tests

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Gift, E.H.

    1983-10-01

    The need for collection of reliability, maintainability, and availability data adds a new dimension to the data acquisition requirements of equipment development tests. This report describes the reliability and maintainability data that are considered necessary to ensure that sufficient and high quality data exist for a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of equipment and system availability. These necessary data are presented as a set of data collection forms. Three data acquisition forms are discussed: an inventory and technical data form, which is filed by the design engineer when the design is finished or the equipment is received; an event report form, which is completed by the senior test operator at each shutdown; and a maintainability report, which is a collaborative effort between senior operators and lead engineers and is completed on restart. In addition, elements of a reliability, maintainability evaluation program are described. Emphasis is placed on the role of data, its storage, and use in such a program.

  5. Increasing Maintainability of a Wastewater-Recovery Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehner, G. F.; Brose, H. F.

    1987-01-01

    Modified system leaks less and easier to disassemble for maintenance. Redesign of wastewater-recovery system separates water from urine: improved operation and system easier to maintain. Details of redesign, chiefly affected hollow-fiber-membrane evaporator, described in report.

  6. 40 CFR 63.5190 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... capture system operating parameter data in accordance with § 63.5150(a)(1), (3), and (4); (iii) Organic... monitoring system operated by the owner or operator in accordance with § 63.5150(a)(2). (b) Maintain...

  7. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Accounting and internal control systems and financial records. (1) An institution must maintain accounting and internal control systems that— (i) Identify the cash balance of the funds of each title IV,...

  8. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Accounting and internal control systems and financial records. (1) An institution must maintain accounting and internal control systems that— (i) Identify the cash balance of the funds of each title IV,...

  9. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  10. ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. Control circuit maintains unity power factor of reactive load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, M.; Martinage, L. H.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit including feedback control elements automatically corrects the power factor of a reactive load. It maintains power supply efficiency where negative load reactance changes and varies by providing corrective error signals to the control windings of a power supply transformer.

  12. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  13. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  14. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  15. Integrating reliability and maintainability into a concurrent engineering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Clifton B.; Peterson, Robert R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes the results of a reliability and maintainability study conducted at the University of California, San Diego and supported by private industry. Private industry thought the study was important and provided the university access to innovative tools under cooperative agreement. The current capability of reliability and maintainability tools and how they fit into the design process is investigated. The evolution of design methodologies leading up to today's capability is reviewed for ways to enhance the design process while keeping cost under control. A method for measuring the consequences of reliability and maintainability policy for design configurations in an electronic environment is provided. The interaction of selected modern computer tool sets is described for reliability, maintainability, operations, and other elements of the engineering design process. These tools provide a robust system evaluation capability that brings life cycle performance improvement information to engineers and their managers before systems are deployed, and allow them to monitor and track performance while it is in operation.

  16. Strategies for Buying and Maintaining Audio Visual Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmbach, John A.; Kruzel, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    Presents guidelines for purchasing and maintaining audiovisual equipment most often used in the classroom. Highlights include selecting a vendor; purchasing associations; preventive maintenance; optical equipment, including overhead projectors, slide projectors, movie projectors, and filmstrip projectors; and electromagnetic equipment, including…

  17. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  18. 36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electronic records, segregable. Agency records maintenance programs must: (a) Institute procedures for organizing and storing records; (b) Maintain electronic, audiovisual and cartographic, and microform records... the officials that are responsible for maintenance and disposition of electronic records...

  19. A cryogenic optical feedthrough using polarization maintaining fibers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M J; Collins, C J; Speake, C C

    2016-03-01

    Polarization maintaining optical fibers can be used to transmit linearly polarized light over long distances but their use in cryogenic environments has been limited by their sensitivity to temperature changes and associated mechanical stress. We investigate experimentally how thermal stresses affect the polarization maintaining fibers and model the observations with Jones matrices. We describe the design, construction, and testing of a feedthrough and fiber termination assembly that uses polarization maintaining fiber to transmit light from a 633 nm HeNe laser at room temperature to a homodyne polarization-based interferometer in a cryogenic vacuum. We report on the efficiency of the polarization maintaining properties of the feedthrough assembly. We also report that, at cryogenic temperatures, the interferometer can achieve a sensitivity of 8 × 10(-10) rad/√Hz at 0.05 Hz using this feedthrough.

  20. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... imported automobile from a domestic dealer would not be required to maintain records, a transit authority...) Recordkeeping required for certain exporters. Any person who exports goods to Canada or Mexico for which...

  1. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... imported automobile from a domestic dealer would not be required to maintain records, a transit authority...) Recordkeeping required for certain exporters. Any person who exports goods to Canada or Mexico for which...

  2. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... imported automobile from a domestic dealer would not be required to maintain records, a transit authority...) Recordkeeping required for certain exporters. Any person who exports goods to Canada or Mexico for which...

  3. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... imported automobile from a domestic dealer would not be required to maintain records, a transit authority...) Recordkeeping required for certain exporters. Any person who exports goods to Canada or Mexico for which...

  4. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  5. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure of... person or agency to whom or to which each disclosure was made. This log will not include disclosures...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure of... person or agency to whom or to which each disclosure was made. This log will not include disclosures...

  8. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  9. Use of Evidence in the Implementation of Social Programs: A Qualitative Study from Chile.

    PubMed

    Flores, Rodrigo; Naranjo, Carola; Hein, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Through this qualitative, empirical study the authors aim to explore and describe the sources of knowledge that are used to guide intervention practice by social workers in Chile. Particular attention was paid to factors that may facilitate or hinder the use of research-based evidence to guide social interventions design, implementation, and outcome evaluation. In order to explore these issues, 25 semi-structured interviews with social workers from Chilean social service non-profit organizations were conducted. The main findings suggest that social workers do not use research-based evidence to support their social interventions due to various personal organizational constraints (e.g., lack of time, lack of access to resources for disseminating evidence, lack of English command). In addition, no evaluation processes of social programs which will support evidence-based effectiveness could be found. One key barrier to support use of evidence and evidence production may be related to the fact that most non-governmental organizations maintain a hierarchical and vertical relationship with state agencies (program design, oversight, and funding) for social program development.

  10. A conservative's social psychology.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Clark

    2015-01-01

    I suggest that social psychologists should stick to studying positive and negative attitudes and give up stigmatizing some attitudes as "prejudice." I recommend that we avoid assuming that race and ethnicity have no biological foundations, in order to avoid a collision course with modern biology. And I wonder how much difference the target article recommendations can make in the context of hiring a social psychologist for an academic position.

  11. Temporal regulation of kin recognition maintains recognition-cue diversity and suppresses cheating.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsing-I; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-05-28

    Kin recognition, the ability to distinguish kin from non-kin, can facilitate cooperation between relatives. Evolutionary theory predicts that polymorphism in recognition cues, which is essential for effective recognition, would be unstable. Individuals carrying rare recognition cues would benefit less from social interactions than individuals with common cues, leading to loss of the genetic-cue diversity. We test this evolutionary hypothesis in Dictyostelium discoideum, which forms multicellular fruiting bodies by aggregation and utilizes two polymorphic membrane proteins to facilitate preferential cooperation. Surprisingly, we find that rare recognition variants are tolerated and maintain their frequencies among incompatible majority during development. Although the rare variants are initially excluded from the aggregates, they subsequently rejoin the aggregate and produce spores. Social cheating is also refrained in late development, thus limiting the cost of chimerism. Our results suggest a potential mechanism to sustain the evolutionary stability of kin-recognition genes and to suppress cheating.

  12. Delineating subtypes of self-injurious behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Louis P; Rooker, Griffin W; Zarcone, Jennifer R

    2015-09-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is maintained by automatic reinforcement in roughly 25% of cases. Automatically reinforced SIB typically has been considered a single functional category, and is less understood than socially reinforced SIB. Subtyping automatically reinforced SIB into functional categories has the potential to guide the development of more targeted interventions and increase our understanding of its biological underpinnings. The current study involved an analysis of 39 individuals with automatically reinforced SIB and a comparison group of 13 individuals with socially reinforced SIB. Automatically reinforced SIB was categorized into 3 subtypes based on patterns of responding in the functional analysis and the presence of self-restraint. These response features were selected as the basis for subtyping on the premise that they could reflect functional properties of SIB unique to each subtype. Analysis of treatment data revealed important differences across subtypes and provides preliminary support to warrant additional research on this proposed subtyping model.

  13. Methadone Anonymous: A 12-Step Program for Methadone Maintained Heroin Addicts.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Stephen M.; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen

    2001-12-01

    Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12-step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Clients rated components of MA to be significantly more helpful to recovery than MMTP treatment components. Affiliation to five MA members known best by the respondents was significantly greater than affiliation to non-MA members. Length of time in MA was positively associated with MA affiliation. Social affiliation and endorsement of 12-step principles were positively correlated. These findings suggest that MA participation has benefits not available in professionally driven MMTP, and should be further studied.

  14. DELINEATING SUBTYPES OF SELF-INJURIOUS BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY AUTOMATIC REINFORCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is maintained by automatic reinforcement in roughly 25% of cases. Automatically reinforced SIB typically has been considered a single functional category, and is less understood than socially reinforced SIB. Subtyping automatically reinforced SIB into functional categories has the potential to guide the development of more targeted interventions and increase our understanding of its biological underpinnings. The current study involved an analysis of 39 individuals with automatically reinforced SIB and a comparison group of 13 individuals with socially reinforced SIB. Automatically reinforced SIB was categorized into 3 subtypes based on patterns of responding in the functional analysis and the presence of self-restraint. These response features were selected as the basis for subtyping on the premise that they could reflect functional properties of SIB unique to each subtype. Analysis of treatment data revealed important differences across subtypes and provides preliminary support to warrant additional research on this proposed subtyping model. PMID:26223959

  15. Social orienting in gaze leading: a mechanism for shared attention

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, S. Gareth; Stephenson, Lisa J.; Dalmaso, Mario; Bayliss, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a novel social orienting response that occurs after viewing averted gaze. We show, in three experiments, that when a person looks from one location to an object, attention then shifts towards the face of an individual who has subsequently followed the person's gaze to that same object. That is, contrary to ‘gaze following’, attention instead orients in the opposite direction to observed gaze and towards the gazing face. The magnitude of attentional orienting towards a face that ‘follows’ the participant's gaze is also associated with self-reported autism-like traits. We propose that this gaze leading phenomenon implies the existence of a mechanism in the human social cognitive system for detecting when one's gaze has been followed, in order to establish ‘shared attention’ and maintain the ongoing interaction. PMID:26180071

  16. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed.

  17. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  18. ASDC Ordering Tool

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-08

    ... Ordering requires login , searching does not. Projects by science discipline: Aerosols | Clouds | Radiation Budget ... Tropospheric Composition | Field Campaigns All projects Details:  ASDC Ordering Tool ...

  19. Social Networking: Keeping It Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

  20. Boosting Social and Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…

  1. Social Justice and Political Orthodoxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukianoff, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, the Teachers College of Columbia University has maintained a policy of evaluating students based on their "commitment to social justice." Before last summer, Columbia could blame the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, the main accrediting body for schools of education, for those evaluation criteria. The…

  2. Social influence: compliance and conformity.

    PubMed

    Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J

    2004-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness.

  3. Maintaining a Twitter Feed to Advance an Internal Medicine Residency Program’s Educational Mission

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Akhil; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-01-01

    Background Residency programs face many challenges in educating learners. The millennial generation’s learning preferences also force us to reconsider how to reach physicians in training. Social media is emerging as a viable tool for advancing curricula in graduate medical education. Objective The authors sought to understand how social media enhances a residency program’s educational mission. Methods While chief residents in the 2013-2014 academic year, two of the authors (PB, AN) maintained a Twitter feed for their academic internal medicine residency program. Participants included the chief residents and categorical internal medicine house staff. Results At the year’s end, the authors surveyed residents about uses and attitudes toward this initiative. Residents generally found the chief residents’ tweets informative, and most residents (42/61, 69%) agreed that Twitter enhanced their overall education in residency. Conclusions Data from this single-site intervention corroborate that Twitter can strengthen a residency program’s educational mission. The program’s robust following on Twitter outside of the home program also suggests a need for wider adoption of social media in graduate medical education. Improved use of data analytics and dissemination of these practices to other programs would lend additional insight into social media’s role in improving residents’ educational experiences. PMID:27731845

  4. The Sociological Imagination and Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hironimus-Wendt, Robert J.; Wallace, Lora Ebert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we maintain that sociologists should deliberately teach social responsibility as a means of fulfilling the promise that C. Wright Mills envisioned. A key aspect of the sociological imagination includes a sense of social responsibility, but that aspect is best learned through a combination of experience and academic knowledge.…

  5. Background for Community-Level Work on Social Competency in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Elizabeth C.; Jager, Justin; Garrett, Sarah

    Because social competency is an important element for adolescents' healthy development, a central question is what can be done to help adolescents achieve and maintain social competency. This report details antecedents of two key aspects of social competency: quality social relationships and good social skills. For each social relationship and…

  6. The moderating role of attachment anxiety on social network site use intensity and social capital.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haihua; Shi, Junqi; Liu, Yihao; Sheng, Zitong

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the moderating role of attachment anxiety on the relationship between intensity of social network site use and bridging, bonding, and maintained social capital. Data from 322 undergraduate Chinese students were collected. Hierarchical regression analyses showed positive relationships between online intensity of social network site use and the three types of social capital. Moreover, attachment anxiety moderated the effect of intensity of social network site use on social capital. Specifically, for students with lower attachment anxiety, the relationships between intensity of social network site use and bonding and bridging social capital were stronger than those with higher attachment anxiety. The result suggested that social network sites cannot improve highly anxiously attached individuals' social capital effectively; they may need more face-to-face communications.

  7. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  8. Epithelial bridges maintain tissue integrity during collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna; Hirata, Hiroaki; Nai, Mui Hoon; Brugués, Agustí; Toyama, Yusuke; Trepat, Xavier; Lim, Chwee Teck; Ladoux, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    The ability of skin to act as a barrier is primarily determined by the efficiency of skin cells to maintain and restore its continuity and integrity. In fact, during wound healing keratinocytes migrate collectively to maintain their cohesion despite heterogeneities in the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that monolayers of human keratinocytes migrating along functionalized micropatterned surfaces comprising alternating strips of extracellular matrix (fibronectin) and non-adherent polymer form suspended multicellular bridges over the non-adherent areas. The bridges are held together by intercellular adhesion and are subjected to considerable tension, as indicated by the presence of prominent actin bundles. We also show that a model based on force propagation through an elastic material reproduces the main features of bridge maintenance and tension distribution. Our findings suggest that multicellular bridges maintain tissue integrity during wound healing when cell-substrate interactions are weak and may prove helpful in the design of artificial scaffolds for skin regeneration.

  9. Fiber Optic Repair and Maintainability (FORM) Program Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Advanced aircraft will employ fiber-optic interconnection components to transmit information from airframe and propulsion sensors to the flight control computers. Although these optical interconnects have been rigorously tested under laboratory conditions to determine their operating and environmental limits, there is concern as to their repairability and maintainability when placed in actual service. The Fiber Optic Repair and Maintainability (FORM) flight test program will provide data to enable designers to improve these fiber-optic interconnection systems for the next generation of aircraft. FORM is identifying critical problems in installing, maintaining, testing, and repairing fiber-optic interconnection systems in an operational avionics environment. This program is a cooperative Government/industry effort to evaluate optical component acceptability and installation techniques for aircraft.

  10. Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (RMS) education in engineering schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Gregory T.; Kinter, Barry N.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to show how engineering schools, as a whole, perceive the role of reliability, maintainability, and supportability in the engineering field. This includes the degree to which these concepts are included in their curricula, whether industry recruiters look for reliability, maintainability, and supportability training when they visit college campuses and to what degree college faculties are teaching reliability, maintainability, and supportability. This is done through research of existing literature and the analysis of data from a survey completed by engineering schools. General analyses are presented of the overall responses and detailed analysis of contrasts and similarities between the responses from private and public institutions are presented. Based upon the knowledge gained in conducting this research, conclusions on the state of RMS education in engineering institutions are forwarded.

  11. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  12. Maintaining Positive Attitudes toward Science and Technology in First-Year Female Undergraduates: Peril and promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machina, Kenton; Gokhale, Anu

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated attitude changes of 18-year-old first-year college students at a large state-operated institution in the USA during their initial semester in college. Attitudes of 375 students enrolled in a non-science first-year student seminar during the Fall of 2004 were measured, using a new instrument designed to focus on five attitude constructs especially relevant to female engagement with science and technology (S & T). The authors found that students whose seminar included visits with S & T professionals, plus at least four weeks of context-based S & T content, maintained modestly positive attitudes toward S & T. Students whose seminars included the science content but not the visits from professionals also maintained relatively positive attitudes, except that the females became less accepting of female participation in S & T. Notably, females enrolled in seminars that did not include any of these interventions declined significantly in all five attitudes toward S & T, even though 95% of these students were simultaneously enrolled in required introductory natural science courses. Thus, introducing context-based science content into the curriculum appears to be helpful in maintaining positive attitudes toward S & T in 18-year-old US female college students, while more traditional natural science pedagogy is associated with attitude decline in these students. This result is socially significant because females continue to be under-represented in several S & T fields at the level of first university degree, in many regions of the world.

  13. Old Order Amish Philosophy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2005-01-01

    The Old Order Amish in the societal arena provides a philosophy of education which is unique and worthy of study.They tend to have a minimal of problems when making comparisons with other sub cultures in society. Drug abuse, pregnancy among unwed mothers, crime, alcoholism, thievery, and other forms of anti-social behavior appear to be at a very…

  14. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  15. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase maintains active zone structure by stabilizing Bruchpilot

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Shaoyun; Ali, Yousuf O; Ruan, Kai; Zhai, R Grace

    2013-01-01

    Active zones are specialized presynaptic structures critical for neurotransmission. We show that a neuronal maintenance factor, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT), is required for maintaining active zone structural integrity in Drosophila by interacting with the active zone protein, Bruchpilot (BRP), and shielding it from activity-induced ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation. NMNAT localizes to the peri-active zone and interacts biochemically with BRP in an activity-dependent manner. Loss of NMNAT results in ubiquitination, mislocalization and aggregation of BRP, and subsequent active zone degeneration. We propose that, as a neuronal maintenance factor, NMNAT specifically maintains active zone structure by direct protein–protein interaction. PMID:23154466

  16. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  17. Multiple ordering in magnetite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, J. R.; Callen, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a self-consistent band calculation of the ground-state energy and charge orderings based on a tight-binding scheme in magnetite are presented. They show that below a critical (about 2.2) value of the ratio of interatomic Coulomb energy to bandwidth the lowest energy state has no order. Between this critical value and 2.5, the preferred state is multiply ordered.

  18. Ordered transport and identification of particles

    DOEpatents

    Shera, E.B.

    1993-05-11

    A method and apparatus are provided for application of electrical field gradients to induce particle velocities to enable particle sequence and identification information to be obtained. Particle sequence is maintained by providing electroosmotic flow for an electrolytic solution in a particle transport tube. The transport tube and electrolytic solution are selected to provide an electroosmotic radius of >100 so that a plug flow profile is obtained for the electrolytic solution in the transport tube. Thus, particles are maintained in the same order in which they are introduced in the transport tube. When the particles also have known electrophoretic velocities, the field gradients introduce an electrophoretic velocity component onto the electroosmotic velocity. The time that the particles pass selected locations along the transport tube may then be detected and the electrophoretic velocity component calculated for particle identification. One particular application is the ordered transport and identification of labeled nucleotides sequentially cleaved from a strand of DNA.

  19. Ordered transport and identification of particles

    DOEpatents

    Shera, E. Brooks

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for application of electrical field gradients to induce particle velocities to enable particle sequence and identification information to be obtained. Particle sequence is maintained by providing electroosmotic flow for an electrolytic solution in a particle transport tube. The transport tube and electrolytic solution are selected to provide an electroosmotic radius of >100 so that a plug flow profile is obtained for the electrolytic solution in the transport tube. Thus, particles are maintained in the same order in which they are introduced in the transport tube. When the particles also have known electrophoretic velocities, the field gradients introduce an electrophoretic velocity component onto the electroosmotic velocity. The time that the particles pass selected locations along the transport tube may then be detected and the electrophoretic velocity component calculated for particle identification. One particular application is the ordered transport and identification of labeled nucleotides sequentially cleaved from a strand of DNA.

  20. Birth order and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, A. P.

    1971-01-01

    It was found that (a) later borns from two-child families were more external than those from larger families; (b) later borns were more external than only children or firstborns; (c) only children and firstborns were more socially responsible than later borns; and (d) firstborns were more rigid than only-child and later-born Ss. (Author)

  1. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  2. Social paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Nick; Colomer, Concha; Alperstein, Garth; Bouvier, Paul; Colomer, Julia; Duperrex, Olivier; Gokcay, Gulbin; Julien, Gilles; Kohler, Lennart; Lindström, Bengt; Macfarlane, Aidan; Mercer, Raul; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Schulpen, Tom

    2005-02-01

    Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective.

  3. Social paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, N.; Colomer, C.; Alperstein, G.; Bouvier, P.; Colomer, J.; Duperrex, O.; Gokcay, G.; Julien, G.; Kohler, L.; Lindstrom, B.; Macfarlane, A.; Mercer, R.; Panagiotopoulos, T.; Schulpen, T.; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective. PMID:15650140

  4. Higher-order organization of complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Austin R.; Gleich, David F.; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Networks are a fundamental tool for understanding and modeling complex systems in physics, biology, neuroscience, engineering, and social science. Many networks are known to exhibit rich, lower-order connectivity patterns that can be captured at the level of individual nodes and edges. However, higher-order organization of complex networks—at the level of small network subgraphs—remains largely unknown. Here, we develop a generalized framework for clustering networks on the basis of higher-order connectivity patterns. This framework provides mathematical guarantees on the optimality of obtained clusters and scales to networks with billions of edges. The framework reveals higher-order organization in a number of networks, including information propagation units in neuronal networks and hub structure in transportation networks. Results show that networks exhibit rich higher-order organizational structures that are exposed by clustering based on higher-order connectivity patterns. PMID:27387949

  5. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Harré, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social

  6. Durkheim, social integration and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Alaszewski, A; Manthorpe, J

    This second paper of six on the application of sociology in health care considers the work of Emile Durkheim. He was concerned with the production of social order through relationships and shared values. Durkheim conceived social phenomena as 'social facts' which could be studied, and his treatment of suicide as a case study of social fact is discussed here. His work on the processes of social cohesion has influenced the work of sociologists up to the present day.

  7. Distance to the object and social representations: replication and further evidences.

    PubMed

    Dany, Lionel; Apostolidis, Themis; Harabi, Sofiene

    2014-12-12

    Distance to the object is a new approach that highlights the complex nature of the link between groups and social representations. It is composed of three elements: knowledge, involvement, and level of practices associated with the social object. This study aims to replicate a previous study that has demonstrated the validity of distance to the object in order to explore social representations of cannabis. We carried out a research on the social representations of cocaine. Respondents (n = 200) completed a questionnaire including opinions related to cocaine and constitutive elements of the distance to cocaine. The regression analysis on the representational dimensions revealed a significant effect of the distance variable on two dimensions (social facilitator, addiction and social dangerousness). The groups that were "distant" from the object showed stronger adherence to the normative component than to the functional component of SR, in opposition to those who were "close" to the object. The concept of distance to the object is thus heuristic as it offers an integrative grid of reading that permits to understand and highlight the link individuals maintain with a social representation.

  8. Social Indicators and Social Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Robert; Seidman, David

    1978-01-01

    Describes the several research traditions which combine to form the social indicators movement. All the traditions share concern for measurement, analysis, and reporting of aspects of social conditions to a general audience. Journal available from: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania…

  9. Temporal variability in detritus resource maintains diversity of bacterial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Teppo; Laakso, Jouni; Kaitala, Veijo; Suomalainen, Lotta-Riina; Pekkonen, Minna

    2008-05-01

    Competition theory generally predicts that diversity is maintained by temporal environmental fluctuations. One of the many suggested mechanisms for maintaining diversity in fluctuating environments is the gleaner-opportunist trade-off, whereby gleaner species have low threshold resource levels and low maximum growth rates in high resource concentration while opportunist species show opposite characteristics. We measured the growth rates of eight heterotrophic aquatic bacteria under different concentrations of chemically complex plant detritus resource. The growth rates revealed gleaner-opportunist trade-offs. The role of environmental variability in maintaining diversity was tested in a 28-day experiment with three different resource fluctuation regimes imposed on two four-species bacterial communities in microcosms. We recorded population densities with serial dilution plating and total biomass as turbidity. Changes in resource availability were measured from filter-sterilised medium by re-introducing the consumer species and recording short-term growth rates. The type of environmental variation had no effect on resource availability, which declined slowly during the experiment and differed in level between the communities. However, the slowly fluctuating environment had the highest Shannon diversity index, biomass, and coefficient of variation of biomass in both communities. We did not find a clear link between the gleaner-opportunist trade-off and diversity in fluctuating environments. Nevertheless, our results do not exclude this explanation and support the general view that temporal environmental variation maintains species diversity also in communities feeding chemically complex resource.

  10. 30 CFR 285.602 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What records must I maintain? 285.602 Section 285.602 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and...

  11. 30 CFR 886.22 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What records must I maintain? 886.22 Section 886.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... indirect costs of the reclamation program for which you received the grant....

  12. 30 CFR 886.22 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What records must I maintain? 886.22 Section 886.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... indirect costs of the reclamation program for which you received the grant....

  13. Device induces lungs to maintain known constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippitt, M. W.; Reed, J. H.

    1964-01-01

    This device requires the use of thoracic muscles to maintain prescribed air pressure in the lungs for brief periods. It consists of a clear plastic hollow cylinder fitted with a mouthpiece, a spring-loaded piston, and a small vent for escaping air when exhalation into the mouthpiece displaces the piston.

  14. Maintaining Excellence While Managing Transitions: Norman S. Weir Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Christine L.; Baskerville, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    In a national education climate where change is the only constant, Norman S. Weir Elementary School has maintained and expanded the reform efforts that have resulted in striking academic achievement and improved school climate. Despite changes in administration and staffing, a highly professional and committed staff has continued the…

  15. 19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Failure to maintain performance standards. 143.6 Section 143.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.6 Failure...

  16. 19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to maintain performance standards. 143.6 Section 143.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.6 Failure...

  17. 19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to maintain performance standards. 143.6 Section 143.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.6 Failure...

  18. 19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Failure to maintain performance standards. 143.6 Section 143.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.6 Failure...

  19. 19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Failure to maintain performance standards. 143.6 Section 143.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.6 Failure...

  20. Maintaining Equivalent Cut Scores for Small Sample Test Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three approaches for maintaining equivalent performance standards across test forms with small samples: (1) common-item equating, (2) resetting the standard, and (3) rescaling the standard. Rescaling the standard (i.e., applying common-item equating methodology to standard setting ratings to account for…

  1. 2 CFR 180.40 - How are these guidelines maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are these guidelines maintained? 180.40 Section 180.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  2. 36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How must agencies maintain records? 1222.34 Section 1222.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping...

  3. 36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must agencies maintain records? 1222.34 Section 1222.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping...

  4. 36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must agencies maintain records? 1222.34 Section 1222.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping...

  5. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

  6. Maintaining the Landscape. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on maintaining the landscape is one of five developed for classroom use in teaching the landscape/nursery area of horticulture. The five sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline steps and factors for consideration. Topics covered include…

  7. Photosensors used to maintain welding electrode-to-joint alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, J. B.

    1965-01-01

    Photosensors maintain electrode-to-joint alignment in automatic precision arc welding. They detect the presence and relative position of a joint to be welded and actuate a servomechanism to guide the welding head accordingly thus permitting alignment for more than straight line or true circle joints.

  8. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The guide allows users to adapt and implement suggested O&M (operating and maintaining) strategies to address specific energy efficiency goals. It recognizes and expands on existing tools and resources that are widely used throughout the high-performance school industry. The guide is organized into the following sections: (1) Chapter 1:…

  9. 37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA DISCHARGE IN THE COTTRELL ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS. THE SYSTEM WAS CAPABLE OF PROVIDING 88,000 VOLTS TO THE ELECTRODES WITHIN THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER THE UNIT WAS LOCATED TO THE REAR OF BOILER 904 IN AN ENCLOSED ROOM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  10. Motivational Influences on Performance Maintained by Food Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Stephen T.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch…

  11. Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawali, Ajay R.

    2012-01-01

    Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

  12. Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (...

  13. Assessment and Treatment of Elopement Maintained by Access to Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Roane, Henry S.; Feeney, Brian J.; Stephenson, Kasey M.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a treatment for elopement maintained by access to stereotypic door play. First, we conducted a functional analysis of elopement that produced undifferentiated results. Next, we conducted an assessment in which we evaluated the relation between elopement and door play. Results suggested a functional relation between the 2 behaviors…

  14. Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab Collection, XBD200503-00117-176). March 2005. CENTRAL COLUMN SUPPORT TO ROOF SHOWING CRANES CENTER SUPPORT TRACK, BEVATRON - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  15. Method of maintaining activity of hydrogen-sensing platinum electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, J. N., III

    1968-01-01

    Three-electrode hydrogen sensor containing a platinum electrode maintained in a highly catalytic state, operates with a minimal response time and maximal sensitivity to the hydrogen gas being sensed. Electronic control and readout circuitry reactivates the working electrode of the sensor to a state of maximal catalytic activity.

  16. Once Attained, Can Quality Child Care Be Maintained?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Mary A.; Kim, YaeBin; Riley, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Research Findings: This study was designed to assess whether investments in child care quality were maintained 3 years after public funding for these centers was significantly reduced. An earlier evaluation documented significant improvements in classroom environments, teachers' sensitivity, and teachers' child-centered beliefs following a…

  17. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... imported automobile from a domestic dealer would not be required to maintain records, a transit authority...) Recordkeeping required for certain exporters—(1) NAFTA. Any person who exports goods to Canada or Mexico for... Certification Scheme. Any U.S. person (see definition in § 12.152(b)(5)) who exports from the United States...

  18. Nuclear policy impacts at the national laboratories: maintaining the deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, James Bradley

    2010-08-24

    In this presentation, the author will discuss recent nuclear policy impacts, including the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review, and the impacts they have on maintaining the nuclear deterrent. Specifically, he will highlight some of the remaining questions and challenges that remain to the nation and to the national laboratories. (auth)

  19. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  20. Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge of Spent Fuel Pools: Tool Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Smartt, Heidi A.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; MacDougall, Matthew R.

    2016-08-30

    This report examines supplemental tools that can be used in addition to optical surveillance cameras to maintain CoK in low-to-no light conditions, and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of spent fuel CoK, including item counting and ID verification, in challenging conditions.

  1. Establishing and Maintaining Boundaries in Teacher-Student Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein-Yamashiro, Beth; Noam, Gil G.

    2013-01-01

    Because schools rarely provide guidelines for teachers that outline how they should conduct personal relationships with students, teachers must wrestle individually with how to establish, communicate, and maintain clear boundaries in their interactions. As schools work to become more personal environments, school administrators will need to help…

  2. Maintaining Confidentiality with Minors: Dilemmas of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazovsky, Rivka

    2008-01-01

    This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethical dilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethical dilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…

  3. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emergency or industrial mobilization; (3) Be in the interest of national defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure...

  4. Maintaining or Disrupting Inequality: Diversity Statements in the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkl, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to identify whether university Diversity Statements aid in maintaining or disrupting inequality in the university. Using critical discourse analysis, I analyzed an initial sample of eleven Diversity Statements to develop a list of common themes found within the diversity statements. Using a maximum variation method, I…

  5. Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

    Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

  6. Teaching Clinical Social Work under Occupation: Listening to the Voices of Palestinian Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaliari, Efrosini; Berzoff, Joan; Byers, David S.; Fareed, Anan; Berzoff-Cohen, Jake; Hreish, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    The authors were invited to teach clinical social work in the Palestinian West Bank. In order to teach, we designed a study exploring how 65 Palestinian social work students described the psychological and social effects of working under occupation. Students described social stressors of poverty, unemployment, lack of infrastructure, violence,…

  7. Narcissism and birth order.

    PubMed

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  8. Employment Social Skills: What Skills Are Really Valued?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Hughes, Carolyn; Thoma, Colleen A.; Scott, LaRon A.

    2016-01-01

    Although social skills have long been recognized as essential in promoting employees' employability (e.g., maintaining employment), there has been little research about work-related social skills for the last two decades. A systematic replication of Salzberg, Agran, and Lignugaris/Kraft's investigation of critical social skills was conducted.…

  9. Perceptions of Human Services Students about Social Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberg, Judith T.

    2010-01-01

    Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…

  10. Hard Biscuits: Motivation to Learn in Secondary School Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that much of the high school curriculum, particularly in social studies, contains innumerable facts that have no use except to pass school tests. Reviews research on effective instruction as applied to social studies. Includes 17 characteristics of highly engaging social studies teaching and learning. (ACM)

  11. Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children: Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.; Young, Brennan J.

    2006-01-01

    Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C) is a comprehensive behavioral treatment combining social skills training, peer generalization experiences, and individualized in vivo exposure for the treatment of social phobia in youth. SET-C results in positive treatment outcome and its effects are maintained at least 3 years later. In this…

  12. Fertilization test performance using Arbacia punctulata maintained in static culture

    SciTech Connect

    Serbst, J.R.; Wright, L.; Sheehan, C.V.; Fitzpatrick, K.

    1995-12-31

    The sea urchin fertilization test using the Atlantic urchin, Arbacia punctulata, is widely utilized in evaluating toxicity of receiving waters and effluents as part of the NPDES program. While this species is easily maintained in uncontaminated, flow-through seawater systems, laboratories without access to flowing seawater either obtain new urchins for each test or maintain populations in static cultures. This study was conducted to assess test success and reproducibility of fertilization tests conducted using urchins maintained in separate-sex, static, temperature-controlled aquaria containing filtered natural seawater. Test performance was evaluated by periodically conducting the standard sea urchin fertilization test (EPA 600/4-87-028) using a common reference toxicant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) Thirteen tests were conducted between September 1993 and May 1994 using one population of urchins, and five tests were conducted between June and December 1994 with a second population of urchins. Test success was 100% (control fertilization > 50%) with a control fertilization mean of 96.4% (S.D. = 3.3). There were no differences between mean EC{sub 50} values calculated for each set of tests (p < 0.05). The running mean value for toxicity was 7.1 mg/L (S.D. = 1.26) for 18 tests, with a CV of 17.7%, comparing favorably with values generated using urchins maintained in flowing seawater. The running mean value for toxicity in these tests was 2.4 mg/L (S.D. = 0.9) for 18 tests conducted between November 1987 and July 1989 (ASTM STP 1124). Data from all urchin tests were used to construct a control chart defining normal ranges for SDS toxicity. This study demonstrated that fertile, adult sea urchins can produce consistent toxicity responses with low variability while being maintained in static, temperature regulated culture facilities.

  13. Mechanical properties of different types of space maintainers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldiman, M.-A.; Mârţu, I.; Leiţoiu, B.; Luchian, I.; Lupescu, O.; Bârcă, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    Currently, inside the oral cavity, the dental space maintainers are subjected to forces exerted on them when performing various functions; therefore, it is important to know how each of these mechanisms behave and respond to forces that are applied directly to them. The mechanical properties of the materials used in dentistry are defined by a set of characteristics representing the behaviour of their particular working conditions and it is qualitatively expressed by a number of parameters.The study aimed to determine the pressing force that can be taken by four 4 types of space maintainers frequently used in practice - fixed and removable, applied on four samples realized with human teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Static tests were carried out on a machine type short WDW-5 EC with a maximum force of 5 kN and a loading speed of 5 mm/min by a special testing machine, with an innovative appliance; data recording was automatically performed, using a computer with a special program that present the specific diagrams. Experimental determinations included the following aspects: to determine the maximum force that can be supported by each sample, and to observe the deformations. The values obtained indicate that the best option in terms of behavior under the conditions specified is the removable appliance, and the less functional version is the fixed space maintainer using brackets. According to tests conducted, the fracture strength was found to be more important for fixed space maintainers (band and loop, for example) so, in practice is using more frequent these types of space maintainers.

  14. Dicer maintains the identity and function of proprioceptive sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Sean M; Ferrer, Monica M; Mekonnen, Jennifer; Zhang, Haihan; Shima, Yasuyuki; Ladle, David R; Nelson, Sacha B

    2017-03-01

    Neuronal cell identity is established during development and must be maintained throughout an animal's life (Fishell G, Heintz N. Neuron 80: 602-612, 2013). Transcription factors critical for establishing neuronal identity can be required for maintaining it (Deneris ES, Hobert O. Nat Neurosci 17: 899-907, 2014). Posttranscriptional regulation also plays an important role in neuronal differentiation (Bian S, Sun T. Mol Neurobiol 44: 359-373, 2011), but its role in maintaining cell identity is less established. To better understand how posttranscriptional regulation might contribute to cell identity, we examined the proprioceptive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), a highly specialized sensory neuron class, with well-established properties that distinguish them from other neurons in the ganglion. By conditionally ablating Dicer in mice, using parvalbumin (Pvalb)-driven Cre recombinase, we impaired posttranscriptional regulation in the proprioceptive sensory neuron population. Knockout (KO) animals display a progressive form of ataxia at the beginning of the fourth postnatal week that is accompanied by a cell death within the DRG. Before cell loss, expression profiling shows a reduction of proprioceptor specific genes and an increased expression of nonproprioceptive genes normally enriched in other ganglion neurons. Furthermore, although central connections of these neurons are intact, the peripheral connections to the muscle are functionally impaired. Posttranscriptional regulation is therefore necessary to retain the transcriptional identity and support functional specialization of the proprioceptive sensory neurons.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have demonstrated that selectively impairing Dicer in parvalbumin-positive neurons, which include the proprioceptors, triggers behavioral changes, a lack of muscle connectivity, and a loss of transcriptional identity as observed through RNA sequencing. These results suggest that Dicer and, most likely by extension, micro

  15. Asymmetric Dispersal Can Maintain Larval Polymorphism: A Model Motivated by Streblospio benedicti

    PubMed Central

    Zakas, Christina; Hall, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphism in traits affecting dispersal occurs in a diverse variety of taxa. Typically, the maintenance of a dispersal polymorphism is attributed to environmental heterogeneity where parental bet-hedging can be favored. There are, however, examples of dispersal polymorphisms that occur across similar environments. For example, the estuarine polychaete Streblospio benedicti has a highly heritable offspring dimorphism that affects larval dispersal potential. We use analytical models of dispersal to determine the conditions necessary for a stable dispersal polymorphism to exist. We show that in asexual haploids, sexual haploids, and in sexual diploids in the absence of overdominance, asymmetric dispersal is required in order to maintain a dispersal polymorphism when patches do not vary in intrinsic quality. Our study adds an additional factor, dispersal asymmetry, to the short list of mechanisms that can maintain polymorphism in nature. The region of the parameter space in which polymorphism is possible is limited, suggesting why dispersal polymorphisms within species are rare. PMID:22576818

  16. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  17. Student Perceptions of Social Presence and Attitudes toward Social Media: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leafman, Joan S.; Mathieson, Kathleen M.; Ewing, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Establishing and maintaining social presence in an online environment that depends on a learning management system (LMS) can be challenging. While students believe social presence to be important, LMS platforms have yet to discover a way to deliver this expectation. The growth of social media tools presents opportunities outside an LMS to foster…

  18. What's social about social learning?

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    Research on social learning in animals has revealed a rich variety of cases where animals--from caddis fly larvae to chimpanzees--acquire biologically important information by observing the actions of others. A great deal is known about the adaptive functions of social learning, but very little about the cognitive mechanisms that make it possible. Even in the case of imitation, a type of social learning studied in both comparative psychology and cognitive science, there has been minimal contact between the two disciplines. Social learning has been isolated from cognitive science by two longstanding assumptions: that it depends on a set of special-purpose modules--cognitive adaptations for social living; and that these learning mechanisms are largely distinct from the processes mediating human social cognition. Recent research challenges these assumptions by showing that social learning covaries with asocial learning; occurs in solitary animals; and exhibits the same features in diverse species, including humans. Drawing on this evidence, I argue that social and asocial learning depend on the same basic learning mechanisms; these are adapted for the detection of predictive relationships in all natural domains; and they are associative mechanisms--processes that encode information for long-term storage by forging excitatory and inhibitory links between event representations. Thus, human and nonhuman social learning are continuous, and social learning is adaptively specialized--it becomes distinctively "social"--only when input mechanisms (perceptual, attentional, and motivational processes) are phylogenetically or ontogenetically tuned to other agents.

  19. Alzheimer's disease and language impairments: social intervention and medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Klimova, Blanka; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Hort, Jakub; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Communication is very important for people to be successfully integrated into social environment and make and maintain relationship. Particularly, language difficulties lead to social exclusion of the people affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contribute to a significant decrease in the quality of their life and also have a big impact on their family members who in most cases become their caregivers who need to communicate with their loved ones in order to meet their needs. Therefore, the goal of this study is to describe language impairments in the individual phases of AD and discuss their improvement with respect to AD on the basis of literature review. The authors of this article use traditional research methods in order to achieve the goal set mentioned earlier. First, a method of literature review of available sources describing language impairments in the individual phases of AD is exploited. Second, to show how informal caregivers and relevant drugs can successfully intervene in the improvement of these language impairments, a method of comparison of different research studies exploring such social intervention and medical treatment is used.

  20. Private personalized social recommendations in an IPTV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmisery, Ahmed M.

    2014-04-01

    In our connected world, recommender systems have become widely known for their ability to provide expert and personalize referrals to end-users in different domains. The rapid growth of social networks and new kinds of systems so called "social recommender systems" are rising, where recommender systems can be utilized to find a suitable content according to end-users' personal preferences. However, preserving end-users' privacy in social recommender systems is a very challenging problem that might prevent end-users from releasing their own data, which detains the accuracy of extracted referrals. In order to gain accurate referrals, social recommender systems should have the ability to preserve the privacy of end-users registered in this system. In this paper, we present a middleware that runs on end-users' Set-top boxes to conceal their profile data when released for generating referrals, such that computation of recommendation proceeds over the concealed data. The proposed middleware is equipped with two concealment protocols to give users a complete control on the privacy level of their profiles. We present an IPTV network scenario and perform a number of different experiments to test the efficiency and accuracy of our protocols. As supported by the experiments, our protocols maintain the recommendations accuracy with acceptable privacy level.

  1. Stigmatised Choices: Social Class, Social Exclusion and Secondary School Markets in the Inner City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane; Lucey, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The transition to secondary school is rarely conceptualised as an important influence in maintaining and contributing to wider processes of social exclusion in the inner city. This article argues that the seeds of social exclusion are sown in under-resourced, struggling inner-city schooling, and their germination is found in class practices,…

  2. 31 CFR 501.733 - Evidence: confidential information, protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... introduced as evidence; or any witness who testifies at a hearing may file a motion requesting a protective... introduced in a public hearing are presumed to be public. A motion for a protective order shall be granted... documents shall be maintained under seal and shall be disclosed only in accordance with orders of...

  3. ASDC Order Tools

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-04-17

    ... users to search our data holdings without logging in to the system. The user, however, must log in before ordering the data. ... Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor II (ACRIM II) Total Solar Irradiance Data Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) data (Selected ...

  4. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  5. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status

    PubMed Central

    Isbel, Stephen T.; Berry, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver’s license. PMID:27505020

  6. Social Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Much of the most timely and valuable data will be found in social media applications such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, YouTube, and various blogs...variety of challenges. Further, these prototypes can address the challenges of using social media and other data to support timely understanding and...effective dialogue, provide warning, demonstrate the effectiveness of social media proxy polling as a potential substitute for traditional polling

  7. Polarization maintaining linear cavity Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Heesuk; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Kim, Seungman; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    We present a polarization-maintaining (PM) type of Er-doped fiber linear oscillator designed to produce femtosecond laser pulses with high operational stability. Mode locking is activated using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) attached to one end of the linear PM oscillator. To avoid heat damage, the SESAM is mounted on a copper-silicon-layered heat sink and connected to the linear oscillator through a fiber buffer dissipating the residual pump power. A long-term stability test is performed to prove that the proposed oscillator design maintains a soliton-mode single-pulse operation without breakdown of mode locking over a week period. With addition of an Er-doped fiber amplifier, the output power is raised to 180 mW with 60 fs pulse duration, from which an octave-spanning supercontinuum is produced.

  8. Care and management of a stoma: maintaining peristomal skin health.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Anna; Hunt, Sharon

    2016-09-22

    It is estimated that around one in 500 people in the UK are living with a stoma, with approximately 21 000 operations that result in stoma formation being performed each year ( Colostomy Association, 2016 ). These people face a unique set of challenges in maintaining the integrity of their peristomal skin. This article explores the normal structure and function of skin and how the care and management of a stoma presents challenges for maintaining peristomal skin health. Particular focus is paid to the incidence of skin problems for those living with a stoma, whether it is temporary or permanent, and the factors that contribute to skin breakdown in this population. Wider factors such as the central role of the clinical nurse specialist and the impact of product usage on positive outcomes and health economics are also considered.

  9. Maintaining network security: how macromolecular structures cross the peptidoglycan layer.

    PubMed

    Scheurwater, Edie M; Burrows, Lori L

    2011-05-01

    Peptidoglycan plays a vital role in bacterial physiology, maintaining cell shape and resisting cellular lysis from high internal turgor pressures. Its integrity is carefully maintained by controlled remodeling during growth and division by the coordinated activities of penicillin-binding proteins, lytic transglycosylases, and N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidases. However, its small pore size (∼2 nm) and covalently closed structure make it a formidable barrier to the assembly of large macromolecular cell-envelope-spanning complexes involved in motility and secretion. Here, we review the strategies used by Gram-negative bacteria to assemble such macromolecular complexes across the peptidoglycan layer, while preserving its essential structural role. In addition, we discuss evidence that suggests that peptidoglycan can be integrated into cell-envelope-spanning complexes as a structural and functional extension of their architecture.

  10. Motility and peristaltic flow in maintaining microbiome populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirbagheri, Seyed Amir; Fu, Henry C.

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria are an important component of the microbiome in the digestive tract, and must be able to maintain their population despite the fact that the contents of the intestines are constantly flowing towards evacuation. Many bacteria accomplish this by colonizing the surfaces of the intestines where flows diminish, but some species live in the lumen. We attempt to address whether swimming motility of these species plays an important role in maintaining bacterial population in the face of peristaltic pumping out of the intestine. Using a two-dimensional model of peristaltic flows induced by small-amplitude traveling waves we examine the Lagrangian trajectories of passive bacteria as well as motile bacteria, which are treated as Brownian particles undergoing enhanced diffusion due to the bacteria's run-and-tumble motility. We examine how the densities of growing populations of bacteria depend on the combination of motility and peristaltic flow.

  11. Using GPS and VLBI technology to maintain 14 digit synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    To facilitate the navigation of spacecraft to the outer planets, Jupiter and beyond, the JPL-NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has implemented three ensembles of atomic clocks at widely separated locations. These clocks must be maintained, synchronized, to with a few parts in 10 to the 13th power of each other and, the entire group must be maintained, to a lesser degree, in synchronism with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)NBS/USNO. Over the last 1 1/2 years the DSN has been using Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technology to perform these critical Frequency and Time (F&T) synchronization tasks. A year of F&T synchronization data collected from the intercomparison of 3 sets of cesium and hydrogen maser driven clock ensembles through the use of GPS and VLBI techniques are covered. Also covered, are some of the problems met and limitations of these two techniques at their present level of technology.

  12. An intervention to help older adults maintain independence safely.

    PubMed

    Ganong, Lawrence H; Coleman, Marilyn; Benson, Jacquelyn J; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A; Stowe, James D; Porter, Eileen J

    2013-05-01

    Older adults who live alone are at risk for problems (e.g., falling, sudden illness). To maintain themselves safely at home they may benefit from planning to prevent problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to train family members or friends as to how to help older adults who were living alone make plans to maintain independence safely in their homes and to make behavioral and household changes to enhance safety. Support network members of 19 older adults randomly assigned to the intervention group were taught to use multiple segment vignettes to assist the older adults in creating plans for living safely. Older adults in the control group (n = 21) were asked to engage in an unstructured discussion about home safety with their network members. Older adults in the intervention group developed safer plans and made more household and behavioral changes than did control group adults.

  13. Compact, maintainable 80-KeV neutral beam module

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H.; Molvik, Arthur W.

    1980-01-01

    A compact, maintainable 80-keV arc chamber, extractor module for a neutral beam system immersed in a vacuum of <10.sup.-2 Torr, incorporating a nested 60-keV gradient shield located midway between the high voltage ion source and surrounding grounded frame. The shield reduces breakdown or arcing path length without increasing the voltage gradient, tends to keep electric fields normal to conducting surfaces rather than skewed and reduces the peak electric field around irregularities on the 80-keV electrodes. The arc chamber or ion source is mounted separately from the extractor or ion accelerator to reduce misalignment of the accelerator and to permit separate maintenance to be performed on these systems. The separate mounting of the ion source provides for maintaining same without removing the ion accelerator.

  14. Parthenogenesis maintains male sterility in a gynodioecious orchid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuang-Quan; Lu, Yang; Chen, Ying-Zhuo; Luo, Yi-Bo; Delph, Lynda F

    2009-10-01

    The invasion of male-sterile (female) individuals into hermaphroditic populations, leading to gynodioecy, is common in flowering plants. Both theoretical and empirical studies have shown that as the frequency of females increases in a population, pollen limitation reduces seed production more in females than in hermaphrodites, leading to higher fitness for hermaphrodites and a consequent decrease in female frequency. Here we show that contrary to this expectation, females of the gynodioecious orchid Satyrium ciliatum are maintained only in populations that experience high pollen limitation caused by low pollinator service and high pollen herbivory. This species avoids the typical problem of pollen limitation for seed production and can therefore maintain high frequencies of females in pollen-limited populations because females produce more seeds than hermaphrodites via facultative parthenogenesis in the absence of pollinia. Our results therefore demonstrate that parthenogenesis is a novel mechanism favoring the maintenance of gynodioecy.

  15. 26 CFR 1.170A-2 - Amounts paid to maintain certain students as members of the taxpayer's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a member of his household during 1971 in order that the child may attend the local grammar school as... student at the local grammar school for 9 full calendar months during the year. Under the agreement, the... maintained by the taxpayer. The children enrolled at the local high school for the full course of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.170A-2 - Amounts paid to maintain certain students as members of the taxpayer's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a member of his household during 1971 in order that the child may attend the local grammar school as... student at the local grammar school for 9 full calendar months during the year. Under the agreement, the... maintained by the taxpayer. The children enrolled at the local high school for the full course of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.170A-2 - Amounts paid to maintain certain students as members of the taxpayer's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a member of his household during 1971 in order that the child may attend the local grammar school as... student at the local grammar school for 9 full calendar months during the year. Under the agreement, the... maintained by the taxpayer. The children enrolled at the local high school for the full course of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.170A-2 - Amounts paid to maintain certain students as members of the taxpayer's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a member of his household during 1971 in order that the child may attend the local grammar school as... student at the local grammar school for 9 full calendar months during the year. Under the agreement, the... maintained by the taxpayer. The children enrolled at the local high school for the full course of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.170A-2 - Amounts paid to maintain certain students as members of the taxpayer's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a member of his household during 1971 in order that the child may attend the local grammar school as... student at the local grammar school for 9 full calendar months during the year. Under the agreement, the... maintained by the taxpayer. The children enrolled at the local high school for the full course of...

  20. 25 CFR 10.2 - Who is responsible for developing and maintaining the policies and standards for detention and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is responsible for developing and maintaining the policies and standards for detention and holding facilities in Indian country? 10.2 Section 10.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION...

  1. Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Design Practices Guide. Volume 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    5-11 Reliability Prediction of Mechanical and Structural 2-5-12 Systems Applications of Helicopter Mockups to Maintainability and 2-5-13 Other...Equations APRDCT -Apportionment/ Prediction 4-1-11 Exact Minimal Path and Minimal Cut Techniques for 4-1-12a Determining System Reliability Reliability ...3-0 Cost Optimizing System to Evaluate Reliability (COSTER) 4-3-la Operating and Support Cost Model 4-3-2 The Avionics Laboratory Predictive

  2. Memory T cells maintain protracted protection against malaria.

    PubMed

    Krzych, Urszula; Zarling, Stasya; Pichugin, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Immunologic memory is one of the cardinal features of antigen-specific immune responses, and the persistence of memory cells contributes to prophylactic immunizations against infectious agents. Adequately maintained memory T and B cell pools assure a fast, effective and specific response against re-infections. However, many aspects of immunologic memory are still poorly understood, particularly immunologic memory inducible by parasites, for example, Plasmodium spp., the causative agents of malaria. For example, memory responses to Plasmodium antigens amongst residents of malaria endemic areas appear to be either inadequately developed or maintained, because persons who survive episodes of childhood malaria remain vulnerable to intermittent malaria infections. By contrast, multiple exposures of humans and laboratory rodents to radiation-attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites (γ-spz) induce sterile and long-lasting protection against experimental sporozoite challenge. Multifactorial immune mechanisms maintain this protracted and sterile protection. While the presence of memory CD4 T cell subsets has been associated with lasting protection in humans exposed to multiple bites from Anopheles mosquitoes infected with attenuated Plasmodium falciparum, memory CD8 T cells maintain protection induced with Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei γ-spz in murine models. In this review, we discuss our observations that show memory CD8 T cells specific for antigens expressed by P. berghei liver stage parasites as an indispensable component for the maintenance of protracted protective immunity against experimental malaria infection; moreover, the provision of an Ag-depot assures a quick recall of memory T cells as IFN-γ-producing effector CD8 T cells and IL-4- producing CD4 T cells that collaborate with B cells for an effective antibody response.

  3. Designing for Supportability: Driving Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability In...

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    the initial operational test and evaluation ( IOT &E) process, and assessed against defined criteria. As illustrated in Figure 1, total ownership costs...Affordability Supportability Design Reviews, Tests and Evaluation ASR PDR CDR IOT &E Figure 2. Reliability, Availability, Maintainability —Life...Expended Cost Committed Concept & Engineering & Prod & Operations & Tech Dev Manufacturing Depl’mnt FRP Support Dev Decision OT&E Review A B C

  4. Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    of Helicases and Deaminases PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: XiaoJiang Chen CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0391 5c... deaminases . We will focus on AID and APOBEC3G to obtain purified deaminase proteins for the in vitro biochemical, functional, and structural

  5. Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    W81XWH-05-1-0391 TITLE: Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xiaojiang Chen...Helicases and Deaminases 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0391 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Xiaojiang Chen 5e...crystallize the proteins of deaminases . We will focus on AID and APOBEC3G to obtain purified deaminase proteins for the in vitro biochemical

  6. Maintaining compassion and preventing compassion fatigue: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Baverstock, Anna Charlotte; Finlay, Fiona Olwen

    2016-08-01

    Compassion is innate in us as human beings. Compassion can be defined as a deep awareness of the suffering of another individual, coupled with the wish to relieve it. It has been increasingly topical, recently, in situations where an apparent breathtaking absence of compassion has allowed great harm to come to patients. So, how do we sustain compassion and prevent this loss? Central to our ability to maintain compassion is how we look after ourselves and those in our teams.

  7. Neural correlates of maintaining generated images in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Ewerdwalbesloh, Julia A; Palva, Satu; Rösler, Frank; Khader, Patrick H

    2016-12-01

    How are images that have been assembled from their constituting elements maintained as a coherent representation in visual working memory (vWM)? Here, we compared two conditions of vWM maintenance that only differed in how vWM contents had been created. Participants maintained images that they either had to assemble from single features or that they had perceived as complete objects. Object complexity varied between two and four features. We analyzed electroencephalogram phase coupling as a measure of cortical connectivity in a time interval immediately before a probe stimulus appeared. We assumed that during this time both groups maintained essentially the same images, but that images constructed from their elements would require more neural coupling than images based on a complete percept. Increased coupling between frontal and parietal-to-occipital cortical sources was found for the maintenance of constructed in comparison to nonconstructed objects in the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. A similar pattern was found for an increase in vWM load (2 vs. 4 features) for nonconstructed objects. Under increased construction load (2 vs. 4 features for constructed images), the pattern was restricted to fronto-parietal couplings, suggesting that the fronto-parietal attention network is coping with the higher attentional demands involved in maintaining constructed images, but without increasing the communication with the occipital visual buffer in which the visual representations are assumed to be stored. We conclude from these findings that the maintenance of constructed images in vWM requires additional attentional processes to keep object elements together as a coherent representation. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4349-4362, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. RAMCAD (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability in Computer-Aided Design)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    documents the Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability in Computer-Aided Design (RAMCAD) Software Development Program which was started in July 1986 ...by General Dynamics Convair Division under a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA 86-16-PMRS). This PRDA was issued on May 15, 1986 ...PRDA 86-16-PMRS) was issued on May 15, 1986 , by the Air Force Human Resources ..aboratory (AFHRL, changed to Armstrong Laboratory, Human Resources

  9. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  10. Developing and Maintaining Critical Skills in the Acquisition Workforce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Ofc of Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics ,Human...Capital Initiatives,3010 Defense Pentagon,Washington, DC ,20301-3010 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...and Maintaining Critical Skills in the Acquisition Workforce Chair: Rene’ Thomas-Rizzo, Director Human Capital Initiatives, Office of the Under

  11. Maintaining plethodontid salamanders in the laboratory for regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Claudia Marcela; Gómez-Molina, Andrea; Delgado, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Limb regeneration studies have been extensively carried out in species of Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae families. So far limited research has been conducted in species belonging to the Plethodontidae family, where some of the species differs from other salamander families due to their direct development, thus absence of a larval life. Here, we describe a protocol to maintain the plethodontid salamanders of genus Bolitoglossa species under laboratory conditions to perform regeneration studies.

  12. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  13. Method and apparatus for maintaining thermal control in plasma conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for determining the effects of exposure of oxygen plasma on a thin film polymer whose bulk is maintained at a predetermined temperature. The apparatus includes a chamber having a specimen therein. A plasma environment is provided in the chamber. A closure member is provided for sealing the chamber after the specimen is introduced into the chamber. The closure member also serves as a support for the test apparatus which includes a cooling coil. A platform having the test specimen thereon is supported on the cooling coil to be cooled by coolant flowing through the cooling coils. A thermoelectric module is supported on the platform to assist in maintaining a low test temperature for the test samples. The temperature of the sample is monitored by a thermocouple probe which is in contact with the sample. Any change in bulk sample temperature caused by the thermocouple probe is quickly adjusted to maintain the initial bulk temperature by the thermoelectric module.

  14. Maintained memory in aging is associated with young epigenetic age.

    PubMed

    Degerman, Sofie; Josefsson, Maria; Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie; Wennstedt, Sigrid; Landfors, Mattias; Haider, Zahra; Pudas, Sara; Hultdin, Magnus; Nyberg, Lars; Adolfsson, Rolf

    2017-02-20

    Epigenetic alterations during aging have been proposed to contribute to decline in physical and cognitive functions, and accelerated epigenetic aging has been associated with disease and all-cause mortality later in life. In this study, we estimated epigenetic age dynamics in groups with different memory trajectories (maintained high performance, average decline, and accelerated decline) over a 15-year period. Epigenetic (DNA-methylation [DNAm]) age was assessed, and delta age (DNAm age - chronological age) was calculated in blood samples at baseline (age: 55-65 years) and 15 years later in 52 age- and gender-matched individuals from the Betula study in Sweden. A lower delta DNAm age was observed for those with maintained memory functions compared with those with average (p = 0.035) or accelerated decline (p = 0.037). Moreover, separate analyses revealed that DNAm age at follow-up, but not chronologic age, was a significant predictor of dementia (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest that young epigenetic age contributes to maintained memory in aging.

  15. Effect of the electrode distance on the characteristics of a pulsed non-self-maintained discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboiko, A. I.; Napartovich, A. P.; Naumov, V. G.; Taran, M. D.; Shachkin, L. V.

    1987-05-01

    During a study (Golovin et al., 1986) of the characteristics of a non-self-maintained discharge in the active media of CO2 lasers and in nitrogen, it has been found that the characteristic instability development time increases as the electrode distance is increased from 1 to 10 cm. Here, similar experiments and numerical calculations are carried out in a different range of parameters in order to understand the factors responsible for the above result. It is shown that the experimentally observed nonmonotonic dependence of the characteristic instability development time on the electrode distance can be explained by a change in the localization of the instability source with increasing electrode distance.

  16. Vestibular feedback maintains reaching accuracy during body movement

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Reaching movements can be perturbed by vestibular input, but the function of this response is unclear.Here, we applied galvanic vestibular stimulation concurrently with real body movement while subjects maintained arm position either fixed in space or fixed with respect to their body.During the fixed‐in‐space conditions, galvanic vestibular stimulation caused large changes in arm trajectory consistent with a compensatory response to maintain upper‐limb accuracy in the face of body movement.Galvanic vestibular stimulation responses were absent during the body‐fixed task, demonstrating task dependency in vestibular control of the upper limb.The results suggest that the function of vestibular‐evoked arm movements is to maintain the accuracy of the upper limb during unpredictable body movement, but only when reaching in an earth‐fixed reference frame. Abstract When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism that could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should operate only when the arm is being controlled in an earth‐fixed rather than a body‐fixed reference frame. In the latter case, compensation would be unnecessary and even deleterious. To test this hypothesis, subjects were gently rotated in a chair while being asked to maintain their outstretched arm pointing towards either earth‐fixed or body‐fixed memorized targets. Galvanic vestibular stimulation was applied concurrently during rotation to isolate the influence of vestibular input, uncontaminated by inertial factors. During the earth‐fixed task, galvanic vestibular stimulation produced large polarity‐dependent corrections in arm

  17. #SocialMedia for the Academic Plastic Surgeon—Elevating the Brand

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Laura S.; Curl, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The link between social media and surgery has been under increasingly popular discussion. This article discusses the potential role of social media in creating and maintaining the brand of an academic plastic surgeon. PMID:27104098

  18. Perspectives: Technology as Content in Social Studies Curricula for Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooler, Dennis D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that elementary social studies teachers who wish to engage students in the social studies must see educational technology as both instructional tools and as content. Concludes that technological literacy will become as important as science or civic literacy. (ACM)

  19. Arguments from Developmental Order

    PubMed Central

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  20. Methods for Influencing Social Policy: The Role of Social Experiments.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Marybeth

    2016-12-01

    Research methods in community psychology have grown more diverse since the Swampscott conference, but rigorous social experiments maintain a place among the multiplicity of methods that can promote community psychology values. They are particularly influential in policy circles. Two examples of social experiments to end homelessness for different populations illustrate their role. Both studies show that offering extremely poor and disenfranchised people autonomy and the resources they seek works better than "helping" them to overcome deficits in ways designed by well-meaning service providers. Experiments are neither the first nor the last method community psychologists should employ, but are a critical part of the field's armamentarium for systems change.

  1. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    recent literature has highlighted that difficulties with employment are a feature of mental disorders, with high unemployment rates and short job tenure. Yet, success in employment for this population can be expected when they are provided with adequate support and opportunities. B-type social cooperatives in Italy are found to be very useful in order to help this disadvantaged category of workers find and keep a job. The work environment is more flexible and allows a better integration with less stigma and better work accommodations compared to the open labour market and/or other public/private organizations. Results from B-type Italian social cooperatives studies show that mentally ill workers value the importance of working, are highly satisfied with their job, are motivated to continue working, are engaged in their job and willing to work in the competitive labour market. Also, studies show that environmental characteristics of the social cooperative, such as the implementation of work accommodations and the possibility to work in an environment that is highly supportive, have an impact on increasing the likelihood of being highly satisfied with the job, which in turn is positively related to job tenure. In sum, this article shed light on the historical background that led to the development of social cooperatives in Italy. Furthermore, the features of B-type co-ops that play a central role in facilitating the work integration of people with mental disorders are described in this paper. In general, Italian B-type social cooperatives are found to provide a meaningful work experience to people with mental disorders, that help them increase not only vocational outcomes, but also psycho-social outcomes, and generally to help them better integrate into society.

  2. Facebook: Maintaining Ethical Practice in the Cyberspace Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birky, Ian; Collins, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Current technology provides counseling center clinicians regular and immediate access to the students they work with via social networking. Focusing on Facebook in particular, this article discusses the opportunities and challenges this access creates and specifically explores how utilization of ethical, clinical, and cultural lenses might affect…

  3. Maintaining the Status Quo: Symbolic Violence in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jo; Widin, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Government policies and financial imperatives have fostered growing heterogeneity in student bodies in UK and Australian higher education (HE), but the underpinning logic of practice in these long-established social fields is far slower to change. Drawing on empirical evidence from case studies in each nation, this paper examines the tensions…

  4. Concomitant Ordering and Symmetry Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, William O. J.; Mattern, Daniell L.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of concomitant ordering include magnetic ordering, Jahn-Teller cooperative ordering, electronic ordering, ionic ordering, and ordering of partially-filled sites. Concomitant ordering sets in when a crystal is cooled and always lowers the degree of symmetry of the crystal. Concomitant ordering concepts can also be productively applied to…

  5. Medical ethics and medical practice: a social science view.

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, M

    1985-01-01

    This paper argues that two characteristics of social life impinge importantly upon medical attempts to maintain high ethical standards. The first is the tension between the role of ethics in protecting the patient and maintaining the solidarity of the profession. The second derives from the observation that the foundations of contemporary medical ethics were laid at a time of one-to-one doctor-patient relations while nowadays most doctors work in or are associated with large-scale organisations. Records cease to be the property of individual doctors, become available not only to other doctors but also to educational and social work personnel. Making records openly available to patients is suggested as the only antidote to this irreversible loss of individual practitioner control. The importance for doctors of understanding the nature of professional and bureaucratic organisations in order to deal with the hazards involved is stressed as is the responsibility of the General Medical Council to regulate medical competence as well as personal behaviour. PMID:3981563

  6. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  7. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cam, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on social studies instruction and technology: (1) "Waking the Sleeping Giant: Social Studies Teacher Educators Collaborate To Integrate Technology into Methods' Courses" (Cheryl Mason, Marsha Alibrandi, Michael Berson, Kara Dawson, Rich Diem, Tony Dralle, David Hicks, Tim Keiper, and John Lee);…

  8. Does Higher-Order Thinking Impinge on Learner-Centric Digital Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Bincy; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social beings and the social cognition focuses on how one form impressions of other people, interpret the meaning of other people's behaviour and how people's behaviour is affected by our attitudes. The school provides complex social situations and in order to thrive, students must possess social cognition, the process of thinking about…

  9. Information-processing bias in social phobia.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Colette R; Clark, David M

    2004-11-01

    Social phobia is a persistent disorder that is unlikely to be maintained by avoidance alone. One reason for the enduring nature of social phobia may be the way individuals with the disorder process social information. It is important for those involved in social phobia to have an understanding of information-processing biases, because it has the potential to guide psychological interventions. In this review of social phobia, probability and cost estimates of social situations are examined, interpretive biases are evaluated and findings relating to memory and negative imagery are also reviewed. The clinical implications of social-phobia-related information-processing biases are discussed and possible avenues for future research are outlined.

  10. Mobile physician order entry.

    PubMed

    Ying, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Because both computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems and mobile technologies such as handheld devices have the potential to greatly impact the industry's future, IT vendors, hospitals, and clinicians are simply merging them into a logical convergence--"CPOE on a handheld"--with an expectation of full functionality on all platforms: computer workstations, rolling laptops, tablet PCs, and handheld devices. For these trends to succeed together, however, this expectation must be revised to establish a distinct category--mobile physician order entry (MPOE)--that is different from CPOE in form, function, and implementation.

  11. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A

    2016-06-01

    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers.

  12. 17 CFR 204.65 - Wage garnishment order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... order. This information includes the debtor's name, address, and social security number, as well as... contract, refunds under this section shall not bear interest. (k) Right of action. The Commission may...

  13. Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja

    2014-08-01

    overlooked, and that a better knowledge of the cost/benefit balance of behavioural variability is crucial for our understanding of the evolution of the mechanisms underlying the social organization of insect societies. We conclude by highlighting what we believe to be promising but little-explored avenues for future research on how within-colony variability has evolved and is maintained. We emphasize the need for comparative studies and point out that, so far, most studies on interindividual variability have focused on variability in individual response thresholds, while the significance of variability in other parameters of individual response, such as probability and intensity of the response, has been largely overlooked. We propose that these parameters have important consequences for the colony response. Much more research is needed to understand if and how interindividual variability is modulated in order to benefit division of labour, homeostasis and ultimately colony fitness in social insects.

  14. Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

    2012-01-01

    Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

  15. The Relative Importance of Social Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.; And Others

    Evidence concerning the contributions of social networks to the subjective well-being of older persons is inconsistent, reflecting the conceptual complexity of social networks and supports. In order to investigate the relative importance of different types of social ties and supports, the distinction between objective and subjective dimensions of…

  16. Social indicators.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

    1975-05-16

    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  17. Court-ordered caesareans.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Elizabeth; Lomri, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Court-ordered caesarean sections are in the news after a number of recent legal decisions authorising surgery for women who lack mental capacity to consent. The decisions have not always been based on good evidence and they raise serious concerns about the protection of the rights of mentally ill women. The authors explain the legal process and question the wisdom of recent judgements.

  18. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  19. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  20. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…