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Sample records for maintenance behavior direct

  1. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  2. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  3. Direct Labeling, Tester Expectancy and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Scottish Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Fiona K.; Toner, Ignatius J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the influence on Scottish preschool children's self-control of labels regarding patience given directly to the children themselves, and of the expectations regarding the children's patience provided to adult testers. Childrens self-control was assessed in a task in which each child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made…

  4. Direct Labeling, Tester Expectancy and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Fiona K.; Toner, Ignatius J.

    This study explored the hypotheses that (1) young children told (labeled) directly that they were "patient" by adults would demonstrate more subsequent self-control than children given an irrelevant label, and that (2) adult tester expectations regarding the children's self-control would influence only the subjects given the irrelevant…

  5. Resurgence: The Unintended Maintenance of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringdahl, Joel E.; St. Peter, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Researchers, teachers, practitioners, and parents are often concerned with how to program for and achieve the maintenance of appropriate behavior. The unintended maintenance of problem behavior is less often evaluated. This article describes a behavioral phenomenon, resurgence, that may result in the unintended maintenance of problem behavior.…

  6. New Directions in Maintenance Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gary G.

    A two-phase effort was conducted to design and evaluate a maintenance simulator which incorporated state-of-the-art information in simulation and instructional technology. The particular equipment selected to be simulated was the 6883 Convert/Flight Controls Test Station. Phase I included a generalized block diagram of the computer-trainer, the…

  7. New Directions in Maintenance Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gary G.

    A two-phase effort was conducted to design and evaluate a maintenance simulator which incorporated state-of-the-art information in simulation and instructional technology. The particular equipment selected to be simulated was the 6883 Convert/Flight Controls Test Station. Phase I included a generalized block diagram of the computer-trainer, the…

  8. The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

  9. The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

  10. "Participation, satisfaction, perceived benefits, and maintenance of behavioral self-management strategies in a self-directed exercise program for adults with arthritis".

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Wilcox, Sara; Schoffman, Danielle E; Baruth, Meghan

    2017-02-01

    A process evaluation was conducted in conjunction with a controlled trial of a self-directed exercise program among people with arthritis to describe the program's reach; self-management behaviors, exposure to materials, program perceptions, satisfaction, and perceived benefits; compatibility with targeted participants' needs; and maintenance. Participants (n=197) were predominantly white, middle-aged, college-educated women. At 12 weeks, 73.2% had read ≥90% of the program materials (at nine months>70% had "occasionally" or "often" looked back over each of the five parts of the materials); 63.3% had set goals (52.5% at nine months), and 83.9% had "some" or "a lot" of success following their plan (64.2% at nine months), while 90.4% rated the program "good" or "excellent" (87.5% at nine months). At 12 weeks, the majority (89.3%) used written logs to self-monitor (mean=9.3 logs); by nine months, >70% never kept logs. Most (>80%) rated twelve of thirteen program components as helpful, and 98.6% would recommend the program. From 38% to 62.4% endorsed each of eight program benefits, with small declines of ≤9% at nine months. Qualitative response identified ways the program met and did not meet expectations. The main program compatibility issue was targeting all adults with arthritis, while featuring older adults in materials.

  11. Direct Final Approval of the Lake Tahoe Nevada CO Maintenance Area's Second Maintenance Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    December 22, 2016: In a direct final action EPA is approved the State of Nevada's request to approve the 2012 maintenance plan for Lake Tahoe Nevada carbon monoxide maintenance area as a revision to the Nevada State Implementation Plan.

  12. The Adaptive Neuroplasticity Hypothesis of Behavioral Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is a seemingly simple and clinically potent method to decrease morbidity and mortality in people with coronary heart disease (CHD). Nonetheless, long-term maintenance of physical activity remains a frustratingly elusive goal for patients and practitioners alike. In this paper, we posit that among older adults with CHD, recidivism after the initiation of physical activity reflects maladaptive neuroplasticity of malleable neural networks, and people will revert back to learned and habitual physical inactivity patterns, particularly in the setting of stress or depression. We hypothesize that behavioral interventions that successfully promote physical activity may also enhance adaptive neuroplasticity and play a key role in the maintenance of physical activity through the development of new neuronal pathways that enhance functional ability in older adults. Conversely, without such adaptive neuroplastic changes, ingrained maladaptive neuroplasticity will prevail and long-term maintenance of physical activity will fail. In this paper we will: (1) describe the enormous potential for neuroplasticity in older adults; (2) review stress and depression as examples of maladaptive neuroplasticity; (3) describe an example of adaptive neuroplasticity achieved with a behavioral intervention that induced positive affect in people with CHD; and (4) discuss implications for future work in bench to bedside translational research. PMID:23125937

  13. Effects of Direct, Intermittent, and Vicarious Reinforcement Procedures on the Development and Maintenance of Instruction Following Behaviors in a Group of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Paul; Clements, Patricia

    Twelve children (mean age = 2 1/2 yrs.) were instructed in a group setting to follow a number of different requests by a teacher. In Experiment I, the group's instruction following behavior remained low regardless of whether (1) the teacher provided either modeling or verbal cues or a combination of these two and (2) another adult did or did not…

  14. [Addictive behavior after starting buprenorphine maintenance treatment].

    PubMed

    Fanello, Serge; Daoud, Sidi; Panici, Jean Yves; Parot, Elsa; Hitoto, Hicombo; Garnier, François

    2006-02-01

    This study of a cohort of drug addicts receiving buprenorphine maintenance treatment in a district in western France focused on changes in their drug use and their social and work lives. It also looked at the health consequences of their drug use before and after maintenance treatment (mean: four years). From the files of an agency providing services to drug addicts, we randomly selected 180 of the 236 patients receiving buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT). Usable questionnaires were returned by 118 subjects (66% response rate). This self-administered questionnaire included 32 items. The respondents accounted for half the population receiving drug maintenance treatment and were representative of the population for age and sex. The mean age was 30 +/- 5 years, mean BMT dose 6,5 mg/day, and mean duration of drug maintenance treatment 47 +/- 27 months. Other drug use diminished during the four years of maintenance treatment: three of every four heroin users had stopped, opiate users dropped from 31% to 5% of the population, and cocaine use followed a similar trend. Benzodiazepine use also fell, but remained relatively frequent (27%, compared with 68% four years earlier). Drinking patterns changed from strongly alcoholic beverages to lower-proof drinks. Arrest rates dropped from 70% to 25%. The percentage of persons seropositive for HIV (4%) and HCV (33%) remained low, but too many subjects had not been screened (35%). Roughly 10% of these subjects had returned to work, mainly those who had cut their drug use most. While our survey reveals some positive points, especially a reduction in illegal drug use, several negative observations appeared, including combined use of cannabis and benzodiazepines, inadequate screening, and misuse of BMD. These results underline how important it is for care providers to focus simultaneously on medical treatment and identification of co-morbidities and to provide social work when necessary. The employment rate remains too low.

  15. Dynamic behaviors in directed networks

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung Min; Kim, Beom Jun

    2006-08-15

    Motivated by the abundance of directed synaptic couplings in a real biological neuronal network, we investigate the synchronization behavior of the Hodgkin-Huxley model in a directed network. We start from the standard model of the Watts-Strogatz undirected network and then change undirected edges to directed arcs with a given probability, still preserving the connectivity of the network. A generalized clustering coefficient for directed networks is defined and used to investigate the interplay between the synchronization behavior and underlying structural properties of directed networks. We observe that the directedness of complex networks plays an important role in emerging dynamical behaviors, which is also confirmed by a numerical study of the sociological game theoretic voter model on directed networks.

  16. Organizational Maintenance: Behavior Analysis and Intervention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Kopp, O.G. Applications of behavior modification in organizations: A review and critique. Academy of Management Review, 1978, 2, 281-292. Bierener, R.J...Facilitating customer service in a retail merchandising firm. Manuscript submitted for publication, 1980. References Andrasik, F. Organizational behavior ... modification in business settings: A methodological and content review. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 1979, 2 85-102. Babb, H.W

  17. Maintenance, Generalization, and Treatment Relapse: A Behavioral Momentum Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles; Nevin, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance and generalization have been inconsistently defined in the behavior analytic literature. The term "treatment relapse" is used commonly in the medical and mental health literature to refer to the return of a condition that was previously considered successfully treated. Basic behavioral researchers have studied relapse related…

  18. Behavioral Parent Training in Child Welfare: Maintenance and Booster Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Montgomery, Jan L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Kosarek, Judith A.; Happe, Shawn; Burgos, Vanessa; Manzolillo, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of a 30-hr behavioral parent training program at increasing skill accuracy. However, it remains unknown whether skills acquisitions are maintained on a long-term basis. Few studies have evaluated the maintenance of skills learned during behavioral parent training for foster parents. The purpose of…

  19. Behavioral Parent Training in Child Welfare: Maintenance and Booster Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Montgomery, Jan L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Kosarek, Judith A.; Happe, Shawn; Burgos, Vanessa; Manzolillo, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of a 30-hr behavioral parent training program at increasing skill accuracy. However, it remains unknown whether skills acquisitions are maintained on a long-term basis. Few studies have evaluated the maintenance of skills learned during behavioral parent training for foster parents. The purpose of…

  20. A Pavlovian Analysis of Goal-Directed Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes associative structures underlying goal-directed behavior using well-developed techniques for studying Pavlovian conditioning. Identifies the roles of the stimulus, response, and reinforcer in instrumental learning. A response and its reinforcer must be associated for acquisition and maintenance of instrumental behavior. (Author/LHW)

  1. Variable mating behaviors and the maintenance of tropical biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Charles H.; Lerdau, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical studies on mechanisms promoting species co-existence in diverse communities assume that species are fixed in their mating behavior. Each species is a discrete evolutionary unit, even though most empirical evidence indicates that inter-specific gene flow occurs in plant and animal groups. Here, in a data-driven meta-community model of species co-existence, we allow mating behavior to respond to local species composition and abundance. While individuals primarily out-cross, species maintain a diminished capacity for selfing and hybridization. Mate choice is treated as a variable behavior, which responds to intrinsic traits determining mate choice and the density and availability of sympatric inter-fertile individuals. When mate choice is strongly limited, even low survivorship of selfed offspring can prevent extinction of rare species. With increasing mate choice, low hybridization success rates maintain community level diversity for extended periods of time. In high diversity tropical tree communities, competition among sympatric congeneric species is negligible, because direct spatial proximity with close relatives is infrequent. Therefore, the genomic donorship presents little cost. By incorporating variable mating behavior into evolutionary models of diversification, we also discuss how participation in a syngameon may be selectively advantageous. We view this behavior as a genomic mutualism, where maintenance of genomic structure and diminished inter-fertility, allows each species in the syngameon to benefit from a greater effective population size during episodes of selective disadvantage. Rare species would play a particularly important role in these syngameons as they are more likely to produce heterospecific crosses and transgressive phenotypes. We propose that inter-specific gene flow can play a critical role by allowing genomic mutualists to avoid extinction and gain local adaptations. PMID:26042148

  2. Overt Verbalization and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Smith, Romayne A.

    The present study was conducted to determine if overt self-verbalization by the child during the waiting period would influence his delay maintenance behavior when the delayed reward was present. Subjects were 60 preschool girls in the age range of 33-72 months. Fifteen subjects were randomly assigned to each of four experimental conditions: (1)…

  3. Overt Verbalization and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Smith, Romayne A.

    The present study was conducted to determine if overt self-verbalization by the child during the waiting period would influence his delay maintenance behavior when the delayed reward was present. Subjects were 60 preschool girls in the age range of 33-72 months. Fifteen subjects were randomly assigned to each of four experimental conditions: (1)…

  4. Neurobiology of addictive behaviors and its relationship to methadone maintenance.

    PubMed

    Stimmel, B; Kreek, M J

    2000-01-01

    Scientific information about the neurobiology of addictive behaviors provides an increasingly important rationale to support opioid agonist pharmacotherapy, primarily methadone maintenance treatment, for long-term heroin addiction. In late 1963 and 1964, the first research was performed at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research by Dole, Nyswander, and Kreek in an attempt to develop a new pharmacotherapy for opiate addiction. The hypothesis underlying that research was that heroin addiction was a disease. However, the evidence for heroin addiction being a disease was based primarily on clinical anecdotes and the natural history of opiate addiction. Until then chronic addiction was managed primarily using abstinence-based, medication-free behavioral approaches. Such approaches were uniformly successful in only a small percent of long-term heroin addicts. Subsequent research, both clinical research as well as laboratory-based research, using a variety of appropriate animal models as well as in vitro techniques, has shown that drugs of abuse in general, and specifically the short-acting opiates, such as heroin, may profoundly alter molecular and neurochemical indices, and thus physiologic functions. Also, research has shown that after chronic exposure to a short-acting opiate,these alterations may be persistent, or even permanent, and may contribute directly to the perpetuation of self-administration of opiates, and even the return to opiate use after achieving a drug-free and medication-free state. There is ample evidence now that disruption of several components of the endogenous opioid system, ranging from changes in gene expression to changes in behavior, may occur during cycles of short-acting opiate abuse. Also, there are very convincing studies that suggest that stress responsivity is profoundly altered by chronic abuse of short-acting opiates including: documentation of atypical hypo-responsivity to stressors during cycles of heroin addiction; evidence

  5. Maintenance of health behavior change in preventive cardiology. Internalization and self-regulation of new behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bellg, Albert J

    2003-01-01

    Long-term health behavior maintenance remains a challenge for patients and health behavior interventionists. Resource-intensive systems of external reinforcement and behavioral cues can support behavior maintenance; an alternative approach is to promote patient internalization and self-regulation of health behaviors. Based in part on organismic internalization theory, self-determination theory, and the experience of patients successful at maintaining health behaviors, the health behavior internalization model (HBIM) is proposed to describe motivational factors associated with internalization processes and hypothesizes that integrated internalization may be associated with long-term health behavior maintenance. The HBIM identifies four self-needs (ownership, self-determination, security, and support) and four behavior-related needs (preference, context, competence, and coping) as motivating health behavior internalization. Behavior change strategies promoting integrated internalization are identified from self-determination theory, motivational interviewing, and transtheoretical model interventions. Other health behavior change constructs are reviewed in relation to internalization processes, and potential limits to the model are discussed.

  6. Direct Behavior Rating: Considerations for Rater Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Sayward E.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavior rating (DBR) offers users a flexible, feasible method for the collection of behavioral data. Previous research has supported the validity of using DBR to rate three target behaviors: academic engagement, disruptive behavior, and compliance. However, the effect of the base rate of behavior on rater accuracy has not been established.…

  7. Differentiating Behavior Initiation and Maintenance: Theoretical Framework and Proof of Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voils, Corrine I.; Gierisch, Jennifer M.; Yancy, William S., Jr.; Sandelowski, Margarete; Smith, Rose; Bolton, Jamiyla; Strauss, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Although many interventions are effective for health behavior initiation, maintenance has proven elusive. Interventions targeting maintenance often extend the duration with which initiation content is delivered or the duration of follow-up without intervention. We posit that health behavior initiation and maintenance require separate psychological…

  8. Differentiating Behavior Initiation and Maintenance: Theoretical Framework and Proof of Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voils, Corrine I.; Gierisch, Jennifer M.; Yancy, William S., Jr.; Sandelowski, Margarete; Smith, Rose; Bolton, Jamiyla; Strauss, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Although many interventions are effective for health behavior initiation, maintenance has proven elusive. Interventions targeting maintenance often extend the duration with which initiation content is delivered or the duration of follow-up without intervention. We posit that health behavior initiation and maintenance require separate psychological…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy as a Maintenance Treatment for Chronic Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Daniel N.; Santiago, Neil J.; Vivian, Dina; Blalock, Janice A.; Kocsis, James H.; Markowitz, John C.; McCullough, James P., Jr.; Rush, John A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Arnow, Bruce A.; Dunner, David L.; Manber, Rachel; Rothbaum, Barbara; Thase, Michael E.; Keitner, Gabor I.; Miller, Ivan W.; Keller, Martin B.

    2004-01-01

    Although the efficacy of maintenance pharmacotherapy for the prevention of recurrence in major depressive disorder (MDD) is well documented, few studies have tested the efficacy of psychotherapy as a maintenance treatment. The authors examined the efficacy of the cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP) as a maintenance…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy as a Maintenance Treatment for Chronic Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Daniel N.; Santiago, Neil J.; Vivian, Dina; Blalock, Janice A.; Kocsis, James H.; Markowitz, John C.; McCullough, James P., Jr.; Rush, John A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Arnow, Bruce A.; Dunner, David L.; Manber, Rachel; Rothbaum, Barbara; Thase, Michael E.; Keitner, Gabor I.; Miller, Ivan W.; Keller, Martin B.

    2004-01-01

    Although the efficacy of maintenance pharmacotherapy for the prevention of recurrence in major depressive disorder (MDD) is well documented, few studies have tested the efficacy of psychotherapy as a maintenance treatment. The authors examined the efficacy of the cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP) as a maintenance…

  11. Shifting Gears: Self-Reported Attitudes and Behaviors during Times of Weight Loss, Maintenance, and Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Henry A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Participants in a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for obesity were asked 6 to 10 years after treatment to describe their current use of cognitive and behavioral activities during periods of weight maintenance, loss, and gain. Respondents' cognitive and behavioral efforts increased during weight loss; decreased during times of maintenance…

  12. Functional communication training to reduce challenging behavior: maintenance and application in new settings.

    PubMed

    Durand, V M; Carr, E G

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the initial effectiveness, maintenance, and transferability of the results of functional communication training as an intervention for the challenging behaviors exhibited by 3 students. Assessment indicated that escape from academic demands was involved in the maintenance of the challenging behaviors. Social attention was also implicated as controlling the behavior of 1 student. The intervention involved teaching alternative assistance-seeking and attention-getting phrases to the students in an effort to replace challenging behavior with these verbal equivalents. Multiple baseline data collected across the 3 students indicated that not only did the intervention substantially reduce challenging behavior but also that these results transferred across new tasks, environments, and teachers, and were generally maintained from 18 to 24 months following the introduction of functional communication training. These results are discussed in light of recent efforts to develop effective interventions for severe challenging behavior and to understand the processes underlying transfer and maintenance of intervention effects.

  13. Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Health Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Rodney P; Daniel, Casey L; Thind, Herpreet; Benitez, Tanya J; Pekmezi, Dori

    2016-11-01

    Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Five prominent behavioral theories were referenced by the 34 studies included in the review: Self-Determination Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Ecological Model. Descriptions and examples of applications of these theories are provided. Implications for future research are discussed.

  14. Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Daniel, Casey L.; Thind, Herpreet; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dori

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Five prominent behavioral theories were referenced by the 34 studies included in the review: Self-Determination Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Ecological Model. Descriptions and examples of applications of these theories are provided. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28217036

  15. Group Maintenance Behaviors of Core and Peripherial Members of Free/Libre Open Source Software Teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scialdone, Michael J.; Li, Na; Heckman, Robert; Crowston, Kevin

    Group Maintenance is pro-social, discretionary, and relation-building behavior that occurs between members of groups in order to maintain reciprocal trust and cooperation. This paper considers how Free/libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) teams demonstrate such behaviors within the context of e-mail, as this is the primary medium through which such teams communicate. We compare group maintenance behaviors between both core and peripheral members of these groups, as well as behaviors between a group that remains producing software today and one which has since dissolved. Our findings indicate that negative politeness tactics (those which show respect for the autonomy of others) may be the most instrumental group maintenance behaviors that contribute to a FLOSS group’s ability to survive and continue software production.

  16. Administration of the Glial Condition Medium in the Nucleus Accumbens Prolong Maintenance and Intensify Reinstatement of Morphine-Seeking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Arezoomandan, Reza; Khodagholi, Fariba; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggested that glial cells are involved in synaptic plasticity and behavioral changes induced by drugs abuse. The role of these cells in maintenance and reinstatement of morphine (MRP) conditioned place preference (CPP) remains poorly characterized. The aim of present study was to investigate the direct role of glial cells in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the maintenance and reinstatement of MRP-seeking behavior. CPP induced with injection of MRP (5 mg/kg, s.c. for 3 days), lasted for 7 days after cessation of MRP treatment and priming dose of MRP (1 mg/kg, s.c.) reinstated the extinguished MRP-induced CPP. The astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) and neuroglia conditioned medium (NCM) exposed to MRP (10 and 100 µM) have been microinjected into the NAc. Intra-NAc administration of ACM during extinction period failed to change the maintenance of MRP-CPP, but MRP 100-treated ACM could slightly increase the magnitude of reinstatement. In contrast to ACM, intra-NAc administration of MRP 100-treated NCM caused slower extinction by 3 days and significantly increased the magnitude of reinstatement. Our findings suggest the involvement of glial cells activation in the maintenance and reinstatement of MRP-seeking behaviors, and provides new evidence that these cells might be a potential target for the treatment of MRP addiction.

  17. Concurrent reinforcement schedules: behavior change and maintenance without extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Hannah; McComas, Jennifer J; Thompson, Andrea L; Paone, Debra

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of concurrent schedules of reinforcement on negatively reinforced problem behavior and task completion with 3 children with autism. Results indicated that problem behavior occurred at high levels and relatively few tasks were completed when problem behavior produced a break (from tasks) and task completion produced either no consequence or a break. By contrast, problem behavior was eliminated and tasks were completed when problem behavior produced a break and task completion produced a break with access to preferred activities. Treatment gains were maintained without the use of extinction when the response requirement was increased and the schedule of reinforcement was thinned. PMID:12102135

  18. Concurrent reinforcement schedules: behavior change and maintenance without extinction.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Hannah; McComas, Jennifer J; Thompson, Andrea L; Paone, Debra

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of concurrent schedules of reinforcement on negatively reinforced problem behavior and task completion with 3 children with autism. Results indicated that problem behavior occurred at high levels and relatively few tasks were completed when problem behavior produced a break (from tasks) and task completion produced either no consequence or a break. By contrast, problem behavior was eliminated and tasks were completed when problem behavior produced a break and task completion produced a break with access to preferred activities. Treatment gains were maintained without the use of extinction when the response requirement was increased and the schedule of reinforcement was thinned.

  19. Weight Loss Maintenance in African American Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2013-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions. PMID:23691286

  20. Reporting of HIV risk behaviors by injection drug using heterosexual couples in methadone maintenance.

    PubMed

    Wells, E A; Clark, L L; Calsyn, D A; Saxon, A J; Jackson, T R; Wrede, A F

    1994-08-01

    This study sought to identify differences within injection drug using (IDU) couples in reporting of sexual and needle risk behavior. Subjects were thirty-nine heterosexual couples entering methadone maintenance. In 33.3% of couples, one member reported sharing needles while the other member reported no sharing. In 12.9% of couples, one member reported sharing injection equipment, while the other member reported no sharing. Agreement was 77.4% between members of monogamous couples regarding frequency of condom use, 80.7% regarding vaginal intercourse with condoms, and 25.8% regarding vaginal intercourse without condoms. Within couples, a number of differences between members of the couple in injection equipment sharing were noted, suggesting that individuals who attempt to protect themselves by not sharing injection equipment may be placed at risk by their sexual partners. Further clinical and research efforts should be directed toward reducing barriers to behavior that would protect both partners. Implications for self-report measurement of HIV risk behavior and for preventive interventions are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of Skill Maintenance, Performance Factors, and External Validity in a Behavioral Parent Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherbarth, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Child maltreatment affects 900 thousand children in the U.S. every year and impacts all areas of daily functioning. Behavioral parent training (BPT) programs have effectively taught parenting & demonstrated externally valid outcomes (i.e., lower recidivism rates). Skill maintenance assessments for BPTs have mixed results. The Behavior Management…

  2. Comparison of Behavioral Treatment Conditions in Buprenorphine Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Walter; Hillhouse, Maureen; Ang, Alfonso; Jenkins, Jessica; Fahey, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The Controlled Substances Act requires physicians in the United States to provide or refer to behavioral treatment when treating opioid-dependent individuals with buprenorphine; however no research has examined the combination of buprenorphine with different types of behavioral treatments. This randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of 4 behavioral treatment conditions provided with buprenorphine and medical management (MM) for the treatment of opioid dependence. Design After a 2-week buprenorphine induction/stabilization phase, participants were randomized to 1 of 4 behavioral treatment conditions provided for 16 weeks: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT=53); Contingency Management (CM=49); both CBT and CM (CBT+CM=49); and no additional behavioral treatment (NT=51). Setting Study activities occurred at an outpatient clinical research center in Los Angeles, California, USA. Participants Included were 202 male and female opioid-dependent participants. Measurements Primary outcome was opioid use, measured as a proportion of opioid-negative urine results over the number of tests possible. Secondary outcomes include retention, withdrawal symptoms, craving, other drug use, and adverse events. Findings No group differences in opioid use were found for the behavioral treatment phase (Chi-square=1.25, p=0.75), for a second medication-only treatment phase, or at weeks 40 and 52 follow-ups. Analyses revealed no differences across groups for any secondary outcome. Conclusion There remains no clear evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy and contingency management reduce opiate use when added to buprenorphine and medical management in opiates users seeking treatment. PMID:23734858

  3. Institutionalization and Response Maintenance in Organizational Behavior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2006-01-01

    A review of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" (1991-2002) was conducted to determine to what extent researchers in OBM programmed for "institutionalization" of applied interventions. Criteria for the term "institutionalization" were derived from McSween and Matthews (2001), and Grindle, Dickinson, and Boettcher (2000). Four…

  4. Institutionalization and Response Maintenance in Organizational Behavior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2006-01-01

    A review of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" (1991-2002) was conducted to determine to what extent researchers in OBM programmed for "institutionalization" of applied interventions. Criteria for the term "institutionalization" were derived from McSween and Matthews (2001), and Grindle, Dickinson, and Boettcher (2000). Four…

  5. Maintenance of safety behaviors via response-produced stimuli.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Ioannis; Austin, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    Animal studies suggest that safety behaviors may be maintained by internally or externally produced safety signals, which function as positive reinforcers. We designed two experiments to test this phenomenon with humans. Participants played a computerized game in which they could earn or lose treasures by clicking on a map. In baseline, losses could be postponed by pressing a pedal that also produced a blue bar at the bottom of the screen. During test conditions, no losses were programmed, and pedal presses turned the bar from yellow to blue (Test 1) or blue to yellow (Test 2). In Experiment 2, new participants were exposed to the same conditions but were given information about the safety of the test environment. In both experiments, participants engaged in high rates of pedal pressing when presses were followed by blue bars, suggesting the bar functioned as a safety signal. We discuss how these findings may relate to safety behaviors commonly observed in certain mental health disorders.

  6. The role of emotions in the maintenance of cooperative behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianlei; Weissing, Franz J.

    2014-04-01

    Our attention is focused on how individual emotions influence collective behaviors, which captures an aspect of reality missing from past studies: free riders may suffer some stress, which could adapt jointly with the individual stress intensity and size of the gaming group. With an evolutionary game theoretical approach, we gain the fixation probability for one mutant cooperator to invade and dominate the whole defecting population. When the stress intensity exceeds a threshold, natural selection favors cooperators replacing defectors in a finite population. We further infer that lower stress intensity is sufficient for one mutant cooperator to become fixed with an advantageous probability in a larger population. Moreover, when the gaming group is smaller than the population size, the more the return from the public goods, the lower the threshold of stress intensity required to facilitate the full dominance of cooperators. We hope our studies may show that individual sentiments or psychological activities will open up novel explanations for the puzzle of collective actions.

  7. Self-Image Maintenance and Enhancement: Attitude Change Following Counterattitudinal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Barry R.

    Hypotheses derived from a theory of self-image maintenance and enhancement were employed to interpret the phenomena of attitude change following counter-attitudinal behaviors. Attitude change was viewed as a means of avoiding responsibility for the negative consequences of actions which threaten the self-image. The converse hypotheses were…

  8. Age and Overt Verbalization in Delay-Maintenance Behavior in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Smith, Romayne A.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of overt self-verbalization of various contents on the delay maintenance behavior of preschool, second grade and third grade children in a task in which the child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made contingent upon the child's stopping further accumulation. (BD)

  9. Binge Eating Behavior and Weight Loss Maintenance over a 2-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between binge eating behavior and weight loss maintenance over a two-year period in adults. Design. Secondary data analysis using the Keep It Off study, a randomized trial evaluating an intervention to promote weight loss maintenance. Participants. 419 men and women (ages: 20 to 70 y; BMI: 20–44 kg/m2) who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their weight during the previous year. Measurements. Body weight was measured and binge eating behavior over the past 6 months was reported at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Height was measured at baseline. Results. Prevalence of binge eating at baseline was 19.4% (n = 76). Prevalence of binge eating at any time point was 30.1% (n = 126). Although rate of weight regain did not differ significantly between those who did or did not report binge eating at baseline, binge eating behavior across the study period (additive value of presence or absence at each time point) was significantly associated with different rates of weight regain. Conclusion. Tailoring weight loss maintenance interventions to address binge eating behavior is warranted given the prevalence and the different rates of weight regain experienced by those reporting this behavior. PMID:24891946

  10. Attitude toward the out-patient cardiac rehabilitation program and facilitators for maintenance of exercise behavior.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eliza M L; Zhong, Xue Bing; Sit, Janet W H; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y P; Leung, Carmen; Leung, K C

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the attitudes of Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) toward the outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program (OCRP), as well as their exercise behavior, intention, maintenance and related factors. A qualitative descriptive study design was used, and 22 CHD patients were recruited in Hong Kong in 2014. In-depth interviews and content analyses were conducted. The tripartite model of attitudes was adopted as research framework. Two themes were identified: (1) informant attitude (perception, affection, and practice) toward the OCRP and (2) Exercise Behavior - intention, maintenance and its related factors. Most informants showed positive perception and affection regarding the outpatient rehabilitation program, leading to regular practice of exercise in the program and at home. Peer, group dynamic, social support and Chinese culture influences on exercise behavior may serve as major facilitators to maintain exercise behavior. Positive attitude toward the OCRP enhanced the participation rate, whereas peer and social support from the family and workplace were useful to improve the maintenance of exercise behavior. Overall, this study provides insights into strategic planning for the OCRP and continual support for CHD patients in the community.

  11. [Hygienic maintenance of water mist-generating equipment that couples directly to the tap].

    PubMed

    Hamatake, Michiko; Aoki, Rie; Yamazaki, Mitsugu; Ohnishi, Kenjiro; Matsumoto, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Water mist is usually generated using equipment directly connected to the water tap, as its installation is relatively easy. However, there is no legal regulation regarding the maintenance of this equipment, and the quality of the mist has not been sufficiently well investigated. In this study, we sought to establish methods that allow the hygienic maintenance of this equipment. We monitored the use of the mist generating equipment in five of the 61 institutions in the jurisdiction of Ichinomiya Health Center, examined the resulting water quality, and tested for Legionella bacteria in the mist. If equipment was found to contain bacteria, the contaminated part was identified by counting the number of bacteria in the water after sequentially washing and disinfecting parts of the equipment. We also identified the predominant bacterial species. In the water mists from three of 5 institutions, the number of bacteria greatly exceeded that permitted for drinking-water, even though the residual chlorine level was >0.1 mg/l. However, no Legionella bacteria were detected. Brevundimonas species were predominant in the water mists at each institute. The hose was found to be the contaminated component in each case. Our findings suggest that the number of bacteria in the water mist exceeded the drinking-water quality standard, even with a residual chlorine level of >0.1 mg/l. This study also revealed the importance of the continued drainage of water, following suitable cleaning and disinfection for maintenance of the mist-generating equipment.

  12. Plant stem cell maintenance involves direct transcriptional repression of differentiation program.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram Kishor; Perales, Mariano; Gruel, Jérémy; Ohno, Carolyn; Heisler, Marcus; Girke, Thomas; Jönsson, Henrik; Reddy, G Venugopala

    2013-01-01

    In animal systems, master regulatory transcription factors (TFs) mediate stem cell maintenance through a direct transcriptional repression of differentiation promoting TFs. Whether similar mechanisms operate in plants is not known. In plants, shoot apical meristems serve as reservoirs of stem cells that provide cells for all above ground organs. WUSCHEL, a homeodomain TF produced in cells of the niche, migrates into adjacent cells where it specifies stem cells. Through high-resolution genomic analysis, we show that WUSCHEL represses a large number of genes that are expressed in differentiating cells including a group of differentiation promoting TFs involved in leaf development. We show that WUS directly binds to the regulatory regions of differentiation promoting TFs; KANADI1, KANADI2, ASYMMETRICLEAVES2 and YABBY3 to repress their expression. Predictions from a computational model, supported by live imaging, reveal that WUS-mediated repression prevents premature differentiation of stem cell progenitors, being part of a minimal regulatory network for meristem maintenance. Our work shows that direct transcriptional repression of differentiation promoting TFs is an evolutionarily conserved logic for stem cell regulation.

  13. Enhancing Self-Directed Behavior in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuchert, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Students can develop self-directed behavior when behavior management strategies are structured to provide opportunities to learn responsible behavior, make choices, and develop internal control. Student behavior is viewed as a response to psychological needs for love and belonging, power, freedom, and fun. Components of a reality therapy session…

  14. Enhancing Self-Directed Behavior in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuchert, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Students can develop self-directed behavior when behavior management strategies are structured to provide opportunities to learn responsible behavior, make choices, and develop internal control. Student behavior is viewed as a response to psychological needs for love and belonging, power, freedom, and fun. Components of a reality therapy session…

  15. Renewed behavior produced by context change and its implications for treatment maintenance: A review.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Kelley, Michael E; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Bouton, Mark E

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral treatment gains established in one setting do not always maintain in other settings. The present review examines the relevance of basic and translational research to understanding failures to maintain treatment gains across settings. Specifically, studies of the renewal effect examine how transitioning away from a treatment setting could evoke a return of undesirable behavior, rather than newly trained appropriate behavior. Studies of renewal typically arrange three phases, with a response trained and reinforced under a particular set of contextual stimuli in the first phase. Next, that response is extinguished, often under a different set of contextual stimuli. Finally, that response returns despite extinction remaining in effect upon returning to the original training context or transitioning to a novel context. Thus, removing the extinction context is sufficient to produce a recurrence of the response. The findings suggest treatment effects can become specific to the context in which the treatment was delivered. This literature offers promising methods for systematically assessing the factors contributing to treatment maintenance and improving generalization of treatment gains across contexts. Therefore, the present review suggests basic and translational research on renewal provides an empirical literature to bring greater conceptual systematization to understanding generalization and maintenance of behavioral treatment. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Advance Directives and End-of-Life Care among Nursing Home Residents Receiving Maintenance Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Hall, Yoshio N; Katz, Ronit; O'Hare, Ann M

    2017-03-07

    Little is known about the relation between the content of advance directives and downstream treatment decisions among patients receiving maintenance dialysis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of advance directives specifying treatment limitations and/or surrogate decision-makers in the last year of life and their association with end-of-life care among nursing home residents. Using national data from 2006 to 2007, we compared the content of advance directives among 30,716 nursing home residents receiving dialysis to 30,825 nursing home residents with other serious illnesses during the year before death. Among patients receiving dialysis, we linked the content of advance directives to Medicare claims to ascertain site of death and treatment intensity in the last month of life. In the last year of life, 36% of nursing home residents receiving dialysis had a treatment-limiting directive, 22% had a surrogate decision-maker, and 13% had both in adjusted analyses. These estimates were 13%-27%, 5%-11%, and 6%-13% lower, respectively, than for decedents with other serious illnesses. For patients receiving dialysis who had both a treatment-limiting directive and surrogate decision-maker, the adjusted frequency of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, intensive procedures, and inpatient death were lower by 13%, 17%, 13%, and 14%, respectively, and hospice use and dialysis discontinuation were 5% and 7% higher compared with patients receiving dialysis lacking both components. Among nursing home residents receiving dialysis, treatment-limiting directives and surrogates were associated with fewer intensive interventions and inpatient deaths, but were in place much less often than for nursing home residents with other serious illnesses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. The Maintenance of Pluripotency Following Laser Direct-Write of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Schiele, Nathan R; Xie, Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B; Corr, David T

    2010-01-01

    The ability to precisely pattern embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro into predefined arrays/geometries may allow for the recreation of stem cell niche for better understanding of how cellular microenvironmental factors govern stem cell maintenance and differentiation. In this study, a new gelatin-based laser direct-write (LDW) technique was utilized to deposit mouse ES cells into defined arrays of spots, while maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Results obtained from these studies showed that ES cells were successfully printed into specific patterns and remained viable. Furthermore, ES cells retained the expression of Oct4 in nuclei after LDW, indicating that the laser energy did not affect their maintenance of an undifferentiated state. The differentiation potential of mouse ES cells after LDW was confirmed by their ability to form embryoid bodies (EBs) and to spontaneously become cell lineages representing all three germ layers, revealed by the expression of marker proteins of nestin (ectoderm), Myf-5 (mesoderm) and PDX-1 (endoderm), after 7 days of cultivation. Gelatin-based LDW provides a new avenue for stem cell patterning, with precision and control of the cellular microenvironment. PMID:21168910

  18. [Social support contribution to health and the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors].

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Robichaud-Ekstrand, Sylvie

    2003-12-01

    Social support refers to the presence of individuals providing emotional or material resources. Its four components are: integration, structure, function, and quality. This article presents empirical and theoretical data, as well as criticism of studies which examine the relationship between social support, global health and cardiovascular health, also evaluating direct or moderating contributions to the adoption and maintenance of health behaviours in persons with cardiovascular disease. Concrete implications for nursing practice are reviewed.

  19. Enhancing the Efficacy of Behavior Therapy for Obesity: Effects of Aerobic Exercise and a Multicomponent Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Michael G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Moderately obese volunteers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions (behavior therapy or behavior therapy plus aerobic exercise) and two posttreatment conditions (no further contact or a multicomponent maintenance program). Clients in the aerobic exercise condition lost significantly more weight than those who received behavior therapy…

  20. Behavioral cardiology: current advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Alan

    2014-07-08

    Growing epidemiological evidence identifies key domains relevant to behavioral cardiology, including health behaviors, emotions, mental mindsets, stress management, social connectedness, and a sense of purpose. Each of these domains exists along a continuum, ranging from positive factors that promote health, to negative factors, which are pathophysiological. To date, there has been relatively little translation of this growing knowledge base into cardiology practice. Four initiatives are proposed to meet this challenge: 1) promulgating greater awareness of the potency of psychosocial risks factors; 2) overcoming a current "artificial divide" between conventional and psychosocial risk factors; 3) developing novel cost-effective interventions using Internet and mobile health applications, group-based counseling, and development of tiered-care behavioral management; and 4) in recognition that "one size does not fit all" with respect to behavioral interventions, developing specialists who can counsel patients in multidisciplinary fashion and use evidence-based approaches for promoting patient motivation and execution of health goals.

  1. The Impact of Item Wording and Behavioral Specificity on the Accuracy of Direct Behavior Ratings (DBRs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Christ, Theodore; Briesch, Amy M.; LeBel, Teresa J.

    2009-01-01

    Direct behavior ratings (DBRs) combine aspects of both systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales to create a feasible method for social behavior assessment within a problem-solving model. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether accuracy of DBRs was affected depending on the behaviors selected to be rated using a DBR.…

  2. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    PubMed

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior.

  3. Directional Relationships Between Alcohol Use and Antisocial Behavior Across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seung-Bin; Heron, Jon; Aliev, Fazil; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Maughan, Barbara; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Dick, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The co-occurrence of alcohol use and antisocial behavior is well established, but different hypotheses exist regarding the direction of effects between the 2 behaviors. We used longitudinal data to examine the directional relationship between the 2 behaviors across adolescence. Methods A cross-lagged model was applied to longitudinal data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The sample used in the present study consisted of 4,354 females and 3,984 males. Alcohol use and antisocial behavior were measured with multiple items collected at 12, 13, 15, and 17 years of age. Results Both alcohol use and antisocial behavior were highly stable, as evidenced by highly significant autoregressive paths. Regarding the cross-lagged paths, neither behavior was predictive of the other during early adolescence (between ages 12 and 13). During mid-to late adolescence (from ages 13 to 17), antisocial behavior was predictive of subsequent alcohol use. Alcohol use was predictive of antisocial behavior in late adolescence (between ages 15 and 17), although this relationship was mainly driven by males and was not significant in the female subgroup. Conclusions The result generally supported the direction from antisocial behavior to alcohol use, especially during mid-to late adolescence. However, there was also a suggestion that the direction of relationship between the 2 behaviors changes across adolescence. The results highlight the importance of considering developmental stages to understand the directional relationships between the 2 behaviors. PMID:24930394

  4. Directional relationships between alcohol use and antisocial behavior across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seung-Bin; Heron, Jon; Aliev, Fazil; Salvatore, Jessica E; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Maughan, Barbara; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-07-01

    The co-occurrence of alcohol use and antisocial behavior is well established, but different hypotheses exist regarding the direction of effects between the 2 behaviors. We used longitudinal data to examine the directional relationship between the 2 behaviors across adolescence. A cross-lagged model was applied to longitudinal data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The sample used in the present study consisted of 4,354 females and 3,984 males. Alcohol use and antisocial behavior were measured with multiple items collected at 12, 13, 15, and 17 years of age. Both alcohol use and antisocial behavior were highly stable, as evidenced by highly significant autoregressive paths. Regarding the cross-lagged paths, neither behavior was predictive of the other during early adolescence (between ages 12 and 13). During mid-to late adolescence (from ages 13 to 17), antisocial behavior was predictive of subsequent alcohol use. Alcohol use was predictive of antisocial behavior in late adolescence (between ages 15 and 17), although this relationship was mainly driven by males and was not significant in the female subgroup. The result generally supported the direction from antisocial behavior to alcohol use, especially during mid- to late adolescence. However, there was also a suggestion that the direction of relationship between the 2 behaviors changes across adolescence. The results highlight the importance of considering developmental stages to understand the directional relationships between the 2 behaviors. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Direct Behavioral Observation in School Settings: Bringing Science to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Matthew K.; Kurtz, Steven M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide a useful, controlled setting for evaluating child behavior problems, yet direct observational coding procedures evaluated by child researchers have not been widely incorporated by practicing clinicians. This article provides a summary of procedures useful to clinicians performing direct behavioral observation in school settings. We…

  6. Direct Behavioral Observation in School Settings: Bringing Science to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Matthew K.; Kurtz, Steven M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide a useful, controlled setting for evaluating child behavior problems, yet direct observational coding procedures evaluated by child researchers have not been widely incorporated by practicing clinicians. This article provides a summary of procedures useful to clinicians performing direct behavioral observation in school settings. We…

  7. Use of Direct Behavior Ratings to Collect Functional Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.; Taylor, Crystal N.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the utility of Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS) methodology in collecting functional behavior assessment data. Specific questions of interest pertained to the evaluation of the accuracy of brief DBR-SIS ratings of behavioral consequences and determination of the type of training…

  8. The maintenance of behavior change as an indicator of social validity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Craig H

    2002-10-01

    This article reviews research pertaining to use of social validity and presents a rationale for expanding the conceptualization and use of this construct. It is proposed that the degree to which obtained treatment gains maintain across time within natural contexts be considered as a primary indicator of social validity. Traditional forms of social validation--subjective evaluation and normative comparison--are presented as measures that, when used within the framework of maintaining behavior change, form an iterative and heuristic process in which behavior change goals, procedures, and outcomes are altered to increase and/or sustain their social value. Procedural guidelines for research using maintenance as the benchmark of social validity are discussed.

  9. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  10. The Effects of Safety Behavior Directed Towards a Safety Cue on Perceptions of Threat.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Iris M; van Uijen, Sophie L; van Seters, Niels; Velu, Nicolette

    2015-09-01

    Safety behavior involves precautions to prevent or minimize a feared outcome, and is involved in the maintenance of anxiety disorders. Earlier research has shown that safety behavior prevents the extinction of conditioned fear and maintains threat expectations. This study tested whether safety behavior directed towards an objectively safe stimulus increases the perceived threat of that stimulus when it is subsequently experienced in the absence of the safety measure. In a conditioning task, participants first learned that one "danger" cue (A) was followed by shock and two "safety" cues (B, C) were not. Then they learned to apply safety behavior during A trials, which prevented the shock. Next, the experimental group, and not the control group, was given the opportunity to display safety behavior to C trials, which had never been coupled with the shock. In a subsequent test phase, A, B, and C were presented without the opportunity for participants to engage in safety behavior. Results showed that safety behavior increased shock expectancy to C in the test phase and maintained a preexisting shock expectancy in the experimental group, but not in the control group. This is the first study to show that safety behavior can maintain threat appraisal to stimuli that only ever acquired threat indirectly. This may be a possible mechanism for the origin of biased threat beliefs, superstitious behaviors, and irrational fears. It is also practically relevant: safety behavior reduces actual danger, but in relatively safe situations, its potential costs may outweigh the benefits.

  11. Direct Behavioral Consultation: Effects on Teachers' Praise and Student Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Lestremau, Lauren; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral consultation is an extension of traditional behavioral consultation and focuses on assessment and training in the classroom during ongoing classroom activities. This study evaluated direct behavioral consultation services in two elementary alternative classrooms referred following a program evaluation in which data suggested…

  12. Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Alternate Definitions to Assess Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra; Jaffery, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    The method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) incorporates aspects of both systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales to provide an efficient means to collect time series data. This study extended the development and evaluation of DBR Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) as a behavior assessment tool. Eighty-eight undergraduate students used…

  13. Multifractal Behavior of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, R. M.; Pannila, A. S.; Jayananda, M. K.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of temporal variation of wind speed and wind direction recorded at 10 min intervals are presented. The measurements were carried out at Hambanthota, a site located in the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka which has a high potential for wind power generation. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was used to analyze the temporal scaling properties of wind speeds and wind directions. The analysis was carried out for seasonal variation of wind speed and wind direction. It was observed that the scaling behavior of wind speed in Hambanthota is similar to the scaling behavior observed in previous studies which were carried out in other parts of the world. The seasonal wind and wind direction change exhibits different scaling behavior. No difference in scaling behavior was observed with heights. The degree of multifractality is high for wind direction when compared with wind speed for each season.

  14. Age and impulsive behavior in drug addiction: A review of past research and future directions.

    PubMed

    Argyriou, Evangelia; Um, Miji; Carron, Claire; Cyders, Melissa A

    2017-08-01

    Impulsive behavior is implicated in the initiation, maintenance, and relapse of drug-seeking behaviors involved in drug addiction. Research shows that changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan contribute to drug use and addiction. The goal of this review is to examine existing research on the relationship between impulsive behavior and drug use across the lifespan and to recommend directions for future research. Three domains of impulsive behavior are explored in this review: impulsive behavior-related personality traits, delay discounting, and prepotent response inhibition. First, we present previous research on these three domains of impulsive behavior and drug use across developmental stages. Then, we discuss how changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan are implicated in the progression of drug use and addiction. Finally, we discuss the relatively limited attention given to middle-to-older adults in the current literature, consider the validity of the measures used to assess impulsive behavior in middle-to-older adulthood, and suggest recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation over multiple days improves learning and maintenance of a novel vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Marcus; Jähnigen, Sophia; Copland, David A; Darkow, Robert; Grittner, Ulrike; Avirame, Keren; Rodriguez, Amy D; Lindenberg, Robert; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Recently, growing interest emerged in the enhancement of human potential by means of non-invasive brain stimulation. In particular, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on motor and higher cognitive functions. However, the majority of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies have assessed effects of single stimulation sessions that are mediated by transient neural modulation. Studies assessing the impact of multiple stimulation sessions on learning that may induce long-lasting behavioural and neural changes are scarce and have not yet been accomplished in the language domain in healthy individuals. The present study probed the potential of atDCS to enhance language learning over multiple days by employing an explicit word learning paradigm. Forty healthy young participants were randomized to learning with either simultaneous atDCS or sham stimulation (N = 20/group; comparable regarding demographic variables and neurocognitive status). All participants acquired a novel vocabulary (familiar and novel object picture - non-word pairs) over five consecutive days. Two memory tasks (free recall; forced choice recognition tasks) were administered immediately after each training session. A one week follow-up tested the maintenance of learning success. Linear mixed effects model analysis revealed superior learning during atDCS compared to sham stimulation for both familiar and novel objects. atDCS yielded a steeper learning curve and significantly more pronounced learning at the end of the training during the recall task. During the recognition task, the atDCS group reached ceiling levels earlier and overall learning success was greater. For both tasks, beneficial atDCS effects were maintained during the follow-up assessment. The present study provides direct evidence that atDCS administered during multiple learning sessions facilitates language learning and that effects are maintained over time

  16. [Resilience behavior of titanium implants with integrated maintenance-free biokinetic elements].

    PubMed

    Gaggl, A; Schultes, G

    2000-01-01

    Good functional properties are essential in dental implantology. Bio-kinetics elements are imitating dental resilience. In this study a new kind of implants with maintenance-free shock-absorbing elements was introduced and their bio-mechanic properties were tested. The mobile implant (SIS Inc, Klagenfurt, Austria) is a self-cutting conical screw implant with an integrated bio-kinetic element. The shock absorber is a central part of the implant and a titanium ring obturates the shock absorbing unit in the implant. The resilience of the implant was tested by axial and excentric loading in a special testing unit. Furthermore a survival test of the elastic titanium ring in the most exposed cervical part of the implant was performed. The region was examined by scanning electron microscopy after 12 million loading cycles in the axial and radial direction. A progressive shock absorption was registered during radial and axial loading. The maximum movements were 0.06 mm in the axial and 0.16 mm in the radial direction. No signs of material destruction were seen in the electron microscopic analysis. Thus a maintenance-free bio-kinetic implant with progressive shock-absorbing qualities is presented.

  17. Applying theory of planned behavior to predict exercise maintenance in sarcopenic elderly.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Shahar, Suzana; Teng, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohd; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among the sarcopenic elderly people in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 65 subjects with mean ages of 67.5±5.2 (men) and 66.1±5.1 (women) years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) exercise group (n=34; 25 men, nine women); and 2) the control group (n=31; 22 men, nine women). Structural equation modeling, based on TPB components, was applied to determine specific factors that most contribute to and predict actual behavior toward exercise. Based on the TPB's model, attitude (β=0.60) and perceived behavioral control (β=0.24) were the major predictors of intention to exercise among men at the baseline. Among women, the subjective norm (β=0.82) was the major predictor of intention to perform the exercise at the baseline. After 12 weeks, attitude (men's, β=0.68; women's, β=0.24) and subjective norm (men's, β=0.12; women's, β=0.87) were the predictors of the intention to perform the exercise. "Feels healthier with exercise" was the specific factor to improve the intention to perform and to maintain exercise behavior in men (β=0.36) and women (β=0.49). "Not motivated to perform exercise" was the main barrier among men's intention to exercise. The intention to perform the exercise was able to predict actual behavior regarding exercise at the baseline and at 12 weeks of an intervention program. As a conclusion, TPB is a useful model to determine and to predict maintenance of exercise in the sarcopenic elderly.

  18. Applying theory of planned behavior to predict exercise maintenance in sarcopenic elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Shahar, Suzana; Teng, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohd; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among the sarcopenic elderly people in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 65 subjects with mean ages of 67.5±5.2 (men) and 66.1±5.1 (women) years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) exercise group (n=34; 25 men, nine women); and 2) the control group (n=31; 22 men, nine women). Structural equation modeling, based on TPB components, was applied to determine specific factors that most contribute to and predict actual behavior toward exercise. Based on the TPB’s model, attitude (β=0.60) and perceived behavioral control (β=0.24) were the major predictors of intention to exercise among men at the baseline. Among women, the subjective norm (β=0.82) was the major predictor of intention to perform the exercise at the baseline. After 12 weeks, attitude (men’s, β=0.68; women’s, β=0.24) and subjective norm (men’s, β=0.12; women’s, β=0.87) were the predictors of the intention to perform the exercise. “Feels healthier with exercise” was the specific factor to improve the intention to perform and to maintain exercise behavior in men (β=0.36) and women (β=0.49). “Not motivated to perform exercise” was the main barrier among men’s intention to exercise. The intention to perform the exercise was able to predict actual behavior regarding exercise at the baseline and at 12 weeks of an intervention program. As a conclusion, TPB is a useful model to determine and to predict maintenance of exercise in the sarcopenic elderly. PMID:25258524

  19. Solidification behavior during directed light fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, D.J.; Lewis, G.K.; Nemec, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    Directed light fabrication (DLF) is a process that fuses gas delivered metal powders within a focal zone of a laser beam to produce fully dense, 3-dimensional metal components. A variety of materials have been processed with DLF, ranging from steels to tungsten, and including intermetallics such as NiAl and MoSi{sub 2}. To evaluate the processing parameters and resulting microstructures, solidification studies have been performed on defined alloy systems. For example, solidification cooling rates have been determined based upon secondary dendrite arm spacings in Fe-based alloys. In addition, eutectic spacings have been used to define growth velocities during solidification. Cooling rates vary from 10{sup 1}-10{sup 5} K s{sup {minus}1} and growth rates vary between 1--50 mm s{sup {minus}1}. As a result, process definition has been developed based upon the microstructural development during solidification. The materials explored were Ag-19Cu, Fe-24.8Ni, 316 stainless steel, Al-33Cu, W, MoSi{sub 2} and NiAl.

  20. The SELF trial: A self-efficacy-based behavioral intervention trial for weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Burke, Lora E; Ewing, Linda J; Ye, Lei; Styn, Mindi; Zheng, Yaguang; Music, Edvin; Loar, India; Mancino, Juliet; Imes, Christopher C; Hu, Lu; Goode, Rachel; Sereika, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    The SELF Trial examined the effect of adding individual self-efficacy (SE) enhancement sessions to standard behavioral weight loss treatment (SBT). Participants were randomly assigned to SBT or SBT plus SE sessions (SBT+SE). Outcome measures were weight loss maintenance, quality of life, intervention adherence, and self-efficacy at 12 and 18 months. The sample (N = 130) was female (83.08%) with a mean (SD) body mass index of 33.15 (4.11) kg m(2) . There was a significant time effect for percent weight change (P = 0.002) yet no significant group or group-by-time effects. The weight loss for the SBT+SE group was 8.38% (7.48) at 12 months and 8.00% (7.87) at 18 months, with no significant difference between the two time points (P = 0.06). However, weight loss for the SBT group was 6.95% (6.67) at 12 months and 5.96% (7.35) at 18 months, which was significantly different between the two time points (P = 0.005), indicating that the SBT group had significant weight regain. Both groups achieved clinically significant weight loss. The group receiving an intervention targeting enhanced self-efficacy had greater weight loss maintenance whereas the SBT group demonstrated significant weight regain possibly related to the greater attention provided to the SBT+SE group. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Neuroimaging of goal-directed behavior in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Bosak, Kelly; Martin, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Motivational interventions to improve health behaviors based on conventional cognitive and behavioral theories have been extensively studied; however, advances in neuroimaging technology make it possible to assess the neurophysiological basis of health behaviors, such as physical activity. The goals of this approach are to support new interventions to achieve optimal outcomes. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess differences in brain responses in healthy weight to obese midlife women during a goal-directed decision task. Thirty nondiabetic, midlife (age 47-55 years) women with body mass index (BMI) ranging from 18.5 to 40 kg/m were recruited. A descriptive, correlational design was used to assess the relationship between brain activations and weight status. Participants underwent a goal-directed behavior task in the fMRI scanner consisting of a learning and implementation phase. The task was designed to assess both goal-directed and habitual behaviors. One participant was omitted from the analysis because of excessive motion (>4 mm), and six were omitted because of fewer than 50% correct responses on the exit survey. Four participants developed claustrophobia in the scanner and were disqualified from further participation. The remaining 19 participants were included in the final analysis. Brain responses while participants learned goal-directed behavior showed a positive correlation with BMI in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and a negative correlation with BMI in the insula. During the implementation of goal-directed behavior, brain responses in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) negatively correlated with BMI. These results indicate that overweight women activate regions associated with cognitive control to a greater degree than healthy weight women during goal-directed learning. The brain regions activated (dmPFC, dlPFC, insula) are associated with cognitive control and self-regulation. On the other hand

  2. Assessment of alcohol use among methadone maintenance patients by direct ethanol metabolites and self-reports.

    PubMed

    Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Dürsteler-MacFarland, Kenneth M; Auwaerter, Volker; Ergovic, Sonja; Thon, Natasha; Yegles, Michel; Halter, Claudia; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A

    2008-09-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption may accelerate the progression of hepatitis C (HCV)-related liver disease and/or limit efforts at antiviral treatment. As most of the patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) suffer from hepatitis C infection, this study was conducted to identify the alcohol intake among these patients at a Swiss Psychiatric University Clinic by self-reports and direct ethanol metabolites as biomarkers of ethanol consumption. A convenience sample of 40 MMT patients (15 women, 25 men; median age 39 years) of the total 124 patients was asked and consented to participate in this study. This sample was not different in age, gender distribution, and rate of hepatitis C infection from the total sample. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and self-reported ethanol intake during the previous 7 days were assessed. In addition, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine, and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and EtG in hair were determined using LC-MS/MS and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. The limit of quantitation for UEtG, HEtG, and FAEEs were 0.1 mg/l, 2.3 pg/mg, and 0.1 ng/mg, respectively. Fourteen participants reported abstinence from alcohol for the previous 7 days. AUDIT scores were > or =8 in 15 male and >5 in 5 female participants. Direct ethanol metabolites were as follows (median, min, max, standard deviation): UEtG (19 positives; 9.91, 1.38 to 251, 62.39 mg/l); the values of HEtG were 17.65, 0 to 513, 105.62 pg/mg [in 2 cases no material, 8 abstinent (up to 7 pg/mg), 15 social drinkers (up to 50 g per day), and 15 excessive users (>50/60 g/d)]. For the 13 cases, where enough material for additional determination of HFAEEs was available, the values were 0.32, 0 to 1.32, 0.44 ng/mg. Among the 30 HEtG-positive participants, 20 had not reported the corresponding ethanol intake using question 1 (frequency) and 2 (quantity) of the AUDIT. Of the 14 participants reporting no alcohol intake during the previous 7 days, 4 were UEt

  3. Evaluating Sensitivity to Behavioral Change Using Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the researchers evaluated the sensitivity of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) for assessing behavior change in response to an intervention. Included in the analyses were data from 20 completed behavioral consultation cases involving a diverse sample of elementary participants and contexts using a common…

  4. Direct Observation of Teacher and Student Behavior in School Settings: Trends, Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Scott, Terrance M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Wills, Howard P.

    2014-01-01

    Across the modern history of the field of special education and emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD), direct observation of student and educator behavior has been an essential component of the diagnostic process, student progress monitoring, and establishing functional and statistical relationships within research. This article provides an…

  5. Direct Observation of Teacher and Student Behavior in School Settings: Trends, Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Scott, Terrance M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Wills, Howard P.

    2014-01-01

    Across the modern history of the field of special education and emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD), direct observation of student and educator behavior has been an essential component of the diagnostic process, student progress monitoring, and establishing functional and statistical relationships within research. This article provides an…

  6. The ABPN Maintenance of Certification Program for Psychiatrists: Past History, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Larry R.; Tivnan, Patricia W.; Winstead, Daniel K.; Reus, Victor I.; Andrade, Naleen N.; Brooks, Beth Ann; Colenda, Christopher C.; Mrazek, David A.; Reifler, Burton V.; Schneidman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) Maintenance of Certification Program, its underlying rationale, how it will be implemented now, and what it might look like in the future. Methods: The authors describe the philosophical foundation, specific components, and the implementation timeline of the ABPN…

  7. On the Existence of Semantic Working Memory: Evidence for Direct Semantic Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivde, Geeta; Anderson, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of online semantic maintenance, there has been astonishingly little work that clearly establishes this construct. We review the extant work relevant to short-term retention of meaning and show that, although consistent with semantic working memory, most data can be accommodated in other ways.…

  8. The ABPN Maintenance of Certification Program for Psychiatrists: Past History, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Larry R.; Tivnan, Patricia W.; Winstead, Daniel K.; Reus, Victor I.; Andrade, Naleen N.; Brooks, Beth Ann; Colenda, Christopher C.; Mrazek, David A.; Reifler, Burton V.; Schneidman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) Maintenance of Certification Program, its underlying rationale, how it will be implemented now, and what it might look like in the future. Methods: The authors describe the philosophical foundation, specific components, and the implementation timeline of the ABPN…

  9. On the Existence of Semantic Working Memory: Evidence for Direct Semantic Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivde, Geeta; Anderson, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of online semantic maintenance, there has been astonishingly little work that clearly establishes this construct. We review the extant work relevant to short-term retention of meaning and show that, although consistent with semantic working memory, most data can be accommodated in other ways.…

  10. Direct contracting between employers and behavioral healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Ansel, D E; Berte, E R

    1994-01-01

    With the healthcare reform process stalled, direct contracting between employers or business coalitions and regional behavioral healthcare providers remains an effective way for employers to offer enriched managed behavioral healthcare services. This article examines the successful contractual relationship between the Procter & Gamble Company of Cincinnati, OH, and Bethesda Behavioral Health Services, a division of Bethesda Hospital, Inc., a multiservice regional healthcare provider also based in Cincinnati. Although Procter & Gamble has been committed to employee assistance program (EAP) services for more than 15 years, it determined in 1989 that a comprehensive managed care/EAP gateway plan best fit its employee relations philosophy and its need to improve the quality and reduce the cost of behavioral healthcare without reducing benefits. This article describes how that idea evolved into today's successful direct contractual relationship between Procter & Gamble and Bethesda.

  11. Weight-related teasing and non-normative eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss maintenance. A longitudinal mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Claudia; Baldofski, Sabrina; Crosby, Ross D; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-07-01

    Weight loss maintenance is essential for the reduction of obesity-related health impairments. However, only a minority of individuals successfully maintain reduced weight in the long term. Research has provided initial evidence for associations between weight-related teasing (WRT) and greater non-normative eating behaviors. Further, first evidence was found for associations between non-normative eating behaviors and weight loss maintenance. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the predictive value of WRT for weight loss maintenance and the role of non-normative eating behaviors as possible mediators of this relationship. The study was part of the German Weight Control Registry that prospectively followed individuals who had intentionally lost at least 10% of their maximum weight and had maintained this reduced weight for at least one year. In N = 381 participants, retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence, current non-normative eating behaviors (i.e., restrained, external, emotional eating), and change in body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) over two years were examined using self-report assessments. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the assumed mediational relationship. As a result, a greater effect of retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence predicted less successful adult weight loss maintenance over two years. Current emotional eating fully mediated this relationship while current restrained and external eating yielded no mediational effects. Hence, a greater effect of WRT predicted greater current emotional eating, which in turn predicted a smaller decrease or a greater increase in BMI. Our findings suggest that suffering from WRT during childhood and adolescence might lead to emotional eating which in turn impairs long-term weight loss maintenance. Thus, our results highlight the need for interventions aiming at reducing weight stigmatization and targeting emotional eating for successful long-term weight loss maintenance

  12. Exploring behavioral markers of long-term physical activity maintenance: a case study of system identification modeling within a behavioral intervention.

    PubMed

    Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Morgan, Adrienne Aiken; McCrae, Christina S; Roberts, Beverly L; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects and identifying key behavioral patterns that may foster behavioral maintenance. The Active Adult Mentoring Program was a 16-week randomized controlled trial of a group-based, peer-delivered physical activity intervention targeting older adults. Time-intensive (i.e., daily) physical activity reports were collected throughout the intervention. We explored differential patterns of behavior among participants who received the active intervention (N = 34; 88% women, 64.1 ± 8.3 years of age) and either maintained 150 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA; n = 10) or did not (n = 24) at 18 months following the intervention period. We used dynamical systems modeling to explore whether key intervention components (i.e., self-monitoring, access to an exercise facility, behavioral initiation training, behavioral maintenance training) and theoretically plausible behavioral covariates (i.e., indoor vs. outdoor activity) predicted differential patterns of behavior among maintainers and nonmaintainers. We found that maintainers took longer to reach a steady-state of MVPA. At week 10 of the intervention, nonmaintainers began to drop whereas maintainers increased MVPA. Self-monitoring, behavioral initiation training, percentage of outdoor activity, and behavioral maintenance training, but not access to an exercise facility, were key variables that explained patterns of change among maintainers. Future studies should be conducted to systematically explore these concepts within a priori idiographic (i.e., N-of-1) experimental designs.

  13. Use of Direct Behavior Ratings to Collect Functional Assessment Data.

    PubMed

    Kilgus, Stephen P; Kazmerski, Jennifer S; Taylor, Crystal N; von der Embse, Nathaniel P

    2016-05-30

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the utility of Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS) methodology in collecting functional behavior assessment data. Specific questions of interest pertained to the evaluation of the accuracy of brief DBR-SIS ratings of behavioral consequences and determination of the type of training necessary to support such accuracy. Undergraduate student participants (N = 213; 62.0% male; 62.4% White) viewed video clips of students in a classroom setting, and then rated both disruptive behavior and 4 consequences of that behavior (i.e., adult attention, peer attention, escape/avoidance, and access to tangibles/activities). Results indicated training with performance feedback was necessary to support the generation of accurate disruptive behavior and consequence ratings. Participants receiving such support outperformed students in training-only, pretest-posttest, and posttest-only groups for disruptive behavior and all 4 DBR-SIS consequence targets. Future directions for research and implications for practice are discussed, including how teacher ratings may be collected along with other forms of assessment (e.g., progress monitoring) within an efficient Tier 2 assessment model. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Comparison of an alternative schedule of extended care contacts to a self-directed control: a randomized trial of weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Gareth R; Gowey, Marissa A; Tan, Fei; Zhou, Dali; Ard, Jamy; Perri, Michael G; Lewis, Cora E

    2017-08-15

    Behavioral interventions for obesity produce clinically meaningful weight loss, but weight regain following treatment is common. Extended care programs attenuate weight regain and improve weight loss maintenance. However, less is known about the most effective ways to deliver extended care, including contact schedules. We compared the 12-month weight regain of an extended care program utilizing a non-conventional, clustered campaign treatment schedule and a self-directed program among individuals who previously achieved ≥5% weight reductions. Participants (N = 108; mean age = 51.6 years; mean weight = 92.6 kg; 52% African American; 95% female) who achieved ≥5% weight loss during an initial 16-week behavioral obesity treatment were randomized into a 2-arm, 12-month extended care trial. A clustered campaign condition included 12 group-based visits delivered in three, 4-week clusters. A self-directed condition included provision of the same printed intervention materials but no additional treatment visits. The study was conducted in a U.S. academic medical center from 2011 to 2015. Prior to randomization, participants lost an average of -7.55 ± 3.04 kg. Participants randomized to the 12-month clustered campaign program regained significantly less weight (0.35 ± 4.62 kg) than self-directed participants (2.40 ± 3.99 kg), which represented a significant between-group difference of 2.28 kg (p = 0.0154) after covariate adjustments. This corresponded to maintaining 87% and 64% of lost weight in the clustered campaign and self-directed conditions, respectively, which was a significant between-group difference of 29% maintenance of lost weight after covariate adjustments, p = 0.0396. In this initial test of a clustered campaign treatment schedule, this novel approach effectively promoted 12-month maintenance of lost weight. Future trials should directly compare the clustered campaigns with conventional (e.g., monthly) extended care schedules

  15. Direct Behavior Rating Instrumentation: Evaluating the Impact of Scale Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Schardt, Alyssa A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of two different Direct Behavior Rating--Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS) formats on rating accuracy. A total of 119 undergraduate students participated in one of two study conditions, each utilizing a different DBR-SIS scale format: one that included percentage of time anchors on the DBR-SIS…

  16. Directions of Effects between Adolescent Psychopathic Traits and Parental Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salihovic, Selma; Kerr, Margaret; Ozdemir, Metin; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behaviors. The data are from a community-based cohort-sequential study. Data were collected annually over 4 years. Participants were 875 adolescents, aged 13-15 at Time 1, and we analyzed their reports of negative and positive parental…

  17. Locus of control as predictive of goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Collins, H A; Taylor, G A; Burger, G K

    1976-04-01

    EEO Upward Mobility Program participants were compared with three different control groups along I-E locus of control dimensions. With this instrument and these Ss, no significant differences were found when participation in the program was used as an indicator of goal-directed behavior.

  18. Cognitive behavior therapy after acquired brain injury: maintenance of therapeutic benefits at 6 months posttreatment.

    PubMed

    Arundine, April; Bradbury, Cheryl L; Dupuis, Kate; Dawson, Deirdre R; Ruttan, Lesley A; Green, Robin E A

    2012-01-01

    To examine whether 6-month posttreatment acquired brain injury (ABI) patients receiving cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) adapted for ABI would demonstrate (1) maintenance of psychological benefits, (2) better community integration, and (3) commensurate benefits for both teletherapy and face-to-face group therapy. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between coping strategies and mood and community integration. Seventeen chronic ABI patients with elevated psychological distress. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21), Community Integration Questionnaire, and the Ways of Coping questionnaire, revised. Eleven CBT sessions provided either in a face-to-face group format or individually by telephone with outcomes measured pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 6-month follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, full-group scores were significantly better than pretreatment for psychological distress (t(16) = 6.22, P < .01, SCL-90-R; t(16) = 7.32, P < .01, DASS-21) and for community integration (t(16) = -6.15, P < .01), with negligible decrements from immediately posttreatment. Subgroup scores were comparable. Coping also improved but was uncorrelated with mood or community integration. The CBT adapted for ABI shows enduring benefits for mood and community integration. The efficacy of teletherapy obviates service access problems related to geographical remoteness and mobility restrictions. A larger, randomized, control trial that examines underlying mechanisms of efficacy is needed.

  19. Exploring Behavioral Markers of Long-Term Physical Activity Maintenance: A Case Study of System Identification Modeling within a Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekler, Eric B.; Buman, Matthew P.; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Aiken Morgan, Adrienne; McCrae, Christina S.; Roberts, Beverly L.; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects…

  20. Exploring Behavioral Markers of Long-Term Physical Activity Maintenance: A Case Study of System Identification Modeling within a Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekler, Eric B.; Buman, Matthew P.; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Aiken Morgan, Adrienne; McCrae, Christina S.; Roberts, Beverly L.; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects…

  1. Owners' direct gazes increase dogs' attention-getting behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ohkita, Midori; Nagasawa, Miho; Kazutaka, Mogi; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether dogs gain information about human's attention via their gazes and whether they change their attention-getting behaviors (i.e., whining and whimpering, looking at their owners' faces, pawing, and approaching their owners) in response to their owners' direct gazes. The results showed that when the owners gazed at their dogs, the durations of whining and whimpering and looking at the owners' faces were longer than when the owners averted their gazes. In contrast, there were no differences in duration of pawing and likelihood of approaching the owners between the direct and averted gaze conditions. Therefore, owners' direct gazes increased the behaviors that acted as distant signals and did not necessarily involve touching the owners. We suggest that dogs are sensitive to human gazes, and this sensitivity may act as attachment signals to humans, and may contribute to close relationships between humans and dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches to Chronic Pain: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and highlights recent research advances and future research directions concerned with behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches to chronic pain. Reviews assessment research on studies of social context of pain, relationship of chronic pain to depression, cognitive variables affecting pain, and comprehensive assessment measures.…

  3. Goal-directed, habitual and Pavlovian prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Gęsiarz, Filip; Crockett, Molly J

    2015-01-01

    Although prosocial behaviors have been widely studied across disciplines, the mechanisms underlying them are not fully understood. Evidence from psychology, biology and economics suggests that prosocial behaviors can be driven by a variety of seemingly opposing factors: altruism or egoism, intuition or deliberation, inborn instincts or learned dispositions, and utility derived from actions or their outcomes. Here we propose a framework inspired by research on reinforcement learning and decision making that links these processes and explains characteristics of prosocial behaviors in different contexts. More specifically, we suggest that prosocial behaviors inherit features of up to three decision-making systems employed to choose between self- and other- regarding acts: a goal-directed system that selects actions based on their predicted consequences, a habitual system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history, and a Pavlovian system that emits reflexive responses based on evolutionarily prescribed priors. This framework, initially described in the field of cognitive neuroscience and machine learning, provides insight into the potential neural circuits and computations shaping prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, it identifies specific conditions in which each of these three systems should dominate and promote other- or self- regarding behavior.

  4. Impact of pharmacists' directive guidance behaviors on patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Puneet K; Gupchup, Gireesh V; Raisch, Dennis W; Schommer, Jon C; Holdsworth, Mark T

    2002-01-01

    To determine the impact of directive guidance (DG) behaviors by pharmacists on patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care services. DG behaviors are social support behaviors and include such activities as supplying information about medications and providing encouragement and feedback regarding drug therapy. Cross-sectional observational study using a self-administered survey. Two university-affiliated ambulatory care clinics, two chain pharmacies, and one independent pharmacy. One hundred sixty patients with a chronic disease (e.g., asthma, hypertension, diabetes). Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care services. A total of 160 completed questionnaires were collected from patients at 5 sites. Overall, patients patronizing ambulatory care clinics perceived higher rates of DG behaviors and were more satisfied with pharmaceutical care services, compared with patients in community pharmacies (P < .05). The hierarchical regression model was significant (F(13,112) = 4.9091, P < .001). DG behaviors explained 32.4% (P < .001) of the variance in patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care services. Higher rates of DG behaviors by pharmacists are associated with greater patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care services.

  5. Goal-directed, habitual and Pavlovian prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gęsiarz, Filip; Crockett, Molly J.

    2015-01-01

    Although prosocial behaviors have been widely studied across disciplines, the mechanisms underlying them are not fully understood. Evidence from psychology, biology and economics suggests that prosocial behaviors can be driven by a variety of seemingly opposing factors: altruism or egoism, intuition or deliberation, inborn instincts or learned dispositions, and utility derived from actions or their outcomes. Here we propose a framework inspired by research on reinforcement learning and decision making that links these processes and explains characteristics of prosocial behaviors in different contexts. More specifically, we suggest that prosocial behaviors inherit features of up to three decision-making systems employed to choose between self- and other- regarding acts: a goal-directed system that selects actions based on their predicted consequences, a habitual system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history, and a Pavlovian system that emits reflexive responses based on evolutionarily prescribed priors. This framework, initially described in the field of cognitive neuroscience and machine learning, provides insight into the potential neural circuits and computations shaping prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, it identifies specific conditions in which each of these three systems should dominate and promote other- or self- regarding behavior. PMID:26074797

  6. Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on insomnia of maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongmei; Hu, Peicheng; Liang, Yanping; Mo, Zhanyu

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy [sleep-related behavior modification and progressive muscle relaxation on insomnia of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients] on improving insomnia of MHD patients. 103 MHD patients complicated with insomnia were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 52) and control (n = 51) groups. The control group was treated with conventional hemodialysis, and the treatment group was additionally treated with cognitive behavioral therapy for 3 months (sleep-related behavior modification and progressive muscle relaxation). All cases were assessed by Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after treatment. Fifty-one patients in the treatment group and 47 patients in the control group completed the experiments. After treatment, the total mean scores were (1.94 ± 0.50/2.29 ± 0.31); scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, hostility, and additional items were (1.87 ± 0.58/2.56 ± 0.26), (2.25 ± 0.80/2.79 ± 0.50), (1.79 ± 0.26/2.37 ± 0.34), (1.71 ± 0.46/2.25 ± 0.43), and (1.91 ± 0.67/2.26 ± 0.59) in SCL-90, respectively. The total scores for PSQI were (12.63 ± 2.27/16.40 ± 2.16); scores of subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, hypnotics, and daytime dysfunction which were (1.98 ± 0.76/2.57 ± 0.58), (1.75 ± 0.59/2.60 ± 0.50), (2.10 ± 0.50/2.62 ± 0.53), (2.06 ± 0.47/2.57 ± 0.54), (2.04 ± 0.69/2.45 ± 0.72), (1.02 ± 0.79/1.51 ± 0.98), and (1.69 ± 0.55/2.09 ± 0.58), respectively, were significantly lower in the treatment group compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the scores of factors of obsessive-compulsive (2.26 ± 0.62/2.32 ± 0.38), interpersonal sensitivity (2.23 ± 0.64/2.43 ± 0.47), phobic anxiety (1.98 ± 0.62/2.01 ± 0.67), paranoid ideation (1.55 ± 0.43/1.69 ± 0.39), and

  7. Preterm Infants’ Orally Directed Behaviors and Behavioral State Responses to the Integrated H-HOPE Intervention

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Emerita; Rankin, Kristin M.; Pham, Thao; Li, Zhuoying; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Preterm infants are challenged by immature infant behavioral organization which may negatively influence their ability to oral feed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the integrated H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention would improve infant behavioral organization by increasing the frequency of orally directed behaviors and the proportion of time spent in an alert behavioral state when offered prior to oral feeding. Mother–infant dyads (n = 198) were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention or the Attention Control groups. Infants were born at 29 to 34 weeks gestation and were clinically stable. Mothers had at least two social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant directed stimulation using the ATVV intervention (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular stimuli) and (2) maternal participatory guidance sessions by a nurse-community advocate team. Orally directed behaviors and behavioral states were assessed weekly prior to feeding during hospitalization when infants were able to feed orally. There were no differences between the groups at baseline (Day 0, prior to the initiation of the integrated H-HOPE intervention). We observed a pattern of increased frequency of orally directed behaviors in the H-HOPE intervention group when compared to the Attention Control group, however, the proportion of time spent in an alert behavioral state remained stable in both groups over the course of the study. On Day 7, the H-HOPE intervention group exhibited a significantly higher mean frequency of orally directed behaviors than the Attention Control group (12.6 vs. 7.1 pre-intervention, 51.8 vs. 33.2 during intervention, 4.3 vs. 3.2 immediately after intervention, and 8.9 vs. 5.3 immediately prior to feeding). On Day 7, the H-HOPE intervention group exhibited a significantly higher proportion of

  8. Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure Characteristics of Directionally Solidified TWIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Kun; Man, Jianfeng; Yang, Jianzhong; Han, Fusheng

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical behavior and microstructure characteristics of three high Mn austenitic steels prepared by directional solidification at withdrawal rates of 60, 120, and 240 μm s-1 were investigated and compared with common TWIP steel with equiaxed grains. For each steel, the Hollomon analysis, differential C-J analysis, and modified C-J analysis as an alternative method to describe the work-hardening behavior were studied. The directionally solidified samples (DS samples) exhibited higher mechanical properties along the axis, five stages (A, B, C, D, and E) divided on the plot of stain hardening rate vs true strain, and a more stable and uniform deformation feature with larger strain-hardening coefficients when the true strain is over 0.25, in comparison with the common TWIP steel. The modified C-J analysis was found to be the best one for revealing the strain-hardening behavior characterized by several different stages with a definite work-hardening exponent n. In the case of DS samples, the dendrite spacings increase but the morphology becomes simple when decreasing the withdrawal rate. The larger volume fraction of twins and prevalent activation of twin systems, together with the fragmentations of the original grains in a sample solidified at a withdrawal rate of 120 μm s-1, lead to the best mechanical behavior in a medium-to-large strain range.

  9. Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior According Tofiber Arraying Direction for Load Direction Inwoven CFRP Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jung-Hun; Kang, Min-Sung; Koo, Jae-Mean; Seok, Chang-Sung; Kim, Hyung-Ick

    The fatigue crack propagation of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced composite material) laminates is of current interest, particularly with regard to their durability under fatigue loading. Recently, carbon fiber reinforced composite materials (Woven fabric) are widely used in various fields of engineering because of its advanced properties. Then, many researchers have studied woven fabric CFRP materials but fatigue crack propagation behaviors for composites have not been still standardized . It shows the different crack propagation behavior according to load and fiber direction. Therefore, there is a need to consider fatigue crack propagation behavior in conformity with fiber arraying direction to load direction at designing structure using woven CFRP materials. In this study, therefore, the fatigue crack propagation for plain woven CFRP composite materials was investigated under two different fiber array direction (fiber arraying direction to load : 0°, 45°). Fatigue crack propagation tests of the woven CFRP composite were conducted under sinusoidal wave-form with stress ratios of 0.3 at a frequency of 10Hz, respectively. As a result of test, fatigue crack propagation rates (da/dN) were plotted against the stress-intensity factor amplitude (ΔK) and other factor. Also we compared ΔK with other factor that considering in-plain anisotropy. All of tests of fatigue crack propagation were carried out under mode I opening loading by using compact tension specimens.

  10. AGAMOUS Terminates Floral Stem Cell Maintenance in Arabidopsis by Directly Repressing WUSCHEL through Recruitment of Polycomb Group Proteins[W

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xigang; Kim, Yun Ju; Müller, Ralf; Yumul, Rae Eden; Liu, Chunyan; Pan, Yanyun; Cao, Xiaofeng; Goodrich, Justin; Chen, Xuemei

    2011-01-01

    Floral stem cells produce a defined number of floral organs before ceasing to be maintained as stem cells. Therefore, floral stem cells offer an ideal model to study the temporal control of stem cell maintenance within a developmental context. AGAMOUS (AG), a MADS domain transcription factor essential for the termination of floral stem cell fate, has long been thought to repress the stem cell maintenance gene WUSCHEL (WUS) indirectly. Here, we uncover a role of Polycomb Group (PcG) genes in the temporally precise repression of WUS expression and termination of floral stem cell fate. We show that AG directly represses WUS expression by binding to the WUS locus and recruiting, directly or indirectly, PcG that methylates histone H3 Lys-27 at WUS. We also show that PcG acts downstream of AG and probably in parallel with the known AG target KNUCKLES to terminate floral stem cell fate. Our studies identify core components of the network governing the temporal program of floral stem cells. PMID:22028461

  11. Mediodorsal Thalamus Hypofunction Impairs Flexible Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Taylor, Kathleen; Bolkan, Scott S.; Ward, Ryan D.; Balsam, Peter D.; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive inflexibility is a core symptom of several mental disorders including schizophrenia. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients performing cognitive tasks have reported decreased activation of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Using a pharmacogenetic approach to model MD hypofunction we recently showed that decreasing MD activity impairs reversal learning in mice. While this demonstrates causality between MD hypofunction and cognitive inflexibility, questions remain about the elementary cognitive processes that account for the deficit. Methods Using the ‘Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs’ (DREADD) system we reversibly decreased MD activity during behavioral tasks assessing elementary cognitive processes inherent to flexible goal-directed behaviors including extinction, contingency degradation, outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (n=134 mice). Results While MD hypofunction impaired reversal learning, it did not affect the ability to learn about non-rewarded cues nor the ability to modulate action selection based on the outcome value. In contrast, decreasing MD activity delayed the ability to adapt to changes in the contingency between actions and their outcomes. In addition, while Pavlovian learning was not affected by MD hypofunction, decreasing MD activity during Pavlovian learning impaired the ability of conditioned stimuli to modulate instrumental behavior. Conclusion MD hypofunction causes cognitive inflexibility reflected by an inability to adapt actions when their consequences change. Furthermore, it alters the encoding of environmental stimuli so that they cannot be properly utilized to guide behavior. Modulating MD activity could be a potential therapeutic strategy for promoting adaptive behavior in human subjects with cognitive inflexibility. PMID:24813335

  12. Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, R. L.; Mueller, Robert P.; Weiland, Mark A.; Johnson, P. N.

    2001-10-19

    This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas.

  13. Tier II Interventions within the Framework of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Essential Features for Design, Implementation, and Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Borgmeier, Chris

    2010-01-01

    To meet the complex social behavioral and academic needs of all students, schools benefit from having available multiple evidence-based interventions of varying intensity. School-wide positive behavior support provides a framework within which a continuum of evidence-based interventions can be implemented in a school. This framework includes three levels or tiers of intervention; Tier I (primary or universal), Tier II (secondary or targeted), and Tier III (tertiary or individualized) supports. In this paper we review the logic behind school-wide positive behavior support and then focus on Tier II interventions, as this level of support has received the least attention in the literature. We delineate the key features of Tier II interventions as implemented within school-wide positive behavior support, provide guidelines for matching Tier II interventions to school and student needs, and describe how schools plan for implementation and maintenance of selected interventions.

  14. Maintenance Performance System. Guide for Individual Technical Training in Direct Support Units. Volume 1. Training Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    ELECTE ~W,% 0 119849ff E U. S. Army B... Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences 0D C.1) January 1984 rn-mi Approved for public relemse...new soldiers who have come in. (Indicates system operator has not been maintaining MPS-4-Roster Update accurately.) e "N" opposite soldier’s name on...systematically gathered and analyzed. The procedure for identifying training objectives consists of a sequence of related steps, as follows: e Become

  15. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Nicole M.; Tomaszycki, Michelle L.; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  16. Nonlinear aspects of the motion behavior of directional wave buoys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.T.; Teng, C.C.

    1994-12-31

    The possibility of nonlinear behavior in the motions of two classes of widely used directional wave buoys is investigated. One is a spherical buoy with a large underwater drag sting. The other is the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) 3-meter (10-ft) discuss buoy. The motions of the buoys are calculated by using a time domain model and a frequency domain model which uses an equivalent linearization technique to approximate the nonlinear hydrodynamic drag. The existence of nonlinear behavior is determined by directly examining the output of the equivalent linearization code, and by using Hilbert and spectral analysis techniques on the output of the time domain code. It is found that the motions of the discuss buoy are only weakly nonlinear. In particular, the motion transfer functions show only moderately small variations in different sea states. The spherical buoy pitch motion shows strongly nonlinear behavior in the presence of high sea states. In these cases, the buoy pitch transfer function shows a strong dependence on the wave height which is used.

  17. Nuclear HMGA1 nonhistone chromatin proteins directly influence mitochondrial transcription, maintenance, and function

    SciTech Connect

    Dement, Gregory A.; Maloney, Scott C.; Reeves, Raymond . E-mail: reevesr@mail.wsu.edu

    2007-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that HMGA1 proteins translocate from the nucleus to mitochondria and bind to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) at the D-loop control region [G.A. Dement, N.R. Treff, N.S. Magnuson, V. Franceschi, R. Reeves, Dynamic mitochondrial localization of nuclear transcription factor HMGA1, Exp. Cell Res. 307 (2005) 388-401.] [11]. To elucidate possible physiological roles for such binding, we employed methods to analyze mtDNA transcription, mitochondrial maintenance, and other organelle functions in transgenic human MCF-7 cells (HA7C) induced to over-express an HA-tagged HMGA1 protein and control (parental) MCF-7 cells. Quantitative real-time (RT) PCR analyses demonstrated that mtDNA levels were reduced approximately 2-fold in HMGA1 over-expressing HA7C cells and flow cytometric analyses further revealed that mitochondrial mass was significantly reduced in these cells. Cellular ATP levels were also reduced in HA7C cells and survival studies showed an increased sensitivity to killing by 2-deoxy-D-glucose, a glycolysis-specific inhibitor. Flow cytometric analyses revealed additional mitochondrial abnormalities in HA7C cells that are consistent with a cancerous phenotype: namely, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}). Additional RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that gene transcripts from both the heavy (ND2, COXI, ATP6) and light (ND6) strands of mtDNA were up-regulated approximately 3-fold in HA7C cells. Together, these mitochondrial changes are consistent with many previous reports and reveal several possible mechanisms by which HMGA1 over-expression, a common feature of naturally occurring cancers, may affect tumor progression.

  18. Population behaviors and language maintenance--a case of the Korean-speaking community in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingsheng

    2004-01-01

    With the regard to language maintenance, one of the most successful in over fifty of ethno-linguistic communities in China is the Korean community with more than two millions of Korean-speakers, in which there have been Regulations Regarding the Ethnic Language Use, and a maintenance-orientated and bilingual education system. However, language attrition comes to be occurring in the Korean community because more than two hundred thousands of Korean-speaking migrants have streamed from the Korean-rural community to the Chinese-urban community for the last twenty years. This paper, in urban-anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives, is aiming at an analysis of the cause of population moves and the urbanization process of the Korean community as well as their impact on the language maintenance and bilingual education in the Korean community. It is mainly divided into four sections, namely, (1) the situation of Korean-speaking community; (2) the problem of language maintenance; (3) the impact of Korean-speakers moves on language maintenance; (4) the impact of negative growth of population, and (5) the impact of uneven ratio of female population.

  19. Prospective risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviour in adolescents with onset, maintenance or cessation of direct self-injurious behaviour.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Julian; Brunner, Romuald; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Parzer, Peter; Plener, Paul L; Park, JiYeon; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Direct self-injurious behaviour (D-SIB) is associated with suicidal behaviour and suicide risk. It is not known if D-SIB cessation reduces these risks. The aim of this study was to explore trajectories of D-SIB and their prospective influence on suicidal thoughts and behaviour during adolescence. Data (n = 506; 62.06 % females, 14.53 years) from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study were analysed. D-SIB and suicidal thoughts and behaviour were assessed at baseline (T0), 1- (T1) and 2-year follow-up (T2). Onset and maintenance of D-SIB between T0 and T1 were associated with a two to threefold increased odds ratio for suicidal thoughts and behaviour at T2. Suicidal thoughts and behaviour in those terminating D-SIB before T1 were similar compared to those with no life-time history of D-SIB. Late onset and maintenance of D-SIB prospectively indicate risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviour. This is the first study showing that D-SIB cessation reduces later risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviour in adolescence. Suicide prevention efforts should set one focus on reducing adolescent D-SIB.

  20. Superresolution microscopy reveals a dynamic picture of cell polarity maintenance during directional growth.

    PubMed

    Ishitsuka, Yuji; Savage, Natasha; Li, Yiming; Bergs, Anna; Grün, Nathalie; Kohler, Daria; Donnelly, Rebecca; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Fischer, Reinhard; Takeshita, Norio

    2015-11-01

    Polar (directional) cell growth, a key cellular mechanism shared among a wide range of species, relies on targeted insertion of new material at specific locations of the plasma membrane. How these cell polarity sites are stably maintained during massive membrane insertion has remained elusive. Conventional live-cell optical microscopy fails to visualize polarity site formation in the crowded cell membrane environment because of its limited resolution. We have used advanced live-cell imaging techniques to directly observe the localization, assembly, and disassembly processes of cell polarity sites with high spatiotemporal resolution in a rapidly growing filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans. We show that the membrane-associated polarity site marker TeaR is transported on microtubules along with secretory vesicles and forms a protein cluster at that point of the apical membrane where the plus end of the microtubule touches. There, a small patch of membrane is added through exocytosis, and the TeaR cluster gets quickly dispersed over the membrane. There is an incessant disassembly and reassembly of polarity sites at the growth zone, and each new polarity site locus is slightly offset from preceding ones. On the basis of our imaging results and computational modeling, we propose a transient polarity model that explains how cell polarity is stably maintained during highly active directional growth.

  1. Direct Behavior Rating: A Review of the Issues and Research in Its Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual foundation for Direct Behavior Rating as a behavior assessment method is reviewed. A contemporary definition of Direct Behavior Rating is framed as combining strengths of systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales, which may result in a usable and defensible assessment tool for educators engaged in formative purposes.…

  2. Direct Behavior Rating: A Review of the Issues and Research in Its Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual foundation for Direct Behavior Rating as a behavior assessment method is reviewed. A contemporary definition of Direct Behavior Rating is framed as combining strengths of systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales, which may result in a usable and defensible assessment tool for educators engaged in formative purposes.…

  3. Direct behavior rating as a school-based behavior screener for elementary and middle grades.

    PubMed

    Chafouleas, Sandra M; Kilgus, Stephen P; Jaffery, Rose; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Welsh, Megan; Christ, Theodore J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS) involving targets of academically engaged, disruptive, and respectful behaviors function in school-based screening assessment. Participants included 831 students in kindergarten through eighth grades who attended schools in the northeastern United States. Teachers provided behavior ratings for a sample of students in their classrooms on the DBR-SIS, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), and the Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994). Given variations in rating procedures to accommodate scheduling differences across grades, analysis was conducted separately for elementary school and middle school grade levels. Results suggested that the recommended cut scores, the combination of behavior targets, and the resulting conditional probability indices varied depending on grade level grouping (lower elementary, upper elementary, middle). For example, for the lower elementary grade level grouping, a combination of disruptive behavior (cut score=2) and academically engaged behavior (cut score=8) was considered to offer the best balance among indices of diagnostic accuracy, whereas a cut score of 1 for disruptive behavior and 8 for academically engaged behavior were recommended for the upper elementary school grade level grouping and cut scores of 1 and 9, respectively, were suggested for middle school grade level grouping. Generally, DBR-SIS cut scores considered optimal for screening using single or combined targets including academically engaged behavior and disruptive behavior by offering a reasonable balance of indices for sensitivity (.51-.90), specificity (.47-.83), negative predictive power (.94-.98), and positive predictive power (.14-.41). The single target of respectful behavior performed poorly across all grade level groups, and performance of DBR-SIS targets was relatively better in the elementary school than middle

  4. Maintenance and Decay of Past Behavior Influences: Anchoring Attitudes on Beliefs Following Inconsistent Actions

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; McNatt, Penny S.

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated the influence of past behavior on the stability of the attitudes it elicits. In Experiment 1, the effect of a bogus behavior feedback was long lasting when people engaged in biased scanning, presumably because this process elicits behavior-consistent beliefs. In contrast, the effect of the feedback decayed when participants were forced to consider whether the behavior might have undesirable outcomes. A second experiment using a different behavioral paradigm and a field study further supported the interpretation that individuals resolve conflict between a past behavior and subsequent beliefs about it by aligning attitudes with beliefs instead of behavior. PMID:15833901

  5. Frequency and structure of precautionary behavior in the domains of hazard preparedness, crime prevention, vehicular safety, and health maintenance.

    PubMed

    Norris, F H

    1997-11-01

    A sample of 831 adults were interviewed by researchers using a 72-item inventory about their precautionary behaviors and attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted on random halves of the sample provided evidence of consistency and structure in precautionary behavior both within and across domains of concern. Hazard preparedness activities clustered into having basic supplies on hand, advance planning, and hazard alertness. Crime prevention acts organized according to person protection, neighborly cooperation, and professional guidance. Vehicular safety factored into auto care, responsible driving, and seat belt use. Health maintenance activities entailed healthy habits (diet and exercise), risk monitoring, and avoiding tobacco and alcohol. Higher order factor analyses evidenced intra-individual consistency in the use of Disciplined, Vigilant, and Proactive Behaviors across precautionary domains. At all levels, perceptions of the usefulness of precautionary measures were related strongly to the frequency of self-protective acts.

  6. Abstract structural representations of goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kachina; Ibara, Steven; Seymour, Amy; Cordova, Natalia; Botvinick, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Linguistic theory holds that the structure of a sentence can be described in abstract syntactic terms, independent of the specific words the sentence contains. Nonlinguistic behavior, including goal-directed action, is also theorized to have an underlying structural, or "syntactic," organization. We propose that purposive action sequences are represented cognitively in terms of a means-ends parse, which is a formal specification of how actions fit together to accomplish desired outcomes. To test this theory, we leveraged the phenomenon of structural priming in two experiments. As predicted, participants read sentences describing action sequences faster when these sentences were presented amid other sentences sharing the same parse. Results from a second experiment indicate that the underlying representations relevant to observed action sequences are not strictly tied to language processing. Our results suggest that the structure of goal-directed behavior may be represented abstractly, independently of specific actions and goals, just as linguistic syntax is thought to stand independent of other levels of representation.

  7. Direct behavioral evidence for retronasal olfaction in rats.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Verhagen, Justus V

    2012-01-01

    The neuroscience of flavor perception is becoming increasingly important to understand abnormal feeding behaviors and associated chronic diseases such as obesity. Yet, flavor research has mainly depended on human subjects due to the lack of an animal model. A crucial step towards establishing an animal model of flavor research is to determine whether the animal uses the retronasal mode of olfaction, an essential element of flavor perception. We designed a go- no go behavioral task to test the rat's ability to detect and discriminate retronasal odorants. In this paradigm, tasteless aqueous solutions of odorants were licked by water-restricted head-fixed rats from a lick spout. Orthonasal contamination was avoided by employing a combination of a vacuum around the lick-spout and blowing clean air toward the nose. Flow models support the effectiveness of both approaches. The licked odorants were successfully discriminated by rats. Moreover, the tasteless odorant amyl acetate was reliably discriminated against pure distilled water in a concentration-dependent manner. The results from this retronasal odor discrimination task suggest that rats are capable of smelling retronasally. This direct behavioral evidence establishes the rat as a useful animal model for flavor research.

  8. Direct Behavioral Evidence for Retronasal Olfaction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2012-01-01

    The neuroscience of flavor perception is becoming increasingly important to understand abnormal feeding behaviors and associated chronic diseases such as obesity. Yet, flavor research has mainly depended on human subjects due to the lack of an animal model. A crucial step towards establishing an animal model of flavor research is to determine whether the animal uses the retronasal mode of olfaction, an essential element of flavor perception. We designed a go- no go behavioral task to test the rat's ability to detect and discriminate retronasal odorants. In this paradigm, tasteless aqueous solutions of odorants were licked by water-restricted head-fixed rats from a lick spout. Orthonasal contamination was avoided by employing a combination of a vacuum around the lick-spout and blowing clean air toward the nose. Flow models support the effectiveness of both approaches. The licked odorants were successfully discriminated by rats. Moreover, the tasteless odorant amyl acetate was reliably discriminated against pure distilled water in a concentration-dependent manner. The results from this retronasal odor discrimination task suggest that rats are capable of smelling retronasally. This direct behavioral evidence establishes the rat as a useful animal model for flavor research. PMID:22970305

  9. Twelve-Month Prevalence of DSM-5 Gambling Disorder and Associated Gambling Behaviors Among Those Receiving Methadone Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Himelhoch, Seth S; Miles-McLean, Haley; Medoff, Deborah; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Rugle, Loreen; Brownley, Julie; Bailey-Kloch, Marie; Potts, Wendy; Welsh, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to: (1) determine the prevalence of gambling disorder using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Version 5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, 2013) criteria; (2) identify the frequency and amount of money spent on gambling behaviors; and (3) determine demographic and treatment related predictors associated with gambling disorder in a substance using population. People receiving methadone maintenance treatment (N = 185) in an urban medical center consented to participate in the study. We used DSM-5 criteria to assess the 12-month prevalence of gambling disorder. Questions adapted from a previously developed measure were used to identify, describe and quantify the frequency of use and amount of money spent on gambling behaviors. Most participants were African-American (71.4 %), male (54.1 %), unmarried (76.8 %), unemployed (88.1 %) and had an income of <$20,000 (88.5 %). On average, participants were receiving 81.0 mg of methadone (SD: 22.8) daily. Nearly half (46.2 %) of participants met DSM-5 criteria for gambling disorder. Compared to those without gambling disorder, those with gambling disorder did not differ significantly with respect to demographic characteristics nor methadone dose. However, those with gambling disorder had been in methadone maintenance treatment for significantly less time. Those with gambling disorder were significantly more likely to report engaging in a variety of gambling behaviors. Given that the 12-month prevalence of DSM-5 defined gambling disorder was nearly 50 % future efforts to screen and treat gambling disorder in the context of methadone maintenance treatment are clearly warranted.

  10. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for aggression and self-injurious behavior in two adolescents with autism and catatonia.

    PubMed

    Haq, Aazaz U; Ghaziuddin, Neera

    2014-01-01

    Frequent aggression toward others and repetitive self-injurious behaviors (SIB) can be features of catatonia in patients with autism. Similar to catatonia secondary to other etiologies, catatonia associated with autism responds well to treatment with benzodiazepines and/or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The authors report here on two adolescent patients with autism who presented with severe aggression, one of whom also engaged in repetitive SIB. With ongoing treatment with maintenance ECT, dramatic reduction in aggression and SIB were noted, allowing both patients a reasonable quality of life in their own homes. Attempts to taper off ECT coincided with return of aggression symptoms, although not SIB.

  11. Rheology behaviors of stable electrohydrodynamic direct-write jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Gaofeng; Xu, Lei; Wang, Han; Li, Wenwang

    2016-10-01

    Electrohydrodynamic direct-write (EDW) is a novel direct-write technology to fabricate micro/nano-structures from viscoelastic solution, which had displayed great application potential in organic electronic device. Due to the shorter spinneret to substrate distance, the rheology behaviors of EDW charged jet played an important role in defining the line width or diameter of the direct-written micro/nano-structures. High speed camera is utilized to observe the rheology process of EDW charged jet, and solidified jets are measured by SEM that offers a quantitative method to investigate the diameter evolution of jet. The diameter of charged jet and nanofiber injected from solid probe increase with the increasing of polymer solution concentration. Attribute to the larger diameter and higher solvent content, charged jet injected from hollow nozzle displayed greater fluid viscoelasticity, and then stretched into micro structure of flat film under the gravitation on the substrate. The diameter of charged jet and line width of thin film injected from nozzle decrease with the increasing of polymer concentration.

  12. Weight Loss and Maintenance and Changes in Diet and Exercise for Behavioral Counseling and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormally, Jim; Rardin, David

    1981-01-01

    Compared behavioral counseling with nutrition education. Initial weight losses were similar. Behavioral participants consumed fewer calories but often used diets that were nutritionally unsound. Behavioral treatment appears best for moderate obesity, but procedures are needed for nutrition education, promoting fitness, and teaching independent…

  13. Exploratory Analyses of the Effects of Managerial Support and Feedback Consequences on Behavioral Safety Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, M. Dominic

    2006-01-01

    Reviews indicate management commitment is vital to maintain behavioral safety processes. Similarly, the impact of observation frequency on safety behaviors is thought to be important. An employee-driven process which encompassed behavioral observations, goal-setting, and feedback was implemented in a paper mill with 55 workgroups using a…

  14. Weight Loss and Maintenance and Changes in Diet and Exercise for Behavioral Counseling and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormally, Jim; Rardin, David

    1981-01-01

    Compared behavioral counseling with nutrition education. Initial weight losses were similar. Behavioral participants consumed fewer calories but often used diets that were nutritionally unsound. Behavioral treatment appears best for moderate obesity, but procedures are needed for nutrition education, promoting fitness, and teaching independent…

  15. The acquisition and maintenance of behavioral skills: A response to Michael

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Craig W.

    1982-01-01

    A response to Michael's (1980) presidential address to the Association for Behavior Analysis is presented. The position is taken that in many instances we have failed to adopt a behavioral approach to dealing with problems within our field concomitant with the shift from an emphasis on behaviorism and a science of behavior to technology. It is argued that we need to be sensitive to the data and consider the contingencies that are operating within the culture. A general strategy and some tactics are presented to acquire and maintain behavioral skills. PMID:22478559

  16. Identity and the theory of planned behavior: predicting maintenance of volunteering after three years.

    PubMed

    Marta, Elena; Manzi, Claudia; Pozzi, Maura; Vignoles, Vivian Laurance

    2014-01-01

    Is identity an important predictor of social behavior? The present longitudinal study is focused on identity in order to understand why people continue to volunteer over an extended period of time. The theory of planned behavior and the role identity model of volunteering are used as theoretical framework. Two hundred thirty Italian volunteers were sampled and followed for 3 years. We analyzed functions of role identity as a volunteer. Results showed a significant impact of role identity in predicting volunteer performance after 3 years, mediated through behavioral intentions. Role identity fully mediated the relationships between behavioral intention and attitude, social norms, past behavior and parental modelling.

  17. [Prediction of goal-directed behavior: attitude, subjective behavioral competence and emotions].

    PubMed

    Doll, J; Mentz, M; Orth, B

    1991-01-01

    Ajzen's (1985) theory of planned behavior explaining and predicting goal-directed behavior is extended by an emotional component. The extended theory of planned behavior is tested experimentally. N = 64 subjects play with two video games (a speed- and a problem-oriented game) under an achievement-motivational orientation. One half of the subjects plays both games in an easy version, the other half in a difficult version. The verbal emotional reactions to playing video games are grouped factor-analytically into an "activity emotion" and a "security emotion". Subjects playing video games in the difficult condition feel significantly more insecure, and perceive their behavioral control as significantly lower than subjects playing in the easy condition. Tests of the extended theory of planned behavior lead to significant squared multiple correlations for the dependent variables within the range of R2 = .20 to .58. The activity emotion accounts predominantly for a significant part of the variance of the attitude and the security emotion accounts for a significant part of the variance of the perceived behavioral control. No predictive power was found for the intention to play the games successfully.

  18. Striatal direct and indirect pathways control decision-making behavior.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Tom; Morita, Makiko; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Despite our ever-changing environment, animals are remarkably adept at selecting courses of action that are predictive of optimal outcomes. While requiring the contribution of a number of brain regions, a vast body of evidence implicates striatal mechanisms of associative learning and action selection to be critical to this ability. While numerous models of striatal-based decision-making have been developed, it is only recently that we have begun to understand the precise contributions of specific subpopulations of striatal neurons. Studies utilizing contemporary cell-type-specific technologies indicate that striatal output pathways play distinct roles in controlling goal-directed and social behaviors. Here we review current models of striatal-based decision-making, discuss recent developments in defining the functional roles of striatal output pathways, and assess how striatal dysfunction may contribute to the etiology of various neuropathologies.

  19. Retention in methadone maintenance is associated with reductions in different HIV risk behaviors for women and men.

    PubMed

    Wells, E A; Calsyn, D A; Clark, L L; Saxon, A J; Jackson, T R

    1996-11-01

    Using AIDS Initial Assessment questionnaire (AIA) data from 353 injection drug users (IDUs) newly admitted to methadone maintenance (MM), three dimensions of injection risk behavior ("sharing with sexual partner," "sharing with others," and "new needle use") were identified. Among IDUs who continued to inject drugs at 1 year, men retained in treatment obtained lower scores on the "sharing with others" scale than men not retained, even when controlling for initial scale scores and injection frequency. Associations between retention in MM and changes in sexual risk were examined using two AIA measures of sexual risk behavior ("number of IDU sexual partners" and "relative frequency of protected vaginal intercourse"). Controlling for injection frequency, prior sexual risk, and age, there was no difference in sexual risk for men retained in treatment versus those not retained. Among women, those who stayed in MM for 1 year reported significantly fewer IDU partners.

  20. The Impact of Methadone Maintenance Treatment on HIV Risk Behaviors among High-Risk Injection Drug Users: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Pramila; Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Copenhaver, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection through preventable drug- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. In recent decade, there has been a growing evidence that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is associated with a significant decrease in both drug- and sex-related risk behaviors among this high-risk population. The better understanding of the relationship between MMT and HIV-related risk behaviors will help to better inform future HIV prevention strategies, which may have policy implications as well. In this systematic review, we therefore aimed to explore the relevant literature to more clearly examine the possible impact of MMT on HIV risks behaviors among high-risk IDUs. The findings thus far suggest that MMT is associated with a significant decrease in injecting drug use and sharing of injecting equipment. Evidence on sex-related risk behavior is limited, but suggest that MMT is associated with a lower incidence of multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. The literature also suggests that the most significant factor in reducing HIV risks was treatment adherence. As such, more attention needs to be given in future studies to ensure the higher rates of access to MMT as well as to improve the adherence to MMT. PMID:27066590

  1. The Impact of Methadone Maintenance Treatment on HIV Risk Behaviors among High-Risk Injection Drug Users: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Karki, Pramila; Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Copenhaver, Michael

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection through preventable drug- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. In recent decade, there has been a growing evidence that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is associated with a significant decrease in both drug- and sex-related risk behaviors among this high-risk population. The better understanding of the relationship between MMT and HIV-related risk behaviors will help to better inform future HIV prevention strategies, which may have policy implications as well. In this systematic review, we therefore aimed to explore the relevant literature to more clearly examine the possible impact of MMT on HIV risks behaviors among high-risk IDUs. The findings thus far suggest that MMT is associated with a significant decrease in injecting drug use and sharing of injecting equipment. Evidence on sex-related risk behavior is limited, but suggest that MMT is associated with a lower incidence of multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. The literature also suggests that the most significant factor in reducing HIV risks was treatment adherence. As such, more attention needs to be given in future studies to ensure the higher rates of access to MMT as well as to improve the adherence to MMT.

  2. The Role of Affect in the Maintenance of Anorexia Nervosa: Evidence from a Naturalistic Assessment of Momentary Behaviors and Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Simonich, Heather K.; Cao, Li; Lavender, Jason M.; Gordon, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship of affect and eating disorder behavior in anorexia nervosa (AN) using ecological momentary assessment. Participants were 118 adult females recruited at three sites from eating disorder treatment centers and community advertisements. All participants met full DSM-IV criteria or sub-threshold criteria for AN. Participants were provided handheld computers and asked to report positive affect, negative affect, loss of control (LOC) eating, purging, exercise, drinking fluids to curb appetite, and weighing one's self multiple times per day as well as dietary restriction once daily over a two-week interval. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the extent to which affective states predict dietary restriction. Additionally, we used two analytic approaches to compare affect prior to and after other eating disorder behaviors. We found that higher daily ratings of negative affect were associated with a greater likelihood of dietary restriction on subsequent days. When examining the single rating immediately before and after behaviors, we found that negative affect increased significantly following LOC eating, purging, the combination of LOC and eating/purging, and weighing of one's self. Using this same analytic approach we also found negative affect to decrease significantly following the consumption of fluids to curb appetite and exercise. When examining the covariation of AN behaviors and negative affect assessed multiple times in the hours and minutes before the behaviors, we found negative affect significantly increased prior to LOC eating, purging, the combination of LOC eating/and purging, and weighing behavior. Negative affect also significantly decreased following the occurrence of these behaviors. These findings are consistent with the idea that that negative affect is potentially a critical maintenance mechanism of some AN symptoms, but that the analytic approach used to examine affect and behavior may have significant

  3. Infants' Behaviors as Antecedents and Consequents of Mothers' Responsive and Directive Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Lloyd, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate possible influences on and consequences of mothers' speech, specific infant behaviors preceding and following four pragmatic categories of mothers' utterances--responsive utterances, supportive behavioral directives, intrusive behavioral directives, and intrusive attentional directives--were examined longitudinally during dyadic…

  4. Infants' Behaviors as Antecedents and Consequents of Mothers' Responsive and Directive Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Lloyd, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate possible influences on and consequences of mothers' speech, specific infant behaviors preceding and following four pragmatic categories of mothers' utterances--responsive utterances, supportive behavioral directives, intrusive behavioral directives, and intrusive attentional directives--were examined longitudinally during dyadic…

  5. Sustained expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for maintenance of dendritic spines and normal behavior.

    PubMed

    Vigers, A J; Amin, D S; Talley-Farnham, T; Gorski, J A; Xu, B; Jones, K R

    2012-06-14

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in the development, maintenance, and plasticity of the mammalian forebrain. These functions include regulation of neuronal maturation and survival, axonal and dendritic arborization, synaptic efficacy, and modulation of complex behaviors including depression and spatial learning. Although analysis of mutant mice has helped establish essential developmental functions for BDNF, its requirement in the adult is less well documented. We have studied late-onset forebrain-specific BDNF knockout (CaMK-BDNF(KO)) mice, in which BDNF is lost primarily from the cortex and hippocampus in early adulthood, well after BDNF expression has begun in these structures. We found that although CaMK-BDNF(KO) mice grew at a normal rate and can survive more than a year, they had smaller brains than wild-type siblings. The CaMK-BDNF(KO) mice had generally normal behavior in tests for ataxia and anxiety, but displayed reduced spatial learning ability in the Morris water task and increased depression in the Porsolt swim test. These behavioral deficits were very similar to those we previously described in an early-onset forebrain-specific BDNF knockout. To identify an anatomical correlate of the abnormal behavior, we quantified dendritic spines in cortical neurons. The spine density of CaMK-BDNF(KO) mice was normal at P35, but by P84, there was a 30% reduction in spine density. The strong similarities we find between early- and late-onset BDNF knockouts suggest that BDNF signaling is required continuously in the CNS for the maintenance of some forebrain circuitry also affected by developmental BDNF depletion.

  6. Gender Differences in the Maintenance of Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…

  7. Gender Differences in the Maintenance of Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…

  8. Group size alters postures, and maintenance, oral, locomotor and social behaviors of veal calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of group size on behavior of veal calves. Holstein-Friesian bull calves (n = 168; 44 ± 3 d of age), were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments of group housing with 2, 4, or 8 calves per pen (1.82 m2 per calf for all groups). Behavior was obser...

  9. Parental and Peer Influence on Development of Health Maintenance Behavior in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall L.; And Others

    Parental and peer influence on adolescents account for a substantial portion of the variation in health behavior developing in late adolescence. Of high school students sampled, 50% describe the influence attempts of their mothers, fathers and peers as neutral on most health behavior. Smoking is the exception to the pattern with mothers and…

  10. A structural-maintenance-of-chromosomes hinge domain-containing protein is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Tatsuo; Bucher, Etienne; Daxinger, Lucia; Huettel, Bruno; Böhmdorfer, Gudrun; Gregor, Wolfgang; Kreil, David P; Matzke, Marjori; Matzke, Antonius J M

    2008-05-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is a process in which dicer-generated small RNAs guide de novo cytosine methylation at the homologous DNA region. To identify components of the RdDM machinery important for Arabidopsis thaliana development, we targeted an enhancer active in meristems for methylation, which resulted in silencing of a downstream GFP reporter gene. This silencing system also features secondary siRNAs, which trigger methylation that spreads beyond the targeted enhancer region. A screen for mutants defective in meristem silencing and enhancer methylation retrieved six dms complementation groups, which included the known factors DRD1 (ref. 3; a SNF2-like chromatin-remodeling protein) and Pol IVb subunits. Additionally, we identified a previously unknown gene DMS3 (At3g49250), encoding a protein similar to the hinge-domain region of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins. This finding implicates a putative chromosome architectural protein that can potentially link nucleic acids in facilitating an RNAi-mediated epigenetic modification involving secondary siRNAs and spreading of DNA methylation.

  11. Combining Persuasive Technology With Behavioral Theory to Support Weight Maintenance Through a Mobile Phone App: Protocol for the MotiMate App

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of health-focused mobile phone apps available for download increases daily, with weight management apps being among the most proliferative. However, most lack theoretic grounding or evidence of efficacy. There is a significant body of literature which provides evidence for behaviors which are associated with successful weight loss maintenance. Behavioral theory also provides further insight regarding successful behavior change and maintenance. Objective We aimed to apply this knowledge to the development of the functionality of an app targeting weight loss maintenance. Methods We have subsequently undertaken the development of a persuasive and behavior targeting mobile app (MotiMate) to assist in maintenance of weight loss. MotiMate combines persuasive and behavior change theories in a practical targeted tool through its motivational messages, personalized feedback, and intelligent supportive tools to manage weight, food, exercise, mood and stress. Results The development and trial of MotiMate received funding support in May 2014. All 88 volunteers started the trial by December 2014 and were in the process of completing their final visits when this paper was submitted (May 2015). Data analysis is currently underway. Conclusions The paper has presented a scientifically informed mobile phone app to support weight loss maintenance. Further evaluation of its efficacy is in progress. Trial Registration ANZCTR 12614000474651; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366120 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eJeQiKxi). PMID:26747725

  12. Combining Persuasive Technology With Behavioral Theory to Support Weight Maintenance Through a Mobile Phone App: Protocol for the MotiMate App.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-08

    The prevalence of health-focused mobile phone apps available for download increases daily, with weight management apps being among the most proliferative. However, most lack theoretic grounding or evidence of efficacy. There is a significant body of literature which provides evidence for behaviors which are associated with successful weight loss maintenance. Behavioral theory also provides further insight regarding successful behavior change and maintenance. We aimed to apply this knowledge to the development of the functionality of an app targeting weight loss maintenance. We have subsequently undertaken the development of a persuasive and behavior targeting mobile app (MotiMate) to assist in maintenance of weight loss. MotiMate combines persuasive and behavior change theories in a practical targeted tool through its motivational messages, personalized feedback, and intelligent supportive tools to manage weight, food, exercise, mood and stress. The development and trial of MotiMate received funding support in May 2014. All 88 volunteers started the trial by December 2014 and were in the process of completing their final visits when this paper was submitted (May 2015). Data analysis is currently underway. The paper has presented a scientifically informed mobile phone app to support weight loss maintenance. Further evaluation of its efficacy is in progress. ANZCTR 12614000474651; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366120 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eJeQiKxi).

  13. Staying healthy: the salience and meaning of health maintenance behaviors among rural older adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Arcury, T A; Quandt, S A; Bell, R A

    2001-12-01

    Beliefs about what constitutes health promoting behaviors vary by culture and class, and knowing how an older adult interprets a specific health behavior can improve health education and medical compliance. Ethnomedical approaches have investigated how people define disease and the therapies used to return to a state of health. However, little research has addressed how individuals define health, or the behaviors they use to maintain health. We analyze the behaviors elders state are needed to stay healthy, and their meanings for these behaviors. Narratives collected through in-depth interviews with 145 male and female rural North Carolina residents aged 70 and older, including African Americans, Native Americans and European Americans are analyzed using systematic text analysis. The participants' narratives include seven salient health maintenance domains: (1) Eating Right, (2) Drinking Water, (3) "Taking" Exercise, (4) Staying Busy, (5) Being with People, (6) Trusting in God and Participating in Church, and (7) Taking Care of Yourself. Several of these domains are multi-dimensional in the meanings the elders ascribe to them. There is also overlap in the content of some of the domains; they are not discrete in the minds of the elders and a specific health behavior can reflect more than one domain. Four themes cross-cut the domains: "balance and moderation", "the holistic view of health", "social integration", and "personal responsibility". Elders in these rural communities hold a definition of health that overlaps with, but is not synonymous with a biomedical model. These elders' concept of health seamlessly integrates physical, mental, spiritual, and social aspects of health, reflecting how health is embedded in the everyday experience of these elders. Staying healthy is maintaining the ability to function in a community. These results indicate that providers cannot assume that older patients will share their interpretation of general health promotion advice.

  14. Goal Directed Model Inversion: A Study of Dynamic Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome 0 "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm then proceeds as follows: (1) store the action that produced the wrong outcome as a "target" (2) redefine the wrong outcome as a desired goal (3) submit the new desired goal to the system (4) compare the new action with the target action and modify the system by using a suitable algorithm for credit assignment (Back propagation in our example) (5) resubmit the original goal. Prior publications by our group in this area focused on demonstrating empirical results based on the inverse kinematic problem for a simulated robotic arm. In this paper we apply the inversion process to much simpler analytic functions in order to elucidate the dynamic behavior of the system and to determine the sensitivity of the learning process to various parameters. This understanding will be necessary for the acceptance of GDMI as a practical tool.

  15. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Haagsman, Henk P.; Roelen, Bernard A.J.

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  16. Color stability and polymerization behavior of direct esthetic restorations.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Dayane Carvalho Ramos Salles de; Souza-Júnior, Eduardo José; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Coppini, Erick Kamiya; Maia, Rodrigo Rocha; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the color stability (CS) and degree of conversion (DC) of nanofilled and nanohybrid resin composites associated to different adhesive systems in direct esthetic restorations. Eighty bovine incisors were used to obtained dentin blocks (4 × 4 × 1 mm). The restorative systems were bonded to the blocks and photoactivated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Three adhesive systems were used: Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (conventional of three steps), Tetric N-Bond (conventional of two steps) and ClearFill SE Bond (self-etching). Also, two composites were used: Filtek Z350 XT (nanofilled) and IPS Empress Direct (nanohybrid). The restorations were made using a silicone mold placed on top of the prepared dentin blocks (N = 10). CS was measured after 300 hours of AAA by means of ultraviolet light using a spectrophotometer and CIE L*a*b* parameters on the top surface of the composite and at the bonded interface. The DC was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (N = 10). Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The adhesive systems had no significant influence on the color stability (ΔE) of either the restoration surface (α = 0.90) or the bonded interface (α = 0.78). However, composite influenced the color as measured by ΔE and isolated coordinates (α < 0.001). The nanohybrid composite showed increased DC values (67%) compared with the nanofilled (61%) with statistically significant differences (α < 0.001). The adhesive system did not affect the final color of direct esthetic restorations. The nanohybrid composite demonstrated a higher DC and increased color stability after AAA compared to the nanofilled composite. The long-term color stability of composite restorations is a critical aspect of esthetic restorative procedures. Optimal Polymerization behavior of resin composite as

  17. Establishing maintenance performance indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, B.

    1994-10-01

    Maintenance Performance Indicators (PI) specify where the maintenance department is and which direction it is going allowing for a quick and accurate assessment of the performance of the Maintenance Management Program (MMP). Establishing PI`s for the maintenance department will allow a measure of productivity and a means of feedback for methods improvement. Effective performance of the maintenance department directly effects plant profitability. Improvements in the quality and productivity of the maintenance work force will significantly reduce maintenance costs. The level of performance attained by the maintenance work force is usually guessed at. Guessing will not identify areas needing improvement or help to initiate a corrective action. Maintenance PI`s are required for maintenance departments whose goal is to control maintenance costs while increasing productivity. The application of basic statistical methods will allow a maintenance department to know where they are and which direction they are going. The data presented in this paper is a representation of indicators used in industry as well as developed indicators to establish a complete maintenance performance indicator program. The methodology used in developing this program can be used as a way to manage a cost effective maintenance management program.

  18. Current Advances and Future Directions in Behavior Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Johnson, Austin H.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-tiered problem-solving models that focus on promoting positive outcomes for student behavior continue to be emphasized within educational research. Although substantial work has been conducted to support systems-level implementation and intervention for behavior, concomitant advances in behavior assessment have been limited. This is despite…

  19. Maintenance of safe sex behavior by HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Skurnick, J H; Abrams, J; Kennedy, C A; Valentine, S N; Cordell, J R

    1998-12-01

    We present findings from a prospective study of heterosexual HIV transmission in stable New Jersey couples who are serodiscordant for HIV and in which the uninfected partner is at risk solely from heterosexual contact. One hundred thirty-one couples were interviewed at enrollment and 6-month follow-up. This report describes couples' sexual behavior before and after knowledge of infective risk and examines associations of behavior with clinical and demographic characteristics. We observed that HIV serodiscordant couples' habitual sexual practices, drug and alcohol use, and measure of psychological distress may predict difficulty in adopting and maintaining safe sex. An understanding of common risk sexual behavior patterns and characteristic correlates of risk taking may prove useful for counseling individuals at risk and their infected partners and may contribute to the development of effective public health messages targeted to eliminate unsafe sexual contact.

  20. Community-based behavioral weight-loss treatment: long-term maintenance of weight loss, physiological, and psychological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Latner, Janet D; Ciao, Anna C; Wendicke, Annemarie U; Murakami, Jessica M; Durso, Laura E

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a significant public health problem, and sustainable long-term treatments are needed. This study examined a community-based model of weight-loss treatment. Ninety participants were recruited from eight community organizations (mean age: 49.65 years, mean body mass index: 35.80 kg/m(2); 64% female). Treatment groups were randomly assigned to two maintenance conditions: 1) self-help continuing care, or 2) assessment-only. Both received the same initial 20-session group behavioral treatment. Those randomized to continuing care were additionally instructed to meet as self-sustaining groups for 18 months post-treatment. Weight, physiological, behavioral, and psychological outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and at six-month and 18-month follow-up. Eighty-seven percent of participants completed treatment. Participant treatment satisfaction and therapist adherence to treatment protocol were high. No group differences or time by group interaction effects emerged. Participants achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment, with no significant weight regain at six-month or 18-month follow-up. Treatment produced sustained changes in waist circumference, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, eating patterns, physical activity, quality of life, and body image. A community-based treatment program may be an effective form of behavioral-weight-loss treatment for overweight/obese adults. Weight losses, along with physiological and psychological benefits, were sustained over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of behavior-specific and behavior-nonspecific reinforcement on child compliance to mother directives.

    PubMed

    Strand, P S; Wahler, R G; Herring, M

    2001-09-01

    Theories of child socialization differ with regard to the influence they attribute to behavior-specific reinforcement contingencies versus behavior-nonspecific reinforcement contingencies (i.e. social responsiveness). The present research investigated, at a within-individual level, the relationship between both types of reinforcement and child compliance with maternal directives. Behavior-specific reinforcement was defined as the history of reinforcement obtained by children for prior episodes of compliance and noncompliance to mother directives. Behavior-nonspecific reinforcement was defined as the history of reinforcement obtained by children for prosocial and aversive behaviors unrelated to mother directives. It was hypothesized that both reinforcement processes would be related to child responses to subsequent mother directives. The findings support these hypotheses. The discussion addresses caretaker social responsiveness as an intervention target of behavioral family therapy.

  2. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, Singly and Combined with Medication, for Persistent Insomnia: Acute and Maintenance Therapeutic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Charles M.; Vallières, Annie; Guay, Bernard; Ivers, Hans; Savard, Josée; Mérette, Chantal; Bastien, Célyne; Baillargeon, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    Context Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and hypnotic medications are efficacious for short-term treatment of insomnia, but few patients achieve complete remission with any single treatment. It is unclear whether combined or maintenance therapies would enhance outcome. Objectives To evaluate the added value of medication over CBT alone for acute treatment of insomnia and the effects of maintenance therapies on long-term outcome. Design, Setting, and Patients Prospective, randomized, clinical trial involving two-stage therapy with 160 adults with persistent insomnia treated at a university hospital sleep center between January 2002 and April 2005. Interventions Participants received CBT alone or CBT plus zolpidem for an initial six-week therapy, followed by extended 6-month therapy. Patients treated with CBT initially attended monthly maintenance CBT or no additional treatment and those treated with combined therapy initially continued with CBT plus intermittent medication or CBT without medication (tapering). Main Outcome Measures Sleep onset latency, time awake after sleep onset, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency derived from daily diaries (primary) and response and remission rates derived from the Insomnia Severity Index (secondary). Results CBT used singly or in combination with medication produced significant improvements of sleep latency, time awake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency during initial therapy (Ps < 0.001); a larger increase of sleep time was obtained with the combined approach (P = 0.04). Both CBT and combined therapies produced similar rates of treatment responders (60% [45/75] vs. 61% [45/74], P = 0.84) and remissions (39% [29/75] vs. 44% [33/74], P = 0.52) with acute treatment, but combined therapy produced a higher remission rate relative to CBT alone over the extended therapy and follow up period (56% [43/74, 32/59] vs. 43% [34/75, 28/68], P = 0.05). The best long-term outcome was obtained with patients treated with combined

  3. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  4. Attributional Processes in Behavior Change and Maintenance: Smoking Cessation and Continued Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the role of attributions in initial and long-term smoking behavior change. Manipulated the externality of treatment. Subjects receiving nicotine gum were superior to the intrinsic self-help group in initial cessation but were inferior in maintaining abstinence. Subjects in the intrinsic self-help group made fewer external attributions for…

  5. The Role of Behavioral and Cognitive Factors in the Maintenance of Heterosexual-Social Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, James P.; And Others

    Subject groups were classified on the basis of behavioral ratings for degree of anxiety exhibited and level of social skill displayed during a simulated dating interaction. Subjects were then asked to view and evaluate their own skill performance and the performance of bogus subjects during the same interaction when presented on videotape. All…

  6. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  7. Age-related differences in the performance, diffusion, and maintenance of stone handling, a behavioral tradition in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A

    2007-12-01

    Identifying the sources of behavioral diversity in non-human primates is vital to understanding the evolution of human behavior. Stone handling (SH, hereafter) is a form of object play consisting of the manipulation of stones by performing various behavioral patterns. This behavior is socially transmitted from generation to generation in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), as a behavioral tradition. SH behavior in particular may reflect on the origin and evolution of stone-tool material culture. The objective of this study was to assess how group size, age structure, and age- and sex-related differences may account for the substantial intra- and inter-troop variations in SH reported in ten troops of Japanese macaques. Our results supported the hypothesis that patterns of variation in SH across troops reflected variability in group size and composition in age classes. We found that troop size was correlated with the proportion of troop members exhibiting SH simultaneously. The effect of troop size on the synchronized performance of SH may reveal the contagious nature of play. Our results suggest that the age structure of the group may affect the diffusion of SH. As predicted by the surplus energy hypothesis, a major functional hypothesis about play, intra-group variation in SH reflected more age- than sex-related differences. SH mainly occurred and was more frequent in younger than in older individuals, whereas no significant sex differences were found. SH episodes were shorter, more vigorous, and SH patterns were more diverse and less complex in immature than in mature individuals. The present findings reveal that age-related factors and group size may constrain the performance, diffusion, and maintenance of SH within a troop. Contrary to most other socially transmitted stone-tool using behaviors in non-human primates and early hominids, there is no optimal SH pattern. Provided some form of social learning, the non-adaptive nature of SH may allow particular SH

  8. Age-related differences in laterally directed compensatory stepping behavior.

    PubMed

    Maki, B E; Edmondstone, M A; McIlroy, W E

    2000-05-01

    Lateral falls are common in older adults and are associated with an elevated risk of hip fracture, compared with falls in other directions. Although rapid stepping movements can play an important functional role in maintaining balance, control of lateral stepping is a complex and demanding motor task. This study examined whether there are age-related differences in the stepping behavior used to recover from lateral loss of balance. Rapid stepping reactions were evoked in healthy, active young (aged 20-30 years; N = 10) and older (aged 65-73 years; N = 10) volunteers by means of a sudden unpredictable motion of a platform on which the subject either stood quietly or walked in place. Subjects were instructed to respond naturally. Video analysis was performed to characterize the patterns of limb movement evoked by lateral platform motion. In responding to lateral perturbation of stance, the older adults were much more likely than the young adults to take multiple steps or use arm reactions to regain equilibrium, particularly when attempting crossover steps. During walk-in-place trials, both young and older subjects more frequently used a sequence of side steps rather than crossovers; however, older adults were still more likely to take extra steps or use arm reactions. Collisions between swing foot and stance limb occurred in 55% of walk-in-place trials in older adults versus only 8% in young adults. Control of lateral-stepping reactions appears to create difficulties for active and healthy older adults above and beyond previously reported problems in controlling forward and backward stepping. Impaired control of lateral-stepping reactions may be an early indicator of increased risk for lateral falls and hip fracture and should be an important consideration in the development of clinical approaches to predicting and preventing falls and related injuries.

  9. Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Time-Series Interpretations as Consequential Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) is a repeatable and efficient method of behavior assessment that is used to document teacher perceptions of student behavior in the classroom. Time-series data can be graphically plotted and visually analyzed to evaluate patterns of behavior or intervention effects. This study evaluated the decision accuracy of novice…

  10. Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Time-Series Interpretations as Consequential Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) is a repeatable and efficient method of behavior assessment that is used to document teacher perceptions of student behavior in the classroom. Time-series data can be graphically plotted and visually analyzed to evaluate patterns of behavior or intervention effects. This study evaluated the decision accuracy of novice…

  11. A Directed Research Project Investigating Aggressive Behavior in Paradise Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment that examines the aggressive behavior of male paradise fish. Students design the experiment, collect data, and analyze and interpret the results. This activity is appropriate for biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes and allows students to be involved in the entire scientific process. (Author/NB)

  12. A Directed Research Project Investigating Aggressive Behavior in Paradise Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment that examines the aggressive behavior of male paradise fish. Students design the experiment, collect data, and analyze and interpret the results. This activity is appropriate for biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes and allows students to be involved in the entire scientific process. (Author/NB)

  13. Directive Teaching of Children with Learning and Behavioral Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    Designed for teachers and other professional school personnel, the text presents the characteristics of children with learning and behavioral handicaps accompanied with an illustrative case study. The three variables of teaching (instructional media, school environment, and student behavior) are described in terms of effective manipulation of such…

  14. The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Insomnia due to Methadone Maintenance Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Robabeh; Modabbernia, Mohammad Jafar; Habibi, Sharareh; Roudsary, Maryam Habibi; Elahi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep disturbance is a common complaint of patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). There are limited studies about the effect of different treatments on insomnia due to MMT. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBTI) on sleep disorders in patients undergoing MMT. Methods: Twenty-two patients with insomnia due to MMT (aged 18-60 years) participated in this randomized double-blind clinical trial. The intervention group received CBTI from a clinical psychologist for 8 weeks, whereas the control group received behavioral placebo therapy (BPT). The duration of individual sessions was 45 minutes, which was conducted once a week. The primary outcome was sleep disturbance assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Results: Eleven patients were assigned to each group. Two groups were matched according to demographic characteristics (age, marital status, education, and daily methadone doses). Although PSQI score was significantly reduced during weeks 5 and 8 after both interventions, there was a significant difference in intervention versus time interaction (P<0.02). The effects of CBTI versus placebo were significantly different (P<0.001). The time course was also significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that CBTI is more effective than BPT in overall sleep quality. We recommend further studies, with a larger sample, on CBTI in patients undergoing MMT. PMID:26379345

  15. Applied behavior analysis: New directions from the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1983-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis began when laboratory based principles were extended to humans inorder to change socially significant behavior. Recent laboratory findings may have applied relevance; however, the majority of basic researchers have not clearly communicated the practical implications of their work. The present paper samples some of the new findings and attempts to demonstrate their applied importance. Schedule-induced behavior which occurs as a by-product of contingencies of reinforcement is discussed. Possible difficulties in treatment and management of induced behaviors are considered. Next, the correlation-based law of effect and the implications of relative reinforcement are explored in terms of applied examples. Relative rate of reinforcement is then extended to the literature dealing with concurrent operants. Concurrent operant models may describe human behavior of applied importance, and several techniques for modification of problem behavior are suggested. As a final concern, the paper discusses several new paradigms. While the practical importance of these models is not clear at the moment, it may be that new practical advantages will soon arise. Thus, it is argued that basic research continues to be of theoretical and practical importance to applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478574

  16. A Risk and Maintenance Model for Bulimia Nervosa: From Impulsive Action to Compulsive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carolyn M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a new model for bulimia nervosa (BN) that explains both the initial impulsive nature of binge eating and purging as well as the compulsive quality of the fully developed disorder. The model is based on a review of advances in research on BN and advances in relevant basic psychological science. It integrates transdiagnostic personality risk, eating disorder specific risk, reinforcement theory, cognitive neuroscience, and theory drawn from the drug addiction literature. We identify both a state-based and a trait-based risk pathway, and we then propose possible state-by-trait interaction risk processes. The state-based pathway emphasizes depletion of self-control. The trait-based pathway emphasizes transactions between the trait of negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) and high-risk psychosocial learning. We then describe a process by which initially impulsive BN behaviors become compulsive over time, and we consider the clinical implications of our model. PMID:25961467

  17. Positive impact of a clinical goal-directed protocol on reducing cardiac arrests during potential brain-dead donor maintenance.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Glauco A; Coll, Elisabeth; de Souza, Rafael L; Wagner, Silvana; Montemezzo, Artur; Cani de Souza, Fernanda Carolina; Torres, Gabriel; Halla, Stefan; Carnin, Tiago C; Machado, Míriam C; Berbigier, Eduardo; Busetto, Fernando; Bittencourt, Ivonei; Gerent, Karine; de Souza, Bruno S; Tassinari, Manoel; de Andrade, Joel

    2016-10-11

    The disproportion between the large organ demand and the low number of transplantations performed represents a serious public health problem worldwide. Reducing the loss of transplantable organs from deceased potential donors as a function of cardiac arrest (CA) may contribute to an increase in organ donations. Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that a goal-directed protocol to guide the management of deceased donors may reduce the losses of potential brain-dead donors (PBDDs) due to CA. The quality improvement project included 27 hospitals that reported deceased donors prospectively to the Transplant Center of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. All deceased donors reported prospectively between May 2012 and April 2014 were analyzed. Hospitals were encouraged to use the VIP approach checklist during the management of PBDDs. The checklist was composed of the following goals: protocol duration 12-24 hours, temperature > 35 °C, mean arterial pressure ≥ 65 mmHg, diuresis 1-4 ml/kg/h, corticosteroids, vasopressin, tidal volume 6-8 ml/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure 8-10 cmH2O, sodium < 150 mEq/L, and glycemia < 180 mg/dl. A logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of CA. There were 726 PBDD notifications, of which 324 (44.6) were actual donors, 141 (19.4 %) CAs, 226 (31.1 %) family refusals, and 35 (4.8 %) contraindications. Factors associated with CA reduction included use of the checklist (odds ratio (OR) 0.43, p < 0.001), maintenance performed inside the ICU (OR 0.49, p = 0.013), and vasopressin administration (OR 0.56, p = 0.04). More than three interventions had association with less CAs (OR 0.19, p < 0.001). After 24 months, CAs decreased from 27.3 % to 14.6 % (p = 0.002), reaching 12.1 % in the following two 4-month periods (p < 0.001). Simultaneous increases in organ recovered per donor and in actual donors were observed. A quality improvement program based on education and the

  18. Effects of a Peer-Mediated Literacy Based Behavioral Intervention on the Acquisition and Maintenance of Daily Living Skills in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Michael P.; Honsberger, Christine; Cadette, Jessica; Honsberger, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents with disabilities do not independently perform the daily living skills needed to be successful in typical community environments. Literacy Based Behavioral Interventions have been effective in promoting skill acquisition and maintenance in some learners, but have yet to be implemented to teach basic self-care skills. Also, LBBIs…

  19. Effects of a Peer-Mediated Literacy Based Behavioral Intervention on the Acquisition and Maintenance of Daily Living Skills in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Michael P.; Honsberger, Christine; Cadette, Jessica; Honsberger, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents with disabilities do not independently perform the daily living skills needed to be successful in typical community environments. Literacy Based Behavioral Interventions have been effective in promoting skill acquisition and maintenance in some learners, but have yet to be implemented to teach basic self-care skills. Also, LBBIs…

  20. Monetary reward magnitude effects on behavior and brain function during goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Rosell-Negre, P; Bustamante, J C; Fuentes-Claramonte, P; Costumero, V; Benabarre, S; Barrós-Loscertales, A

    2016-07-29

    Reward may modulate the cognitive processes required for goal achievement, while individual differences in personality may affect reward modulation. Our aim was to test how different monetary reward magnitudes modulate brain activation and performance during goal-directed behavior, and whether individual differences in reward sensitivity affect this modulation. For this purpose, we scanned 37 subjects with a parametric design in which we varied the magnitude of monetary rewards (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5) in a blocked fashion while participants performed an interference counting-Stroop condition. The results showed that the brain activity of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the striatum were modulated by increasing and decreasing reward magnitudes, respectively. Behavioral performance improved as the magnitude of monetary reward increased while comparing the non reward (€0) condition to any other reward condition, or the lower €0.01 to any other reward condition, and this improvement was related with individual differences in reward sensitivity. In conclusion, the locus of influence of monetary incentives overlaps the activity of the regions commonly involved in cognitive control.

  1. A risk and maintenance model for bulimia nervosa: From impulsive action to compulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Carolyn M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Smith, Gregory T

    2015-07-01

    This article offers a new model for bulimia nervosa (BN) that explains both the initial impulsive nature of binge eating and purging, as well as the compulsive quality of the fully developed disorder. The model is based on a review of advances in research on BN and advances in relevant basic psychological science. It integrates transdiagnostic personality risk, eating-disorder-specific risk, reinforcement theory, cognitive neuroscience, and theory drawn from the drug addiction literature. We identify both a state-based and a trait-based risk pathway, and we then propose possible state-by-trait interaction risk processes. The state-based pathway emphasizes depletion of self-control. The trait-based pathway emphasizes transactions between the trait of negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) and high-risk psychosocial learning. We then describe a process by which initially impulsive BN behaviors become compulsive over time, and we consider the clinical implications of our model. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Knowledge and exercise behavior maintenance in cardiac rehabilitation patients receiving educational interventions.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Grace, Sherry L; Thomas, Scott; Vieira, Ariany Marques; Costa, Isabel Ziesemer; Oh, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To test whether a theoretically-based education curriculum results in more sustained knowledge, higher scores on Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) constructs, and greater exercise behavior 6 months post-cardiac rehabilitation (CR) when compared to traditional CR education. Patient education is a core component of CR. No research has examined whether this education results in sustained improvements post-program. In this quasi-experimental study, participants exposed to the traditional vs HAPA-based education completed surveys pre, post-CR, and 6 months post-discharge assessing knowledge, HAPA constructs, and exercise. Ninety-three participants completed the final survey. Knowledge increases post-CR were sustained 6 months post-program, with no differences by curriculum. Many improvements in HAPA constructs observed post-CR were sustained, except for some decay in self-efficacy. Minutes of exercise per week were significantly greater in participants exposed to the HAPA-based curriculum 6 months post-program. HAPA-based education in CR has sustained effects on exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Co-relationship between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in patients receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Ramdurg, Santosh; Ambekar, Atul; Lal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30) and naltrexone (n = 30) maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05) there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.

  4. Shaping Embodied Neural Networks for Adaptive Goal-directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2008-01-01

    The acts of learning and memory are thought to emerge from the modifications of synaptic connections between neurons, as guided by sensory feedback during behavior. However, much is unknown about how such synaptic processes can sculpt and are sculpted by neuronal population dynamics and an interaction with the environment. Here, we embodied a simulated network, inspired by dissociated cortical neuronal cultures, with an artificial animal (an animat) through a sensory-motor loop consisting of structured stimuli, detailed activity metrics incorporating spatial information, and an adaptive training algorithm that takes advantage of spike timing dependent plasticity. By using our design, we demonstrated that the network was capable of learning associations between multiple sensory inputs and motor outputs, and the animat was able to adapt to a new sensory mapping to restore its goal behavior: move toward and stay within a user-defined area. We further showed that successful learning required proper selections of stimuli to encode sensory inputs and a variety of training stimuli with adaptive selection contingent on the animat's behavior. We also found that an individual network had the flexibility to achieve different multi-task goals, and the same goal behavior could be exhibited with different sets of network synaptic strengths. While lacking the characteristic layered structure of in vivo cortical tissue, the biologically inspired simulated networks could tune their activity in behaviorally relevant manners, demonstrating that leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks have an innate ability to process information. This closed-loop hybrid system is a useful tool to study the network properties intermediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral adaptation. The training algorithm provides a stepping stone towards designing future control systems, whether with artificial neural networks or biological animats themselves. PMID:18369432

  5. The effects of psychotherapy treatment on outcome in bulimia nervosa: Examining indirect effects through emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy within the mediation model.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Carol B; Berg, Kelly C; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Accurso, Erin C; Ciao, Anna C; Smith, Tracey L; Klein, Marjorie; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the indirect effects of Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy (ICAT-BN) and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced (CBT-E) on bulimia nervosa (BN) treatment outcome through three hypothesized maintenance variables: emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy. Eighty adults with BN were randomized to 21 sessions of ICAT-BN or CBT-E. A regression-based bootstrapping approach was used to test the indirect effects of treatment on outcome at end of treatment through emotion regulation and self-directed behavior measured at mid-treatment, as well as the indirect effects of treatment at follow-up through emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy measured at end of treatment. No significant differences in outcome between treatment conditions were observed, and no significant direct or indirect effects were found. Examination of the individual paths within the indirect effects models revealed comparable treatment effects. Across treatments, improvements in emotion regulation and self-directed behavior between baseline and mid-treatment predicted improvements in global eating disorder scores but not binge eating and purging frequency at end of treatment. Baseline to end of treatment improvements in emotion regulation and self-directed behavior also predicted improvements in global eating disorder scores at follow-up. Baseline to end of treatment improvements in emotion regulation predicted improvements in binge eating and baseline to end of treatment increases in positive self-directed behavior predicted improvements in purging at follow-up. These findings suggest that emotion regulation and self-directed behavior are important treatment targets and that ICAT-BN and CBT-E are comparable in modifying these psychological processes among individuals with BN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Behavioral health leadership: new directions in occupational mental health.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L

    2014-10-01

    The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.

  7. How Digital Scaffolds in Games Direct Problem-Solving Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Wang, Dai-Yi; Chan, Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Digital systems offer computational power and instant feedback. Game designers are using these features to create scaffolding tools to reduce player frustration. However, researchers are finding some unexpected effects of scaffolding on strategy development and problem-solving behaviors. We used a digital Sudoku game named "Professor Sudoku" to…

  8. The Association of Birth Complications and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescents: Direct and Mediating Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth…

  9. The Association of Birth Complications and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescents: Direct and Mediating Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth…

  10. Using Consensus Building Procedures with Expert Raters to Establish Comparison Scores of Behavior for Direct Behavior Rating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffery, Rose; Johnson, Austin H.; Bowler, Mark C.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Harrison, Sayward E.

    2015-01-01

    To date, rater accuracy when using Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) has been evaluated by comparing DBR-derived data to scores yielded through systematic direct observation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method for establishing comparison scores using expert-completed DBR alongside best practices in consensus building…

  11. Using Consensus Building Procedures with Expert Raters to Establish Comparison Scores of Behavior for Direct Behavior Rating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffery, Rose; Johnson, Austin H.; Bowler, Mark C.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Harrison, Sayward E.

    2015-01-01

    To date, rater accuracy when using Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) has been evaluated by comparing DBR-derived data to scores yielded through systematic direct observation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method for establishing comparison scores using expert-completed DBR alongside best practices in consensus building…

  12. Direct NMR Monitoring of Phase Separation Behavior of Highly Supersaturated Nifedipine Solution Stabilized with Hypromellose Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Keisuke; Higashi, Kenjirou; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2017-07-03

    We investigated the phase separation behavior and maintenance mechanism of the supersaturated state of poorly water-soluble nifedipine (NIF) in hypromellose (HPMC) derivative solutions. Highly supersaturated NIF formed NIF-rich nanodroplets through phase separation from aqueous solution containing HPMC derivative. Dissolvable NIF concentration in the bulk water phase was limited by the phase separation of NIF from the aqueous solution. HPMC derivatives stabilized the NIF-rich nanodroplets and maintained the NIF supersaturation with phase-separated NIF for several hours. The size of the NIF-rich phase was different depending on the HPMC derivatives dissolved in aqueous solution, although the droplet size had no correlation with the time for which NIF supersaturation was maintained without NIF crystallization. HPMC acetate and HPMC acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) effectively maintained the NIF supersaturation containing phase-separated NIF compared with HPMC. Furthermore, HPMC-AS stabilized NIF supersaturation more effectively in acidic conditions. Solution (1)H NMR measurements of NIF-supersaturated solution revealed that HPMC derivatives distributed into the NIF-rich phase during the phase separation of NIF from the aqueous solution. The hydrophobicity of HPMC derivative strongly affected its distribution into the NIF-rich phase. Moreover, the distribution of HPMC-AS into the NIF-rich phase was promoted at lower pH due to the lower aqueous solubility of HPMC-AS. The distribution of a large amount of HPMC derivatives into NIF-rich phase induced the strong inhibition of NIF crystallization from the NIF-rich phase. Polymer distribution into the drug-rich phase directly monitored by solution NMR technique can be a useful index for the stabilization efficiency of drug-supersaturated solution containing a drug-rich phase.

  13. A Nonintrusive Remediation Technique for Directive Maternal Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeanne M.; Harrison, Katherine A.

    A self-rating scale was used with five mothers of preschool children with language impairments to determine whether the mothers' directive interactional style could be changed to a nondirective style without modeling or correction. Preliminary results indicated that viewing a videotape of a play session between the mother and child and completion…

  14. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  15. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  16. From Language Maintenance to Bilingual Parenting: Negotiating Behavior and Language Choice at the Dinner Table in Binational-Bilingual Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer Pitton, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the study of language maintenance as an everyday activity in binational-bilingual families. By embedding the question of language maintenance into a language socialization framework and adopting a conversation-analytic approach to language alternation, three excerpts of mealtime interactions in Russian-French speaking…

  17. From Language Maintenance to Bilingual Parenting: Negotiating Behavior and Language Choice at the Dinner Table in Binational-Bilingual Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer Pitton, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the study of language maintenance as an everyday activity in binational-bilingual families. By embedding the question of language maintenance into a language socialization framework and adopting a conversation-analytic approach to language alternation, three excerpts of mealtime interactions in Russian-French speaking…

  18. Electromyographic analysis of goal-directed grasping behavior in the American lobster.

    PubMed

    Tomina, Yusuke; Takahata, Masakazu

    2014-10-15

    Animals spontaneously initiate goal-directed behavior including foraging action based on their appetitive motivation. The American lobster Homarus americanus exhibits grasping behavior with its crusher claw as feeding behavior that can be initiated after appropriate operant conditioning. In order to quantitatively characterize the goal-directed grasping behavior with a time resolution fine enough for neurophysiological analysis of its initiation and control mechanisms, we made simultaneous electromyographic (EMG) recording from grasping- and reaching-related muscles of the crusher claw while animals initiated grasping behavior. We developed an in vivo extracellular recording chamber that allowed the animal under a semi-restrained condition to perform operant reward learning of claw grasping. Three muscles in the crusher claw (propodite-dactyl closer/opener and coxal protractor) were found to be closely associated with spontaneous grasping behavior. In spontaneous grasping, the activation of those muscles consistently preceded the grasping onset time and exhibited different activity patterns from the grasp induced by a mechanical stimulus. Furthermore, we found that the timing of coxal protractor activation was closer to the grasp onset and its activity was briefer for goal-directed grasping behavior in trained and hungry animals than for non-goal-directed spontaneous grasping behavior in naive or satiated animals. It is suggested that the goal-directed grasping behavior of lobster is characterized, at least partly, by experience-dependent briefer activity of specific muscles involved in reaching action.

  19. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior.

  20. Directions in implementation research methods for behavioral and social science.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Molly; Supplee, Lauren H

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing interest, by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, in evidence-based policy and practice. As a result, more dollars are being invested in program evaluation in order to establish "what works," and in some cases, funding is specifically tied to those programs found to be effective. However, reproducing positive effects found in research requires more than simply adopting an evidence-based program. Implementation research can provide guidance on which components of an intervention matter most for program impacts and how implementation components can best be implemented. However, while the body of rigorous research on effective practices continues to grow, research on implementation lags behind. To address these issues, the Administration for Children and Families and federal partners convened a roundtable meeting entitled, Improving Implementation Research Methods for Behavioral and Social Science, in the fall of 2010. This special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research includes papers from the roundtable and highlights the role implementation science can play in shedding light on the difficult task of taking evidence-based practices to scale.

  1. The Quality of Questions and Use of Resources in Self-Directed Learning: Personal Learning Projects in the Maintenance of Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, T.; O'Neill, J.; Campbell, C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To engage effectively and efficiently in self-directed learning and knowledge-seeking practices, it is important that physicians construct well-formulated questions; yet, little is known about the quality of good questions and their relationship to self-directed learning or to change in practice behavior. Methods: Personal learning…

  2. The Quality of Questions and Use of Resources in Self-Directed Learning: Personal Learning Projects in the Maintenance of Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, T.; O'Neill, J.; Campbell, C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To engage effectively and efficiently in self-directed learning and knowledge-seeking practices, it is important that physicians construct well-formulated questions; yet, little is known about the quality of good questions and their relationship to self-directed learning or to change in practice behavior. Methods: Personal learning…

  3. Evidence for rostro-caudal functional organization in multiple brain areas related to goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Matthew L; Fox, Kieran C R; Christoff, Kalina

    2014-07-14

    The functional organization of brain areas supporting goal-directed behavior is debated. Some accounts suggest a rostro-caudal organization, while others suggest a broad recruitment as part of a multiple demand network. We used fMRI and an anatomical region of interest (ROI) approach to test which account better characterizes the organization of key brain areas related to goal-directed behavior: the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), cingulate cortex, and insula. Subjects performed a cognitive control task with distinct trial events corresponding to rule representation, rule maintenance, action execution, and monitoring progress towards an overarching motivational goal. The use of ROIs allowed us to look for evidence of rostro-caudal gradients during each event separately. Our results provide strong evidence for rostro-caudal gradients in all regions. During the action execution period, activation was robust in caudal ROIs and decreased linearly moving to rostral ROIs in the LPFC, cingulate cortex, and MPFC. Conversely, during the goal monitoring period, activation was weak in caudal ROIs and increased linearly moving to the rostral ROIs in the aforementioned regions. The insula exhibited the reverse pattern. These findings provide evidence for rostro-caudal organization in multiple regions within the same study. More importantly, they demonstrate that rostro-caudal gradients can be observed during individual trial events, ruling out confounding factors such as task difficulty.

  4. Adult-Directed and Peer-Directed Respect for Authority: Relationships with Aggressive and Manipulative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.; Bettencourt, Amie F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether respect for adult and peer authority are separate attitudes which have distinct relationships with aggressive and manipulative behavior. Items assessing admiration for and obedience toward parents, teachers, popular students, and friend group leaders were administered to 286 middle school students (M age = 12.6…

  5. Three-dimensional system enabling the maintenance and directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells under defined conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zujur, Denise; Kanke, Kosuke; Lichtler, Alexander C.; Hojo, Hironori; Chung, Ung-il; Ohba, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    The development of in vitro models for the maintenance and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is an active area of stem cell research. The strategies used so far are based mainly on two-dimensional (2D) cultures, in which cellular phenotypes are regulated by soluble factors. We show that a 3D culture system with atelocollagen porous scaffolds can significantly improve the outcome of the current platforms intended for the maintenance and lineage specification of mouse PSCs (mPSCs). Unlike 2D conditions, the 3D conditions maintained the undifferentiated state of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) without exogenous stimulation and also supported endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm differentiation of mESCs under serum-free conditions. Moreover, 3D mPSC–derived mesodermal cells showed accelerated osteogenic differentiation, giving rise to functional osteoblast-osteocyte populations within calcified structures. The present strategy offers a 3D platform suitable for the formation of organoids that mimic in vivo organs containing various cell types, and it may be adaptable to the generation of ectoderm-, mesoderm-, and endoderm-derived tissues when combined with appropriate differentiation treatments. PMID:28508073

  6. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Opiate Use and Retention in Methadone Maintenance Treatment in China: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Chen, Hanhui; Li, Zhibin; Ling, Walter; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Aims Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is widely available in China; but, high rates of illicit opiate use and dropout are problematic. The aim of this study was to test whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in conjunction with MMT can improve treatment retention and reduce opiate use. Method A total of 240 opiate-dependent patients in community-based MMT clinics were randomly assigned to either weekly CBT plus standard MMT (CBT group, n=120) or standard MMT (control group, n=120) for 26 weeks. The primary outcomes were treatment retention and opiate-negative urine test results at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. The secondary outcomes were composite scores on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and total scores on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. Results Compared to the control group in standard MMT, the CBT group had higher proportion of opiate-negative urine tests at both 12 weeks (59% vs. 69%, p<0.05) and 26 weeks (63% vs. 73%, p<0.05); however, the retention rates at 12 weeks (73.3% vs. 74.2%, p=0.88) and 26 weeks were not different (55.8% vs. 64.2%, p=0.19) between the two groups. At both 12 and 26 weeks, all of the ASI component scores and PSS total scores in the CBT group and control group decreased from baseline; but the CBT group exhibited more decreases in ASI employment scores at week 26 and more decrease in the PSS total score at week 12 and week 26. Conclusions CBT counselling is effective in reducing opiate use and improving employment function and in decreasing stress level for opiate-dependent patients in MMT in China. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01144390 PMID:26107818

  7. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Opiate Use and Retention in Methadone Maintenance Treatment in China: A Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shujun; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Chen, Hanhui; Li, Zhibin; Ling, Walter; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is widely available in China; but, high rates of illicit opiate use and dropout are problematic. The aim of this study was to test whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in conjunction with MMT can improve treatment retention and reduce opiate use. A total of 240 opiate-dependent patients in community-based MMT clinics were randomly assigned to either weekly CBT plus standard MMT (CBT group, n=120) or standard MMT (control group, n=120) for 26 weeks. The primary outcomes were treatment retention and opiate-negative urine test results at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. The secondary outcomes were composite scores on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and total scores on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. Compared to the control group in standard MMT, the CBT group had higher proportion of opiate-negative urine tests at both 12 weeks (59% vs. 69%, p<0.05) and 26 weeks (63% vs. 73%, p<0.05); however, the retention rates at 12 weeks (73.3% vs. 74.2%, p=0.88) and 26 weeks were not different (55.8% vs. 64.2%, p=0.19) between the two groups. At both 12 and 26 weeks, all of the ASI component scores and PSS total scores in the CBT group and control group decreased from baseline; but the CBT group exhibited more decreases in ASI employment scores at week 26 and more decrease in the PSS total score at week 12 and week 26. CBT counselling is effective in reducing opiate use and improving employment function and in decreasing stress level for opiate-dependent patients in MMT in China. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01144390.

  8. Directly Observable Behavioral Effects of Lorcaserin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Serafine, Katherine M.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2015-01-01

    (1R)-8-chloro-1-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (lorcaserin) is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treating obesity, and its therapeutic effects are thought to result from agonist activity at serotonin (5-HT)2C receptors. Lorcaserin has affinity for other 5-HT receptor subtypes, although its activity at those subtypes is not fully described. The current study compared the behavioral effects of lorcaserin (0.0032–32.0 mg/kg) to the effects of other 5-HT receptor selective agonists in rats (n = 8). The 5-HT2C receptor selective agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP, 0.032–1.0 mg/kg) and lorcaserin induced yawning which was attenuated by the 5-HT2C receptor selective antagonist 6-chloro-5-methyl-N-(6-[(2-methylpyridin-3-yl)oxy]pydidin-3-yl)indoline-1-carboxamide (1.0 mg/kg). The 5-HT2A receptor selective agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (0.1–3.2 mg/kg) induced head twitching, which was attenuated by the 5-HT2A receptor selective antagonist R-(+)-2,3-dimethoxyphenyl-1-[2-(4-piperidine)-methanol] (MDL 100907, 0.01 mg/kg), lorcaserin (3.2 mg/kg), and mCPP (3.2 mg/kg). In rats pretreated with MDL 100907 (1.0 mg/kg), lorcaserin also induced head twitching. At larger doses, lorcaserin produced forepaw treading, which was attenuated by the 5-HT1A receptor selective antagonist N-(2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (0.178 mg/kg). While the behavioral effects of lorcaserin in rats are consistent with it having agonist activity at 5-HT2C receptors, these data suggest that at larger doses it also has agonist activity at 5-HT2A and possibly 5-HT1A receptors. Mounting evidence suggests that 5-HT2C receptor agonists might be effective for treating drug abuse. A more complete description of the activity of lorcaserin at 5-HT receptor subtypes will facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate its therapeutic effects. PMID:26384326

  9. Generalizability and Dependability of Behavior Assessment Methods to Estimate Academic Engagement: A Comparison of Systematic Direct Observation and Direct Behavior Rating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2010-01-01

    Although substantial attention has been directed toward building the psychometric evidence base for academic assessment methods (e.g., state mastery tests, curriculum-based measurement), similar examination of behavior assessment methods has been comparatively limited, particularly with regard to assessment purposes most desirable within…

  10. Criminal behavior in opioid-dependent patients before and during maintenance therapy: 6-year follow-up of a nationally representative cohort sample.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael; Träder, Anna; Klotsche, Jens; Haberthür, Annina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Rehm, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Lifetime prevalence of opioid dependence is about 0.4% in western countries. Opioid-dependent patients have high morbidity and mortality and a high risk of criminal behavior. Few studies have addressed the long-term impact of opioid maintenance therapy on convictions and criminal behavior. The PREMOS study is a prospective, longitudinal, naturalistic clinical study of a nationally representative sample of 2694 opioid-dependent patients to investigate convictions and criminal behavior at baseline and after 6 years of maintenance treatment. At follow-up, 2284 patients still were eligible (84.7%). A comprehensive assessment including a patient and doctor questionnaire, and the EuropASI was completed at baseline and follow-up. Data on criminality at follow-up had been received for 1147 (70.6%) patients. A large number (84.5%) of them had been charged or convicted at any time before baseline assessment, most frequently with drug-related offenses (66.8%), acquisitive crime (49.1%), or acts of violence (22.0%). Reported charges and convictions had declined to 17.9% for the last 12 months before follow-up, which was also reflected by a significant decrease in the EuropASI subscore "legal problems" from 1.52 at baseline to 0.98 after 6 years. These data indicate a significant and clinically relevant reduction in criminal behavior in opioid-dependent patients in long-term maintenance treatment. Maintenance therapy is effective in the reduction in both narcotics-related and acquisition crime.

  11. The Nucleus Accumbens: A Switchboard for Goal-Directed Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    Reward intake optimization requires a balance between exploiting known sources of rewards and exploring for new sources. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and associated basal ganglia circuits are likely candidates as neural structures responsible for such balance, while the hippocampus may be responsible for spatial/contextual information. Although studies have assessed interactions between hippocampus and PFC, and between hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens (NA), it is not known whether 3-way interactions among these structures vary under different behavioral conditions. Here, we investigated these interactions with multichannel recordings while rats explored an operant chamber and while they performed a learned lever-pressing task for reward in the same chamber shortly afterward. Neural firing and local field potentials in the NA core synchronized with hippocampal activity during spatial exploration, but during lever pressing they instead synchronized more strongly with the PFC. The latter is likely due to transient drive of NA neurons by bursting prefrontal activation, as in vivo intracellular recordings in anesthetized rats revealed that NA up states can transiently synchronize with spontaneous PFC activity and PFC stimulation with a bursting pattern reliably evoked up states in NA neurons. Thus, the ability to switch synchronization in a task-dependent manner indicates that the NA core can dynamically select its inputs to suit environmental demands, thereby contributing to decision-making, a function that was thought to primarily depend on the PFC. PMID:19352511

  12. Listener perception of the effect of abdominal kinematic directives on respiratory behavior in female classical singing.

    PubMed

    Collyer, Sally; Kenny, Dianna T; Archer, Michaele

    2011-01-01

    Breath management training in classical singing is becoming increasingly physiologically focused, despite evidence that directives focusing on chest-wall kinematic (ribcage and abdominal) behavior effect minimal change in acoustical measures of singing. A direct and proportionate relationship between breathing behavior and vocal quality is important in singing training because singing teachers rely primarily on changes in sound quality to assess the efficacy of breath management modification. Pedagogical opinion is also strongly divided over whether the strategy of retarding the reduction in abdominal dimension during singing has a negative effect on vocal quality. This study investigated whether changes in abdominal kinematic strategy were perceptible and whether listeners preferred a particular strategy. Fourteen experienced singing teachers and vocal coaches assessed audio samples of five female classical singers whose respiratory kinematic patterns during singing had been recorded habitually and under two simple, dichotomous directives: Gradually drawing the abdomen inward and gradually expanding the abdomen, during each phrase. Listeners rated the singers on standard of singing and of breath management. Ratings analysis took into consideration changes in kinematic behavior under each directive determined from the respiratory recordings. Listener ratings for two singers were unaffected by directive. For three singers, ratings were lower when the directive opposed habitual kinematic behavior. The results did not support the pedagogical assumption of a direct and proportional link between respiratory behavior and standard of singing or that the abdomen-outward strategy was deleterious to vocal quality. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering habitual breathing behavior in both research and pedagogical contexts.

  13. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory.

    PubMed

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  14. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    PubMed Central

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns. PMID:25717313

  15. Direction-Specific Adaptation in Neuronal and Behavioral Responses of an Insect Mechanosensory System.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hiroto; Oka, Kotaro

    2015-08-19

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is considered to be the neural underpinning of habituation to frequent stimuli and novelty detection. However, neither the cellular mechanism underlying SSA nor the link between SSA-like neuronal plasticity and behavioral modulation is well understood. The wind-detection system in crickets is one of the best models for investigating the neural basis of SSA. We found that crickets exhibit stimulus-direction-specific adaptation in wind-elicited avoidance behavior. Repetitive air currents inducing this behavioral adaptation reduced firings to the stimulus and the amplitude of excitatory synaptic potentials in wind-sensitive giant interneurons (GIs) related to the avoidance behavior. Injection of a Ca(2+) chelator into GIs diminished both the attenuation of firings and the synaptic depression induced by the repetitive stimulation, suggesting that adaptation of GIs induced by this stimulation results in Ca(2+)-mediated modulation of postsynaptic responses, including postsynaptic short-term depression. Some types of GIs showed specific adaptation to the direction of repetitive stimuli, resulting in an alteration of their directional tuning curves. The types of GIs for which directional tuning was altered displayed heterogeneous direction selectivity in their Ca(2+) dynamics that was restricted to a specific area of dendrites. In contrast, other types of GIs with constant directionality exhibited direction-independent global Ca(2+) elevation throughout the dendritic arbor. These results suggest that depression induced by local Ca(2+) accumulation at repetitively activated synapses of key neurons underlies direction-specific behavioral adaptation. This input-selective depression mediated by heterogeneous Ca(2+) dynamics could confer the ability to detect novelty at the earliest stages of sensory processing in crickets. Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is considered to be the neural underpinning of habituation and novelty detection. We

  16. Co-relationship between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in patients receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ramdurg, Santosh; Ambekar, Atul; Lal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30) and naltrexone (n = 30) maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Results: The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05) there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion: Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses. PMID:26257480

  17. Direct Behavior Rating (DBR): Generalizability and Dependability across Raters and Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Boice, Christina H.

    2010-01-01

    Generalizability theory was used to examine the generalizability and dependability of outcomes from two single-item Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) scales: DBR of actively manipulating and DBR of visually distracted. DBR is a behavioral assessment tool with specific instrumentation and procedures that can be used by a variety of service delivery…

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Various Training Components on Accuracy of Direct Behavior Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Jaffery, Rose; Harrison, Sayward

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of various components of rater training on the accuracy of rating behavior using Direct Behavior Rating-Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS). Specifically, the addition of frame-of-reference and rater error training components to a standard package involving an overview and then modeling, practice, and feedback was…

  19. How to Get a Maintenance Program Underway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Lyndall L.

    1975-01-01

    The article describes the development of a comprehensive maintenance program for the school shop. A general maintenance management outline provides direction for planning, execution, and evaluation. (MW)

  20. How to Get a Maintenance Program Underway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Lyndall L.

    1975-01-01

    The article describes the development of a comprehensive maintenance program for the school shop. A general maintenance management outline provides direction for planning, execution, and evaluation. (MW)

  1. Behavioral genetics '97: ASHG statement. Recent developments in human behavioral genetics: past accomplishments and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, S L; DeFries, J C; Gottesman, I I; Loehlin, J C; Meyer, J M; Pelias, M Z; Rice, J; Waldman, I

    1997-01-01

    The field of behavioral genetics has enormous potential to uncover both genetic and environmental influences on normal and deviant behavior. Behavioral-genetic methods are based on a solid foundation of theories and methods that successfully have delineated components of complex traits in plants and animals. New resources are now available to dissect the genetic component of these complex traits. As specific genes are identified, we can begin to explore how these interact with environmental factors in development. How we interpret such findings, how we ask new questions, how we celebrate the knowledge, and how we use or misuse this knowledge are all important considerations. These issues are pervasive in all areas of human research, and they are especially salient in human behavioral genetics. PMID:9199545

  2. Neonatal lesions of orbital frontal areas 11/13 in monkeys alter goal-directed behavior but spare fear conditioning and safety signal learning.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Andy M; Davis, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated that damage to the lateral subfields of orbital frontal cortex (OFC areas 11/13) yields profound changes in flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and deficits in fear regulation. Yet, little consideration has been placed on its role in emotional and social development throughout life. The current study investigated the effects of neonatal lesions of the OFC on the flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and fear responses in monkeys. Infant monkeys received neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 or sham-lesions during the first post-natal week. Modulation of goal-directed behaviors was measured with a devaluation task at 3-4 and 6-7 years. Modulation of fear reactivity by safety signals was assessed with the AX+/BX- fear-potentiated-startle paradigm at 6-7 years. Similar to adult-onset OFC lesions, selective neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 yielded a failure to modulate behavioral responses guided by changes in reward value, but spared the ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of safety signals. These results suggest that these areas play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation during goal-directed behaviors, but not or less so, in the development of the ability to process emotionally salient stimuli and to modulate emotional reactivity using environmental contexts, which could be supported by other OFC subfields, such as the most ventromedial subfields (i.e., areas 14/25). Given similar impaired decision-making abilities and spared modulation of fear after both neonatal lesions of either OFC areas 11 and 13 or amygdala (Kazama et al., 2012; Kazama and Bachevalier, 2013), the present results suggest that interactions between these two neural structures play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation; an ability essential for the self-regulation of emotion and behavior that assures the maintenance of successful social relationships.

  3. Touch Your Toes! Developing a Direct Measure of Behavioral Regulation in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron Ponitz, C. E.; McClelland, M. M.; Jewkes, A. M.; Connor, C. M.; Farris, C. L.; Morrison, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral aspects of self-regulation, including controlling and directing actions, paying attention, and remembering instructions, are critical for successful functioning in preschool and elementary school. In recent years, several direct assessments of these skills have appeared, but few studies provide complete psychometric data and many are…

  4. The Impact of Target, Wording, and Duration on Rating Accuracy for Direct Behavior Rating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Jaffery, Rose; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Christ, Theodore J.; Sen, Rohini

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend evaluation of rater accuracy using "Direct Behavior Rating--Single-Item Scales" (DBR-SIS). Extension of prior research was accomplished through use of criterion ratings derived from both systematic direct observation and expert DBR-SIS scores, and also through control of the durations over which…

  5. Family Life-Styles and Child Behaviors: A Study of Direction of Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Iris Tan; Nihira, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    Examines the direction of effects between slow-learning children and their families in three family types: (1) learning-oriented, high residential quality; (2) achievement-oriented, low residential quality; and (3) outer-directed, with little achievement orientation, taking into consideration child variables of adjustment and adaptive behavior.…

  6. Knowledge and Attitudes Associated with Self-Directed and Interpersonal Violent Behaviors among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotecki, Jerome E.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of data from the National Adolescent Student Health Survey examined relationships among knowledge, attitude, and behaviors related to interpersonal and self-directed violence. Results found significant relationships among self-directed violence and knowledge, belief, feeling, and intention to act and between interpersonal violent…

  7. Indirect and direct perceived behavioral control and the role of intention in the context of birth control behavior.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Jingzhen Ginger; Romitti, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Unintended pregnancies can have negative consequences for both mother and child. The focus of this study was to utilize perceived behavioral control measures (PBC; part of the theory of planned behavior) to identify relevant behavioral determinants of birth control use. This study also tested associations between direct and indirect PBC measures and intention of birth control use and between intention and birth control use. The methods included a randomly selected sample of patients at a health care system in the Upper Midwest who were sent a self-administered survey, with 190 non-pregnant women returning completed surveys. Participants indicated a high level of control over using birth control, and a significant positive correlation was observed between direct and indirect PBC measures. Participants also reported high intentions to use birth control, and a significant positive correlation was observed between intention and PBC. Additionally, both PBC measures and intention were independently and significantly associated with behavior, and PBC remained significantly associated with behavior when intention was added into the model. In conclusion, compared to the previous literature, this study is unique in that it examines indirect PBC measures and also the important role that PBC plays with actual birth control behavior.

  8. Development of system decision support tools for behavioral trends monitoring of machinery maintenance in a competitive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeyeri, Michael Kanisuru; Mpofu, Khumbulani

    2017-01-01

    The article is centred on software system development for manufacturing company that produces polyethylene bags using mostly conventional machines in a competitive world where each business enterprise desires to stand tall. This is meant to assist in gaining market shares, taking maintenance and production decisions by the dynamism and flexibilities embedded in the package as customers' demand varies under the duress of meeting the set goals. The production and machine condition monitoring software (PMCMS) is programmed in C# and designed in such a way to support hardware integration, real-time machine conditions monitoring, which is based on condition maintenance approach, maintenance decision suggestions and suitable production strategies as the demand for products keeps changing in a highly competitive environment. PMCMS works with an embedded device which feeds it with data from the various machines being monitored at the workstation, and the data are read at the base station through transmission via a wireless transceiver and stored in a database. A case study was used in the implementation of the developed system, and the results show that it can monitor the machine's health condition effectively by displaying machines' health status, gives repair suggestions to probable faults, decides strategy for both production methods and maintenance, and, thus, can enhance maintenance performance obviously.

  9. Development of system decision support tools for behavioral trends monitoring of machinery maintenance in a competitive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeyeri, Michael Kanisuru; Mpofu, Khumbulani

    2017-01-01

    The article is centred on software system development for manufacturing company that produces polyethylene bags using mostly conventional machines in a competitive world where each business enterprise desires to stand tall. This is meant to assist in gaining market shares, taking maintenance and production decisions by the dynamism and flexibilities embedded in the package as customers' demand varies under the duress of meeting the set goals. The production and machine condition monitoring software (PMCMS) is programmed in C# and designed in such a way to support hardware integration, real-time machine conditions monitoring, which is based on condition maintenance approach, maintenance decision suggestions and suitable production strategies as the demand for products keeps changing in a highly competitive environment. PMCMS works with an embedded device which feeds it with data from the various machines being monitored at the workstation, and the data are read at the base station through transmission via a wireless transceiver and stored in a database. A case study was used in the implementation of the developed system, and the results show that it can monitor the machine's health condition effectively by displaying machines' health status, gives repair suggestions to probable faults, decides strategy for both production methods and maintenance, and, thus, can enhance maintenance performance obviously.

  10. Understanding the Behavioral Determinants of Retention in HIV Care: A Qualitative Evaluation of a Situated Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills Model of Care Initiation and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.; Amico, K. Rivet

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The current study provides a qualitative test of a recently proposed application of an Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior situated to the social-environmental, structural, cognitive-affective, and behavioral demands of retention in HIV care. Mixed-methods qualitative analysis was used to identify the content and context of critical theory-based determinants of retention in HIV care, and to evaluate the relative fit of the model to the qualitative data collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with a sample of inner-city patients accessing traditional and nontraditional HIV care services in the Bronx, NY. The sample reflected a diverse marginalized patient population who commonly experienced comorbid chronic conditions (e.g., psychiatric disorders, substance abuse disorders, diabetes, hepatitis C). Through deductive content coding, situated IMB model-based content was identified in all but 7.1% of statements discussing facilitators or barriers to retention in HIV care. Inductive emergent theme identification yielded a number of important themes influencing retention in HIV care (e.g., acceptance of diagnosis, stigma, HIV cognitive/physical impairments, and global constructs of self-care). Multiple elements of these themes strongly aligned with the model's IMB constructs. The convergence of the results from both sets of analysis demonstrate that participants' experiences map well onto the content and structure of the situated IMB model, providing a systematic classification of important theoretical and contextual determinants of retention in care. Future intervention efforts to enhance retention in HIV care should address these multiple determinants (i.e., information, motivation, behavioral skills) of self-directed retention in HIV care. PMID:22612447

  11. Generalizability and Dependability of a Multi-Item Direct Behavior Rating Scale in a Kindergarten Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickerd, Garry; Hulac, David

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and rapid identification of students displaying behavioral problems requires instrumentation that is user friendly and reliable. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a multi-item direct behavior rating scale called the Direct Behavior Rating-Multiple Item Scale (DBR-MIS) for disruptive behavior to determine the number of…

  12. Generalizability and Dependability of a Multi-Item Direct Behavior Rating Scale in a Kindergarten Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickerd, Garry; Hulac, David

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and rapid identification of students displaying behavioral problems requires instrumentation that is user friendly and reliable. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a multi-item direct behavior rating scale called the Direct Behavior Rating-Multiple Item Scale (DBR-MIS) for disruptive behavior to determine the number of…

  13. How often and how consistently do symptoms directly precede criminal behavior among offenders with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jillian K; Skeem, Jennifer; Kennealy, Patrick; Bray, Beth; Zvonkovic, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Although offenders with mental illness are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, psychiatric symptoms relate weakly to criminal behavior at the group level. In this study of 143 offenders with mental illness, we use data from intensive interviews and record reviews to examine how often and how consistently symptoms lead directly to criminal behavior. First, crimes rarely were directly motivated by symptoms, particularly when the definition of symptoms excluded externalizing features that are not unique to Axis I illness. Specifically, of the 429 crimes coded, 4% related directly to psychosis, 3% related directly to depression, and 10% related directly to bipolar disorder (including impulsivity). Second, within offenders, crimes varied in the degree to which they were directly motivated by symptoms. These findings suggest that programs will be most effective in reducing recidivism if they expand beyond psychiatric symptoms to address strong variable risk factors for crime like antisocial traits.

  14. Behavior Therapy for Tic Disorders: An Evidenced-based Review and New Directions for Treatment Research

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Joseph F.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Piacentini, John; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.

    2015-01-01

    Behavior therapy is an evidenced-based intervention with moderate-to-large treatment effects in reducing tic symptom severity among individuals with Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs) and Tourette’s Disorder (TD). This review describes the behavioral treatment model for tics, delineates components of evidence-based behavior therapy for tics, and reviews the empirical support among randomized controlled trials for individuals with PTDs or TD. Additionally, this review discusses several challenges confronting the behavioral management of tics, highlights emerging solutions for these challenges, and outlines new directions for treatment research. PMID:26543797

  15. Space shuttle maintenance program planning document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    A means for developing a space shuttle maintenance program which will be acceptable to the development centers, the operators (KSC and AF), and the manufacturer is presented. The general organization and decision processes for determining the essential scheduled maintenance requirements for the space shuttle orbiter are outlined. The development of initial scheduled maintenance programs is discussed. The remaining maintenance, that is non-scheduled or non-routine maintenance, is directed by the findings of the scheduled maintenance program and the normal operation of the shuttle. The remaining maintenance consists of maintenance actions to correct discrepancies noted during scheduled maintenance tasks, nonscheduled maintenance, normal operation, or condition monitoring.

  16. Health Behavior Theory and cumulative knowledge regarding health behaviors: are we moving in the right direction?

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2005-06-01

    Although research on Health Behavior Theory (HBT) is being conducted at a rapid pace, the extent to which the field is truly moving forward in understanding health behavior has been questioned. This issue is examined in the current article. First, we discuss the problems within the HBT literature. Second, we discuss the proliferation of HBT and why theory comparison is essential to this area of research. Finally, we reflect on ways that the field might move forward by suggesting a new agenda for HBT research. It is argued that increased recognition of the similarity of health behavior constructs as well as increased empirical comparisons of theories are essential for true scientific progress in this line of inquiry.

  17. Combustion Dynamics Behavior in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...excited combustion dynamics in a model configuration of a lean direct injection (LDI) gas turbine combustor is described. Incoming air temperature and...Combustion Dynamics Behavior in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor Cheng Huang1, Rohan Gejji2, William Anderson3

  18. The Effects of Direct Instruction Flashcards and Rewards with Math Facts at School and in the Home: Acquisition and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Zennetta; McLaughlin, T. F.; Williams, Randy Lee; Derby, K. Mark; Everson, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Direct Instruction (DI) flashcard procedure, combined with strategies and rewards on multiplication fact accuracy of two elementary school-age students. A single subject replication design across three and four sets of multiplication facts was used to evaluate outcomes. The results…

  19. Direct Care Worker Training to Respond to the Behavior of Individuals With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Hobday, John V.; Robbins, Joyce C.; Barclay, Michelle P.

    2016-01-01

    Only a handful of online training programs are available for direct care workers (DCWs) to acquire the strategic skills needed to improve dementia care in instances of challenging or inappropriate behavior. Utilizing pre- and post-test data from a convenience sample of 40 DCWs, the present study sought to determine (a) whether DCWs’ knowledge of responding to dementia-related behavior increased following participation in the CARES® Dementia-Related Behavior™ Online Training Program (or CARES® Behavior) and (b) if CARES® Behavior was acceptable and useful. The average number of correct scores on a dementia care knowledge measure was significantly higher among DCWs after viewing the online modules when compared with pre-test scores (p < .01). Descriptive empirical and open-ended data also suggested that the interactive, “real-world” content of CARES® Behavior was feasibly delivered online, acceptable, and may influence how DCWs deliver clinical care to individuals with dementia-related behavior. PMID:26894209

  20. The neuropeptide PDF acts directly on evening pacemaker neurons to regulate multiple features of circadian behavior.

    PubMed

    Lear, Bridget C; Zhang, Luoying; Allada, Ravi

    2009-07-01

    Discrete clusters of circadian clock neurons temporally organize daily behaviors such as sleep and wake. In Drosophila, a network of just 150 neurons drives two peaks of timed activity in the morning and evening. A subset of these neurons expresses the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), which is important for promoting morning behavior as well as maintaining robust free-running rhythmicity in constant conditions. Yet, how PDF acts on downstream circuits to mediate rhythmic behavior is unknown. Using circuit-directed rescue of PDF receptor mutants, we show that PDF targeting of just approximately 30 non-PDF evening circadian neurons is sufficient to drive morning behavior. This function is not accompanied by large changes in core molecular oscillators in light-dark, indicating that PDF RECEPTOR likely regulates the output of these cells under these conditions. We find that PDF also acts on this focused set of non-PDF neurons to regulate both evening activity phase and period length, consistent with modest resetting effects on core oscillators. PDF likely acts on more distributed pacemaker neuron targets, including the PDF neurons themselves, to regulate rhythmic strength. Here we reveal defining features of the circuit-diagram for PDF peptide function in circadian behavior, revealing the direct neuronal targets of PDF as well as its behavioral functions at those sites. These studies define a key direct output circuit sufficient for multiple PDF dependent behaviors.

  1. Computational Analysis of Torsional Bulking Behavior of 3D 4-Directional Braided Composites Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xinrong; Liu, Ye; Hao, Wenfeng; Liu, Yinghua; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    The torsional bulking behavior of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts was analyzed in this work. First, the unit cell models of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts with different braiding angles and fiber volume fraction were built up. Then, the elastic parameters of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts were predicted using the unit cells under different boundary conditions. Finally, the torsional bulking eigenvalues and bulking modes of the composites shafts were obtained by numerical simulation, and the effects of braiding angle and fiber volume fraction on the torsional bulking behavior of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts were analyzed. The simulation results show that the bulking eigenvalues increase with the increase of braiding angle and fiber volume fraction. This work will play an important role in the design of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts.

  2. Maternal Childhood Sexual Trauma, Child Directed Aggression, Parenting Behavior, and the Moderating Role of Child Sex.

    PubMed

    Zvara, B J; Mills-Koonce, R; Cox, M

    2017-02-01

    Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the associations between maternal report of child-directed aggression and observed parenting behavior across early childhood for women with and without childhood sexual trauma histories. The moderating role of child sex was also examined. The sample (n=204) is from a longitudinal study of rural poverty exploring the ways in which child, family, and contextual factors shape development over time. After controlling for numerous factors including child and primary caregiver covariates, findings reveal that childhood sexual trauma is related to sensitive parenting behavior and child-directed aggression. Findings further revealed that child sex moderates the relation between sexual trauma history and maternal behavior towards children. Implications for interventions for mothers with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed.

  3. Direct Behavior Rating: an evaluation of time-series interpretations as consequential validity.

    PubMed

    Christ, Theodore J; Nelson, Peter M; Van Norman, Ethan R; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Riley-Tillman, T Chris

    2014-06-01

    Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) is a repeatable and efficient method of behavior assessment that is used to document teacher perceptions of student behavior in the classroom. Time-series data can be graphically plotted and visually analyzed to evaluate patterns of behavior or intervention effects. This study evaluated the decision accuracy of novice raters who were presented with single-phase graphical plots of DBR data. Three behaviors (i.e., academically engaged, disruptive, and respectful) and three graphical trends (i.e., positive, no trend, and negative) were analyzed by 27 graduate and five undergraduate participants who had minimal visual analysis experience. All graphs were unique, with data points arranged to form one of three "true" trends. Raters correctly classified graphs with positive, no, and negative trends an average of 76, 98, and 67% of instances. The generalized linear mixed model was used to handle significance tests for the categorical data. Results indicate that accuracy was influenced by the trend direction, with the most accurate ratings in the no trend condition. Despite the significant effect for trend direction, the current study provides empirical evidence for accuracy of DBR trends and interpretations. Novice raters and visual analysts yielded accurate decisions regarding the trend of plotted data for student behavior.

  4. Industrial Maintenance Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad Akbar

    2006-07-01

    Industrial plants have become more complex due to technological advancement. This has made the task of maintenance more difficult. The maintenance costs in terms of resources and downtime loss are so high that maintenance function has become a critical factor in a plant's profitability. Industry should devote as much forethought to the management of maintenance function as to production. Maintenance has grown from an art to a precise, technical engineering science. Planning, organizing scheduling and control of maintenance using modern techniques pays dividends in the form of reduced costs and increased reliability. The magnitude and the dimension of maintenance have multiplied due to development in the engineering technologies. Production cost and capacities are directly affected by the breakdown time. Total operating cost including the maintenance cost plays an important role in replacement dimension. The integrated system approach would bring forth the desired results of high maintenance standards. The standards once achieved and sustained, would add to the reliability of the plan and relieve heavy stresses and strains on the engineering logistic support. (author)

  5. Testing the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior for Predicting Binge Drinking Among Young People.

    PubMed

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Cristini, Francesca; Scacchi, Luca; Monaci, Maria Grazia

    2017-03-21

    One of the most problematic modes of alcohol consumption in young adults is risky drinking in single episodes, which typically takes place in social contexts. Several studies have applied the Theory of Planned Behavior to drinking intentions and behavior in young people. However, previous studies show that this model lacks a "bridge" that links a mental process like intentions to a physical process represented by the actual action. The aim of the present study is to test the predictive power of the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior plus social influences in order to overcome theory of planned behavior gaps in predicting binge-drinking behavior in young people. 404 undergraduates completed a questionnaire containing measures for the MGB variables, social identity, and group norms. Two weeks later, participants reported how many times they had had five/four or more alcoholic drinks on a single occasion. Structural equation modeling revealed strong support for model validity. The final equation accounted for 66% in intentions to binge drink, and 48% in drinking behavior, while a planned behavior model accounted for the 47% of variance in intentions to binge and 37% of the drinking behavior. Social influences positively affected desire and intentions to drink. Our findings suggest that, compared to other attitude-behavior frameworks, the MGB is preferable in modeling the proximal determinants of binge drinking. Therefore, the distinction between desire and intention and the consideration of social influences seem to be essential to improve the prediction of binge drinking among young people.

  6. Efficacy of a self-directed behavioral health change program: weight, body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood pressure, health risk, and psychosocial mediating variables.

    PubMed

    Clifford, P A; Tan, S Y; Gorsuch, R L

    1991-06-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral health program designed to promote self-initiated change in overweight healthy middle-aged adults (M = 49 years). Three treatment groups (total n = 25) differing in type of social support provided (i.e., group plus professional versus group plus peer versus group only) received 13 treatment sessions and 6 maintenance sessions scheduled over a full year. A self-directed change intervention taught several cognitive-behavioral techniques as they applied to exercise adherence, weight reduction/maintenance, and stress management. Combined treatment groups (n = 25) improved significantly more than an assessment only control group (n = 9) in weight, percentage body fat, cardiovascular fitness, exercise adherence, health-risk appraisal, chronic tension (MBHI, scale A), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at both post-treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Self-motivation, group treatment attendance, and health-risk appraisal significantly related (r's = .30-.56) to several posttreatment and follow-up measures of behavioral health change. No significant differences were found among the three treatment groups on any of the outcome measures.

  7. Directionality Between Tolerance of Deviance and Deviant Behavior is Age-Moderated in Chronically Stressed Youth.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Ty A; Caldwell, Linda L; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gold, Melanie A

    2011-03-20

    Problem behavior theory posits that tolerance of deviance is an antecedent to antisocial behavior and substance use. In contrast, cognitive dissonance theory implies that acceptability of a behavior may increase after experiencing the behavior. Using structural equation modeling, this investigation tested whether changes in tolerance of deviance precede changes in conduct disorder criteria or substance use or vice versa, or if they change concomitantly. Two-year longitudinal data from 246 8- to 16-year-olds suggested that tolerance of deviance increases after conduct disorder criteria or substance use in 8-to-10- and 11-to-12-year-olds. These results were consistent with cognitive dissonance theory. In 13-to-16- year-olds, no directionality was suggested, consistent with neither theory. These results were replicated in boys and girls and for different types of conduct disorder criteria aggression (covert behavior), deceitfulness and vandalism (overt behavior), and serious rule-breaking (authority conflict). The age-specific directionality between tolerance of deviance and conduct disorder criteria or substance use is consistent with unique etiologies between early onset versus adolescent-onset subtypes of behavior problems.

  8. Directionality Between Tolerance of Deviance and Deviant Behavior is Age-Moderated in Chronically Stressed Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, TY A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gold, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Problem behavior theory posits that tolerance of deviance is an antecedent to antisocial behavior and substance use. In contrast, cognitive dissonance theory implies that acceptability of a behavior may increase after experiencing the behavior. Using structural equation modeling, this investigation tested whether changes in tolerance of deviance precede changes in conduct disorder criteria or substance use or vice versa, or if they change concomitantly. Two-year longitudinal data from 246 8- to 16-year-olds suggested that tolerance of deviance increases after conduct disorder criteria or substance use in 8-to-10- and 11-to-12-year-olds. These results were consistent with cognitive dissonance theory. In 13-to-16- year-olds, no directionality was suggested, consistent with neither theory. These results were replicated in boys and girls and for different types of conduct disorder criteria aggression (covert behavior), deceitfulness and vandalism (overt behavior), and serious rule-breaking (authority conflict). The age-specific directionality between tolerance of deviance and conduct disorder criteria or substance use is consistent with unique etiologies between early onset versus adolescent-onset subtypes of behavior problems. PMID:22180721

  9. Estimating direction in brain-behavior interactions: Proactive and reactive brain states in driving.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Javier O; Brooks, Justin; Kerick, Scott; Johnson, Tony; Mullen, Tim R; Vettel, Jean M

    2017-04-15

    Conventional neuroimaging analyses have ascribed function to particular brain regions, exploiting the power of the subtraction technique in fMRI and event-related potential analyses in EEG. Moving beyond this convention, many researchers have begun exploring network-based neurodynamics and coordination between brain regions as a function of behavioral parameters or environmental statistics; however, most approaches average evoked activity across the experimental session to study task-dependent networks. Here, we examined on-going oscillatory activity as measured with EEG and use a methodology to estimate directionality in brain-behavior interactions. After source reconstruction, activity within specific frequency bands (delta: 2-3Hz; theta: 4-7Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 13-25Hz) in a priori regions of interest was linked to continuous behavioral measurements, and we used a predictive filtering scheme to estimate the asymmetry between brain-to-behavior and behavior-to-brain prediction using a variant of Granger causality. We applied this approach to a simulated driving task and examined directed relationships between brain activity and continuous driving performance (steering behavior or vehicle heading error). Our results indicated that two neuro-behavioral states may be explored with this methodology: a Proactive brain state that actively plans the response to the sensory information and is characterized by delta-beta activity, and a Reactive brain state that processes incoming information and reacts to environmental statistics primarily within the alpha band.

  10. NCS-1 dependent learning bonus and behavior outputs of self-directed exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Ho-Suk

    Animals explore a new environment and learn about their surroundings. "Exploration" refers to all activities that increase the information obtained from an animal. For this study, I determined a molecule that mediates self-directed exploration, with a particular focus on rearing behavior and vocalization. Rearing can be either self-directed exploration or escape-oriented exploration. Self-directed exploration can be driven by the desire to gather information about environments while escape-oriented exploration can be driven by fear or anxiety. To differentiate between these two concepts, I compared rearing and other behaviors in three different conditions 1) novel dim (safe environment), which induces exploration based rearing; 2) novel bright (fearful environment), which elicits fear driven rearing; and 3) familiar environment as a control. First, I characterized the effects on two distinct types of environment in exploratory behavior and its effect on learning. From this, I determined that self-directed exploration enhances spatial learning while escape-oriented exploration does not produce a learning bonus. Second, I found that NCS-1 is involved in exploration, as well as learning and memory, by testing mice with reduced levels of Ncs-1 by point mutation and also siRNA injection. Finally, I illustrated other behavior outputs and neural substrate activities, which co-occurred during either self-directed or escape-oriented exploration. I found that high-frequency ultrasonic vocalizations occurred during self-directed exploration while low-frequency calls were emitted during escape-oriented exploration. Also, with immediate early gene imaging techniques, I found hippocampus and nucleus accumbens activation in self-directed exploration. This study is the first comprehensive molecular analysis of learning bonus in self-directed exploration. These results may be beneficial for studying underlying mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disease, and also reveal therapeutic

  11. Directed differentiation and long-term maintenance of epicardial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells under fully defined conditions.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaoping; Lian, Xiaojun; Qian, Tongcheng; Bhute, Vijesh J; Han, Tianxiao; Palecek, Sean P

    2017-09-01

    Here, we describe how to efficiently direct human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) differentiation into self-renewing epicardial cells in a completely defined, xeno-free system by temporal modulation of regulators of canonical Wnt signaling. Appropriate differentiation-stage-specific application of Gsk3 inhibitor, Wnt inhibitor, and Gsk3 inhibitor (GiWiGi) is sufficient to produce cells expressing epicardial markers and exhibiting epicardial phenotypes with a high yield and purity from multiple hPSC lines in 16 d. Characterization of differentiated cells is performed via flow cytometry and immunostaining to assess quantitative expression and localization of epicardial cell-specific proteins. In vitro differentiation into fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is also described. In addition, culture in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibitors allows long-term expansion of hPSC-derived epicardial cells (for at least 25 population doublings). Functional human epicardial cells differentiated via this protocol may constitute a potential cell source for heart disease modeling, drug screening, and cell-based therapeutic applications.

  12. Effects of Strand Lay Direction and Crossing Angle on Tribological Behavior of Winding Hoist Rope

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiang-dong; Peng, Yu-xing; Zhu, Zhen-cai; Gong, Xian-sheng; Yu, Zhang-fa; Mi, Zhen-tao; Xu, Chun-ming

    2017-01-01

    Friction and wear behavior exists between hoisting ropes that are wound around the drums of a multi-layer winding hoist. It decreases the service life of ropes and threatens mine safety. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted using a self-made test rig to study the effects of the strand lay direction and crossing angle on the winding rope’s tribological behavior. Results show that the friction coefficient in the steady-state period shows a decreasing tendency with an increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions, but the variation range is different under different cross directions. Using thermal imaging, the high temperature regions always distribute along the strand lay direction in the gap between adjacent strands, as the cross direction is the same with the strand lay direction (right cross contact). Additionally, the temperature rise in the steady-state increases with the increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions. The differences of the wear scar morphology are obvious under different cross directions, especially for the large crossing angle tests. In the case of right cross, the variation range of wear mass loss is larger than that in left cross. The damage that forms on the wear surface is mainly ploughing, pits, plastic deformation, and fatigue fracture. The major wear mechanisms are adhesive wear, and abrasive and fatigue wear. PMID:28772992

  13. Effects of Strand Lay Direction and Crossing Angle on Tribological Behavior of Winding Hoist Rope.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiang-Dong; Peng, Yu-Xing; Zhu, Zhen-Cai; Gong, Xian-Sheng; Yu, Zhang-Fa; Mi, Zhen-Tao; Xu, Chun-Ming

    2017-06-09

    Friction and wear behavior exists between hoisting ropes that are wound around the drums of a multi-layer winding hoist. It decreases the service life of ropes and threatens mine safety. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted using a self-made test rig to study the effects of the strand lay direction and crossing angle on the winding rope's tribological behavior. Results show that the friction coefficient in the steady-state period shows a decreasing tendency with an increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions, but the variation range is different under different cross directions. Using thermal imaging, the high temperature regions always distribute along the strand lay direction in the gap between adjacent strands, as the cross direction is the same with the strand lay direction (right cross contact). Additionally, the temperature rise in the steady-state increases with the increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions. The differences of the wear scar morphology are obvious under different cross directions, especially for the large crossing angle tests. In the case of right cross, the variation range of wear mass loss is larger than that in left cross. The damage that forms on the wear surface is mainly ploughing, pits, plastic deformation, and fatigue fracture. The major wear mechanisms are adhesive wear, and abrasive and fatigue wear.

  14. Dietary and body weight control: therapeutic education, motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral approaches for long-term weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Golay, Alain

    2006-01-01

    A diet always induces weight loss in the short term. The loss does not depend on the dietary composition but rather on the caloric deficit. However, a drastic diet often induces binge eating disorders and can lead to a weight gain in the long term. A cognitive-behavioral-nutritional approach allows lasting weight loss and best results with low fat diets in the long term. Therapeutic education is a patient-centered humanistic approach which allows patients to be actors in their own treatment and own diet to improve their success in losing weight and their quality of life. Motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral approaches are perfect complements to therapeutic education for long-term weight loss maintenance. Finally, the best diet is the one that the patient can follow in the long term.

  15. Methadone maintenance therapy and HIV counseling and testing are associated with lower frequency of risky behaviors among injection drug users in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Linglin; Jiang, Baofa; Xiao, Yan; Jia, Yujiang; Wu, Pingsheng; Cassell, Holly; Vermund, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted among injection drug users (IDUs). Of 2,530 participants, 47.7% reported ever sharing needles, 78.2% having had unprotected sex in the last month, 34.4% not receiving either methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) or HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), 4.8% ever receiving MMT-only, 36.6% ever receiving VCT-only, and 24.2% ever receiving both MMT and VCT. MMT-only and the combination of MMT and VCT had significant associations with needle sharing and on unprotected sexual behaviors. Effectively integrating VCT into MMT services is a logical way to maximize the impact of both interventions on risky behaviors among IDUs.

  16. Pathways to Adult Sexual Revictimization: Direct and Indirect Behavioral Risk Factors across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargo, Jamison D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual…

  17. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

  18. Training Blind Children to Employ Appropriate Gaze Direction and Sitting Behavior during Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, Sharon A.

    1987-01-01

    Five congenitally blind children (ages 5-8) were trained to simultaneously employ appropriate gaze direction and sitting behavior while conversing with an adult. Training consisted of discussion, modeling, physical prompting, feedback, and positive reinforcement. All children reached criterion in 19 to 25 training sessions. (Author/DB)

  19. The Impact of Observation Duration on the Accuracy of Data Obtained from Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Christ, Theodore J.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Boice-Mallach, Christina H.; Briesch, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, evaluation of direct behavior rating (DBR) occurred with regard to two primary areas: (a) accuracy of ratings with varied instrumentation (anchoring: proportional or absolute) and procedures (observation length: 5 min, 10 min, or 20 min) and (b) one-week test-retest reliability. Participants viewed video clips of a typical third…

  20. Direct and Indirect Pathways between Parental Constructive Behavior and Adolescent Affiliation with Achievement-Oriented Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zeng-yin; Dornbusch, Sanford M.; Liu, Ruth X.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the direct and indirect pathways through which parental constructive behavior may influence the adolescent's affiliation with achievement-oriented peers. Using a longitudinal survey data set from nine California and Wisconsin high schools (from 9th through 12th grades, with an approximate age range from 14 through 18) structural…

  1. Footprints reveal direct evidence of group behavior and locomotion in Homo erectus

    PubMed Central

    Hatala, Kevin G.; Roach, Neil T.; Ostrofsky, Kelly R.; Wunderlich, Roshna E.; Dingwall, Heather L.; Villmoare, Brian A.; Green, David J.; Harris, John W. K.; Braun, David R.; Richmond, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Bipedalism is a defining feature of the human lineage. Despite evidence that walking on two feet dates back 6–7 Ma, reconstructing hominin gait evolution is complicated by a sparse fossil record and challenges in inferring biomechanical patterns from isolated and fragmentary bones. Similarly, patterns of social behavior that distinguish modern humans from other living primates likely played significant roles in our evolution, but it is exceedingly difficult to understand the social behaviors of fossil hominins directly from fossil data. Footprints preserve direct records of gait biomechanics and behavior but they have been rare in the early human fossil record. Here we present analyses of an unprecedented discovery of 1.5-million-year-old footprint assemblages, produced by 20+ Homo erectus individuals. These footprints provide the oldest direct evidence for modern human-like weight transfer and confirm the presence of an energy-saving longitudinally arched foot in H. erectus. Further, print size analyses suggest that these H. erectus individuals lived and moved in cooperative multi-male groups, offering direct evidence consistent with human-like social behaviors in H. erectus. PMID:27403790

  2. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

  3. Pathways to Adult Sexual Revictimization: Direct and Indirect Behavioral Risk Factors across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargo, Jamison D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual…

  4. Using a Combined Approach of Guided Inquiry & Direct Instruction to Explore How Physiology Affects Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machtinger, Erika T.

    2014-01-01

    Hands-on activities with live organisms allow students to actively explore scientific investigation. Here, I present activities that combine guided inquiry with direct instruction and relate how nutrition affects the physiology and behavior of the common housefly. These experiments encourage student involvement in the formulation of experimental…

  5. The Impact of Training on the Accuracy of Direct Behavior Ratings (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlientz, Mine D.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Walcott, Christy M.

    2009-01-01

    To date, extant research has not established how rater training affects the accuracy of data yielded from Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) methods. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether providing users of DBR methods with a training session that utilized practice and performance feedback would increase rating accuracy. It was…

  6. Using a Combined Approach of Guided Inquiry & Direct Instruction to Explore How Physiology Affects Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machtinger, Erika T.

    2014-01-01

    Hands-on activities with live organisms allow students to actively explore scientific investigation. Here, I present activities that combine guided inquiry with direct instruction and relate how nutrition affects the physiology and behavior of the common housefly. These experiments encourage student involvement in the formulation of experimental…

  7. Teaching the Principles of Applied Behavior Modification to Direct-Care Workers in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brautman, Edwin Jay

    Intended for direct care workers at institutions for severely and profoundly retarded persons, the curriculum focuses on behavior modification skill instruction. Eight lesson plans are presented, with information on topic, content, and teaching methods. Topics include the following (sample subtopics in parentheses): 1) introduction; 2) observing…

  8. Direct and Indirect Influence of Altruistic Behavior in a Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei-Pei; Safin, Vasiliy; Yang, Barry; Luhmann, Christian C.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that recipients of generosity behave more generously themselves (a direct social influence). In contrast, there is conflicting evidence about the existence of indirect influence (i.e., whether interacting with a recipient of generosity causes one to behave more generously), casting doubt on the possibility that altruistic behavior can cascade through social networks. The current study investigated how far selfish and generous behavior can be transmitted through social networks and the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such transmission. Participants played a sequence of public goods games comprising a chain network. This network is advantageous because it permits only a single, unambiguous path of influence. Furthermore, we experimentally manipulated the behavior of the first link in the chain to be either generous or selfish. Results revealed the presence of direct social influence, but no evidence for indirect influence. Results also showed that selfish behavior exerted a substantially greater influence than generous behavior. Finally, expectations about future partners’ behavior strongly mediated the observed social influence, suggesting an adaptive basis for such influence. PMID:26469066

  9. Direct and Indirect Influence of Altruistic Behavior in a Social Network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Pei; Safin, Vasiliy; Yang, Barry; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that recipients of generosity behave more generously themselves (a direct social influence). In contrast, there is conflicting evidence about the existence of indirect influence (i.e., whether interacting with a recipient of generosity causes one to behave more generously), casting doubt on the possibility that altruistic behavior can cascade through social networks. The current study investigated how far selfish and generous behavior can be transmitted through social networks and the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such transmission. Participants played a sequence of public goods games comprising a chain network. This network is advantageous because it permits only a single, unambiguous path of influence. Furthermore, we experimentally manipulated the behavior of the first link in the chain to be either generous or selfish. Results revealed the presence of direct social influence, but no evidence for indirect influence. Results also showed that selfish behavior exerted a substantially greater influence than generous behavior. Finally, expectations about future partners' behavior strongly mediated the observed social influence, suggesting an adaptive basis for such influence.

  10. Sibling-directed internal state language, perspective taking, and affective behavior.

    PubMed

    Howe, N

    1991-12-01

    This study examined relations among preschoolers' sibling-directed internal state language, perspective-taking abilities, and sibling-directed affective behaviors in 32 sibling dyads (aged 14 months and 3-4 years) during naturalistic home observations. Preschooler references about internal states (emotions, wants, abilities) were significantly more likely to be (a) about the toddler than the self, and (b) made in the mother's absence and during sibling conflict and play. Relative to poor perspective takers, skillful perspective takers (a) engaged in more instances of internal state discourse and (b) talked more frequently about both the toddler and themselves. Preschoolers engaging in high levels of positive affective behavior also spoke more frequently about internal states than children engaging in low levels of positive affective behavior. Discussion of results highlights the notion that internal state language may be one way of regulating sibling interaction and also a potential means for siblings to construct shared meanings about their world.

  11. Energy transfer on demand: photoswitch-directed behavior of metal-porphyrin frameworks.

    PubMed

    Williams, Derek E; Rietman, Joseph A; Maier, Josef M; Tan, Rui; Greytak, Andrew B; Smith, Mark D; Krause, Jeanette A; Shustova, Natalia B

    2014-08-27

    In this paper, a photochromic diarylethene-based derivative that is coordinatively immobilized within an extended porphyrin framework is shown to maintain its photoswitchable behavior and to direct the photophysical properties of the host. In particular, emission of a framework composed of bis(5-pyridyl-2-methyl-3-thienyl)cyclopentene (BPMTC) and tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (H4TCPP) ligands anchored by Zn(2+) ions can be altered as a function of incident light. We attribute the observed cyclic fluorescence behavior of the synthesized porphyrin-BPMTC array to activation of energy transfer (ET) pathways through BPMTC photoisomerization. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements show a decrease in average porphyrin emission lifetime upon BPMTC insertion, consistent with an ET-based mechanism. These studies portend the possible utilization of photochromic ligands to direct chromophore behavior in large light-harvesting ensembles.

  12. A Quasi-Linear Behavioral Model and an Application to Self-Directed Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Carr, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    A model is presented that describes the relationship between one's knowledge of the world and the concomitant personal behaviors that serve as a mechanism to obtain desired outcomes. Integrated within this model are the differing roles that outcomes serve as motivators and as modifiers to one's worldview. The model is dichotomized between general and contextual applications. Because learner self-directedness (a personal characteristic) involves cognition and affection while self-directed learning (a pedagogic process) encompasses conation, behavior and introspection, the model can be dichotomized again in another direction. Presented also are the roles that cognitive motivation theories play in moving an individual through this behavioral model and the roles of wishes, self-efficacy, opportunity and self-influence.

  13. A preliminary investigation of opinions and behaviors regarding advance directives for medical care.

    PubMed

    Elpern, E H; Yellen, S B; Burton, L A

    1993-03-01

    Advance directives are a means of promoting patient autonomy in end-of-life decisions but are used infrequently. A recent federal law requires healthcare organizations to provide information to patients about advance directives. This study explored attitudes and behaviors related to the use of advance directives in three areas: familiarity with advance directives, reasons for completing or not completing advance directives and preferences for receiving information about advance directives. A questionnaire was administered by personal interview to a nonrandomized convenience sample of 46 inpatients and 50 outpatients at a large, tertiary care, urban academic medical center in the summer of 1991. Most respondents (77%) had heard of either the living will or durable power of attorney for healthcare, but only 52% correctly understood the purpose of these documents. Twenty-nine percent of the sample had executed an advance directive. Those who had advance directives were older and considered themselves less healthy than did those without advance directives. Unfamiliarity with advance directives and procrastination were cited most often as reasons for not having an advance directive. Most subjects (65%) had spoken with someone, usually a family member or close friend, about preferences for treatment during a critical illness. Although they had rarely discussed advance directives, 83% anticipated that they would be comfortable doing so with a physician or a nurse. Advance directives are used infrequently to document treatment preferences. The success of programs to promote greater use of advance directives depends on a clearer understanding of the factors that influence both decision and action to execute an advance directive. Patients claim to be comfortable in discussing the topic and prefer that such discussions occur in the outpatient setting.

  14. The effects of directive and nondirective prompts on noncompliant vocal behavior exhibited by a child with autism.

    PubMed

    Peyton, Robert T; Lindauer, Steven E; Richman, David M

    2005-01-01

    Results of an analogue functional analysis indicated that noncompliant vocal behavior exhibited by a young girl with autism was maintained by negative reinforcement. Follow-up analyses suggested that the immediate escape contingency assessed in the demand condition did not appear to maintain the behavior. Instead, noncompliant vocal behavior occurred in response to directive prompts. Nondirective prompts reduced noncompliant vocal behavior to near zero.

  15. Reliability evaluation of sampling plan fixed by Council Directive 91/68/EEC for the maintenance of officially brucellosis-free flock status.

    PubMed

    De Massis, F; Petrini, A; Giovannini, A

    2005-08-01

    The European Union (EU) strategy with respect to sheep and goat brucellosis aims to eradicate the infection and achieve officially brucellosis-free (OBF) status in all EU holdings and territories. Council Directive 91/68/EEC of 28 January 1991 states that to maintain OBF status of ovine or caprine holdings located outside an OBF territory, only a representative number of animals need to be tested annually. However, depending on the number of animals in a holding, this testing method risks non-detection of the infection, thereby reducing the efficacy of the brucellosis control plan. The recommended sampling procedure has a low sensitivity for detecting infection in medium-sized flocks; furthermore, the risk of not detecting re-infection in OBF flocks, particularly in territories that have not yet gained OBF status, is also not acceptable. Moreover, in large-sized flocks, the Directive sampling procedure entails taking an excessive number of samples, which can be very expensive. The authors evaluated, by using statistical analyses and a simulation model based on field data, the possible consequences of the current EU strategy. It is suggested that the sampling criteria for the maintenance of OBF status in the EU should be modified and that a statistically based sampling method should be applied instead of the fixed percentage method that is currently in use.

  16. Ants, Cataglyphis cursor, Use Precisely Directed Rescue Behavior to Free Entrapped Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Nowbahari, Elise; Scohier, Alexandra; Durand, Jean-Luc; Hollis, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Although helping behavior is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom, actual rescue activity is particularly rare. Nonetheless, here we report the first experimental evidence that ants, Cataglyphis cursor, use precisely directed rescue behavior to free entrapped victims; equally important, they carefully discriminate between individuals in distress, offering aid only to nestmates. Our experiments simulate a natural situation, which we often observed in the field when collecting Catagyphis ants, causing sand to collapse in the process. Using a novel experimental technique that binds victims experimentally, we observed the behavior of separate, randomly chosen groups of 5 C. cursor nestmates under one of six conditions. In five of these conditions, a test stimulus (the “victim”) was ensnared with nylon thread and held partially beneath the sand. The test stimulus was either (1) an individual from the same colony; (2) an individual from a different colony of C cursor; (3) an ant from a different ant species; (4) a common prey item; or, (5) a motionless (chilled) nestmate. In the final condition, the test stimulus (6) consisted of the empty snare apparatus. Our results demonstrate that ants are able to recognize what, exactly, holds their relative in place and direct their behavior to that object, the snare, in particular. They begin by excavating sand, which exposes the nylon snare, transporting sand away from it, and then biting at the snare itself. Snare biting, a behavior never before reported in the literature, demonstrates that rescue behavior is far more sophisticated, exact and complexly organized than the simple forms of helping behavior already known, namely limb pulling and sand digging. That is, limb pulling and sand digging could be released directly by a chemical call for help and thus result from a very simple mechanism. However, it's difficult to see how this same releasing mechanism could guide rescuers to the precise location of the nylon thread

  17. Participants' Assessment of the Impact of Behavioral Health Self-Direction on Recovery.

    PubMed

    Croft, Bevin; Parish, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Self-direction involves managing a flexible budget, selecting and purchasing services and supports to meet individual needs and preferences. An emerging practice in the behavioral health field, self-direction is part of a systemic shift toward person-centered approaches to service provision. To understand the relationship between recovery and self-direction, the authors conducted a content analysis of 30 in-depth interviews with individuals from two self-direction programs in one state. A positive relationship between self-direction and recovery was established. Meeting basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter are important first steps in the recovery process for self-directing participants. Recovery domains were dynamic and interrelated, with gains in independence, self-esteem, and self-confidence facilitating achievement of goals in other domains. To maximize the benefits of self-direction, program administrators may need to develop clearer program implementation standards and address poverty and limited access to appropriate behavioral health services and supports.

  18. Devaluation and sequential decisions: linking goal-directed and model-based behavior

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, Eva; Koch, Stefan P.; Wendt, Jean; Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In experimental psychology different experiments have been developed to assess goal–directed as compared to habitual control over instrumental decisions. Similar to animal studies selective devaluation procedures have been used. More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of goal-directed vs. habitual choice behavior in terms of an influential computational theory of model-based compared to model-free behavioral control. As recently suggested, different measurements are thought to reflect the same construct. Yet, there has been no attempt to directly assess the construct validity of these different measurements. In the present study, we used a devaluation paradigm and a sequential decision-making task to address this question of construct validity in a sample of 18 healthy male human participants. Correlational analysis revealed a positive association between model-based choices during sequential decisions and goal-directed behavior after devaluation suggesting a single framework underlying both operationalizations and speaking in favor of construct validity of both measurement approaches. Up to now, this has been merely assumed but never been directly tested in humans. PMID:25136310

  19. Devaluation and sequential decisions: linking goal-directed and model-based behavior.

    PubMed

    Friedel, Eva; Koch, Stefan P; Wendt, Jean; Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In experimental psychology different experiments have been developed to assess goal-directed as compared to habitual control over instrumental decisions. Similar to animal studies selective devaluation procedures have been used. More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of goal-directed vs. habitual choice behavior in terms of an influential computational theory of model-based compared to model-free behavioral control. As recently suggested, different measurements are thought to reflect the same construct. Yet, there has been no attempt to directly assess the construct validity of these different measurements. In the present study, we used a devaluation paradigm and a sequential decision-making task to address this question of construct validity in a sample of 18 healthy male human participants. Correlational analysis revealed a positive association between model-based choices during sequential decisions and goal-directed behavior after devaluation suggesting a single framework underlying both operationalizations and speaking in favor of construct validity of both measurement approaches. Up to now, this has been merely assumed but never been directly tested in humans.

  20. Phase behavior and rheological properties of polyamine-rich complexes for direct-write assembly.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingjie; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2007-12-04

    Polyamine-rich complexes are developed for microscale patterning of planar and 3-D structures by direct ink writing. The complexes are formed by mixing poly(allylamine) hydrochloride and poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt in water in a nonstoichiometric ratio. Their phase behavior, rheological properties, and coagulation behavior in alcohol-water reservoirs are characterized. Direct comparisons are made between these complexes, which are based on mixtures of linear polyelectrolytes, and prior observations of complexes composed of linear and highly branched chains. [Gratson, G. M.; Xu, M.; Lewis, J. A. Nature 2004, 428, 386. Gratson, G. M.; Lewis, J. A. Langmuir 2005, 21, 457-464.] The optimal polyamine-rich ink and reservoir compositions are identified for direct-write assembly of wavy, gradient, and 3-D microperiodic architectures.

  1. Cell-Type-Specific Sensorimotor Processing in Striatal Projection Neurons during Goal-Directed Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sippy, Tanya; Lapray, Damien; Crochet, Sylvain; Petersen, Carl C H

    2015-10-21

    Goal-directed sensorimotor transformation drives important aspects of mammalian behavior. The striatum is thought to play a key role in reward-based learning and action selection, receiving glutamatergic sensorimotor signals and dopaminergic reward signals. Here, we obtain whole-cell membrane potential recordings from the dorsolateral striatum of mice trained to lick a reward spout after a whisker deflection. Striatal projection neurons showed strong task-related modulation, with more depolarization and action potential firing on hit trials compared to misses. Direct pathway striatonigral neurons, but not indirect pathway striatopallidal neurons, exhibited a prominent early sensory response. Optogenetic stimulation of direct pathway striatonigral neurons, but not indirect pathway striatopallidal neurons, readily substituted for whisker stimulation evoking a licking response. Our data are consistent with direct pathway striatonigral neurons contributing a "go" signal for goal-directed sensorimotor transformation leading to action initiation. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  2. Adolescents just do not know what they want: a qualitative study to describe obese adolescents' experiences of text messaging to support behavior change maintenance post intervention.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyla L; Kerr, Deborah A; Fenner, Ashley A; Straker, Leon M

    2014-04-08

    Adolescents are considered a hard to reach group and novel approaches are needed to encourage good health. Text messaging interventions have been reported as acceptable to adolescents but there is little evidence regarding the use of text messages with overweight and obese adolescents to support engagement or behavior change after the conclusion of a healthy lifestyle program. The intent of this study was to explore the opinions of overweight adolescents and their parents regarding the use of text messages as a support during the maintenance period following an intervention. This paper reports on the findings from focus groups conducted with adolescents (n=12) and parents (n=13) who had completed an eight-week intensive intervention known as Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP). Focus groups were conducted three months post intensive intervention. Participants were asked about their experiences of the prior three-month maintenance phase during which adolescents had received tri-weekly text messages based on the self-determination theory and goal-setting theory. Participants were asked about the style and content of text messages used as well as how they used the text messages. Data were analyzed using content and thematic analyses. Two clear themes emerged from the focus groups relating to (1) what adolescents liked or thought they wanted in a text message to support behavior change, and (2) how they experienced or responded to text messages. Within the "like/want" theme, there were five sub-themes relating to the overall tone of the text, frequency, timing, reference to long-term goals, and inclusion of practical tips. Within the "response to text" theme, there were four sub-themes describing a lack of motivation, barriers to change, feelings of shame, and perceived unfavorable comparison with other adolescents. What adolescents said they wanted in text messages often conflicted with their actual experiences. Parent reports provided a

  3. The Agreement between Parent-Reported and Directly Measured Child Language and Parenting Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bennetts, Shannon K; Mensah, Fiona K; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Hackworth, Naomi J; Reilly, Sheena

    2016-01-01

    Parenting behaviors are commonly targeted in early interventions to improve children's language development. Accurate measurement of both parenting behaviors and children's language outcomes is thus crucial for sensitive assessment of intervention outcomes. To date, only a small number of studies have compared parent-reported and directly measured behaviors, and these have been hampered by small sample sizes and inaccurate statistical techniques, such as correlations. The Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression represent more reliable alternatives because they allow us to quantify fixed and proportional bias between measures. In this study, we draw on data from two Australian early childhood cohorts (N = 201 parents and slow-to-talk toddlers aged 24 months; and N = 218 parents and children aged 6-36 months experiencing social adversity) to (1) examine agreement and quantify bias between parent-reported and direct measures, and (2) to determine socio-demographic predictors of the differences between parent-reported and direct measures. Measures of child language and parenting behaviors were collected from parents and their children. Our findings support the utility of the Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression in comparing measurement methods. Results indicated stronger agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language, and poorer agreement between measures of parenting behaviors. Child age was associated with difference scores for child language; however, the direction varied for each cohort. Parents who rated their child's temperament as more difficult tended to report lower language scores on the parent questionnaire, compared to the directly measured scores. Older parents tended to report lower parenting responsiveness on the parent questionnaire, compared to directly measured scores. Finally, speaking a language other than English was associated with less responsive parenting behaviors on the videotaped

  4. The Agreement between Parent-Reported and Directly Measured Child Language and Parenting Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bennetts, Shannon K.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Hackworth, Naomi J.; Reilly, Sheena

    2016-01-01

    Parenting behaviors are commonly targeted in early interventions to improve children’s language development. Accurate measurement of both parenting behaviors and children’s language outcomes is thus crucial for sensitive assessment of intervention outcomes. To date, only a small number of studies have compared parent-reported and directly measured behaviors, and these have been hampered by small sample sizes and inaccurate statistical techniques, such as correlations. The Bland–Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression represent more reliable alternatives because they allow us to quantify fixed and proportional bias between measures. In this study, we draw on data from two Australian early childhood cohorts (N = 201 parents and slow-to-talk toddlers aged 24 months; and N = 218 parents and children aged 6–36 months experiencing social adversity) to (1) examine agreement and quantify bias between parent-reported and direct measures, and (2) to determine socio-demographic predictors of the differences between parent-reported and direct measures. Measures of child language and parenting behaviors were collected from parents and their children. Our findings support the utility of the Bland–Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression in comparing measurement methods. Results indicated stronger agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language, and poorer agreement between measures of parenting behaviors. Child age was associated with difference scores for child language; however, the direction varied for each cohort. Parents who rated their child’s temperament as more difficult tended to report lower language scores on the parent questionnaire, compared to the directly measured scores. Older parents tended to report lower parenting responsiveness on the parent questionnaire, compared to directly measured scores. Finally, speaking a language other than English was associated with less responsive parenting behaviors on the

  5. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  6. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  7. Maintenance Downtime

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    ... will be unavailable March 5, 2013 8:00 am to 5:00 pm due to database maintenance. Date(s):  Tuesday, March 5, 2013 ... will be unavailable March 5, 2013 8:00 am to 5:00 pm due to database maintenance. ...

  8. Maintenance Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. McCree

    Three methods for the preparation of maintenance budgets are discussed--(1) a traditional method, inconclusive and obsolete, based on gross square footage, (2) the formula approach method based on building classification (wood-frame, masonry-wood, masonry-concrete) with maintenance cost factors for each type plus custodial service rates by type of…

  9. Software Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Glenn; Jobe, Holly

    Proper cleaning and storage of audiovisual aids is outlined in this brief guide. Materials and equipment needed for first line maintenance are listed, as well as maintenance procedures for records, audio and video tape, film, filmstrips, slides, realia, models, prints, graphics, maps, and overhead transparencies. A 15-item quiz on software…

  10. Non-directional radial intercalation dominates deep cell behavior during zebrafish epiboly

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, Robert; Song, Sungmin; Ronneberger, Olaf; Driever, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Epiboly is the first coordinated cell movement in most vertebrates and marks the onset of gastrulation. During zebrafish epiboly, enveloping layer (EVL) and deep cells spread over the vegetal yolk mass with a concomitant thinning of the deep cell layer. A prevailing model suggests that deep cell radial intercalations directed towards the EVL would drive deep cell epiboly. To test this model, we have globally recorded 3D cell trajectories for zebrafish blastomeres between sphere and 50% epiboly stages, and developed an image analysis framework to determine intercalation events, intercalation directionality, and migration speed for cells at specific positions within the embryo. This framework uses Voronoi diagrams to compute cell-to-cell contact areas, defines a feature-based spatio-temporal model for intercalation events and fits an anatomical coordinate system to the recorded datasets. We further investigate whether epiboly defects in MZspg mutant embryos devoid of Pou5f1/Oct4 may be caused by changes in intercalation behavior. In wild-type and mutant embryos, intercalations orthogonal to the EVL occur with no directional bias towards or away from the EVL, suggesting that there are no directional cues that would direct intercalations towards the EVL. Further, we find that intercalation direction is independent of the previous intercalation history of individual deep cells, arguing against cues that would program specific intrinsic directed migration behaviors. Our data support a dynamic model in which deep cells during epiboly migrate into space opening between the EVL and the yolk syncytial layer. Genetic programs determining cell motility may control deep cell dynamic behavior and epiboly progress. PMID:23951411

  11. Concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behavior from goal-directed to habitual control.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

    2010-06-16

    Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habitual stimulus-response processes that are insensitive to changes in outcome value and at the expense of goal-directed action-outcome processes. The neuroendocrine mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity bias instrumental behavior toward habitual performance. To this end, healthy men and women received hydrocortisone, the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine or both orally before they were trained in two instrumental actions leading to two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of the outcomes was devalued by inviting participants to eat that food to satiety. A subsequent extinction test revealed whether instrumental performance was goal-directed or habitual. Participants that received hydrocortisone or yohimbine alone decreased responding to the devalued action in the extinction test, i.e., they behaved goal-directed. The combined administration of hydrocortisone and yohimbine, however, rendered participants' behavior insensitive to changes in the value of the goal (i.e., habitual). These findings demonstrate that the concerted action of glucocorticoids and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behavior from goal-directed to habitual control.

  12. Influence of Direct Current Electric Field on Corrosion Behavior of Tin Under a Thin Electrolyte Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. L.; Bu, F. R.; Tian, J.; Liu, D.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of a direct current electric field (DCEF) on corrosion behavior of tin under a thin electrolyte layer was investigated based on an array electrode technology by polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and surface analysis. The experimental results indicate that the corrosion rate of tin near the positive plate of DCEF increases with increased electric field intensity, which could be attributed to the acceleration of the migration of ions, the removal of corrosion products under DCEF and the damage of tin surface oxide film. Furthermore, tin at different positions in a DCEF exhibits different corrosion behavior, which could be ascribed to the difference of the local corrosion environment caused by the DCEF.

  13. Link between Monitoring Behavior and Adolescent Adjustment: An Analysis of Direct and Indirect Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tammy K.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Cui, Lixian; Bosler, Cara D.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to explore whether monitoring behavior (i.e., parental solicitation, child disclosure, and parental involvement) was directly and indirectly (via parental knowledge and parent-youth openness) related to adolescent adjustment (i.e., antisocial behavior, substance use, and school grades). The sample consisted of 206 families with adolescents (ages 10–18 years) from predominantly low-income, high-risk neighborhoods. Monitoring behavior (parent reports), parental knowledge and parent-youth openness (youth reports), and adolescent adjustment (parent and youth reports) were all based on questionnaire data collected during a laboratory assessment. Results showed that when the monitoring behavior factors were examined simultaneously, only child disclosure was significantly and inversely related to youth antisocial behavior. In contrast, only parental involvement was significantly associated with less substance use. Moreover, school grades were significantly and incrementally predicted by both child disclosure and parental involvement. Parental solicitation was not significantly related to any of the adolescent outcomes. The findings also demonstrated evidence of indirect effects (via parental knowledge) in the link between monitoring behavior and adolescent adjustment. Implications regarding the socialization process during adolescence are discussed. PMID:25750505

  14. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  15. [Association between self-directed learning behaviors, socio-demographic and academic variables among medical students].

    PubMed

    Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Pérez V, Cristhian; Márquez U, Carolina; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus, Olga

    2013-09-01

    Medical education must encourage autonomous learning behaviors among students. However the great income profile disparity among university students may influence their capacity to acquire such skills. To assess the association between self-directed learning, socio-demographic and academic variables. The self-directed learning readiness scale was applied to 202 medical students aged between 17 and 25 years (64% males). Simultaneously information about each surveyed participant was obtained from the databases of the medical school. There is an association between socio-demographic and academic variables with the general scale of self-directed learning and the subscales learning planning and willingness to learn. Participants coming from municipal schools have a greater willingness to learn than their counterparts coming from subsidized and private schools. High school grades are related to self-directed learning and the subscales learning planning and self-assessment. Among the surveyed medical students, there is a relationship between self-directed learning behaviors, the type of school where they come from and the grades that they obtained during high school.

  16. Variability in Stepping Direction Explains the Veering Behavior of Blind Walkers

    PubMed Central

    Kallie, Christopher S.; Schrater, Paul R.; Legge, Gordon E.

    2008-01-01

    Walking without vision results in veering, an inability to maintain a straight path that has important consequences for blind pedestrians. We addressed whether the source of veering in the absence of visual and auditory feedback is better attributed to errors in perceptual encoding or undetected motor error. Three experiments had the following results: no significant differences in the shapes of veering trajectories were found between blind and blindfolded participants; accuracy in detecting curved walking paths was not correlated with simple measures of veering behavior; and explicit perceptual cues to initial walking direction did not reduce veering. We present a model that accounts for the major characteristics of our participants' veering behavior by postulating three independent sources of undetected motor error: initial orientation, consistent biases in step direction, and most importantly variable error in individual steps. PMID:17311487

  17. Direct Associations or Internal Transformations? Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Sequential Learning Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate two broad classes of cognitive mechanisms that might support the learning of sequential patterns. According to the first, learning is based on the gradual accumulation of direct associations between events based on simple conditioning principles. The other view describes learning as the process of inducing the transformational structure that defines the material. Each of these learning mechanisms predict differences in the rate of acquisition for differently organized sequences. Across a set of empirical studies, we compare the predictions of each class of model with the behavior of human subjects. We find that learning mechanisms based on transformations of an internal state, such as recurrent network architectures (e.g., Elman, 1990), have difficulty accounting for the pattern of human results relative to a simpler (but more limited) learning mechanism based on learning direct associations. Our results suggest new constraints on the cognitive mechanisms supporting sequential learning behavior. PMID:20396653

  18. Long-lasting sensitization of reward-directed behavior by amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Ian A; Williams, Matthew T; Bhavsar, Atasi; Lu, Annie P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2009-07-19

    Exposure to psychostimulant drugs of abuse such as amphetamine can result in long-lasting "sensitization" of reward-directed behavior, such that subjects display enhancements in behavior directed by and toward rewards and reward-predictive cues (i.e. "incentive sensitization"). The purpose of these experiments was to determine the degree to which such sensitization resulting from chronic amphetamine exposure influences both appetitive and consummatory food-motivated behavior. Adult male Long-Evans rats received daily i.p. injections of D-amphetamine (2.0 mg/kg) or saline vehicle for five consecutive days. This amphetamine exposure regimen produced lasting sensitization to the acute locomotor stimulant effect of the drug. One month after drug exposure rats were tested for instrumental responding (lever pressing) for food reward under various response schedules. Two months after drug exposure, rats were tested for food consumption in a discriminative Pavlovian context-potentiated eating task, involving pairings of one context with food and another context with no food. Amphetamine exposed rats showed significantly greater instrumental responding for food reward than saline controls, particularly under conditions of high response ratios. In the potentiated eating task, testing under conditions of food satiation revealed that amphetamine exposed rats ate significantly more than saline controls in the food-paired context. These experiments demonstrate that amphetamine exposure can cause enduring increases in both appetitive and consummatory aspects of natural reward-directed behavior. Such long-lasting incentive sensitization could account in part for the propensity for relapse in drug addiction, as well as for reported enhancements in non-drug reward-related behavior.

  19. Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Alexandra K; Hanlon, Roger T; Benkada, Aïcha; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of

  20. Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Alexandra K.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Benkada, Aïcha; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of

  1. Pathways to adult sexual revictimization: direct and indirect behavioral risk factors across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Fargo, Jamison D

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual victimization as well as other background and lifestyle characteristics. Structural equation modeling indicates that the relationship between child and adolescent sexual victimization is indirect, mediated by adolescent risk-taking behavior. The relationship between adolescent and adult sexual victimization is also indirect, mediated by risky sexual behavior. The residual effects of early childhood family environment and childhood physical abuse also indirectly predict sexual revictimization. Results provide empirical support for the general supposition that the relationship between child and adult sexual victimization is complex and that many intermediary factors differentially affect risk for a heightened vulnerability to sexual revictimization.

  2. Direct social support for young high risk children: relations with behavioral and emotional outcomes across time.

    PubMed

    Appleyard, Karen; Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L Alan

    2007-06-01

    This study is unique in addressing developmental correlates of direct social support for young children in a high risk sample, in contrast to previous studies addressing social support for caregivers. Participants were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of at-risk children. Social support was rated from maternal interviews throughout early childhood. Support from the mother was assessed from mother-child observations. Outcomes included internalizing and externalizing behavior problems measured from first through tenth grades. The most common support providers were biological fathers, followed by grandparents and other providers. Using multilevel modeling, higher quantity, higher quality, and lower disruption of support predicted lower starting levels of behavior problems, controlling for support from the mother. Disruption was associated with change in slope. Gender differences were found for externalizing behavior intercepts. Social support provides a promotive factor for young high risk children. Implications include involving children's social support providers in prevention and intervention programs.

  3. Measuring Bystander Behavior in the Context of Sexual Violence Prevention: Lessons Learned and New Directions.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah; Palmer, Jane E; Banyard, Victoria; Murphy, Megan; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-07-05

    Bystander intervention is receiving increased attention as a potential sexual violence prevention strategy, especially to address campus sexual assault. Rather than focusing on potential perpetrators or victims, the bystander approach engages all members of a community to take action. A growing body of evaluative work demonstrates that bystander intervention education programs yield increased positive attitudes and behaviors related to sexual violence and greater willingness to intervene in pro-social ways. Future program outcome studies, however, would benefit from more refined measures of bystander action as it is a key variable that prevention education programs attempt to influence. The purpose of the current article is to present key issues, identified by four different research teams, on the measurement of bystander behavior related to sexual violence in the context of college campuses. Comparisons among the methods are made to suggest both lessons learned and new directions for bystander behavior measurement using self-report surveys in program evaluation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation prevents abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from chronic nicotine consumption.

    PubMed

    Pedron, Solène; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Van Waes, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Successful available treatments to quit smoking remain scarce. Recently, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a tool to reduce craving for nicotine has gained interest. However, there is no documented animal model to assess the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS on addiction-related behaviors. To address this topic, we have developed a model of repeated tDCS in mice and used it to validate its effectiveness in relieving nicotine addiction. Anodal repeated tDCS was applied over the frontal cortex of Swiss female mice. The stimulation electrode (anode) was fixed directly onto the cranium, and the reference electrode was placed onto the ventral thorax. A 2 × 20 min/day stimulation paradigm for five consecutive days was used (0.2 mA). In the first study, we screened for behaviors altered by the stimulation. Second, we tested whether tDCS could alleviate abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from nicotine consumption. In naive animals, repeated tDCS had antidepressant-like properties 3 weeks after the last stimulation, improved working memory, and decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine without affecting locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. Importantly, abnormal behaviors associated with chronic nicotine exposure (ie, depression-like behavior, increase in nicotine-induced place preference) were normalized by repeated tDCS. Our data show for the first time in an animal model that repeated tDCS is a promising, non-expensive clinical tool that could be used to reduce smoking craving and facilitate smoking cessation. Our animal model will be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS on addiction and other psychiatric disorders.

  5. Nucleus accumbens responses differentiate execution and restraint in reward-directed behavior

    PubMed Central

    Loriaux, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Our behavior is powerfully driven by environmental cues that signal the availability of rewarding stimuli. We frequently encounter stimuli—a bowl of candy or an alert from our smartphone—that trigger actions to obtain those rewards, even though there may be positive outcomes associated with not acting. The inability to restrain one's action in the presence of reward-associated cues is one type of impulsive behavior and a component of such maladaptive behaviors as overeating, gambling, and substance abuse. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is ideally situated to integrate multiple cognitive and affective inputs to bias action via outputs through the basal ganglia. NAc neurons have been shown to respond to cues that predict reward availability, goal-directed behaviors aimed at obtaining them, and delivery of the reward itself. As these processes are typically associated, it is difficult to discern whether signals in the NAc are more closely related to processing reward-predictive aspects of goal-directed behavior or selection of behavioral response. To dissociate these possibilities, we recorded the activity of NAc neurons while rats performed a task in which two different cues both informed rats of reward availability but required them to either press a lever (Go) or withhold pressing (NoGo) to obtain the reward. Individual cue-responsive neurons showed either increases or decreases in activity at cue onset. Increases in activity were larger, and decreases smaller, when rats withheld lever pressing, whether correctly for NoGo trials or in error on Go trials. Thus NAc cue responses correlated with action, regardless of cue type or accuracy. PMID:24174652

  6. Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2009-05-01

    Origins of impaired adaptive functioning in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Behavioral disorganization may arise from an abnormal reliance on common combinations between concepts stored in semantic memory. Avolition-apathy may be related to deficits in using goal-related requirements to flexibly plan behavior. The authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 patients with medicated schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls in a novel video paradigm presenting congruous or incongruous objects in real-world activities. All incongruous objects were contextually inappropriate, but the incongruous scenes varied in comprehensibility. Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to less comprehensible incongruous scenes, and larger N400 priming was associated with disorganization severity. A P600 ERP, which may index flexible object-action integration based on goal-related requirements, was abnormally attenuated in patients, and its smaller magnitude was associated with the SANS rating of impersistence at work or school (goal-directed behavior). Thus, distinct neurocognitive abnormalities may underlie disorganization and goal-directed behavior deficits in schizophrenia.

  7. Direct observation of liquid-like behavior of a single Au grain boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, Gilberto; Ponce, Arturo; Velázquez-Salazar, J. Jesús; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Behavior of matter at the nanoscale differs from that of the bulk due to confinement and surface effects. Here, we report a direct observation of liquid-like behavior of a single grain boundary formed by cold-welding Au nanoparticles, 40 nm in size, by mechanical manipulation in situ TEM. The grain boundary rotates almost freely due to the free surfaces and can rotate about 90 degrees. The grain boundary sustains more stress than the bulk, confirming a strong bonding between the nanoparticles. Moreover, this technique allows the measurement of the surface diffusion coefficient from experimental observations, which we compute for the Au nanoparticles. This methodology can be used for any metal, oxide, semiconductor or combination of them.Behavior of matter at the nanoscale differs from that of the bulk due to confinement and surface effects. Here, we report a direct observation of liquid-like behavior of a single grain boundary formed by cold-welding Au nanoparticles, 40 nm in size, by mechanical manipulation in situ TEM. The grain boundary rotates almost freely due to the free surfaces and can rotate about 90 degrees. The grain boundary sustains more stress than the bulk, confirming a strong bonding between the nanoparticles. Moreover, this technique allows the measurement of the surface diffusion coefficient from experimental observations, which we compute for the Au nanoparticles. This methodology can be used for any metal, oxide, semiconductor or combination of them. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01501g

  8. A test for children's goal-directed behavior: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Juhani E

    2004-02-01

    A test for children's goal-directed behavior was developed, based on neuropsychological executive function research of Vilkki and Holst and on the framework of Lewin's level-of-aspiration research. 46 12-yr.-old children were participants. Fluid Intelligence was expected to be linked to goal-directed behavior and a commonly used executive function task, the Wisconsin Card-sorting Test. A child was asked to set personal goals in a short-term memory task without prior knowledge about performance. Four different task versions were developed employing both verbal (memorizing series of words) and visuospatial (memorizing block sequences) material. The child set an individual goal for each memory trial. Goal-setting after successful and failed trials was investigated. Usually, the children lowered their goals after failures and set their goals higher or did not change them after successful trials. Compared to goal on a previous trial, Inadequate Responses included setting a goal higher after a failed trial and setting it lower after success. Fluid Intelligence was related to goal-directed behavior, viz., Inadequate Responses. It also correlated with scores on the Wisconsin Card-sorting Test. The results are in concordance with previous research. In addition to experimental executive function research, the novel test might be useful in research concerning children's motivation, self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning.

  9. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Behavioral Family Systems Therapy for Diabetes: Maintenance and Generalization of Effects on Parent-Adolescent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Tim; Harris, Michael A.; Buckloh, Lisa M.; Mertlich, Deborah; Lochrie, Amanda Sobel; Taylor, Alexandra; Sadler, Michelle; White, Neil H.

    2008-01-01

    We report a randomized trial of a revised Behavioral Family Systems Therapy for Diabetes (BFST-D) intervention. Families of 104 adolescents with diabetes were randomized to standard care (SC) or to 6 months of an educational support group (ES) or BFST-D. Family communication and problem-solving skills were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months by…

  10. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  11. Weight loss maintenance in African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention literature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    African-American women are disproportionally burdened by obesity. Results from behavioral weight loss interventions report that African-American women lose less weight compared to other subgroups but, show improvement in their cardiometabolic risk profile. Unfortunately, the health benefits are not ...

  12. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Behavioral Family Systems Therapy for Diabetes: Maintenance and Generalization of Effects on Parent-Adolescent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Tim; Harris, Michael A.; Buckloh, Lisa M.; Mertlich, Deborah; Lochrie, Amanda Sobel; Taylor, Alexandra; Sadler, Michelle; White, Neil H.

    2008-01-01

    We report a randomized trial of a revised Behavioral Family Systems Therapy for Diabetes (BFST-D) intervention. Families of 104 adolescents with diabetes were randomized to standard care (SC) or to 6 months of an educational support group (ES) or BFST-D. Family communication and problem-solving skills were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months by…

  13. Rational-Emotive, Self-Instructional, and Behavioral Assertion Training: Enhancing the Generalization and Maintenance of Treatment Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Timothy P.

    A sample of 63 subassertive adults participated in four 90-minute sessions of group assertion training. The treatment components of challenging maladaptive cognitions and learning self-instructions were examined by comparing Rational-Emotive, Self-Instructional, and Behavioral Assertion Training. A delayed-treatment control group was also…

  14. Frontostriatal Mechanisms in Instruction-Based Learning as a Hallmark of Flexible Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wolfensteller, Uta; Ruge, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    The present review intends to provide a neuroscientific perspective on the flexible (here: almost instantaneous) adoption of novel goal-directed behaviors. The overarching goal is to sketch the emerging framework for examining instruction-based learning and how this can be related to more established research approaches to instrumental learning and goal-directed action. We particularly focus on the contribution of frontal and striatal brain regions drawing on studies in both, animals and humans, but with an emphasize put on human neuroimaging studies. In section one, we review and integrate a selection of previous studies that are suited to generally delineate the neural underpinnings of goal-directed action as opposed to more stimulus-based (i.e., habitual) action. Building on that the second section focuses more directly on the flexibility to rapidly implement novel behavioral rules as a hallmark of goal-directed action with a special emphasis on instructed rules. In essence, the current neuroscientific evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex and associative striatum are able to selectively and transiently code the currently relevant relationship between stimuli, actions, and the effects of these actions in both, instruction-based learning as well as in trial-and-error learning. The premotor cortex in turn seems to form more durable associations between stimuli and actions or stimuli, actions and effects (but not incentive values) thus representing the available action possibilities. Together, the central message of the present review is that instruction-based learning should be understood as a prime example of goal-directed action, necessitating a closer interlacing with basic mechanisms of goal-directed action on a more general level. PMID:22701445

  15. Striatopallidal Neuron NMDA Receptors Control Synaptic Connectivity, Locomotor, and Goal-Directed Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lambot, Laurie; Chaves Rodriguez, Elena; Houtteman, Delphine; Li, Yuquing; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Gall, David

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) control action selection, motor programs, habits, and goal-directed learning. The striatum, the principal input structure of BG, is predominantly composed of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). Arising from these spatially intermixed MSNs, two inhibitory outputs form two main efferent pathways, the direct and indirect pathways. Striatonigral MSNs give rise to the activating, direct pathway MSNs and striatopallidal MSNs to the inhibitory, indirect pathway (iMSNs). BG output nuclei integrate information from both pathways to fine-tune motor procedures and to acquire complex habits and skills. Therefore, balanced activity between both pathways is crucial for harmonious functions of the BG. Despite the increase in knowledge concerning the role of glutamate NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) in the striatum, understanding of the specific functions of NMDA-R iMSNs is still lacking. For this purpose, we generated a conditional knock-out mouse to address the functions of the NMDA-R in the indirect pathway. At the cellular level, deletion of GluN1 in iMSNs leads to a reduction in the number and strength of the excitatory corticostriatopallidal synapses. The subsequent scaling down in input integration leads to dysfunctional changes in BG output, which is seen as reduced habituation, delay in goal-directed learning, lack of associative behavior, and impairment in action selection or skill learning. The NMDA-R deletion in iMSNs causes a decrease in the synaptic strength of striatopallidal neurons, which in turn might lead to a imbalanced integration between direct and indirect MSN pathways, making mice less sensitive to environmental change. Therefore, their ability to learn and adapt to the environment-based experience was significantly affected. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The striatum controls habits, locomotion, and goal-directed behaviors by coordinated activation of two antagonistic pathways. Insofar as NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) play a key role in synaptic

  16. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivational states activate distinct hippocampal representations to guide goal-directed behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Pamela J; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2009-06-30

    Adaptive behaviors are guided by motivation and memory. Motivational states specify goals, and memory can inform motivated behavior by providing detailed records of past experiences when goals were obtained. These 2 fundamental processes interact to guide animals to biologically relevant targets, but the neuronal mechanisms that integrate them remain unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, we recorded unit activity from the same population of hippocampal neurons as rats performed identical tasks while either food or water deprived. We compared the influence of motivational state (hunger and thirst), memory demand, and spatial behavior in 2 tasks: hippocampus-dependent contextual memory retrieval and hippocampus-independent random foraging. We found that: (i) hippocampal coding was most strongly influenced by motivational state during contextual memory retrieval, when motivational cues were required to select among remembered, goal-directed actions in the same places; (ii) the same neuronal populations were relatively unaffected by motivational state during random foraging, when hunger and thirst were incidental to behavior, and signals derived from deprivation states thus informed, but did not determine, hippocampal coding; and (iii) "prospective coding" in the contextual retrieval task was not influenced by allocentric spatial trajectory, but rather by the animal's deprivation state and the associated, non-spatial target, suggesting that hippocampal coding includes a wide range of predictive associations. The results show that beyond coding spatiotemporal context, hippocampal representations encode the relationships between internal states, the external environment, and action to provide a mechanism by which motivation and memory are coordinated to guide behavior.

  18. Multi-item direct behavior ratings: Dependability of two levels of assessment specificity.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Robert J; Briesch, Amy M

    2015-09-01

    Direct Behavior Rating-Multi-Item Scales (DBR-MIS) have been developed as formative measures of behavioral assessment for use in school-based problem-solving models. Initial research has examined the dependability of composite scores generated by summing all items comprising the scales. However, it has been argued that DBR-MIS may offer assessment of 2 levels of behavioral specificity (i.e., item-level, global composite-level). Further, it has been argued that scales can be individualized for each student to improve efficiency without sacrificing technical characteristics. The current study examines the dependability of 5 items comprising a DBR-MIS designed to measure classroom disruptive behavior. A series of generalizability theory and decision studies were conducted to examine the dependability of each item (calls out, noisy, clowns around, talks to classmates and out of seat), as well as a 3-item composite that was individualized for each student. Seven graduate students rated the behavior of 9 middle-school students on each item over 3 occasions. Ratings were based on 10-min video clips of students during mathematics instruction. Separate generalizability and decision studies were conducted for each item and for a 3-item composite that was individualized for each student based on the highest rated items on the first rating occasion. Findings indicate favorable dependability estimates for 3 of the 5 items and exceptional dependability estimates for the individualized composite.

  19. On the Contextual Independence of Personality: Teachers’ Assessments Predict Directly Observed Behavior after Four Decades

    PubMed Central

    Nave, Christopher S.; Sherman, Ryne A.; Funder, David C.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

    2010-01-01

    The continuity of personality’s association with directly observed behavior is demonstrated across two contexts spanning four decades. During the 1960s, elementary school teachers rated personalities of members of the ethnically diverse Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort (Hampson & Goldberg, 2006). The same individuals were interviewed in a medical clinic over 40 years later. Trained coders viewed video recordings of a subset of these interviews (N = 144, 68 F, 76 M) and assessed the behavior they observed using the Riverside Behavioral Q-sort Version 3.0 (Funder, Furr & Colvin, 2000; Furr, Wagerman & Funder, 2010). Children rated by their teachers as “verbally fluent” (defined as unrestrained talkativeness) showed dominant and socially adept behavior as middle-aged adults. Early “adaptability” was associated with cheerful and intellectually curious behavior, early “impulsivity” was associated with later talkativeness and loud speech, and early rated tendencies to “self-minimize” were related to adult expressions of insecurity and humility. PMID:20890402

  20. Directional hydraulic behavior of a fractured-shale aquifer in New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchioli, John

    1965-01-01

    The principal source of ground water throughout a large part of central and northeastern New Jersey is the aquifer in the Brunswick Shale -- the youngest unity of the Newark Group of Triassic Age. Large-diameter public-supply and industrial wells tapping the Brunswick Shale commonly yield several hundred gallons per minute each. Virtually all ground water in this aquifer occurs in interconnecting fractures; the formation has practically no effective primary porosity. Numerous pumping tests have shown that the aquifer exhibits directional, rather than isotropic, hydraulic behavior. Water levels in wells alined along the strike of the formation show greater magnitude of interference than those in wells alined in transverse directions. Drawdown data evaluated by standard time-drawdown methods indicate computed coefficient of transmissibility in all cases is least in the direction of strike. Because of the distribution of observation wells available for the tests, distance-drawdown methods of evaluation could be used in only one instance -- for just one direction; the computed coefficient compared favorably with that calculated from the time-drawdown method. Computed values of transmissibility may be unreliable owing to the departure of the aquifer from the ideal model. It is even possible that the direction of minimum computed transmissiblity is actually indicative of the alinement of fractures with the greatest permeability. However, the relation of the directional behavior to the structure of the formation has practical significance when locating the new wells near existing wells. Well interference can be greatly minimized, generally, by alining wells perpendicular to the strike.

  1. Direct comparison of two different mesalamine formulations for the maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis: A double-blind, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroaki; Iida, Mitsuo; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yasuo; Aida, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Toyomitsu; Takano, Yuichi; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mesalamine has been used as the first-line medication for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). We directly compared the efficacy and safety of two different mesalamine formulations in the maintenance of remission in patients with UC. Methods: In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study, 131 patients with quiescent UC were assigned to two groups: 65 to receive a pH-dependent release formulation of mesalamine at 2.4 g/day (pH-2.4 g) and 66 to receive a time-dependent release formulation of mesalamine at 2.25 g/day (Time-2.25 g). Both formulations were administered three times daily for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients without bloody stools. Results: In the full analysis set (n = 130), the proportion of patients without bloody stools was 76.9% in the pH-2.4 g and 69.2% in the Time-2.25 g, demonstrating the noninferiority of pH-2.4 g to Time-2.25 g. No statistically significant difference in time to bloody stools was found between the two formulations (P = 0.27, log-rank test), but the time to bloody stools tended to be longer in pH-2.4 g compared to Time-2.25 g, and a similar trend was observed with regard to the time to relapse. No differences were observed between the safety profiles of the two formulations. Conclusions: The pH- and time-dependent release of mesalamine formulations were similarly safe and effective. Interestingly, the remission phase tended to be longer in the group that received the pH-dependent formulation compared to the group that received the time-dependent formulation (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, no. C000000289). (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010) PMID:20049949

  2. Crowding increases salivary cortisol but not self-directed behavior in captive baboons.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Brandon L; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Judge, Peter G

    2015-04-01

    Reduced space can lead to crowding in social animals. Crowding increases the risk of agonistic interactions that, in turn, may require additional physiological defensive coping mechanisms affecting health. To determine the stress induced from increased social density in a group of nineteen baboons living in an indoor/outdoor enclosure, saliva cortisol levels and rates of anxiety-related behavior were analyzed across two unique crowding episodes. Initially, mean salivary cortisol levels when animals were restricted to their indoor quarters were compared to those when they also had access to their larger outdoor enclosure. Then, mean cortisol levels were compared before, during, and after two distinct crowding periods of long and short duration. Crowding resulted in significantly elevated cortisol during crowding periods compared to non-crowded periods. Cortisol levels returned to baseline following two crowding episodes contrasting in their length and ambient climate conditions. These cortisol elevations indicate greater metabolic costs of maintaining homeostasis under social stress resulting from reduced space. Self-directed behavior, conversely, was not reliably elevated during crowding. Results suggest that the potential for negative social interactions, and/or the uncertainty associated with social threat can cause physiological stress responses detected by salivary cortisol. Self-directed behavioral measures of stress may constitute inadequate indicators of social stress in colony-housed monkeys or represent subjective emotional arousal unrelated to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis activation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Parent-directed cognitive behavioral therapy for young anxious children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Cathy M; van der Bruggen, Corine O; Brechman-Toussaint, Margaret L; Thissen, Michèl A P; Bögels, Susan M

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety in children age 8 years and above has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, the efficacy of CBT for anxious children ages 4-7 years has not, to date, been fully investigated. This paper piloted a CBT intervention targeting child anxiety that was delivered exclusively to parents of 26 children with anxiety symptoms ages 4-7 years. The intervention consisted of four 2-hour group sessions of four to six parents (couples). These group sessions were followed by four individual telephone sessions, once per week across a 4-week period. The pre- and postintervention assessment involved measures of multiple constructs of child anxiety (anxiety symptoms, children's fears, behavioral inhibition, and internalizing symptoms) from multiple informants (parents, children, and teachers). Parents also reported parenting strategies they were likely to use to manage their children's anxiety pre- and postintervention. Results indicated a significant decrease in child anxiety and behavioral inhibition as reported by parents and teachers. Furthermore, mothers reported significant increases in their use of positive reinforcement, and modeling and reassurance, and a significant decrease in their use of reinforcement of dependency directly after treatment. Taken together, parent-directed CBT appears to be an effective approach for treating children ages 4-7 years with anxiety symptoms. Limitations of the current research are discussed.

  4. Looking for ideas: Eye behavior during goal-directed internally focused cognition.

    PubMed

    Walcher, Sonja; Körner, Christof; Benedek, Mathias

    2017-08-01

    Humans have a highly developed visual system, yet we spend a high proportion of our time awake ignoring the visual world and attending to our own thoughts. The present study examined eye movement characteristics of goal-directed internally focused cognition. Deliberate internally focused cognition was induced by an idea generation task. A letter-by-letter reading task served as external task. Idea generation (vs. reading) was associated with more and longer blinks and fewer microsaccades indicating an attenuation of visual input. Idea generation was further associated with more and shorter fixations, more saccades and saccades with higher amplitudes as well as heightened stimulus-independent variation of eye vergence. The latter results suggest a coupling of eye behavior to internally generated information and associated cognitive processes, i.e. searching for ideas. Our results support eye behavior patterns as indicators of goal-directed internally focused cognition through mechanisms of attenuation of visual input and coupling of eye behavior to internally generated information. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethanol Seeking by Long Evans Rats Is Not Always a Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mangieri, Regina A.; Cofresí, Roberto U.; Gonzales, Rueben A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two parallel and interacting processes are said to underlie animal behavior, whereby learning and performance of a behavior is at first via conscious and deliberate (goal-directed) processes, but after initial acquisition, the behavior can become automatic and stimulus-elicited (habitual). With respect to instrumental behaviors, animal learning studies suggest that the duration of training and the action-outcome contingency are two factors involved in the emergence of habitual seeking of “natural” reinforcers (e.g., sweet solutions, food or sucrose pellets). To rigorously test whether behaviors reinforced by abused substances such as ethanol, in particular, similarly become habitual was the primary aim of this study. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Long Evans rats underwent extended or limited operant lever press training with 10% sucrose/10% ethanol (10S10E) reinforcement (variable interval (VI) or (VR) ratio schedule of reinforcement), or with 10% sucrose (10S) reinforcement (VI schedule only). Once training and pretesting were complete, the impact of outcome devaluation on operant behavior was evaluated after lithium chloride injections were paired with the reinforcer, or unpaired 24 hours later. After limited, but not extended instrumental training, lever pressing by groups trained under VR with 10S10E and under VI with 10S was sensitive to outcome devaluation. In contrast, responding by both the extended and limited training 10S10E VI groups was not sensitive to ethanol devaluation during the test for habitual behavior. Conclusions/Significance Operant behavior by rats trained to self-administer an ethanol-sucrose solution showed variable sensitivity to a change in the value of ethanol, with relative insensitivity developing sooner in animals that received time-variable ethanol reinforcement during training sessions. One important implication, with respect to substance abuse in humans, is that initial learning about the relationship between

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the frontal-parietal-temporal area attenuates smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chang; Yu, Chengyang; Ma, Yuanye

    2014-07-01

    Many brain regions are involved in smoking addiction (e.g. insula, ventral tegmental area, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus), and the manipulation of the activity of these brain regions can show a modification of smoking behavior. Low current transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive way to manipulate cortical excitability, and thus brain function and associated behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of inhibiting the frontal-parietal-temporal association area (FPT) on attention bias to smoking-related cues and smoking behavior in tobacco users. This inhibition is induced by cathodal tDCS stimulation. We tested three stimulation conditions: 1) bilateral cathodal over both sides of FPT; 2) cathodal over right FPT; and 3) sham-tDCS. Visual attention bias to smoking-related cues was evaluated using an eye tracking system. The measurement for smoking behavior was the number of daily cigarettes consumed before and after tDCS treatment. We found that, after bilateral cathodal stimulation of the FPT area, while the attention to smoking-related cues showed a decreased trend, the effects were not significantly different from sham stimulation. The daily cigarette consumption was reduced to a significant level. These effects were not seen under single cathodal tDCS or sham-tDCS. Our results show that low current tDCS of FPT area attenuates smoking cue-related attention and smoking behavior. This non-invasive brain stimulation technique, targeted at FPT areas, might be a promising method for treating smoking behavior.

  7. Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Human Directed Social Behavior in Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Ádám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (−212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5′ and 3′ UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3′ and 5′ UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene–behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system. PMID:24454713

  8. Using Animal Models to Determine the Role of Gustatory Neural Input in the Control of Ingestive Behavior and the Maintenance of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ciullo, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Decades of research have suggested that nutritional intake contributes to the development of human disease, mainly by influencing the development of obesity and obesity-related conditions. A relatively large body of research indicates that functional variation in human taste perception can influence nutritional intake as well as body mass accumulation. However, there are a considerable number of studies that suggest that no link between these variables actually exists. These discrepancies in the literature likely result from the confounding influence of a variety of other, uncontrolled, factors that can influence ingestive behavior. Strategy In this review, the use of controlled animal experimentation to alleviate at least some of these issues related to the lack of control of experimental variables is discussed. Specific examples of the use of some of these techniques are examined. Discussion and conclusions The review will close with some specific suggestions aimed at strengthening the link between gustatory neural input and its putative influence on ingestive behaviors and the maintenance of body weight. PMID:26557212

  9. Change in body image and psychological well-being during behavioral obesity treatment: Associations with weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, António L; Branco, Teresa L; Martins, Sandra C; Minderico, Cláudia S; Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Barata, José T; Serpa, Sidónio O; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2010-06-01

    This study reports on outcomes from a behavioral obesity treatment program, evaluating if treatment-related changes in body image and psychological well-being are predictors of weight change during treatment and after follow-up. Participants were 142 overweight/obese women (BMI=30.2+/-3.7kg/m(2); age=38.3+/-5.8 years) participants in a behavioral treatment program consisting of a 4-month treatment period and a 12-month follow-up. Psychosocial variables improved during treatment and these changes were correlated with 4-month weight reduction. Short-term changes in body size dissatisfaction (p=.002) and mood (p=.003) predicted long-term weight loss. Additional results suggest that there might be a predictive role of short-term changes in body size dissatisfaction and self-esteem on long-term weight loss after accounting for initial weight change (p<.028). We conclude that, along with weight changes, cognitive and affect-related processes influenced during obesity treatment may be related long-term success, in some cases independently of initial weight loss.

  10. Adolescents Just Do Not Know What They Want: A Qualitative Study to Describe Obese Adolescents’ Experiences of Text Messaging to Support Behavior Change Maintenance Post Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A; Fenner, Ashley A; Straker, Leon M

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents are considered a hard to reach group and novel approaches are needed to encourage good health. Text messaging interventions have been reported as acceptable to adolescents but there is little evidence regarding the use of text messages with overweight and obese adolescents to support engagement or behavior change after the conclusion of a healthy lifestyle program. Objective The intent of this study was to explore the opinions of overweight adolescents and their parents regarding the use of text messages as a support during the maintenance period following an intervention. Methods This paper reports on the findings from focus groups conducted with adolescents (n=12) and parents (n=13) who had completed an eight-week intensive intervention known as Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP). Focus groups were conducted three months post intensive intervention. Participants were asked about their experiences of the prior three-month maintenance phase during which adolescents had received tri-weekly text messages based on the self-determination theory and goal-setting theory. Participants were asked about the style and content of text messages used as well as how they used the text messages. Data were analyzed using content and thematic analyses. Results Two clear themes emerged from the focus groups relating to (1) what adolescents liked or thought they wanted in a text message to support behavior change, and (2) how they experienced or responded to text messages. Within the “like/want” theme, there were five sub-themes relating to the overall tone of the text, frequency, timing, reference to long-term goals, and inclusion of practical tips. Within the “response to text” theme, there were four sub-themes describing a lack of motivation, barriers to change, feelings of shame, and perceived unfavorable comparison with other adolescents. What adolescents said they wanted in text messages often conflicted with their

  11. Dissociable effects of anterior and mediodorsal thalamic lesions on spatial goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Fabien; Naneix, Fabien; Desfosses, Emilie; Marchand, Alain R; Wolff, Mathieu; Coutureau, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Goal-directed behaviors are thought to be supported by a neural circuit encompassing the prefrontal cortex, the dorsomedial striatum, the amygdala, and, as more recently suggested, the limbic thalamus. Since evidence indicates that the various thalamic nuclei contribute to dissociable functions, we directly compared the functional contribution of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) and of the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) in a new task assessing spatial goal-directed behavior in a cross-maze. Rats sustaining lesions of the mediodorsal or the anterior thalamus were trained to associate each of the two goal arms with a distinctive food reward. Unlike control rats, both lesioned groups failed to express a bias for the goal arm corresponding to the non-devalued outcome following devaluation by sensory-specific satiety. In addition, MD rats were slower than the other groups to complete the trials. When tested for spatial working memory using a standard non-matching-to-place procedure in the same apparatus, ATN rats were severely impaired but MD rats performed as well as controls, even when spatial or temporal challenges were introduced. Finally, all groups displayed comparable breaking points in a progressive ratio test, indicating that the slower choice performance of MD rats did not result from motivational factors. Thus, a spatial task requiring the integration of instrumental and Pavlovian contingencies reveals a fundamental deficit of MD rats in adapting their choice according to goal value. By contrast, the deficit associated with anterior thalamic lesions appears to simply reflect the inability to process spatial information.

  12. Effect of tensile mean stress on fatigue behavior of single-crystal and directionally solidified superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Two nickel base superalloys, single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf, were studied in view of the potential usage of the former and usage of the latter as blade materials for the turbomachinery of the space shuttle main engine. The baseline zero mean stress (ZMS) fatigue life (FL) behavior of these superalloys was established, and then the effect of tensile mean stress (TMS) on their FL behavior was characterized. At room temperature these superalloys have lower ductilities and higher strengths than most polycrystalline engineering alloys. The cycle stress-strain response was thus nominally elastic in most of the fatigue tests. Therefore, a stress range based FL prediction approach was used to characterize both the ZMS and TMS fatigue data. In the past, several researchers have developed methods to account for the detrimental effect of tensile mean stress on the FL for polycrystalline engineering alloys. However, the applicability of these methods to single crystal and directionally solidified superalloys has not been established. In this study, these methods were applied to characterize the TMS fatigue data of single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf and were found to be unsatisfactory. Therefore, a method of accounting for the TMS effect on FL, that is based on a technique proposed by Heidmann and Manson was developed to characterize the TMS fatigue data of these superalloys. Details of this method and its relationship to the conventionally used mean stress methods in FL prediction are discussed.

  13. A Review of Direct Observation Research within the Past Decade in the Field of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Reesha M.; Wachsmuth, Sean T.

    2014-01-01

    This study reviewed prominent journals within the field of emotional and behavioral disorders to identify direct observation approaches, reported reliability statistics, and key features of direct observation. Selected journals were systematically reviewed for the past 10 years identifying and quantifying specific direct observation systems and…

  14. Mirror-induced self-directed behaviors in rhesus monkeys after visual-somatosensory training.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liangtang; Fang, Qin; Zhang, Shikun; Poo, Mu-ming; Gong, Neng

    2015-01-19

    Mirror self-recognition is a hallmark of higher intelligence in humans. Most children recognize themselves in the mirror by 2 years of age. In contrast to human and some great apes, monkeys have consistently failed the standard mark test for mirror self-recognition in all previous studies. Here, we show that rhesus monkeys could acquire mirror-induced self-directed behaviors resembling mirror self-recognition following training with visual-somatosensory association. Monkeys were trained on a monkey chair in front of a mirror to touch a light spot on their faces produced by a laser light that elicited an irritant sensation. After 2-5 weeks of training, monkeys had learned to touch a face area marked by a non-irritant light spot or odorless dye in front of a mirror and by a virtual face mark on the mirroring video image on a video screen. Furthermore, in the home cage, five out of seven trained monkeys showed typical mirror-induced self-directed behaviors, such as touching the mark on the face or ear and then looking at and/or smelling their fingers, as well as spontaneously using the mirror to explore normally unseen body parts. Four control monkeys of a similar age that went through mirror habituation but had no training of visual-somatosensory association did not pass any mark tests and did not exhibit mirror-induced self-directed behaviors. These results shed light on the origin of mirror self-recognition and suggest a new approach to studying its neural mechanism.

  15. Effectiveness of Relapse Prevention Cognitive-Behavioral Model in Opioid-Dependent Patients Participating in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Iran

    PubMed Central

    PASHAEI, Tahereh; SHOJAEIZADEH, Davoud; RAHIMI FOROUSHANI, Abbas; GHAZITABATABAE, Mahmoud; MOEENI, Maryam; RAJATI, Fatemeh; M RAZZAGHI, Emran

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of a relapse prevention cognitive-behavioral model, based on Marlatt treatment approach, in Opioid-dependent patients participating in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in Iran. Methods: The study consisted of 92 individuals treated with methadone in Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies (INCAS). Participants were randomized into two groups: educational intervention group (N=46) and control group (N=46). The intervention was comprised of 10 weekly 90 minute sessions, done during a period of 2.5 months based on the most high risk situations determined using Inventory Drug Taking Situation instrument. Relapse was defined as not showing up for MMT, drug use for at least 5 continuous days, and a positive urinary morphine test. Results: While, only 36.4% of the intervention group relapsed into drug use, 63.6% of the control group relapsed. The result of the logistic regressions showed that the odd ratio of the variable of intervention program for the entire follow up period was 0.43 (P<0.01). Further, the odd ratio of this variable in one month, three months, and 195 days after the therapy were 0.48 (P<.03), 0.31 (P<.02), and 0.13 (P<.02) respectively that revealed that on average, the probability of relapse among individuals in the intervention group was lower than patients in control group Conclusion: Relapse prevention model based on Marlatt treatment approach has an effective role in decreasing relapse rate. This model can be introduced as a complementary therapy in patients treated with methadone maintenance. PMID:26056645

  16. Randomized, controlled trial of Behavioral Family Systems Therapy for Diabetes: maintenance and generalization of effects on parent-adolescent communication.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Tim; Harris, Michael A; Buckloh, Lisa M; Mertlich, Deborah; Lochrie, Amanda Sobel; Taylor, Alexandra; Sadler, Michelle; White, Neil H

    2008-03-01

    We report a randomized trial of a revised Behavioral Family Systems Therapy for Diabetes (BFST-D) intervention. Families of 104 adolescents with diabetes were randomized to standard care (SC) or to 6 months of an educational support group (ES) or BFST-D. Family communication and problem-solving skills were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months by independent rating of videotaped family problem-solving discussions. BFST-D improved individual communication of adolescents and mothers, but not fathers. BFST-D significantly improved quality of family interaction compared to SC (10 of 12 comparisons) and ES (6 of 12 comparisons). Changes in family communication were differentially associated with changes in glycemic control, adherence, and family conflict. BFST-D improved family communication and problem solving relative to SC and modestly relative to ES.

  17. Direct correlation of electrochemical behaviors with anti-thrombogenicity of semiconducting titanium oxide films.

    PubMed

    Wan, Guojiang; Lv, Bo; Jin, Guoshou; Maitz, Manfred F; Zhou, Jianzhang; Huang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials-associated thrombosis is dependent critically upon electrochemical response of fibrinogen on material surface. The relationship between the response and anti-thrombogenicity of biomaterials is not well-established. Titanium oxide appears to have good anti-thrombogenicity and little is known about its underlying essential chemistry. We correlate their anti-thrombogenicity directly to electrochemical behaviors in fibrinogen containing buffer solution. High degree of inherent n-type doping was noted to contribute the impedance preventing charge transfer from fibrinogen into film (namely its activation) and consequently reduced degree of anti-thrombogenicity. The impedance was the result of high donor carrier density as well as negative flat band potential.

  18. How direct-to-consumer television advertising for osteoarthritis drugs affects physicians' prescribing behavior.

    PubMed

    Bradford, W David; Kleit, Andrew N; Nietert, Paul J; Steyer, Terrence; McIlwain, Thomas; Ornstein, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Concern about the potential pernicious effect of direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising on physicians' prescribing patterns was heightened with the 2004 withdrawal of Vioxx, a heavily advertised treatment for osteoarthritis. We examine how DTC advertising has affected physicians' prescribing behavior for osteoarthritis patients. We analyzed monthly clinical information on fifty-seven primary care practices during 2000-2002, matched to monthly brand-specific advertising data for local and network television. DTC advertising of Vioxx and Celebrex increased the number of osteoarthritis patients seen by physicians each month. DTC advertising of Vioxx increased the likelihood that patients received both Vioxx and Celebrex, but Celebrex ads only affected Vioxx use.

  19. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits.

  20. Constitutive Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Membrane Elements under Tri-directional Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labib, Moheb

    The two-dimensional behavior of typical reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been extensively studied in the past several decades by investigating the constitutive behavior of full-scale reinforced concrete elements subjected to a bi-axial state of stress. In order to understand the true behavior of many large complex structures, the goal of this investigation is to develop new constitutive relationships for RC elements subjected to tri-directional shear stresses. Recently, additional out-of-plane jacks were installed on the panel tester at University of Houston so that concrete elements could be subjected to tri-directional shear stresses. This upgrade makes the panel tester the only one of its kind in the US that is capable of applying such combinations of stresses on full-scale reinforced concrete elements. This dissertation presents the details of the mounting and installation of the additional hydraulic jacks on the universal panel tester. The experimental program includes a series of seven reinforced concrete elements subjected to different combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses. Increasing the applied out-of-plane shear stresses reduced the membrane shear strength of the elements. The effect of applying out-of-plane shear stresses on the in-plane shear strength was represented by modifying the softening coefficient in the compression stress strain curve of concrete struts. The modified model was able to capture the behavior and the ultimate capacity of the tested elements. The effect of the in-plane shear reinforcement ratio on the interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses was evaluated. The model was implemented in the Finite Element package FEAP and was used to predict the ultimate capacity of many structures subjected to a combination of in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses. The results of the analytical model were used to develop simplified design equations for members subjected to bi-directional shear loads

  1. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  2. Direct Imaging of Dynamic Glassy Behavior in a Strained Manganite Film.

    PubMed

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Sheng, Zhigao; Yang, Yongliang; Lai, Keji; Ma, Eric Yue; Cui, Yong-Tao; Kelly, Michael A; Nakamura, Masao; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori; Tang, Qiaochu; Zhang, Kun; Li, Xinxin; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2015-12-31

    Complex many-body interaction in perovskite manganites gives rise to a strong competition between ferromagnetic metallic and charge-ordered phases with nanoscale electronic inhomogeneity and glassy behaviors. Investigating this glassy state requires high-resolution imaging techniques with sufficient sensitivity and stability. Here, we present the results of a near-field microwave microscope imaging on the strain-driven glassy state in a manganite film. The high contrast between the two electrically distinct phases allows direct visualization of the phase separation. The low-temperature microscopic configurations differ upon cooling with different thermal histories. At sufficiently high temperatures, we observe switching between the two phases in either direction. The dynamic switching, however, stops below the glass transition temperature. Compared with the magnetization data, the phase separation was microscopically frozen, while spin relaxation was found in a short period of time.

  3. Uniaxial compressive behavior of micro-pillars of dental enamel characterized in multiple directions.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ezgi D; Jelitto, Hans; Schneider, Gerold A

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the compressive elastic modulus and failure strength values of bovine enamel at the first hierarchical level formed by hydroxyapatite (HA) nanofibers and organic matter are identified in longitudinal, transverse and oblique direction with the uniaxial micro-compression method. The elastic modulus values (∼70 GPa) measured here are within the range of results reported in the literature but these values were found surprisingly uniform in all orientations as opposed to the previous nanoindentation findings revealing anisotropic elastic properties in enamel. Failure strengths were recorded up to ∼1.7 GPa and different failure modes (such as shear, microbuckling, fiber fracture) governed by the orientation of the HA nanofibers were visualized. Structural irregularities leading to mineral contacts between the nanofibers are postulated as the main reason for the high compressive strength and direction-independent elastic behavior on enamels first hierarchical level. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct Imaging of Dynamic Glassy Behavior in a Strained Manganite Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Sheng, Zhigao; Yang, Yongliang; Lai, Keji; Ma, Eric Yue; Cui, Yong-Tao; Kelly, Michael A.; Nakamura, Masao; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori; Tang, Qiaochu; Zhang, Kun; Li, Xinxin; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2015-12-01

    Complex many-body interaction in perovskite manganites gives rise to a strong competition between ferromagnetic metallic and charge-ordered phases with nanoscale electronic inhomogeneity and glassy behaviors. Investigating this glassy state requires high-resolution imaging techniques with sufficient sensitivity and stability. Here, we present the results of a near-field microwave microscope imaging on the strain-driven glassy state in a manganite film. The high contrast between the two electrically distinct phases allows direct visualization of the phase separation. The low-temperature microscopic configurations differ upon cooling with different thermal histories. At sufficiently high temperatures, we observe switching between the two phases in either direction. The dynamic switching, however, stops below the glass transition temperature. Compared with the magnetization data, the phase separation was microscopically frozen, while spin relaxation was found in a short period of time.

  5. Internally generated sequences in learning and executing goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; van der Meer, Matthijs A A; Lansink, Carien S; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2014-12-01

    A network of brain structures including hippocampus (HC), prefrontal cortex, and striatum controls goal-directed behavior and decision making. However, the neural mechanisms underlying these functions are unknown. Here, we review the role of 'internally generated sequences': structured, multi-neuron firing patterns in the network that are not confined to signaling the current state or location of an agent, but are generated on the basis of internal brain dynamics. Neurophysiological studies suggest that such sequences fulfill functions in memory consolidation, augmentation of representations, internal simulation, and recombination of acquired information. Using computational modeling, we propose that internally generated sequences may be productively considered a component of goal-directed decision systems, implementing a sampling-based inference engine that optimizes goal acquisition at multiple timescales of on-line choice, action control, and learning.

  6. Behavioral deficits and axonal injury persistence after rotational head injury are direction dependent.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sarah; Friess, Stuart H; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen J; Rapp, Paul E; Margulies, Susan S

    2013-04-01

    Pigs continue to grow in importance as a tool in neuroscience. However, behavioral tests that have been validated in the rodent model do not translate well to pigs because of their very different responses to behavioral stimuli. We refined metrics for assessing porcine open field behavior to detect a wide spectrum of clinically relevant behaviors in the piglet post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). Female neonatal piglets underwent a rapid non-impact head rotation in the sagittal plane (n=8 evaluable) or were instrumented shams (n=7 evaluable). Open field testing was conducted 1 day prior to injury (day -1) in order to establish an individual baseline for analysis, and at days +1 and +4 after injury. Animals were then killed on day +6 after injury for neuropathological assessment of axonal injury. Injured piglets were less interested in interacting with environmental stimuli and had a lower activity level than did shams. These data were compared with previously published data for axial rotational injuries in neonatal piglets. Acute behavioral outcomes post-TBI showed a dependence on the rotational plane of the brain injury, with animals with sagittal injuries demonstrating a greater level of inactivity and less random usage of the open field space than those with axial injuries. The persistence of axonal injury is also dependent on the rotational plane, with sagittal rotations causing more prolonged injuries than axial rotations. These results are consistent with animal studies, finite element models, and studies of concussions in football, which have all demonstrated differences in injury severity depending upon the direction of head impact rotation.

  7. A model of prefrontal cortical mechanisms for goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Hasselmo, Michael E

    2005-07-01

    Many behavioral tasks require goal-directed actions to obtain delayed reward. The prefrontal cortex appears to mediate many aspects of goal-directed decision making. This article presents a model of prefrontal cortex function emphasizing the influence of goal-related activity on the choice of the next motor output. The model can be interpreted in terms of key elements of Reinforcement Learning Theory. Different neocortical minicolumns represent distinct sensory input states and distinct motor output actions. The dynamics of each minicolumn include separate phases of encoding and retrieval. During encoding, strengthening of excitatory connections forms forward and reverse associations between each state, the following action, and a subsequent state, which may include reward. During retrieval, activity spreads from reward states throughout the network. The interaction of this spreading activity with a specific input state directs selection of the next appropriate action. Simulations demonstrate how these mechanisms can guide performance in a range of goal-directed tasks, and provide a functional framework for some of the neuronal responses previously observed in the medial prefrontal cortex during performance of spatial memory tasks in rats.

  8. An investigation on directionally dependent fracture toughness behavior of monolithic nickel gradient material synthesized from electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Ahmad; El-Aty, Ali Abd; Ahmed, Tauseef; Tai-Chi, Chang

    2017-07-01

    Bulk sized continuous and monolithic pure Nickel gradient material is successfully developed using electroplating method. Great emphasis is given on controlling the direction of the gradient for the samples. The gradient belt for each Nickel gradient material consisted of grain size from maximum 4 µm to minimum 20nm, with the belt transcending from coarse towards ultrafine to finally nano-grain structure. Crack is propagated from Coarse to Nano-grain gradient Nickel and vice versa in order to procure the J-integral (Jic) for each sample according to ASTM standard E-1820 and deduce the fracture properties under each condition. Under such conditions when crack propagated from coarse to nano direction, Jmax is found to be 215kJ/m2 while crack propagating from Nano to Coarse direction, Jmax is found to be 62kJ/m2. Such dual polarized Jic within a single material is unique, especially for nickel whose Jicin literature for coarse grain (95 µm) was around 225kJ/m2 and ultrafine grain (300nm) was 100 kJ/m2, meaning the nickel gradient material consisting the grain gradient belt between 4 µm-20nm exhibits similar fracture toughness as pure coarse grain almost 20 times larger. Such gradient material exhibiting directionally dependent fracture toughness behavior can most certainly be much stronger under tensile conditions while keeping high fracture toughness.

  9. Direct real-space observation of nearly stochastic behavior in magnetization reversal process on a nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Im, M.-Y.; Kim, D.-H.; Lee, K.-D.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2007-06-01

    We report a non-deterministic nature in the magnetization reversal of nanograins of CoCrPt alloy film. Magnetization reversal process of CoCrPt alloy film is investigated using high resolution soft X-ray microscopy which provides real space images with a spatial resolution of 15 nm. Domain nucleation sites mostly appear stochastically distributed within repeated hysteretic cycles, where the correlation increases as the strength of the applied magnetic field increases in the descending and ascending branches of the major hysteresis loop. In addition, domain configuration is mostly asymmetric with inversion of an applied magnetic field in the hysteretic cycle. Nanomagnetic simulation considering thermal fluctuations of the magnetic moments of the grains explains the nearly stochastic nature of the domain nucleation behavior observed in CoCrPt alloy film. With the bit size in high-density magnetic recording media approaching nanometer length scale, one of the fundamental and crucial issues is whether the domain nucleation during magnetization reversal process exhibits a deterministic behavior. Repeatability of local domain nucleation and deterministic switching behavior are basic and essential factors for achieving high performance in high-density magnetic recording [1-3]. Most experimental studies on this issue reported so far have been mainly performed by indirect probes through macroscopic hysteresis loop and Barkhausen pattern measurements, which provide the ensemble-average magnetization. Thus, they are inadequate to gain insight into the domain-nucleation behavior on a nanometer length scale during the magnetization reversal process [4-6]. Very recently, coherent X-ray speckle metrology, where the speckle pattern observed in reciprocal space acts as a fingerprint of the domain configurations, was adopted to investigate stochastic behavior in the magnetization reversal of a Co/Pt multilayer film [7,8]. However, no direct observation on the stochastic behavior of

  10. WHC Maintenance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-28

    ISS019-E-011464 (28 April 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the waste and hygiene compartment located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  11. WHC Maintenance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-28

    ISS019-E-011471 (28 April 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the waste and hygiene compartment located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  12. Role of the cerebellar cortex in conditioned goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Burguière, Eric; Arabo, Arnaud; Jarlier, Frederic; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2010-10-06

    Learning a new goal-directed behavioral task often requires the improvement of at least two processes, including an enhanced stimulus-response association and an optimization of the execution of the motor response. The cerebellum has recently been shown to play a role in acquiring goal-directed behavior, but it is unclear to what extent it contributes to a change in the stimulus-response association and/or the optimization of the execution of the motor response. We therefore designed the stimulus-dependent water Y-maze conditioning task, which allows discrimination between both processes, and we subsequently subjected Purkinje cell-specific mutant mice to this new task. The mouse mutants L7-PKCi, which suffer from impaired PKC-dependent processes such as parallel fiber to Purkinje cell long-term depression (PF-PC LTD), were able to acquire the stimulus-response association, but exhibited a reduced optimization of their motor performance. These data show that PF-PC LTD is not required for learning a stimulus-response association, but they do suggest that a PKC-dependent process in cerebellar Purkinje cells is required for optimization of motor responses.

  13. Attitudes towards Social Networking and Sharing Behaviors among Consumers of Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genomics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Vernez, Simone L; Ormond, K E; Granovetter, Mark

    2013-10-14

    Little is known about how consumers of direct-to-consumer personal genetic services share personal genetic risk information. In an age of ubiquitous online networking and rapid development of social networking tools, understanding how consumers share personal genetic risk assessments is critical in the development of appropriate and effective policies. This exploratory study investigates how consumers share personal genetic information and attitudes towards social networking behaviors. Adult participants aged 23 to 72 years old who purchased direct-to-consumer genetic testing from a personal genomics company were administered a web-based survey regarding their sharing activities and social networking behaviors related to their personal genetic test results. 80 participants completed the survey; of those, 45% shared results on Facebook and 50.9% reported meeting or reconnecting with more than 10 other individuals through the sharing of their personal genetic information. For help interpreting test results, 70.4% turned to Internet websites and online sources, compared to 22.7% who consulted their healthcare providers. Amongst participants, 51.8% reported that they believe the privacy of their personal genetic information would be breached in the future. Consumers actively utilize online social networking tools to help them share and interpret their personal genetic information. These findings suggest a need for careful consideration of policy recommendations in light of the current ambiguity of regulation and oversight of consumer initiated sharing activities.

  14. Effect of tensile mean stress on fatigue behavior of single-crystal and directionally solidified superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Two nickel base superalloys, single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf, were studied in view of the potential usage of the former and usage of the latter as blade materials for the turbomachinery of the Space Shuttle main engine. The baseline zero mean stress (ZMS) fatigue life (FL) behavior of these superalloys was established, and then the effect of tensile mean stress (TMS) on their FL behavior was characterized. A stress range based FL prediction approach was used to characterize both the ZMS and TMS fatigue data. In the past, several researchers have developed methods to account for the detrimental effect of tensile mean stress on the FL for polycrystalline engineering alloys. These methods were applied to characterize the TMS fatigue data of single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf and were found to be unsatisfactory. Therefore, a method of accounting for the TMS effect on FL, that is based on a technique proposed by Heidmann and Manson was developed to characterize the TMS fatigue data of these superalloys. Details of this method and its relationship to the conventionally used mean stress methods in FL prediction are discussed.

  15. Differentiating neural systems mediating the acquisition vs. expression of goal-directed and habitual behavioral control.

    PubMed

    Liljeholm, Mimi; Dunne, Simon; O'Doherty, John P

    2015-05-01

    Considerable behavioral data indicate that operant actions can become habitual, as demonstrated by insensitivity to changes in the action-outcome contingency and in subjective outcome values. Notably, although several studies have investigated the neural substrates of habits, none has clearly differentiated the areas of the human brain that support habit formation from those that implement habitual control. We scanned participants with functional magnetic resonance imaging as they learned and performed an operant task in which the conditional structure of the environment encouraged either goal-directed encoding of the consequences of actions, or a habit-like mapping of actions to antecedent cues. Participants were also scanned during a subsequent assessment of insensitivity to outcome devaluation. We identified dissociable roles of the cerebellum and ventral striatum, across learning and test performance, in behavioral insensitivity to outcome devaluation. We also showed that the inferior parietal lobule (an area previously implicated in several aspects of goal-directed action selection, including the attribution of intent and awareness of agency) predicted sensitivity to outcome devaluation. Finally, we revealed a potential functional homology between the human subgenual cortex and rodent infralimbic cortex in the implementation of habitual control. In summary, our findings suggested a broad systems division, at the cortical and subcortical levels, between brain areas mediating the encoding and expression of action-outcome and stimulus-response associations. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Superplastic behavior of silica nanowires obtained by direct patterning of silsesquioxane-based precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Mustafa; Wollschläger, Nicole; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad; Österle, Werner; Leblebici, Yusuf; Erdem Alaca, B.

    2017-03-01

    Silica nanowires spanning 10 μm-deep trenches are fabricated from different types of silsesquioxane-based precursors by direct e-beam patterning on silicon followed by release through deep reactive ion etching. Nanowire aspect ratios as large as 150 are achieved with a critical dimension of about 50 nm and nearly rectangular cross-sections. In situ bending tests are carried out inside a scanning electron microscope, where the etch depth of 10 μ {{m}} provides sufficient space for deformation. Silica NWs are indeed observed to exhibit superplastic behavior without fracture with deflections reaching the full etch depth, about two orders of magnitude larger than the nanowire thickness. A large-deformation elastic bending model is utilized for predicting the deviation from the elastic behavior. The results of forty different tests indicate a critical stress level of 0.1–0.4 GPa for the onset of plasticity. The study hints at the possibility of fabricating silica nanowires in a monolithic fashion through direct e-beam patterning of silsesquioxane-based resins. The fabrication technology is compatible with semiconductor manufacturing and provides silica nanowires with a very good structural integrity.

  17. Effect of tensile mean stress on fatigue behavior of single-crystal and directionally solidified superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Two nickel base superalloys, single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf, were studied in view of the potential usage of the former and usage of the latter as blade materials for the turbomachinery of the Space Shuttle main engine. The baseline zero mean stress (ZMS) fatigue life (FL) behavior of these superalloys was established, and then the effect of tensile mean stress (TMS) on their FL behavior was characterized. A stress range based FL prediction approach was used to characterize both the ZMS and TMS fatigue data. In the past, several researchers have developed methods to account for the detrimental effect of tensile mean stress on the FL for polycrystalline engineering alloys. These methods were applied to characterize the TMS fatigue data of single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf and were found to be unsatisfactory. Therefore, a method of accounting for the TMS effect on FL, that is based on a technique proposed by Heidmann and Manson was developed to characterize the TMS fatigue data of these superalloys. Details of this method and its relationship to the conventionally used mean stress methods in FL prediction are discussed.

  18. Superplastic behavior of silica nanowires obtained by direct patterning of silsesquioxane-based precursors.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Mustafa; Wollschläger, Nicole; Esfahani, Mohammad Nasr; Österle, Werner; Leblebici, Yusuf; Alaca, B Erdem

    2017-03-17

    Silica nanowires spanning 10 μm-deep trenches are fabricated from different types of silsesquioxane-based precursors by direct e-beam patterning on silicon followed by release through deep reactive ion etching. Nanowire aspect ratios as large as 150 are achieved with a critical dimension of about 50 nm and nearly rectangular cross-sections. In situ bending tests are carried out inside a scanning electron microscope, where the etch depth of 10 [Formula: see text] provides sufficient space for deformation. Silica NWs are indeed observed to exhibit superplastic behavior without fracture with deflections reaching the full etch depth, about two orders of magnitude larger than the nanowire thickness. A large-deformation elastic bending model is utilized for predicting the deviation from the elastic behavior. The results of forty different tests indicate a critical stress level of 0.1-0.4 GPa for the onset of plasticity. The study hints at the possibility of fabricating silica nanowires in a monolithic fashion through direct e-beam patterning of silsesquioxane-based resins. The fabrication technology is compatible with semiconductor manufacturing and provides silica nanowires with a very good structural integrity.

  19. Differentiating neural systems mediating the acquisition versus expression of goal-directed and habitual behavioral control

    PubMed Central

    Liljeholm, Mimi; Dunne, Simon; O'Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable behavioral data indicates that operant actions can become habitual, as evidenced by insensitivity to changes in the action-outcome contingency and in subjective outcome values. Notably, although several studies have investigated the neural substrates of habits, none has clearly differentiated the areas of the human brain that support habit formation from those that implement habitual control. We scanned participants with fMRI as they learned and performed an operant task in which the conditional structure of the environment encouraged either goal-directed encoding of the consequences of actions, or a habit-like mapping of actions to antecedent cues. Participants were also scanned during a subsequent assessment of insensitivity to outcome devaluation. We identified dissociable roles of the cerebellum and ventral striatum, across learning and test performance, in behavioral insensitivity to outcome devaluation. We also show that the inferior parietal lobule – an area previously implicated in several aspects of goal-directed action selection, including the attribution of intent and awareness of agency – predicts sensitivity to outcome devaluation. Finally, we reveal a potential functional homology between the human subgenual cortex and rodent infralimbic cortex in the implementation of habitual control. In summary, our findings suggest a broad systems division, at the cortical and subcortical levels, between brain areas mediating the encoding and expression of action-outcome and stimulus-response associations. PMID:25892332

  20. Attitudes towards Social Networking and Sharing Behaviors among Consumers of Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Vernez, Simone L.; Ormond, K.E.; Granovetter, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how consumers of direct-to-consumer personal genetic services share personal genetic risk information. In an age of ubiquitous online networking and rapid development of social networking tools, understanding how consumers share personal genetic risk assessments is critical in the development of appropriate and effective policies. This exploratory study investigates how consumers share personal genetic information and attitudes towards social networking behaviors. Methods: Adult participants aged 23 to 72 years old who purchased direct-to-consumer genetic testing from a personal genomics company were administered a web-based survey regarding their sharing activities and social networking behaviors related to their personal genetic test results. Results: 80 participants completed the survey; of those, 45% shared results on Facebook and 50.9% reported meeting or reconnecting with more than 10 other individuals through the sharing of their personal genetic information. For help interpreting test results, 70.4% turned to Internet websites and online sources, compared to 22.7% who consulted their healthcare providers. Amongst participants, 51.8% reported that they believe the privacy of their personal genetic information would be breached in the future. Conclusion: Consumers actively utilize online social networking tools to help them share and interpret their personal genetic information. These findings suggest a need for careful consideration of policy recommendations in light of the current ambiguity of regulation and oversight of consumer initiated sharing activities. PMID:25562728

  1. End-directed evolution and the emergence of energy-seeking behavior in a complex system.

    PubMed

    Kondepudi, Dilip; Kay, Bruce; Dixon, James

    2015-05-01

    Self-organization in a voltage-driven nonequilibrium system, consisting of conducting beads immersed in a viscous medium, gives rise to a dynamic tree structure that exhibits wormlike motion. The complex motion of the beads driven by the applied field, the dipole-dipole interaction between the beads and the hydrodynamic flow of the viscous medium, results in a time evolution of the tree structure towards states of lower resistance or higher dissipation and thus higher rates of entropy production. Thus emerges a remarkably organismlike energy-seeking behavior. The dynamic tree structure draws the energy needed to form and maintain its structure, moves to positions at which it receives more energy, and avoids conditions that lower available energy. It also is able to restore its structure when damaged, i.e., it is self-healing. The emergence of energy-seeking behavior in a nonliving complex system that is extremely simple in its construct is unexpected. Along with the property of self-healing, this system, in a rudimentary way, exhibits properties that are analogous to those we observe in living organisms. Thermodynamically, the observed diverse behavior can be characterized as end-directed evolution to states of higher rates of entropy production.

  2. End-directed evolution and the emergence of energy-seeking behavior in a complex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondepudi, Dilip; Kay, Bruce; Dixon, James

    2015-05-01

    Self-organization in a voltage-driven nonequilibrium system, consisting of conducting beads immersed in a viscous medium, gives rise to a dynamic tree structure that exhibits wormlike motion. The complex motion of the beads driven by the applied field, the dipole-dipole interaction between the beads and the hydrodynamic flow of the viscous medium, results in a time evolution of the tree structure towards states of lower resistance or higher dissipation and thus higher rates of entropy production. Thus emerges a remarkably organismlike energy-seeking behavior. The dynamic tree structure draws the energy needed to form and maintain its structure, moves to positions at which it receives more energy, and avoids conditions that lower available energy. It also is able to restore its structure when damaged, i.e., it is self-healing. The emergence of energy-seeking behavior in a nonliving complex system that is extremely simple in its construct is unexpected. Along with the property of self-healing, this system, in a rudimentary way, exhibits properties that are analogous to those we observe in living organisms. Thermodynamically, the observed diverse behavior can be characterized as end-directed evolution to states of higher rates of entropy production.

  3. Hearing aids in the real world: typical automatic behavior of expansion, directionality, and noise management.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    Automatic DSP (digital signal processing) features, widely available in hearing aids today, are useful because they alleviate the need for the hearing aid wearer to manually adjust the hearing aid as listening conditions change. Although the theoretical basis for the design of these features may be sound, little is known about their behavior in the real world. Data logging offers a glimpse into the life of the individual hearing aid wearer, but there are no published data to date that provide a frame of reference for the interpretation of this information. Further, data logging in hearing aids provides only aggregate summaries for individual features, ignoring complex interactions including the differences between the left and right sides of a bilateral pair. The purpose of this study was to determine the typical behavior of three automatic DSP hearing aid features-expansion, directionality, and noise management-in daily life. Ten individuals with hearing impairment were fitted bilaterally with BTE (behind the ear) hearing aids. The hearing aids were programmed for the individual's hearing loss with expansion, directionality, and noise management set to activate automatically. A PDA (personal digital assistant) logged the input level and status of expansion, directionality, and noise management from both devices at 5 sec intervals. Data were gathered in this manner over a period of 4-5 wk. A total of 741 hr of hearing aid use were logged, 50% of which were spent in environments no louder than 50 dB SPL. Expansion, directionality, and noise management were active 45, 10, and 21% of the time, respectively; the median amount of gain reduction for noise management was ∼1 dB. Although expansion and noise management were always active at the low and high input levels, respectively, activation of directionality never exceeded 50%. Expansion and noise management were sometimes active simultaneously, as were directionality and noise management. Bilateral agreement in

  4. Perseveration on a reversal-learning task correlates with rates of self-directed behavior in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Judge, Peter G; Evans, David W; Schroepfer, Kara K; Gross, Alyssa C

    2011-09-12

    In humans and several nonhuman animals, repetitive behavior is associated with deficits on executive function tasks involving response inhibition. We tested for this relationship in nonhuman primates by correlating rates of normative behavior to performance on a reversal-learning task in which animals were required to inhibit a previously learned rule. We focused on rates of self-directed behavior (scratch, autogroom, self touch and manipulation) because these responses are known indicators of arousal or anxiety in primates, however, we also examined rates of other categories of behavior (e.g., locomotion). Behavior rates were obtained from 14 animals representing three nonhuman primate species (Macaca silenus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella) living in separate social groups. The same animals were tested on a reversal-learning task in which they were presented with a black and a grey square on a touch screen and were trained to touch the black square. Once animals learned to select the black square, reward contingencies were reversed and animals were rewarded for selecting the grey square. Performance on the reversal-learning task was positively correlated to self-directed behavior in that animals that exhibited higher rates of self-directed behavior required more trials to achieve reversal. Reversal learning was not correlated to rates of any other category of behavior. Results indicate that rates of behavior associated with anxiety and arousal provide an indicator of executive function in nonhuman primates. The relationship suggests continuity between nonhuman primates and humans in the link between executive functioning and repetitive behavior.

  5. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species.

  6. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species. PMID:26635567

  7. Self-reported availability of kinship cues during childhood is associated with kin-directed behavior to parents in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Antfolk, Jan; Lindqvist, Helena; Albrecht, Anna; Santtilla, Pekka

    2014-02-25

    Reliable recognition of kin is an important factor in modulating kin-directed behaviors. For example, in selectively directing cooperative behavior to kin and diverting sexual interest away from them, kin first need to be recognized as such. Although an increasing number of studies have examined what information is employed in recognizing siblings and children, less is known about the information children employ in identifying their parents. In a web-based survey, we asked 702 Finnish undergraduate and graduate students to report the availability of a number of possible kinship cues during their childhood and youth. After factorization of the responses, we found that the reported amount of parental support, phenotypic similarity, and behavioral similarity generally predicted subjective certainty in relatedness and kin-directed behavior (i.e., cooperative behavior and inbreeding aversion) to parents in adulthood. Although the data suffer from their retrospective nature, the present study provides potentially useful information about kin-recognition of parents.

  8. Trait inferences in goal-directed behavior: ERP timing and localization under spontaneous and intentional processing.

    PubMed

    Van Overwalle, Frank; Van den Eede, Sofie; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2009-06-01

    This study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during multiple goal and trait inferences, under spontaneous or intentional instructions. Participants read sentences describing several goal-implying behaviors of a target person from which also a strong trait could be inferred or not. The last word of each sentence determined the consistency with the inference induced during preceding sentences. In comparison with behaviors that implied only a goal, stronger waveforms beginning at approximately 150 ms were obtained when the behaviors additionally implied a trait. These ERPs showed considerable parallels between spontaneous and intentional inferences. This suggests that traits embedded in a stream of goal-directed behaviors were detected more rapidly and automatically than mere goals, irrespective of the participants' spontaneous or intentional instructions. In line with this, source localization (LORETA) of the ERPs show predominantly activation in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during 150-200 ms, suggesting that goals were detected at that time interval. During 200-300 ms, activation was stronger at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for multiple goals and traits as opposed to goals only, suggesting that traits were inferred during this time window. A cued recall measure taken after the presentation of the stimulus material support the occurrence of goal and trait inferences and shows significant correlations with the neural components, indicating that these components are valid neural indices of spontaneous and intentional social inferences. The early detection of multiple goal and trait inferences is explained in terms of their greater social relevance, leading to privileged attention allocation and processing in the brain.

  9. Trait inferences in goal-directed behavior: ERP timing and localization under spontaneous and intentional processing

    PubMed Central

    Van den Eede, Sofie; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during multiple goal and trait inferences, under spontaneous or intentional instructions. Participants read sentences describing several goal-implying behaviors of a target person from which also a strong trait could be inferred or not. The last word of each sentence determined the consistency with the inference induced during preceding sentences. In comparison with behaviors that implied only a goal, stronger waveforms beginning at ∼150 ms were obtained when the behaviors additionally implied a trait. These ERPs showed considerable parallels between spontaneous and intentional inferences. This suggests that traits embedded in a stream of goal-directed behaviors were detected more rapidly and automatically than mere goals, irrespective of the participants’ spontaneous or intentional instructions. In line with this, source localization (LORETA) of the ERPs show predominantly activation in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during 150–200 ms, suggesting that goals were detected at that time interval. During 200–300 ms, activation was stronger at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for multiple goals and traits as opposed to goals only, suggesting that traits were inferred during this time window. A cued recall measure taken after the presentation of the stimulus material support the occurrence of goal and trait inferences and shows significant correlations with the neural components, indicating that these components are valid neural indices of spontaneous and intentional social inferences. The early detection of multiple goal and trait inferences is explained in terms of their greater social relevance, leading to privileged attention allocation and processing in the brain. PMID:19270041

  10. Reliability of Direct Behavior Ratings--Social Competence (DBR-SC) Data: How Many Ratings Are Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Stichter, Janine P.; Schoemann, Alexander M.; Bellesheim, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the reliability of Direct Behavior Ratings--Social Competence (DBR-SC) ratings. Participants included 60 students identified as possessing deficits in social competence, as well as their 23 classroom teachers. Teachers used DBR-SC to complete ratings of 5 student behaviors within the general…

  11. Using Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) to Screen for School Social Risk: A Preliminary Comparison of Methods in a Kindergarten Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Hernandez, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this study, preliminary evidence of the potential for Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) in screening assessment of school social behavior is provided through evaluation of the concurrent validity of DBR with a commonly used criterion measure. The teacher-completed form of the "Social Skills Rating System" (SSRS) was selected as the…

  12. Reliability of Direct Behavior Ratings--Social Competence (DBR-SC) Data: How Many Ratings Are Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Stichter, Janine P.; Schoemann, Alexander M.; Bellesheim, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the reliability of Direct Behavior Ratings--Social Competence (DBR-SC) ratings. Participants included 60 students identified as possessing deficits in social competence, as well as their 23 classroom teachers. Teachers used DBR-SC to complete ratings of 5 student behaviors within the general…

  13. Suppression of maintenance of alcohol-drinking behavior by the concurrent availability of saccharin in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Giancarlo; Lobina, Carla; Maccioni, Paola; Mascia, M Francesca; Orrù, Alessandro; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Carai, Mauro A M

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the effect of the concurrent presentation of saccharin on the maintenance of alcohol-drinking behavior in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats. Rats were initially given access to alcohol [10% (volume/volume) in water] and water under the home cage, two-bottle, free-choice regimen, with unlimited access for 24 h/day for eight consecutive weeks. Next, a third bottle, containing saccharin [0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, or 3% (weight/volume) in water], was concomitantly offered for an additional 10 consecutive days. Intake of saccharin solution resulted as an inverted-U function of saccharin concentration, with the 0.1% saccharin solution being the highest accepted. Alcohol intake was a U function of saccharin concentration, being reduced by 65%-95% in the group of rats exposed to the 0.1% saccharin solution. These results indicate that (1) the concurrent presentation of highly palatable solutions of saccharin markedly reduced alcohol intake in alcohol-experienced sP rats and (2) the reducing effect of saccharin solutions on the alcohol intake in sP rats was positively related to their degree of acceptability. We hypothesized that saccharin solutions may have functioned as a reinforcer, partially substituting for alcohol reinforcement and rendering alcohol drinking less urgent.

  14. Signal-to-Noise Behavior for Matches to Gradient Direction Models of Corners in Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W; Manay, S

    2007-02-09

    Gradient direction models for corners of prescribed acuteness, leg length, and leg thickness are constructed by generating fields of unit vectors emanating from leg pixels that point normal to the edges. A novel FFT-based algorithm that quickly matches models of corners at all possible positions and orientations in the image to fields of gradient directions for image pixels is described. The signal strength of a corner is discussed in terms of the number of pixels along the edges of a corner in an image, while noise is characterized by the coherence of gradient directions along those edges. The detection-false alarm rate behavior of our corner detector is evaluated empirically by manually constructing maps of corner locations in typical overhead images, and then generating different ROC curves for matches to models of corners with different leg lengths and thicknesses. We then demonstrate how corners found with our detector can be used to quickly and automatically find families of polygons of arbitrary position, size and orientation in overhead images.

  15. Periodontal maintenance.

    PubMed

    Tan, A E S

    2009-09-01

    The main goal of periodontal therapy is to establish an oral environment compatible with periodontal health by the physical disruption of the plaque biofilm and adjunctive chemical means if required. Implicit in this objective is the ongoing requirement of detection and interception of new and recurrent disease, which continues at selected intervals for the life of the dentition after the initial ("active") phase of periodontal treatment. This concept of ongoing periodontal maintenance therapy has been embraced as the mandatory requirement for favourable periodontal outcomes based on institutional clinical trials and in practice-based studies in various parts of the world. This review examines the ramifications of periodontal maintenance therapy based upon a multi-level assessment of logistic issues and risk factors at three levels: (1) The patient level - treatment time; patient attendance compliance; and homecare measures, antiseptics/antibiotics and smoking. (2) The level of the individual tooth - tooth loss; and evaluation of success versus survival. (3) The level of each tooth surface ("site") - probing depth, loss of attachment and bleeding on probing; and changes in clinical attachment levels. In spite of the diversity of studies conducted, there is agreement on the efficacy of periodontal maintenance therapy when compared with studies on untreated populations and in treated cases that were not maintained.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Derek H.; Bicknell, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Luke; Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Tsukrov, Igor; Knezevic, Marko

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, we investigate microstructure and quasi-static mechanical behavior of the direct metal laser sintered Inconel 718 superalloy as a function of build direction (BD). The printed material was further processed by annealing and double-aging, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and machining. We characterize porosity fraction and distribution using micro X-ray computed tomography (μXCT), grain structure and crystallographic texture using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical response in quasi-static tension and compression using standard mechanical testing at room temperature. Analysis of the μXCT imaging shows that majority of porosity develops in the outer layer of the printed material. However, porosity inside the material is also present. The EBSD measurements reveal formation of columnar grains, which favor < 001 > fiber texture components along the BD. These measurements also show evidence of coarse-grained microstructure present in the samples treated by HIP. Finally, analysis of grain boundaries reveal that HIP results in a large number of annealing twins compared to that in samples that underwent annealing and double-aging. The yield strength varies with the testing direction by approximately 7%, which is governed by a combination of grain morphology and crystallographic texture. In particular, we determine tension–compression asymmetry in the yield stress as well as anisotropy of the material flow during compression. We find that HIP lowers yield stress but improves ductility relative to the annealed and aged material. These results are discussed and critically compared with the data reported for wrought material in the same condition. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of DMLS Inconel 718 are studied in function of build direction. • Inhomogeneity of microstructure in the material in several conditions is quantified by μXCT and EBSD. • Anisotropy and asymmetry in the mechanical response are

  17. The hippocampal-striatal axis in learning, prediction and goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Pennartz, C M A; Ito, R; Verschure, P F M J; Battaglia, F P; Robbins, T W

    2011-10-01

    The hippocampal formation and striatum subserve declarative and procedural memory, respectively. However, experimental evidence suggests that the ventral striatum, as opposed to the dorsal striatum, does not lend itself to being part of either system. Instead, it may constitute a system integrating inputs from the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus to generate motivational, outcome-predicting signals that invigorate goal-directed behaviors. Inspired by reinforcement learning models, we suggest an alternative scheme for computational functions of the striatum. Dorsal and ventral striatum are proposed to compute outcome predictions largely in parallel, using different types of information as input. The nature of the inputs to striatum is furthermore combinatorial, and the specificity of predictions transcends the level of scalar value signals, incorporating episodic information.

  18. DNA Origami: Folded DNA-Nanodevices That Can Direct and Interpret Cell Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Cathal J; Lucas, Christopher R; O'Brien, Fergal J; Castro, Carlos E

    2016-07-01

    DNA origami is a DNA-based nanotechnology that utilizes programmed combinations of short complementary oligonucleotides to fold a large single strand of DNA into precise 2D and 3D shapes. The exquisite nanoscale shape control of this inherently biocompatible material is combined with the potential to spatially address the origami structures with diverse cargoes including drugs, antibodies, nucleic acid sequences, small molecules, and inorganic particles. This programmable flexibility enables the fabrication of precise nanoscale devices that have already shown great potential for biomedical applications such as: drug delivery, biosensing, and synthetic nanopore formation. Here, the advances in the DNA-origami field since its inception several years ago are reviewed with a focus on how these DNA-nanodevices can be designed to interact with cells to direct or probe their behavior.

  19. "Instant success": turning temptations into cues for goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2011-10-01

    Contrary to lay intuition, counteractive control theory posits that tempting food cues can help individuals to act in accordance with their long-term dieting goal. However, studies have shown that temptations trigger goal-directed behavior only in successful but not in unsuccessful self-regulators. The aim of the present study was to test whether it is possible to create facilitated temptation-goal associations in unsuccessful dieters using implementation intentions (e.g., "If I see or smell chocolate then I will follow my goal to diet") and whether this indeed stimulates more successful self-regulation. It was found that implementation intentions linking a temptation to a dieting goal lead to self-perceived improved resistance to (Study 1) as well as reduced consumption (Study 2) of tempting snacks compared to a control condition. Moreover, Study 2 revealed that the reduced snack consumption was indeed related to facilitated temptation-goal associations in participants who had formed implementation intentions.

  20. Direct-to-consumer ads can influence behavior. Advertising increases consumer knowledge and prescription drug requests.

    PubMed

    Peyrot, M; Alperstein, N M; Van Doren, D; Poli, L G

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising on prescription drug knowledge and the requesting behavior of consumers. The authors developed and tested a conceptual model of prescription drug knowledge and requests. Consumers' belief that drug advertising can educate them was associated with a greater amount of drug knowledge, and the belief they would upset physicians by asking for specific drugs was associated with less knowledge. The belief that drug advertising reduces prices was associated with greater probability of drug requests, and the belief that physicians should be the sole source of drug information was associated with lesser probability of request. Preference for generic drugs was associated with a lesser likelihood of requesting a specific drug. Media exposure and drug advertising awareness were associated with higher drug knowledge and a greater probability of drug requesting.

  1. Macromolecular crowding directs extracellular matrix organization and mesenchymal stem cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Adam S; Loe, Felicia C; Li, Ran; Raghunath, Michael; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2012-01-01

    Microenvironments of biological cells are dominated in vivo by macromolecular crowding and resultant excluded volume effects. This feature is absent in dilute in vitro cell culture. Here, we induced macromolecular crowding in vitro by using synthetic macromolecular globules of nm-scale radius at physiological levels of fractional volume occupancy. We quantified the impact of induced crowding on the extracellular and intracellular protein organization of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via immunocytochemistry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and AFM-enabled nanoindentation. Macromolecular crowding in extracellular culture media directly induced supramolecular assembly and alignment of extracellular matrix proteins deposited by cells, which in turn increased alignment of the intracellular actin cytoskeleton. The resulting cell-matrix reciprocity further affected adhesion, proliferation, and migration behavior of MSCs. Macromolecular crowding can thus aid the design of more physiologically relevant in vitro studies and devices for MSCs and other cells, by increasing the fidelity between materials synthesized by cells in vivo and in vitro.

  2. Surface chain cleavage behavior of PBIA fiber induced by direct fluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zheng; Wu, Peng; Li, Baoyin; Chen, Teng; Liu, Yang; Ren, Mengmeng; Wang, Zaoming; Lai, Wenchuan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-10-01

    The surface chain cleavage behavior of PBIA fiber induced by direct fluorination was reported based on the analysis of physical and chemical changes on the fiber surface. The chain cleavage product was obtained to evaluate the chemical reaction during the fluorination process, and its impact on composites performance was also involved. DSC, FTIR spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra and H1NMR were utilized to analyze the chemical structure and composition of the chain cleavage product. The results show gaseous fluorine is most likely to attack the benzimidazole and amide bond in PBIA unit, which was also demonstrated by molecular simulation. Owing to the polar groups contained in chain cleavage products, the wettability of epoxy resin to fiber has been improved, leading to an 11.5% increase of adhesive strength of fiber-epoxy composite.

  3. DNA Origami: Folded DNA-Nanodevices That Can Direct and Interpret Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Cathal J.; Lucas, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Castro, Carlos E.

    2016-01-01

    DNA origami is a DNA-based nanotechnology that utilizes programmed combinations of short complementary oligonucleotides to fold a large single strand of DNA into precise 2-D and 3-D shapes. The exquisite nanoscale shape control of this inherently biocompatible material is combined with the potential to spatially address the origami structures with diverse cargos including drugs, antibodies, nucleic acid sequences, small molecules and inorganic particles. This programmable flexibility enables the fabrication of precise nanoscale devices that have already shown great potential for biomedical applications such as: drug delivery, biosensing and synthetic nanopore formation. In this Progress Report, we will review the advances in the DNA origami field since its inception several years ago and then focus on how these DNA-nanodevices can be designed to interact with cells to direct or probe their behavior. PMID:26840503

  4. Migration-driven aggregation behaviors in job markets with direct foreign immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ruoyan

    2014-09-01

    This Letter introduces a new set of rate equations describing migration-driven aggregation behaviors in job markets with direct foreign immigration. We divide the job market into two groups: native and immigrant. A reversible migration of jobs exists in both groups. The interaction between two groups creates a birth and death rate for the native job market. We find out that regardless of initial conditions or the rates, the total number of cities with either job markets decreases. This indicates a more concentrated job markets for both groups in the future. On the other hand, jobs available for immigrants increase over time but the ones for natives are uncertain. The native job markets can either expand or shrink or remain constant due to combined effects of birth and death rates. Finally, we test our analytical results with the population data of all counties in the US from 2000 to 2011.

  5. Macromolecular Crowding Directs Extracellular Matrix Organization and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Adam S.; Loe, Felicia C.; Li, Ran; Raghunath, Michael; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Microenvironments of biological cells are dominated in vivo by macromolecular crowding and resultant excluded volume effects. This feature is absent in dilute in vitro cell culture. Here, we induced macromolecular crowding in vitro by using synthetic macromolecular globules of nm-scale radius at physiological levels of fractional volume occupancy. We quantified the impact of induced crowding on the extracellular and intracellular protein organization of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via immunocytochemistry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and AFM-enabled nanoindentation. Macromolecular crowding in extracellular culture media directly induced supramolecular assembly and alignment of extracellular matrix proteins deposited by cells, which in turn increased alignment of the intracellular actin cytoskeleton. The resulting cell-matrix reciprocity further affected adhesion, proliferation, and migration behavior of MSCs. Macromolecular crowding can thus aid the design of more physiologically relevant in vitro studies and devices for MSCs and other cells, by increasing the fidelity between materials synthesized by cells in vivo and in vitro. PMID:22649562

  6. Ethanol-seeking behavior is expressed directly through an extended amygdala to midbrain neural circuit.

    PubMed

    Pina, Melanie M; Cunningham, Christopher L

    2017-01-01

    Abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals experience an enduring sensitivity to cue-induced craving and relapse to drinking. There is considerable evidence indicating that structures within the midbrain and extended amygdala are involved in this process. Individually, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) have been shown to modulate cue-induced ethanol-seeking behavior. It is hypothesized that cue-induced seeking is communicated through a direct projection from the BNST to VTA. In the current experiments, an intersectional viral strategy was used in DBA/2J mice to selectively target and inhibit BNST projections to the VTA during a test of ethanol conditioned place preference (CPP). Inhibitory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (hM4Di DREADDs) were expressed in VTA-projecting BNST (BNST-VTA) cells by infusing a retrograde herpes-simplex virus encoding cre recombinase (HSV-Cre) into VTA and a cre-inducible adeno-associated virus encoding hM4Di (AAV-DIO-hM4Di) into BNST. Before testing the expression of preference, clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) was peripherally administered to activate hM4Di receptors and selectively inhibit these cells. Ethanol CPP expression was blocked by CNO-mediated inhibition of BNST-VTA cells. A follow-up study revealed this effect was specific to CNO activation of hM4Di as saline- and CNO-treated mice infused with a control vector (HSV-GFP) in place of HSV-Cre showed significant CPP. These findings establish a role for a direct BNST input to VTA in cue-induced ethanol-seeking behavior.

  7. The role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor in breast cancer and directing breast cancer cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Denise K; Fagan-Solis, Katerina D; Dunphy, Karen; Oliver, Shannon D; Scott, David W; Fleming, Jodie M

    2014-01-01

    The claudin-low molecular subtype of breast cancer is of particular interest for clinically the majority of these tumors are poor prognosis, triple negative, invasive ductal carcinomas. Claudin-low tumors are characterized by cancer stem cell-like features and low expression of cell junction and adhesion proteins. Herein, we sought to define the role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) in breast cancer and cancer cell behavior as LSR was recently correlated with tumor-initiating features. We show that LSR was expressed in epithelium, endothelium, and stromal cells within the healthy breast tissue, as well as in tumor epithelium. In primary breast tumor bioposies, LSR expression was significantly correlated with invasive ductal carcinomas compared to invasive lobular carcinomas, as well as ERα positive tumors and breast cancer cell lines. LSR levels were significantly reduced in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines and functional studies illustrated that re-introduction of LSR into a claudin-low cell line suppressed the EMT phenotype and reduced individual cell migration. However, our data suggest that LSR may promote collective cell migration. Re-introduction of LSR in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines reestablished tight junction protein expression and correlated with transepithelial electrical resistance, thereby reverting claudin-low lines to other intrinsic molecular subtypes. Moreover, overexpression of LSR altered gene expression of pathways involved in transformation and tumorigenesis as well as enhanced proliferation and survival in anchorage independent conditions, highlighting that reestablishment of LSR signaling promotes aggressive/tumor initiating cell behaviors. Collectively, these data highlight a direct role for LSR in driving aggressive breast cancer behavior.

  8. Apathy in Frontotemporal Degeneration: Neuroanatomical Evidence of Impaired Goal-directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Massimo, Lauren; Powers, John P.; Evans, Lois K.; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Eslinger, Paul; Ersek, Mary; Irwin, David J.; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apathy, the major manifestation of impaired goal-directed behavior (GDB), is the most common neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration (bvFTD). The behavioral and biological mechanisms of apathy, however, are not well understood. We hypothesized that GDB has multiple components—including at least initiation, planning and motivation—and that GDB is supported by a network of multiple frontal brain regions. In this study, we examined this hypothesis by evaluating the selective breakdown of GDB in bvFTD, and relating these deficits to gray matter (GM) atrophy and white matter (WM) integrity. Methods: Eighteen apathetic bvFTD participants and 17 healthy controls completed the Philadelphia Apathy Computerized Test (PACT). This test quantifies each of three components of GDB hypothesized to contribute to apathy. We then used regression analyses to relate PACT scores to GM atrophy and reduced white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA) in bvFTD. Results: Compared to controls, bvFTD participants demonstrated significant impairments in each of the three hypothesized components of GDB that contribute to apathy. Regression analyses related each component to disease in specific GM structures and associated WM tracts. Poor initiation thus was related to GM atrophy in anterior cingulate and reduced FA in the cingulum. Planning impairment was related to GM atrophy in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced FA in superior longitudinal fasciculus. Poor motivation was related to GM atrophy in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and reduced FA in uncinate fasciculus (UNC). Conclusions: bvFTD patients have difficulty with initiation, planning and motivation components of GDB. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that GDB encompasses at least three processes, that these are supported by a large-scale neural network within specific portions of the frontal lobe, and that degradation of any one of these prefrontal

  9. Is criminal behavior a central component of psychopathy? Conceptual directions for resolving the debate.

    PubMed

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Cooke, David J

    2010-06-01

    The development of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 2003) has fueled intense clinical interest in the construct of psychopathy. Unfortunately, a side effect of this interest has been conceptual confusion and, in particular, the conflating of measures with constructs. Indeed, the field is in danger of equating the PCL-R with the theoretical construct of psychopathy. A key point in the debate is whether criminal behavior is a central component, or mere downstream correlate, of psychopathy. In this article, the authors present conceptual directions for resolving this debate. First, factor analysis of PCL-R items in a theoretical vacuum cannot reveal the essence of psychopathy. Second, a myth about the PCL-R and its relation to violence must be examined to avoid the view that psychopathy is merely a violent variant of antisocial personality disorder. Third, a formal, iterative process between theory development and empirical validation must be adopted. Fundamentally, constructs and measures must be recognized as separate entities, and neither reified. Applying such principles to the current state of the field, the authors believe the evidence favors viewing criminal behavior as a correlate, not a component, of psychopathy.

  10. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  11. Mapping Dimensionality and Directionality of Electronic Behavior in CeCoIn5: the Normal State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenis, Andras; Feldman, Benjamin E.; Randeria, Mallika T.; Peterson, Gabriel A.; Aynajian, Pegor; Bauer, Eric D.; Yazdani, Ali

    Materials made from alternating layers of different constituents can exhibit dramatic variability in their electronic properties depending on which layer is probed. This is evident in the heavy fermion compound CeCoIn5, where scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has revealed preferential coupling to either light or heavy electron states depending on the surface termination. Here we report STM measurements of CeCoIn5 cleaved perpendicular to its basal plane that clearly shows the quasi-two-dimensional nature of the electronic behavior on a single (100) surface. We observe atomic scale modulation of tunneling into the light and heavy electron bands in the c-axis direction, with no variation visible along the basal planes in the b-axis direction. In addition, conductance maps reveal preferential scattering along the two-dimensional basal planes. Our measurements highlight the reduced effective dimensionality of electronic states in CeCoIn5, and underscore the potential insight that can be gained by imaging layered materials perpendicular to their c-axis.

  12. Computerizing Maintenance Management Improves School Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), a centralized maintenance operations database that facilitates work order procedures and staff directives, can help individual school campuses and school districts to manage maintenance. Presents the benefits of CMMS and things to consider in CMMS selection. (EV)

  13. Computerizing Maintenance Management Improves School Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), a centralized maintenance operations database that facilitates work order procedures and staff directives, can help individual school campuses and school districts to manage maintenance. Presents the benefits of CMMS and things to consider in CMMS selection. (EV)

  14. 49 CFR 260.39 - Maintenance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maintenance standards. 260.39 Section 260.39... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Standards for Maintenance of Facilities Involved in the Project § 260.39 Maintenance standards. (a) When the proceeds of a direct loan or an obligation guaranteed...

  15. 49 CFR 260.39 - Maintenance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance standards. 260.39 Section 260.39... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Standards for Maintenance of Facilities Involved in the Project § 260.39 Maintenance standards. (a) When the proceeds of a direct loan or an obligation guaranteed by...

  16. Effects of Physician-directed Pharmaceutical Promotion on Prescription Behaviors: Longitudinal Evidence.

    PubMed

    Datta, Anusua; Dave, Dhaval

    2017-04-01

    Spending on prescription drugs (Rx) represents one of the fastest growing components of US healthcare spending and has coincided with an expansion of pharmaceutical promotional spending. Most (83%) of Rx promotion is directed at physicians in the form of visits by pharmaceutical representatives (known as detailing) and drug samples provided to physicians' offices. Such promotion has come under increased public scrutiny, with critics contending that physician-directed promotion may play a role in raising healthcare costs and may unduly affect physicians' prescribing habits towards more expensive, and possibly less cost-effective, drugs. In this study, we bring longitudinal evidence to bear upon the question of how detailing impacts physicians' prescribing behaviors. Specifically, we examine prescriptions and promotion for a particular drug class based on a nationally representative sample of 150,000 physicians spanning 24 months. The use of longitudinal physician-level data allows us to tackle some of the empirical concerns in the extant literature, virtually all of which have relied on aggregate national data. We estimate fixed-effects specifications that bypass stable unobserved physician-specific heterogeneity and address potential targeting bias. In addition, we also assess differential effects at both the extensive and intensive margins of prescribing behaviors and differential effects across physician-level and market-level characteristics, questions that have not been explored in prior work. The estimates suggest that detailing has a significant and positive effect on the number of new scripts written for the detailed drug, with an elasticity magnitude of 0.06. This effect is substantially smaller than those in the literature based on aggregate information, suggesting that most of the observed relationship between physician-directed promotion and drug sales is driven by selection bias. We find that detailing impacts selective brand-specific demand but does

  17. The time course for kinetic versus kinematic planning of goal-directed human motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Vesia, Michael; Vander, Helena; Yan, Xiaogang; Sergio, Lauren E

    2005-01-01

    The present psychophysical study compares motor planning during goal-directed reaching movements and isometric spatial force generation. Our objective is to characterize the extent to which the motor system accounts for the biomechanical details of an impending reach. One issue that the nervous system must take into account when transforming a spatial sensory signal into an intrinsic pattern of joint torques is that of limb dynamics, including intersegmental dynamics and inertial anisotropy of the arm. These will act to displace the hand away from a straight path to an object. In theory, if the nervous system accounts for movement-related limb dynamics prior to its initial motor output, early force direction for a movement will differ from an isometric force to the same spatial target. Alternatively, biomechanical details of motor behavior may be implemented into the motor act following its initiation. Limb position and force output at the wrist were recorded while subjects displaced a cursor to targets viewed on a computer monitor. To generate isometric forces, a magnetic brake held a mechanical linkage supporting the arm in place. Subjects were cued to displace the cursor by using either isometric force or limb movement. On random trials, a movement was cued but an isometric force was unexpectedly required. Results show that there is not a significant directional difference in the initial force trajectory when planning a movement versus planning an isometric force. These findings suggest that the motor system may initially use a coarse approximation of movement-related limb dynamics, allowing for the refinement of the motor plan as the movement unfolds.

  18. Using Direct Behavior Rating--Single Item Scales to Assess Student Behavior within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.; Patwa, Shamim S.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    An increased emphasis on collecting and using data in schools has occurred, in part, because of the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS). Commonly referred to as response to intervention in the academic domain and school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports in the behavioral domain, these initiatives have a…

  19. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    PubMed

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-08-01

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methadone maintenance.

    PubMed

    Russell-Taylor, W J

    1975-07-01

    Management of heroin addiction with oral methadone continues to create controversy. Since the first Dole-Nyswander experiments were reported almost a decade ago, methadone maintenance programs have been started in every major city in North America at an estimated public cost in the hundreds of millions of tax dollars. By the end of 1972, the United States alone spending at an annual rate in excess of $250 million, and an expenditure rate in excess of one billion dollars was occurring by the end of 1973. Despite the FDA investigational New Drug status of methadone when used for this purpose, objective data have still not been generated to substantiate the worth of Narcotic Substitution Therapy. Iatrogenic consequences are on the increase, and scepticism is growing among most pharmacologists. A critical evaluation of the entire methadone maintenance approach is being advocated by many and being attempted by some. Data currently being generated at the Philadelphia General Hospital suggest that many patients may have been better managed without methadone.

  1. Contingency Analysis of Caregiver Behavior: Implications for Parent Training and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    Parent training is often a required component of effective treatment for a variety of common childhood problems. Although behavior analysts have developed several effective parent-training technologies, we know little about the contingencies that affect parent behavior. Child behavior is one source of control for parent behavior that likely…

  2. Directionality between Tolerance of Deviance and Deviant Behavior Is Age-Moderated in Chronically Stressed Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gold, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Problem behavior theory posits that tolerance of deviance is an antecedent to antisocial behavior and substance use. In contrast, cognitive dissonance theory implies that acceptability of a behavior may increase after experiencing the behavior. Using structural equation modeling, this investigation tested whether changes in tolerance of deviance…

  3. The Expanding Role of Behavior Analysis and Support: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzker, John R.; Whitaker, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    Although many of the pioneers of behavior analysis thought on a large scale and encouraged others to do so, most behavior analytic projects have remained small scale. The intent of this article is to urge the application of behavior analytic principles on a large scale. This article begins with a brief history of applied behavior analysis. It then…

  4. Directionality between Tolerance of Deviance and Deviant Behavior Is Age-Moderated in Chronically Stressed Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gold, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Problem behavior theory posits that tolerance of deviance is an antecedent to antisocial behavior and substance use. In contrast, cognitive dissonance theory implies that acceptability of a behavior may increase after experiencing the behavior. Using structural equation modeling, this investigation tested whether changes in tolerance of deviance…

  5. Contingency Analysis of Caregiver Behavior: Implications for Parent Training and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    Parent training is often a required component of effective treatment for a variety of common childhood problems. Although behavior analysts have developed several effective parent-training technologies, we know little about the contingencies that affect parent behavior. Child behavior is one source of control for parent behavior that likely…

  6. Neuronal activity in primate prefrontal cortex related to goal-directed behavior during auditory working memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Brosch, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been documented to play critical roles in goal-directed behaviors, like representing goal-relevant events and working memory (WM). However, neurophysiological evidence for such roles of PFC has been obtained mainly with visual tasks but rarely with auditory tasks. In the present study, we tested roles of PFC in auditory goal-directed behaviors by recording local field potentials in the auditory region of left ventrolateral PFC while a monkey performed auditory WM tasks. The tasks consisted of multiple events and required the monkey to change its mental states to achieve the reward. The events were auditory and visual stimuli, as well as specific actions. Mental states were engaging in the tasks and holding task-relevant information in auditory WM. We found that, although based on recordings from one hemisphere in one monkey only, PFC represented multiple events that were important for achieving reward, including auditory and visual stimuli like turning on and off an LED, as well as bar touch. The responses to auditory events depended on the tasks and on the context of the tasks. This provides support for the idea that neuronal representations in PFC are flexible and can be related to the behavioral meaning of stimuli. We also found that engaging in the tasks and holding information in auditory WM were associated with persistent changes of slow potentials, both of which are essential for auditory goal-directed behaviors. Our study, on a single hemisphere in a single monkey, reveals roles of PFC in auditory goal-directed behaviors similar to those in visual goal-directed behaviors, suggesting that functions of PFC in goal-directed behaviors are probably common across the auditory and visual modality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  7. Nano-objects emitted during maintenance of common particle generators: direct chemical characterization with aerosol mass spectrometry and implications for risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Patrik T.; Isaxon, Christina; Eriksson, Axel C.; Messing, Maria E.; Ludvigsson, Linus; Rissler, Jenny; Hedmer, Maria; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Gudmundsson, Anders; Deppert, Knut; Bohgard, Mats; Pagels, Joakim H.

    2013-11-01

    Nanotechnology gives us materials with enhanced or completely new properties. At the same time, inhalation of manufactured nano-objects has been related to an array of adverse biological effects. We characterized particle emissions, which occurred during maintenance of common metal nanoparticle generators and contrasted the properties of the emitted particles with those originally produced by the generators. A new approach using online aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS), for time- and size-resolved measurements of the particle chemical composition, was applied in combination with more conventional techniques for particle sampling and analysis, including electron microscopy. Emissions during maintenance work, in terms of mass and surface area concentration in the size range of 0.02-10 μm, were dominated by large agglomerates (1-5 μm). With AMS, we show that the particle composition depends on both generator type and maintenance task being performed and that the instrument can be used for highly time-resolved selective studies of metal nanoparticle emissions. The emitted agglomerates have a relatively high probability to be deposited in the lower respiratory tract, since the mean particle diameter coincided with a peak in the lung deposition curve. Each of these agglomerates consisted of a very high number (103-105/agglomerate) of nanometer-sized primary particles originating from the particle synthesis process. This made them possess large surface areas, one of the key properties in nanotoxicology. Similar agglomerates may be emitted in a wide range of processes when nanoparticles are manufactured or handled. The fate of such agglomerates, once deposited in the respiratory tract, is unknown and should therefore be considered in future particle toxicological studies. Our results highlight the importance of including micrometer-sized particles in exposure and emission assessments.

  8. Relationship Maintenance on Facebook: Development of a Measure, Relationship to General Maintenance, and Relationship Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dainton, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the primary reason college students use Facebook is for relationship maintenance. The present study sought to determine the relationship between Facebook maintenance and general maintenance efforts in college student romantic relationships, as well as the impacts of such behaviors on the relationship. Survey data…

  9. Relationship Maintenance on Facebook: Development of a Measure, Relationship to General Maintenance, and Relationship Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dainton, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the primary reason college students use Facebook is for relationship maintenance. The present study sought to determine the relationship between Facebook maintenance and general maintenance efforts in college student romantic relationships, as well as the impacts of such behaviors on the relationship. Survey data…

  10. Direct Observation of Formation Behavior of Metal Emulsion in Sn/Salt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hironori; Liu, Jiang; Kim, Sun-Joong; Gao, Xu; Ueda, Shigeru; Maruoka, Nobuhiro; Ono, Shinpei; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2016-08-01

    Using two systems with different interfacial tensions, the behavior of metal emulsions during bottom blowing was observed directly with a high-speed camera. The interfacial tension between molten salt (KCl-LiCl-NaCl) and molten Sn was measured by a pendant drop method, and it decreased to about 100 mN/m when the Te content in Sn increased from 0 to 0.5 pct. In both systems, two types of metal emulsion behaviors were observed. In Mode A, fine metal droplets were formed after the metal film ruptured at the interface. In Mode B, the formation of coarse droplets was observed after the disintegration of the column generated by the rising bubble, and the number of droplets increased with the gas flow rate compared to that in Mode A. The generating frequency of each mode revealed that Mode B became dominant with increasing gas flow rate. In the pure Sn/salt system, the numbers of droplets of Mode B showed a local maximum at high gas flow rates, but the numbers of droplets in Sn-0.5 pctTe/salt increased continuously even in the same flow range. Regarding the size distribution, the percentage of coarse metal droplets in the Sn-0.5 pctTe alloy/salt was larger than that in the pure Sn/salt. Furthermore, the effect of interfacial tension on the variation in surface area and volume of the droplets showed a similar tendency for the column height. Therefore, a decrement of the interfacial tension led to an increment of the column height when Mode B occurred and finally resulted in a higher interfacial area.

  11. Goal-Directed Behavior and Instrumental Devaluation: A Neural System-Level Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Mannella, Francesco; Mirolli, Marco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Devaluation is the key experimental paradigm used to demonstrate the presence of instrumental behaviors guided by goals in mammals. We propose a neural system-level computational model to address the question of which brain mechanisms allow the current value of rewards to control instrumental actions. The model pivots on and shows the computational soundness of the hypothesis for which the internal representation of instrumental manipulanda (e.g., levers) activate the representation of rewards (or “action-outcomes”, e.g., foods) while attributing to them a value which depends on the current internal state of the animal (e.g., satiation for some but not all foods). The model also proposes an initial hypothesis of the integrated system of key brain components supporting this process and allowing the recalled outcomes to bias action selection: (a) the sub-system formed by the basolateral amygdala and insular cortex acquiring the manipulanda-outcomes associations and attributing the current value to the outcomes; (b) three basal ganglia-cortical loops selecting respectively goals, associative sensory representations, and actions; (c) the cortico-cortical and striato-nigro-striatal neural pathways supporting the selection, and selection learning, of actions based on habits and goals. The model reproduces and explains the results of several devaluation experiments carried out with control rats and rats with pre- and post-training lesions of the basolateral amygdala, the nucleus accumbens core, the prelimbic cortex, and the dorso-medial striatum. The results support the soundness of the hypotheses of the model and show its capacity to integrate, at the system-level, the operations of the key brain structures underlying devaluation. Based on its hypotheses and predictions, the model also represents an operational framework to support the design and analysis of new experiments on the motivational aspects of goal-directed behavior. PMID:27803652

  12. Goal-Directed Behavior and Instrumental Devaluation: A Neural System-Level Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Mannella, Francesco; Mirolli, Marco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Devaluation is the key experimental paradigm used to demonstrate the presence of instrumental behaviors guided by goals in mammals. We propose a neural system-level computational model to address the question of which brain mechanisms allow the current value of rewards to control instrumental actions. The model pivots on and shows the computational soundness of the hypothesis for which the internal representation of instrumental manipulanda (e.g., levers) activate the representation of rewards (or "action-outcomes", e.g., foods) while attributing to them a value which depends on the current internal state of the animal (e.g., satiation for some but not all foods). The model also proposes an initial hypothesis of the integrated system of key brain components supporting this process and allowing the recalled outcomes to bias action selection: (a) the sub-system formed by the basolateral amygdala and insular cortex acquiring the manipulanda-outcomes associations and attributing the current value to the outcomes; (b) three basal ganglia-cortical loops selecting respectively goals, associative sensory representations, and actions; (c) the cortico-cortical and striato-nigro-striatal neural pathways supporting the selection, and selection learning, of actions based on habits and goals. The model reproduces and explains the results of several devaluation experiments carried out with control rats and rats with pre- and post-training lesions of the basolateral amygdala, the nucleus accumbens core, the prelimbic cortex, and the dorso-medial striatum. The results support the soundness of the hypotheses of the model and show its capacity to integrate, at the system-level, the operations of the key brain structures underlying devaluation. Based on its hypotheses and predictions, the model also represents an operational framework to support the design and analysis of new experiments on the motivational aspects of goal-directed behavior.

  13. Predicting Use of Ineffective Vegetable Parenting Practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Beltran, Alicia; Chen, Tzu-An; Thompson, Debbe; O’Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Diep, Cassandra; Baranowski, Janice C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Increasing a parent’s ability to influence a child’s vegetable intake may require reducing the parent’s use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. This study assessed the psychosocial influences on ineffective vegetable parenting practices. Design A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted to model use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices using validated scales from a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices. Setting The dependent variable was a composite ineffective vegetable parenting practices index. The independent variables included validated subscales of intention, habit, perceived barriers, desire, competence, autonomy, relatedness, attitudes, norms, perceived behavioral control, and anticipated emotions. Models were analyzed using block regression with backward deletion. Participants Parents of 307 preschool (3–5 yo) children. Results Variables significantly positively related to ineffective vegetable parenting practices in order of relationship strength included habit of controlling vegetable practices (standardized β=0.349, p<0.0001) and desire (standardized β=0.117, p=0.025). Variables significantly negatively related to ineffective vegetable parenting practices included perceived behavioral control of negative parenting practices (standardized β= −0.215, p<0.000), the habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection (standardized β= −0.142, p=0.008), anticipated negative parent emotional response to child vegetable refusal (standardized β= −0.133, p=0.009), autonomy (standardized β= −0.118, p=0.014), attitude about negative effects of vegetables (standardized β= −0.118, p=0.015), and descriptive norms (standardized β= −0.103, p=0.032). The model accounted for 40.5% of the variance in use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. Conclusions This was the first report of psychometrically tested scales to predict use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. Innovative

  14. Correspondence between stimulus encoding- and maintenance-related neural processes underlies successful working memory.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jessica R; Sreenivasan, Kartik K; D'Esposito, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The ability to actively maintain information in working memory (WM) is vital for goal-directed behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. We hypothesized that successful WM relies upon a correspondence between the neural processes associated with stimulus encoding and the neural processes associated with maintenance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified regional activity and inter-regional connectivity during stimulus encoding and the maintenance of those stimuli when they were no longer present. We compared correspondence in these neural processes across encoding and maintenance epochs with WM performance. Critically, greater correspondence between encoding and maintenance in 1) regional activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and 2) connectivity between lateral PFC and extrastriate cortex was associated with increased performance. These findings suggest that the conservation of neural processes across encoding and maintenance supports the integrity of representations in WM.

  15. The oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast Europe: direct dating, culture and behavior.

    PubMed

    Prat, Sandrine; Péan, Stéphane C; Crépin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothée G; Puaud, Simon J; Valladas, Hélène; Lázničková-Galetová, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition) from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine). The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/-220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements), they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors.

  16. The Oldest Anatomically Modern Humans from Far Southeast Europe: Direct Dating, Culture and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Prat, Sandrine; Péan, Stéphane C.; Crépin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Puaud, Simon J.; Valladas, Hélène; Lázničková-Galetová, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. Methodology/Principal Finding Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition) from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine). The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/−220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements), they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. Conclusion/Significance These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors. PMID:21698105

  17. Effect of ion beam irradiation and rubbing on the directional behavior and alignment mechanism of liquid crystals on polyimide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang-Min; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Kim, Young-Hwan; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ion beam (IB) irradiation and rubbing on the directional behavior and alignment mechanism of liquid crystals (LCs) on polyimide (PI) surfaces. We found that the LC direction follows the IB irradiation alignment direction on the PI surface regardless of whether the irradiation occurs before or after rubbing. We assumed that the LC direction depends strongly on the C-O bonds created from C=O bonds on the PI surface broken by IB irradiation and conducted an investigation of the chemical bonding state of the PI surface by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  18. Measuring Learning Styles with Questionnaires versus Direct Observation of Preferential Choice Behavior in Authentic Learning Situations: The Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale (VV-BOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutner, Detlev; Plass, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of the VV-BOS (Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale), a computer-based instrument for direct observation of students' preferences for visual or verbal learning material. Results of a study with second-language learners indicated a high degree of reliability as an alternative to conventional questionnaires.…

  19. Contingency analysis of caregiver behavior: Implications for parent training and future directions.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    Parent training is often a required component of effective treatment for a variety of common childhood problems. Although behavior analysts have developed several effective parent-training technologies, we know little about the contingencies that affect parent behavior. Child behavior is one source of control for parent behavior that likely contributes to the development of childhood problems and outcomes of parent training. We reviewed the evidence supporting child behavior as controlling antecedents and consequences for parent behavior. The implications for parent training are discussed, and recommendations for future research are suggested.

  20. Factors affecting osteoarthritis patients' self-reported goal-directed drug information-seeking behaviors after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising from physicians and the internet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifei; Farris, Karen B; Doucette, William R

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate appraisal of means (ie, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and affect) in predicting patients' goal-directed behaviors of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA)-prompted drug-information search from physicians and the internet. One thousand patients were randomly selected from a nationwide sample frame of 3000 osteoarthritis patients. A self-administered survey assessed exposure to DTCA, drug-information search as goal, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain. After 6 weeks, another survey measured the behavior of drug-information search for respondents to the first survey. Study subjects were those who were exposed to DTCA in the previous month, and who set drug-information search as their goal. For each information source, a multiple regression analysis was conducted in which drug-information search was the dependent variable, and self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain were the independent variables. Among 454 patients who were exposed to DTCA, 174 patients set drug-information search as their goal and were the study subjects. The regression for physicians was not statistically significant. The regression for the internet was significant, accounting for 15% of behavior variance. Self-efficacy was a strong predictor of goal-directed drug-information search from the internet. Appraisal of means was useful to predict the goal-directed behavior of DTCA-prompted drug-information search from the internet. For patients who set drug-information search as a goal, actions to promote drug-information search from the internet need to focus on self-efficacy.

  1. Cell-Type-Specific Activity in Prefrontal Cortex during Goal-Directed Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lucas; Dan, Yang

    2015-07-15

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in controlling goal-directed behavior. Although a variety of task-related signals have been observed in the PFC, whether they are differentially encoded by various cell types remains unclear. Here we performed cellular-resolution microendoscopic Ca(2+) imaging from genetically defined cell types in the dorsomedial PFC of mice performing a PFC-dependent sensory discrimination task. We found that inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype were similar to each other, but different subtypes preferentially signaled different task-related events: somatostatin-positive neurons primarily signaled motor action (licking), vasoactive intestinal peptide-positive neurons responded strongly to action outcomes, whereas parvalbumin-positive neurons were less selective, responding to sensory cues, motor action, and trial outcomes. Compared to each interneuron subtype, pyramidal neurons showed much greater functional heterogeneity, and their responses varied across cortical layers. Such cell-type and laminar differences in neuronal functional properties may be crucial for local computation within the PFC microcircuit.

  2. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict

    PubMed Central

    Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. PMID:25925271

  3. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict.

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation in Parkinson's disease: Neurophysiological mechanisms and behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Broeder, Sanne; Nackaerts, Evelien; Heremans, Elke; Vervoort, Griet; Meesen, Raf; Verheyden, Geert; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to complement rehabilitation effects in the elderly and in patients with neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). TDCS can modulate cortical excitability and enhance neurophysiological mechanisms that compensate for impaired learning in PD. The objective of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the effects of tDCS on neurophysiological and behavioral outcome measures in PD patients, both as a stand-alone and as an adjunctive therapy. We systematically reviewed the literature published throughout the last 10 years. Ten studies were included, most of which were sham controlled. Results confirmed that tDCS applied to the motor cortex had significant results on motor function and to a lesser extent on cognitive tests. However, the physiological mechanism underlying the long-term effects of tDCS on cortical excitability in the PD brain are still unclear and need to be clarified in order to apply this technique optimally to a wider population in the different disease stages and with different medication profiles.

  5. The Feeling of Action Tendencies: On the Emotional Regulation of Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion theory, over the past century and beyond, has tended to regard feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic systems perspective has gained strength in recent years whereby the feeling–action tendency relationship is viewed as a composite whole. On the basis of our review of somatic–visceral theories of feelings, we argue that feelings are grounded upon neural-dynamic representations (elevated and stable activation patterns) of action tendency. Such representations amount to predictions updated by cognitive and bodily feedback. Specifically, we view emotional feelings as minimalist predictions of the action tendency (what the agent is physiologically and cognitively primed to do) in a given situation. The essence of this point is captured by our exposition of action tendency prediction–feedback loops which we consider, above all, in the context of emotion regulation, and in particular, of emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior. The perspective outlined may be of use to emotion theorists, computational modelers, and roboticists. PMID:22207854

  6. Behavioral pattern of a monopolar passive direct methanol fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Bae, Byungchan; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Cho, EunAe; Ha, Heung Yong

    A passive, air-breathing, monopolar, liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack consisting of six unit cells with no external pump, fan or auxiliary devices to feed the reactants has been designed and fabricated for its possible employment as a portable power source. The configurations of the stack of monopolar passive feed DMFCs are different from those of bipolar active feed DMFCs and therefore its operational characteristics completely vary from the active ones. Our present investigation primarily focuses on understanding the unique behavioral patterns of monopolar stack under the influence of certain operating conditions, such as temperature, methanol concentration and reactants feeding methods. With passive reactants supply, the temperature of the stack and open circuit voltage (OCV) undergo changes over time due to a decrease in concentration of methanol in the reservoir as the reaction proceeds. Variations in performance and temperature of the stack are mainly influenced by the concentration of methanol. Continuous operation of the passive stack is influenced by the supply of methanol rather than air supply or water accumulation at the cathode. The monopolar stack made up of six unit cells exhibits a total power of 1000 mW (37 mW cm -2) with 4 M methanol under ambient conditions.

  7. Shaping end-of-life care: behavioral economics and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Scott D

    2012-08-01

    A central but unmet challenge in health care delivery is to increase the probability that the care patients receive near the end of their life is consistent with their goals, values, and preferences. Providing patient-centered care at the end of life is challenging. In their final days, nearly a third of older Americans need critical decisions made regarding the use or nonuse of life-sustaining interventions, but the patients themselves cannot participate in those decisions. Although this observation highlights the promise of advance directives (ADs), to date ADs have not delivered on this promise. This article provides a new framework, based in behavioral economic theory, that may explain the current failures of ADs and point to potential solutions. Specifically, it discusses how five well-described cognitive biases that pervade human decision making (affective forecasting errors, optimism bias, present-biased preferences, focusing effects, and default options) may account for deficiencies in the uptake, efficacy, and patient-centeredness of ADs. The text suggests potential solutions in need of evaluation, discusses metrics for assessing these interventions' benefits, and considers alternatives to the approaches advocated.

  8. Deep reduction behavior of iron oxide and its effect on direct CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Changqing; Liu, Xinglei; Qin, Wu; Lu, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Shi, Simo; Yang, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of metal oxide oxygen carrier has been attractive for direct CO oxidation and CO2 separation. To investigate the reduction behaviors of iron oxide prepared by supporting Fe2O3 on γ-Al2O3 and its effect on CO oxidation, fluidized-bed combustion experiments, thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) experiments, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out. Gas yield (γCO2) increases significantly with the increase of temperature from 693 K to 1203 K, while carbon deposition decreases with the increase of temperature from 743 K to 1203 K, where temperature is a very important factor for CO oxidation by iron oxide. Further, it were quantitatively detected that the interaction between CO and Fe2O3, breakage of O-Fe bonds and formation of new C-O bonds, and effect of reduction degree were quantitatively detected. Based on adsorptions under different temperatures and reducing processes from Fe3+ into Fe2+, Fe+ and then into Fe, it was found that Fe2+ → Fe+ was the reaction-controlling step and the high oxidation state of iron is active for CO oxidation, where efficient partial reduction of Fe2O3 into FeO rather than complete reduction into iron may be more energy-saving for CO oxidation.

  9. MicroRNA-198 inhibited tumorous behaviors of human osteosarcoma through directly targeting ROCK1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shilian Zhao, Yuehua; Wang, Lijie

    2016-04-08

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive primary sarcoma of bone and occurs mainly in adolescents and young adults. The prognosis of OS remains poor, and most of them will die due to local relapse or metastases. The discovery of microRNAs provides a new possibility for the early diagnosis and treatment of OS. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the expression and functions of microRNA-198 (miR-198) in osteosarcoma. The expression levels of miR-198 were determined by qRT-PCR in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Cell proliferation assays, migration and invasion assays were adopted to investigate the effects of miR-198 on tumorous behaviors of osteosarcoma cells. The results showed that miR-198 expression levels were lower in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. In addition, low miR-198 expression levels were correlated with TNM stage and distant metastasis. After miR-198 mimics transfection, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were significantly suppressed in the osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, ROCK1 was identified as a novel direct target of miR-198 in osteosarcoma. These findings suggested that miR-198 may act not only as a novel prognostic marker, but also as a potential target for molecular therapy of osteosarcoma.

  10. Family Violence and Children’s Behavior Problems: Independent Contributions of Intimate Partner and Child-Directed Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 581 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities, the current study sought to investigate the longitudinal associations among father-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and child-directed physical aggression perpetrated by the mother. The unique contributions of each of these types of family violence on children’s behavioral problems at school entry were also examined. Results confirm bidirectional associations between father-perpetrated IPV and maternal physical aggression directed toward the child, and indicate that both types of physical aggression contribute to child behavior problems at school entry. PMID:25431522

  11. Family Violence and Children's Behavior Problems: Independent Contributions of Intimate Partner and Child-Directed Physical Aggression.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Barnett, Melissa A; Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2014-10-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 581 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities, the current study sought to investigate the longitudinal associations among father-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and child-directed physical aggression perpetrated by the mother. The unique contributions of each of these types of family violence on children's behavioral problems at school entry were also examined. Results confirm bidirectional associations between father-perpetrated IPV and maternal physical aggression directed toward the child, and indicate that both types of physical aggression contribute to child behavior problems at school entry.

  12. Small-Group Reflections: Parallels Between Teacher Discourse and Student Behavior in Peer-Directed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Ing, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    Prior research on small-group collaboration identifies several behaviors that significantly predict student learning, such as exchanging explanations and applying help received. Previous reports focus on student behavior to understand why many students do not engage in behaviors predictive of learning, leaving unexplored how teachers may influence…

  13. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  14. Design and implementation of a factorial randomized controlled trial of methadone maintenance therapy and an evidence-based behavioral intervention for incarcerated people living with HIV and opioid dependence in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bazazi, Alexander R; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wegman, Martin P; Culbert, Gabriel J; Pillai, Veena; Shrestha, Roman; Al-Darraji, Haider; Copenhaver, Michael M; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-08-01

    Incarcerated people living with HIV and opioid dependence face enormous challenges to accessing evidence-based treatment during incarceration and after release into the community, placing them at risk of poor HIV treatment outcomes, relapse to opioid use and accompanying HIV transmission risk behaviors. Here we describe in detail the design and implementation of Project Harapan, a prospective clinical trial conducted among people living with HIV and opioid dependence who transitioned from prison to the community in Malaysia from 2010 to 2014. This trial involved 2 interventions: within-prison initiation of methadone maintenance therapy and an evidence-based behavioral intervention adapted to the Malaysian context (the Holistic Health Recovery Program for Malaysia, HHRP-M). Individuals were recruited and received the interventions while incarcerated and were followed for 12months after release to assess post-release HIV transmission risk behaviors and a range of other health-related outcomes. Project Harapan was designed as a fully randomized 2×2 factorial trial where individuals would be allocated in equal proportions to methadone maintenance therapy and HHRP-M, methadone maintenance therapy alone, HHRP-M alone, or control. Partway through study implementation, allocation to methadone maintenance therapy was changed from randomization to participant choice; randomization to HHRP-M continued throughout. We describe the justification for this study; the development and implementation of these interventions; changes to the protocol; and screening, enrollment, treatment receipt, and retention of study participants. Logistical, ethical, and analytic issues associated with the implementation of this study are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Weight-Related Behaviors in Inner-City Adolescents: A Model of Direct and Indirect Effects

    PubMed Central

    Isasi, Carmen R.; Wills, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examined the association of two distinct self-regulation constructs, effortful control and dysregulation, with weight-related behaviors in adolescents and tested whether these effects were mediated by self-efficacy variables. Methods A school-based survey was conducted with 1771 adolescents from 11 public schools in the Bronx, New York. Self-regulation was assessed by multiple indicators and defined as two latent constructs. Dependent variables included fruit/vegetable intake, intake of snack/junk food, frequency of physical activity, and time spent in sedentary behaviors. Structural equation modeling examined the relation of effortful control and dysregulation to lifestyle behaviors, with self-efficacy variables as possible mediators. Results Study results showed that effortful control had a positive indirect effect on fruit and vegetable intake, mediated by self-efficacy, as well as a direct effect. Effortful control also had a positive indirect effect on physical activity, mediated by self-efficacy. Dysregulation had direct effects on intake of junk food/snacks and time spent in sedentary behaviors. Conclusions These findings indicate that self-regulation characteristics are related to diet and physical activity and that some of these effects are mediated by self-efficacy. Different effects were noted for the two domains of self-regulation. Prevention researchers should consider including self-regulation processes in programs to improve health behaviors in adolescents. PMID:23243551

  16. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Weight-Related Behaviors in Inner-City Adolescents: A Model of Direct and Indirect Effects.

    PubMed

    Isasi, Carmen R; Wills, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of two distinct self-regulation constructs, effortful control and dysregulation, with weight-related behaviors in adolescents and tested whether these effects were mediated by self-efficacy variables. METHODS: A school-based survey was conducted with 1771 adolescents from 11 public schools in the Bronx, New York. Self-regulation was assessed by multiple indicators and defined as two latent constructs. Dependent variables included fruit/vegetable intake, intake of snack/junk food, frequency of physical activity, and time spent in sedentary behaviors. Structural equation modeling examined the relation of effortful control and dysregulation to lifestyle behaviors, with self-efficacy variables as possible mediators. RESULTS: Study results showed that effortful control had a positive indirect effect on fruit and vegetable intake, mediated by self-efficacy, as well as a direct effect. Effortful control also had a positive indirect effect on physical activity, mediated by self-efficacy. Dysregulation had direct effects on intake of junk food/snacks and time spent in sedentary behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that self-regulation characteristics are related to diet and physical activity and that some of these effects are mediated by self-efficacy. Different effects were noted for the two domains of self-regulation. Prevention researchers should consider including self-regulation processes in programs to improve health behaviors in adolescents.

  17. Improving maintenance of lost weight following a commercial liquid meal replacement program: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ames, Gretchen E; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Thomas, Colleen S; Crook, Julia E; Lynch, Scott A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Clinic-based liquid meal replacement (800kcals/day) programs produce substantial weight loss. Nevertheless, long-term maintenance remains a challenge. A limitation of maintenance programs is that they continue to promote large behavior changes that are initially required to induce weight loss which may be unsustainable long-term. The study aims were to conduct a preliminary assessment of the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a small changes maintenance intervention (SCM) for 30 patients who completed liquid meal replacement program (LMR). The 20-session SCM delivered over 52 weeks offered no preset goals for maintenance behaviors and all changes in behavior were self-selected. Participants had a median BMI of 40.9 kg/m(2) and weight of 111 kg at the start of LMR. At LMR completion, they lost 18% (21 kg) of body weight. The SCM was completed by 22 patients (73%); 19 completers (86%) attended ≥ 17 of 20 sessions with a median satisfaction rating of 9 (on a scale of 1 to 9). Completers were asked to record self-selected maintenance behaviors daily (median 351 days recorded). The most commonly reported daily behaviors were self-weighing, use of meal replacements and step counting. Median percent regain at week 52 was 14% (2.8 kg) of lost weight (range, -42 to 74%), significantly less than a median of 56% (11 kg) percent regain of lost weight (range, -78 to 110%) in a demographically similar historical control group with no maintenance intervention after LMR completion (P<0.001). Thus, SCM holds promise for improving weight maintenance. Future research should compare SCM to standard maintenance programs that promote large program-directed changes.

  18. Understanding Messaging Preferences to Inform Development of Mobile Goal-Directed Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Markle, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    one type of message over another. Global preferences were indicated for messages that contained accurate spelling and grammar, as well as messages that emphasize the positive over the negative. Research implications and a guide for developing short messages for goal-directed behaviors are presented in this paper. PMID:24500775

  19. Understanding messaging preferences to inform development of mobile goal-directed behavioral interventions.

    PubMed

    Muench, Frederick; van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Markle, Kendra

    2014-02-05

    indicated for messages that contained accurate spelling and grammar, as well as messages that emphasize the positive over the negative. Research implications and a guide for developing short messages for goal-directed behaviors are presented in this paper.

  20. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Xin; Li, Jin-Hua; Xia, Dong-Po; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Dao

    2014-05-01

    Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012-May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals.

  1. Effects of a psycho-educational intervention on direct care workers' communicative behaviors with residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ana; Marques, Alda; Sousa, Liliana; Nolan, Mike; Figueiredo, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a person-centered care-based psycho-educational intervention on direct care workers' communicative behaviors with people with dementia living in aged-care facilities. An experimental study with a pretest-posttest control-group design was conducted in four aged-care facilities. Two experimental facilities received an 8-week psycho-educational intervention aiming to develop workers' knowledge about dementia, person-centered care competences, and tools for stress management. Control facilities received education only, with no support to deal with stress. In total, 332 morning care sessions, involving 56 direct care workers (female, mean age 44.72 ± 9.02 years), were video-recorded before and 2 weeks after the intervention. The frequency and duration of a list of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors were analyzed. Within the experimental group there was a positive change from pre- to posttest on the frequency of all workers' communicative behaviors. Significant treatment effects in favor of the experimental group were obtained for the frequency of inform (p < .01, η(2)partial = 0.09) and laugh (p < .01, η(2)partial = 0.18). Differences between groups emerged mainly in nonverbal communicative behaviors. The findings suggest that a person-centered care-based psycho-educational intervention can positively affect direct care workers' communicative behaviors with residents with dementia. Further research is required to determine the extent of the benefits of this approach.

  2. The relationship of microstructure to fracture and corrosion behavior of a directionally solidified superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, Matthew D.

    GTD-111 DS is a directionally solidified superalloy currently used in turbine engines. To accurately predict the life of engine components it is essential to examine and characterize the microstructural evolution of the material and its effects on material properties. The as-cast microstructure of GTD-111 is highly inhomogeneous as a result of coring. The current post-casting heat treatments do not effectively eliminate the inhomogeneity. This inhomogeneity affects properties including tensile strength, fracture toughness, fracture path, and corrosion behavior, primarily in terms of the number of grains per specimen. The goal of this work was to link microstructural features to these properties. Quantitative fractography was used to determine that the path of cracks during failure of tensile specimens is influenced by the presence of carbides, which are located in the interdendritic regions of the material as dictated by segregation. The solvus temperature of the precipitate phase, Ni3(Al, Ti), was determined to be 1200°C using traditional metallography, differential thermal analysis, and dilatometry. A heat-treatment was designed to homogenize the microstructure for tensile testing that isolates the carbide by dissolving all of the "eutectic" Ni3(Al, Ti) precipitate phase, which is also found in the interdendritic areas. High temperature oxidation/sulfidation tests were conducted to investigate the corrosion processes involved when GTD-111 DS is utilized in steam and gas combustion turbine engines. The kinetics of corrosion in both oxidizing and sulfidizing atmospheres were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. Additionally, metallography of these samples after TGA revealed a correlation between the presence of grain boundaries and sulfur attack, which led to catastrophic failure of the material under stress-free conditions in a sulfur bearing environment. In summary, this work correlates the inhomogeneous microstructure of GTD-111 DS to tensile fracture

  3. Room-temperature deformation behavior of directionally solidified multiphase Ni-Fe-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A.; Gibala, R.

    1997-03-01

    Directionally solidified (DS) β+(γ+γ') Ni-Fe-Al alloys have been used to investigate the effect of a ductile second phase on the room-temperature mechanical behavior of a brittle <001>-oriented β (B2) phase. The ductile phase in the composite consisted of a fine distribution of ordered γ' precipitates in a γ (fcc) matrix. Three microstructures were studied: 100 pct lamellar/rod, lamellar+proeutectic β, and discontinuous γ. The β matrix in the latter two microstructures contained fine-scale bcc precipitates formed due to spinodal decomposition. Room-temperature tensile ductilities as high as 12 pct and fracture toughness (K Q) of 30.4 MPa sqrt m were observed in the 100 pct lamellar/rod microstructure. Observations of slip traces and dislocation substructures indicated that a substantial portion of the ductility was a result of slip transfer from the ductile phase to the brittle matrix. This slip transfer was facilitated by the Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) orientation relationship between the two phases and the strong interphase interface which showed no decohesion during deformation. In microstructures which show higher values of tensile ductility and fracture toughness, <100> slip was seen in the β phase, whereas <111> slip was seen in the β phase in the microstructure which showed limited ductility. The high ductility and toughness are explained in terms of increased mobile dislocation density afforded by interface constraint. The effect of extrinsic toughening mechanisms on enhancing the ductility or toughness is secondary to that of slip transfer.

  4. The Relationship between Parent Report of Adaptive Behavior and Direct Assessment of Reading Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the Wide…

  5. Differential effects of amygdala, orbital prefrontal cortex, and prelimbic cortex lesions on goal-directed behavior in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Sarah E V; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2013-02-20

    We assessed the involvement of the orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo), the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (PL), and the amygdala in goal-directed behavior. Rhesus monkeys were trained on a task in which two different instrumental responses were linked to two different outcomes. One response, called "tap," required the monkeys to repeatedly touch a colored square on a video monitor to produce one kind of food reward. The other response, called "hold," required persistent contact of an identical stimulus, and it produced a different kind of food reward. After training, we assessed the effects of sensory-specific reinforcer devaluation as a way to probe each monkey's use of goal-directed behavior. In this procedure, monkeys were allowed to consume one of the two foods to satiety and were then tested for tap/hold preference under extinction. Unoperated control monkeys showed a reduction in the response associated with obtaining the devalued food, called the "devaluation effect," a hallmark of goal-directed behavior. Monkeys with bilateral lesions of PFo or the amygdala exhibited significantly reduced devaluation effects. Results from monkeys with PL lesions were equivocal. We conclude that both PFo and the amygdala play a significant role in goal-directed behavior in monkeys. Notably, the findings for PFo challenge the idea that orbital and medial prefrontal regions are exclusively dedicated to object- and action-based processes, respectively.

  6. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Child-Directed Speech of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Linda R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Baranek, Grace T.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Dalton, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Young boys with autism were compared to typically developing boys on responses to nonsocial and child-directed speech (CDS) stimuli. Behavioral (looking) and physiological (heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) measures were collected. Boys with autism looked equally as much as chronological age-matched peers at nonsocial stimuli, but less…

  7. Adolescents' Internalizing and Aggressive Behaviors and Perceptions of Parents' Psychological Control: A Panel Study Examining Direction of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Arne K.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This panel study investigated the directionality of relations between adolescents' perceptions of their parents' psychological control and adolescents' self-reported internalizing and aggressive (physical and relational) behaviors. Data were collected from a random, community sample of 530 adolescents ages 12-19 years old at time 1, and again 2…

  8. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Child-Directed Speech as Predictors of Communication Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Roberts, Jane E.; David, Fabian J.; Perryman, Twyla Y.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the extent to which behavioral and physiological responses during child-directed speech (CDS) correlate concurrently and predictively with communication skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Twenty-two boys with ASD (initial mean age: 35 months) participated in a longitudinal study. At entry,…

  9. Differential effects of amygdala, orbital prefrontal cortex and prelimbic cortex lesions on goal-directed behavior in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Sarah E. V.; Murray, Elisabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the involvement of the orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo), the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (PL), and the amygdala in goal-directed behavior. Rhesus monkeys were trained on a task in which two different instrumental responses were linked to two different outcomes. One response, called ‘Tap’, required the monkeys to repeatedly touch a colored square on a video monitor, to produce one kind of food reward. The other response, called ‘Hold’, required persistent contact of an identical stimulus, and it produced a different kind of food reward. Following training, we assessed the effects of satiety-specific reinforcer devaluation as a way to probe each monkey’s use of goal-directed behavior. In this procedure, monkeys were allowed to consume one of the two foods to satiety, and were then tested for Tap/Hold preference under extinction. Unoperated control monkeys showed a reduction in the response associated with obtaining the devalued food, called the devaluation effect, a hallmark of goal-directed behavior. Monkeys with bilateral lesions of PFo or the amygdala exhibited significantly reduced devaluation effects. Results from monkeys with PL lesions were equivocal. We conclude that both PFo and the amygdala play a significant role in goal-directed behavior in monkeys. Notably, the findings for PFo challenge the idea that orbital and medial prefrontal regions are exclusively dedicated to object- and action-based processes, respectively. PMID:23426666

  10. The Relationship between Parent Report of Adaptive Behavior and Direct Assessment of Reading Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the Wide…

  11. Curriculum-Based Measurement Performance Indicators: A Tool for Undergraduate Calculus Students to Inform and Direct Their Learning Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Linda W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which providing students with individualized performance feedback informed and directed their learning behavior. Individualized performance feedback was delivered to students using curriculum-based measurement progress indicators, either as a visual representation of ongoing performance in the form of a…

  12. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Child-Directed Speech of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Linda R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Baranek, Grace T.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Dalton, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Young boys with autism were compared to typically developing boys on responses to nonsocial and child-directed speech (CDS) stimuli. Behavioral (looking) and physiological (heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) measures were collected. Boys with autism looked equally as much as chronological age-matched peers at nonsocial stimuli, but less…

  13. Curriculum-Based Measurement Performance Indicators: A Tool for Undergraduate Calculus Students to Inform and Direct Their Learning Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Linda W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which providing students with individualized performance feedback informed and directed their learning behavior. Individualized performance feedback was delivered to students using curriculum-based measurement progress indicators, either as a visual representation of ongoing performance in the form of a…

  14. Comparing the unmatched count technique and direct self-report for sensitive health-risk behaviors in HIV+ adults

    PubMed Central

    Arentoft, Alyssa; Van Dyk, Kathleen; Thames, April D.; Sayegh, Philip; Thaler, Nicholas; Schonfeld, Daniel; LaBrie, Joseph; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often rely on self-report measures to assess sensitive health-risk behaviors in HIV+ individuals, yet the accuracy of self-report has been questioned, particularly when inquiring about behaviors that may be embarrassing, risky, and/or taboo. We compared an anonymous reporting method—the Unmatched Count Technique (UCT)—to direct self-report in order to assess reporting differences for several health-risk behaviors related to medication adherence and sexual risk. Contrary to hypotheses, the UCT only produced a significantly higher estimated base rate for one sensitive behavior: reporting medication adherence to one's physician, which may have been contextually-primed by our study design. Our results suggest that anonymous reporting methods may not increase disclosure compared to direct self-report when assessing several health-risk behaviors in HIV+ research volunteers. However, our results also suggest that contextual factors should be considered and investigated further, as they may influence perception of sensitive behavior. PMID:26856321

  15. Motivating Goal-Directed Behavior Through Introspective Self-Talk: The Role of the Interrogative Form of Simple Future Tense

    PubMed Central

    Senay, Ibrahim; Albarracín, Dolores; Noguchi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Although essential for psychology, introspective self-talk has rarely been studied with respect to its effects on behavior. Nevertheless, the interrogative compared with the declarative form of introspective talk may elicit more intrinsically motivated reasons for action, resulting in goal-directed behavior. In Experiment 1, participants were more likely to solve anagrams if they prepared for the task by asking themselves whether they would work on anagrams as opposed to declaring that they would. In the next three experiments, merely writing Will I as opposed to I will as part of an ostensibly unrelated handwriting task produced better anagram-solving performance and stronger intentions to exercise, which suggests that priming the interrogative structure of self-talk is enough to motivate goal-directed behavior. This effect was found to be mediated by the intrinsic motivation for action and moderated by the salience of the word order of the primes. PMID:20424090

  16. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  17. Motivating goal-directed behavior through introspective self-talk: the role of the interrogative form of simple future tense.

    PubMed

    Senay, Ibrahim; Albarracín, Dolores; Noguchi, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Although essential for psychology, introspective self-talk has rarely been studied with respect to its effects on behavior. Nevertheless, the interrogative compared with the declarative form of introspective talk may elicit more intrinsically motivated reasons for action, resulting in goal-directed behavior. In Experiment 1, participants were more likely to solve anagrams if they prepared for the task by asking themselves whether they would work on anagrams as opposed to declaring that they would. In the next three experiments, merely writing Will I as opposed to I will as part of an ostensibly unrelated handwriting task produced better anagram-solving performance and stronger intentions to exercise, which suggests that priming the interrogative structure of self-talk is enough to motivate goal-directed behavior. This effect was found to be mediated by the intrinsic motivation for action and moderated by the salience of the word order of the primes.

  18. A Bidirectional Relationship between Executive Function and Health Behavior: Evidence, Implications, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Allan, Julia L; McMinn, David; Daly, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles and other health-enhancing behaviors play an important role in preserving executive function into old age. Conversely, emerging research suggests that executive functions facilitate participation in a broad range of healthy behaviors including physical activity and reduced fatty food, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. They do this by supporting the volition, planning, performance monitoring, and inhibition necessary to enact intentions and override urges to engage in health damaging behavior. Here, we focus firstly on evidence suggesting that health-enhancing behaviors can induce improvements in executive function. We then switch our focus to findings linking executive function to the consistent performance of health-promoting behaviors and the avoidance of health risk behaviors. We suggest that executive function, health behavior, and disease processes are interdependent. In particular, we argue that a positive feedback loop may exist whereby health behavior-induced changes in executive function foster subsequent health-enhancing behaviors, which in turn help sustain efficient executive functions and good health. We conclude by outlining the implications of this reciprocal relationship for intervention strategies, the design of research studies, and the study of healthy aging.

  19. A Bidirectional Relationship between Executive Function and Health Behavior: Evidence, Implications, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Julia L.; McMinn, David; Daly, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles and other health-enhancing behaviors play an important role in preserving executive function into old age. Conversely, emerging research suggests that executive functions facilitate participation in a broad range of healthy behaviors including physical activity and reduced fatty food, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. They do this by supporting the volition, planning, performance monitoring, and inhibition necessary to enact intentions and override urges to engage in health damaging behavior. Here, we focus firstly on evidence suggesting that health-enhancing behaviors can induce improvements in executive function. We then switch our focus to findings linking executive function to the consistent performance of health-promoting behaviors and the avoidance of health risk behaviors. We suggest that executive function, health behavior, and disease processes are interdependent. In particular, we argue that a positive feedback loop may exist whereby health behavior-induced changes in executive function foster subsequent health-enhancing behaviors, which in turn help sustain efficient executive functions and good health. We conclude by outlining the implications of this reciprocal relationship for intervention strategies, the design of research studies, and the study of healthy aging. PMID:27601977

  20. The development of behavioral and endocrine abnormalities in rats after repeated exposure to direct and indirect stress

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Willie Mark Uren; de Klerk Uys, Joachim; van Vuuren, Petra; Stein, Daniel Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of direct and indirect stress on the behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of rats. Animals were placed in a two compartment box. In one compartment the direct stressed rat was subjected to electric foot shocks randomly applied for 10 minutes (0.5 mA of 1 s duration). In the adjacent compartment, the indirect stressed rats witnessed the application of these electric foot shocks. Our data showed substantial behavioral changes in the open field test, but limited effects in the elevated plus maze. The findings suggested that single and repeated stress exposure may have different consequences, that the effects of stress exposure may develop over time and persist for an extended period, and that both direct and indirect stressed rats displayed a hyposensitive HPA axis following acute restraint stress. Overall our observations moderately indicate direct exposure to elicit behavioral changes, and both direct and indirect exposure to stress to result in aberrations within the neuroendocrine system. With additional development our stress models may be considered for studying the complex interrelationship between an external stressor, and the experience of the organism. PMID:18728793

  1. Ankyrin-B directs membrane tethering of periaxin and is required for maintenance of lens fiber cell hexagonal shape and mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Walters, Mark; Brophy, Peter J.; Bennett, Vann

    2015-01-01

    Periaxin (Prx), a PDZ domain protein expressed preferentially in myelinating Schwann cells and lens fibers, plays a key role in membrane scaffolding and cytoarchitecture. Little is known, however, about how Prx is anchored to the plasma membrane. Here we report that ankyrin-B (AnkB), a well-characterized adaptor protein involved in linking the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton to integral membrane proteins, is required for membrane association of Prx in lens fibers and colocalizes with Prx in hexagonal fiber cells. Under AnkB haploinsufficiency, Prx accumulates in the soluble fraction with a concomitant loss from the membrane-enriched fraction of mouse lenses. Moreover, AnkB haploinsufficiency induced age-dependent disruptions in fiber cell hexagonal geometry and radial alignment and decreased compressive stiffness in mouse lenses parallel to the changes observed in Prx null mouse lens. Both AnkB- and Prx-deficient mice exhibit disruptions in membrane organization of the spectrin-actin network and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in lens fiber cells. Taken together, these observations reveal that AnkB is required for Prx membrane anchoring and for maintenance of lens fiber cell hexagonal geometry, membrane skeleton organization, and biomechanics. PMID:26538089

  2. Ankyrin-B directs membrane tethering of periaxin and is required for maintenance of lens fiber cell hexagonal shape and mechanics.

    PubMed

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Walters, Mark; Brophy, Peter J; Bennett, Vann; Rao, Ponugoti V

    2016-01-15

    Periaxin (Prx), a PDZ domain protein expressed preferentially in myelinating Schwann cells and lens fibers, plays a key role in membrane scaffolding and cytoarchitecture. Little is known, however, about how Prx is anchored to the plasma membrane. Here we report that ankyrin-B (AnkB), a well-characterized adaptor protein involved in linking the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton to integral membrane proteins, is required for membrane association of Prx in lens fibers and colocalizes with Prx in hexagonal fiber cells. Under AnkB haploinsufficiency, Prx accumulates in the soluble fraction with a concomitant loss from the membrane-enriched fraction of mouse lenses. Moreover, AnkB haploinsufficiency induced age-dependent disruptions in fiber cell hexagonal geometry and radial alignment and decreased compressive stiffness in mouse lenses parallel to the changes observed in Prx null mouse lens. Both AnkB- and Prx-deficient mice exhibit disruptions in membrane organization of the spectrin-actin network and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in lens fiber cells. Taken together, these observations reveal that AnkB is required for Prx membrane anchoring and for maintenance of lens fiber cell hexagonal geometry, membrane skeleton organization, and biomechanics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Operational Interventions to Maintenance Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Walter, Diane; Dulchinos, VIcki

    1997-01-01

    A significant proportion of aviation accidents and incidents are known to be tied to human error. However, research of flight operational errors has shown that so-called pilot error often involves a variety of human factors issues and not a simple lack of individual technical skills. In aircraft maintenance operations, there is similar concern that maintenance errors which may lead to incidents and accidents are related to a large variety of human factors issues. Although maintenance error data and research are limited, industry initiatives involving human factors training in maintenance have become increasingly accepted as one type of maintenance error intervention. Conscientious efforts have been made in re-inventing the team7 concept for maintenance operations and in tailoring programs to fit the needs of technical opeRAtions. Nevertheless, there remains a dual challenge: 1) to develop human factors interventions which are directly supported by reliable human error data, and 2) to integrate human factors concepts into the procedures and practices of everyday technical tasks. In this paper, we describe several varieties of human factors interventions and focus on two specific alternatives which target problems related to procedures and practices; namely, 1) structured on-the-job training and 2) procedure re-design. We hope to demonstrate that the key to leveraging the impact of these solutions comes from focused interventions; that is, interventions which are derived from a clear understanding of specific maintenance errors, their operational context and human factors components.

  4. Operational Interventions to Maintenance Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Walter, Diane; Dulchinos, VIcki

    1997-01-01

    A significant proportion of aviation accidents and incidents are known to be tied to human error. However, research of flight operational errors has shown that so-called pilot error often involves a variety of human factors issues and not a simple lack of individual technical skills. In aircraft maintenance operations, there is similar concern that maintenance errors which may lead to incidents and accidents are related to a large variety of human factors issues. Although maintenance error data and research are limited, industry initiatives involving human factors training in maintenance have become increasingly accepted as one type of maintenance error intervention. Conscientious efforts have been made in re-inventing the team7 concept for maintenance operations and in tailoring programs to fit the needs of technical opeRAtions. Nevertheless, there remains a dual challenge: 1) to develop human factors interventions which are directly supported by reliable human error data, and 2) to integrate human factors concepts into the procedures and practices of everyday technical tasks. In this paper, we describe several varieties of human factors interventions and focus on two specific alternatives which target problems related to procedures and practices; namely, 1) structured on-the-job training and 2) procedure re-design. We hope to demonstrate that the key to leveraging the impact of these solutions comes from focused interventions; that is, interventions which are derived from a clear understanding of specific maintenance errors, their operational context and human factors components.

  5. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    PubMed

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Maintenance Business Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  7. Maintenance Management Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternloff, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Current trends in park maintenance are overviewed, including maintenance impact statements, avoidance of cost through efficient use and national resource conservation, horticultural accomplishments that influence maintenance management, and vandalism prevention. (CB)

  8. Maintenance Management Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternloff, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Current trends in park maintenance are overviewed, including maintenance impact statements, avoidance of cost through efficient use and national resource conservation, horticultural accomplishments that influence maintenance management, and vandalism prevention. (CB)

  9. Direct Measures in Environmental Education Evaluation: Behavioral Intentions versus Observable Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Camilo; Shavelson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The objective of many environmental education programs is to promote pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors in students. However, evaluation of these programs has focused on asking participants what they think (attitudes) and what they do (behaviors) regarding the environment problems through self-report questionnaires and interviews. These…

  10. Parent Use of DRI on High Rate Disruptive Behavior: Direct and Collateral Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Altman, Karl

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluates parental use of differential reinforcement of other and/or incompatible behavior to treat high-rate disruptive behavior in a severely retarded four-year-old boy. A withdrawal experimental design was used. Intervention effectively reduced instances of toy chewing and throwing, while appropriate toy play and ability to remain…

  11. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  12. Direct Measures in Environmental Education Evaluation: Behavioral Intentions versus Observable Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Camilo; Shavelson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The objective of many environmental education programs is to promote pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors in students. However, evaluation of these programs has focused on asking participants what they think (attitudes) and what they do (behaviors) regarding the environment problems through self-report questionnaires and interviews. These…

  13. Direct Behavioral Consultation in Head Start to Increase Teacher Use of Praise and Effective Instruction Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Parker, Kizzy; Menousek, Kathryn; Zhou, Qi; Harpole, Lauren Lestremau; Olmi, D. Joe

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disruptive behaviors during early childhood are associated with many poor developmental outcomes including, but not limited to, school dropout and conduct disorder during adolescence. Much is known regarding effective intervention procedures for disruptive classroom behaviors by preschool children. Unfortunately, evidence-based…

  14. Recent Research on Emergent Verbal Behavior: Clinical Applications and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Laura L.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the acquisition of verbal behavior in children with developmental disabilities has focused on teaching four primary verbal operants: (1) "mand"; (2) "tact"; (3) "echoic"; and (4) "intraverbal". In Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior, he stated that each verbal operant is maintained by unique antecedent and consequence…

  15. Maintenance Sessions Prolong Cigarette Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; And Others

    Recent smoking treatment programs have shifted emphasis from initial cessation rates to long-term abstinence, with aversion therapy and coping response training having had the most success. A smoking cessation treatment consisting of rapid smoking and behavioral counseling was supplemented with two maintenance treatments. After completing the…

  16. REM sleep behavior disorder: Updated review of the core features, the REM sleep behavior disorder-neurodegenerative disease association, evolving concepts, controversies, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Boeve, Bradley F

    2010-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia manifested by vivid, often frightening dreams associated with simple or complex motor behavior during REM sleep. The polysomnographic features of RBD include increased electromyographic tone +/- dream enactment behavior during REM sleep. Management with counseling and pharmacologic measures is usually straightforward and effective. In this review, the terminology, clinical and polysomnographic features, demographic and epidemiologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and management strategies are discussed. Recent data on the suspected pathophysiologic mechanisms of RBD are also reviewed. The literature and our institutional experience on RBD are next discussed, with an emphasis on the RBD-neurodegenerative disease association and particularly the RBD-synucleinopathy association. Several issues relating to evolving concepts, controversies, and future directions are then reviewed, with an emphasis on idiopathic RBD representing an early feature of a neurodegenerative disease and particularly an evolving synucleinopathy. Planning for future therapies that impact patients with idiopathic RBD is reviewed in detail.

  17. Qualitative Maintenance Experience Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-20

    rdme hinge nonression springn. 7. Rem~ove 3 nuts, 1w- ashers , and bolts holding hinge pin halvers together. 8. Remove piD pin senuring iury strut and...bolt, nut. i,, asher , and pin. ONSTALLATTON: I. Reverse )’F -emov,,I. P. Aotuator is pr c-ad;Iusted to lenth and probably does not need adjust 3. TI...time in that syst-m and also permits malfunctions to be induces in a system not directly associated with the maintenance. [ ITI I - ___ ~ JaI , FLIGHT

  18. Putting Relationship Maintenance into Proper Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Carlos G.

    Noting that scholars often agree that varying investigations of relationship maintenance are only different mappings of the same territory, this paper organizes and criticizes the literature on relationship change from a position that defines maintenance as behavior that functions to sustain interpersonal bonds towards future interaction. The…

  19. Post-Stroke Walking Behaviors Consistent with Altered Ground Reaction Force Direction Control Advise New Approaches to Research and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Wendy L; Gruben, Kreg G

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of walking after stroke requires an understanding of how motor control deficits lead to gait impairment. Traditional therapy focuses on removing specific observable gait behaviors that deviate from unimpaired walking; however, those behaviors may be effective compensations for underlying problematic motor control deficits rather than direct effects of the stroke. Neurological deficits caused by stroke are not well understood, and thus, efficient interventions for gait rehabilitation likely remain unrealized. Our laboratory has previously characterized a post-stroke control deficit that yields a specific difference in direction of the ground reaction force (F, limb endpoint force) exerted with the hemiplegic limb of study participants pushing on both stationary and moving pedals while seated. That task was not dependent on F to retain upright posture, and thus, the task did not constrain F direction. Rather, the F direction was the product of neural preference. It is not known if this specific muscle coordination deficit causes the observed walking deviations, but if present during walking, the deficit would prevent upright posture unless counteracted by compensatory behaviors. Compensations are presented that mechanically counteract the F misdirection to allow upright posture. Those compensations are similar to behaviors observed in stroke patients. Based on that alignment between predictions of this theory and clinical observations, we theorize that post-stroke gait results from the attempt to compensate for the underlying F misdirection deficit. Limb endpoint force direction has been shown to be trainable in the paretic upper limb, making it a feasible goal in the lower limb. If this F misdirection theory is valid, these ideas have tremendous promise for advancing the field of post-stroke gait rehabilitation.

  20. Epigenetic regulation of memory formation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Zovkic, Iva B; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C; Sweatt, J David

    2013-01-15

    Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of memories is a central goal of the neuroscience community. It is well regarded that an organism's ability to lastingly adapt its behavior in response to a transient environmental stimulus relies on the central nervous system's capability for structural and functional plasticity. This plasticity is dependent on a well-regulated program of neurotransmitter release, post-synaptic receptor activation, intracellular signaling cascades, gene transcription, and subsequent protein synthesis. In the last decade, epigenetic markers like DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histone tails have emerged as important regulators of the memory process. Their ability to regulate gene transcription dynamically in response to neuronal activation supports the consolidation of long-term memory. Furthermore, the persistent and self-propagating nature of these mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, suggests a molecular mechanism for memory maintenance. In this review, we will examine the evidence that supports a role of epigenetic mechanisms in learning and memory. In doing so, we hope to emphasize (1) the widespread involvement of these mechanisms across different behavioral paradigms and distinct brain regions, (2) the temporal and genetic specificity of these mechanisms in response to upstream signaling cascades, and (3) the functional outcome these mechanisms may have on structural and functional plasticity. Finally, we consider the future directions of neuroepigenetic research as it relates to neuronal storage of information.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of memory formation and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Zovkic, Iva B.; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C.; Sweatt, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of memories is a central goal of the neuroscience community. It is well regarded that an organism's ability to lastingly adapt its behavior in response to a transient environmental stimulus relies on the central nervous system's capability for structural and functional plasticity. This plasticity is dependent on a well-regulated program of neurotransmitter release, post-synaptic receptor activation, intracellular signaling cascades, gene transcription, and subsequent protein synthesis. In the last decade, epigenetic markers like DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histone tails have emerged as important regulators of the memory process. Their ability to regulate gene transcription dynamically in response to neuronal activation supports the consolidation of long-term memory. Furthermore, the persistent and self-propagating nature of these mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, suggests a molecular mechanism for memory maintenance. In this review, we will examine the evidence that supports a role of epigenetic mechanisms in learning and memory. In doing so, we hope to emphasize (1) the widespread involvement of these mechanisms across different behavioral paradigms and distinct brain regions, (2) the temporal and genetic specificity of these mechanisms in response to upstream signaling cascades, and (3) the functional outcome these mechanisms may have on structural and functional plasticity. Finally, we consider the future directions of neuroepigenetic research as it relates to neuronal storage of information. PMID:23322554

  2. Adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material and their sexual attitudes and behavior: Parallel development and directional effects.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-10-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Designing Serious Video Games for Health Behavior Change: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between “fun-ness” and “seriousness.” The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field. PMID:22920806

  4. Future directions in physical activity intervention research: expanding our focus to sedentary behaviors, technology, and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Beth A; Napolitano, Melissa A; Buman, Matthew P; Williams, David M; Nigg, Claudio R

    2017-02-01

    Despite the increased health risks of a sedentary lifestyle, only 49 % of American adults participate in physical activity (PA) at the recommended levels. In an effort to move the PA field forward, we briefly review three emerging areas of PA intervention research. First, new intervention research has focused on not only increasing PA but also on decreasing sedentary behavior. Researchers should utilize randomized controlled trials, common terminology, investigate which behaviors should replace sedentary behaviors, evaluate long-term outcomes, and focus across the lifespan. Second, technology has contributed to an increase in sedentary behavior but has also led to innovative PA interventions. PA technology research should focus on large randomized trials with evidence-based components, explore social networking and innovative apps, improve PA monitoring, consider the lifespan, and be grounded in theory. Finally, in an effort to maximize public health impact, dissemination efforts should address the RE-AIM model, health disparities, and intervention costs.

  5. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-07-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Value-directed human behavior analysis from video using partially observable Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Jesse; Little, James J

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a method for learning decision theoretic models of human behaviors from video data. Our system learns relationships between the movements of a person, the context in which they are acting, and a utility function. This learning makes explicit that the meaning of a behavior to an observer is contained in its relationship to actions and outcomes. An agent wishing to capitalize on these relationships must learn to distinguish the behaviors according to how they help the agent to maximize utility. The model we use is a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP. The video observations are integrated into the POMDP using a dynamic Bayesian network that creates spatial and temporal abstractions amenable to decision making at the high level. The parameters of the model are learned from training data using an a posteriori constrained optimization technique based on the expectation-maximization algorithm. The system automatically discovers classes of behaviors and determines which are important for choosing actions that optimize over the utility of possible outcomes. This type of learning obviates the need for labeled data from expert knowledge about which behaviors are significant and removes bias about what behaviors may be useful to recognize in a particular situation. We show results in three interactions: a single player imitation game, a gestural robotic control problem, and a card game played by two people.

  7. Dynamic behavior and sound transmission analysis of a fluid structure coupled system using the direct-BEM/FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Hua, H.

    2007-01-01

    A direct-BEM/Fem method was proposed to analyze the vibration and acoustic radiation characteristics of a submerged structure. Model parameters of the structure and the fluid-structure interaction due to surrounding water were analyzed by using FEM and direct BEM. Vibration velocity of the outer hull surface and underwater sound pressure were computed through modal superposition technique. The direct-BEM/FEM method was first validated by analyzing a submerged cylindrical shell, then was used to analyze the vibro-acoustic behavior of a submarine stern structure. The results have demonstrated the direct-BEM/FEM method is more effective than FEM in computing the underwater sound radiation of the stern structure.

  8. Methodological considerations of acoustic playbacks to test the behavioral significance of call directionality in male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Insley, Stephen J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Schusterman, Ronald J.

    2005-09-01

    While attempting to gain access to receptive females, male northern elephant seals form dominance hierarchies through multiple dyadic interactions involving visual and acoustic signals. These signals are both highly stereotyped and directional. Previous behavioral observations suggested that males attend to the directional cues of these signals. We used in situ vocal playbacks to test whether males attend to directional cues of the acoustic components of a competitors calls (i.e., variation in call spectra and source levels). Here, we will focus on playback methodology. Playback calls were multiple exemplars of a marked dominant male from an isolated area, recorded with a directional microphone and DAT recorder and edited into a natural sequence that controlled call amplitude. Control calls were recordings of ambient rookery sounds with the male calls removed. Subjects were 20 marked males (10 adults and 10 subadults) all located at An~o Nuevo, CA. Playback presentations, calibrated for sound-pressure level, were broadcast at a distance of 7 m from each subject. Most responses were classified into the following categories: visual orientation, postural change, calling, movement toward or away from the loudspeaker, and re-directed aggression. We also investigated developmental, hierarchical, and ambient noise variables that were thought to influence male behavior.

  9. Decreased Odds of Injection Risk Behavior Associated With Direct Versus Indirect Use of Syringe Exchange: Evidence From Two California Cities.

    PubMed

    Behrends, Czarina N; Li, Chin-Shang; Gibson, David R

    2017-07-29

    While there is substantial evidence that syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are effective in preventing HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID), nearly all the evidence comes from PWID who obtain syringes from an SEP directly. Much less is known about the benefits of secondary exchange to PWID who get syringes indirectly from friends or acquaintances who visit an SEP for them. We evaluated the effectiveness of direct versus indirect syringe exchange in reducing HIV-related high-risk injecting behavior among PWID in two separate studies conducted in Sacramento and San Jose, California, cities with quite different syringe exchange models. In both studies associations between direct and indirect syringe exchange and self-reported risk behavior were examined with multivariable logistic regression models. Study 1 assessed effects of a "satellite" home-delivery syringe exchange in Sacramento, while Study 2 evaluated a conventional fixed-site exchange in San Jose. Multivariable analyses revealed 95% and 69% reductions, respectively, in high-risk injection associated with direct use of the SEPs in Sacramento and San Jose, and a 46% reduction associated with indirect use of the SEP in Sacramento. Conclusions/Importance: The very large effect of direct SEP use in Sacramento was likely due in part to home delivery of sterile syringes. While more modest effects were associated with indirect use, such use nevertheless is valuable in reducing the risk of HIV transmission of PWID who are unable or unwilling to visit a syringe exchange.

  10. Signage as a tool for behavioral change: Direct and indirect routes to understanding the meaning of a sign

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2017-01-01

    Signs, prompts, and symbols are a common means to change behavior in our society. Understanding the psychological mechanisms by which signage influences behavior is a critical first step to achieve the desired outcome. In the current research, we propose a theoretical model of sign-to-behavior process. The model suggests that when one encounters a sign, it is encoded to construct an action representation (comprehension process), which is then acted on unless its enactment is inhibited (decision process). We test the implications of the model in two studies. In support of our hypothesis, for unfamiliar signs, clarity of purpose predicts perceived effectiveness of a sign; however, for familiar signs, clarity of purpose does not matter. Insights gained from the studies will help to design effective signs. Practical implications of the model are discussed, and future research directions are outlined. PMID:28854203

  11. Parenting styles and practices in children's obesogenic behaviors: scientific gaps and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

    2013-08-01

    Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute.

  12. Parenting Styles and Practices in Children's Obesogenic Behaviors: Scientific Gaps and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

  13. Grounds Maintenance Cost Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joice, Donald K.

    A grounds maintenance study was accomplished over the period of March 1965 through February 1966 to--(1) determine current grounds maintenance cost distribution; (2) provide basis for future grounds maintenance budgeting, and (3) provide basic data by which future landscape project designs can be developed to project or reduce maintenance costs.…

  14. Association between victimization by bullying and direct self injurious behavior among adolescence in Europe: a ten-country study.

    PubMed

    Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Snir, Avigal; Apter, Alan; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kaess, Michael; Postuvan, Vita; Sisask, Merike; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Žiberna, Janina; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have examined the association between victimization by bullying and both suicide ideation and suicide attempts. The current study examined the association between victimization by bullying and direct-self-injurious behavior (D-SIB) among a large representative sample of male and female adolescents in Europe. This study is part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study and includes 168 schools, with 11,110 students (mean age = 14.9, SD = 0.89). Students were administered a self-report survey within the classroom, in which they were asked about three types of victimization by bullying (physical, verbal and relational) as well as direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB). Additional risk factors (symptoms of depression and anxiety, suicide ideation, suicide attempts, loneliness, alcohol consumption, drug consumption), and protective factors (parent support, peer support, pro-social behavior) were included. The three types of victimization examined were associated with D-SIB. Examination of gender as moderator of the association between victimization (relational, verbal, and physical) and D-SIB yielded no significant results. As for the risk factors, depression, but not anxiety, partially mediated the effect of relational victimization and verbal victimization on D-SIB. As for the protective factors, students with parent and peer support and those with pro-social behaviors were at significantly lower risk of engaging in D-SIB after being victimized compared to students without support/pro-social behaviors. This large-scale study has clearly demonstrated the cross-sectional association between specific types of victimization with self-injurious behavior among adolescents and what may be part of the risk and protective factors in this complex association.

  15. Automaticity of social behavior: direct effects of trait construct and stereotype-activation on action.

    PubMed

    Bargh, J A; Chen, M; Burrows, L

    1996-08-01

    Previous research has shown that trait concepts and stereotype become active automatically in the presence of relevant behavior or stereotyped-group features. Through the use of the same priming procedures as in previous impression formation research, Experiment 1 showed that participants whose concept of rudeness was printed interrupted the experimenter more quickly and frequently than did participants primed with polite-related stimuli. In Experiment 2, participants for whom an elderly stereotype was primed walked more slowly down the hallway when leaving the experiment than did control participants, consistent with the content of that stereotype. In Experiment 3, participants for whom the African American stereotype was primed subliminally reacted with more hostility to a vexatious request of the experimenter. Implications of this automatic behavior priming effect for self-fulfilling prophecies are discussed, as is whether social behavior is necessarily mediated by conscious choice processes.

  16. Computational design of microscopic swimmers and capsules: From directed motion to collective behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolov, Svetoslav V.; Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.; Alexeev, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Systems of motile microscopic particles can exhibit behaviors that resemble those of living microorganisms, including cooperative motion, self-organization, and adaptability to changing environments. Using mesoscale computational modeling, we design synthetic microswimmers and microcapsules that undergo controllable, self-propelled motion in solution. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels are used to actuate the microswimmers and to enable their navigation and chemotaxing behavior. The self-propelled motion of microcapsules on solid surfaces is achieved by the release of encapsulated solutes that alter the surface adhesiveness. These signaling solutes also enable interactions among multiple microcapsules that lead to complex, cooperative behavior. Our findings provide guidelines for creating microscopic devices and machines able to autonomously move and mimic the communication and chemotaxis of biological microorganisms.

  17. Development of novel behavioral interventions in an experimental therapeutics world: Challenges, and directions for the future.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Ongur, Dost; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2017-06-16

    Recently, the focus of funding mechanisms associated with clinical trials has changed to be consistent with an experimental therapeutics approach. While this approach holds considerable promise, the paradigm shift has presented challenges for behavioral trials in complex psychiatric illness such as schizophrenia, as molecular targets - the classic focus in experimental therapeutics paradigms - may not represent logical targets for many psychosocial interventions designed to treat multifaceted, multiply determined symptoms. Clear guidelines for alternate models have not been offered, leaving large numbers of clinical trials researchers unclear about how to frame their work. We address some of the challenges for behavioral interventions research, and offer guidance for the development of novel approaches to the application of a target engagement framework to behavioral clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct and Indirect Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Infant Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Garcia, Dainelys; Hill, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Given the strong association between early behavior problems and language impairment, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent–child Interaction Therapy on infant language production. Sixty infants (55% male; mean age 13.47 ± 1.31 months) were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. The observed number of infant total (i.e., token) and different (i.e., type) utterances spoken during an observation of an infant-led play and a parent-report measure of infant externalizing behavior problems were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention demonstrated a significantly higher number of observed different and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up compared to infants in standard care. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of the intervention on infant language production, such that the intervention led to decreases in infant externalizing behavior problems from pre- to post-intervention, which, in turn, led to increases in infant different utterances at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up. Results provide initial evidence for the effect of this brief and home-based intervention on infant language production, including the indirect effect of the intervention on infant language through improvements in infant behavior, highlighting the importance of targeting behavior problems in early intervention. PMID:26956651

  19. Direct and Indirect Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Infant Language Production.

    PubMed

    Bagner, Daniel M; Garcia, Dainelys; Hill, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    Given the strong association between early behavior problems and language impairment, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-child Interaction Therapy on infant language production. Sixty infants (55% male; mean age 13.47±1.31 months) were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. The observed number of infant total (i.e., token) and different (i.e., type) utterances spoken during an observation of an infant-led play and a parent-report measure of infant externalizing behavior problems were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention demonstrated a significantly higher number of observed different and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up compared to infants in standard care. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of the intervention on infant language production, such that the intervention led to decreases in infant externalizing behavior problems from pre- to post-intervention, which, in turn, led to increases in infant different utterances at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up. Results provide initial evidence for the effect of this brief and home-based intervention on infant language production, including the indirect effect of the intervention on infant language through improvements in infant behavior, highlighting the importance of targeting behavior problems in early intervention.

  20. Computer-assisted direct observation of behavioral agitation, engagement, and affect in long-term care residents.

    PubMed

    Casey, Anne-Nicole; Low, Lee-Fay; Goodenough, Belinda; Fletcher, Jennifer; Brodaty, Henry

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the current research were (1) to test and evaluate the investigator-designed Behavior, Engagement, and Affect Measure (BEAM) touchpad direct observational data collection tool, and (2) to implement this tool to investigate residents' patterns of behavioral agitation, engagement, affect, behaviors associated with positive mood, general time-activity use, and social interactions within long-term care. Raters collected cross-sectional observational data and conducted semistructured interviews with participants of the Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns (SMILE) Study. Researchers tested the BEAM's reliability and validity and evaluated the instrument's discriminate validity for sampling resident behaviors. Data were collected in 36 long-term care homes. The sample included low-care hostels, high-care nursing homes, and residential facilities offering aging-in-place. Participants were 406 residents aged 52 to 105 years, with and without dementia. Researchers collected direct observational data using the BEAM and operationalized behavioral domains based largely on concepts from Kitwood's model of person-centered care. Care staff reported on resident behavior using standardized measures of agitation, depression, quality of life, and social engagement. The BEAM showed moderate-to-substantial interrater reliability and slight-to-moderate correlations with staff-report data gathered through standardized questionnaire measures. Observations showed that residents spent the greatest amount of time stationary and expressing little emotion, although actively engaged with their environment. Residents were observed to be coping adequately and experiencing a positive social and/or positive care interaction in approximately half of observations; however, close to a third of ratings identified "ill-being." Residents showed more positive behavior, appeared happier and less anxious, and exhibited higher "well-being" during structured