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Sample records for maintenance haemodialysis patients

  1. Lived experience of Korean nurses caring for patients on maintenance haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sisook; Lee, Hyunsook Zin; Hwang, Eunhye; Song, Juhyun; Kwon, Hye-Jin; Choe, Kwisoon

    2016-05-01

    To understand the lived experience of nurses who care for people undergoing maintenance haemodialysis. There is a lack of research regarding the lived experience of nurses caring for people undergoing chronic haemodialysis, in spite of an increased number of nurses and patients. A qualitative descriptive phenomenological study was conducted. Fourteen nurses working at two haemodialysis centres in Korea were selected via purposive sampling and participated in in-depth interviews. Data were collected from October 2013-January 2014 and analysed using the phenomenological research method. Four themes were extracted for haemodialysis nurses' caring experience: feelings of pity for clients scheduled for haemodialysis treatment; continuous effort to establish good relationships with clients; feeling comfortable with clients, as though they were family or friends; and reflecting on their own lives through the lives of clients. Haemodialysis nurses experienced therapeutic relationships while taking care of clients undergoing haemodialysis; they also experienced maturation through reflection on their lives as nurses and human beings. An understanding of nurses' experiences in caring for people undergoing haemodialysis should be the basis of practice, education and nursing research in haemodialysis. This study could be helpful in enabling nursing students and/or nurses to understand the experience of caring and its meaning with respect to clients undergoing haemodialysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Malnutrition inflammation complex syndrome in maintenance haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Dzekova, P; Nikolov, I G; Sikole, A; Grozdanovski, R; Polenaković, M H

    2005-08-01

    Malnutrition inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) occurs in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients and is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of inflammation on the biochemical and anthropometrical parameters of the nutritional status in MHD patients. Our study was made on 154 patients (93 men and 61 women, mean age=54.7 yrs. and mean time on dialysis 84 months) over a period of 6 months. The indicator of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), was measured monthly at the central laboratory by nephelometry. The assessment tools used to evaluate the influence of inflammation on the nutritional status in MHD patients were: serum albumin and cholesterol level, midarm circumference (MAC), midarm muscle circumference (MAMC), triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) and body mass index (BMI). Student's t-test was used for group mean comparison between men and women. Person's correlation r was used to determine the significance and the strength of associations. The CRP level was significantly greater in men than in women (12.9 vs. 7.97, p < 0.04). The CRP level showed a strong correlation only with the serum concentration of cholesterol (r=0.49, p < 0.000), and did not correlate with the serum albumin of the MHD patients. There was no correlation between the CRP level and the anthropometrical parameters of the MHD patients in our study. Two separate processes, inflammation and reduced protein intake, each separately contributed to causing a decrease in serum albumin concentration and anthropometrical measurements. The levels of acute phase proteins vary widely as opposed to the serum albumin level; for that reason, changes in the albumin catabolic rate or synthesis require a considerable time to become visible. The average value of the protein catabolic rate of the patients in our study was 1.01 g/kg/d, a value that showed adequate protein intake. These findings would suggest that clinical

  3. More hostile dyslipidaemia in chronic kidney disease patients on maintenance haemodialysis than on conservative management.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Teerath Kumar; Dhrolia, Murtaza Fakhruddin; Imtiaz, Salman

    2016-08-01

    To study the pattern of dyslipidaemia in patients with stage-V chronic kidney disease on conservative management and those on maintenance haemodialysis. This comparative observational study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from February to July, 2008, and comprised stage-V chronic kidney disease patients. The patients were divided in two groups. Those who were on conservative management were placed in Group A, and those who were on maintenance haemodialysis were in Group B. Serum total lipid, cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein for both groups were assayed on chemical analyser and low-density lipoprotein was calculated by Friedwald equation. SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Of the 120 patients, there were 60(50%) in each group. The mean age of patients in Group A was 46.33±14.56 years and in Group B was 43.4±14.1years. Of all, 64(53.3%) were men and 56(46.7%) were women. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 134±19.58mmHg and 83.6±14.14mmHg in Group A and 129±19.7mmHg and 79.7±12.1mmHg in Group B. Mean serum total lipid was significantly higher (p<0.01) whereas mean serum cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.01) in Group B. Comparison of mean serum triglycerides between the groups was also statistically significant (p<0.01) and was high in Group B. Mean serum high-density lipoprotein was lower in Group B (p<0.01). The difference between serum low-density lipoprotein levels was statistically insignificant between the groups (p=0.11). Pattern of dyslipidaemia in patients on maintenance haemodialysis was more hostile than those on conservative management, and posed increased risk of coronary heart disease.

  4. Effect of Different Dialysis Methods on Cellular Immunity Function of Maintenance Haemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Xing, L

    2015-12-01

    The study of the effect of different dialysis methods on cellular immune function of maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients should provide theoretical support for deciding on the best method of blood purification that effectively improves cellular immune function of haemodialysis patients. Sixty MHD patients were randomly divided into three groups that respectively received treatment of haemodialysis (HD), high flux haemodialysis (HFHD) and haemodiafiltration (HDF). Peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets [CD4+, CD8+, CD25+ (mIL-2R) and CD4+/CD8+ ratio] and serum interleukin (IL)-2 and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were detected before dialysis and 4, 24 and 48 hours after dialysis in all cases. Compared with the HD group, CD4+ and CD25+ cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio and IL-2 level increased but sIL-2R level decreased in the HFHD and HDF groups at four hours without statistical significance (p > 0.05) and at 24 and 48 hours after dialysis with statistical significance (p < 0.05), while CD8+ cells had no change after dialysis (p > 0.05). Compared with the HFHD group, CD4+ and CD25+ cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and IL-2 level increased but sIL-2R level decreased in the HDF group at four and 24 hours without statistical significance (p > 0.05) and at 48 hours after dialysis with statistical significance (p < 0.05), while CD8+ cells had no change after dialysis (p > 0.05). The results indicate that HD can briefly improve the cellular immune function of MHD patients, while MHD and HFHD can improve it continuously, with HDF having the best effect.

  5. Plasma aldosterone by radioimmunoassay determination in normal man and in patients on maintenance haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Olgaard, K

    1975-01-01

    The plasma aldosterone concentration was measured by a radioimmunoassay in which paper chromatography was used for separation of the steroids. The method had a low blank value (1.3 plus or minus 2.8 pg/ml), and the sensitivity was 6 pg/ml. The variation coefficients for interassay and intraassay determinations were 13.0% and 9.4%, respectively. An accuracy study on fixed amounts of unlabelled aldosterone added to pool-plasma gave a linear correlation (slope equals 0.9973). In a normal material, the mean plasma aldosterone concentration was found to be 120 pg/ml. In 26 patients on maintenance haemodialysis the mean plasma aldosterone concentration was 68 pg/ml, in the group of anephric patients 36 pg/ml, and in the non-nephrectomized group 91 pg/ml. There was a significant difference (P smaller than 0.01) between the two groups as well as between the total group of patients on maintenance haemodialysis and the normal subjects.

  6. Bone disease in patients on maintenance haemodialysis using softened or de-ionized water.

    PubMed

    Hudson, G A; Milne, F J; Oliver, N J; Reis, P; Murray, J; Meyers, A M

    1979-09-08

    A clinical, biochemical and radiological study was carried out in 28 patients on maintenance haemodialysis in order to assess the prevalence of bone disease, particularly with regard to osteomalacia and/or osteopenia. The patients were selected from dialysis units using softened or deionized water, and the aluminium levels measured in the different water supplies. The results showed that symptomatic osteomalacia/osteopenia occurs more frequently in the units using softened water, which has a higher aluminium content, than in the de-ionized water unit. The patients dialysed on softened water also have significantly higher serum calcium and phosphorus levels. It is suggested that in Johannesburg, water softening alone is inadequate, and that the high aluminium levels in our water may be responsible for accelerated osteomalacia/osteopenia.

  7. Acute exacerbation of previously undiagnosed chronic focal myositis in an Aboriginal patient on maintenance haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Benjamin James; Majoni, Sandawana William

    2014-01-01

    We describe a haemodialysis patient who presented with an exacerbation of previously undiagnosed chronic focal myositis during a hospital admission for missed dialysis and chronic foot osteomyelitis. The association of focal myositis with haemodialysis has been reported once previously, but we report the third case in our experience and argue that it is probably more common than previously appreciated. We consider a focused differential diagnosis for a diabetic dialysis patient with leg pain and discuss important features of this rare condition. PMID:25342033

  8. Dietary egg whites for phosphorus control in maintenance haemodialysis patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lynn M; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Markewich, Theodore; Colman, Sara; Benner, Debbie; Sim, John J; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2011-03-01

    High dietary protein intake is associated with greater survival in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. High-protein foods may increase dietary phosphorus burden, which is associated with increased mortality in these patients. Hypothesis is: an egg white based diet with low phosphorus to protein ratio (<1.4 mg/g) will lower serum phosphorus without deteriorating the nutritional status in MHD patients. We assessed serum phosphorus and albumin levels in MHD patients who agreed to ingest one meal per day with pasteurised liquid egg whites without phosphorus additives, as principal protein source. Thirteen otherwise stable MHD patients with serum phosphorus >4.0 mg/dl agreed to consume eight ounces (225 g) of pasteurised liquid egg whites one meal per day for six weeks. Recipes were suggested to improve diet variety. Thirteen participating patients included seven women, three African Americans and five diabetics. Twelve patients exhibited drop in serum phosphorus. Mean population fall in serum phosphorus was 0.94 mg/dl, i.e. from 5.58 ± 1.34 (mean ± SD) to 4.63 ± 1.18 (p = 0.003). Serum albumin showed an increase by 0.19 g/dl, i.e. from 4.02 ± 0.29 to 4.21 ± 0.36 g/dl (p = 0.014). Changes in phosphorus pill count were not statistically significant (p = 0.88). The egg white diet was well tolerated, and recipe variety appreciated. Pasteurised liquid egg whites may be an effective diet component lowering serum phosphorus without risking malnutrition. Controlled trials are indicated to examine egg white based dietary interventions in MHD patients at home or during haemodialysis treatment. © 2011 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  9. DIETARY EGG WHITES FOR PHOSPHORUS CONTROL IN MAINTENANCE HAEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lynn M.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Markewich, Theodore; Colman, Sara; Benner, Debbie; Sim, John J.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background High dietary protein intake is associated with greater survival in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. High-protein foods may increase dietary phosphorus burden, which is associated with increased mortality in these patients. Hypothesis is: an egg white based diet with low phosphorus to protein ratio (<1.4 mg/g) will lower serum phosphorus without deteriorating the nutritional status in MHD patients. Objective We assessed serum phosphorus and albumin levels in MHD patients who agreed to ingest one meal per day with pasteurised liquid egg whites without phosphorus additives, as principal protein source. Methods Thirteen otherwise stable MHD patients with serum phosphorus >4.0 mg/dl agreed to consume eight ounces (225 g) of pasteurised liquid egg whites one meal per day for six weeks. Recipes were suggested to improve diet variety. Results Thirteen participating patients included seven women, three African Americans and five diabetics. Twelve patients exhibited drop in serum phosphorus. Mean population fall in serum phosphorus was 0.94 mg/dl, i.e. from 5.58 ± 1.34 (mean ± SD) to 4.63 ± 1.18 (p = 0.003). Serum albumin showed an increase by 0.19 g/dl, i.e. from 4.02 ± 0.29 to 4.21 ± 0.36 g/dl (p = 0.014). Changes in phosphorus pill count were not statistically significant (p = 0.88). The egg white diet was well tolerated, and recipe variety appreciated. Conclusion Pasteurised liquid egg whites may be an effective diet component lowering serum phosphorus without risking malnutrition. Controlled trials are indicated to examine egg white based dietary interventions in MHD patients at home or during haemodialysis treatment. PMID:21288313

  10. High Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, Hypercalcaemia, Race, and Mortality in South African Maintenance Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Raquel; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between serum total alkaline phosphatase (TAP) and mortality in African maintenance haemodialysis patients (MHD). Patients and Methods. The study enrolled a total of 213 patients on MHD from two dialysis centers in Johannesburg between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were categorized into a low TAP group (≤112 U/L) versus a high TAP group (>112 U/L) based on a median TAP of 112 U/L. Results. During the follow-up period of 7 years, there were 55 (25.8%) deaths. After adjusting for cofounders such as age, other markers of bone disorder, and comorbidity (diabetes mellitus), patients in the high TAP group had significantly higher risk of death compared to patients in the low TAP group (hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% CI 1.24–5.01, P = 0.01). Similarly, serum calcium >2.75 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of death compared to patients within levels of 2.10–2.37 mmol/L (HR 6.34, 95% CI 1.40–28.76; P = 0.02). The HR for death in white patients compared to black patients was 6.88; 95% CI 1.82–25.88; P = 0.004. Conclusion. High levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, hypercalcaemia, and white race are associated with increased risk of death in MHD patients. PMID:28168054

  11. High Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, Hypercalcaemia, Race, and Mortality in South African Maintenance Haemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Bala; Duarte, Raquel; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between serum total alkaline phosphatase (TAP) and mortality in African maintenance haemodialysis patients (MHD). Patients and Methods. The study enrolled a total of 213 patients on MHD from two dialysis centers in Johannesburg between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were categorized into a low TAP group (≤112 U/L) versus a high TAP group (>112 U/L) based on a median TAP of 112 U/L. Results. During the follow-up period of 7 years, there were 55 (25.8%) deaths. After adjusting for cofounders such as age, other markers of bone disorder, and comorbidity (diabetes mellitus), patients in the high TAP group had significantly higher risk of death compared to patients in the low TAP group (hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% CI 1.24-5.01, P = 0.01). Similarly, serum calcium >2.75 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of death compared to patients within levels of 2.10-2.37 mmol/L (HR 6.34, 95% CI 1.40-28.76; P = 0.02). The HR for death in white patients compared to black patients was 6.88; 95% CI 1.82-25.88; P = 0.004. Conclusion. High levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, hypercalcaemia, and white race are associated with increased risk of death in MHD patients.

  12. Sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and health-related quality-of-life in maintenance haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Shen, Quanquan; Huang, Xiaohong; Luo, Zhaofen; Xu, Xiujun; Zhao, Xiang; He, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    To assess the relationship between sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in Chinese patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis (MHD). This cross-sectional study enrolled patients undergoing MHD. Self-reported sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]) and HRQoL (36-item Short Form [SF-36]) were recorded for all patients. Sixty eight patients (mean ± SD age = 61.75 ± 16.56 years; 43 male/25 female) who regularly received MHD were included. The prevalence of poor sleepers was 69.1% (47/68) and daytime sleepiness was 11.8% (eight of 68). Poor sleepers had a significantly lower Physical Component Scale (PCS) score, Mental Component Scale (MCS) score and total SF-36 score than good sleepers. The PSQI score correlated inversely with both the PCS and MCS scores and correlated positively with age. Independent variables associated with total SF-36 score were duration of MHD, ESS score and PSQI score. Poor sleep quality is a common and severe issue for MHD patients in east China. Both sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were associated with lower HRQoL scores. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. High-calcium dialysate: a factor associated with inflammation, malnutrition and mortality in non-diabetic maintenance haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Huang, Wen-Hung; Ho, Tai-Chin; Huang, Yen-Lin

    2010-04-01

    Chronic inflammation, which is common in dialysis patients, often causes malnutrition and even protein-energy wasting. However, the association of high-calcium dialysate with malnutrition and/or inflammation in non-diabetic maintenance haemodialysis patients remains unclear. This study investigated the possible adverse effects of high-calcium dialysate and mortality in this population. A total of 717 non-diabetic haemodialysis patients participated in this 2 year prospective study. The subjects were categorized into three subgroups based on whether dialysate calcium concentrations were high (3.5 mEq/L), standard (3.0 mEq/L) or low (2.5 mEq/L). Demographic, haematological, nutritional and inflammatory markers, biochemical and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. Patients with high-calcium dialysate (n = 82) had a higher incidence of malnutrition and inflammation (61.0% vs 44.1% and 43.9%, respectively) than those with standard- and low-calcium dialysate (n = 528 and 107). Backward stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that high-calcium dialysate was negatively correlated with nutritional index, serum albumin levels, but positively associated with the inflammatory marker of serum ferritin levels. At the end of the 2 year follow up, 45 patients had died. Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that high-calcium dialysate was a significant associated factor (relative risk 2.765; 95% confidence interval 1.429-5.352) for 2 year all-cause mortality in these patients. The analytical results indicate that high-calcium dialysate is associated with malnutrition and inflammation as well as 2 year mortality in non-diabetic maintenance haemodialysis patients and the findings suggest that this population, even those with optimal mineral balance, should avoid high-calcium dialysate.

  14. Serum IL-6, albumin and co-morbidities are closely correlated with symptoms of depression in patients on maintenance haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kuo-Chin; Wu, Chia-Chao; Chen, Hsiao-Shuang; Ma, Wen-Ya; Tseng, Chin-Feng; Yang, Lai-King; Hsieh, Hsiang-Li; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2011-02-01

    Depression may be associated with activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased long-term mortality in patients on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD). There are numerous reports regarding the association of depression with inflammatory status, co-morbidities and nutritional condition, but few of these studies have explored the possible correlations between depression, age and economic status. The study explores the possible correlations between depression and demographic, socio-economic, clinical and laboratory variables. One hundred and forty-six MHD patients (65 males and 81 females, mean age: 63.8±15.2 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and socio-economic status as well as clinical and laboratory variables including co-morbidities were obtained. The self-administered Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine the presence or absence of depression symptoms. Biochemical parameters (serum albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, etc.) and dialysis dosage delivery (Kt/V and urea reduction rate or URR) were examined. All the patients were on high-flux biocompatible dialysers for MHD. The presence of an inflammatory state was assessed by determinations of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. The prevalence of depression (BDI≥14) was 45.9%. In patients found to have symptoms of depression, no statistically significant difference was shown with respect to age, gender, smoking habits or clinical characteristics. However, these patients were more likely to have a number of co-morbidities. They also had higher levels of serum IL-6 and total cholesterol as well as lower serum albumin and Kt/V values. The BDI correlated significantly with Kt/V values (r=-0.19; P<0.05), levels of serum albumin (r=-0.28; P<0.005) and serum IL-6 (r=0.47; P<0.001). Multivariate stepwise forward logistic regression analysis showed a direct correlation between BDI and IL-6 levels (P=0.001; OR=1.537) and between BDI and co-morbidities (P=0.037; OR=3

  15. Thrombopoietic status of patients on haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bat, Taha; Bat, Betul Emine; El-Moghraby, Ahmed; Patel, Samir; Feng, Xingmin; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Sarac, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a potential dialysis-related treatment complication. Developments in bio-compatible dialyser membranes have decreased the occurrence of thrombocytopenia. We investigated whether thrombopoiesis is impaired in haemodialysis patients by measuring the thrombopoietin level and absolute immature platelet number (AIPN) in the blood of patients undergoing haemodialysis. Samples were collected from the dialysis tubing pre- and post- haemodialysis in a cohort of 45 well-characterized haemodialysis patients. Thrombopoietin levels and AIPN increased following haemodialysis, despite no change in platelet count. Observed increase in release of immature platelets from the bone marrow following haemodialysis indicates possible complement activation secondary to interaction between blood constituents and the dialysis membrane. PMID:26887628

  16. Biocompatible dialysis membranes and oxidative stress in patients wih end-stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Nareman M; Kandell, Nagwa F; El-Shamaa, Azza A; Harba, Tarek M; Abdel-Hady, Afaf A

    2005-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown in (ESRD) patients specially those receiving regular haemodialysis (HD) in relation with an increased production of toxic free radicals due to membrane-induced complement leukocyte activation. An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidans has been suggested in uremic patients on HD. The respective influence of uremia and dialysis procedure has not been evaluated. Studies that have probed into the mechanism of oxygen radical production have implicated the bio-incompatibility of dialysis membranes. The effect of different dialysis membranes on lipid, lipoproteins, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity in ESRD patients on regular HD was studied. One hundred subjects were selected; 20 healthy controls, 20 chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on conservative drug management and 60 CRF patients on maintenance HD (20 dialyzed by polysulfone, 20 by hemophan and 20 by cuprophane membranes). All patients were matched for age, sex, gender and etiology of ESRD and HD patients for duration of dialysis. In addition to routine tests (Hb% and creatinine clearance in healthy control group and CRF patients on conservative management), total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A (Apo A), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were estimated. MDA was significantly higher and TAS was lower in uremic patients treated conservatively or by HD than in controls. MDA was significantly higher in HD than CRF patients on conservative management with least significant difference in HD patients treated by polysulfone followed by hemophan and then cuprophane membrane, while only cuprophane group showed lower levels of TAS compared to CRF patients on conservative management. HDL-C and Apo A was higher in polysulfone and hemophan than cuprophane group while triglyderide was lower. Polysulfone group showed lower levels of LDL

  17. Improving patient safety in haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Benjamin D.; Metcalfe, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Thomas Inman (1820–76) wrote ‘Practice two things in your dealings with disease: either help or do not harm the patient’, echoing writings from the Hippocratic school. The challenge of practicing safely with the avoidance of complications or harm is perhaps only heightened in the context of modern medical settings such as the haemodialysis unit where complex interventions and treatment are routine. The current issue of CKJ reports two studies aimed at improving the care of haemodialysis patients targeting early use of arteriovenous grafts as access for haemodialysis and the implementation of a dialysis checklist to ensure the prescribed dialysis treatment is delivered. The further challenge of ensuring that such evidence-based tools are used appropriately and consistently falls to all members of the clinical team. PMID:26034585

  18. Oral Health Status in Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Swapna, Lingam Amara; Reddy, Reddy Sudhakara; Ramesh, Tatapudi; Reddy, Reddy Lavanya; Vijayalaxmi, Nimma; Karmakar, Partha; Pradeep, Koppolu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the oral and dental manifestations in non- diabetic and diabetic uraemic patients who were undergoing haemodialysis and to estimate and compare the salivary pH in these two groups. Material and Methods: Ninety Seven uraemic patients who were undergoing maintenance haemodialysis were included in the study. Subjective and objective findings were evaluated and recorded in a specially designed proforma. Predialytic unstimulated whole salivary pH was recorded by using pH-measuring strips. Dental health assessment consisted of DMFT and CPITN indices. Results: A subjective oral manifestation of dysguesia was found to be more significant in non-diabetic patients (p<0.008). Statistically, a high significance was observed with mucosal petechiae in 31.9% patients of diabetic group .The overall DMFT score was significantly higher in diabetic group. A moderate significance was found with a CPI score of 5 (p<0.015). The pH of saliva was significantly higher among diabetic patients. Conclusion: The diabetic subjects who were on haemodialysis were at a high risk for developing periodontal disease and they exhibited a potential threat for dental decay and xerostomia. A lower salivary pH and a poor glycaemic control may affect their oral health. Further research is required to clarify the combined influence of diabetic nephropathy on oral health. PMID:24179940

  19. Comparison of interferon gamma release assay & tuberculin skin tests for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis in patients on maintenance haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sanjay K; Singh, Urvashi B; Zaidi, Sabahat H; Gupta, Sanjay; Pandey, Ravinder M

    2015-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a common infection in patients on haemodialysis. There is a definite role of treatment of latent TB (LTB) in these patients. However, diagnosis of LTB in these patients by tuberculin skin test (TST) is unreliable. There is suggestion that interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) will be more reliable test for diagnosis of LTB in this setting. Thus, we evaluated value of IGRA and TST for the diagnosis of LTB in patients on dialysis in an Indian setting. Patients with end stage kidney disease on dialysis were included. Patients with active TB were excluded. Each patient was subjected to TST (induration of ≥10 mm was taken as positive) and QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) for diagnosis of LTB. A total of 185 patients were included; 129 (69.7%) were males and mean age was 36.7 ± 12.3 yr. Past history of TB was present in 18 (9.7%) patients. One hundred and thirty four (72.4%) patients had scar of BCG vaccination. QFT-GIT test was positive in 66 (36%), TST in 32 (17%) and both in 13 (7%) patients. Of the 66 patients positive with QFT-GIT, only 13 (19.6%) were positive for TST. Of the 32 patients positive with TST, only 13 (40.6%) were positive with QFT-GIT; 100 (54%) patients were negative for both the tests. Overall, 85 (45.9%) patients were positive for either of the two tests. Poor agreement was shown between the two methods. On logistic regression analysis, odds of QFT-GIT to be positive in patients with BCG vaccination was 1.23 and with history of TB 0.99, both being insignificant. odds of tuberculin skin test to be positive in patients with BCG vaccination was 1.04 and with history of TB 0.99, both again being insignificant. Our findings showed that more number of patients (36%) on haemodialysis were positive for QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube test as compared to TST (17%). There was poor agreement between the two tests. No significant effect of BCG vaccination and history of TB in past was observed on both tests.

  20. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Paul D.; Barzi, Federica; Cass, Alan; Hughes, Jaquelyne T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years) on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months) from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9) years. 1244 (79.3%) were Indigenous. 44.2% (n = 693) were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1) versus 57.4 (15.2), p < 0.001]) and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35) versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5), p < 0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522) versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0), p < 0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37) versus 28% (20–38), p = 0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2 = 0.11, p < 0.001), no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p < 0.001), and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (p < 0.001), urea reduction ratio (p = 0.001), and gender (p < 0.001) after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation. PMID:28243472

  1. Nutritional status of vegetarians on maintenance haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tai-Te; Chang, Chieh-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Min; Wang, I-Kwan; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Shu-Hwa; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2011-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have long been thought of as beneficial to health. However, vegetarian diets are often low in protein, which is contradictory to the high protein diet guideline for uraemia patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a vegetarian diet on the nutritional status of haemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients on chronic HD for over 6 months were included in the study. The normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) was used to reflect daily protein intake. Biochemical markers of nutrition, anthropometric parameters, subjective global assessment (SGA) and functional activity of daily living were assessed to evaluate the nutritional status of vegetarians on chronic HD. Nineteen out of 318 HD patients were vegetarians. The nPCR was lower in the vegetarian group (1.20 ± 0.24 vs 1.10 ± 0.29 g/kg per day, non-Veg vs Veg, P < 0.05). The serum albumin and prealbumin were similar in vegetarian and non-vegetarian HD patients. The body mass index (BMI) and mid-arm muscular circumference (MAMC) were lower in vegetarian patients (P < 0.05). The haematocrit of vegetarians can be maintained at a level similar to that of non-vegetarian patients but erythropoietin doses needed were higher in vegetarian patients (P < 0.05). The muscle strength evaluated by the hand-grip test, SGA and activities of daily living were similar in vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The present study revealed that HD patients on vegetarian diets might have a smaller BMI, but SGA and function of daily activities were similar to those of the non-vegetarians. The haematocrit of vegetarians can be maintained with a higher erythropoietin dose. © 2011 The Authors. Nephrology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  2. Dry skin (xerosis) in patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis: the role of decreased sweating of the eccrine sweat gland.

    PubMed

    Park, T H; Park, C H; Ha, S K; Lee, S H; Song, K S; Lee, H Y; Han, D S

    1995-12-01

    The aetiology and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of dry skin in uraemia are still unclear, but the hydration status of stratum corneum clearly influences the appearance of skin. The xerotic skin texture is often referred to as 'dry skin' and has been suggested as a cause of uraemic pruritus. To understand the aetiology of dry skin in uraemia we measured the status of skin surface hydration of uraemic patients with the corneometer and skin surface hydrometer, the functional capacity and the urea concentration of stratum corneum and the response of eccrine sweat gland to sudorific agent (0.05% pilocarpine HCL) in 18 age-matched haemodialysis patients and 10 healthy volunteers. We also performed the water sorption-desorption test to uraemic and control subjects after application of urea in various concentrations. Uraemic patient's skin showed decreased water content compared to control subjects. However, we found no correlation between dry skin and pruritus. Although the urea concentration of the horny layer in uraemic patients was elevated compared to control subjects (28.2 microgram/cm2 vs 5.04 micrograms/cm2, P < 0.05), its moisturizing effect to relieve pruritus is questionable because its artificial application revealed no improvement of the functional capacity of horny layer in concentration 5 times higher than the physiological concentration. Uraemic patients showed decreased sweating response to sudorific agent. In conclusion, the functional abnormalities of eccrine sweat glands may be account for dry skin in uraemic patients at least in part, but there is no correlation between xerosis and pruritus.

  3. Maintenance treatment of renal anaemia in haemodialysis patients with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta versus darbepoetin alfa administered monthly: a randomized comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Fernando; Lok, Charmaine E.; de Francisco, Angel; Locatelli, Francesco; Mann, Johannes F.E.; Canaud, Bernard; Kerr, Peter G.; Macdougall, Iain C.; Besarab, Anatole; Villa, Giuseppe; Kazes, Isabelle; Van Vlem, Bruno; Jolly, Shivinder; Beyer, Ulrich; Dougherty, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Several studies with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents claim that maintenance therapy of renal anaemia may be possible at extended dosing intervals; however, few studies were randomized, results varied, and comparisons between agents were absent. We report results of a multi-national, randomized, prospective trial comparing haemoglobin maintenance with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa administered once monthly. Methods. Haemodialysis patients (n = 490) on stable once-weekly intravenous darbepoetin alfa were randomized to methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta once monthly or darbepoetin alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks, with dose adjustment for individual haemoglobin target (11–13 g/dL; maximum decrease from baseline 1 g/dL). Subsequently, patients entered a second 26-week period of once-monthly methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who maintained average haemoglobin ≥10.5 g/dL, with a decrease from baseline ≤1 g/dL, in Weeks 50–53; the secondary endpoint was dose change over time. The trial is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00394953. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. One hundred and fifty-seven of 245 patients treated with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and 99 of 245 patients with darbepoetin alfa met the response definition (64.1% and 40.4%; P < 0.0001). Doses increased by 6.8% with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and 58.8% with darbepoetin alfa during once-monthly treatment. Death rates were equal between treatments (5.7%). Most common adverse events included hypertension, procedural hypotension, nasopharyngitis and muscle spasms, with no differences between groups. Conclusions. Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta maintained target haemoglobin more successfully than darbepoetin alfa at once-monthly dosing intervals despite dose increases with darbepoetin alfa

  4. Secondary haemochromatosis in a haemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lu; Tang, Xi; Fu, Ping; Liu, Fang

    2015-07-01

    A 39-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease, which was maintained on haemodialysis, developed secondary haemochromatosis after receiving blood transfusions and intravenous iron supplementation without sufficient serum ferritin concentration monitoring. The patient received intravenous deferoxamine three times a week, combined with high-dose recombinant human erythropoietin therapy and haemodialysis. After three months, improvements in biochemical indicators and iron overload were noted.

  5. An association between time-varying serum albumin level and the mortality rate in maintenance haemodialysis patients: a five-year clinical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Bor; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Hua, Moi-Sin

    2016-08-20

    Until now, no long-term studies relating serum albumin level to mortality rate in prevalent haemodialysis (HD) patients have been conducted. We aimed to examine the association between serum albumin level and mortality over a 5-year period. This study included 781 patients who received maintenance HD in a large, hospital-facilitated HD centre. Five-year medical records (2009-2013) were retrospectively reviewed, and the cut-off level for serum albumin level was set at 3.5 g/dL. The analysed albumin levels were expressed as time-averaged levels (first 24-month data) and albumin target reach rate over the first 2-year interval. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the hazard function of the all-cause and cardiovascular mortality of the study participants in the subsequent 3-year period (2011-2013). Compared to those with a 100 % albumin reach rate (3.5 g/dL), the participants with 75- < 100, 50- < 75, and 1- < 50 % albumin reach rates exhibited significantly increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.19-2.47; HR 3.14, 95 % CI 1.91-5.16; HR 3.66, 95 % CI 2.18-6.16, respectively). A similar trend for all-cause mortality was demonstrated in participants with time-averaged albumin levels <4 g/dL (HR 1.57, 95 % CI 1.00-2.46 for 3.5-4.0 g/dL; HR 3.66, 95 % CI 2.11-6.32 for <3.5 g/dL). Compared to a 100 % albumin reach rate, the 50- < 75 and 1- < 50 % groups (HR 4.28, 95 % CI 1.82-10.01; HR 3.23, 95 % CI 1.22-8.54 respectively) showed significantly higher cardiovascular mortality rates. Similarly, participants with a time-averaged serum albumin level <3.5 g/dL exhibited a higher risk for cardiovascular mortality (HR 3.24, 95 % CI: 1.23-8.56). This long-term study demonstrated that higher reach rates of serum albumin levels and higher time-averaged serum albumin levels are associated with a lower mortality rate in patients undergoing maintenance HD.

  6. Factors influencing adherence among Irish haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Lisa; Regan, Daniel; Curtis, Ruth

    2013-07-01

    Adherence to dietary and fluid restrictions among haemodialysis patients with end stage renal failure (ESRD) is a multi-factorial concept. This study seeks to assess the predictive value of demographic and psychological variables in non-adherence. A multi-centre cross sectional design assessed 50 haemodialysis patients on self reported adherence, attitudes towards dietary restrictions, quality of life, depression and anxiety. Adherence to fluid and dietary restrictions was measured objectively using potassium (K), phosphorus (PO4) and inter-dialytic weight gain (IDWG) parameters. 62% of patients were non-adherent with at least one aspect of the treatment regime. Regression analysis revealed age as significantly associated with adherence, in particular IDWG, with younger patients displaying poorer adherence. Younger patients may experience greater difficulty integrating complex treatment demands into their lifestyles, and non-adherence may be a consequence of the severe lifestyle limitations imposed by the haemodialysis treatment regime. Individualised interventions may be more effective than traditional methods of adherence monitoring in reducing the non-adherent behaviour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatal outcomes among patients on maintenance haemodialysis in sub-Saharan Africa: a 10-year audit from the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Halle, Marie Patrice; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Kaze, Francois Folefack; Takongue, Christian; Kengne, Andre-Pascal

    2016-11-03

    End-Stage Renal disease (ESRD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We assessed the occurrence, time-trend and determinants of fatal outcomes of haemodialysis-treated ESRD patients over a 10-year period in a major referral hospital in Cameroon. Medical records of ESRD patients who started chronic haemodialysis at the Douala General Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were reviewed. Baseline characteristics and fatal outcomes on dialysis were recorded. Accelerated-failure time and logistic regression models were used to investigate the determinants of death. A total of 661 patients with 436 (66 %) being men were included in the study. Mean age at dialysis initiation was 46.3 ± 14.7 years. The median [25(th)-75(th) percentiles] duration on dialysis was 187 [34-754] days. A total of 297 (44.9 %) deaths were recorded during follow-up with statistical difference over the years (p < 0.0001 for year by year variation) but not in a linear fashion (p = 0.508 for linear trend), similarly in men and women (p = 0.212 for gender*year interaction). The death rate at 12 months of follow-up was 26.8 % (n = 177), with again similar variations across years (p < 0.0001). In all, 34 % of deaths occurred within the first 120 days. Year of study and background nephropathies were the main determinants of mortality, with the combination of diabetes and hypertension conveying a 127 % (95 % CI: 40-267 %) higher risk of mortality, relative to hypertension alone. Mortality in dialysis is excessively high in this setting. Because most of these premature deaths are potentially preventable, additional efforts are needed to offset the risk and maximise the benefits from the ongoing investments of the government to defray the cost of haemodialysis. Potential actions include sensitisation of the population and healthcare practitioners, early detection and referral of individuals with CKD; and additional subsidies to support the cost of managing co

  8. Assessment of nutritional status in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Yuste, Claudia; Abad, Soraya; Vega, Almudena; Barraca, Daniel; Bucalo, Laura; Pérez-de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem and a risk factor of mortality in haemodialysis patients. However, there is no consensus for its assessment. To assess the relationship between nutritional status, measured by bioimpedance spectrometry (BIS), and laboratory markers of nutritional status, as well as nutritional evolution and its changes after 1 year. We performed an observational prospective study on 124 haemodialysis patients (aged 61.2 ±[15.8] years, 62.9% were males, 33.1% were diabetic. Laboratory markers of nutritional status and BIS were implemented at baseline and after one year. At baseline, lean mass index (LMI) (13.3 [3.6] Kg/m2) was inversely correlated with age (P=.006), and directly with male gender (P=.01). At baseline, the fat mass index (FMI) (mean 11.2 & 6.1kg/m2) correlates directly with the body mass index (P<.001) and the female gender (P=.004). We found no association with comorbidity or inflammatory markers. We did not observe any correlation between lean mass or fat mass modifications and nutritional marker modifications. Patients with LMI gain (>0kg/m2) have lower baseline serum albumin (P=.017), lower baseline LMI (P<.001) and higher baseline FMI (P=.027). Patients with FMI loss (<0kg/m2) have lower systolic blood pressure (P=.04). Assessment of nutritional status through laboratory parameters does not have a good correlation with body composition parameters or with their modifications.

  9. [Lithium can be given to patients on haemodialysis treatment].

    PubMed

    Kancir, Anne Sophie Pinholt; Viftrup, Jens Emil; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2015-01-26

    Lithium-induced nephropathy is a known complication of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder. Treatment with lithium should be discontinued, if there is evidence of lithium-induced nephropathy. However, lithium can be given to patients with end-stage-renal-disease on haemodialysis treatment, if there is no other way to control the bipolar disorder. We report one patient who was successfully treated with lithium in parallel with haemodialysis.

  10. Fluctuations of haemoglobinaemia in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    De Meester, J; Maes, B; De Vriese, A; De Moor, B; Donck, J; Helbert, M; Bammens, B; Jamar, S

    2011-01-01

    In March 2008 and June 2009, an ad hoc working group of nephrologists discussed the status of anaemia therapy with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents [ESA] in patients on chronic haemodialysis, the phenomenon of fluctuations of haemoglobinaemia, and the need for individualisation of ESA treatment. The working group put together the following statements: (1) ESAs increase the haemoglobin concentration and adaptations of the ESA dose adjust the response according to a negative-feedback loop. The long lag time between an ESA dose change and its effect on erythropoiesis is cumbersome. The optimal haemoglobin target concentration is different for every haemodialysis patient; the lowest haemoglobin concentration upon which one could consistently demonstrate a positive subjective and objective clinical benefit in chronic dialysis is 11 g/dL, in contrast to the lowest haemoglobin concentration of 10 g/dL recommended in the current EMEA label for ESAs. (2) Intra-individual fluctuation of haemoglobinaemia over time is unavoidable, not only due to the ESA dose/haemoglobin response interaction, but also, and more importantly, due to the occurrence of acute illnesses and exacerbations of co-morbid conditions. Many different methodologies to characterise haemoglobin variability have been described but there is currently no universally applied definition of the phenomenon. (3) An impact of the haemoglobin level and the amplitude of the haemoglobin fluctuations on patient outcome has been observed. Without disclosing any causal relationship, worse outcomes were associated with haemoglobin fluctuations around the lower target level, but later on, more simply linked to the relative time spent below the haemoglobin concentration of 11 g/dL and to the administration of inappropriately high ESA doses in order to achieve the recommended haemoglobin target range. A plausible mechanism might be that acute illnesses blunt the patients' basal ESA sensitivity; this leads to subnormal and

  11. Freedom and Confinement: Patients' Experiences of Life with Home Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Vestman, C.; Hasselroth, M.; Berglund, M.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic end stage renal disease need dialysis to survive; however, they also need a treatment that suits their life situation. It is important that healthcare providers provide reliable, up-to-date information about different dialysis treatment options. Since home haemodialysis is a relatively new treatment, it is necessary to gather more knowledge about what the treatment entails from the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to describe patients' experiences of having home haemodialysis. To gain access to the patients' experiences, they were asked to write narratives, which describe both their good and bad experiences of life with the treatment. The narratives were analysed with a qualitative method. The results of this analysis are subdivided into five themes: freedom to be at home and control their own treatment, feeling of being alone with the responsibility, changes in the home environment, need for support, and security and well-being with home haemodialysis. The conclusion is that home haemodialysis provides a certain level of freedom, but the freedom is limited as the treatment itself is restrictive. In order to improve patients' experiences with home haemodialysis, more research based on patients' experiences is needed and it is necessary to involve the patients in the development of the care. PMID:25587441

  12. Freedom and confinement: patients' experiences of life with home haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Vestman, C; Hasselroth, M; Berglund, M

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic end stage renal disease need dialysis to survive; however, they also need a treatment that suits their life situation. It is important that healthcare providers provide reliable, up-to-date information about different dialysis treatment options. Since home haemodialysis is a relatively new treatment, it is necessary to gather more knowledge about what the treatment entails from the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to describe patients' experiences of having home haemodialysis. To gain access to the patients' experiences, they were asked to write narratives, which describe both their good and bad experiences of life with the treatment. The narratives were analysed with a qualitative method. The results of this analysis are subdivided into five themes: freedom to be at home and control their own treatment, feeling of being alone with the responsibility, changes in the home environment, need for support, and security and well-being with home haemodialysis. The conclusion is that home haemodialysis provides a certain level of freedom, but the freedom is limited as the treatment itself is restrictive. In order to improve patients' experiences with home haemodialysis, more research based on patients' experiences is needed and it is necessary to involve the patients in the development of the care.

  13. Relationship between dialysis adequacy and sleep quality in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Nuran; Kalender, Nurten; Cinar, Fatma Ilknur; Bagcivan, Gulcan; Yenicesu, Mujdat; Dikici, Dilek; Kaya, Dilek

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between dialysis adequacy and sleep quality in haemodialysis patients. Sleep problems are common in haemodialysis patients. Dialysis adequacy is one of the factors associated with sleep quality. Studies evaluating the association between dialysis adequacy and sleep quality in haemodialysis patients present different results. Descriptive and cross-sectional study. This study was performed with a total of 119 patients who had applied to dialysis centres for haemodialysis treatment between January and March 2014. The data collection form consists of socio-demographic and medical characteristics as well as laboratory parameters. A modified Post-Sleep Inventory was used to examine sleep quality in the research. There were no statistically significant relationship between sleep quality and dialysis adequacy (p > 0·05). When the Post-Sleep Inventory scores were evaluated according to sleep quality, 63·0% of patients had poor sleep quality, and 37·0% had good sleep quality. Sleep quality was worse in unemployed patients (X(2) = 4·852; p = 0·025) and patients who smoked heavily (Z = 2·289; p = 0·022). In this study, there is no statistically significant relationship between dialysis adequacy and sleep quality. However, it was found that the majority of haemodialysis patients had poor sleep quality. Even if the dialysis adequacy of patients is at the recommended level, their sleep qualities may be poor. Therefore, evaluations of the sleep quality of haemodialysis patients during the clinical practice must be taken into consideration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Preoperative vascular access evaluation for haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Sarah D; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2015-09-30

    Haemodialysis treatment requires reliable vascular access. Optimal access is provided via functional arteriovenous fistula (fistula), which compared with other forms of vascular access, provides superior long-term patency, requires few interventions, has low thrombosis and infection rates and cost. However, it has been estimated that between 20% and 60% of fistulas never mature sufficiently to enable haemodialysis treatment. Mapping blood vessels using imaging technologies before surgery may identify vessels that are most suitable for fistula creation. We compared the effect of conducting routine radiological imaging evaluation for vascular access creation preoperatively with standard care without routine preoperative vessel imaging on fistula creation and use. We searched Cochrane Kidney and Transplant's Specialised Register to 14 April 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled adult participants (aged ≥ 18 years) with chronic or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who needed fistulas (both before dialysis and after dialysis initiation) that compared fistula maturation rates relating to use of imaging technologies to map blood vessels before fistula surgery with standard care (no imaging). Two authors assessed study quality and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes, including fistula creation, maturation and need for catheters at dialysis initiation, were expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Continuous outcomes, such as numbers of interventions required to maintain patency, were expressed as mean differences (MD). We used the random-effects model to measure mean effects. Four studies enrolling 450 participants met our inclusion criteria. Overall risk of bias was judged to be low in one study, unclear in two, and high in one.There was no significant differences in the number of fistulas that were successfully created (4

  15. Polyclonal outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteraemia in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, M; Doherty, C; Govan, J R W; Vandamme, P

    2003-06-01

    We report a polyclonal outbreak of bacteraemia involving 24 patients at a haemodialysis facility in Recife (Brazil). During the outbreak period (4 June to 11 July, 2001), three Burkholderia cepacia complex strains were isolated from human blood and from various water samples collected at different sites in the haemodialysis unit and from dialysate fluids. Out of 14 patients with positive blood cultures, six were infected by Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria: three with Burkholderia cepacia genomovar III, two with a first strain of Burkholderia vietnamiensis, and one with the Burkholderia cepacia genomovar III strain and a second B. vietnamiensis strain.

  16. Nutritional status in type 2 diabetic patients requiring haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Biesenbach, G; Debska-Slizien, A; Zazgornik, J

    1999-03-01

    Type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease are often overweight (BMI > 24) at the start of dialysis therapy. However, there are very few reports in the literature concerning the nutritional status of these patients after prolonged haemodialysis treatment. Therefore, we compared nutritional parameters in type 2 diabetic patients and age-matched non-diabetic patients after at least 18 months of renal replacement therapy with haemodialysis. In a cross-sectional study, we measured BMI, serum albumin, total protein, serum cholesterol and interdialytic weight gain (IWG), and performed a subjective global assessment (SGA) in 14 patients with type 2 diabetes and 16 non-diabetic patients (aged > or = 50 years, haemodialysis therapy > or = 18 months). Protein intake was estimated using the protein catabolic rate (PCR) and Kt/V was calculated to compare the dose of dialysis. BMI was significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (30+/-7 vs 24+/-3, P<0.01). In contrast, the concentration of serum albumin was significantly lower (3180+/-499 mg/dl vs 3576+/-431 mg/dl, P<0.05), but six of the diabetic patients had signs of chronic inflammation. All other nutritional parameters did not differ between the two groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of protein (PCR 0.93+/-0.19 vs 0.92+/-0.22) and the dose of dialysis (Kt/V 1.13+/-0.19 vs 1.2+/-0.2). After > or = 18 months of haemodialysis therapy, the majority of type 2 diabetic patients (9/14) were still overweight (BMI > 24). The nutritional status of diabetic patients was similar to that of age-matched non-diabetic patients on prolonged haemodialysis, but serum albumin levels were significantly lower in diabetics. The lower albumin levels in the diabetic patients may be explained by a state of subclinical chronic inflammation.

  17. Infective endocarditis in patients on haemodialysis - possible strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Oun, Hadi A; Price, Andrew J; Traynor, Jamie P

    2016-05-01

    Infective endocarditis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving haemodialysis for established renal failure. We carried out a prospective audit of patients developing infective endocarditis in a single renal unit. From 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2013, we collected data on all cases of endocarditis occurring in patients receiving haemodialysis at Monklands Hospital, Airdrie. Twenty-nine patients developed endocarditis during our audit period. Twenty-three (79.3%) of the patients had pre-existing cardiac valve abnormalities such as regurgitation or calcification. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common microorganism cultured from the blood of 22 patients (75.9%). MRSA bacteraemia was identified in eight of these patients and all eight patients died during that first presentation. Different strategies were introduced within the unit during the audit period aiming to reduce the rate of bacteraemia. Since 2011, a successful strategy has been introduced under the auspices of the Scottish Patient Safety Programme. This led to our Staph aureus bacteraemia rate related to non-tunnelled venous catheters going from an average of 15 days between episodes to having had no episodes between 2 December 2011 and the end of the study period (760 days). This also appears to have had a positive impact on reducing the rate of endocarditis. Infective endocarditis remains a devastating consequence of bacteraemia in patients receiving haemodialysis. An effective strategy aimed at reducing the rate of bacteraemia appears to have a similar effect on the rate of endocarditis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Nonadherence to Medication Therapy in Haemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Saurav; Castelino, Ronald L.; Lioufas, Nicole M.; Peterson, Gregory M.; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R.

    2015-01-01

    Background End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients are often prescribed multiple medications. Together with a demanding weekly schedule of dialysis sessions, increased number of medicines and associated regimen complexity pre-dispose them at high risk of medication nonadherence. This review summarizes existing literature on nonadherence and identifies factors associated with nonadherence to medication therapy in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews covering the period from 1970 through November 2014 was performed following a predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Reference lists from relevant materials were reviewed. Data on study characteristics, measures of nonadherence, prevalence rates and factors associated with nonadherence were collected. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was followed in conducting this systematic review. Results Of 920 relevant publications, 44 were included. The prevalence of medication nonadherence varied from 12.5% to 98.6%, with widespread heterogeneity in measures and definitions employed. Most common patient-related factors significantly associated with nonadherence were younger age, non-Caucasian ethnicity, illness interfering family life, being a smoker, and living single and being divorced or widowed. Similarly, disease-related factors include longevity of haemodialysis, recurrent hospitalization, depressive symptoms and having concomitant illness like diabetes and hypertension. Medication-related factors such as daily tablet count, total pill burden, number of phosphate binders prescribed and complexity of medication regimen were also associated with poor adherence. Conclusions A number of patient-, disease-, and medication-related factors are associated with medication nonadherence in haemodialysis patients. Clinicians should be aware of such factors so that

  19. Training nurses to support greater patient engagement in haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Tania; Hancock, Katy; Dainton, Marissa

    2013-09-01

    Evidence supports the view that people with long term conditions who are encouraged to take a greater interest in their treatment can experience a range of health benefits. Traditionally centre-based haemodialysis patients have been passive recipients whilst nurses have been deliverers of care. The Shared Haemodialysis Care (SHC) programme changes this relationship. Our aim was to initiate a programme of education in SHC across Yorkshire and Humber in North England, with its objective to support centre-based patients to take on aspects of their own treatment. A three tiered training model was designed to educate all grades of nursing staff. Central to this approach was the development of a four day competency based course aimed at training 25% of junior sisters/charge nurses, staff nurses and Level 3 health care assistants (unqualified nurses). We measured the number of staff trained and assessed staff knowledge using a pre and post course questionnaire. Individual course day evaluations and 'Light bulb moment 'sessions captured qualitative data and a census form relating to interest in and uptake of SHC captured patient engagement data. The pre and post delegate questionnaires from every cohort have demonstrated significant positive shifts in all the objectives of the training programme. The target of 25% of staff trained has been reached in all but one group of units. A third of all patients across Yorkshire and Humber are significantly engaged in their haemodialysis care. A nurse-led education programme can provide nurse participants with the tools to encourage and support patients to become more engaged in their haemodialysis treatment. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  20. Development and validation of cardiovascular risk scores for haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Anker, Stefan D; Gillespie, Iain A; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kronenberg, Florian; Richards, Sharon; Drueke, Tilman B; Stenvinkel, Peter; Pisoni, Ronald L; Robinson, Bruce M; Marcelli, Daniele; Froissart, Marc; Floege, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    A simple clinical tool to predict cardiovascular disease risk does not exist for haemodialysis patients. The long-term coronary risk Framingham Heart Study Risk score (FRS), although used in this population, may be inadequate. Therefore, we developed separate risk-scores for cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and cardiovascular morbidity & mortality (CVMM) in a Fresenius Medical Care-based haemodialysis patient cohort (AROii). Applying a modified FRS approach, we derived and internally validated two-year risk-scores in incident European adult patients randomly assigned to a development (N=4831) or a validation (N=4796) dataset. External validation was conducted in the third Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS III) cohort. Additional discrimination comparing to the FRS was performed. The overall two-year CVM and CVMM event rates were 5.0 and 22.6 per 100 person-years respectively. Common risk predictors included increasing age, cardiovascular disease history, primary diabetic nephropathy, low blood pressure, and inflammation. The CVM score was more predictive in AROii (c-statistic 0.72) and in DOPPS III (c-statistic 0.73-0.74) than the CVMM score (c-statistic 0.66-0.67 & 0.63 respectively). The FRS was not predictive of either CVM (c-statistic 0.54) or CVMM (c-statistic 0.56) in AROii. We describe novel, easy-to-apply and interpret CV risk-scores for haemodialysis patients. Our improved cardiovascular prediction performance over traditional (FRS) scores reflected its tailored development and validation in haemodialysis populations, and the integration of non-classical cardiovascular risk factors. The lower expected versus observed CVM and CVMM risk suggests the existence of novel cardiovascular risk factors in this patient population not measured in this study. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition in malnourished patients on chronic haemodialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Smolle, K H; Kaufmann, P; Holzer, H; Druml, W

    1995-01-01

    Malnutrition is frequently encountered in patients on regular haemodialysis therapy and presents an important determinant of morbidity and mortality. Usual therapeutic approaches to alleviate malnutrition have been unsuccessful. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) with amino acids (in combination with a glucose-containing dialysate) on nutritional parameters and immunocompetence in patients on regular haemodialysis treatment. Effects of IDPN were evaluated in 16 malnourished patients. After a run-in period of 4 weeks (to define stable baseline conditions) 0.8 g amino acids/kg bodyweight using a novel amino-acid solution (adapted to metabolic alteration of uraemia and including the dipeptide glycyl-tyrosine as tyrosine source) was infused thrice weekly during each haemodialysis session for 16 weeks. Intradialytic amino-acid infusion was well tolerated and the dipeptide was rapidly utilized with only traces being detectable in plasma after dialysis. Visceral protein synthesis was improved, serum albumin, prealbumin, and cholinesterase increased during IDPN (P < 0.05). As indicators of augmented immunocompetence skin test reactivity against multiple antigens was improved (P < 0.02) and total lymphocyte count was raised (P < 0.05). Plasma amino acid pattern did not deteriorate but failed to normalize during IDPN and phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio remained stable. Anthropometric measurements and eating behaviour as assessed by dietary records were not altered during IDPN. Even using a simple and limited intradialytic nutritional support with amino acids can improve visceral protein status and stimulate immunocompetence in malnourished patients on regular haemodialysis therapy.

  2. Periodontal status and serum biomarkers levels in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vandilson P; Libério, Silvana A; Lopes, Fernanda F; Thomaz, Erika B F A; Guerra, Rosane N M; Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Antonio L A

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association between periodontal status and serum biomarkers levels in haemodialysis patients. This cross-sectional study included 96 haemodialysis patients. The periodontal evaluation was realized using clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival bleeding index (GBI), visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival index (GI). Biochemical and haematological data - serum albumin, phosphorus, creatinine, transferrin, ferritin, iron, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, potassium and haemoglobin - were collected from the medical records. The subject was diagnosed with periodontitis if he/she had at least two inter-proximal sites in different teeth with CAL ≥4 mm and/or at least two inter-proximal sites in separate teeth with PD ≥5 mm. The study population consisted of 45 men and 51 women, with mean time under haemodialysis of 45.6 ± 33.1 months. Periodontitis was observed in 59.4% of the subjects. The periodontitis group had albumin (p = 0.021) and phosphorus (p = 0.024) serum levels lower than the no periodontitis group. Thus, there was a positive association of periodontitis with hypoalbuminaemia (OR = 9.10, p = 0.006) and a negative association with hyperphosphataemia (OR = 0.21, p = 0.010). These findings suggest that periodontitis is associated with albumin and phosphorus serum levels in haemodialysis patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Glycaemic control is a predictor of infection-related hospitalization on haemodialysis patients: Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort study (MID study).

    PubMed

    Toida, Tatsunori; Sato, Yuji; Nakagawa, Hideto; Komatsu, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Masao; Uezono, Shigehiro; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Ishihara, Tabito; Hisanaga, Shuichi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Fujimoto, Shouichi

    2016-03-01

    Although infection is the second leading cause of death in maintenance haemodialysis patients, the effects of glycaemic control on infection in diabetic haemodialysis patients have not yet been examined in detail. We examined the relationship between diabetes or glycemic control and infection-related hospitalization (IRH) in haemodialysis patients. Patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis (n = 1551, 493 diabetic patients) were enrolled in this prospective cohort study in December 2009 and followed-up for 3 years. IRH during the follow-up period was abstracted from medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between diabetes or glycaemic control and IRH. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the risk of IRH was significantly higher in haemodialysis patients with diabetes, particularly in those with poorly controlled HbA1c levels (HbA1c ≥ 7.0%), than in haemodialysis patients without diabetes. When patients with ≥HbA1c 7.0% were divided into two groups using a median value of HbA1c, the risk of IRH was significantly higher in those with the poorest glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.4%), an older age, or lower albumin levels. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for the risk of IRH was not higher in the second criteria of HbA1c (HbA1c 7.0-7.3%), but was significantly higher in the group with the poorest glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.4%) than in those in the good control criterion (HbA1c < 7.0%). Although diabetes is a risk factor for IRH among maintenance haemodialysis patients, the relationship between glycaemic control and the risk of infection is not linear. Therefore, the risk of infection may increase in a manner that is dependent on the glycaemic control threshold. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  4. Warfarin in haemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation: what benefit?

    PubMed

    Yang, Felix; Chou, Denise; Schweitzer, Paul; Hanon, Sam

    2010-12-01

    Warfarin is commonly used to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation; however, patients on haemodialysis may not derive the same benefit from warfarin as the general population. There are no randomized controlled studies in dialysis patients which demonstrate the efficacy of warfarin in preventing stroke. In fact, warfarin places the dialysis patient at increased risk for haemorrhagic stroke and possibly ischaemic stroke. Additionally, warfarin increases the risk of major bleeding and has been associated with vascular calcification. Routine use of warfarin in dialysis for stroke prevention should be discouraged, and therapy should only be reserved for dialysis patients at high risk for thrombo-embolic stroke and carefully monitored if implemented.

  5. Autoantibodies against N-homocysteinylated proteins in patients on long-term haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Undas, Anetta; Kolarz, Marek; Kopec, Grzegorz; Glowacki, Rafal; Placzkiewicz-Jankowska, Ewa; Tracz, Wiesława

    2007-06-01

    Autoantibodies against N(epsilon)-homocysteinylated (N(epsilon)-Hcy) proteins at high titres have been demonstrated in patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. Since recently, elevated N(epsilon)-Hcy-proteins levels have been reported in haemodialysis patients, we sought to investigate whether anti-N(epsilon)-Hcy-protein antibodies occur in such subjects and if they are associated with cardiovascular risk. We studied 43 patients, aged 27-89 (mean 58.8) years, dialysed for, on average, 50 months and 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. IgG antibodies against N(epsilon)-Hcy-albumin and -haemoglobin were determined using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Haemodialysis patients had higher plasma tHcy (23.18 +/- 1.37 vs 13.51 +/- 0.64; P < 0.0001), serum folate (29.7 +/- 6.9 vs 9.9 +/- 3.8 nmol/l; P < 0.0001) and anti-N(epsilon)-Hcy-albumin and -haemoglobin antibodies (absorbancy at 490 nm: 0.39 +/- 0.22 vs 0.34 +/- 0.12; P = 0.03 and 0.60 +/- 0.31 vs 0.42 +/- 0.09; P < 0.0001, respectively) than controls. Levels of anti-N(epsilon)-Hcy-albumin antibodies, but not those against haemoglobin, correlated negatively with the duration of haemodialysis (r = -0.39; P = 0.01). This correlation disappeared after a 6-month follow-up. Haemodialysis patients treated with folic acid on a long-term basis had similar levels of anti-N(epsilon)-Hcy-albumin and -haemoglobin antibodies compared with the minority which denied taking this vitamin (absorbancy A490: 0.35 +/- 0.22 vs 0.38 +/- 0.05; P = 0.5 and 0.63 +/- 0.30 vs 0.51 +/- 0.11; P = 0.4, respectively). Our study shows that an autoimmune response to anti-N(epsilon)-Hcy-proteins occurs in patients on maintenance haemodialysis and is more pronounced than in healthy subjects.

  6. Influence of dialysis modality and membrane flux on insomnia severity in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Knezevic, Marinela Z; Djordjevic, Vladimir V; Jankovic, Slobodan M; Djordjevic, Vidojko M

    2013-11-01

    Insomnia is an important problem in dialysis patients. A greater prevalence of insomnia in chronic kidney disease compared with non-renal patients suggests a role for uraemic toxins in contributing to insomnia. The aim of this study was to examine if dialysis modality and membrane permeability is associated with the frequency and severity of insomnia in haemodialysis patients. In our cross-sectional study, we evaluated 122 patients who were divided into three groups: on-line haemodiafiltration, high flux haemodialysis and low flux haemodialysis. The frequency and severity of insomnia was evaluated with the Insomnia Severity Index. Insomnia was present in 47.5% of all patients. The majority of patients who reported insomnia were receiving low flux haemodialysis (80%), followed by patients on high flux haemodialysis (43.6%) and haemodiafiltration (20.9%). Patients using low flux membranes, had a significantly higher Insomnia Severity Index (11.9 ± 6.6) compared with patients receiving high flux haemodialysis (6.8 ± 6.3) and haemodiafiltration (5.2 ± 7.0). The insomnia severity index did not differ between patients receiving high flux haemodialysis compared with on-line haemodiafiltration. This study indicates that different haemodialysis modalities are associated with insomnia and suggests a potential benefit of using high flux membranes. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. The beliefs and expectations of patients and caregivers about home haemodialysis: an interview study

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Allison; Palmer, Suetonia; Manns, Braden; Craig, Jonathan C; Ruospo, Marinella; Gargano, Letizia; Johnson, David W; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Olsson, Måns; Fishbane, Steven; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore the beliefs and expectations of patients and their caregivers about home haemodialysis in Italy where the prevalence of home haemodialysis is low. Design Semistructured, qualitative interview study with purposive sampling and thematic analysis. Setting Four dialysis centres in Italy without home haemodialysis services (Bari, Marsala, Nissoria and Taranto). Participants 22 patients receiving in-centre haemodialysis and 20 of their identified caregivers. Results We identified seven major themes that were central to patient and caregiver perceptions of home haemodialysis in regions without established services. Three positive themes were: flexibility and freedom (increased autonomy, minimised wasted time, liberation from strict dialysis schedules and gaining self-worth); comfort in familiar surroundings (family presence and support, avoiding the need for dialysis in hospital) and altruistic motivation to do home haemodialysis as an exemplar for other patients and families. Four negative themes were: disrupting sense of normality; family burden (an onerous responsibility, caregiver uncertainty and panic and visually confronting); housing constraints; healthcare by ‘professionals’ not ‘amateurs’ (relinquishing security and satisfaction with in-centre services) and isolation from peer support. Conclusions Patients without direct experience or previous education about home haemodialysis and their caregivers recognise the autonomy of home haemodialysis but are very concerned about the potential burden and personal sacrifice home haemodialysis will impose on caregivers and feel apprehensive about accepting the medical responsibilities of dialysis. To promote acceptance and uptake of home haemodialysis among patients and caregivers who have no experience of home dialysis, effective strategies are needed that provide information about home haemodialysis to patients and their caregivers, assure access to caregiver respite, provide continuous

  8. The effect of aromatherapy on haemodialysis patients' pruritus.

    PubMed

    Cürcani, Mehtap; Tan, Mehtap

    2014-12-01

    To determine the effect of aromatherapy on pruritus observed in haemodialysis patients. Although the prevalence of pruritus in kidney failure has decreased in the recent years, pruritus is a difficult and serious problem which concerns the majority of haemodialysis patents and is hard to cure. A prospective, pretest-post-test quasi-experimental design was used. The research is quasi-experimental clinical trial conducted as pretest and post-test with control groups between January 2011-April 2012, in haemodialysis units of hospitals in Erzurum. The collection of the data is achieved using a questionnaire to detect the patients' individual and pruritus score scale and to clarify certain laboratory parameters regarding the pruritus. Chi-square analysis and t-test are used for the analysis of data. The experimental group's mean post-test pruritus scores (7·20 ± 3·14) were found to be lower than that of control group patients (10·00 ± 2·47), and a highly significant difference was found between the groups (p < 0·001). In the between-groups comparisons of experimental and control group's laboratory parameters, the experimental group's post-test blood urea nitrogen levels (118·26 ± 36·76) were found to be lower than that of control group patients (138·80 ± 48·69), and the between-groups difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0·05). The results demonstrate that aromatherapy was found to decrease the pruritus problem of haemodialyses patients and led to positive changes in some laboratory parameters related to pruritus. One of the roles of health professionals is to advise individuals, who are living on this problem, using the nonpharmacological methods in checking the itching. By preventing or reducing uraemic pruritus, aromatherapy may also improve quality of life in this patient group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Implementation of a pharmacist medication review clinic for haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mirkov, Sanja

    2009-06-19

    To implement the Pharmacist Medication Review Clinic and establish a sustainable clinical pharmacy service. Prospective clinical medication review conducted by trained clinical pharmacists using standardised tools. Pharmacists' intervention included medication recommendation and patient education. From December 2007 to July 2008, medication reviews were conducted with 64 haemodialysis patients. Patients were taking on average 13 medications. Drug-related problems (DRPs) were identified in 92% of medication reviews (a total of 278 DRPs). The major DRP was non-adherence with medication regimen (33%), followed by medication requiring dose decrease (9.3%) and indication requiring new medication (8.6%). The risk factors for multiple DRPs were ethnicity, length of time on dialysis and age. New Zealand (NZ) Maori and Pacific Peoples were more likely to have more than three DRPs compared to patients of European descent. (NZ Maori: OR 7.49, 95%CI 1.15-48.9, p=0.035; Pacific Peoples: OR 5.4, 95%CI 0.96-30.34, p=0.055) and patients who spent 3.5 to 6.3 years on dialysis (OR 7.48, 95%CI 1.45-38.76, p=0.016). Patients older than 55 were less likely to have more than three DRPs compared to younger patients (OR 0.14, 95%CI 0.03-0.69, p=0.016). Pharmacist-led medication review clinic identified drug-related problems (DRPs) and risk factors for DRPs in haemodialysis patients.

  10. Renal care: six essentials for a haemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Chamney, Melissa

    Once the filtration rate of the kidney falls below 10 ml/minute a patient will require haemodialysis treatment sessions typically three times per week to remove waste products and excess fluids. Due to the obvious change in life circumstances the patient will require clinical intervention and usually quality psychosocial support. Therefore, several areas have to be included in the nursing care plan to provide a complete treatment strategy. Access to the blood is provided through a surgically created access and this must be monitored regularly for adequate function and signs of infection. With little or no renal function fluid will accumulate in the body and there are a number of clinical signs that need to be recognized that are involved in determining the patient's correct hydration status. The interpretation of routine observations such as weight and blood pressure is vital to the fluid removal strategy and antihypertensive drug therapy. The patient's diet should also be carefully controlled avoiding foods with high sodium, potassium and phosphate content while ensuring adequate protein intake and vitamin supplement where necessary. Most patients require several or more medications throughout their life on haemodialysis and this requires a well-organized care plan for medication administration.

  11. High cut-off dialysis in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Girndt, Matthias; Fiedler, Roman; Martus, Peter; Pawlak, Michael; Storr, Markus; Bohler, Torsten; Glomb, Marcus A; Liehr, Kristin; Henning, Christian; Templin, Markus; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Ulrich, Christof; Werner, Kristin; Zickler, Daniel; Schindler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Haemodialysis patients suffer from chronic systemic inflammation and high incidence of cardiovascular disease. One cause for this may be the failure of diseased kidneys to eliminate immune mediators. Current haemodialysis treatment achieves insufficient elimination of proteins in the molecular weight range 15-45 kD. Thus, high cut-off dialysis might improve the inflammatory state. In this randomized crossover trial, 43 haemodialysis patients were treated for 3 weeks with high cut-off or high-flux dialysis. Inflammatory plasma mediators, monocyte subpopulation distribution and leucocyte gene expression were quantified. High cut-off dialysis supplemented by a low-flux filter did not influence the primary end-point, expression density of CD162 on monocytes. Nevertheless, treatment reduced multiple immune mediators in plasma. Such reduction proved - at least for some markers - to be a sustained effect over the interdialytic interval. Thus, for example, soluble TNF-receptor 1 concentration predialysis was reduced from median 13·3 (IQR 8·9-17·2) to 9·7 (IQR 7·5-13·2) ng/mL with high cut-off while remaining constant with high-flux treatment. The expression profile of multiple proinflammatory genes in leucocytes was significantly dampened. Treatment was well tolerated although albumin losses in high cut-off dialysis would be prohibitive against long-term use. The study shows for the first time that a dampening effect of high cut-off dialysis on systemic inflammation is achievable. Earlier studies had failed due to short study duration or insufficient dialysis efficacy. Removal of soluble mediators from the circulation influences cellular activation levels in leucocytes. Continued development of less albumin leaky membranes with similar cytokine elimination is justified. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  12. Patients' experiences of safety during haemodialysis treatment--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lovink, Marleen H; Kars, Marijke C; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2015-10-01

    To explore the experiences of safety of adult patients during their haemodialysis treatment. Haemodialysis is a complex treatment with a risk for harm that causes anxiety among many patients. To date, no in-depth study of haemodialysis patients' emotional responses to conditions of their treatment exists. A descriptive exploratory qualitative study using content analysis was conducted. Outpatients (≥18 years old) (n = 12) who were treated with haemodialysis for more than half a year were purposefully selected from two haemodialysis units (one in an academic hospital and one in a top clinical hospital) in the Netherlands. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews from January-April 2013. Analysis of the transcribed interviews consisted of open coding, creating categories and synthesis. Patients defined 'safety' as feeling safe from physical or emotional threats. Four main categories were identified in the descriptions of haemodialysis patients' experiences of safety: (a) insecurity; (b) trust in the nurse; (c) presence of the nurse; and (d) patients' need to control their situation. Although haemodialysis patients perceived multiple risks, most patients reported feeling safe during their treatment. The nurse had a pivotal role in promoting patients' feelings of safety. Nurses should take into account patients' coping strategies because these coping strategies may cause some patients to feel anxious, especially when patients say that they leave everything to the nurse, yet they still desire control over their treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography for detecting arteriovenous fistula dysfunction in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Jin, W T; Zhang, G F; Liu, H C; Zhang, H; Li, B; Zhu, X Q

    2015-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA), using time-of-flight and black-blood MRA, in the evaluation of arteriovenous fistulas in haemodialysis patients in comparison to multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA). NCE-MRA and MDCTA were performed on the same day in 21 patients on maintenance haemodialysis with dysfunctional arteriovenous fistulas. The fistulas included three segments: arterial inflow, anastomosis, and venous outflow. Two experienced observers, who were blinded to the results of the NCE-MRA, recorded in consensus the significant stenoses (≥50%) seen on CTA. Two other experienced observers, unaware of the results of CTA, independently recorded significant stenoses (≥50%) in the NCE-MRA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of NCE-MRA were calculated, with MDCTA as the standard reference. Sixty-three vascular segments in the 21 patients were clearly displayed. For the two observers of NCE-MRA, the accuracy was 98% and 95.4%; sensitivity 96.4% and 96.4%; specificity 97.1% and 94.3%; positive predictive value 96.4% and 93.1%; and, negative predictive value 97.1% and 97.1%. Inter-/intra-observer agreement for detecting stenosis was excellent for NCE-MRA, with a weighted kappa of 0.968 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.874-1) and 0.936 (95% CI, 0.848-1). Non-contrast-enhanced MRA, using time-of-flight and black-blood MRA, is a reproducible and reliable imaging technique for detecting ≥50% stenosis in dysfunctional haemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Incremental haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan; Vilar, Enric; Davenport, Andrew; Farrington, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Thrice-weekly haemodialysis schedules have become the standard default haemodialysis prescription worldwide. Whereas the measurement of residual renal function is accepted practice for peritoneal dialysis patients and the importance of residual renal function in determining technique success is well established, few centres routinely assess residual renal function in haemodialysis patients. Although intradialytic hypotension and episodes of acute kidney injury may predispose to an earlier loss of residual renal function, a significant proportion of haemodialysis patients maintain some residual function long after dialysis initiation. As such, an incremental approach to the initiation of dialysis with careful monitoring of residual renal function may potentially provide some haemodialysis patients with an improved quality of life and greater preservation of residual renal function whilst fewer dialysis sessions may reduce health care costs. Prospective trials are required to determine the optimum approach to the initiation of haemodialysis for the oliguric patient. Once residual renal function has been lost, then dialysis prescriptions should be re-examined to consider the use of longer or more frequent treatment sessions and switching from low-flux to high-flux dialysis or haemodiafiltration to offset retention of middle sized molecules and protein-bound azotaemic solutes.

  15. Risk factors associated with xerostomia in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    López-Pintor, Lucía; Casañas, Elisabeth; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Hernández, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation in Haemodialysis (HD) patients, to clarify risk factors, assess patient´s quality of life, and to establish a possible correlation among interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and xerostomia. Material and Methods This study was performed on a group of 50 HD patients. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing demographic and clinical variables, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for xerostomia, IDWG, and an oral health impact profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) were collected. Results A total of 28 HD patients (56%) suffered xerostomia. Dry mouth was associated with hypertension (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.11-24.89) and benzodiazepine consumption (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 1.05-33.99). The mean xerostomia VAS and OHIP-14 scores were 31.74±14.88 and 24.38±11.98, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between IDWG% and VAS and OHIP total score. Nonetheless, a positive correlation between VAS level of thirst and IDWG% was found (r=0.48 p=0.0001). UWS and SWS means (determined in 30 patients) were 0.16±0.17 and 1.12±0.64, respectively. Decreased values of UWS and SWS were reported in 53.33% and 36.66% of HD patients. Conclusions Xerostomia in HD has a multifactorial aetiology due to accumulative risks as advanced age, systemic disorders, drugs, fluid intake restriction, and salivary parenchymal fibrosis and atrophy. Therefore, it is important to detect possible xerostomia risk factors to treat correctly dry mouth in HD patients and avoid systemic complications. Key words:Haemodialysis patients, xerostomia, salivary flow rate, hyposalivation, interdialytic weight gain, oral health-related quality of life. PMID:28160594

  16. Use of a knowledge-attitude-behaviour education programme for Chinese adults undergoing maintenance haemodialysis: Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Liu, Yue-Ping; Wang, Jing; An, Li-Wei; Jiao, Jian-Mei

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a knowledge-attitude-behaviour health education model on acquisition of disease-related knowledge and self-management behaviour by patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis. Patients recently prescribed MHD were randomly assigned to a control group or an intervention group. Control group patients were treated with usual care and general education models. A specialist knowledge-attitude-behaviour health education model was applied to patients in the intervention group. Eighty-six patients were included (n = 43 per group). Before intervention, there were no significant between-group differences in disease knowledge and self-management behaviour. After 6 months' intervention, a significant between-group difference in acquisition of disease knowledge was observed. Self-management behaviour scores (control of body mass, reasonable diet, correct drug intake, physical activity, correct fistula care, disease condition monitoring, psychological and social behaviours) for the intervention group were also higher than those for the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that the knowledge-attitude-behaviour model appears to be a valuable tool for the health education of MHD patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Nutritional markers in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Dewar, D; Soyibo, A K; Barton, E N

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the study is to assess the nutritional status in patients on chronic haemodialysis in Jamaica using the Subjective Global Assessment tool and to correlate this with measured serum nutritional biomarkers, and also to identify nutritional biomarkers that can be used to assess nutritional status of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Two hundred and nine consecutive patients on haemodialysis were selected from dialysis centres in Kingston, the capital of Jamaica, St. Catherine and Manchester Jamaica. The nutritional status of each participant was assessed using the Subjective Global Assessment tool in an interview performed by the researcher. Serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, highly sensitive complement reactive protein (hsCRP) and total fasting cholesterol were determined from a single serum sample. Only patients with ESRD were selected. Patients with acute renal failure or those with ESRD who were admitted in the previous two weeks were excluded from the study. Informed consent was obtained prior to interview and obtaining blood samples. Of the total participants, 54.5% (n=114) were male and 45.5% (n=95) female. The mean age for males was 51.9 years and females 47.6 years. Diabetes was documented as the most common cause of chronic renal disease and was found in 29.7%, hypertension in 24.4% and chronic glomerulonephritis in 22% of the participants. Approximately 80% of the study population had moderate malnutrition. There was a significant association between moderate malnutrition and a diagnosis of ESRD secondary to diabetes mellitus, p = 0.03. Being on haemodialysis for < or = six months was significantly associated with moderate malnutrition p = 0.002. Also associated with moderate malnutrition were presence of an arteriovenous (AV) fistula (p = 0.01), serum albumin of < 40 g/L (OR 3.68, p = 0.001), pre-dialysis creatinine of <880 micromol/L (p = 0.02) and cholesterol < 3.9 mmol/L (p = 0.04). Highly sensitive

  18. Aluminium and strontium in calcium supplements and antacids: a concern to haemodialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Eric; Jakubovic, R; Pejovic-Milic, A; Heyd, D V

    2010-10-01

    Trace elements, most notably aluminium and strontium, have been noted for their role in the development of secondary bone disorders in haemodialysis patients. Due to the large dosages of calcium required for the maintenance of dialysis patients, this study investigated whether the source of calcium chosen for supplementation, including the form of administration (i.e. chewable forms or capsules), has an influence on the total amount of strontium and aluminium ingested daily. A convenience sample of various calcium supplement tablets and antacids was acquired, and strontium and aluminium quantification was performed by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The use of readily available oyster shell-based calcium was found potentially to increase the total amount of ingested strontium substantially with concentrations reaching (2.26 +/- 0.05) (mg Sr).(g Ca)(-1), while the use of antacids or chewable supplements was found to contain concentrations reaching as high as (1.2 +/- 0.3) (mg Al).(g Ca)(-1) in the supplements analysed within this work. It is recommended that the choice of calcium supplement prescribed to individuals undergoing haemodialysis be closely regulated and noted as a possible factor in the prevalence of bone disorders reported in these patients.

  19. Acupuncture for erectile dysfunction in a non-diabetic haemodialysis patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kang, Jung Won; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Jong-In; Choi, Jun-Yong; Sul, Jae-Uk; Choi, Sun Mi

    2011-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) significantly affects the quality of life in male haemodialysis patients. This study reports the observed effects of acupuncture for ED in a non-diabetic haemodialysis patient. A 43-year-old man undergoing haemodialysis received 12 sessions of manual acupuncture over 6 weeks and was observed for 6 months after the end of treatment. Total International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire scores of the patient were changed from 32 at baseline to 60 at post-treatment evaluation, which means there was a significant improvement of ED. All International Index of Erectile Function subscales also increased. This beneficial effect lasted up to 6 months after the end of treatment. No adverse events were observed. An interview revealed that the lowered self-esteem of the patient was restored with the improvement of ED following acupuncture. Further controlled studies are needed to determine whether acupuncture might be a feasible and useful treatment option for erectile dysfunction in haemodialysis patients.

  20. Professional support for next of kin of patients receiving chronic haemodialysis treatment: a content analysis study of nursing documentation.

    PubMed

    Ziegert, Kristina; Fridlund, Bengt; Lidell, Evy

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the content of nursing documentation with a focus on professional support for next of kin (NoK) of patients receiving chronic haemodialysis treatment. Professional support in nursing focuses on promotion, maintenance and restoration of health and prevention of illness. The study had a descriptive design and qualitative content analysis was used to search for themes based on descriptions contained in the collected nursing documentation. The total number of nursing records of patients receiving chronic haemodialysis treatment (n = 50) for the 5-year period 1998-2002 was included. All nursing documentation was systematic in accordance with the VIPS-documentation model. The professional support could be described within the framework of three themes: to explore NoK's supportive resources, to enable NoK' readiness in caring for the patient and to co-operate with NoK in the care of the patient in the home, captured by the core theme which described the professional support as a continuous process. Next of kin are a supportive resource in the nursing care of patients receiving chronic haemodialysis treatment and professional support for NoK focuses on planning their participation in the care of patients in the home. Professional support for NoK should be documented in family focused nursing diagnoses, which would make it possible to search for different types of support. Future research might explore nurses' or NoK's views on carer support.

  1. Hypoalbuminaemia in haemodialysis patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals and Chitungwiza central hospital.

    PubMed

    Machingura, Pasipanodya Ian; Mahiya, Needmore Muchadura; Chikwasha, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Haemodialysis is one of the widely used methods in end stage renal disease. However it has a negative impact on the quality of life of the renal patients. Hypoalbuminaemia occur in haemodialysis patients and it correlates strongly with mortality and morbidity. We sought out to determine the prevalence of hypoalbuminaemia among haemodialysis patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals and Chitungwiza central hospital. A questionnaire was administered on haemodialysis patients at Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals and Chitungwiza Central Hospital who consented to participate in the study. Pre dialysis serum samples collected from the patients were used for albumin analysis. The serum from the patients was analysed for serum albumin levels using the Mindray BS120 chemistry analyser using the bromocresol green method. A total of 60 patients were recruited from the two hospitals. The Mean albumin concentration for the entire group was 33.6g/L SD (6.1 g/L). The mean albumin in males was 33.6 g/L, SD (5.9) and in female 33.6, SD (6.6 g/L) and this was not statistically significantly different (p = 0.988). The prevalence of hypoalbuminaemia was 76.7%. Hypoalbuminaemia in 76.7% of haemodialysis patients studied is a cause of concern thus monitoring of haemodialysis patients albumin is necessary since its decreased levels has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

  2. Risk identification in haemodialysis patients by appropriate body composition assessment.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Sandra; Palomares, Inés; Moissl, Ulrich; Chamney, Paul; Carretero, Diana; Crespo, Antonio; Morente, Camilo; Ribera, Laura; Wabel, Peter; Ramos, Rosa; Merello, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Circumstances such as gender, age, diabetes mellitus (DM) and renal failure impact on the body composition of patients. However, we use nutritional parameters such as lean and fat tissue with reference values from healthy subjects to assess the nutritional status of haemodialysis (HD) patients. To analyse body composition by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) of 6395 HD patients in order to obtain reference values of lean tissue index (LTI) and fat tissue index (FTI) from HD patients; and to confirm its validity by showing that those patients with LTI below the 10th percentile calculated for their group have greatest risk of death. We used the BIS to determine the LTI and FTI in our cohort of HD patients in Spain. We calculated the 10th percentile and 90th percentile of LTI and FTI in each age decile for patients grouped by gender and presence of DM. We collected clinical, laboratory and demographic parameters. The LTI/FTI 10 and 90 percentile values varied by group (age, gender and presence of DM) and, after adjusting for other risk factors such as fluid overload, those patients with LTI lower than percentile 10 had a higher relative risk of death (OR 1.57) than those patients with higher values. Monitoring the LTI and FTI of patients on HD using suitable reference values may help to identify risk in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of the needs of haemodialysis patients using the concept of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Magda

    2012-03-01

    Along with basic survival and other clinical outcomes, patients' quality of life is an important indicator to reflect the needs of these patients. Human needs are classified in Maslow's hierarchy, where the most essential basic physiological need provides the base, and self actualisation is at the top of pyramid. The aim of this study is to identify the patients' needs who are on maintenance haemodialysis using concept of Maslow's hierarchy. The descriptive study was conducted in the dialysis unit of Suez Canal University Hospitals. The study included 50 patients attending the dialysis unit. The findings showed that the patients' highest need was for self-esteem (92.0%), whereas the lowest was for love and belonging (38.0%). Statistically significant relationships were revealed between the identified love and belonging needs and patients' age and the duration of dialysis (p = 0.008). The total needs score was lower with the longer duration of dialysis (59.6 ± 7.3), compared to those with a duration less than 24 months (65.7 ± 8.1), p = 0.02. Based on the main study findings it is concluded that haemodialysis patients' highest need was for self-esteem, and the lowest was for love and belonging. These needs increased with longer duration of dialysis. Nurses need to be aware of these findings in order to be able to supply the necessary support to help the patient regain his/her self-concept. © 2011 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  4. British Dietetic Association evidence-based guidelines for the protein requirements of adults undergoing maintenance haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Naylor, H L; Jackson, H; Walker, G H; Macafee, S; Magee, K; Hooper, L; Stewart, L; MacLaughlin, H L

    2013-08-01

    Existing nutritional guidelines suggest that protein requirements of adults with stage five chronic kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) are increased as a result of protein losses during dialysis. The present review aimed to update previous guidance and develop evidence-based practice guidelines on the protein requirements of adults undergoing maintenance dialysis. Following a PICO approach (Participants or Population, Intervention or Exposure, Comparison and Outcome), four research questions were formulated to investigate the total protein requirement and protein quality required by adults undergoing HD and PD. A comprehensive, systematic review was undertaken using the databases Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from 2005 to September 2009 for HD studies and from 1997 to September 2009 for PD studies. The literature search yielded 2931 studies, which were assessed for inclusion. Following appraisal, 19 studies in HD and 18 studies in PD met the inclusion criteria and were systematically reviewed. Limited good quality evidence supports the recommendations that: (i) adults undergoing maintenance HD require a minimum protein intake of 1.1 g kg(-1) ideal body weight (IBW) per day; and (ii) adults undergoing maintenance PD require a minimum protein intake of 1.0-1.2 kg(-1) IBW per day, in conjunction with an adequate energy intake. There were no studies that addressed the quality of protein for either HD or PD. Evidence suggests that nutritional status may be maintained with lower protein intakes than previously recommended. However, the evidence base is limited and further randomised controlled trials are required to establish the optimal protein intake for dialysis patients. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphorus binders in patients on chronic haemodialysis: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ring, T; Nielsen, C; Andersen, S P; Behrens, J K; Sodemann, B; Kornerup, H J

    1993-01-01

    The first reported double-blind cross-over comparison between the phosphorus binders calcium carbonate and calcium acetate was undertaken in 15 stable patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis. Detailed registration of diet and analysis of the protein catabolic rate suggested an unchanged phosphorus intake during the study. It was found that predialytic serum phosphate concentration was significantly decreased by 0.11 mmol/l (0.34 mg/dl) (P = 0.021, 95% confidence limits 0.02-0.21 mmol/l; 0.06-0.65 mg/dl) during calcium acetate treatment. The calcium phosphate product was insignificantly decreased during treatment with calcium acetate whereas we could not exclude the possibility that calcium concentration had increased.

  6. High versus low dialysate sodium concentration in chronic haemodialysis patients: a systematic review of 23 studies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; Pisano, Anna; Lisi, Piero; Rossi, Luigi; Lomonte, Carlo; Bolignano, Davide

    2016-04-01

    It is the object of debate whether a low or high dialysate sodium concentration (DNa(+)) should be advocated in chronic haemodialysis patients. In this paper, we aimed at evaluating benefits and harms of different DNa(+) prescriptions through a systematic review of the available literature. MEDLINE and CENTRAL databases were searched for studies comparing low or high DNa(+) prescriptions. Outcomes of interest were mortality, blood pressure (BP), interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), plasma sodium, hospitalizations, use of anti-hypertensive agents and intradialytic complications. Twenty-three studies (76 635 subjects) were reviewed. There was high heterogeneity in the number of patients analysed, overall study quality, duration of follow-up, DNa(+) and even in the definition of 'high' or 'low' DNa(+). The only three studies looking at mortality were observational. The risk of death was related to the plasma-DNa(+) gradient, but was also shown to be confounded by indication from the dialysate sodium prescription itself. BP was not markedly affected by high or low DNa(+). Patients treated with higher DNa(+) had overall higher IDWG when compared with those with lower DNa(+). Three studies reported a significant increase in intra-dialytic hypotensive episodes in patients receiving low DNa(+). Data on hospitalizations and use of anti-hypertensive agents were sparse and inconclusive. There is currently no definite evidence proving the superiority of a low or high uniform DNa(+) on hard or surrogate endpoints in maintenance haemodialysis patients. Future trials adequately powered to evaluate the impact of different DNa(+) on mortality or other patient-centred outcomes are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-dose cholecalciferol supplementation and dual vitamin D therapy in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Dusilová-Sulková, Sylvie; Šafránek, Roman; Vávrová, Jaroslava; Horáček, Jiří; Pavlíková, Ladislava; Palička, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) due to low calcitriol synthesis in failing kidneys has been treated with synthetic vitamin D receptor (VDR) activators. Recently, also the importance of low native vitamin D status beyond the issue of SHPT has been recognized in these patients. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation in haemodialysis patients with low vitamin D serum levels. Another aim was to evaluate dual vitamin D therapy (cholecalciferol supplementation plus paricalcitol) in haemodialysis patients with vitamin D deficiency and concomitant SHPT. Ninety clinically stable maintenance haemodialysis patients were included. Supervised cholecalciferol supplementation was administered due to low vitamin D status. Patients with SHPT were also treated with synthetic VDR activator. Two pre hoc subgroups for statistical analysis were formed: patients treated solely with cholecalciferol (N=34; 5,000 IU once weekly) and patients treated with a combination of cholecalciferol (identical dose, i.e. 5,000 IU/week) plus paricalcitol (N=34, median dose 10 μg/week). Follow-up visit was scheduled 15 weeks later. Serum concentrations of calcidiol (25-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and beta-cross laps (CTX) were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were monitored monthly. Only non-calcium gastrointestinal phosphate binders were administered. Dialysate calcium was 1.5 mmol/L in all patients, and no oral calcium-containing preparations were prescribed. Depending on data distribution, parametric or nonparametric statistical methods were used for comparison within each group (i.e. baseline vs. follow-up data) as well as between groups. In the whole group of 90 patients, mean baseline 25-D serum level was 20.3 (standard deviation 8.7) nmol/L, and it increased to 66.8 (19) nmol/L (p<0.0001) after supplementation. In both preformed subgroups, the effect of vitamin D

  8. Risk factors associated with xerostomia in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    López-Pintor, R-M; López-Pintor, L; Casañas, E; de Arriba, L; Hernández, G

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation in Haemodialysis (HD) patients, to clarify risk factors, assess patient's quality of life, and to establish a possible correlation among interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and xerostomia. This study was performed on a group of 50 HD patients. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing demographic and clinical variables, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for xerostomia, IDWG, and an oral health impact profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) were collected. A total of 28 HD patients (56%) suffered xerostomia. Dry mouth was associated with hypertension (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.11-24.89) and benzodiazepine consumption (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 1.05-33.99). The mean xerostomia VAS and OHIP-14 scores were 31.74±14.88 and 24.38±11.98, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between IDWG% and VAS and OHIP total score. Nonetheless, a positive correlation between VAS level of thirst and IDWG% was found (r=0.48 p=0.0001). UWS and SWS means (determined in 30 patients) were 0.16±0.17 and 1.12±0.64, respectively. Decreased values of UWS and SWS were reported in 53.33% and 36.66% of HD patients. Xerostomia in HD has a multifactorial aetiology due to accumulative risks as advanced age, systemic disorders, drugs, fluid intake restriction, and salivary parenchymal fibrosis and atrophy. Therefore, it is important to detect possible xerostomia risk factors to treat correctly dry mouth in HD patients and avoid systemic complications.

  9. Phosphorus metabolism in peritoneal dialysis- and haemodialysis-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Evenepoel, Pieter; Meijers, Björn K I; Bammens, Bert; Viaene, Liesbeth; Claes, Kathleen; Sprangers, Ben; Naesens, Maarten; Hoekstra, Tiny; Schlieper, Georg; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Kuypers, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    Phosphorus control is generally considered to be better in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients as compared with haemodialysis (HD) patients. Predialysis phosphorus concentrations are misleading as a measure of phosphorus exposure in HD, as these neglect significant dialysis-related fluctuations. Parameters of mineral metabolism, including parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), were determined in 79 HD and 61 PD patients. In PD, phosphorus levels were determined mid-morning. In HD, time-averaged phosphorus concentrations were modelled from measurements before and after the mid-week dialysis session. Weekly renal, dialytic and total phosphorus clearances as well as total mass removal were calculated from urine and dialysate collections. Time-averaged serum phosphorus concentrations in HD (3.5 ± 1.0 mg/dL) were significantly lower than the mid-morning concentrations in PD (5.0 ± 1.4 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). In contrast, predialysis phosphorus concentrations (4.6 ± 1.4 mg/dL) were not different from PD. PTH and FGF-23 levels were significantly higher in PD. Despite higher residual renal function, total phosphorus clearance was significantly lower in PD (P < 0.0001). Total phosphorus mass removal, conversely, was significantly higher in PD (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the time-averaged phosphorus concentrations in patients treated with PD are higher as compared with patients treated with HD. Despite a better preserved renal function, total phosphorus clearance is lower in patients treated with PD. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings in a population with a different demographic profile and dietary background and to define clinical implications. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  10. Nerve conduction velocities and hair concentrations of trace elements in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, I; Nakada, T; Sawamura, T; Kato, T; Hashimoto, T; Ishigooka, M; Izumiya, K

    1993-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocities and hair concentrations of trace elements were studied in 19 male patients with chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis. Both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities were significantly lower in haemodialysis patients as compared to controls (p < 0.001). Calcium and aluminium concentrations were significantly higher in patients (p < 0.01), however, vanadium and arsenic levels were significantly lower in patients (p < 0.01). In concentrations of copper and zinc there was no significant difference between patients and controls. There were no significant correlations between hair concentrations of trace elements and nerve conduction velocities except between calcium concentration and sensory nerve conduction velocity. These facts suggest that nerve conduction velocities are not influenced by changes of trace element concentrations in hair in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis.

  11. Vascular calcifications, vertebral fractures and mortality in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-García, Minerva; Gómez-Alonso, Carlos; Naves-Díaz, Manuel; Diaz-Lopez, Jose Bernardino; Diaz-Corte, Carmen; Cannata-Andía, Jorge B.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Vascular calcifications and the bone fractures caused by abnormal bone fragility, also called osteoporotic fractures, are frequent complications associated with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between vascular calcifications, osteoporotic bone fractures and survival in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods. A total of 193 HD patients were followed up to 2 years. Vascular calcifications and osteoporotic vertebral fractures (quoted just as vertebral fractures in the text) were assessed by thoracic, lumbar spine, pelvic and hand X-rays and graded according to their severity. Clinical, biochemical and therapeutic data gathered during the total time spent on HD were collected. Results. The prevalence of aortic calcifications was higher in HD patients than in a random-based general population (79% versus 37.5%, P < 0.001). Total time on any renal replacement therapy (RRT) and diabetes were positively associated with a higher prevalence of vascular calcifications. In addition to these factors, time on HD was also positively associated with the severity of vascular calcifications, and higher haemoglobin levels were associated with a lower prevalence of severe vascular calcifications in large and medium calibre arteries. The prevalence of vertebral fractures in HD patients was similar to that of the general population (26.5% versus 24.1%). Age and time on HD showed a positive and statistically significant association with the prevalence of vertebral fractures. Vascular calcifications in the medium calibre arteries were associated with a higher rate of prevalent vertebral fractures. In women, severe vascular calcifications and vertebral fractures were positively associated with mortality [RR = 3.2 (1.0–10.0) and RR = 4.8 (1.7–13.4), respectively]. Conclusions. Positive associations between vascular calcifications, vertebral fractures and mortality have been found in patients on HD. PMID:18725376

  12. Lisinopril pharmacokinetics and erythropoietin requirement in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Wolfgang; Prehslauer, Anna; Kletzmayr, Josef; Herkner, Harald; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere; Brunner, Martin; Hörl, Walter H; Sengoelge, Guerkan

    2012-10-01

    There is ongoing controversy whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) contribute to anaemia by causing hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA). However, it is unknown whether or not plasma levels or area under the curve (AUC) of ACE-I are associated with responsiveness to ESA therapy. We examined the association between lisinopril AUC, lisinopril plasma levels and ESA requirements that was assessed using an ESA index [(ESA IU/week/body weight kg)/(haemoglobin g/dL)]. After screening 184 haemodialysis patients, 14 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, mainly long-term use of oral lisinopril in the upper end of dosage range for this population with stable haemoglobin levels and intravenous ESA therapy. Lisinopril plasma levels were measured at eight different time points (predialysis, immediate post-dialysis and hourly for 6h thereafter; AUC1), and the seven post-dialysis lisinopril plasma levels were used for calculation of AUC2. The mean ESA index of all patients was 27·90±25·84 (IU/week/kg)/(g/dL). Average lisinopril AUC1 was 1212·48±1209·75 [mg*h/L], whereas AUC2 averaged 947·67±977·07 [mg*h/L]. Two patients (14%) had no detectable lisinopril plasma levels, indicating their noncompliance. There was no association between ESA index and AUC or plasma levels of lisinopril at any time point for all 14 or for the 12 compliant patients. Our study shows that long-term, high-dose lisinopril therapy has no effect on ESA responsiveness. Thus, avoidance or a dose reduction of ACE-I in dialysis patients will not necessarily lead to reduced ESA requirements and costs. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2012 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  13. Prevalence and significance of antibodies to hepatitis C virus among Saudi haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ayoola, E A; Huraib, S; Arif, M; al-Faleh, F Z; al-Rashed, R; Ramia, S; al-Mofleh, I A; Abu-Aisha, H

    1991-11-01

    Seventy-four patients who were maintained on chronic haemodialysis in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were tested using the recently available ELISA to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) in a haemodialysis unit. The prevalence rate of anti-HCV antibodies of 41.9% in the haemodialysis patients was significantly higher than the rate of 3.9% detected in 488 asymptomatic blood donors who were similarly tested. In the haemodialysis patients, anti-HCV positivity was related to previous blood transfusion (greater than 5 units of blood) and to the duration of haemodialysis (greater than 4 years); but was unrelated to sex, age, positive HBV markers or to past or current elevation of serum ALT. The results indicate a relatively higher prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies in our patients compared to rates of 1-20% reported from Europe and the U.S.A. An effective control strategy for HCV infection in this high risk group is urgently indicated.

  14. Body-Image Disturbance: A Comparative Study among Haemodialysis and Kidney Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Jaleh; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Rafiei, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As a chronic disease, End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) changes the patients’ body and affects their body image negatively. Although the changes in body image are expected in all types of renal replacement therapies, different renal replacement therapy methods could represent different levels of impact on body image. Aim Present study was conducted to examine and compare the level of body-image disturbance between haemodialysis and kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods This descriptive study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Using convenient sampling, 84 patients (42 patients under haemodialysis and 42 patients with transplant) were invited to participate in the study. A self-designed questionnaire was developed to examine the level of body-image disturbance. Results Out of 42 haemodialysis patients, 64.3%, 19% and 16.7% of patients reported low, moderate and high level of body-image disturbance respectively. The mean score of body-image disturbance was 21.1±18.3(rang=1–71) in haemodialysis patients. Of 42 transplant patients, 69%, 26.2% and 4.8% reported low, moderate and high level of body-image disturbance respectively. The mean score of body-image disturbance was 17.1±13.3 (rang=1–48). According to the results of independent t-test, difference between mean score of body-image disturbance in two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion The findings of the present study showed that both haemodialysis and renal transplant patients experienced some levels of body-image disturbance. This problem was more prevalent among haemodialysis patients as compared to kidney transplant ones. We recommend more studies may be conducted in this regard. PMID:27437264

  15. The effect of reflexology applied on haemodialysis patients with fatigue, pain and cramps.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Gülistan; Ovayolu, Nimet; Ovayolu, Ozlem

    2013-06-01

    The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of foot reflexology on fatigue, pain and cramps in haemodialysis patients. The sample consisted of 80 patients in total, 40 intervention and 40 control patients, receiving treatment in the haemodialysis units of two institutions. Data were collected by using a questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale and visual analogue scale for measuring the severity of cramp and pain. The intervention group received reflexology treatment for 1 week in three sessions following haemodialysis, each session lasting approximately 30 min. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used in data analysis. It was determined that reflexology reduced the fatigue subscale scores and total scale scores as well as pain and cramp mean scores in the intervention group. The research results revealed that the severity of fatigue, pain and cramp decreased in patients receiving reflexology.

  16. Spontaneous gall bladder haemorrhage in a renal dialysis patient following haemodialysis with tinzaparin.

    PubMed

    Borman, Natalie; Graetz, Keith

    2010-08-01

    Spontaneous gall bladder haemorrhage is a rare and serious occurrence with a few cases reported in the literature in haemodialysis patients. This report describes this complication following dialysis with a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) tinzaparin. This patient presented with acute right upper quadrant pain and intermittent haematemesis following 4 hours of haemodialysis. Despite being well established on dialysis, LMWH had only been used once previously. There was no history of trauma or pre-existing gall bladder pathology and no clinical or biochemical evidence of inflammation or infection. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an extensive gall bladder haemorrhage. The patient was treated conservatively with analgesia, and blood transfusion and symptoms settled without intervention. This case report highlights a rare site of bleeding following LMWH use in a haemodialysis patient.

  17. The Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation (TEAS) on Fatigue in Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hadadian, Fatemeh; Sohrabi, Nasrollah; Farokhpayam, Mandana; Farokhpayam, Hoda; Towhidi, Farhad; Soroush, Ali; Abdi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fatigue is one of the most common symptom in End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving haemodialysis treatment. In recent years, researchers investigated the role of alternative medicine methods such as acupuncture in treatment of the chronic disease; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the fatigue of haemodialysis patients. Aim To evaluate the effects of Trans Cutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation (TEAS) on fatigue among ESRD patients receiving haemodialysis treatment. Materials and Methods This randomized clinical trial was conducted over a five month, in Kermanshah-Iran haemodialysis centers in 2009. Fifty six patients who had undergone haemodialysis and meeting the inclusion criteria, were divided into two groups by simple random sampling; TEAS (28 cases) and TEAS-Sham group (28 cases). The data was gathered through the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), entered into SPSS-16 software and analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Out of 56, 38 patients (67.9%) were male and 45 (80.4%) were married. The mean and standard deviation of age were 52.29±15.26 years. The inferential tests showed no differences in the clinical and the demographic characteristics of patients among two groups (p > 0.05). The mean rank of fatigue score in TEAS and TEAS-Sham groups was 30.68 and 26.32 respectively (p=0.317) at the first of study. The results of the Mann-Whitney U-test indicated that there were significant differences between the TEAS and Sham groups after intervention (p = 0.002). Conclusion Findings of the present study revealed that application of the TEAS on these acupoints had produced a better recovery rate of fatigue in TEAS group than Sham group after a course of ten session intervention. So, it is suggested that this plan be provided to the haemodialysis patients. PMID:27790566

  18. Mixed systemic amyloidosis in a patient receiving long term haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, J; Rios-Camacho, C; Valenzuela-Castaño, A; Hernanz-Mediano, W

    1994-01-01

    A 64 year old woman had been receiving haemodialysis for 11 years. She had a history of chronic renal failure, caused by probable chronic pyelonephritis, and dialysis arthropathy. She died of acute pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage. At necropsy, histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies showed widespread visceral deposits of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) and AA amyloid. Images PMID:8063944

  19. Effect of Heparin on Coagulation Tests: A Comparison of Continuous and Bolus Infusion in Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Ahmadidarrehsima, Sudabeh; Balouchi, Abbas; Moghadam, Mahdiye Poodine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Haemodialysis is one of the most conventional treatments of chronic renal failure. The risk of clot formation is high during haemodialysis due to regular contact of blood with the surfaces of foreign objects such as catheters, dialyzers’ membrane, and other materials used for dialysis. Therefore, to prevent clot formation during haemodialysis, the dialysis system requires anticoagulation; this is usually done by heparin. Aim The present study aimed to compare two heparinization methods and determine the proper impacts of these methods. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 80 haemodialysis patients covered by the dialysis center of Amir-al-momenin Hospital of Zabol were studied in two 40-member groups of heparin therapy methods of bolus injection and continuous infusion. PT and PTT were measured in blood samples collected from all patients before starting haemodialysis. The first group received 3000 units of heparin once the haemodialysis machine started to work and 2000 units of heparin two hours later as bolus injection. In the second group, 1500 units of heparin was injected at the start of dialysis after then, 5000 units of heparin (one mL) were mixed with 11 mL of distilled water and infused using a heparin injection pump up to half an hour before the end of dialysis. At 30 minutes after starting dialysis and at the end of 4 hours of haemodialysis, PT and PTT were measured and compared between the two groups. Results According to the results, the mean partial thromboplastin time in the bolus and continuous heparin-receiving group was 41.75±6.29 and 37.90±4.77, respectively, which was statistically significant (p=0.036). But PT was 14.45±1.82 in the bolus heparin group and 13.95±1.39 in the continuous heparin group, which was not significant according to the results of independent t-test (p=0.336). Conclusion The results indicated a statistically significant difference between the bolus heparin injection and the continuous

  20. The high prevalence of Torque teno virus DNA in blood donors and haemodialysis patients in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Massaú, Aline; Martins, Cristiana; Nachtigal, Gilca Costa; Araújo, Anelise Bergmann; Rossetti, Maria Lucia; Niel, Christian; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the frequency of Torque teno virus (TTV) infection in 150 blood donors and 77 patients requiring haemodialysis in southern Brazil. Plasma samples were screened for TTV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalences of TTV among blood donors and patients requiring haemodialysis were 73.3% and 68.8%, respectively. The presence of TTV was correlated with age in the blood donors (p = 0.024). In haemodialysis patients, no association was found between TTV infection and the demographic parameters (age, sex and education), the duration of haemodialysis or a history of blood transfusion. This study is the first to evaluate the prevalence of TTV infection in Brazilian patients requiring haemodialysis.

  1. Trends of cost and mortality of patients on haemodialysis with end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kang; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Pei-Chun; Chen, Yi-Shan; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Li, Tsai-Chung; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of end-stage renal disease in Taiwan is among the highest in the world. Treatment reimbursement for haemodialysis was capped in 1996 in order to contain costs. This study evaluated temporal changes in the costs and utilization of medical care and mortality in patients receiving haemodialysis following capped reimbursement. Using insurance claims data in Taiwan between 1998 to 2009, we established eight annual subcohorts of patients with incident haemodialysis, increasing from 6099 in 1998 to 7745 in 2005. With a 4-year follow-up paradigm for each subcohort, we evaluated resources use and costs of medical services, as well as mortality trends. The annual mean cost for each haemodialysis patient increased from US $431 to $737 for emergency visits, US $9007 to $13,280 for hospitalizations and US $79,141 to $92,416 (16.8% increase) for total costs, from the initial to final subcohorts, respectively. Compared to the 1998 subcohort, the adjusted hazard ratio of deaths declined from 0.97 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.02) for the 1999 subcohort to 0.86 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.91) for the 2005 subcohort (P for trend <0.001). The corresponding cumulative probability of deaths decreased from 45.5% to 35.4%. The mortality for patients with haemodialysis decreased annually, whereas the overall annual cost increased despite capped reimbursement for haemodialysis. These results encourage further study on reasons of increased uses of emergency service and hospitalization. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  2. Hepatitis virus infection in haemodialysis patients from Moldavia.

    PubMed

    Covic, A; Iancu, L; Apetrei, C; Scripcaru, D; Volovat, C; Mititiuc, I; Covic, M

    1999-01-01

    Although the epidemiology of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) now seems well established for Western European countries, in Central and Eastern Europe < 50% of all dialysis centres routinely test for hepatitis C antibodies since testing is not available or is not applied to all patients. This study describes the prevalence, risk factors and clinical significance of HBV and HCV infection for the haemodialysis population of the North Eastern region of Romania, Moldavia. The presence of HBV antigens was determined with an ELISA kit (Wellcome, Abbot) and HCV antibodies with the ELISA-3 Ortho-HCV, third generation test. The following individual data were collected: gender, age, duration of dialysis, rural/urban domicile, actual and previous HBV status, actual HCV status, known acute, clinically evident hepatitis episodes in the last 3 years, monthly alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) levels, complete biochemical hepatic assessment at the time of the study, transfusions for the past 3 years and family history. HBV and HCV prevalences were 17% (stable over the last 3 years) and 75%, respectively; co-infection was seen in 10% of the subjects. Hospitalization (nosocomial infection) for HBV, blood transfusions and duration on dialysis for HCV, emerged as the main risk factors for hepatitis infection. Socio-economic conditions appear to be equally important for HCV infection, since the prevalence was significantly higher among patients from rural, underdeveloped areas than urban areas (80.8 vs 60.3%), and infection was already present in a large proportion of patients (47%) before starting dialysis, without being related to previous disease duration or blood transfusions. HBV and/or HCV was not associated with a worse clinical or biochemical profile at the time of the study. However, infected patients had significantly more previous cytolytic episodes, with higher, transient increases in ALAT and ASAT levels. HCV infection is endemic among

  3. Quality of life in chronic haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in Turkey and related factors.

    PubMed

    Oren, Besey; Enç, Nuray

    2013-12-01

    Turkey is the fifth country in Europe with regard to the number of patients receiving haemodialysis (HD). However, only a limited number of studies have comparatively investigated the factors that affect quality of life in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that affect quality of life in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, as well as providing a comparison of quality of life between these groups. In this cross-sectional study, Quality of Life Scale and a data form was completed by 300 dialysis patients who received treatment at five hospital-based dialysis units in Istanbul, Turkey. The data were evaluated using arithmetic mean values, standard deviations, minimums, maximums, percentages, independent groups t-tests, Spearman correlation analyses and one-way variance analyses. The quality of life values in peritoneal dialysis patients were found to be higher than those of haemodialysis patients (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the quality of life in chronic dialysis patients was affected by various factors.

  4. Evaluation of Nutritional Biochemical Parameters in Haemodialysis Patients over a Ten-year Period.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, A I-Q; Castillo, R F; Gomez Jimenez, F J; Nuñez Negrillo, A M

    2015-06-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition as well as systemic inflammation and metabolic disorders are common in patients with chronic kidney failure, who require renal replacement therapy (haemodialysis). Such malnutrition is a factor that significantly contributes to their morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the nutritional status of haemodialysis patients by assessing biochemical and anthropometric parameters in order to determine whether these patients suffered disorders reflecting nutritional deterioration directly related to time on haemodialysis. This research comprised 90 patients of both genders with chronic kidney failure, who regularly received haemodialysis at our unit over a period of ten years. The patients' blood was tested quarterly for plasma albumin, total cholesterol and total proteins, and tested monthly for transferrin. The patients' weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were monitored. Body mass index was calculated using the formula: weight (kg)/height (m2 ) and classified in one of the following categories defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database on Body Mass Index: (i) underweight [BMI < 18.50], (ii) normal [BMI 18.50 - 24.99], (iii) overweight [BMI 25 - 29.99], (iv) obese [BMI > 30]. In the ten-year period of the study, the patients experienced a substantial decline in their biochemical parameters. Nevertheless, their BMI did not show any significant changes despite the patients' state of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in haemodialysis patients was evident. Nevertheless, the BMI of the subjects did not correspond to the biochemical parameters measured. Consequently, the results showed that the nutritional deterioration of these patients was mainly reflected in their biochemical parameters rather than in their anthropometric measurements.

  5. Evaluation of Nutritional Biochemical Parameters in Haemodialysis Patients over a Ten-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, AIQ; Castillo, RF; Jimenez, FJ Gomez; Negrillo, AM Nuñez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Protein-energy malnutrition as well as systemic inflammation and metabolic disorders are common in patients with chronic kidney failure who require renal replacement therapy (haemodialysis). Such malnutrition is a factor that significantly contributes to their morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the nutritional status of haemodialysis patients by assessing biochemical and anthropometric parameters in order to determine whether these patients suffered disorders reflecting nutritional deterioration directly related to time on haemodialysis. Subjects and Method: This research comprised 90 patients of both genders with chronic kidney failure, who regularly received haemodialysis at our unit over a period of ten years. The patients' blood was tested quarterly for plasma albumin, total cholesterol and total proteins, and tested monthly for transferrin. The patients' weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were monitored. Body mass index was calculated using the formula: weight (kg)/height (m2) and classified in one of the following categories defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database on Body Mass Index: (i) underweight [BMI < 18.50], (ii) normal [BMI 18.50 – 24.99], (iii) overweight [BMI 25 – 29.99], (iv) obese [BMI ≥ 30]. Results: In the ten-year period of the study, the patients experienced a substantial decline in their biochemical parameters. Nevertheless, their BMI did not show any significant changes despite the patients' state of malnutrition. Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition in haemodialysis patients was evident. Nevertheless, the BMI of the subjects did not correspond to the biochemical parameters measured. Consequently, the results showed that the nutritional deterioration of these patients was mainly reflected in their biochemical parameters rather than in their anthropometric measurements. PMID:26426172

  6. Factors associated with various arterial calcifications in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gelev, S; Spasovski, G; Trajkovski, Z; Damjanovski, G; Amitov, V; Selim, Gj; Dzekova, P; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2008-12-01

    Haemodialysis (HD) patients are at increased risk of the development of arterial intimal (AIC) and medial calcification (AMC). The aim of our study was to analyze the association between the pre-defined potential risk factors and the status of various arterial calcifications in our HD patients. In a cross-sectional study of 150 patients (91 male, mean age 54.55 +/- 12.46 yrs, HD duration 104.77 +/- 68.02 mths) we first determined the presence of AIC and AMC using plain radiography of the pelvis. We then compared the percentages of different radiogram findings in patients stratified according to various cut-off levels or the codes of each clinical and biochemical parameter (mean value of one year laboratory data recorded in the files). We determined arterial calcifications in 77.3% of our patients (AIC in 45.3%, AMC in 32%). The significantly higher frequencies of arterial calcifications of both groups (AIC and/or AMC) and isolated AIC presence were found in patients older than 55 at inclusion and 45 at the start of treatment with HD, with a serum C-reactive protein (CRP) > 4.5 mg/L, predominantly of male gender with diabetes. The patients with a significantly higher occurrence of arterial calcifications had lower percentages of total serum calcium (Ca) levels but within the K/DOQI guideline recommendations. Also, we found a significantly higher proportion of isolated AIC presence in the group of patients with corrected total serum Ca levels > 2.35 mmol/L and serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels out of the range proposed by K/DOQI guidelines. In parallel, a significantly higher percentage of absence of arterial calcifications (ACA) was obtained in the patients with corrected total serum Ca levels < 2.35 mmol/L, body mass index (BMI) < 23 kg/m(2), mean pulse pressure < 60 mmHg, blood leucocytes < 6.5 x 10(9)L and serum triglycerides < 1.8 mmol/L. Finally, we found a significantly higher presence of isolated AMC in patients with mean Kt/V < 1.3 (poor

  7. Subjective global assessment for nutritional assessment of hospitalized patients requiring haemodialysis: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sheau Kang; Loh, Yet Hua; Choong, Hui Lin; Suhail, Sufi M

    2016-11-01

    Evidence has validated that the nutritional status of hospitalized patients on haemodialysis could be compromised because of admission-related and hospital-associated morbidities on the background of their kidney disease. However, nutritional status is not assessed and monitored routinely during the hospitalization period. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of hospitalized patients requiring haemodialysis with the subjective global assessment (SGA) tool during the hospitalization period. This is a prospective cohort study conducted in an acute tertiary general hospital. Patients aged 21-75 years old, admitted for various illnesses and requiring haemodialysis between November 2011 and May 2012 were enrolled into this study. A trained dietician assessed patients' nutritional status with the SGA tool, which included historical data on weight change, dietary intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, functional capacity, comorbidities and physical examination on subcutaneous fat loss, muscle wasting and presence of oedema and/or ascites. Patients were categorized under three groups: SGA-A (well-nourished), SGA-B (moderately malnourished) and SGA-C (severely malnourished). Eighty patients (mean ± SD age = 59 ± 10 years; 76% Chinese ethnicity) were assessed. Mean ± SD body mass index (BMI) was 25.1 ± 6.1 kg/m(2) . SGA categories were 48% SGA-A, 46% SGA-B, and 6% SGA-C. Mean energy and protein intake (P < 0.001), length of hospitalization stay (P = 0.03) and BMI (P = 0.001) were significantly different across the three categories of nutritional status. More than half of the hospitalized patients requiring haemodialysis were malnourished. It is important to incorporate SGA in the care of hospitalized haemodialysis patients for early detection of malnutrition and for medical nutrition therapy to optimise patients' nutritional status for better outcomes. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  8. Hepatitis B vaccination in haemodialysis patients: an underestimated problem. Factors influencing immune responses in ten years of observation in an Italian haemodialysis centre and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cordova, E; Miglia, I; Festuccia, F; Sarlo, M G; Scornavacca, G; Punzo, G; Menè, P; Fofi, C

    2017-01-01

    Despite universal infection control precautions, the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients on chronic haemodialysis (HD) remains high. For this reason anti-HBV vaccination is recommended in these subjects. In hemodialyzed patients vaccinal response is often suboptimal and it's not clear what factors may influence it. The aim of our study is to assess the influence of some clinical and laboratory factors on seroconversion rate after anti HBV vaccination in a cohort of patients on maintenance HD. We analysed 60 patients on regular HD, 40 men and 20 women (age 64±12 years, range 40-88 years), immunized with Engerix B ® vaccine, followed for an average time of 62 month (12-120 months). For each patient the following data were collected: age, serum albumin (sAlb), Blood urea nitrogen before HD session (BUN), age at vaccination, dialysis vintage, presence of systemic disease, type of vascular access, dialysis modality. Correlation between these factors and anti Hbs titer was estimated with multiple regression analysis. Anti-Hbs seroconversion rate ( Anti Hbs > 10 IU/l) was 77%. Better rate of seroconversion (86%) was observed in patients with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and serum albumin > 3,5 g/dL (93%), while higher rate of not responders (50%) in patients with systemic diseases. The only parameter correlated to anti Hbs titer was sAlb (p =0,0012). sAlb was correlated to age in all patients (p=0,01) and age was correlated to higher anti Hbs titer in the responder group (p=0,018). In our experience an early vaccination, when patients on chronic HD are younger and in better nutritional conditions, improves anti-HBV response.

  9. Are PTH serum levels predictive of coronary calcifications in haemodialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Coen, Giorgio; Manni, Micaela; Mantella, Daniela; Pierantozzi, Andrea; Balducci, Alessandro; Condò, Stefano; DiGiulio, Salvatore; Yancovic, Lijljana; Lippi, Basilio; Manca, Simone; Morosetti, Massimo; Pellegrino, Luigi; Simonetti, Giovanni; Gallucci, Massimo Taccone; Splendiani, Giorgio

    2007-11-01

    Cardiac calcifications are a frequent occurrence in uraemic subjects and are probably connected to the increased cardiovascular mortality of haemodialysis patients. There is substantial support to the hypothesis that low levels of serum PTH in haemodialysis patients are associated with increased vascular and cardiac calcium deposits, due to decreased buffering capacity of bone in low turnover osteodystrophy. The present study has been carried out on a cohort of patients on haemodialysis, with exclusion of previously parathyroidectomized patients, with the aim to evaluate the association between PTH serum levels and coronary calcifications. The study has been carried out in a cohort of 197 haemodialysis patients. There were 133 males and 64 females. Twenty-two patients had diabetes mellitus. Average age was 58.6 +/- 12.9 years. Patients were divided into groups of intact PTH levels, 0-150 (A), 150-300 (B), 300-600 (C) and >600 (D) pg/ml. The values of coronary scores in the PTH groups were as follows: (A) 624.7 +/- 939, (B) 866.4 +/- 1080, (C) 1202.8 +/- 1742.3 and (D) 1872.7 +/- 2961.9. The difference between coronary calcium scores was significant (P < 0.01). A general linear model identified serum calcium and dialysis age as independent factors of calcium deposits in the high PTH group. No prominent association between low PTH serum levels and the severity of coronary calcium deposits in haemodialysis patients was found while increased levels of PTH, with special regard to very elevated levels, associated with more frequent hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia, should be considered a major risk factor of coronary calcifications and cardiac events.

  10. Gentamicin extraction from an anuric patient by combined haemodialysis and charcoal haemoperfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, N.; Bhamjee, A.

    1980-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman who developed acute renal failure following intra-abdominal sepsis was treated with gentamicin. Her serum concentrations reached potentially toxic levels. Combined haemoperfusion and haemodialysis removed approximately 70% of the given drug and the patient made a complete recovery. PMID:7393797

  11. COPING SKILLS OF IRANIAN FAMILY CAREGIVERS' IN CARETAKING OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING HAEMODIALYSIS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rabiei, Leili; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Shirani, Majid; Masoudi, Reza

    2016-09-01

    Coping skills enable caregivers to establish and maintain supportive relationships with the haemodialysis patients they care for. These skills are very important in terms of social support, promotion of mental health and social and family relations. The aim of this study is to investigate the coping skills of Iranian family caregivers as they take care of patients undergoing haemodialysis. Twenty participants were selected for the study through purposive sampling. The data gathering techniques used for the research were in-depth and unstructured interviews. The researchers used an inductive thematic analysis approach to analyse the data generated from the interviews. Four main themes emerged from the data: help-seeking skills, self-nurturing skills, time management skills and stress management skills. The focus of attention was on the stress management coping skills of the caregivers of haemodialysis patients together with their ability to cope with complex problems. Healthcare providers, by taking into account these skills and strategies of empowerment, can help other caregivers of haemodialysis patients cope with their heavy care conditions and better define their purposes in caretaking. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  12. Cross-sectional audit of blood lead levels in regular outpatient haemodialysis patients dialysing in north London.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Andrew; Murcutt, Gareth; Whiting, Stephen

    2009-08-01

    Blood lead was measured and found to be high in one haemodialysis patient with atypical abdominal pain and peripheral neuropathy. This prompted an audit of blood lead concentrations in prevalent haemodialysis patients under the care of a University Teaching hospital. Blood lead was determined in 271 prevalent adult haemodialysis patients regularly dialysing three times a week, in five dialysis centres and/or on the home dialysis programme. All samples were carefully collected into lead-free plastic containers, and measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. 25.5% of haemodialysis patients had abnormal blood lead concentrations (>200 microg/L), compared with 59% with high-normal values of 100-200 microg/L, and only 15.5% with normal values (<100 microg/L). Blood lead increased with haemodialysis vintage (r = 0.38, P < 0.001), the use of a single carbon filter and reverse osmosis water purification device unit (r = 0.29, P < 0.001), but reduced by urine output (r = -0.44, P < 0.001). Despite UK government legislation to reduce permissible lead contamination of drinking water, blood lead was increased in 84.5% of prevalent haemodialysis patients. Single reverse osmosis machines and carbon filters may not be as effective at filtering out possible lead contamination compared with large industrial reverse osmosis devices and carbon filters, and thus blood lead testing should be considered for home haemodialysis patients, particularly in those areas where monochloramines are used to sterilize domestic water supplies.

  13. Relation between body mass index and bone mineral density among haemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rafael Fernández; de la Rosa, Rafael José Esteban

    2009-03-01

    Renal osteodystrophy is a serious problem for patients with chronic kidney disease. Measurements of bone mineral density, T-score and Z-score were taken in the lumbar region and femur of 73 patients who were being treated on the haemodialysis programme. These measurements were compared with the anthropometric values of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) obtaining a positive correlation between them. Alterations in the bone mineral metabolism are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among haemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure. Bone mass diminution, together with fracture risk, is a frequent finding in these patients; this fact is explained by different factors, amongst which are those related to their anthropometric values. Bone mineral density (BMD) was studied, T-score and Z-score measurements were taken in the neck of the femur, trochanter, intertrochanter, 1/3 of proximal femur, Ward's triangle and L2, L3 and L4 vertebrae; body composition was also studied. With this aim, DXA densitometry was used on 73 haemodialysis patients (40 men and 33 women). The mean of the total haemodialysis time in these patients was 9.7 years. The group showed a very significant positive correlation between BMD, weight, height, BMI, fractures, dialysis time and intact PTH. CKD patients undergoing the haemodialysis programme show a significant BMD reduction, which affects both lumbar spine and femur. Weight and height affect BMD and bone change, being thus important factors of prediction for fracture risk. Furthermore, BMI is the main determinant of BMD, a finding that is confirmed in the units in this study and with the evidence described by other authors (Negri et al. (2005).

  14. Quantitative measurement of brain iron deposition in patients with haemodialysis using susceptibility mapping.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chao; Yan, Shuo; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Mengjie; Zuo, Chao; Haacke, E Mark; Xia, Shuang; Shen, Wen

    2015-04-01

    To compare the susceptibility of different brain structures in patients with haemodialysis with that in healthy controls using susceptibility mapping and explore the correlations with neuropsychiatric tests and clinical parameters. Fifty three patients with haemodialysis and forty-five age-and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. Susceptibility maps (SM) were reconstructed from original phase data and used to compare the susceptibility of different brain structures between patients and healthy controls. The SM was compared with iron predictions from a classic cadaver brain study. Spearman's correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis between susceptibility and neuropsychiatric tests and clinical parameters were calculated. In patients with haemodialysis, the susceptibility of the bilateral caudate head, putamen, substantia nigra, red nucleus and dentate nucleus were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (P < 0.01). There was positive correlation between susceptibility both from normal controls and patients and iron concentration from a classic post-mortem brain study (both r = 0.900, both P = 0.037). In patients with haemodialysis, the susceptibility of the left putamen (r = 0.944), right putamen (r = 0.882) and right thalamus (r = 0.852) were correlated to dialysis duration (all P < 0.05). The susceptibility of the left caudate head (r = -0.415) and right caudate head (r = -0.311) were mildly negatively correlated with neuropsychiatric test scores (all P < 0.05). In summary, our findings indicated that increased brain iron deposition does occur in patients with haemodialysis and correlated with duration of dialysis.

  15. The work environment of haemodialysis nurses and its impact on patients' outcomes.

    PubMed

    Prezerakos, Panagiotis; Galanis, Peter; Moisoglou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess haemodialysis nurses' work environment and investigate the correlation between work environment and patients' outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the 11 public hospital-based haemodialysis units of the 5th Regional Health Authority of Greece. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) was used to assess work environment. Nurses were asked to report the frequency of a series adverse events and errors. Study population consisted of 133 nurses (response rate 89.3%). The overall PES-NWI scored just < 2.5 (Mean = 2.48, standard deviation = 0.34) indicating a non-favourable haemodialysis workplace. Nurse-physician Relations, nurse manager ability and nursing foundations for quality of care were the most favourable aspects of work environment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that hypotension (odds ratio (OR) = 0.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.1-0.9, P = 0.03), venous needle disconnection (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03-0.65, P = 0.012) and patient fall (OR = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.001-0.51, P = 0.018) were associated with a non-favourable work environment. Findings have important implications for improvement of haemodialysis work environment and enhancement of patients' safety.

  16. Tuberculosis in haemodialysis patients: A single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Rao, T Manmadha; Ram, R; Swarnalatha, G; Santhosh Pai, B H; Ramesh, V; Rao, C Shyam Sunder; Naidu, G Diwaker; Dakshinamurty, K V

    2013-09-01

    We prospectively followed-up new patients of tuberculosis while on maintenance hemodialysis at a State Government-run tertiary care institute. Between 2000 and 2010, 1237 new patients were initiated on maintainence hemodialysis. The number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis after initiation of hemodialysis was 131 (10.5% of 1237). The age was 46.4 ± 10.4 (range 8-85) years and there were 90 (68.7%) males. The number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis on the basis of organ involvement were: Pulmonary-60, pleural effusion-31, lymph node-21, meningitis-8, pericardial effusion-7, peritoneum-2, latent tuberculosis-2. The incidence of tuberculosis in hemodialysis was found to be 105.9 per 1000 patient years. Male gender, diabetes mellitus, past history of tuberculosis, mining as an occupation, low serum albumin, and duration of hemodialysis more than 24 months, and unemployment were found to be significant risk-factors on univariate analysis.

  17. Hepatitis B and C infection in haemodialysis patients in Libya: prevalence, incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Alashek, Wiam A; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W

    2012-10-20

    Patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis (HD) are at higher risk for acquiring Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infections than the general population. Strict infection control measures are essential to prevent nosocomial transmission. We aimed to investigate the incidence and prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in the HD population of Libya as well as risk factors for infection. All adult patients receiving maintenance HD (n=2382) in Libyan dialysis centres (n=39) were studied between May 2009 and October 2010. Testing for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies was performed at initiation of dialysis and every 3-6 months thereafter. Patients who were sero-negative for HBV and HCV (n=1160) were followed up for 1 year to detect sero-conversions. Participant median age was 49 years and 58% were male. 831 patients (34.9%) were sero-positive for HBV and/or HCV (anti-HCV positive 31.1%; HBsAg positive 2.6%; both positive 1.2%). Of the sero-positive patients 4.7% were known to be infected before the initiation of HD. The prevalence of HBV±HCV infection varied widely between HD centres from 0% to 75.9%. Sero-positive patients were younger, had longer time on dialysis and more previous blood transfusions. Prospective follow-up revealed an incidence of sero-conversion of 7.7% during 1 year (7.1% HCV; 0.6% HBV). Wide variation in rates of newly acquired infections was observed between dialysis centres. All new HBV cases were referred from centres already treating HBV infected patients. New HCV infections were reported in most centres but the rate of HCV sero-conversion varied widely from 1.5% to 31%. Duration of dialysis, history of previous renal transplant and history of receiving HD in another centre in Libya were significantly associated with sero-conversion. Patients on maintenance HD in Libya have a high incidence and prevalence of HCV infection and lower rates of HBV infection. The factors associated with HBV and HCV

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) catheter-related bacteraemia in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Guillermo; Camoez, Mariana; Shaw, Evelyn; Dominguez, María Ángeles; Gasch, Oriol; Padilla, Belén; Pintado, Vicente; Almirante, Benito; Molina, José; López-Medrano, Francisco; Ruiz de Gopegui, Enrique; Martinez, José A; Bereciartua, Elena; Rodriguez-Lopez, Fernando; Fernandez-Mazarrasa, Carlos; Goenaga, Miguel Ángel; Benito, Natividad; Rodriguez-Baño, Jesús; Espejo, Elena; Pujol, Miquel

    2015-10-30

    The aim of the study was to determine clinical and microbiological differences between patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) catheter-related bacteraemia (CRB) undergoing or not undergoing haemodialysis, and to compare outcomes. Prospective multicentre study conducted at 21 Spanish hospitals of patients with MRSA bacteraemia diagnosed between June 2008 and December 2009. Patients with MRSA-CRB were selected. Data of patients on haemodialysis (HD-CRB) and those not on haemodialysis (non-HD-CRB) were compared. Among 579 episodes of MRSA bacteraemia, 218 (37.7%) were CRB. Thirty-four (15.6%) were HD-CRB and 184 (84.4%) non-HD-CRB. All HD-CRB patients acquired the infection at dialysis centres, while in 85.3% of the non-HD-CRB group the infection was nosocomial (p < .001). There were no differences in age, gender or severity of bacteraemia (Pitt score); comorbidities (Charlson score ≥ 4) were higher in the HD-CRB group than in the non-HD-CRB group (73.5% vs. 46.2%, p = .003). Although there were no differences in VAN-MIC ≥ 1.5 mg/L according to microdilution, using the E-test a higher rate of VAN-MIC ≥ 1.5 mg/L was observed in HD-CRB than in non-HD-CRB patients (63.3% vs. 44.1%, p = .051). Vancomycin was more frequently administered in the HD-CRB group than in the non-HD-CRB group (82.3% vs. 42.4%, p = <.001) and therefore the appropriate empirical therapy was significantly higher in HD-CRB group (91.2% vs. 73.9%, p = .029). There were no differences with regard to catheter removal (79.4% vs. 84.2%, p = .555, respectively). No significant differences in mortality rate were observed between both groups (Overall mortality: 11.8% vs. 27.2%, p = .081, respectively), but there was a trend towards a higher recurrence rate in HD-CRB group (8.8% vs. 2.2%, p = .076). In our multicentre study, ambulatory patients in chronic haemodialysis represented a significant proportion of cases of MRSA catheter-related bacteraemia. Although

  19. Prosthetic status and treatment needs for lost masticatory function in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Małyszko, Jolanta; Cylwik-Rokicka, Dorota; Myśliwiec, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Premature loss of permanent teeth leads to stomatognathic system disability. It is a very serious but underrated problem for patients with chronic renal failure. The aim of study was analyse the degree of loss of masticatory function and number of teeth present for haemodialysis patients, and to define patients’ needs for prosthetic treatment, which could restore correct occlusal condition. Material and methods Sixty-nine haemodialysis patients treated at the Nephrology and Transplantology Clinic with the Dialysis Centre at the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. We checked: 1) the total number of teeth and number of teeth separately for upper and lower jaws, 2) the existing prosthetic restorations and 3) the preserved masticatory function. Results More male than female patients were in possession of full dentition.All patients with at least 28 natural teeth with retained occlusal contacts whilst chewing were males (4; 10% males; 5.7% of the whole group). There were 15 edentulous patients: 7 males (10%) and 8 females (11.5%). Hundered percent of female patients presented with various degrees of tooth loss and needed prosthetic treatment. Nearly 70% of tested haemodialysis patients did not have a reconstructed masticatory function. Conclusions The population of haemodialysis patients from the North East part of Poland are patients with severe stomatognathic system dysfunctions. It is of importance for dentists, as well as nephrologists, to understand the essence of the problem, as the general health of a patient cannot be improved without ensuring functional comfort of such as important system as the masticatory one. PMID:22457680

  20. Treatment of anaemia in haemodialysis patients with erythropoietin: long-term effects on exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Bárány, P; Freyschuss, U; Pettersson, E; Bergström, J

    1993-04-01

    1. The effects of correcting anaemia on exercise capacity were evaluated in 21 haemodialysis patients (aged 39 +/- 12 years) before starting treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (Hb concentration, 73 +/- 10 g/l; total Hb, 59 +/- 12% of expected), after correction of the anaemia to a Hb concentration of 108 +/- 7 g/l and a total Hb 82 +/- 10% of expected, and in 13 of the patients after 12 months on maintenance recombinant human erythropoietin treatment (Hb concentration 104 +/- 14 g/l, total Hb 79 +/- 17% of expected). Fifteen healthy subjects (aged 41 +/- 9 years), who took no regular exercise, constituted the control group. Maximal exercise capacity was determined on a bicycle ergometer. Oxygen uptake, respiratory quotient, blood lactate concentration, heart rate and blood pressure were measured at rest and at maximal workload. 2. After 6 +/- 3 months on recombinant human erythropoietin, maximal exercise capacity increased from 108 +/- 27 W to 130 +/- 36W (P < 0.001) and the maximal oxygen uptake increased from 1.24 +/- 0.39 litres/min to 1.50 +/- 0.45 litres/min (P < 0.001). No significant changes in respiratory quotient (1.16 +/- 0.13 versus 1.18 +/- 0.13) and blood lactate concentration (4.0 +/- 1.8 versus 3.6 +/- 1.1 mmol/l) at maximal workload were observed, but the blood lactate concentration in the patients was significantly lower than that in the control subjects (6.7 +/- 2.3 mmol/l, P < 0.01). After the correction of anaemia, the aerobic power was still 38% lower in the patients than in the control subjects and 17% lower than the reference values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Respiratory drive and pulmonary mechanics during haemodialysis with ultrafiltration in ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, C C; Tsai, Y H; Lin, M C; Yang, C T; Hsieh, M J; Lan, R S

    1997-10-01

    The improvements of respiratory drive and pulmonary mechanics which follow haemodialysis with ultrafiltration in mechanically ventilated renal failure patients seem predictable but have not been studied before. In this study, 14 renal failure patients with stable haemodynamics mechanically ventilated with pressure support ventilation (PSV) were enrolled. Respiratory drive (represented as P0.1), pulmonary mechanics, breathing pattern, arterial blood gas and haemodynamics were measured according to the time schedule: pre-dialysis (Time 0), and at 60, 120, 180, 240 minutes thereafter. Following the removal of excess lung water during haemodialysis, auto-PEEP and patient's work of breathing (WOBp) decreased gradually. P0.1 lessened progressively along with the improvement in pulmonary mechanics. The changes in auto-PEEP and WOBp correlated closely to the pre- and post-dialysis decline of P0.1 (delta P0.1). There was a negative, moderately significant correlation between the amount of fluid ultrafiltrated during dialysis (delta UF) and the delta P0.1 (R = -0.54). The breathing pattern remained stable during dialysis. No hypoventilation or hypoxaemia occurred despite the development of metabolic alkalosis induced by bicarbonate dialysate. We have shown that respiratory drive decreases gradually during bicarbonate haemodialysis. The improvements of pulmonary mechanics, rather than the rapid alkalization of body fluids, responds to the decrease of P0.1 in renal failure patients ventilated with PSV.

  2. Iliac bone marrow mast cells in relation to the renal osteodystrophy of patients treated by haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, H A; Peart, K M

    1976-01-01

    Mast cells have been counted in iliac bone biopsies from patients with chronic renal failure treated by haemodialysis, and attempts made to relate mast cells to the various features of azotaemic renal osteodystrophy. There was a significant increase in the number of marrow mast cells in comparison with controls, and haemodialysis has no favourable effect on the marrow mast cell hyperplasia which occurs in chronic renal failure. There was a general tendency towards greater numbers of mast cells in cases with most marked ostetis fibrosa but it was not possible consistently to relate hyperparathyroidism to mast cell numbers. Patients treated by parathyroidectomy, aluminium hydroxide, or the newer vitamin D metabolites failed to show any consistent fall in marrow mast cell numbers in spite of improvement in the ostetis fibrosa. The number of marrow mast cells was related to the duration of haemodialysis and to the amount of osteoid present and iversely to the percentage mineralization of bone. It was not possible to identify any causal relationship between the presence or severity of osteomalacia and the number of mast cells in the haemodialysed patients although mast cell hyperplasia was also observed in patients with osteomalacia unassociated with renal disease. Images PMID:939806

  3. The effect of holiday haemodialysis treatments on patient mood, adverse symptoms and subjective wellbeing using the Big Red Kidney Bus.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jane; Bennett, Paul N; Ockerby, Cherene; Ludlow, Marie; Fairbairn, Jo; Wilson, Anne; Kerr, Peter G

    2017-02-01

    People with end-stage kidney disease receiving haemodialysis are restricted to holidays where dialysis services are readily available. Holiday dialysis in regional, rural and remote areas is particularly challenging. The aims of this study were to evaluate the wellbeing of those who received dialysis in a holiday haemodialysis bus and to measure patient well-being with that of a comparable cohort of haemodialysis patients. A three machine haemodialysis bus, the Big Red Kidney Bus, was built to enable people, their families and carers to take holidays across a range of tourist destinations in Victoria, Australia. Measures included pre-post subjective well-being, dialysis symptoms and mood questionnaires complemented by post semi-structured telephone interviews. Participating holidaymakers were positive about the haemodialysis bus service and the standard of care experienced. They reported decreased dialysis side effects of fatigue, muscle cramp and dry skin. The overall number of reported symptoms decreased, and the perceived level of bother associated with symptoms also decreased. No changes in subjective well-being and mood were detected. Mean Personal Wellbeing Index scores were significantly higher than in a comparative haemodialysis sample. The Big Red Kidney Bus provided a safe and feasible holiday dialysis service. Holidaymakers' well-being was reflected by the decreased dialysis patient side effects. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection in haemodialysis patients: a multicentre study in 2796 patients

    PubMed Central

    Hinrichsen, H; Leimenstoll, G; Stegen, G; Schrader, H; Fölsch, U R; Schmidt, W E

    2002-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant problem in the management of haemodialysis patients. A high prevalence of HCV infection in haemodialysis patients has been reported. Risk factors such as the number of blood transfusions or duration on haemodialysis have been identified. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HCV by antibody testing and HCV-RNA determination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in haemodialysis patients. Furthermore, liver function tests were performed and epidemiological data were obtained to determine risk factors for HCV in this cohort of patients. Results: A total of 2796 patients from 43 dialysis centres were enrolled. The overall prevalence of HCV (HCV antibody and/or HCV-RNA positivity) was 7.0% (195 patients). Antibody positivity occurred in 171 patients (6.1%). Viraemia was detectable in 111 patients (4.0%). Twenty four of 111 HCV RNA positive patients (21.6%) were negative for HCV antibodies. Thus 0.8% of the entire study population was HCV positive but could not be diagnosed by routine HCV antibody testing. Major risk factors identified by a standard questionnaire in 1717 of 2796 patients were the number of blood transfusions individuals had received and duration of dialysis, the latter including patients who received no blood transfusions. Sequencing of the 5`untranslated region of the genome showed a dominant genotype 1 (77.6%) within the cohort. Further reverse transcription-PCR of the NS5b and core region were performed to document phylogenetic analysis. Comparing nucleic acid sequences detected by PCR, no homogeneity was found and thus nosocomial transmission was excluded. Conclusions: HCV is common in German haemodialysis patients but screening for HCV antibodies alone does not exclude infection with HCV. PMID:12171969

  5. Effect of soya protein on serum lipid profile and lipoprotein concentrations in patients undergoing hypercholesterolaemic haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Tzu; Chen, Jiun-Rong; Yang, Chwei-Shiun; Peng, Sheng-Jeng; Ferng, Shyang-Hwa

    2006-02-01

    Clinical trials have shown that soya protein reduces the concentrations of some atherogenic lipids in subjects with normal renal function. The present study examined the effects of soya protein on serum lipid concentrations and lipoprotein metabolism in patients on hypercholesterolaemic haemodialysis. Twenty-six hypercholesterolaemic (total cholesterol > or =6.21 mmol/l) patients on haemodialysis were studied in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. After a 4-week run-in phase, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. Isolated soya protein or milk protein 30 g was consumed daily as a beverage at breakfast or post-dialysis for 12 weeks. Soya protein substitution resulted in significant reductions in total cholesterol (17.2 (sd 8.9 )%), LDL-cholesterol (15.3 (sd 12.5 )%), apo B (14.6 (sd 12.1 )%) and insulin (23.8 (sd 18.7) %) concentrations. There were no significant changes in HDL-cholesterol or apo A-I. These results indicate that replacing part of the daily protein intake with soya protein has a beneficial effect on atherogenic lipids and favourably affects lipoprotein metabolism in hypercholesterolaemic patients undergoing haemodialysis.

  6. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human erythropoietin in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Brockmöller, J; Köchling, J; Weber, W; Looby, M; Roots, I; Neumayer, H H

    1992-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of and therapeutic response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rcEPO) were studied in 12 patients under chronic haemodialysis on a thrice weekly intravenous rcEPO treatment scheme. The kinetics of rcEPO were also assessed after a subcutaneous injection during the initial period and during maintenance treatment. RcEPO was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay. 2. After the first i.v. dose plasma erythropoietin concentrations were best described by a monoexponential disposition function with a mean (+/- s.d.) elimination half-life of 5.4 +/- 1.7 h. The volume of distribution was 70 +/- 5.2 ml kg-1 and the clearance was 10.1 +/- 3.5 ml h-1 kg-1 (n = 12). 3. After 3 months of continuous therapy, the plasma half-life of rcEPO decreased by 15% (P < 0.05, mean half-life during steady state: 4.6 +/- 2.8 h), while mean clearance and volume of distribution remained constant. 4. After the first s.c. injection the mean (+/- s.d.) absorption time was 22 +/- 11 h and systemic availability was 44 +/- 7%. 5. Changes in haemoglobin concentrations were described by a linear additive dose-response model, defined by an efficacy constant (Keff) and the mean erythrocyte lifetime (MRTHb). The sample mean (+/- s.d.) Keff was 0.043 +/- 0.017 g dl-1 Hb per 1000 units rcEPO and MRTHb was 10.02 +/- 1.75 weeks. The net effect of rcEPO treatment was described by the area under the unit-dose-response curve (AUEC) with a mean (+/- s.d.) value of 0.45 +/- 0.23 g dl-1 weeks. 6. RcEPO clearance showed a significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.41) with the effectiveness of rcEPO therapy, as measured by the parameters Keff or AUEC. PMID:1493082

  7. Prolonged use of intradialysis parenteral nutrition in elderly malnourished chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hiroshige, K; Iwamoto, M; Kabashima, N; Mutoh, Y; Yuu, K; Ohtani, A

    1998-08-01

    The treatment of malnutrition, frequently present in elderly dialysis patients, is important to promote better quality of life and rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of prolonged use of intradialysis parenteral nutrition (IDPN) as a strategy for malnutrition in elderly haemodialysis patients. Twenty-eight elderly patients (non-diabetic, age over 70) on chronic haemodialysis for at least 2 years were evaluated. Ten consenting patients were treated with IDPN containing glucose, essential amino acids, and lipid emulsion during the course of regularly scheduled dialysis treatments for approximately 1 year. Nutritional evaluation using seven parameters (anthropometric measurements such as body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, and albumin, transferrin, and total lymphocyte count) was performed at various intervals on patients with IDPN and 18 patients without IDPN. The plasma amino-acid profile and dietary protein calorie intake were also determined. In patients receiving IDPN, significant increases in serum albumin and transferrin concentrations and total lymphocyte count in peripheral blood smears paralleled increases in protein-calorie intake beginning after 3 months of treatment and remained favourable throughout the study period. Anthropometric data started to improve significantly after 6 months of treatment. Patients without IDPN had gradual decreases in all parameters during the study period. A significant increase in essential amino acids and a significant decrease in 3-methyl-histidine were observed in patients with IDPN and a further decrease in essential amino acids was observed in patients without IDPN. Prolonged use of IDPN prevents muscle protein catabolism and promotes body protein and fat accumulation. IDPN appears to be effective in malnourished elderly haemodialysis patients.

  8. Haemodialysis: hospital or home?

    PubMed

    Power, Albert; Ashby, Damien

    2014-02-01

    Healthcare costs associated with the provision of dialysis therapy are escalating globally as the number of patients developing end-stage renal disease increases. In this setting, there has been heightened interest in the application and potential benefit of home haemodialysis therapies compared with the conventional approach of thrice weekly, incentre treatments. Increasingly, national healthcare systems are financially incentivising the expansion of home haemodialysis programmes with observational studies demonstrating better patient survival, superior control of circulating volume and blood pressure, greater patient satisfaction and lower running costs compared with incentre dialysis. Nonetheless, increasing the prevalence of home haemodialysis is challenged by the technological complexity of conventional dialysis systems, the need for significant adaptations to the home as well as suboptimal clinician and patient education about the feasibility and availability of this modality. In addition, enthusiasm about frequent as well as nocturnal (extended-hours) haemodialysis has been tempered by results from the recent Frequent Haemodialysis Network randomised controlled trials comparing these schedules with a conventional incentre regime. An increasing emphasis on empowering patient choice and promoting self-management of chronic illness is a powerful driver for the expansion of home haemodialysis programmes in the UK and internationally.

  9. [Dispositional optimism in patients on chronic haemodialysis and its possible influence on their clinical course].

    PubMed

    Morales García, A I; Arenas Jiménez, M D; Reig-Ferrer, A; Alvarez-Ude, F; Malek, T; Moledous, A; Gil, M T; Cotilla, E M

    2011-01-01

    Dispositional optimism is a personality trait significantly associated with the use of positive adaptive coping strategies as well as with perceived psychological and physical well-being, and it appears to be an important predictor of illness. To analyse if dispositional optimism is significantly associated with the number of hospital admissions of our chronic haemodialysis patients, as well as its relationship with perceived state of health. We studied 239 patients on chronic haemodialysis. Patients were categorised into two groups according to the variables: hospital admissions/no. of admissions in the last year and dispositional optimism (DO). We used the following variables and questionnaires: 1) Dispositional O/P using the Spanish-validated cross-cultural adaptation of the revised version of the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) (Scheier, 1994): higher scores mean a higher degree of dispositional optimism. 2) Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the different aspects of the COOP/WONCA (CW) charts and its total score. In this case higher scores mean lower HRQoL. 3) Modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (mCCI). 4) Age, gender, and time on dialysis. Mean age was 64.8 ± 14.3 years; median time on dialysis 2.9 years (range: 0-32); and median LOT-R 21 (range 6-30). Patients considered DO had a lower risk of hospital admissions than pessimists (DP) (OR: 0.55; IC 95%: 0.32-0.94; P<.05). PD Patients that were admitted in the last year showed a significantly lower score on LOT-R (they were more pessimistic) than those that had no hospital admissions (19.4 ± 5.7 vs 22.3 ± 4.6; P=.001). We found no significant differences between admitted and not admitted patients in age, gender, time on haemodialysis and comorbidity. Admitted patients showed worse HRQoL (higher scores in total CW) than those that were not (Total CW: 22.37 vs 19.42; P<.001). PD patients had significantly higher scores than OD patients in all COOP-WONCA aspects except in aspect 1 (physical fitness

  10. Prospective investigation of the incidence of falls, dizziness and syncope in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Russell; Jeffrey, Corinne; Carlisle, Gary; Brierley, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of falls in the elderly is a major health care target. There are theoretical reasons why older dialysis patients may be at high risk of falls: co-morbidity, medication, and post-dialysis hypotension, which have not been well tested. Dialysis patients are also at higher risk of fracture if they do fall. We prospectively interviewed all our centre haemodialysis patients over a 6 month period to see if they reported falls, syncope, pre-syncope or dizziness. Routine blood pressure (BP) and other clinical data were recorded. A total of 78 patients completed the study. There was a high incidence of all four symptoms but only falls was age-related. About 38% of patients aged >65 reported 1 or more fall compared to 4% of younger patients (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in pre-dialysis, post-dialysis or standing BP between young and older patients or between fallers and non-fallers although the older patients did have a greater magnitude in change between pre-dialysis BP and post-dialysis standing BP. Older haemodialysis patients have a high incidence of falls. Falls can be prevented by addressing modifiable risk factors. Whether existing guidelines are applicable to this specialised population is uncertain. There is a high incidence of syncope in dialysis patients of all ages and the cause of this needs further exploration.

  11. Effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals in Hepatitis C virus infection in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Abad, Soraya; Vega, Almudena; Rincón, Diego; Hernández, Eduardo; Mérida, Evangelina; Macías, Nicolás; Muñoz, Raquel; Milla, Mónica; Luño, Jose; López-Gómez, Juan Manuel

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among patients on haemodialysis and leads to a poorer prognosis compared to patients who do not have said infection. Treatment with interferon and ribavirin is poorly tolerated and there are limited data on the experience with new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyse the current prevalence of HCV infection and efficacy and safety results with different DAA regimens in the haemodialysis population of 2hospital areas. This is a multicentre, retrospective and observational study in which HCV antibodies were analysed in 465 patients, with positive antibody findings in 54 of them (11.6%). Among these, 29 cases (53.7%) with genotypes 1 and 4 were treated with different DAA regimens, including combinations of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir and ledipasvir, with/without ribavirin. Mean age was 53.3±7.9 years, 72.4% of patients were male and the most important aetiology of chronic kidney disease involved glomerular abnormalities. In 100% of cases, a sustained viral response was achieved after 24 weeks, regardless of DAA regimen received. Adverse effects were not relevant and no case required stopping treatment. In 15 cases, ribavirin was combined with the DAA. In these cases, the most significant adverse effect was anaemic tendency, which was reflected in the increase of the dose of erythropoietin stimulating agents, although none required transfusions. In summary, we conclude that new DAAs for the treatment of HCV in haemodialysis patients are highly effective with minimal adverse effects; it is a very important advance in HCV management. These patients are therefore expected to have a much better prognosis than they have had until very recently. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke in haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Power, Albert; Moser, Steven; Duncan, Neill

    2010-12-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity in survivors. Early thrombolytic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke has been shown to dramatically improve patient outcomes. Although the age-adjusted incidence of stroke is 5-10 times greater in haemodialysis patients, the use of thrombolysis for this indication in this group of patients has not been described to date. We present a case where alteplase was used successfully for acute ischaemic stroke in a patient established on maintenance haemodialysis in the setting of an international randomized controlled trial and advocate caution with the use of systemic thrombolytics despite the favourable outcome seen with this case.

  13. Hepatitis C virus infection among multi-transfused patients and personnel in haemodialysis units in central Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Samimi-Rad, K; Hosseini, M; Mobeini, G; Asgari, F; Alavian, S M; Tahaei, M E; Salari, H

    2012-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was made of the prevalence of HCV and associated risk factors in 382 multi-transfused patients and haemodialysis staff in Yadz province in 2006. Of those tested for anti-HCV antibodies, 50.6% of patients with inherited bleeding disorders, 11.8% with thalassaemia and 5.0% undergoing haemodialysis were seropositive. First transfusion before 1996 (when blood donor screening started) was the common risk factor associated with HCV infection. Only 1/52 haemodialysis staff members was HCV infected (an intravenous drug user). Infection control measures were poor in all centres. In patients with inherited bleeding disorders genotype 1 (65.0%) was the predominant followed by genotype 3 (35.0%). The results provide evidence that blood donor screening and use of virus-inactivated factor concentrates have lowered the risk of HCV infection among multi-transfused patients.

  14. Effects of live saxophone music on physiological parameters, pain, mood and itching levels in patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Burrai, Francesco; Micheluzzi, Valentina; Zito, Maria Pia; Pietro, Giurdanella; Sisti, Davide

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have focused on the effect of music in patients undergoing haemodialysis. To determine the effects of live saxophone music on various physiological parameters and pain, mood and itching levels. A randomised controlled study with 114 patients undergoing haemodialysis with a control group (n = 57) and an experimental group (n = 57) who received 30 minutes of live saxophone music therapy. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, glycaemia, oxygen saturation, pain, mood and itching levels were measured before and after the live music performance, resulting in baseline and post-test values for the patients in the experimental group. The experimental group showed a statistically significant reduction in pain level, and an improvement in mood and itching levels and in the oxygen saturation. Live saxophone music could be introduced to improve clinical and quality-of-life measures in patients undergoing haemodialysis. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  15. Effects of a continuous care model on perceived quality of life of spouses of haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rahim, A; Alhani, F; Ahmadi, F; Gholyaf, M; Akhoond, M R

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a semi-experimental study with simple randomized sampling to study the effects of applying a continuous care model on the quality of life of 36 spouses of haemodialysis patients in Hamedan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Participants took part in group discussions and training on the continuous care approach and completed the Perceived Quality Of Life (PQOL) questionnaire before and after the intervention. Mean scores on the physical, social and cognitive dimensions, as well as happiness and total scores significantly increased after the intervention. Applying a continuous care model has positive effects on the caregivers of chronic patients.

  16. Restless legs syndrome: an underappreciated and distressing problem for haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chu, L; Chu, E; Dogra, G; Chakera, A

    2014-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a distressing condition that is more common in patients with end-stage renal failure. Despite the significant impact it has on quality of life and the documented association between restless legs syndrome and increased mortality, limited data regarding the epidemiology of restless legs syndrome in Australian dialysis patients are available. We report a prospective study that assessed the prevalence and factors associated with restless legs syndrome in an in-centre haemodialysis population. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  17. Is there any survival advantage of obesity in Southern European haemodialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Chazot, Charles; Gassia, Jean-Paul; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Cesare, Salvatore; Ponce, Pedro; Marcelli, Daniele

    2009-09-01

    In the general population, a high body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. However, according to US epidemiological evaluation in maintenance haemodialysis (HD) patients, a reverse epidemiology is described and baseline obesity appears paradoxically associated with better survival. The aim of this study is to examine in a Southern European HD population the relationship between survival and BMI at the start of HD treatment, and how survival is influenced by the body weight (BW) variations during the first year of treatment. A total of 85 dialysis centres located in Portugal, France and Italy and belonging to the FME European dialysis chain were included. The current prospective analysis focuses on incident patients admitted to these centres between 1 January 2000 and 30 September 2005 with <1 month of previous follow-up on RRT. Data were gained from the FME EuCliD database. Patients were classified at baseline in four categories according to the BMI: underweight, normal range, overweight and obese. Also, the patient survival was analysed according to five quintiles of BW changes during the first year of HD treatment <-5.8%, -5.8 to -1.1%, -1.1 to 1.7% (reference category), +1.7 to +5.5% and >+5.5%. Survival analysis was adjusted for a set of demographic and comorbids using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox model. Hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated with the use of the estimated regression coefficients and their standard errors. A total of 5592 patients were analysed (40.9% females), and the mean age at admission was 64.4 + 16.5 years. Of them, 27.7% were diabetic. The mean follow-up was 2.0 +/- 1.6 years. Almost half of the patients (46.4%) were in the normal range of BMI (20-24.9 kg/m(2)). When analysed with the Cox model, the categories of baseline BMI (underweight, normal range, overweight and obese) significantly influenced the survival with the respective hazard ratio (HR) and

  18. Aortic valvular calcification predicts restenosis after implantation of drug-eluting stents in patients on chronic haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hideki; Kumada, Yoshitake; Toriyama, Takanobu; Aoyama, Toru; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Amano, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Yuzawa, Yukio; Maruyama, Syoichi; Matsuo, Seiichi; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2009-05-01

    Even in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era, the restenosis rate of the follow-up period after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is higher in haemodialysis (HD) patients than in non-HD patients. Therefore, higher restenosis remains a clinical limitation in HD patients, and a simple clinical method to predict patients likely to have restenosis after stent implantation is attractive. The present study investigated the potential relationship between aortic valvular calcification (AVC) and angiographical restenosis at follow-up after DES implantation in patients on maintenance HD. In the study, 97 patients were enrolled. We prospectively performed echocardiography before elective PCI with DES implantation. Angiographic follow-up was scheduled between 6 and 8 months after PCI. Restenosis at follow-up was defined as a diameter stenosis of > or =50% by measuring quantitative coronary angiography. Of the enrolled patients, 59 patients (60.8%) had AVC. Complete angiographical follow-up was obtained in 86 patients (88.7%). The angiographical restenosis rate during the follow-up period was 24.7% in patients with AVC and 8.9% in patients without AVC [hazard ratio (HR) 3.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-9.56, P = 0.023]. Even after multivariate adjustment including covariates related to atherogenecity, AVC remained an independent predictor of restenosis after implanting DES (HR 3.83; 95% CI 1.14-12.9, P = 0.029). Late lumen loss suggesting neointimal growth after DES implantation was 0.28 +/- 0.70 mm in the non-AVC group and 0.64 +/- 0.90 mm in the AVC group (P = 0.013). AVC provides predictive information regarding DES implantation in patients on maintenance HD.

  19. Pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure-variability is independently associated with all-cause mortality in incident haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Viknesh; Pasea, Laura; Ojha, Sanjay; Wilkinson, Ian B; Tomlinson, Laurie A

    2014-01-01

    Systolic blood pressure variability is an independent risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular events. Standard measures of blood pressure predict outcome poorly in haemodialysis patients. We investigated whether systolic blood pressure variability was associated with mortality in incident haemodialysis patients. We performed a longitudinal observational study of patients commencing haemodialysis between 2005 and 2011 in East Anglia, UK, excluding patients with cardiovascular events within 6 months of starting haemodialysis. The main exposure was variability independent of the mean (VIM) of systolic blood pressure from short-gap, pre-dialysis blood pressure readings between 3 and 6 months after commencing haemodialysis, and the outcome was all-cause mortality. Of 203 patients, 37 (18.2%) patients died during a mean follow-up of 2.0 (SD 1.3) years. The age and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.17) for a one-unit increase of VIM. This was not altered by adjustment for diabetes, prior cardiovascular disease and mean systolic blood pressure (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16). Patients with VIM of systolic blood pressure above the median were 2.4 (95% CI 1.17-4.74) times more likely to die during follow-up than those below the median. Results were similar for all measures of blood pressure variability and further adjustment for type of dialysis access, use of antihypertensives and absolute or variability of fluid intake did not alter these findings. Diastolic blood pressure variability showed no association with all cause mortality. Our study shows that variability of systolic blood pressure is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause mortality in incident haemodialysis patients. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism as this may form a therapeutic target or focus for management.

  20. CARE OF A PATIENT'S VASCULAR ACCESS FOR HAEMODIALYSIS: A NARRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Debi; Smith, Lindsay; Chow, Josephine

    2016-06-01

    Patients requiring haemodialysis have diverse clinical needs impacting on the longevity of their vascular access and their quality of life. A clinical practice scenario is presented that raises the potential of unsafe cannulation of a patient's vascular access as a result of minimal patient empowerment. Vascular access care is the responsibility of everyone, including the patient and carer. The aim of this narrative literature review (1997-2014) is to explore the current understanding of what factors influence the care of vascular access for haemodialysis. A narrative literature review allows the synthesis of the known literature pertinent to the research question into a succinct model or unique order to enable new understandings to emerge. The bio-ecological model was used to guide the thematic analysis of the literature. The narrative literature review revealed five themes related to care of vascular access: patient experience; relationships-empowerment and shared decision making; environment of healthcare; time; and quality of life as the outcome of care. The management of vascular access is complicated. Current available literature predominantly concentrates on bio-medical aspects of vascular access care. Contextualised vascular access care in the complex ecology of the patient and carer's lives has the potential to enhance nursing practice and patient outcomes. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  1. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelter, Christopher Raab, Udo; Lazarus, Friedrich; Ruppert, Volker; Vorwerk, Dierk

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  2. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Schmelter, Christopher; Raab, Udo; Lazarus, Friedrich; Ruppert, Volker; Vorwerk, Dierk

    2015-08-01

    The study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients. 63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5%), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8%). A high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5%). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7%). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5% at 6 month, 31.3% at 12 month and 19.2% at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1%), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5%) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5%). Re-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  3. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci among haemodialysis patients in Portugal: prevalence and molecular characterization of resistance, virulence and clonality.

    PubMed

    Correia, Susana; Ponce, Pedro; Jones-Dias, Daniela; Caniça, Manuela; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2014-03-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) among haemodialysis patients has increased rapidly and, to date, there is no report of this incidence in Portugal. A total of 121 faecal samples were collected from haemodialysis patients, and then tested for VRE. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were studied. VRE prevalence was 3.3%. Three VRE isolates, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus raffinosus, were multi-resistant and vanA-positive. E. faecium and E. faecalis belonged to CC17 and CC2, respectively. Haemodialysis patients in Portugal are colonized with virulent, multi-resistant enterococci from high-risk clonal complexes, representing a public health concern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Is vitamin B(6) deficiency an under-recognized risk in patients receiving haemodialysis? A systematic review: 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Corken, Melissa; Porter, Judi

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin, important for the normal functioning of multiple organ systems. In patients receiving haemodialysis, vitamin B6 deficiency has been reported. The impact of ongoing advances in renal medicine on vitamin B6 status has not been evaluated. The aims of this review were (i) to determine the current level of vitamin B(6) deficiency in the haemodialysis population; (ii) to determine the effect of current haemodialysis prescriptions on vitamin B(6) levels; and (iii) to consider the impact of recent medical advances in haemodialysis on vitamin B(6) levels. Electronic databases were used to locate studies with biochemical measures of vitamin B6 between the years 2000 and 2010. Inclusion exclusion criteria were applied by two independent reviewers. Of 316 articles identified, 53 were selected for detailed review. Appropriate vitamin B6 measures and information were extracted. Eleven final studies were included. Vitamin B6 deficiency was shown to be between 24% and 56%. Dialysis reduced plasma levels by 28-48% depending on the dialyser used. Advances in renal medicine including the use of erythropoietin stimulating agents and ion exchange phosphate binding resins were shown to negatively affect vitamin B6 status. Current recommendations for supplementation range from 10-50 mg. These figures are based on older studies often with small numbers of patients. Suboptimal vitamin B6 status is common in the haemodialysis population. Advances in renal medicine and engineering of dialysis membranes may contribute to increased levels of deficiency.

  5. Prevalence of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Vedat; Ozkul, Hamza; Tekes, Selahattin; Sit, Dede; Kadiroglu, Ali Kemal

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the prevalence and clinical effects of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV. METHODS: Fifty chronic hemodialysis patients with negative HbsAg, and positive anti-HCV were included in the study. These patients were divided into two groups: HCV-RNA positive and HCV-RNA negative, based on the results of HCV-RNA PCR. HBV-DNA was studied using the PCR method in both groups. RESULTS: None of the 22 HCV-RNA positive patients and 28 HCV-RNA negative patients revealed HBV-DNA in serum by PCR method. The average age was 47.2 ± 17.0 in the HCV-RNA positive group and 39.6 ± 15.6 in the HCV-RNA negative group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of occult HBV infection is not high in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV in our region. This result of our study has to be evaluated in consideration of the interaction between HBsAg positivity (8%-10%) and frequency of HBV mutants in our region. PMID:16733862

  6. Haemodialysis patients with diabetes eat less than those without: A plea for a permissive diet.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Stanislas; Landrier, Jean-François; Astier, Julien; Cado, Sylvie; Sallette, Jérôme; Giaime, Philippe; Sampol, Jérôme; Sichez, Hélène; Ollier, Jacques; Gugliotta, Jean; Serveaux, Marianne; Cohen, Julien; Darmon, Patrice

    2017-09-01

    The main cause of malnutrition in haemodialysis patients is a spontaneous decline in energy and protein intakes. This study aims to report the dietary energy intake (DEI), dietary protein intake (DPI), and dietary micronutrient intake in a French HD population, to report factors associated with a low DPI and DEI, and to analyze if nutritional intake was correlated with nutritional status. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study in a haemodialysis population of 87 adult patients in July 2014. Daily nutritional oral intake, handgrip strength, body composition measured by bioimpedancemetry, and biological and dialysis parameters were obtained from medical records. Statistical analyses of parameters associated with DEI and DPI were performed. The median age (interquartile range) of the population was 77.3 [71.1; 84.8] years, 57.5% were men, and 52.9% had diabetes mellitus. Median weight-adjusted DEI was 18.4 [15.7;22.3] kcal/kg per day (1308 [1078; 1569] kcal/day), and median weight-adjusted DPI was 0.80 [0.66; 0.96] g/kg per day (57.5 [47.1; 66.8] g/day). In multivariate analysis, weight-adjusted DEI was statistically lower in patients with diabetes (coefficient [95%CI] -3.81[-5.21;-2.41] kcal/kg per day; P = 0.01) but was not associated with the others parameters. When DEI was not adjusted for weight, diabetes was no longer associated with DEI, but female gender (-178[-259;-961] kcal/day; P = 0.03) and a higher Charlson comorbidity index (-30[-44;-15]; P = 0.04) were associated with a lower calorie intake. Results for DPI were similar except that the Charlson comorbidity index did not reach significance. Diabetes is an important factor associated with low dietary intake in haemodialysis patients. Restrictive regimens should be prescribed cautiously in haemodialysis patients, especially in those with diabetes. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. Comparison of parenteral iron sucrose and ferric chloride during erythropoietin therapy of haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Jen; Lin, Hsin-Chang; Lee, Kun-Feng; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Yi-Chou; Chen, Han-Hsiang

    2010-02-01

    To compare the effects of i.v. iron sucrose and Fe chloride on the iron indices of haemodialysis patients with anaemia. One hundred and eight haemodialysis patients receiving recombinant human erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) (mean age 59.37 years) were enrolled and randomly assigned to an iron sucrose or an Fe chloride group. Iron supplements were administered at 100 mg/week during the first 4 weeks (loading dose). Ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) were then measured and dose adjusted. Ninety-eight subjects completed treatment; 51 in the iron sucrose group and 47 in the Fe chloride group. Ferritin, TSAT, haematocrit (Hct), reticulocyte count, serum albumin, fractional clearance of urea (Kt/V) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the groups. Significant differences between the groups were observed in both iron indices and ESA dosage. Hct at week 24 (31.1% vs 29.7%, P = 0.006) and ferritin at week 20 (731.3 vs 631.7 ng/mL, P = 0.006) in the iron sucrose group were significantly higher than in the Fe chloride group. ESA dosage used in the iron sucrose group at week 8 was significantly lower than in the Fe chloride group (244.9 vs 322.6 U/kg per month, P = 0.003), and iron sucrose group received significantly lower iron dose than the Fe chloride group at week 8 (P = 0.005). Although the differences in ESA dosage, ferritin and iron dosage between two groups were found during the study period while similar results were shown at the end of 24 week study. Thus, iron sucrose and Fe chloride are safe and work equally well for haemodialysis patients.

  8. Catheter-associated bloodstream infection caused by Leifsonia aquatica in a haemodialysis patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Porte, Lorena; Soto, Andrés; Andrighetti, Daniela; Dabanch, Jeannette; Braun, Stephanie; Saldivia, Alejandra; Flores, Juan Carlos; Wozniak, Aniela; García, Patricia; Weitzel, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Leifsonia aquatica is an aquatic coryneform rod that is capable of forming biofilms in environmental water sources. It has rarely been associated with human infections and its pathogenicity and clinical significance are uncertain. We describe a case of catheter-related bloodstream infection in a haemodialysis patient. The isolate grew on conventional media as a yellow-pigmented colony, but identification required molecular methods. Although the strain displayed reduced sensitivity to vancomycin, the clinical outcome was favourable after catheter removal and intravenous treatment with this antibiotic. Our report gives further evidence of the capability of this aquatic bacterium to cause human infection.

  9. Giant mesenteric cyst of mesothelial origin in a haemodialysis patient with previous peritoneal dialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Matthias; Santarelli, Stefano; Cangiotti, Angela Maria; Agostinelli, Rosa Maria; Monteburini, Tania; Marinelli, Rita; Ceraudo, Emilio; Cutini, Giorgio

    2010-03-01

    A 55-year-old female haemodialysis patient presented progressive abdominal liquid formation after having been excluded from peritoneal dialysis therapy because of recurrent peritonitis. Ultrasound was suspicious for ascites secondary to sclerosing peritonitis. Computed tomography revealed a thin-walled mesenteric cyst extending from the epigastric to the pelvic region. The cyst was excised incompletely as extensive adhesions were present. Histology was consistent with a mesothelial cyst of inflammatory origin. Three months after surgery, ultrasound detected a local recurrence at the descending colon. This case emphasizes the relation between mesenteric cyst, persistent inflammatory status and preceding peritoneal dialysis complicated by peritonitis.

  10. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy in Patients Receiving Haemodialysis: Is It Time to Abandon It?

    PubMed Central

    Brodowska-Kania, Dorota; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy in haemodialysis patients causes a great deal of controversy. This is because a number of pro- and anticoagulant factors play an important role in end-stage renal failure due to the nature of the disease itself. In these conditions, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the OACs used change as well. In the case of the treatment of venous thromboembolism, the only remaining option is OAC treatment according to regimens used for the general population. Prevention of HD vascular access thrombosis with the use of OACs is not very effective and can be dangerous. However, OAC treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation in dialysis population may be associated with an increase in the incidence of stroke and mortality. Doubts should be dispelled by prospective, randomised studies; at the moment, there is no justification for routine use of OACs in the above-mentioned indications. In selected cases of OAC therapy in this group of patients, it is absolutely necessary to control and monitor the applied treatment thoroughly. Indications for the use of OACs in patients with end-stage renal disease, including haemodialysis patients, should be currently limited. PMID:24379737

  11. Determination of functional iron deficiency status in haemodialysis patients in central South Africa.

    PubMed

    Haupt, L; Weyers, R

    2016-08-01

    Functional iron deficiency (FID) is characterized by adequate body iron stores with an inadequate rate of iron delivery for erythropoiesis. In chronic kidney failure (CKD), iron availability is best assessed using the percentage of hypochromic red cells (%Hypo). The aim of our study was to determine the FID status of haemodialysis patients in central South Africa, using the %Hypo analyte and to evaluate the ability of the currently used biochemical tests, transferrin saturation (TSat) and serum ferritin to diagnose FID. For this study, 49 patients on haemodialysis were recruited. Haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV) and %Hypo were measured on the Advia 2120i. Biochemical analytes (serum ferritin, TSat) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also recorded. Of the 49 participants, 21 (42.9%) were diagnosed with FID (%Hypo >6%). A large number of patients (91.8%) were anaemic. The TSat demonstrated poor sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing FID compared with %Hypo. The use of %Hypo (rather than TSat) to guide intravenous iron use spared 16 patients the potential harmful effects thereof. Using %Hypo as a single analyte to diagnose FID will lead to more appropriate use of limited resources and a reduction in treatment-related complications. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications in non-diabetic Caucasian haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Schlieper, Georg; Brandenburg, Vincent; Djuric, Zivka; Damjanovic, Tatjana; Markovic, Natasa; Schurgers, Leon; Kruger, Thilo; Westenfeld, Ralf; Ackermann, Diana; Haselhuhn, Angelika; Dimkovic, Sinisa; Ketteler, Markus; Floege, Jurgen; Dimkovic, Nada

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis patients display an increased mortality which is associated with cardiovascular calcifications. Diabetes mellitus and ethnicity are known factors that affect the extent of cardiovascular calcifications. However, most studies have investigated mixed cohorts with diabetics and/or mixed ethnicity. Cardiovascular calcifications were assessed in non-diabetic Caucasian haemodialysis patients by the semiquantitative Adragao calcification score (X-ray pelvis and hands) and a novel composite calcification score encompassing the Adragao score as well as calcifications detected by X-ray of the fistula arm, echocardiography of heart valves and carotid ultrasound. Using multivariate analysis, age, male gender, dialysis vintage, lower Kt/V, calcium-phosphate product, smoking and high-sensitivity CRP were independent risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications as assessed by the Adragao or the composite score. Pulse wave velocity was independently related to both calcification scores. Body mass index, cholesterol, triglycerides, iPTH and serum levels of fetuin-A and uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein were not associated with cardiovascular calcifications. In our cohort of non-diabetic Caucasian haemodialysis patients, age, male gender, dialysis vintage, smoking, calcium-phosphate product, high-sensitivity CRP and lower Kt/V were independent risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications. Whether lowering the calcium-phosphate product and increasing dialysis efficiency can reduce cardiovascular calcifications in dialysis patients remains to be determined. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Paricalcitol versus cinacalcet plus low-dose vitamin D for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving haemodialysis: study design and baseline characteristics of the IMPACT SHPT study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kevin J.; Cozzolino, Mario; Goldsmith, David; Sharma, Amit; Khan, Samina; Dumas, Emily; Amdahl, Michael; Marx, Steven; Audhya, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background. Paricalcitol and cinacalcet are common therapies for patients on haemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). We conducted a multi-centre study in 12 countries to compare the safety and efficacy of paricalcitol and cinacalcet for the treatment of SHPT. Methods. Patients aged ≥18 years with Stage 5 chronic kidney disease receiving maintenance haemodialysis and with intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) 300–800 pg/mL, calcium 8.4–10.0 mg/dL (2.09–2.49 mmol/L) and phosphorus ≤6.5 mg/dL (2.09 mmol/L) were randomized within two strata defined by the mode of paricalcitol administration to treatment with paricalcitol- (intra-venous, US and Russian sites, IV stratum; oral, non-US and non-Russian sites, oral stratum) or cinacalcet-centred therapy. The primary endpoint is the proportion of patients in each treatment group who achieve a mean iPTH value of 150–300 pg/mL during Weeks 21–28 of treatment. Assuming efficacy response rates of 36 and 66% for cinacalcet and paricalcitol, respectively, and a 20% discontinuation rate, 124 subjects in each stratum were estimated to provide 81% power to detect a 30% absolute difference in the primary endpoint. Results. Of 746 patients screened, 272 (mean age, 63 years; mean iPTH, 509 pg/mL) were randomized. Mean duration of haemodialysis at baseline was 3.7 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (90.4%), Type 2 diabetes (40.4%), congestive heart failure (17.3%), coronary artery disease (34.6%) and gastrointestinal disorders (75%). Conclusions. The study participants are representative of a multinational cohort of patients on haemodialysis with elevated iPTH. The study results will provide valuable information on the best available treatment of SHPT in patients on haemodialysis. PMID:21931122

  14. Central venous stenosis in haemodialysis patients without a previous history of catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri; Yildirim, Sedat; Torun, Dilek

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate dialysis history, imaging findings and outcome of endovascular treatment in six patients with central venous stenosis without a history of previous catheter placement. Between April 2000 and June 2004, six (10%) of 57 haemodialysis patients had stenosis of a central vein without a previous central catheter placement. Venography findings and outcome of endovascular treatment in these six patients were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were three women (50%) and three men aged 32-60 years (mean age: 45 years) and all had massive arm swelling as the main complaint. The vascular accesses were located at the elbow in five patients and at the wrist in one patient. Three patients had stenosis of the left subclavian vein and three patients had stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein. The mean duration of the vascular accesses from the time of creation was 25.1 months. Flow volumes of the vascular access were very high in four patients who had flow volume measurement. The mean flow volume was 2347 ml/min. One of three patients with brachiocephalic vein stenosis had compression of the vein by the brachiocephalic artery. All the lesions were first treated with balloon angioplasty and two patients required stent placement on long term. Number of interventions ranged from 1 to 4 (mean: 2.1). Symptoms resolved in five patients and improved in one patient who had a stent placed in the left BCV. Central venous stenosis in haemodialysis patients without a history of central venous catheterization tends to occur or be manifested in patients with a proximal permanent vascular access with high flow rates. Balloon angioplasty with or without stent placement offers good secondary patency rates in mid-term.

  15. The effect of erythropoietin treatment on left ventricular hypertrophy in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rasić, Senija; Kulenović, Indira; Zulić, Irfan; Haracić, Azra; Cengić, Mithat; Uncanin, Snjezana; Dzemidzić, Jasminka

    2003-11-01

    Anaemia appears to play an important role in left ventricular (LV) enlargement in chronic kidney disease patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate LV echocardiography changes during anaemia correction with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu-Epo) in chronic haemodialysis patients (HD pts) with signs of anaemia and LV hypertrophy (LVH). The study included 20 HD pts aged 39,6 +/- 5,3 yrs, with the same condition of HD treatment, anaemia and echocardiographically LVH verified. At the beginning of the rHu-Epo treatment haemoglobin (Hb) level was < 90 g/L and the target Hb level was 110 g/L. Echocardiography was performed at the beginning (baseline) and after six months of rHu-Epo treatment. LVH was defined as LV mass index >100 g/m2 in women and >131 g/m2 in men. We observed significant reduction of LV mass index (LVMI) (mean 26,4%, p=0.008), as well as LV volumen. There was a significant negative correlation between Hb level and LVMI with predictive LVMI reduction of 2,317 g/m2 for each 1g/L rising of mean Hb level. The results of the study confirm the importance of early anaemia correction in haemodialysis patients aimed to improve LV parameters.

  16. Amyloid arthropathy in patients undergoing periodical haemodialysis for chronic renal failure: a new complication.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Gómez, J; Bergadá-Barado, E; Gómez-Pérez, R; Llopart-Buisán, E; Subías-Sobrevía, E; Rotés-Querol, J; Solé-Arqués, M

    1985-01-01

    Seven patients (five male and two female) with chronic renal failure (CRF) treated by periodical haemodialysis presented with swelling and effusion of more than three months' duration in knees (four bilateral), shoulders (two, one of them bilateral), elbow (one), and ankle (one). Four had a carpal tunnel syndrome both clinically and electromyographically (three bilateral). All patients had hyperparathyroidism secondary to their CRF, which was not due to amyloidosis in any of them. The dialysis duration period varied from five to 14 years, with an average of 8.6 years. Amyloid deposits (Congo red positive areas with green birefringence under polarising microscopy) were shown in six of the seven synovial biopsy specimens of the knee, in five of the sediments of the synovial fluids, and in specimens removed during carpal tunnel syndrome surgery. No amyloid was found in the biopsy specimen of abdominal fat of six of the patients. The finding of amyloid only in the synovial membrane and fluid, and carpal tunnel, its absence in abdominal fat, and the lack of other manifestations of generalised amyloidosis (cardiomyopathy, malabsorption syndrome, macroglossia, etc.) and of Bence Jones myeloma (protein immunoelectrophoresis normal) raises the possibility that this is a form of amyloidosis which is peculiar to CRF treated by periodical haemodialysis. Images PMID:4062386

  17. Removal of chelated aluminium during haemodialysis using polysulphone high-flux dialysers.

    PubMed

    Aarseth, H P; Ganss, R

    1990-01-01

    Polysulphone high-flux dialysers were used for removal of chelated aluminium in desferrioxamine-treated patients on maintenance haemodialysis. When compared with charcoal haemoperfusion in series with a cuprophane dialyser, the same aluminium clearance was obtained (34% of blood flow). During 4 h of haemodialysis serum aluminium was reduced to the concentration seen before desferrioxamine infusion. We conclude that high-flux polysulphone dialysers remove chelated aluminium as efficiently as does charcoal haemoperfusion, and at a lower cost.

  18. An investigation of the effects of music on anxiety and pain perception in patients undergoing haemodialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Pothoulaki, M; Macdonald, R A R; Flowers, P; Stamataki, E; Filiopoulos, V; Stamatiadis, D; Stathakis, Ch P

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of preferred music listening on anxiety and pain perception in patients undergoing haemodialysis. A two group experimental design was used. Sixty people diagnosed with end stage renal failure undergoing haemodialysis treatment participated in this study. Preferred music listening was applied as an intervention. Anxiety and pain were measured pre-test and post-test. The control group scored significantly higher in state anxiety than the experimental group and experienced significantly higher pain intensity in post-test phase. Findings provide experimental evidence to support the effectiveness of preferred music listening in medical settings.

  19. A longitudinal study of arterial blood pressure in chronic haemodialysis patients with different levels of plasma renin concentration.

    PubMed

    Kornerup, H J; Fredsted, B; Pedersen, R S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the value of regular measurements of plasma renin concentration (PRC) in selecting those chronic haemodialysis patients suitable for bilateral nephrectomy to prevent development of uncontrollable hypertension. Regular measurements of arterial blood pressure (BP) and PRC were performed during one year in 31 patients undergoing regular haemodialysis because of end-stage renal disease. Among 18 patients with PRC greater than or equal to 100 micro Goldblatt units per ml plasma (microGU/ml) systolic and/or diastolic hypertension persisted or developed in 12. In contrast, among 13 patients with PRC greater than 100microGU/ml, BP became normal in all but one, who had a slightly increased systolic BP. However, hypertension was mild and easily controlled by conventional therapy in all except one, who probably had an overlying volume-dependent hypertension. Therefore, bilateral nephrectomy was not necessary in any case. The results indicate that hypertension in the majority of chronic haemodialysis patients with high PRC can be adequately controlled without surgical intervention and that regular measurements of PRC have no practical value in forecasting the development of uncontrollable hypertension in chronic haemodialysis patients.

  20. Translation and adaptation to Portuguese of the haemodialysis patient assessment tool - CUDYR-DIAL.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth Prado Lima; Rocha, Késia; Araya, Silvia Barrios; Catoni, Maria Isabel; Schilling, Maria Cristina Lore; Urbanetto, Janete de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Objective To translate and culturally adapt the tool Categorización de usuario según dependencia y riesgo en unidades de hemodiálisis (CUDYR-DIAL) into Brazilian Portuguese. Method This is a methodological study for the translation and cultural adaptation or localization of the instrument CUDYR-DIAL. Results In the pre-test stage, three nurses applied the instrument to 78 patients of the haemodialysis unit of the São Lucas Hospital of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. The average scores of each item were compared and no statistically significant differences were found in the data of the three evaluators, which demonstrates that the score of each professional in each item converges to the same value. Considering the estimation of reliability, Cronbach's alpha determined for the 14 items of the scale presented a minimum of 0.796 and a maximum of 0.799. Conclusion The instrument was translated, but the cultural adaptation was not necessary. It presents good reliability and will contribute to qualify the care of haemodialysis patients.

  1. The effect of vegetarian diet on skin autofluorescence measurements in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-04-14

    CVD remains the major cause of death for dialysis patients. Dialysis patients have both traditional and nontraditional risk factors, including the retention of advanced glycation end products (AGE). Tissue AGE can be measured by skin autofluorescence (SAF) and are a reliable measurement of chronic exposure. Dietary intake of AGE may be lower in vegetarian patients than in non-vegetarian patients, so we determined whether vegetarian patients had lower SAF than non-vegetarian patients. We measured SAF in 332 adult haemodialysis patients using a UV technique in a standardised manner. Information about patients' demographic data, laboratory results and current medicinal prescriptions was collected retrospectively from the hospital's computerised database. The mean patient age was 65·2 (SD 15·1) years, 64 % were men, 42 % were diabetic, and 66 % were Caucasian. The mean SAF was 3·26 (SD 0·95) arbitrary units (AU), and SAF was lower in vegetarians as compared to non-vegetarians (2·71 (SD 0·6) v. 3·31 (SD 0·97) AU, P= 0·002). SAF was negatively correlated on both univariate (r -0·17, P= 0·002) and multiple linear regression (β coefficient -0·39, 95 % CI -0·7, -0·07, P= 0·019). SAF, a marker of tissue AGE deposition, was reduced in vegetarian haemodialysis patients after correction for known confounders, which suggests that a vegetarian diet may reduce exposure to preformed dietary AGE. Dietary manipulation could potentially reduce tissue AGE and SAF as well as CVD risk, but further prospective studies are warranted to confirm the present findings.

  2. Could intradialytic nutrition improve refractory anaemia in patients undergoing haemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Thabet, Ahmad F; Moeen, Sawsan M; Labiqe, Mohammed O; Saleh, Medhat A

    2017-09-01

    This prospective randomised study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) therapy in malnourished patients with refractory anaemia. Forty patients who were malnourished with a BMI not greater than 23 (17-23) kg/m(2) , undergoing regular HD were included. Of those, 20 patients received 500-1000 ml of IDPN at a rate of 250-300 ml/h at each HD session three days per week for six consecutive months. The other 20 patients did not receive IDPN infusion. The malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and haematological parameters were recorded at baseline and after three and six months. Mean haemoglobin levels, BMI and serum albumin were significantly increased while MIS was significantly decreased after the 3rd and 6th months of IDPN. IDPN has a good role in improving refractory anaemia by significantly increasing haemoglobin levels, body weight, and serum albumin levels. The intervention also significantly decreases the MIS of patients. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  3. ACCESS HD pilot: A randomised feasibility trial Comparing Catheters with fistulas in Elderly patientS Starting haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Robert; Ravani, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The selection of the type of vascular access for haemodialysis is an important intervention question. However, only observational studies are available to inform decision-making in this area, and they are at high risk of selection bias. While a clinical trial comparing the effects of the 2 most frequently chosen strategies for haemodialysis access (fistulas and catheters) on patient important and ‘hard’ clinical end points is needed, the feasibility of such a trial is uncertain. Methods and analysis This open-label pilot randomised controlled trial will test the feasibility and safety of randomising elderly people (≥65 years) who start haemodialysis with a central venous catheter (the most common initial type of haemodialysis access), and are eligible to receive a fistula, to a catheter-based strategy (comparator) or to a fistula-based strategy (intervention). We will enrol 100 patients at 10 centres across Canada. Participants assigned to the catheter-strategy arm will continue to use catheters; participants assigned to the fistula-strategy arm will receive a surgical attempt at fistula creation. The inclusion criteria are designed to minimise the risk of protocol violation and attrition. The primary outcome is feasibility, which we will assess by measuring: (1) the proportion of participants deemed eligible for the trial who consent to randomisation; and (2) the proportion of participants randomised to the intervention who receive the fistula surgery within 90 days of randomisation. Secondary outcomes will include safety outcomes, the reasons people and healthcare providers may not accept randomisation, and the reasons sites may not adhere to the trial protocol. Ethics and dissemination The Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Calgary approved the study protocol. We will submit the results of this feasibility study in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number NCT02675569, Pre-results. PMID:27884849

  4. Baking soda induced severe metabolic alkalosis in a haemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Solak, Yalcin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Atalay, Huseyin; Turk, Suleyman

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a rare occurence in hemodialysis population compared to metabolic acidosis unless some precipitating factors such as nasogastric suction, vomiting and alkali ingestion or infusion are present. When metabolic alkalosis develops, it may cause serious clinical consequences among them are sleep apnea, resistent hypertension, dysrhythmia and seizures. Here, we present a 54-year-old female hemodialysis patient who developed a severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion to relieve dyspepsia. She had sleep apnea, volume overload and uncontrolled hypertension due to metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was corrected and the patient's clinical condition was relieved with negative-bicarbonate hemodialysis.

  5. How much is enough? An investigation of the relationship between haemodialysis adequacy and quality of life of elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Zimbudzi, Edward; Samlero, Reggie; Kerr, Peter G; Zoungas, Sophia

    2016-04-01

    The average age of patients requiring haemodialysis is on the rise and has resulted in an increase in the number of elderly people receiving dialysis. While haemodialysis is one of the treatment options for this patient group, questions about its effectiveness have been raised. A second question centres on how much haemodialysis is actually needed to maintain quality of life (QoL). This study examined the relationship between dialysis adequacy and the QoL of elderly patients on haemodialysis. A prospective cohort of 40 haemodialysis patients aged 75 years and above was recruited and studied over 3 months. Quality of life was assessed with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaire and dialysis adequacy with the urea reduction ratio (URR), and the relationship between the two examined using a simple linear regression model. The average age of the participants was 79.8 ± (3.9 years; 45% were women, and diabetes was the main cause of kidney disease (42.5%). The mean URR, visual analogue scale, European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions indices score and Charlson comorbidity index scores were 78.1 ± (5.5)%, 65.4 ± (13.7)%, 0.7 ± (0.27) and 6.3 ± (2.15), respectively. There was no clear relationship between dialysis adequacy and QoL, r = 0.093. Dialysis adequacy did not significantly predict QoL (P = 0.09). There was no evidence for an association between haemodialysis adequacy and QoL in elderly patients receiving haemodialysis across a URR range of 64.0% to 88.9%. Attempts to improve dialysis adequacy beyond these levels may not be necessary for maintaining the QoL of elderly patients on dialysis. Modern therapy should embrace the concept of quality of life and focus more on symptom relief and optimization of self-management skills to improve the well-being of the elderly patients with ESKD. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Nutritional status of haemodialysis patients: comparison of Australian cohorts of Aboriginal and European descent.

    PubMed

    Todd, Alwyn; Carroll, Robert; Gallagher, Meghan; Meade, Anthony

    2013-12-01

    It is not known whether nutritional status differs between Australian Aboriginal and non Aboriginal haemodialysis subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal haemodialysis subjects at satellite dialysis centres. Seventy-six (25 Aboriginal, 51 non-Aboriginal) prevalent haemodialysis patients were enrolled in a 3-month cross-sectional study. Each month anthropometric and biochemical measurements were collected. Nutritional status (diet history, patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), handgrip strength) was assessed by a dietitian. PG-SGA detected mild to moderate malnutrition in 35% of Aboriginal patients and 25% of non-Aboriginal patients. The overall physical rating on the PG-SGA was significantly higher in Aboriginal patients, indicating the presence of a greater deficit in muscle mass in this population. Inter-dialytic weight gain was significantly greater in Aboriginal subjects (median [range] 3.0 [2.1-5.7] vs 2.5 [-0.3-5.0] kg, P<0.001). Glucose and HbA1c were significantly higher in Aboriginal subjects with diabetes than in non-Aboriginal patients with diabetes (median [range] 9.4 [4.9-23.4] vs 5.7 [3.1-12.9], P=0.002; 7.0 [5.2-11.0] vs 5.8 [4.6-9.0], P<0.000; respectively). These findings occurred in the setting of each cohort having adequate dialysis parameters (median Kt/V of >1.6 and median normalized protein catabolic rate 1.5). Difficulties were encountered in obtaining dietary information from Aboriginal subjects using the diet history method. Subjects had acceptable parameters of dialysis adequacy; however, 35% had evidence of malnutrition. Further research should focus on establishing a knowledge base for the nutritional management for Aboriginal dialysis subjects, and the development of a validated individual dietary assessment method for use in this population group. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. The Effects of Intermittent Fasting during the Month of Ramadan in Chronic Haemodialysis Patients in a Tropical Climate Country

    PubMed Central

    Wan Md Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Wong, Mun Hoe; Lim, Soo Kun

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease is an emerging problem in the majority Muslim countries. Despite the uncertainties of the risks involved, some Muslim patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis choose to observe intermittent fasting during the month of Ramadan. This study aims to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting in haemodialysis patients residing in a tropical climate country. Methods This prospective cross sectional study recruited Muslim patients on regular haemodialysis from three haemodialysis centres in Kuala Lumpur from 15th July 2011 to 29th August 2011. Patients who fasted for any number of days were included (n = 35, 54% female, age 54±11 years). 89% of patients fasted for more than 15 days and 49% were diabetics. Dialysis parameters and blood samples were obtained one week prior to Ramadan and during the last week of Ramadan. The differences in dialysis parameters and biochemical values pre- and end-Ramadan were examined using paired t-test. Results Both pre- and post-dialysis weight were significantly decreased during Ramadan fasting compared to the month prior (p = <0.001). There was a significant decrease in the amount of ultrafiltration (p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in dry weight, inter-dialytic weight gain, mean urea reduction ratio or blood pressure measurements comparing pre- and end of Ramadan fasting. There was a significant increase in serum albumin level (p = 0.006) and decrease in serum phosphate level (p = 0.02) at the end of Ramadan. Conclusion Ramadan fasting is associated with reduced weight, improved serum albumin and phosphate level in our population of haemodialysis patients. A larger multi-centre study will allow us to understand more about the effects of fasting in this population. PMID:25546434

  8. The effects of intermittent fasting during the month of Ramadan in chronic haemodialysis patients in a tropical climate country.

    PubMed

    Wan Md Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Wong, Mun Hoe; Lim, Soo Kun

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is an emerging problem in the majority Muslim countries. Despite the uncertainties of the risks involved, some Muslim patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis choose to observe intermittent fasting during the month of Ramadan. This study aims to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting in haemodialysis patients residing in a tropical climate country. This prospective cross sectional study recruited Muslim patients on regular haemodialysis from three haemodialysis centres in Kuala Lumpur from 15th July 2011 to 29th August 2011. Patients who fasted for any number of days were included (n = 35, 54% female, age 54±11 years). 89% of patients fasted for more than 15 days and 49% were diabetics. Dialysis parameters and blood samples were obtained one week prior to Ramadan and during the last week of Ramadan. The differences in dialysis parameters and biochemical values pre- and end-Ramadan were examined using paired t-test. Both pre- and post-dialysis weight were significantly decreased during Ramadan fasting compared to the month prior (p = <0.001). There was a significant decrease in the amount of ultrafiltration (p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in dry weight, inter-dialytic weight gain, mean urea reduction ratio or blood pressure measurements comparing pre- and end of Ramadan fasting. There was a significant increase in serum albumin level (p = 0.006) and decrease in serum phosphate level (p = 0.02) at the end of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting is associated with reduced weight, improved serum albumin and phosphate level in our population of haemodialysis patients. A larger multi-centre study will allow us to understand more about the effects of fasting in this population.

  9. Effect of pentoxifylline on anaemia control in haemodialysis patients: retrospective observational case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gutiérrez, José M; Ferrer-Nadal, Asunción; García-Fernández, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of anaemia in haemodialysis (HD) with iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) does not lead to adequate anaemia control and has been associated with inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) may be beneficial in these cases. Our aim was to study the potential effect of PTX on anaemia in haemodialysis patients. Retrospective observational case-control study on 18 patients (treated with PTX) and 18 controls (without PTX matched by age and sex) on HD (Clínica Universidad de Navarra). Four patients received PTX due to vascular disease and 14 due to refractory anaemia (which was defined as haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dl in the last three months despite high doses of ESA and transferrin saturation of >20%). Hb, MIRCERA dose and C-reactive protein were recorded before starting PTX treatment (baseline), at 3 months and at the end of the study. In patients who received PTX, there was an increase in Hb (P<.001) over three months and a decrease in the ESA dose at the end of the study (P=.002). The baseline differences in Hb between groups (lowest of all cases) (P<.001) and ESA dose (highest of all cases) (P=.006), disappeared at 3 months. At the end of the study, 11/18 (61.1%) of patients treated with PTX had adequate Hb levels and received doses of ESA comparable with those of the controls. In HD patients, PTX in doses of 800 mg/day improves Hb significantly and in the short term (3 months) in HD patients (around 61% response) and allows the required ESA dose to be reduced in the medium-long term. This effect is sustained over time and treatment is tolerated well.

  10. [Treatment of acute lithium intoxication with high-flux haemodialysis membranes].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Fernández, E J; Regidor, D; Peces, C; Sánchez, R; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2006-01-01

    Lithium carbonate is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders. However, because of its narrow therapeutic index an excessive elevation of serum lithium concentration, either during chronic maintenance therapy or after an acute overdose, can result in serious toxicity. In addition to supportive care, the established treatment of severe lithium toxicity is haemodialysis. Conventional haemodialysis can reduce serum lithium rapidly, but post-dialysis rebound elevations with recurrent toxicity have been documented in old publications. High-flux membranes should be capable of removing more lithium per hour of haemodialysis, but published values are not available. We report here three patients with acute lithium intoxication who were treated successfully with bicarbonate and high-flux haemodialysis membranes. Our patients presented with a severe degree of intoxication, based on the amount of drug ingested, the initial serum lithium level, the severity of neurologic symptoms and systemic manifestations. Two patients developed acute renal failure probably as a result of volume depletion since it was rapidly reversible by haemodialysis and infusion therapy. In addition, consecutive haemodialysis sessions and improvement of renal function allowed a rapid decrease in serum lithium levels without haemodynamic instability or rebound elevations in lithium concentration. The effectiveness of the procedure in these cases can be attributed to the use of bicarbonate dialysate and high-efficiency dialysers. This is the first report describing the effect of high-efficiency dialysers on lithium pharmacokinetic. Using this technique the elimination rate of lithium was found to be greater than previously reported with haemodialysis.

  11. Involvement of parathyroid hormone-related protein in vascular calcification of chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Fu, Ping; Fan, Wenxing; Gou, Rong; Huang, Youqun; Qiu, Hongyu; Zhong, Hui; Huang, Songmin

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the role of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in vascular calcification of patients with chronic hemodialysis. The inferior epigastric arteries were obtained from 23 patients on chronic haemodialysis and 16 patients with renal carcinoma as control. Haematoxylin-eosin staining, elastic fibre staining, Alizarin Red calcium staining and immunohistochemical staining of PTHrP, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), Cbfa1/Runx2 were performed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine mRNA expressions of PTHrP, BMP-2 and Cbfa1/Runx2. Western blot and real-time PCR were used to detect the effects of PTHrP-siRNA and rh-PTHrP-1-34 on the expressions of PTHrP, BMP-2 and Cbfa1/Runx2 in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and intracellular calcium content in HASMCs were assessed after treatment with 10 mmol/L β-glycerol phosphoric acid for 48 h. Vascular calcification was confirmed in 78.2% of patients on chronic haemodialysis, and the expressions of PTHrP, BMP-2 and Cbfa1 in the arteries were significantly upregulated. PTHrP-siRNA could downregulate the expression of PTHrP by 60%, BMP-2 by 25% and Cbfa1 by 25% at 24 h (P < 0.05). Exogenous rh-PTHrP-1-34 could upregulate the expressions of BMP-2 and Cbfa1 by 1.37-fold and 1.46-fold, respectively, at 24 h in a time-independent manner (P < 0.05), which were attenuated by PTHrP-siRNA. Moreover, it could promote intracellular calcium deposition and increase ALP activities, which were partially blocked by PTHrP-siRNA (P < 0.05). Vascular calcification was common in patients with chronic haemodialysis, to which PTHrP might contribute by activating BMP-2/ Cbfa1 signalling pathway. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  12. Association of pelvic arterial calcification with arteriovenous thigh graft failure in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Mark E; Robbin, Michelle L; McNamara, Michelle M; Allon, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Arterial calcification is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease, and has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether pelvic artery calcifications are associated with technical failure of arteriovenous thigh grafts in haemodialysis patients. From 1 January 1999 to 30 June 2002, thigh grafts were placed in 54 haemodialysis patients who had exhausted all options for permanent vascular access in the upper extremities. Perioperative computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis was obtained in 32 of the patients for diagnostic purposes unrelated to vascular access planning. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the graft outcomes, scored the vascular calcifications on CT of the distal aorta, common iliac, external iliac and common femoral arteries on a semi-quantitative 5-point scale. The association between technical graft failure (inability to complete the anastomosis) and the vascular calcification score was analysed. There was a high inter-observer agreement in scoring vascular calcification (kappa = 0.801). Among 26 patients with absent or mild pelvic arterial calcifications (grade 1-2) on CT, none (0%) experienced technical graft failure. In contrast, three of six patients (50%) with moderate to severe calcification (grade 3-5) had technical graft failures (P = 0.004 by Fisher's exact test). The cumulative 1 year graft patency was lower in the group with grade 3-5 calcification (33 vs 81%, P = 0.09). The two groups were similar in age, gender, race, diabetes, duration of dialysis, serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum parathyroid hormone. There is a strong association between pelvic artery calcifications and technical failure of thigh grafts. The presence of moderate to severe vascular calcification is predictive of poor cumulative 1 year graft patency.

  13. Frequency of Fabry disease in male and female haemodialysis patients in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fabry disease (FD), an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by a reduced activity of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A. The disorder ultimately leads to organ damage (including renal failure) in males and females. However, heterozygous females usually present a milder phenotype with a later onset and a slower progression. Methods A combined enzymatic and genetic strategy was used, measuring the activity of α-galactosidase A and genotyping the α-galactosidase A gene (GLA) in dried blood samples (DBS) of 911 patients undergoing haemodialysis in centers across Spain. Results GLA alterations were found in seven unrelated patients (4 males and 3 females). Two novel mutations (p.Gly346AlafsX347 and p.Val199GlyfsX203) were identified as well as a previously described mutation, R118C. The R118C mutation was present in 60% of unrelated patients with GLA causal mutations. The D313Y alteration, considered by some authors as a pseudo-deficiency allele, was also found in two out of seven patients. Conclusions Excluding the controversial D313Y alteration, FD presents a frequency of one in 182 individuals (0.55%) within this population of males and females undergoing haemodialysis. Moreover, our findings suggest that a number of patients with unexplained and atypical symptoms of renal disease may have FD. Screening programmes for FD in populations of individuals presenting severe kidney dysfunction, cardiac alterations or cerebrovascular disease may lead to the diagnosis of FD in those patients, the study of their families and eventually the implementation of a specific therapy. PMID:20122163

  14. Cervical Epidural Abscess in Haemodialysis Patients by Catheter Related Infection: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gezici, Ali Riza

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in neuroimaging and neurosurgical treatment modalities, spinal epidural abscess remains a challenging problem. Early diagnosis is often difficult and treatment is always delayed. Spinal epidural abscess usually develops in patients with predisposing factors such as IV drug abuse, senillity, diabetes mellitus, spinal attempts, alcoholism, immunosuppression, liver diseases and catheterizations. It is rarely seen in cervical region. A successful treatment is only possible with early diagnosis and accurate surgical and medical treatment. Optimal management is unclear and morbidity and mortality are significant. We present two adult haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal insufficiency who developed cervical epidural abscess following central venous catheter placement. Early surgical intervention is mandatory in cases those have progressive neurological deficit and spinal deformity, and this is also increases the success rate of medical therapy. PMID:20052368

  15. Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia rates in patients receiving haemodialysis following alteration of skin antisepsis procedures.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B J; Gardiner, T; Perry, G J; Tong, S Y C

    2016-02-01

    This study examined all cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in the haemodialysis cohort at the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia over a seven-year period. Midway through this period, antisepsis for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) and central venous catheters (CVC) changed from 0.5% chlorhexidine solution to 2% chlorhexidine solution. Rates of SAB episodes were calculated using registry data. Trends in SAB over time were analysed using an interrupted regression analysis. Following the change to 2% chlorhexidine, average SAB rates decreased by 68%, and it is estimated that 0.111 cases of SAB/patient-year were prevented. CVC-related SAB rates remained low throughout. These results support the use of 2% chlorhexidine in skin antisepsis for patients with AVF.

  16. Massive haematuria successfully managed by intravesical Ankaferd in a haemodialysis patient complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Solak, Yalcin; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Ozbek, Orhan; Hassan, Mustafa Aziz; Yeksan, Mehdi

    2012-12-23

    Massive haematuria is a life-threatening condition, demanding immediate management of bleeding. The mortality is very high in the case of delayed management of bleeding, especially in elderly patients with concomitant comorbidity. The treatment options of haematuria are wide, and depend on underlying conditions. However, therapeutic choices are limited in the presence of massive and intractable haematuria caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) is a novel, commercially available, haemostatic agent, which has been approved by the Ministry of Health for local use in Turkey. Here, for the first time in the literature, we report a case of diffuse intravesical bleeding stopped by intravesical use of ABS in a 72-year-old man, haemodialysis patient complicated with sepsis and DIC.

  17. Low-dosage epoetin in maintenance haemodialysis: costs and quality-of-life improvement.

    PubMed

    Harris, D C

    1994-01-01

    Decisions about epoetin (recombinant human erythropoetin) dosage and target haematocrit in dialysis patients have been determined largely by the high acquisition cost of epoetin, but are made with incomplete knowledge about which target haematocrit gives the optimum clinical benefit. Haematopoietic response to epoetin may be determined by pharmacodynamic factors such as rate and frequency of administration, as well as by individual patient characteristics such as ethnicity. Resistance to epoetin may be due to iron or vitamin deficiency, natural or exogenous inhibitors of erythropoiesis and bone marrow fibrosis. The high acquisition cost of epoetin must be considered along with a number of other factors that can influence the true cost of epoetin treatment. Hidden costs of epoetin treatment include administration costs, changes in other treatments, extra laboratory tests and adverse events. Administration costs and extra laboratory surveillance add little to overall cost. Depletion of iron stores, hypertension, increased blood coagulability and reduced dialyser efficiency resulting from epoetin treatment may all add a small additional component to the true cost. Severe complications with significant cost implications are rare. Amongst the various components of true cost, only the acquisition cost can definitely be reduced by low dosage treatment. Balanced against the true and potential costs of epoetin are a number of benefits which can result in potential savings. The need for blood transfusion is all but abolished, avoiding the cost of transfusion and its complications. Sensitisation against histocompatibility antigens is reduced by avoiding transfusion, and so the waiting time for cadaveric transplantation may be reduced. Rates of hospitalisation for all causes, especially those associated with anaemia, may be reduced by epoetin treatment. By improving well-being, epoetin may allow patients to be transferred to minimal-care units or home where dialysis can be

  18. [Cost minimisation analysis for darbepoetin alpha vs. epoetin alpha in chronic kidney disease patients on haemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Cuesta Grueso, C; Poveda Andrés, J L; Garcia Pellicer, J; Romá Sánchez, E

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that epoetin alpha (r-HuEpo) and darbepoetin alpha (NESP) are similarly effective and safe for maintaining haemoglobin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nevertheless, there is some debate over their cost-effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to carry out a cost-minimisation analysis including a comparison of the costs to the hospital arising from treatment with r-HuEpo vs. NESP. Prospective observational study. We included CRF patients on haemodialysis with no iron, vitamin B12 or folate deficiencies, treated with stable doses of IV r-HuEpo. Follow-up was performed over three periods: the first during six months, maintaining prior treatment with r-HuEpo; the second for eight months, after changing to NESP, and the third, during the final eight months, following resuming r-HuEpo treatment. For converting both treatments, the conversion factor established on technical sheet 1:200 was used. 51 patients completed the study and were valid for analysis. Their mean age was 68.3 years, and 18 were women (35.3%). The mean weekly doses at the end of each period were 8,058.8 (SD 3,911.1) IU for the EPO1 period, 39.4 (SD 21.6) microg for NESP and 7,882.4 (SD 4,594.1) IU for EPO2. The weekly costs for each treatment showed significant differences between NESP and r-HuEpo: the cost of NESP was higher. In our study, we found that r-HuEpo and NESP were similarly effective in patients with CRF on haemodialysis, but that there was a significant cost increase associated with NESP treatment. Copyright © 2009 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic evaluations of interventions to manage hyperphosphataemia in adult haemodialysis patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Rana; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Karavetian, Mirey; Evers, Silvia Maa

    2016-03-01

    Managing hyperphosphataemia in haemodialysis patients is resource-intensive. A search for cost-effective interventions in this field is needed to inform decisions on the allocation of healthcare resources. NHSEED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched for full economic evaluations of hyperphosphataemia-managing interventions in adult haemodialysis patients, published between 2004 and 2014, in English, French, Dutch or German. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of the interventions were up-rated to 2013US$ using Purchasing Power Parity conversion rates and Consumer Price Indices. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Extended Consensus on Health Economic Criteria List. Twelve out of the 1681 retrieved records fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They reported only on one aspect of hyperphosphataemia management, which is the use of phosphate binders (calcium-based and calcium-free, in first-line and sequential use). No economic evaluations of other phosphorus-lowering interventions were found. The included articles derived from five countries and most of them were funded by pharmaceutical companies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of phosphate binders ranged between US$11 461 and US$157 760 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Calcium-based binders (especially calcium acetate) appear to be the optimal cost-effective first- and second-line therapy in prevalent patients, while the calcium-free binder, lanthanum carbonate, might provide good value for money, as second-line therapy, in incident patients. The studies' overall quality was suboptimal. Drawing firm conclusions was not possible due to the quality heterogeneity and inconsistent results. Future high-quality economic evaluations are needed to confirm the findings of this review and to address other interventions to manage hyperphosphataemia in this population.

  20. Elevation of Platelet and Monocyte Activity Markers of Atherosclerosis in Haemodialysis Patients Compared to Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stach, Ksenija; Karb, Susanne; Akin, Ibrahim; Krämer, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The predominant cause of mortality in dialysis patients are cardiovascular events. Platelet and monocyte activity markers play an important role in cardiovascular mortality and were assessed and related to dialysis quality criteria in haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods For this prospective comparative study, HD patients (n = 41) and PD patients (n = 10) were included. In whole blood samples, surface expression of CD62P and CD40L on platelets, tissue factor binding on monocytes, and platelet-monocyte aggregates were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of MCP-1, IL-6, TNFα, and soluble CD40L were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Haemodialysis patients showed a significantly higher CD62P expression on platelets (p = 0.017), significantly higher amount of platelet-monocyte aggregates (p < 0.0001), and significantly more tissue factor binding on monocytes (p < 0.0001) compared to PD patients. In PD patients, a significant correlation between Kt/V and platelet CD40L expression (r = 0.867; 0.001) and between Kt/V and platelet CD62P expression (r = 0.686; p = 0.028) was observed, while there was no significant correlation between Kt/V and tissue factor binding on monocytes and platelet-monocyte aggregates, respectively. Conclusion Platelet and monocyte activity markers are higher in HD patients in comparison with those in PD patients, possibly suggesting a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:28769539

  1. Elevation of Platelet and Monocyte Activity Markers of Atherosclerosis in Haemodialysis Patients Compared to Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Stach, Ksenija; Karb, Susanne; Akin, Ibrahim; Borggrefe, Martin; Krämer, Bernhard; Kälsch, Thorsten; Kälsch, Anna-Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    The predominant cause of mortality in dialysis patients are cardiovascular events. Platelet and monocyte activity markers play an important role in cardiovascular mortality and were assessed and related to dialysis quality criteria in haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. For this prospective comparative study, HD patients (n = 41) and PD patients (n = 10) were included. In whole blood samples, surface expression of CD62P and CD40L on platelets, tissue factor binding on monocytes, and platelet-monocyte aggregates were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of MCP-1, IL-6, TNFα, and soluble CD40L were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Haemodialysis patients showed a significantly higher CD62P expression on platelets (p = 0.017), significantly higher amount of platelet-monocyte aggregates (p < 0.0001), and significantly more tissue factor binding on monocytes (p < 0.0001) compared to PD patients. In PD patients, a significant correlation between Kt/V and platelet CD40L expression (r = 0.867; 0.001) and between Kt/V and platelet CD62P expression (r = 0.686; p = 0.028) was observed, while there was no significant correlation between Kt/V and tissue factor binding on monocytes and platelet-monocyte aggregates, respectively. Platelet and monocyte activity markers are higher in HD patients in comparison with those in PD patients, possibly suggesting a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  2. Clinical picture of the amyloid arthropathy in patients with chronic renal failure maintained on haemodialysis using cellulose membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Gómez, J; Gómez-Pérez, R; Llopart-Buisán, E; Solé-Arqués, M

    1987-01-01

    The clinical picture of 15 patients (10 male, five female) with amyloid arthropathy secondary to chronic renal failure treated with haemodialysis has been studied. The average period of haemodialysis was 10.8 years. Joint symptoms appeared between three and 13 years after starting haemodialysis. No patient had renal amyloidosis. Early symptoms were varied and often overlapped: knee swelling (seven patients), painful and stiff shoulders (seven), and carpal tunnel syndrome (six) were the most prominent. Follow up showed extension to other joints. Joint effusions were generally of the non-inflammatory type. Radiologically, geodes and erosions of variable sizes were seen in the affected joints, which can develop into a destructive arthropathy. Amyloid was found in abdominal fat in three of the 12 patients on whom a needle aspiration was performed. Four of 12 patients showed changes compatible with amyloid infiltration in the echocardiogram. One patient had amyloid in the gastric muscular layer, another in the colon mucus, and two of four in rectal biopsy specimens. Amyloid deposits showed the presence of beta 2 microglobulin in 10 patients. The clinical and radiological picture was similar to the amyloid arthropathy associated with multiple myeloma. These patients can develop systemic amyloidosis. Images PMID:3310926

  3. Clinical picture of the amyloid arthropathy in patients with chronic renal failure maintained on haemodialysis using cellulose membranes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gómez, J; Gómez-Pérez, R; Llopart-Buisán, E; Solé-Arqués, M

    1987-08-01

    The clinical picture of 15 patients (10 male, five female) with amyloid arthropathy secondary to chronic renal failure treated with haemodialysis has been studied. The average period of haemodialysis was 10.8 years. Joint symptoms appeared between three and 13 years after starting haemodialysis. No patient had renal amyloidosis. Early symptoms were varied and often overlapped: knee swelling (seven patients), painful and stiff shoulders (seven), and carpal tunnel syndrome (six) were the most prominent. Follow up showed extension to other joints. Joint effusions were generally of the non-inflammatory type. Radiologically, geodes and erosions of variable sizes were seen in the affected joints, which can develop into a destructive arthropathy. Amyloid was found in abdominal fat in three of the 12 patients on whom a needle aspiration was performed. Four of 12 patients showed changes compatible with amyloid infiltration in the echocardiogram. One patient had amyloid in the gastric muscular layer, another in the colon mucus, and two of four in rectal biopsy specimens. Amyloid deposits showed the presence of beta 2 microglobulin in 10 patients. The clinical and radiological picture was similar to the amyloid arthropathy associated with multiple myeloma. These patients can develop systemic amyloidosis.

  4. [Recurrent vascular access trombosis associated with the prothrombin mutation G20210A in a adult patient in haemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Quintana, L F; Coll, E; Monteagudo, I; Collado, S; López-Pedret, J; Cases, A

    2005-01-01

    Vascular access-related complications are a frequent cause of morbidity in haemodialysis patients and generate high costs. We present the case of an adult patient with end-stage renal disease and recurrent vascular access thrombosis associated with the prothrombin mutation G20210A and renal graft intolerance. The clinical expression of this heterozygous gene mutation may have been favoured by inflammatory state, frequent in dialysis patients. In this patient, the inflammatory response associated with the renal graft intolerance would have favored the development of recurrent vascular access thrombosis in a adult heterozygous for prothrombin mutation G20210A. In the case of early dysfunction of haemodialysis vascular access and after ruling out technical problems, it is convenient to carry out a screening for thrombophilia.

  5. The link between bone and coronary calcifications in CKD-5 patients on haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Asci, Gulay; Ok, Ercan; Savas, Recep; Ozkahya, Mehmet; Duman, Soner; Toz, Huseyin; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Branscum, Adam J.; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Herberth, Johann; Malluche, Hartmut H.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Vascular calcifications are frequent in Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD-5) patients receiving haemodialysis. The current study was designed to evaluate the associations between bone turnover/volume and coronary artery calcifications (CAC). Methods. In 207 CKD-5 patients, bone biopsies, multislice computed tomography of the coronary arteries and blood drawings for relevant biochemical parameters were done. The large number of CKD-5 patients enrolled allowed separate evaluation of patients with CAC versus patients without CAC and adjustment for traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CAC. Results. When all patients were analysed, associations were found between CAC and bone turnover, bone volume, age, gender and dialysis vintage. When only patients with CAC were included, there was a U-shaped relationship between CAC and bone turnover, whilst the association with bone volume was lost. In these patients, the relationship of CAC with age, gender and dialysis vintage remained. Conclusions. Beyond the non-modifiable risk factors of age, gender and dialysis vintage, these data show that bone abnormalities of renal osteodystrophy amenable to treatment should be considered in the management of patients with CAC. PMID:20709740

  6. The link between bone and coronary calcifications in CKD-5 patients on haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Asci, Gulay; Ok, Ercan; Savas, Recep; Ozkahya, Mehmet; Duman, Soner; Toz, Huseyin; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Branscum, Adam J; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Herberth, Johann; Malluche, Hartmut H

    2011-03-01

    Vascular calcifications are frequent in Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD-5) patients receiving haemodialysis. The current study was designed to evaluate the associations between bone turnover/volume and coronary artery calcifications (CAC). In 207 CKD-5 patients, bone biopsies, multislice computed tomography of the coronary arteries and blood drawings for relevant biochemical parameters were done. The large number of CKD-5 patients enrolled allowed separate evaluation of patients with CAC versus patients without CAC and adjustment for traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CAC. When all patients were analysed, associations were found between CAC and bone turnover, bone volume, age, gender and dialysis vintage. When only patients with CAC were included, there was a U-shaped relationship between CAC and bone turnover, whilst the association with bone volume was lost. In these patients, the relationship of CAC with age, gender and dialysis vintage remained. Beyond the non-modifiable risk factors of age, gender and dialysis vintage, these data show that bone abnormalities of renal osteodystrophy amenable to treatment should be considered in the management of patients with CAC.

  7. Coagulation inhibitors and fibrinolytic parameters in patients on peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Alwakeel, J; Gader, A M; Hurieb, S; al-Momen, A K; Mitwalli, A; Abu Aisha, H

    1996-01-01

    Coagulation inhibitors and fibrinolytic parameters were studied in twelve patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and ten patients on haemodialysis (HD). Patients on CAPD exhibited higher levels of ATIII and proteins C and S than those on HD. No significant differences were noted in tPA and PAI levels. Both groups of patients showed higher levels of tPA than controls. Besides, patients on HD had significantly lower levels of ATIII and protein C than controls. PAI levels in both patient groups were similar to those of the controls, but tPA levels were higher in patients than in controls. These results indicate that HD is associated with marked diminution in the circulating levels of coagulation inhibitors. This is in contrast to CAPD patients who showed elevated levels of these inhibitors, despite their significant loss in the dialysate. The finding of enhanced fibrinolysis in both patient groups may be a natural protective mechanism against the development of a thrombotic tendency.

  8. Thrombin-Anti-Thrombin Levels and Patency of Arterio-Venous Fistula in Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis Compared to Healthy Volunteers: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Milburn, James A.; Ford, Isobel; Mutch, Nicola J.; Fluck, Nicholas; Brittenden, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients on haemodialysis (HD) are at an increased risk of sustaining thrombotic events especially to their vascular access which is essential for maintenance of HD. Objectives To assess whether 1) markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis or endothelial activation are increased in patients on HD compared to controls and 2) if measurement of any of these factors could help to identify patients at increased risk of arteriovenous (AVF) access occlusion. Patients/Methods Venous blood samples were taken from 70 patients immediately before a session of HD and from 78 resting healthy volunteers. Thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), D-dimer, von Willebrand factor (vWF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen (PAI-1) and soluble p-selectin were measured by ELISA. C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured by an immunonephelometric kinetic assay. Determination of the patency of the AVF was based upon international standards and was prospectively followed up for a minimum of four years or until the AVF was non-functioning. Results A total of 70 patients were studied with a median follow-up of 740 days (range 72-1788 days). TAT, D-dimer, vWF, p-selectin and hsCRP were elevated in patients on HD compared with controls. At one year follow-up, primary patency was 66% (46 patients). In multivariate analysis TAT was inversely associated with primary assisted patency (r= -0.250, p= 0.044) and secondary patency (r = -0.267, p= 0.031). Conclusions The novel finding of this study is that in patients on haemodialysis, TAT levels were increased and inversely correlated with primary assisted patency and secondary patency. Further evaluation is required into the possible role of TAT as a biomarker of AVF occlusion. PMID:23844096

  9. Benefits and risks of protracted treatment with human recombinant erythropoietin in patients having haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Casati, S; Passerini, P; Campise, M R; Graziani, G; Cesana, B; Perisic, M; Ponticelli, C

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen patients with uraemic anaemia and having regular haemodialysis were given human recombinant erythropoietin in increasing doses, beginning with 24 U/kg thrice weekly. One patient was dropped from the study because of recurrent thrombosis of vascular access sites. In the other 13 patients, followed up for a mean of 9.1 months (range 8-11), haemoglobin concentrations increased from 62 (SD 8) to 105 (9) g/l. No antierythropoietin antibodies were detected during the study. The correction of anaemia was associated with a tendency to hyperkalaemia and a mild increase of unconjugated bilirubinaemia. In eight previously hypertensive patients antihypertensive treatment had to be reinforced, but in normotensive patients blood pressure did not change. Thrombosis of arteriovenous fistulas occurred in two patients and a cerebral ischaemic lesion in one. Protracted treatment with human recombinant erythropoietin evidently can maintain normal haemoglobin concentrations in uraemic patients over time. Full correction of anaemia, however, may trigger some vascular problems, particularly in hypertensive patients and those with a tendency to thromboembolism. PMID:3120854

  10. Prevalence of chronic itch and associated factors in haemodialysis patients: a representative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Melanie; Mettang, Thomas; Tschulena, Ulrich; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Weisshaar, Elke

    2015-09-01

    Chronic itch is a common symptom in haemodialysis (HD) patients, which is often underestimated. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with chronic itch in HD patients. A total of 860 HD patients from a randomly selected cluster-sample of patients attending dialysis units in Germany were included. The patients' mean?±?SD age was 67.2?±?13.5 years, 57.2% were male. The point prevalence of chronic itch was 25.2% (95% CI 22.4-28.1), 12-month prevalence was 27.2% (95% CI 24.1-30.3) and lifetime prevalence was 35.2% (95% CI 31.9-38.3). Chronic itch was significantly less prevalent in patients with secondary glomerulonephritis as primary renal disease. A history of dry skin, eczema, and age patients. It demonstrates that chronic itch is a long-lasting burden significantly impairing patients' health.

  11. Optimal treatment of painful bone metastases with Samarium EDTMP in a haemodialysis patient: effectiveness and safety of internal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Saadia; Desruet, Marie-Dominique; Bourre, Jean-Cyril; Caravel, Jean-Pierre; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe

    2009-08-01

    One of the current therapeutic approaches in the treatment of osteoblastic bone metastases uses the affinity of Samarium ((153)Sm) ethylene-diamine-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) for bone areas of bone turnover. As Samarium EDTMP is a beta-emitter, the radiotherapy contributes to osteoblastic bone lesion control over time. To date, the safety and effectiveness of Samarium therapy have not been established in patients with renal impairment. In this first report, we describe our experience of use of Samarium EDTMP in conjunction with biphosphonates in a haemodialysis patient for treatment of painful bone metastasis. Encouraging results were obtained in achieving pain control. The use of this radioisotope could be more widely applied to treat haemodialysis patients.

  12. Con: Ambulatory blood pressure measurement in patients receiving haemodialysis: a sore arm and a waste of time?

    PubMed

    Jardine, Alan G

    2015-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become popular in the investigation and management of patients with essential hypertension. In patients receiving haemodialysis, ABPM identifies patients who may fare worse in the long term. However, the available studies are small, and when conventional risk factors are included, there is no added value to ABPM over conventional BP measurements. In haemodialysis, ABPM remains an experimental investigation, and in the absence of specific, evidence-based targets for blood pressure in this population, it would be better to invest in large-scale trials to provide specific blood pressure targets and strategies, rather than concentrating on an alternative technique for blood pressure measurement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of Permcath (Quinton) catheter in uraemic patients in whom the creation of conventional vascular access for haemodialysis is difficult.

    PubMed

    Pourchez, T; Morinière, P; Fournier, A; Pietri, J

    1989-01-01

    During the last 4 years, the Permcath Quinton double-lumen silicone catheter was inserted into the internal jugular vein of 57 uraemic patients with difficulty for creating conventional vascular access for haemodialysis. In 4 patients, with definitive contraindication of conventional vascular access, this catheter still permits haemodialysis after a duration of 8-25 months. In 25 further patients with terminal uraemia, but poor vein system, it allowed the maturation of an arteriovenous fistula after 2-14 months of use. In 17 patients already on chronic haemodialysis, but who lost abruptly their vascular access (15 grafts and 2 arteriovenous fistulae), it allowed a new arteriovenous fistula to mature in 16 cases after a mean duration of 7.3 +/- months. In 5 patients with short life expectancy because of neoplasia, it allowed to dialyse them until their death which occurred after 6.5 +/- 2.2 months. In 6 patients with acute renal failure and haemostasis problems, it allowed to perform not only dialysis, but also plasmapheresis in 3 and parenteral nutrition in 3 other cases. The complications were the following: sepsis (n = 3); episodes of hypocoagulability due to inadvertent injection of heparin stored in the lumen (n = 2), thrombosis of the lumen (n = 3), and insufficient flow (n = 6). In no case these complications prevented continuation of haemodialysis. The catheter had to be removed in 2 cases because of septis and in 1 case because of insufficient flow. In 3 cases the catheter had to be replaced because of thrombosis and in 1 case because of laceration. These complication rates are, however, fewer than those reported in the literature for arteriovenous shunts or rigid subclavian and femoral catheters. The Permcath catheter seems, therefore to be the method of choice for immediated vascular access in patients in whom the creation of conventional vascular access is difficult.

  14. Using behavioural theories to optimise shared haemodialysis care: a qualitative intervention development study of patient and professional experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients in control of their own haemodialysis report better outcomes than those receiving professional controlled care in a hospital setting, even though home and hospital haemodialysis are largely equivalent from mechanical and physiological perspectives. Shared Haemodialysis Care (SHC) describes an initiative in which hospital haemodialysis patients are supported by dialysis staff to become as involved as they wish in their own care; and can improve patient safety, satisfaction and may reduce costs. We do not understand why interventions to support self-management in other conditions have variable effects or how to optimise the delivery of SHC. The purpose of this study was to identify perceived patient and professional (nurses and healthcare assistants) barriers to the uptake of SHC, and to use these data to identify intervention components to optimise care. Methods Individual semi-structured interviews with patients and professionals were conducted to identify barriers and facilitators. Data were coded to behavioural theory to identify solutions. A national UK learning event with multiple stakeholders (patients, carers, commissioners and professionals) explored the salience of these barriers and the acceptability of solutions. Results A complex intervention strategy was designed to optimise SHC for patients and professionals. Interviews were conducted with patients (n = 15) and professionals (n = 7) in two hospitals and three satellite units piloting SHC. Data from patient and professional interviews could be coded to behavioural theory. Analyses identified key barriers (knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, skills and environmental context and resources). An intervention strategy that focuses on providing, first, patients with information about the shared nature of care, how to read prescriptions and use machines, and second, providing professionals with skills and protected time to teach both professionals/patients, as well as providing

  15. Spanish multicentre PIBHE study: Prevalence and immunization of chronic hepatitis B in haemodialysis patients in Spain.

    PubMed

    García Agudo, Rebeca; Aoufi Rabih, Sami; Barril Cuadrado, Guillermina; Proy Vega, Beatriz; Arias Arias, Ángel; Herruzo Gallego, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The PIBHE study, promoted by the Spanish Liver and Kidney Association and the Dialysis Virus Group of the Spanish Society of Nephrology, is the first study to determine the status of haemodialysis patients with chronic HBV infection and the immunisation against the vaccine. The study has a national multicentre, observational, cross-sectional design and was carried out between January 2013 and 2014. A data collection folder was sent to all the nephrology departments and outpatient haemodialysis units in Spain, to be completed based on patient medical files after informed consent. The data were recorded in a central database. A total of 215 centres participated (15,645 patients), with an HBV prevalence of 1.03%. HCV or HIV was present in 7.2% of the HBV(+) patients. Viral load was below 2,000 IU/ml in 80%. GOT and GPT levels were 19.1±10.1 and 15.9±9.6 IU/ml, respectively. Liver biopsy was performed in 7.1%. Antiviral treatment was prescribed in 30% and suspended in 12.5%: entecavir (13.3%), lamivudine (10%), adefovir and tenofovir (6.7%), and interferon (3.3%). A total of 34.5% were candidates for renal transplantation and 6.9% had not been evaluated; 64.3% were followed up by a gastroenterologist; 27.2% of HBV(-) patients without immunisation had not been vaccinated. Fourteen different immunisation schedules had been used, with an immunisation rate of 58.8%. Mean anti-HBs stood at 165.7±297.8mIU/ml. A total of 72.7% of patients had received a vaccination course; 26.4%, 2 cycles; 1.0%, 3 cycles; and 11.6%, a booster dose. A total of 28.3% had a poor response (anti-HBs 10-99mIU/ml); 22.4%, an optimal response (anti-HBs 100-999mIU/ml); and 7.9%, an excellent response (anti-HBs ≥ 1,000mIU/ml). Age was significantly associated with response to vaccination; the mean age of nonresponders was significantly higher than patients who had a response of any kind (P<.05). The highest probability of an immune response was achieved with 4 doses of 40 mcg of adjuvanted vaccine

  16. Preliminary study of hypoxia-related cardiovascular mediator-markers in patients with end-stage renal disease with and without diabetes and the effects of haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Treweeke, A.; Hall, J.; Lambie, S.; Leslie, S. J.; Megson, I. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence points to activation of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic stimuli during the haemodialysis process in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with potential to predispose to cardiovascular events. Diabetes is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis patients. We tested the hypothesis that a range of mediators and markers that modulate cardiovascular risk are elevated in haemodialysis patients with diabetes compared to those without. Methods Men and women with diabetes (n = 6) and without diabetes (n = 6) aged 18–90 years receiving haemodialysis were recruited. Blood samples were collected and analysed pre- and post-haemodialysis sessions for (platelet-monocyte conjugates (PMC), oxidised LDL (Ox-LDL), endothelin 1 (ET-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A). Results PMC levels significantly increased after haemodialysis in both groups (diabetes p = 0.047; non-diabetes p = 0.005). Baseline VEGF-A was significantly higher in people with diabetes (p = 0.009) and post-dialysis levels were significantly reduced in both groups (P = 0.002). Ox-LDL and CRP concentrations were not significantly different between groups nor affected in either group post-dialysis. Similarly, ET-1 concentrations were comparable in all patients at baseline, with no change post-dialysis in either group. Conclusions In this pilot study, we have confirmed that circulating PMCs are increased following dialysis irrespective of diabetes status. This is likely to be a mechanistic process and offers a potential explanation for high rates of vascular events associated with haemodialysis. The higher VEGF-A concentrations between patients with and without diabetes is a previously unreported finding in diabetic ESRD. Further research is merited to establish whether VEGF-A is a marker or mediator (or both) of cardiovascular risk in haemodialysis. PMID:28542479

  17. Preliminary study of hypoxia-related cardiovascular mediator-markers in patients with end-stage renal disease with and without diabetes and the effects of haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Treweeke, A; Hall, J; Lambie, S; Leslie, S J; Megson, I L; MacRury, S M

    2017-01-01

    Evidence points to activation of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic stimuli during the haemodialysis process in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with potential to predispose to cardiovascular events. Diabetes is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis patients. We tested the hypothesis that a range of mediators and markers that modulate cardiovascular risk are elevated in haemodialysis patients with diabetes compared to those without. Men and women with diabetes (n = 6) and without diabetes (n = 6) aged 18-90 years receiving haemodialysis were recruited. Blood samples were collected and analysed pre- and post-haemodialysis sessions for (platelet-monocyte conjugates (PMC), oxidised LDL (Ox-LDL), endothelin 1 (ET-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A). PMC levels significantly increased after haemodialysis in both groups (diabetes p = 0.047; non-diabetes p = 0.005). Baseline VEGF-A was significantly higher in people with diabetes (p = 0.009) and post-dialysis levels were significantly reduced in both groups (P = 0.002). Ox-LDL and CRP concentrations were not significantly different between groups nor affected in either group post-dialysis. Similarly, ET-1 concentrations were comparable in all patients at baseline, with no change post-dialysis in either group. In this pilot study, we have confirmed that circulating PMCs are increased following dialysis irrespective of diabetes status. This is likely to be a mechanistic process and offers a potential explanation for high rates of vascular events associated with haemodialysis. The higher VEGF-A concentrations between patients with and without diabetes is a previously unreported finding in diabetic ESRD. Further research is merited to establish whether VEGF-A is a marker or mediator (or both) of cardiovascular risk in haemodialysis.

  18. Pitfalls in the measurement of skin autofluorescence to determine tissue advanced glycosylation content in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, Saurabh; Fan, Stanley; Davenport, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Skin autofluoresence has been advocated as a quick non-invasive method of measuring tissue advanced glycosylation end products (AGE), which have been reported to correlate with cardiovascular risk in the dialysis patient. Most studies have been performed in patients from a single racial group, and we wanted to look at the reliability of skin autofluoresence measurements in a multiracial dialysis population and whether results were affected by haemodialysis. We measured skin autofluoresence three times in both forearms of 139 haemodialysis patients pre-dialysis and 36 post-dialysis. One hundred and thirty-nine patients, 62.2% male, 35.3% diabetic, 59% Caucasoid, mean age 65.5 ± 15.2 years were studied. Reproducibility of measurements between the 1st and 2nd measurements was very good (r(2 ) = 0.94, P < 0.001, Bland Altman bias 0.05, confidence limits -0.02 to 0.04). However, skin autoflourescence measurements were not possible in one forearm in 8.5% Caucasoids, 25% Far Asian, 28% South Asians and 75% African or Afro Caribbean (P < 0.001). Mean skin autofluorescence in the right forearm was 3.3 ± 0.74 arbitrary units (AU) and left forearm 3.18 ± 0.82 AU pre-dialysis, and post-dialysis there was a fall in those patients dialysing with a left sided arteriovenous fistula (left forearm pre 3.85 ± 0.72 vs post 3.36 ± 0.55 AU, P = 0.012). Although skin autofluorescence is a relatively quick non-invasive method of measuring tissue AGE and measurements were reproducible, it was often not possible to obtain measurements in patients with highly pigmented skin. To exclude potential effects of arteriovenous fistulae we would suggest that measurements are made in the non-fistula forearm pre-dialysis. © 2013 The Authors. Nephrology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  19. Estimated dietary sodium intake in haemodialysis patients using food frequency questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Gkza, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In clinical practice, dietary sodium assessment requires reliable and rapid screening tools. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in estimating dietary sodium intakes in haemodialysis patients. Methods We used the Derby Salt Questionnaire (DSQ), and Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) to estimate sodium intake. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. Results In total, 139 haemodialysis patients (95 men) completed the FFQs, with mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 15 years. The mean FFQ scores were DSQ 3.5 ± 2.0 and SSQ 68.4 ± 24.5. Men had higher estimated dietary sodium intakes [DSQ median (range) 3.6 (0.6–10.1) versus female 2.2 (0.5–9.1), P = 0.007)]. Younger patients and those aged >75 years had the higher SSQ dietary sodium scores; 70.7 ± 27.8 and 76.8 ± 24.6 versus those aged 55–75 years, 61.8 ± 22.3, P = 0.04. Patients with greater estimated sodium intake had higher extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW) ratios pre-dialysis [75.1 ±12.5 versus 67.7 ± 4.8, P < 0.001] and ECW excess pre-dialysis [1.8 (1.5–2.6) versus 1.3 (0.8–2.0) L, P < 0.05]. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and inter-dialytic weight gains did not differ; however, the fall in MAP during dialysis was lower in the higher estimated dietary sodium group (0.9 ± 13.7% versus 6.5 ± 14.1%, P = 0.04). Conclusions Both questionnaires were acceptable to patients and identified higher estimated dietary sodium intake for men, those with greater ECW and, somewhat surprisingly, we found that older patients had a greater dietary sodium intake than expected. PMID:28979785

  20. Estimated dietary sodium intake in haemodialysis patients using food frequency questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Gkza, Anastasia; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    In clinical practice, dietary sodium assessment requires reliable and rapid screening tools. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in estimating dietary sodium intakes in haemodialysis patients. We used the Derby Salt Questionnaire (DSQ), and Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) to estimate sodium intake. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. In total, 139 haemodialysis patients (95 men) completed the FFQs, with mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 15 years. The mean FFQ scores were DSQ 3.5 ± 2.0 and SSQ 68.4 ± 24.5. Men had higher estimated dietary sodium intakes [DSQ median (range) 3.6 (0.6-10.1) versus female 2.2 (0.5-9.1), P = 0.007)]. Younger patients and those aged >75 years had the higher SSQ dietary sodium scores; 70.7 ± 27.8 and 76.8 ± 24.6 versus those aged 55-75 years, 61.8 ± 22.3, P = 0.04. Patients with greater estimated sodium intake had higher extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW) ratios pre-dialysis [75.1 ±12.5 versus 67.7 ± 4.8, P < 0.001] and ECW excess pre-dialysis [1.8 (1.5-2.6) versus 1.3 (0.8-2.0) L, P < 0.05]. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and inter-dialytic weight gains did not differ; however, the fall in MAP during dialysis was lower in the higher estimated dietary sodium group (0.9 ± 13.7% versus 6.5 ± 14.1%, P = 0.04). Both questionnaires were acceptable to patients and identified higher estimated dietary sodium intake for men, those with greater ECW and, somewhat surprisingly, we found that older patients had a greater dietary sodium intake than expected.

  1. Serratia marcescens bacteraemia outbreak in haemodialysis patients with tunnelled catheters due to colonisation of antiseptic solution. Experience at 4 hospitals.

    PubMed

    Merino, José L; Bouarich, Hanane; Pita, Mª José; Martínez, Patricia; Bueno, Blanca; Caldés, Silvia; Corchete, Elena; Jaldo, Mª Teresa; Espejo, Beatriz; Paraíso, Vicente

    The application of antiseptic solution for handling tunnelled catheters is recommended in patients undergoing haemodialysis. These routine antiseptic procedures in handling catheters are crucial to avoid complications. We report an outbreak of Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) bacteraemia in numerous haemodialysis units of the Community of Madrid. The first cases of bacteraemia due to S. marcescens were isolated in December 2014. The Preventive Medicine Services were informed of the detection of an atypical pathogen in several patients, suspecting a probable nosocomial outbreak. Information from 4 centres with similar S. marcescens bacteraemia was analysed. Twenty-one cases of bacteraemia related to S. marcescens were identified. The mean age of affected patients was 72±10 years. The mean time on haemodialysis of affected patients was 33±13 months (range: 3-83 months), the median time of tunnelled catheter was 22±13 months. In 11 cases the clinical picture was similar, with hypotension and general malaise during the haemodialysis session. Fever was present in a further 7 cases. In 3 cases the presentation was asymptomatic and was detected by blood cultures. All patients had tunnelled catheters (12 patients with catheter in the right jugular vein, 5 in the left jugular, 2 in the right femoral artery and 2 in the left subclavian artery). Gentamicin intravenous doses (1mg/kg) with catheter lock solution with ciprofloxacin post-dialysis were administered for 3 weeks in 6 patients. In 12 patients the treatment was ceftazidime (2g IV) plus catheter lock solution with the same antibiotic, for 2 weeks. Four patients received oral ciprofloxacin for 2 weeks, in one case together with IV vancomycin. The patients were asymptomatic and without new episodes 48hours after the treatment. No major complications were observed. The teams informed the health authorities of the situation, which then reported the presence of batches of antiseptic (chlorhexidine 0.05 and 2

  2. The effects of aromatherapy with lavender essential oil on fatigue levels in haemodialysis patients: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Nikkhah, Attieh; Espahbodi, Fatemeh; Ghaderi Koolaee, Fahimeh-Sadat

    2016-02-01

    This study was intended to examine the efficacy of lavender essential oil for the alleviation of fatigue in haemodialysis patients. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 59 haemodialysis patients in two groups. The routine care group received the routine care, but the experimental group inhaled lavender essence 5% for 10 min, three times a week for 4 consecutive weeks. The Fatigue Severity Scale was used to assess fatigue before the intervention and after the last intervention in the second and fourth weeks. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the fatigue scores before, and after the last intervention in the second and fourth weeks. Our result does not support other studies suggesting that lavender essential oil is effective on fatigue in haemodialysis patients. This conflicting result can mostly be ascribed to a variety of factors such as duration of aromatherapy and differences in concentrations of lavender essential oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two years experience with tunneled dialysis catheters in patients requiring haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Raheem, Abdur; Rana, Atif Iqbal; Mehmood, Syed Nayer; Ramzan, Mubashir; Shah, Rustam Alam; Naseem, Sajida

    2014-07-01

    To look for survival rate and major reasons behind the failure of tunnelled dialysis catheters in patients on haemodialysis. The retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Interventional Radiology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, and comprised records of 100 consecutive subjects from a list of patients in whom tunnelled cuffed catheters were placed from February 2009 to January 2011 and were followed up for two years. Data was collected on a proforma from the hospital database and medical records of patients. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 122 catheters placed in 100 patients, 49 (40.16%) were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 73 (59.83%) catheters, 38 (52%) had achieved their desired function, while 35 (48%) failed to achieve the target duration. Among the reasons of catheter failure, infection was the commonest at 13 (37.14%) with infection rate of 0.24 per 1000 catheter days. According to Kaplan Meier analysis, catheter survival rates at 60, 90 and 180 days were 89%, 77% and 64% respectively. Mean effective duration of catheter was 129 +/- 117 days. Tunnelled dialysis catheters can be safely used as vascular access till the maturation of fistula and may be an alternative to Arterio-Venous Fistula or graft for long-term vascular access if indicated.

  4. Preferred haemodialysis vascular access for diabetic chronic kidney disease patients: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Coentrão, Luís; Van Biesen, Wim; Nistor, Ionut; Tordoir, Jan; Gallieni, Maurizio; Marti Monros, Anna; Bolignano, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Vascular access problems are one of the main concerns in the diabetic end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) population. However, the optimal strategy for the establishment of vascular access in this population remains to be solved. We performed a systematic review in order to clarify the most advisable approach of vascular access planning in diabetic patients with ESKD. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases were searched for English-language articles without time restriction through focused, high-sensitive search strategies. We included all studies providing outcome data on diabetics starting chronic haemodialysis treatment on the basis of the type of primary placed vascular access. A total of 13 studies comprising over 2,800 participants with diabetes were reviewed in detail and included in the review. We found that diabetic patients using a dialysis catheter apparently experience a higher risk of death and infection compared with patients who successfully achieved and maintained an arteriovenous fistula as dialysis access. The comparison between the use of a graft or an autogenous fistula as dialysis access generated conflicting results. Primary patency rates appeared to be lower in diabetics versus non-diabetics. Our study suggests that diabetic ESKD patients with dialysis catheters incur a higher risk of death in comparison to those who achieve an arteriovenous access. It is however unclear whether this is caused by residual selection bias or by a true advantage of native vascular access.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of exercise training on elderly patients who require haemodialysis: study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Ryota; Hoshi, Keika; Yoneki, Kei; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As the average age of haemodialysis patients rapidly increases around the world, the number of frail, elderly patients has increased. Frailty is well known to be an indicator of disability and a poor prognosis for haemodialysis patients. Exercise interventions have been safely and successfully implemented for middle-aged or younger patients undergoing haemodialysis. However, the benefits of exercise interventions on elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis remain controversial. The main objective of this study is to systematically review the effects of exercise training on the physical function, exercise capacity and quality of life of elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis, and to provide an update on the relevant evidence. Methods and analyses Published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effectiveness of exercise training on haemodialysis patients with respect to physical function, exercise tolerance and quality of life will be included. Bibliographic databases include MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO and PEDro. The risk of bias of the included RCTs will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool and TESTEX. The primary outcome will be physical function and exercise tolerance. This review protocol is reported according to the PRISMA-P 2015 checklist. Statistical analysis will be performed using review manager software (RevMan V.5.3, Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, England). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required because this study does not include confidential personal data nor does it perform interventions on patients. This review is expected to inform readers on the effectiveness of exercise training in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis. Findings will be presented at conferences and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015020701

  6. [Parathormone as a cardiovascular risk factor in uraemic patients on haemodialysis treatment].

    PubMed

    Rasić, Senija; Kulenović, Indira; Uncanin, Snjezana

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by hemodialysis. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which is connected with various risk factors present in this population of patients, represents a major factor of high mortality. To determine the plasma levels of parathormone (PTH, levels of serum calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in patients treated by hemodialysis, and investigate the impact of PTH as a possible risk factor for LV morphology changes. The study included 50 patients with end-stage renal disease during the first two years of haemodialysis treatment. They were followed during the period of 12 months and had the same conditions of hemodialysis treatment. All participans have the echocardiography performed, as well as serial measurements of serum calcium and phosphorus by standard laboratory tests, and measurement of PTH by immunoradiometry. More than 2/3 of selected patients (72%) showed signs of LVH at the beginning of the study. Patients with concentric LVH have significantly higher levels of PTH than those with normal echocardiography finding. Especially high levels of PTH were observed in patients with global sistolic-diastolic LV failure (more than 84,5% than the patients with normal echocardiography). PTH is significantly and independently associated with LV mass (p=0,002) and LV volume increment (p=0,040) noted by echocardiography. Ca x P product showed higher values in patient with sistolic-diastolic LV failure as compared to patients with normal LV echocardiography. PTH appears to be an independent predictor of significant changes in LV mass and volume, which indicates that this "uremic toxine" has the importance of risk factor for uremic cardiomiopathy.

  7. Use of complementary and alternative medicines in haemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study from Palestine.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Tabeeb, Ghada H; Ayaseh, Nora A; Sawafta, Mayas N; Khdeir, Razan L; Mezyed, Diana O; Daraghmeh, Dala N; Awang, Rahmat

    2016-07-11

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and herbal therapies, are accepted worldwide, and have been important from medical, sociological and economic perspectives, among haemodialysis (HD) patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the use of CAM among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are undergoing HD. Face-to-face interviews of patients with ESRD undergoing HD from ten outpatient renal departments at a national level in Palestine were conducted from June 2014 to January 2015. A survey questionnaire, which included questions on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and on the CAM therapies that were used, was administered. Out of 267 patients interviewed, 172 patients used at least one type of CAM in the last month prior to the interview, and thus the utilisation rate was 64.4 %. Forty one (15.4 %) patients reported using one type of CAMs, while 18.7 % used two different CAMs and 30.3 % used more than two types of CAMs for their health status. Of the patients who used CAM, herbal therapies were used most often (43.5 %), followed by honey (35.6 %), diet (22.8 %), and exorcism in Islam (16.9 %). The herbal therapies mentioned most often were Nigella sativa L. (18.7 %), followed by Salvia officinalis L. (16.9 %), and Pimpinella anisum L. (10.5 %). In conclusion, the prevalence of CAM is relatively high in the selected population. Most patients used biological therapies such as herbal remedies, thus highlighting a greater need for patient education regarding CAM therapies and possible herb-drug interactions. Health care providers must be aware of the potential benefits and risks related to CAM use. There is a need for more clinical research pertaining to CAM to reach stronger evidence regarding potential benefits and risks related to CAM use.

  8. Dietary self-efficacy: determinant of compliance behaviours and biochemical outcomes in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zrinyi, Miklos; Juhasz, Maria; Balla, Jozsef; Katona, Eva; Ben, Thomas; Kakuk, Gyorgy; Pall, Denes

    2003-09-01

    Despite the diversity of proposed theories, researchers are still unable to fully explain dietary compliance behaviours of dialysis patients. Dietary self-efficacy, a concept less studied in dialysis, has been linked to positive compliance outcomes in the chronic illness literature. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to determine how dietary self-efficacy is related to selected biochemical markers and self-reported behavioural outcomes in haemodialysis patients. 107 subjects participated in a cross-sectional study. Four questionnaires assessed dietary self-efficacy, compliance attitudes and behaviours, and staff-patient relationships. Laboratory outcomes were retrospectively obtained from patients' medical records and averaged for the previous 6 months. Of the behavioural measures, only dietary self-efficacy was associated with laboratory outcomes. Dietary self-efficacy was also positively related to staff-patient relationships and to patients' self-reported assessment of compliance behaviours. Women had greater dietary self-efficacy than men. The number of family members living with the respondent was inversely related to dietary self-efficacy. Results indicated that dietary self-efficacy determined both behaviours and laboratory outcomes. Patients with greater dietary self-efficacy had lower serum potassium and weight gain, showed favourable compliance attitudes and behaviours toward prescribed regimens and fostered better relationships with staff. Based on these findings we recommend an experimental approach to clarify whether maximizing dietary self-efficacy efforts is without psychological burden to patients and whether the positive effect of increased dietary self-efficacy is maintained in long-term dialysis patients.

  9. Rectal culture screening for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus in chronic haemodialysis patients: false-negative rates and duration of colonisation.

    PubMed

    Park, I; Park, R W; Lim, S-K; Lee, W; Shin, J S; Yu, S; Shin, G-T; Kim, H

    2011-10-01

    Infection or colonisation with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is common in chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients. However, there is limited information on the duration of VRE colonisation or on the reliability of consecutive negative rectal cultures to determine the clearance of VRE in chronic HD patients. Chronic HD patients from whom VRE was isolated were examined retrospectively. Rectal cultures were collected more than three times, at least one week apart, between 1 June 2003 and 1 March 2010. The results of the sequential VRE cultures and patients' data were analysed. Among 812 patients from whom VRE was isolated, 89 were chronic HD patients and 92 had three consecutive negative cultures. It took 60.7 ± 183.9 and 111.4 ± 155.4 days to collect three consecutive negative cultures in the 83 non-chronic haemodialysis patients and nine chronic HD patients, respectively (P = 0.011). The independent risk factors for more than three negative sequential rectal cultures were glycopeptide usage [odds ratio (OR): 2.155; P = 0.003] and length of hospital stay (OR: 1.009; P = 0.001). After three consecutive negative rectal cultures, two of six chronic HD patients and 10 of 36 non-HD patients were culture positive again. In conclusion, a significant proportion of patients colonised with VRE cannot be detected by three-weekly rectal cultures, and the duration of VRE colonisation in chronic haemodialysis patients tends to be prolonged. These results may be contributing to the continued increase in the prevalence of VRE.

  10. Patients' and carers' experiences of interacting with home haemodialysis technology: implications for quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Rajkomar, Atish; Farrington, Ken; Mayer, Astrid; Walker, Diane; Blandford, Ann

    2014-12-11

    Little is known about patients' and carers' experiences of interacting with home haemodialysis (HHD) technology, in terms of user experience, how the design of the technology supports safety and fits with home use, and how the broader context of service provision impacts on patients' use of the technology. Data were gathered through ethnographic observations and interviews with 19 patients and their carers associated with four different hospitals in the UK, using five different HHD machines. All patients were managing their condition successfully on HHD. Data were analysed qualitatively, focusing on themes of how individuals used the machines and how they managed their own safety. Findings are organised by three themes: learning to use the technology, usability of the technology, and managing safety during dialysis. Home patients want to live their lives fully, and value the freedom and autonomy that HHD gives them; they adapt use of the technology to their lives and their home context. They also consider the machines to be safe; nevertheless, most participants reported feeling scared and having to learn through mistakes in the early months of dialysing at home. Home care nurses and technicians provide invaluable support. Although participants reported on strategies for anticipating problems and keeping safe, perceived limitations of the technology and of the broader system of care led some to trade off safety against immediate quality of life. Enhancing the quality and safety of the patient experience in HHD involves designing technology and the broader system of care to take account of how individuals manage their dialysis in the home. Possible design improvements to enhance the quality and safety of the patient experience include features to help patients manage their dialysis (e.g. providing timely reminders of next steps) and features to support communication between families and professionals (e.g. through remote monitoring).

  11. Predictors of protein-energy wasting in haemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ruperto, M; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Barril, G

    2016-02-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is a highly prevalent condition in haemodialysis patients (HD). The potential usefulness of nutritional-inflammatory markers in the diagnosis of PEW in chronic kidney disease has not been established completely. We hypothesised that a combination of serum albumin, percentage of mid-arm muscle circumference and standard body weight comprises a better discriminator than either single marker of nutritional status in HD patients. A cross-sectional study was performed in 80 HD patients. Patients were categorised in two groups: well-nourished and PEW. Logistic regression analysis was applied to corroborate the reliability of the three markers of PEW with all the nutritional-inflammatory markers analysed. PEW was identified in 52.5% of HD patients. Compared with the well-nourished patients, PEW patients had lower body mass index, serum pre-albumin and body cell mass (all P < 0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (s-CRP) (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analyses showed that the combination of the three criteria were significantly related with s-CRP >1 mg dL(-1) , phase angle <4°, and serum pre-albumin <30 mg dL(-1) (all P < 0.05). Other indicators, such as lymphocytes <20% and Charlson comorbidity index, were significantly involved (both P < 0.01). A receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve) of 0.86 (P < 0.001) was found. The combined utilisation of serum albumin, percentage of mid-arm muscle circumference and standard body weight as PEW markers appears to be useful for nutritional-inflammatory status assessment and adds predictive value to the traditional indicators. Larger studies are needed to achieve the reliability of these predictor combinations and their cut-off values in HD patients and other populations. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Level of dependence in patients on haemodialysis in Catalonia and evolution of mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Periz, Lola; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Cases-Amenós, Aleix

    2012-01-01

    Age and the comorbidities associated with ESRD impair the functional autonomy of patients on haemodialysis (HD). Our objectives were to assess the level of dependence in patients on HD and their mortality rates after three years of treatment. To do so, we followed the criteria established by the "Ley de Promoción de la Autonomía Personal y Atención a las Personas en situación de dependencia", the Spanish Law of Dependence (LD). We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study between October 2007 and January 2008. From 3702 patients in 40 dialysis units in Catalonia, 806 were selected as potential dependent individuals according to the criteria of their healthcare providers. Variables studied included: level of dependence according to the LD criteria, age, time on HD, associated pathology, treatment characteristics, family circumstances, and survival from 2009 to 2011. According to the LD, 137 were not dependent, 350 had a grade 1 dependence level, 237 grade 2, and 82 grade 3. In addition, 121 were living in an institution. The mean age was 74.9 ± 18.2 years and the median time on HD was 36 months. The prevalence of common pathologies was: diabetes (35.7%) and cardiovascular disease (29.1%). Musculoskeletal alterations (87%) and neurological disorders (38%) were the main causes of dependence. 64.2% of patients had a catheter as a vascular access. 34.9% of patients survived after three years, and these had a lower level of dependence when compared to those patients who had died, with no statistically significant differences within those three years. According to the LD, the prevalence of dependent patients in Catalonia is substantial (18.07%). These patients have a high mortality rate after three years.

  13. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection among Seronegative Patients undergoing Haemodialysis in a Remotely Located Tertiary Care Hospital of Northern India: Value of HCV-RNA and Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Neerja; Soin, Divya; Bansal, Renu; Malhotra, Rubina; Singh, Seema; Singh, Charu

    2015-01-01

    Background Haemodialysis (HD) patients are at an increased risk of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, which is significantly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Aim The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of HCV infection in anti-HCV antibody negative haemodialysis patients by Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and value of HCV-RNA among seronegative patients undergoing haemodialysis in a remotely located tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods A total of 100 chronic renal failure patients on haemodialysis were studied. All the patients were screened for anti-HCV antibodies by ELISA test and for HCV-RNA by RT-PCR. Results The overall prevalence of HCV infection was 32%. Antibody positivity was 30% and HCV-RNA by RT-PCR was detected in 20%. HCV-RNA in seronegative patients was detected in 2.8%. Conclusion Serological assays (30%) are quite reliable for detecting HCV infection in patients undergoing haemodialysis in our tertiary care hospital. Only a small proportion of them (2.8%) require the documentation of viral genome for current infection. PMID:26816888

  14. Anti-parathyroid treatment effectiveness and persistence in incident haemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Angel Luis Martín; Gillespie, Iain Andrew; Gioni, Ioanna; Floege, Jürgen; Kronenberg, Florian; Marcelli, Daniele; Wheeler, David Collins; Froissart, Marc; Drueke, Tilman Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Anti-parathyroid treatment initiation and discontinuation are important decisions in chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients, where pill burden is often excessive. The present study aimed to describe secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) drug therapy changes in HD patients. Retrospective observational cohort study of incident European HD patients with sHPT who were prescribed calcitriol or alfacalcidol (alpha calcitriol), paricalcitol or cinacalcet. Treatment-naïve patients prescribed alpha calcitriol (N=2259), paricalcitol (N=1689) and cinacalcet (N=1245) were considered for analysis. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels decreased post-initiation with all treatment modalities; serum calcium and phosphate levels increased in response to activated vitamin D derivatives but decreased with cinacalcet. Approximately one-third of alpha calcitriol and paricalcitol patients but less than one-quarter of cinacalcet patients discontinued treatment. Although the three groups had comparable serum iPTH control at the time of treatment discontinuation, they differed in terms of calcium and phosphate levels. Following discontinuation, the evolution of laboratory parameters differed by treatment modality: whilst iPTH increased for all three treatment groups, calcium and phosphate decreased in patients who were being treated with alpha calcitriol and paricalcitol at the time of discontinuation, and increased in those who had been treated with cinacalcet. In conditions of daily clinical practice, attaining and maintaining recommended biochemical control of sHPT appears to be more frequently achievable with cinacalcet than with activated vitamin D compounds. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing B-type natriuretic peptide levels predict mortality in unselected haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Breidthardt, Tobias; Kalbermatter, Stefan; Socrates, Thenral; Noveanu, Markus; Klima, Theresia; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Mueller, Christian; Kiss, Denes

    2011-08-01

    Cardiac disease is the major cause of death in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis. Recent studies have found that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels accurately reflect the cardiovascular burden of dialysis patients. However, the prognostic potential of BNP measurements in dialysis patients remains unknown. The study included 113 chronic dialysis patients who were prospectively followed up. Levels of BNP were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. The potential of baseline BNP and annual BNP changes to predict all-cause and cardiac mortality were assessed as endpoints. Median follow-up was 735 (354-1459) days; 35 (31%) patients died, 17 (15%) of them from cardiac causes. Baseline BNP levels were similar among survivors and non-survivors, and failed to predict all-cause and cardiac death. Cardiac death was preceded by a marked increase in BNP levels. In survivors BNP levels remained stable [median change: +175% (+20-+384%) vs. -14% (-35-+35%) over the 18 months preceding either death or the end of follow-up, P< 0.001]. Hence, annual BNP changes adequately predicted all-cause and cardiac death in the subsequent year {AUC(all-cause) = 0.70 [SD 0.05, 95% CI (0.60-0.81)]; AUC(cardiac) = 0.82 [SD 0.04, 95%CI (0.73-0.90)]}. A BNP increase of 40% provided the best cut-off level. Cox regression analysis confirmed that annual increases over 40% were associated with a seven-fold increased risk for all-cause and cardiac death. Annual BNP increases above 40% predicted all-cause and cardiac death in the subsequent year. Hence, serially measuring BNP levels may present a novel tool for risk stratification and treatment guidance of end-stage renal disease patients on chronic dialysis.

  16. Fluid compliance among patients having haemodialysis: can an educational programme make a difference?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tony; Li Yoong, Tang; Pinikahana, Jaya; Si-Yen, Tan

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the effectiveness of a patient education programme on fluid compliance as assessed by interdialytic weight gain, mean predialysis blood pressure and rate of fluid adherence. Patients with end stage renal disease who receive haemodialysis are often non-compliant with their treatment regime, especially adherence to fluid restrictions. An exploratory study was conducted in 2004-05 using a quasi-experimental, single group design to examine the effectiveness of patient education on fluid compliance in a dialysis centre located in a major teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Twenty-six patients with an interdialytic weight gain of greater than 2.5 kg were identified as non-compliant and recruited to the study. The intervention was carried out over a 2-month period and included teaching and weekly reinforcement about diet, fluids and control of weight gain. Patients' mean interdialytic weight gain decreased following the educational intervention from 2.64 kg to 2.21 kg (P < 0.05) and adherence to fluid restrictions increased from 47% to 71% following the intervention. Predialysis mean blood pressure did not improve following the intervention, although the maximum recording for predialysis systolic pressure dropped from 220 mmHg to 161 mmHg. Whilst no statistically significant associations were detected between interdialytic weight gain and age, educational level, marital status or employment status, women demonstrated a greater decrease in mean interdialytic weight gain than men. Nephrology nurses often have long-term relationships with their patients and are ideally placed to provide ongoing education and encouragement, especially for those experiencing difficulties in adhering to fluid and dietary restrictions.

  17. Prevalence of adherence to fluid restriction in kidney patients in haemodialysis: objective indicator and perceived compliance.

    PubMed

    Iborra-Moltó, Carmelo; López-Roig, Sofía; Pastor-Mira, M de Los Ángeles

    2012-07-17

    Studies of adherence to fluid restriction show high variability in prevalence data, as different methods of measuring IWG (interdialysis weight gain) and cut-off criteria are used. To describe the prevalence of adherence to fluid restriction using daily IWG (criterion: ≤1 Kg) and daily IWG adjusted for dry weight (DW) (cut-off point adjusted criterion: DW<70 kg, IWG=1 kg/day; DW>70 kg and ≤80 kg, IWG=1.1 kg/day; DW>80 kg and ≤90 kg, IWG=1.2 kg/day; DW>90 kg, IWG=1.3 kg/day) and to study the association between this objective indicator and adherence behaviour as reported by patient. Our study included a total of 146 patients with a mean age of 66 years (SD: 13.6 years; range: 25-88 years), 66% of which were male. Ours was a longitudinal study with one month of follow-up. We collected both sociodemographic and clinical variables and mean daily IWG. Patient-reported adherence behaviour was assessed through an interview by a trained staff member from outside the department who asked the following question: "In order to avoid complications between haemodialysis sessions: during the last month, how many days did you ingest less than 1 litre of fluid per day?" (0= no days; 10= every day). A score ≤5 led to categorisation of patients as compliant with treatment. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis, correlation test, chi-square and Crosstabs, ROC curve and logistic regression procedures. Prevalence of "objective" adherence to fluid restriction was 61% (mean daily IWG≤1kg) and 73% (mean daily IWG adjusted for dry weight). Reported adherence (prevalence: 56.2%) was associated with IWG adjusted for weight (chi-square =31.34; P=.000). In patients with objective adherence adjusted for weight, the prevalence of reported adherence was 1.65 times that of non-adherence (PR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.29-2.11). The final model for estimating the association between reported adherence behaviour and daily adjusted IWG included: age (higher), dry weight (lower), potassium

  18. Epidemiology of haemodialysis catheter complications: a survey of 865 dialysis patients from 14 haemodialysis centres in Henan province in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Pei; Liang, Xianhui; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the incidence rates and risk factors for catheter-related complications in different districts and populations in Henan Province in China. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Fourteen hospitals in Henan Province. Participants 865 patients with renal dysfunction undergoing dialysis using catheters between October 2013 and October 2014. Main outcome measures The main outcome measures were complications, risk factors and patient characteristics. Catheter-related complications included catheter-related infection (catheter exit-site infection, catheter tunnel infection and catheter-related bloodstream infection), catheter dysfunction (thrombosis, catheter malposition or kinking, and fibrin shell formation) and central vein stenosis. Results The overall incidence rate was 7.74/1000 catheter-days, affecting 38.61% of all patients, for catheter infections, 10.58/1000 catheter-days, affecting 56.65% of all patients, for catheter dysfunction, and 0.68/1000 catheter-days, affecting 8.79% of all patients, for central vein stenosis. Multivariate analysis showed that increased age, diabetes, primary educational level or below, rural residence, lack of a nephropathy visit before dialysis and pre-established permanent vascular access, not taking oral drugs to prevent catheter thrombus, lower serum albumin levels and higher ferritin levels were independently associated with catheter infections. Rural residence, not taking oral drugs to prevent thrombus, lack of an imaging examination after catheter insertion, non-tunnel catheter type, lack of medical insurance, lack of nephropathy visit before dialysis and pre-established permanent vascular access, left-sided catheter position, access via the femoral vein and lower haemoglobin level were independently associated with catheter dysfunction. Diabetes, lack of nephropathy visit before dialysis and pre-established permanent vascular access, lack of oral drugs to prevent catheter thrombus, left-sided catheter

  19. Epidemiology of haemodialysis catheter complications: a survey of 865 dialysis patients from 14 haemodialysis centres in Henan province in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Pei; Liang, Xianhui; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2015-11-20

    To investigate the incidence rates and risk factors for catheter-related complications in different districts and populations in Henan Province in China. Cross-sectional. Fourteen hospitals in Henan Province. 865 patients with renal dysfunction undergoing dialysis using catheters between October 2013 and October 2014. The main outcome measures were complications, risk factors and patient characteristics. Catheter-related complications included catheter-related infection (catheter exit-site infection, catheter tunnel infection and catheter-related bloodstream infection), catheter dysfunction (thrombosis, catheter malposition or kinking, and fibrin shell formation) and central vein stenosis. The overall incidence rate was 7.74/1000 catheter-days, affecting 38.61% of all patients, for catheter infections, 10.58/1000 catheter-days, affecting 56.65% of all patients, for catheter dysfunction, and 0.68/1000 catheter-days, affecting 8.79% of all patients, for central vein stenosis. Multivariate analysis showed that increased age, diabetes, primary educational level or below, rural residence, lack of a nephropathy visit before dialysis and pre-established permanent vascular access, not taking oral drugs to prevent catheter thrombus, lower serum albumin levels and higher ferritin levels were independently associated with catheter infections. Rural residence, not taking oral drugs to prevent thrombus, lack of an imaging examination after catheter insertion, non-tunnel catheter type, lack of medical insurance, lack of nephropathy visit before dialysis and pre-established permanent vascular access, left-sided catheter position, access via the femoral vein and lower haemoglobin level were independently associated with catheter dysfunction. Diabetes, lack of nephropathy visit before dialysis and pre-established permanent vascular access, lack of oral drugs to prevent catheter thrombus, left-sided catheter location and higher number of catheter insertions, were independently

  20. Comparison of Turkish and US haemodialysis patient mortality rates: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Asci, Gulay; Marcelli, Daniele; Celtik, Aygul; Grassmann, Aileen; Gunestepe, Kutay; Yaprak, Mustafa; Tamer, Abdulkerim Furkan; Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Ok, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    There are significant differences between countries in the mortality rates of haemodialysis (HD) patients. The extent of these differences and possible contributing factors are worthy of investigation. As of March 2009, all patients undergoing HD or haemodiafiltration for >3 months (n = 4041) in the Turkish clinics of the NephroCare network were enrolled. Data were prospectively collected for 2 years through the European Clinical Dialysis Database. Mean age ± standard deviation was 58.7 ± 14.7 years, 45.9% were female and 22.9% were diabetic. Comparison with US data was performed by applying an indirect standardization technique, using specific mortality rates for patients on HD by age, gender, race and primary diagnosis as provided by the 2012 US Renal Data System Annual Data Report as reference. The crude mortality rate in Turkey was 95.1 per 1000 patient-years. Compared with the US reference population, the annual mortality rate for Turkey was significantly lower, irrespective of gender, age and diabetes. After adjustments for age, gender and diabetes, the mortality risk in the Turkish cohort was 50% lower than US whites [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.54, P < 0.001], 44% lower than US African-Americans (95% CI 0.52-0.61, P < 0.001) and 20% lower than Asian-Americans (95% CI 0.74-0.86, P < 0.05). The annual mortality rate of prevalent HD patients was found to be significantly lower in the studied Turkish cohort compared with that published by the US Renal Data System Annual Data Report. Differences in practice patterns may contribute to the divergence.

  1. Comparison of Turkish and US haemodialysis patient mortality rates: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Asci, Gulay; Marcelli, Daniele; Celtik, Aygul; Grassmann, Aileen; Gunestepe, Kutay; Yaprak, Mustafa; Tamer, Abdulkerim Furkan; Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Ok, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Background There are significant differences between countries in the mortality rates of haemodialysis (HD) patients. The extent of these differences and possible contributing factors are worthy of investigation. Methods As of March 2009, all patients undergoing HD or haemodiafiltration for >3 months (n = 4041) in the Turkish clinics of the NephroCare network were enrolled. Data were prospectively collected for 2 years through the European Clinical Dialysis Database. Mean age ± standard deviation was 58.7 ± 14.7 years, 45.9% were female and 22.9% were diabetic. Comparison with US data was performed by applying an indirect standardization technique, using specific mortality rates for patients on HD by age, gender, race and primary diagnosis as provided by the 2012 US Renal Data System Annual Data Report as reference. Results The crude mortality rate in Turkey was 95.1 per 1000 patient-years. Compared with the US reference population, the annual mortality rate for Turkey was significantly lower, irrespective of gender, age and diabetes. After adjustments for age, gender and diabetes, the mortality risk in the Turkish cohort was 50% lower than US whites [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46–0.54, P < 0.001], 44% lower than US African-Americans (95% CI 0.52–0.61, P < 0.001) and 20% lower than Asian-Americans (95% CI 0.74–0.86, P < 0.05). Conclusions The annual mortality rate of prevalent HD patients was found to be significantly lower in the studied Turkish cohort compared with that published by the US Renal Data System Annual Data Report. Differences in practice patterns may contribute to the divergence. PMID:27274836

  2. Factors affecting outcomes in patients reaching end-stage kidney disease worldwide: differences in access to renal replacement therapy, modality use, and haemodialysis practices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bruce M; Akizawa, Tadao; Jager, Kitty J; Kerr, Peter G; Saran, Rajiv; Pisoni, Ronald L

    2016-07-16

    More than 2 million people worldwide are being treated for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This Series paper provides an overview of incidence, modality use (in-centre haemodialysis, home dialysis, or transplantation), and mortality for patients with ESKD based on national registry data. We also present data from an international cohort study to highlight differences in haemodialysis practices that affect survival and the experience of patients who rely on this therapy, which is both life-sustaining and profoundly disruptive to their quality of life. Data illustrate disparities in access to renal replacement therapy of any kind and in the use of transplantation or home dialysis, both of which are widely considered preferable to in-centre haemodialysis for many patients with ESKD in settings where infrastructure permits. For most patients with ESKD worldwide who are treated with in-centre haemodialysis, overall survival is poor, but longer in some Asian countries than elsewhere in the world, and longer in Europe than in the USA, although this gap has reduced. Commendable haemodialysis practice includes exceptionally high use of surgical vascular access in Japan and in some European countries, and the use of longer or more frequent dialysis sessions in some countries, allowing for more effective volume management. Mortality is especially high soon after ESKD onset, and improved preparation for ESKD is needed including alignment of decision making with the wishes of patients and families.

  3. Sevelamer hydrochloride: a review of its use for hyperphosphataemia in patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, David R; Scott, Lesley J; Cvetković, Risto S; Plosker, Greg L

    2008-01-01

    Sevelamer (Renagel), an orally administered metal-free cationic hydrogel polymer/resin that binds dietary phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is approved for use in the US, Europe and several other countries for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.Clinical evidence shows that sevelamer was at least as effective as calcium acetate and calcium carbonate at controlling serum phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product (Ca x P) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels, but generally reduced serum calcium levels to a greater extent and was associated with a lower risk of hypercalcaemic episodes than calcium-based phosphate binders. Sevelamer appeared to slow the progression of cardiovascular calcification in patients with ESRD and also had a beneficial effect on serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In patients receiving chronic haemodialysis, there was no between-group difference in all-cause mortality between sevelamer and calcium-based phosphate binder therapy in the primary efficacy analysis in the large (n >2100), 3-year DCOR trial; in the smaller (n = 109) nonblind RIND trial in patients new to dialysis, data suggest there is an overall survival benefit with sevelamer versus calcium-based phosphate binder treatment. The relative survival benefits and cost effectiveness of these phosphate binder therapies remains to be fully determined. Sevelamer treatment was generally as well tolerated as calcium acetate or calcium carbonate treatment. Overall, sevelamer is a valuable option for the management of hyperphosphataemia in patients with ESRD on haemodialysis.

  4. A simple vascular calcification score predicts cardiovascular risk in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Adragao, Teresa; Pires, Ana; Lucas, Carlos; Birne, Rita; Magalhaes, Luís; Gonçalves, Margarida; Negrao, Acácio Pita

    2004-06-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent in haemodialysis (HD) patients and have been recently associated with vascular calcifications. The objective of our study was to assess the value of a simple vascular calcification score for the prediction of cardiovascular death, cardiovascular hospitalizations and fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events in HD patients, and to correlate this score with cardiovascular disease and with other known predictors of vascular disease. In this observational, prospective study 123 chronic HD patients (75 males and 48 females; 20% diabetic) were included, who were on low-flux HD treatment for 46.6+/-52 months (mean+/-SD). We set up a simple vascular calcification score based on plain radiographic films of pelvis and hands. Brachial pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured and cardiovascular events and hospitalization episodes were assessed. During an observational period of 37 months there were 17 cardiovascular deaths; 28 patients needed cardiovascular hospitalizations and 32 patients suffered fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Coronary artery disease was diagnosed in 43 patients (35%), peripheral arterial disease in 33 patients (26.8%), cerebrovascular disease in 16 patients (13%) and vascular disease (coronary artery disease or peripheral arterial disease or cerebral vascular disease) in 61 patients (49.6%). By binary logistic regression, diabetes (P = 0.01), male sex (P<0.001), age (P = 0.02), HD duration (P = 0.02) and MAP (P = 0.03) were independently associated with a vascular score > or =3. This score > or =3 was independently associated with coronary artery disease (P = 0.008), peripheral arterial disease (P<0.001) and vascular disease (P = 0.001). Patients with a vascular calcification score > or =3 had a 3.9-fold higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.03), a 2.8-fold higher risk of cardiovascular hospitalizations (P = 0.02) and a 2.3-fold higher risk of fatal or non

  5. Genetic damage in patients with chronic kidney disease, peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-López, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have signs of genomic instability and, as a consequence, extensive genetic damage, possibly due to accumulation of uraemic toxins, oxidative stress mediators and other endogenous substances with genotoxic properties. We explored factors associated with the presence and background levels of genetic damage in CKD. A cross-sectional study was performed in 91 CKD patients including pre-dialysis (CKD patients; n = 23) and patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD; n = 33) or haemodialysis (HD; n = 35) and with 61 healthy subjects, divided into two subgroups with the older group being in the age range of the patients, serving as controls. Alkaline comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to determine DNA and chromosome damage, respectively, present in CKD. Markers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), thiols, advanced oxidation protein products and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine] and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) were also measured. Micronucleus (MN) frequency was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the CKD group (46±4‰) when compared with the older control (oC) group (27.7±14). A significant increase in MN frequency (P < 0.05) was also seen in PD patients (41.9±14‰) versus the oC group. There was no statistically significant difference for the HD group (29.7±15.6‰; P = NS) versus the oC group. Comet assay data showed a significant increase (P < 0.001) of tail DNA intensity in cells of patients with CKD (15.6±7%) with respect to the total control (TC) group (11±1%). PD patients (14.8±7%) also have a significant increase (P < 0.001) versus the TC group. Again, there was no statistically significant difference for the HD group (12.5±3%) compared with the TC group. Patients with MN values in the upper quartile had increased cholesterol, triglycerides, AGEs

  6. Factors affecting quality of life in patients on haemodialysis: a cross-sectional study from Palestine.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Daraghmeh, Dala N; Mezyed, Diana O; Khdeir, Razan L; Sawafta, Mayas N; Ayaseh, Nora A; Tabeeb, Ghada H; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2016-04-27

    Haemodialysis (HD) is a life-sustaining treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). HD can bring about significant impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and outcomes. Therefore, we sought to describe the patterns of HRQOL and determine the independent factors associated with poor HRQOL in Palestinian patients on HD. A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed from June 2014 to January 2015 using the EuroQOL-5 Dimensions instrument (EQ-5D-5L) for the assessment of HRQOL. ESRD patients undergoing HD in all dialysis centres in the West Bank of Palestine were approached and recruited for this study. Multiple linear regression was carried out to identify factors that were significantly associated with HRQOL. Two hundred and sixty-seven patients were participated in the current study giving response rate of 96 %. Overall, 139 (52.1 %) were male, and the mean ± standard deviation age was 53.3 ± 16.2 years. The reported HRQOL as measured by mean EQ-5D-5L index value and Euro QOL visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) score was 0.37 ± 0.44 and 59.38 ± 45.39, respectively. There was a moderate positive correlation between the EQ-VAS and the EQ-5D-5L index value (r = 0.42, p < 0.001). The results of multiple linear regression showed a significant negative association between HRQOL with age, total number of chronic co-morbid diseases and the total number of chronic medications. However, a significant positive association was found between HRQOL with male gender, university education level and patients who live in village. Our results provided insight into a number of associations between patient variables and their HRQOL. Healthcare providers should be aware of low HRQOL among patients with no formal education, female gender, patient's residents of refugee camps, multiple co-morbid diseases, multiple chronic medications, and elderly patients to improve their quality of life.

  7. Narrow-band ultraviolet B exposure increases serum vitamin D levels in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ala-Houhala, Meri J; Vähävihu, Katja; Hasan, Taina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Snellman, Erna; Karisola, Piia; Dombrowski, Yvonne; Schauber, Jürgen; Saha, Heikki; Reunala, Timo

    2012-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are especially prone to vitamin D insufficiency. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) treatment increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in dermatological patients, and we studied whether it also improves vitamin D balance in CKD patients on haemodialysis. Fifteen dialysis patients (mean age 48.3 years) and 12 healthy subjects (mean age 43.6 years) received nine NB-UVB exposures on the upper body. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were measured before and after the exposures. From skin biopsy specimen messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of CYP24A1 and CYP27B1, two enzymes needed for hydroxylation of vitamin D into its active metabolites, and of antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, were examined. Before NB-UVB, mean serum 25(OH)D was 32.5 ± 10.2 nmol/L in the dialysis patients and 60.2 ± 18.0 nmol/L in the healthy subjects (P < 0.001). After eight NB-UVB exposures, serum 25(OH)D increased by 13.8 nmol/L (43%; P < 0.001) and serum 1,25(OH)(2)D by 3.3 pmol/L (27%; P = 0.002) in the dialysis patients. After NB-UVB exposures, CYP27B1 mRNA was increased (P = 0.04), whereas cathelicidin mRNA was decreased (P < 0.0001) compared to non-treated healthy subjects. One and 2 months after NB-UVB exposure, serum 25(OH)D was still 10% higher than initially in the dialysis patients. The present study shows that a short course of NB-UVB exposure increases significantly serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D in dialysis patients. The effect is, however, short lasting suggesting that the patients need cyclic NB-UVB exposure to maintain their improved vitamin D concentration.

  8. Evaluation of reticulocyte haemoglobin content as marker of iron deficiency and predictor of response to intravenous iron in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Ihm, C H; Kim, H J

    2008-02-01

    Because serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS) have a limitation in estimating iron status in haemodialysis patients, the reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr) has been proposed as a new tool. We investigate the accuracy of CHr in comparison with conventional tests and the relationship between changes in CHr and haemoglobin levels after therapy. We selected 140 haemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO and intravenous iron supplementation and measured their complete blood count, CHr and iron parameters. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin <100 microg/l and/or a TS <20%. Hb, CHr, ferritin and TS levels were determined 1 month after therapy. Fifty-three patients were iron deficient. CHr were distributed with 33.7 +/- 1.4 pg in the iron sufficient group and with 29.9 +/- 1.9 pg in the iron deficient group (P = 0.001). The cutoff value of CHr for detecting iron deficiency was <32.4 pg. In iron deficient patients, a significant correlation was found between CHr and TS. The change in CHr after therapy was significantly larger in iron-deficient patients, and a lower baseline CHr is associated with a greater haemoglobin change. CHr is useful in screening iron status in dialysis patients, and a CHr cut-off value of 32 pg is appropriate for the assessment of iron deficiency. Moreover, CHr may serve as a predictor of the response to anaemia treatment.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of Benson's relaxation technique on pain and quality of life of haemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rambod, Masoume; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Pourali-Mohammadi, Nasrin; Pasyar, Nilofar; Rafii, Forough

    2014-07-01

    Haemodialysis patients may suffer from pain and impairment of quality of life. Some complementary interventions, such as relaxation therapy, might affect the pain and quality of life. The present study aimed to identify the effectiveness of Benson's relaxation technique in relieving pain and improving the quality of life in haemodialysis patients. The study was a randomized controlled trial. The data were collected in two haemodialysis units affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. A total of 86 haemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention (receiving Benson's relaxation technique) or the control group (routine care) from 2011 to 2012. The patients in the intervention groups listened to the audiotape of relaxation technique twice a day each time for 20min for eight weeks. The pain numeric rating scale and Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index-dialysis version questionnaire were completed at baseline and 8 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and ANCOVA. The results of ANCOVA showed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group concerning the mean score of the intensity of pain (F=6.03, p=0.01). Moreover, a significant difference was found between the intervention and the control group regarding the total quality of life (F=10.20, p=0.002) and health-functioning (F=8.64, p=0.004), socioeconomic (F=12.45, p=0.001), and family (F=8.52, p=0.005) subscales of quality of life. These findings indicated that Benson's relaxation technique might relieve the intensity of pain and improve the quality of life in haemodialysis patients. Thus, Benson's relaxation technique could be used as part of the care practice for relieving the pain intensity and improvement of the quality of life in haemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Randomised factorial mixed method pilot study of aerobic and resistance exercise in haemodialysis patients: DIALY-SIZE!

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephanie; Klarenbach, Scott; Molzahn, Anita; Lloyd, Anita; Gabrys, Iwona; Haykowsky, Mark; Tonelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Objectives For people with end-stage renal disease requiring haemodialysis, exercise can improve aspects of quality of life (QoL). However, the relative benefits and risks of different types of exercise in this population are unknown. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a main study evaluating the efficacy of cycling and resistance exercise each performed during the haemodialysis treatment on QoL. Methods In this factorial (2×2) pilot trial, 31 haemodialysis patients were randomised to cycling, resistance, cycling and resistance, or an attention control. Feasibility was defined a priori by criteria on recruitment, fidelity to the protocol and patient response to the intervention. To better understand feasibility, we conducted interviews with dialysis unit staff and trial participants. As secondary outcomes, we estimated the main effect of cycling and weights each compared with control on QoL, physical function and strength. Findings We exceeded the target accrual of 28 participants over 12 weeks. Irrespective of exercise group allocation, adherence was high; of the 1038 training sessions offered, 87% were initiated and over 80% of exercise sessions were performed as per protocol. Progression based on perceived exertion, individual instruction and interactions with the kinesiologist facilitated acceptability across exercise groups. Using an attention control, measures of contamination and attrition were low. Important barriers to unit staff readiness for the intervention were initial safety and workflow concerns, unit workload and onerous data collection. Secondary outcomes were not statistically significant. Adverse events were low and did not increase with a higher volume of exercise. Conclusions The main study is feasible with minor modifications. In addition to practical assistance, involvement from unit staff could increase patient participation and improve trial implementation. Strategies to increase acceptability of the

  11. Risk in dosing regimens for 25-OH vitamin D supplementation in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Albalate, M; de la Piedra, C; Ortiz, A; Hernández Pérez, J; Rubert, M; Pérez Garcia, R; Zazo, P; Nieto, L; de Sequera, P; Egido, J

    2012-01-01

    25-OH vitamin D (25-OHvitD) insufficiency or deficiency should be treated in haemodialysis (HD) patients, although the 25-OHvitD target, drug or dosing regimens are unclear. To describe factors associated with 25-OHvitD levels in HD patients and to assess the effect of three dosing regimens to supplement 25-OHvitD (calcifediol) on serum calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-OHvitD and 1,25-OHvitD. Two hundred and seventeen patients from three HD units were studied. Demographic and biochemical data were collected at baseline. Two different 25-OHvitD assays were used. One hundred and sixty-seven patients were treated with various calcifediol dosing regimens. The same biochemical determinations were repeated after 3 months of treatment. At baseline, 12.9% of patients had 25-OHvitD <10 ng/ml. In multivariate linear regression, the season (lower in winter) and the assay method were determinants of 25-OHvitD concentration. Following calcifediol supplementation, 25-OHvitD, calcium and phosphate increased, while PTH diminished with statistical significance. After treatment, there were positive correlations between 25-OHvitD and Ca (r = 0.28, p < 0.0001) or 1,25-OHvitD (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001) that were not observed in the baseline dataset. High concentrations of post-treatment 25-OHvitD were associated with higher 1,25-OHvitD levels. Calcemia increased more in those treated with concomitant active vitamin D or those having suppressed baseline PTH, while PTH decreased more in those having above-target PTH levels. Standardisation of methods to determine 25-OHvitD blood levels is needed. In HD patients, calcifediol increased 25-OHvitD, calcemia and phosphatemia and lowered PTH. Caution should be exercised with the higher calcifediol dosing regimens, especially in patients with suppressed PTH or on vitamin D receptor activators. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Efficiency of Original versus Generic Intravenous Iron Formulations in Patients on Haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Maria Luisa; Martin-Malo, Alejandro; Alvarez-Lara, Maria Antonia; Garcia-Montemayor, Victoria Eugenia; Canton, Petra; Soriano, Sagrario; Aljama, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate use of intravenous (i.v.) iron is essential to minimise the requirements for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). The clinical efficacy of generic i.v. iron compared to the original formulation is controversial. We evaluated the changes that were induced after switching from a generic i.v. iron to an original formulation in a stable, prevalent haemodialysis (HD) population. A total of 342 patients were included, and the follow-up period was 56 weeks for each formulation. Anaemia parameters and doses of ESA and i.v. iron were prospectively recorded before and after the switch from generic to original i.v. iron. To maintain the same haemoglobin (Hb) levels after switching from the generic to the original formulation, the requirements for i.v. iron doses were reduced by 34.3% (from 52.8±33.9 to 34.7±31.8 mg/week, p<0.001), and the ESA doses were also decreased by 12.5% (from 30.6±23.6 to 27±21 μg/week, p<0.001). The erythropoietin resistance index declined from 8.4±7.7 to 7.4±6.7 IU/kg/week/g/dl after the switch from the generic to the original drug (p = 0.001). After the switch, the transferrin saturation ratio (TSAT) and serum ferritin levels rose by 6.8% (p<0.001) and 12.4% (p = 0.001), respectively. The mortality rate was similar for both periods. The iron and ESA requirements are lower with the original i.v. iron compared to the generic drug. In addition, the uses of the original formulation results in higher ferritin and TSAT levels despite the lower dose of i.v. iron. Further studies are necessary to analyse the adverse effects of higher i.v. iron dosages.

  13. Efficiency of Original versus Generic Intravenous Iron Formulations in Patients on Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Lara, Maria Antonia; Garcia-Montemayor, Victoria Eugenia; Canton, Petra; Soriano, Sagrario; Aljama, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Aims The appropriate use of intravenous (IV) iron is essential to minimise the requirements for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). The clinical efficacy of generic IV iron compared to the original formulation is controversial. We evaluated the changes that were induced after switching from a generic IV iron to an original formulation in a stable, prevalent haemodialysis (HD) population. Methods A total of 342 patients were included, and the follow-up period was 56 weeks for each formulation. Anaemia parameters and doses of ESA and IV iron were prospectively recorded before and after the switch from generic to original IV iron. Results To maintain the same haemoglobin (Hb) levels after switching from the generic to the original formulation, the requirements for IV iron doses were reduced by 34.3% (from 52.8±33.9 to 34.7±31.8mg/week, p<0.001), and the ESA doses were also decreased by 12.5% (from 30.6±23.6 to 27±21μg/week, p<0.001). The erythropoietin resistance index declined from 8.4±7.7 to 7.4±6.7 IU/kg/week/g/dl after the switch from the generic to the original drug (p = 0.001). After the switch, the transferrin saturation ratio (TSAT) and serum ferritin levels rose by 6.8%(p<0.001) and 12.4%(p = 0.001), respectively. The mortality rate was similar for both periods. Conclusions The iron and ESA requirements are lower with the original IV iron compared to the generic drug. In addition, the uses of the original formulation results in higher ferritin and TSAT levels despite the lower dose of IV iron. Further studies are necessary to analyse the adverse effects of higher IV iron dosages. PMID:26322790

  14. Pseudotumoral amyloidosis of beta 2-microglobulin origin in the buttock of a patient receiving long term haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alonso, J; Rios-Camacho, C; Valenzuela-Castaño, A; Rocha-Castilla, J L

    1993-01-01

    A 52 year old man who had been receiving haemodialysis for 13 years, with a history of renal tuberculosis, right ischial tuberculous osteomyelitis, and dialysis arthropathy, developed a soft tissue tumour in his left buttock. Histological analysis, immunohistological staining, and electron microscopic examination of the surgically removed tumour showed massive deposits of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) amyloid. This case shows the expanding clinical spectrum of this type of amyloidosis, and it is suggested that amyloid infiltration should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gluteal tumours in these patients. Images PMID:8408708

  15. Trace Elements in Chronic Haemodialysis Patients and Healthy Individuals-A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Siva Ranganathan; Radhakrishnan, Hemachandar; Kadavanu, Tony Mathew; Ramachandrappa, Arunkumar; Tiwari, Shashank Rakesh; Rajkumar, Amirtha Lakshmi; Govindasamy, Ezhumalai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients despite receiving adequate Haemodialysis (HD) develop significant risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Abnormality in levels of trace elements may potentiate vascular injury by producing sustained inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the levels of trace elements in patients receiving HD. Aim To study the blood levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, barium, cobalt, caesium and selenium among ESRD patients undergoing HD and compare it with healthy individuals. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional, comparative study done in a tertiary care center. About 40 established ESRD patients aged above 18 years, belonging to both sexes, undergoing chronic HD for more than six months were enrolled as Group A (Cases). Patients who had history of smoking and occupational exposure to heavy metals were excluded from the study. About 40 age and sex matched apparently healthy individuals attending health check-up were enrolled as Group B (Controls). Participants of this group had normal e-GFR by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. About 5ml of fasting venous blood sample was obtained from both groups and analyzed for trace elements. Chi-square/Fisher’s-exact test was used for comparing ratios. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results In the present study, the mean blood levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium and cobalt was found to be significantly higher in Group A as compared to Group B with all these parameters attaining a p-value of <0.001. Similarly, the mean blood levels of lead and caesium was high in Group A with a p-value of 0.001 each. The blood levels of mercury and barium did not vary significantly between both the groups with p=0.656 and 0.096 respectively. The blood levels of anti-oxidant selenium was lower in Group A, but did not attain statistical significance (p=0.217). Conclusion The mean

  16. Specific balance training included in an endurance-resistance exercise program improves postural balance in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-01-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.

  17. A multicentric, international matched pair analysis of body composition in peritoneal dialysis versus haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    van Biesen, Wim; Claes, Kathleen; Covic, Adrian; Fan, Stanley; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Schoder, Volker; Verger, Christian; Wabel, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Volume status, lean and fat tissue are gaining interest as prognostic predictors in patients on dialysis. Comparative data in peritoneal dialysis (PD) versus haemodialysis (HD) patients are lacking. In a cohort of PD (EuroBCM) and HD (Euclid database) patients, matched for country, gender, age and dialysis vintage, body composition was assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM, Fresenius Medical Care). Time-averaged volume overload (TAVO) was defined as the mean of pre- and post-dialysis volume overload (VO), and relative (%) (TA)VO as (TA)VO/ECV. Four hundred and ninety-one matched pairs (55.2% males, median age 60.0 years) were included. The body mass index (BMI, PD = 26.5 ± 4.7 versus HD = 25.9 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), P = 0.18 in males and 27.4 ± 5.8 versus 27.5 ± 6.6 kg/m(2), P = 0.75 in females) and fat tissue index (males: 11.5 ± 5.3 versus 11.4 ± 5.4 kg/m(2), P = 0.90, females: 14.8 ± 6.7 versus 15.4 ± 7.2 kg/m(2), P = 0.30) were not different in PD versus HD patients, whereas the lean tissue index (LTI) was higher in PD versus HD patients (males: 14.5 ± 3.4 versus 13.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2), P = 0.001, females: 12.6 ± 3.3 versus 11.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2), P < 0.0001). VO/extracellular water (ECW) was not different between PD versus just before the HD treatment (males: 10.8 ± 12.1 versus 9.2 ± 10.2%, P = 0.09; females: 6.5 ± 10.8 versus 7.7 ± 9.4%, P = 0.19). The relative TAVO was higher in PD versus HD (10.8 ± 12.1% versus 3.2 ± 11.2%, and 6.5 ± 10.8% versus 1.2 ± 10.9%, both P < 0.0001). The LTI was impaired, and this was more in males versus females, but was better preserved on PD versus HD, whereas fat tissue index (FTI) was increased, but not different between PD and HD. Volume overload was more present in PD versus HD when TAVO, but not when predialysis volume status, was used as a reference.

  18. Intradialytic Laughter Yoga therapy for haemodialysis patients: a pre-post intervention feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Neal, Merv; Weinberg, Melissa K; Gilbert, Karen; Ockerby, Cherene; Rawson, Helen; Herbu, Corinne; Hutchinson, Alison M

    2015-06-09

    Laughter Yoga consists of physical exercise, relaxation techniques and simulated vigorous laughter. It has been associated with physical and psychological benefits for people in diverse clinical and non-clinical settings, but has not yet been tested in a haemodialysis setting. The study had three aims: 1) to examine the feasibility of conducting Laughter Yoga for patients with end stage kidney disease in a dialysis setting; 2) to explore the psychological and physiological impact of Laughter Yoga for these patients; and 3) to estimate the sample size required for future research. Pre/post intervention feasibility study. Eighteen participants were recruited into the study and Laughter Yoga therapists provided a four week intradialytic program (30-min intervention three times per week). Primary outcomes were psychological items measured at the first and last Laughter Yoga session, including: quality of life; subjective wellbeing; mood; optimism; control; self-esteem; depression, anxiety and stress. Secondary outcomes were: blood pressure, intradialytic hypotensive episodes and lung function (forced expiratory volume). Dialysis nurses exposed to the intervention completed a Laughter Yoga attitudes and perceptions survey (n = 11). Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics v22, including descriptive and inferential statistics, and sample size estimates were calculated using G*Power. One participant withdrew from the study for medical reasons that were unrelated to the study during the first week (94 % retention rate). There were non-significant increases in happiness, mood, and optimism and a decrease in stress. Episodes of intradialytic hypotension decreased from 19 pre and 19 during Laughter Yoga to 4 post Laughter Yoga. There was no change in lung function or blood pressure. All nurses agreed or strongly agreed that Laughter Yoga had a positive impact on patients' mood, it was a feasible intervention and they would recommend Laughter Yoga to their patients. Sample

  19. Tachycardia as a predictor of poor survival in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Nakai, Shigeru; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu

    2011-03-01

    High pulse rate is a culprit of all causes of death in the general population, but its relation to death in haemodialysis (HD) patients has not been examined in a large patient cohort. We examined the relationship between pulse rate (beats per minute, bpm) before an HD session and survival based on the nationwide HD registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Outcomes were confirmed using the coded ID numbers of both 2005 and 2006 registries. Logistic analyses were performed to determine the effect of pre-HD pulse rate on survival. A total of 147,702 patients (50.5% men; 31.4% with diabetes mellitus; mean age 63.6 years) on HD three times weekly were studied. Mean (SD) pulse rate was 74.6 (12.0) bpm. The pulse rate distribution was as follows: 0.7% (40-49 bpm), 6.1% (50-59 bpm), 25.3% (60-69 bpm), 38.1% (70-79 bpm), 18.7% (80-89 bpm), 7.9% (90-99 bpm), 2.4% (100-109 bpm) and 0.7% (110-129 bpm). Overall 1-year mortality rate was 6.6%. Compared with the reference pulse rate (60-69 bpm), the odds ratio (95% CI) for 1-year mortality was 1.20 (0.88-1.63, NS: 40-49 bpm), 1.06 (0.93-1.21, NS: 50-59 bpm), 1.13 (1.04-1.22, P = 0.0037: 70-79 bpm), 1.46 (1.33-1.60, P < 0.0001: 80-89 bpm), 1.91 (1.70-2.15, P < 0.0001: 90-99 bpm), 2.61 (2.19-3.10, P < 0.0001: 100-109 bpm), and 2.43 (1.79-3.30, P < 0.0001: 110-129 bpm) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, HD duration, serum albumin, haemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, medication for hypertension, and history of acute myocardial infarction. Survival rate decreased with an increase in the pre-HD pulse rate in chronic HD patients. The causality of this association and the reasons for a better annual mortality rate of 6.6% remain to be clarified.

  20. Use of radioactive iodine I-131 and monitoring of radioactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; García-López, Fernando; Escalada, Carmen; Ortiz, Juan J; Cardona, Jorge; Medina, Amparo; Portolés, José

    2014-05-21

    Thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasia with a higher incidence in patients with chronic kidney disease. In recent years advances have been made in diagnostic and therapeutic trials. Dialysis patients are a particular group, their cancer being detected indirectly in the study of secondary hyperparathyroidism and during the study prior to renal transplantation. Thyroidectomy is the definitive treatment, but in patients with risk of recurrence, ablative therapy is required using radioactive iodine I-131, which is predominantly eliminated by renal excretion, therefore its use in patients on dialysis poses a problem in terms of dosage. Two cases are presented of patients on haemodialysis undergoing radioablation with radioactive iodine I-131, which with multidisciplinary treatment had the expected results in the patients.

  1. [Trend of travelling times for haemodialysis patients in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region between 1995 and 2008].

    PubMed

    Devictor, Bénédicte; Gentile, Stéphanie; Delarozière, Jean-Christophe; Durand, Anne-Claire; Brunet, Philippe; Berland, Yvon; Sambuc, Roland

    2012-06-01

    We analysed the trend of travel-times for haemodialysis patients in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region between 1995 and 2008 in relation with the reforms concerning the health care provision of haemodialysis. We conducted this study using data from three cross sectional surveys for 1995, 1999 and 2002, including all dialysis patients, and from the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network register for 2008. The data focuses on sociodemographic, medical characteristics and travel-times for haemodialysis patients. The number of haemodialysis patients increased from 1807 patients in 1995 to 3141 in 2008. The travel-time has decreased steadily between 1995 and 2008 (18.2 min versus 15, P<0.0001). The number of patients with a travel-time more than 45 min decreased from 7.2 to 3.5% between 1995 and 2008. The number of dialysis facilities has increased steadily between 1995 and 2008. The favorable trend in the health care provision has resulted in an improvement of accessibility by reducing travel-times. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between the flow of arteriovenous fistula and cardiac output in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; Lomonte, Carlo; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Antonelli, Maurizio; Losurdo, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Satisfactory haemodialysis (HD) vascular access flow (Qa) is necessary for dialysis adequacy. High Qa is postulated to increase cardiac output (CO) and cause high-output cardiac failure. Aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between Qa of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and CO in order to have a closer insight into this scarcely explored aspect of HD pathophysiology. Ninety-six patients bearing an AVF entered the study. All were evaluated a priori for the existence of cardiac failure according to the functional classification of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force. Qa and CO were measured by means of the ultrasound dilution Transonic Hemodialysis Monitor HD02. The mean Qa of the 65 lower arm AVFs was 0.948+/-0.428 SD l/min, whereas that of the 31 upper arm AVFs was 1.58+/-0.553 l/min. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Ten patients were classified as having high-output cardiac failure; seven of them bore an upper arm AVF. Thus, upper arm AVFs were associated with an increased risk of high-output cardiac failure (P<0.04, chi(2) test). A third-order polynomial regression model best fitted the relationship between Qa and CO. The analysis of the regression equation identified 0.95 and 2.2 l/min as Qa cut-off points. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that Qa values >or= 2.0 l/min predicted the occurrence of high-output cardiac failure more accurately than two other Qa values (sensitivity 89%, specificity 100%, curve area 0.99) and three Qa/CO ratio values (cardio-pulmonary recirculation-CPR). The better performance among the latter was that of CPR values >or= 20% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 74.7%, curve area 0.92). Our prospective study shows that the relationship between Qa of AVFs and CO is complex and a third-order polynomial regression model best fits this relationship. Furthermore, it is the first study to clearly show the high predictive power for

  3. Benefits of a low intensity exercise programme during haemodialysis sessions in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Esteve Simo, Vicent; Junqué Jiménez, Anna; Moreno Guzmán, Fátima; Carneiro Oliveira, José; Fulquet Nicolas, Miquel; Pou Potau, Mónica; Saurina Sole, Anna; Duarte Gallego, Verónica; Tapia Gonzalez, Irati; Ramirez de Arellano, Manel

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients on haemodialysis (HD) are a steadily increasing group. They show a high complexity, dependency and comorbidity. Multiple benefits from exercise in HD patients have been reported; however, they have not been specifically evaluated in an elderly population. To assess the effect of an adapted low intensity intradialytic exercise programme on muscle strength, functional capacity and health-related quality of life in our elderly patients (> 80 years) on HD. HD patients were non-randomly assigned to an exercise training group (E) or a control group (C) in a 12-week single-centre prospective study. E included a combined exercise programme using balls, weights, elastic bands and cycle movements in the first 2 hours of HD sessions. C group patients received standard HD care. Endpoints were: 1) main biochemical data; 2) maximum quadriceps length strength (MQLS) and hand-grip (HG); 3) functional capacity tests: "Sit to stand to sit" (STS10) and "six-minutes walking test" (6MWT); 4) Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI); and 5) Health-related quality of life questionnaire: EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). A total of 22 patients were included (50% men). Mean age was 83.2 years; patients had received HD for 44.1 month. Charlson index was 9.5. Main aetiology was diabetes mellitus (36.4%). Eleven patients were assigned to E group and 11 to C group. No related adverse effects were observed. At the end of the study, E group showed an overall improvement in tests (*P<.05): MQLS 10.5 ± 7.6 vs. 12.9 ± 10.1 kg, HG* 16.6 ± 8.7 vs. 18.2 ± 8.9 kg, STS10* 29.9 ± 10.6 vs. 25 ± 7.87 sec, 6MWT* 14.6%, 234.4 vs. 274.7 m, BDI* 14.4 ± 11.5 vs. 11.7 ± 10.8 and EQ-5D 49 ± 19.1 vs. 59.5 ± 20.3. No similar changes were observed in C group. Significant differences between groups were also found for HG, MQLS, STS10, 6MWT, BDI and EQ-5D. No significant changes were found in biochemical and anthropometric data, antidepressant treatment or suitable dialysis parameters at the end of the study. 1

  4. Nocturnal haemodialysis in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Agar, John W M

    2005-06-01

    Although early experience in Australia and New Zealand confirmed home haemodialysis to be well tolerated, effective and with lower morbidity and mortality compared with centre-based haemodialysis, the advent of ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 'satellite' haemodialysis has led to a steadily declining home haemodialysis population. However, the emergence of nocturnal haemodialysis, as a safe and highly effective therapy, has added to the modality choices now available and offers a new, highly attractive home-based option with many advantages over centre-based dialysis. For the patient, nocturnal haemodialysis means fluid and dietary freedom, less antihypertensive medication, the abolition of phosphate binders, the return of daytime freedom and the capacity for full-time employment. Potential biochemical benefits include normalization of the blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, beta(2) microglobulin, homocysteine and triglyceride levels and other nutritional markers. Improved quality of life and sleep patterns and a resolution of sleep apnoea have been shown. Left ventricular function has also shown marked improvement. For the provider, nocturnal home haemodialysis offers clear cost advantages by avoiding high-cost nursing and infrastructure expenditure. Although consumable and equipment costs are higher, the savings on wage and infrastructure far outweigh this added expenditure. These combined factors make nocturnal haemodialysis an irresistible addition to comprehensive dialysis services, both from a clinical outcome and fiscal perspective.

  5. Effects of homeopathic treatment on pruritus of haemodialysis patients: a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, A M S; Rocha, L M; Carillo, R; Lima, L U O; Lugon, J R

    2003-10-01

    Pruritus is a frequent and difficult to treat problem in haemodialysis. This double-blind placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial assessed the role of homeopathic treatment in this situation. The code was held by the pharmacist who dispensed the medications. Pruritus was evaluated using a previously published scale. Only patients with initial values above 25% of maximum pruritus score were entered. Data were analysed after partial code break, separating the two groups of patients, but with no awareness of which one received verum or placebo. Patients were classified as responders if they had >50% reduction of pruritus score. Twenty-eight patients (16M/12F, 51 +/- 11 years of age) were entered and 20 (12M/8F, 52 +/- 8 years of age) remained for final analysis: 11 in the verum group, 9 in placebo. At entry, the mean pruritus score was 65 +/- 25% for the treated patients and 70 +/- 27% for placebo. After 15, 30, 45, and 60 days of follow-up, pruritus score were respectively: 46 +/- 29, 41 +/- 30, 42 +/- 29, and 38 +/- 33 for the treated patients and 61 +/- 29, 67 +/- 31, 64 +/- 35, and 57 +/- 39 for placebo. Reduction was statistically significant (P<0.05) at every point of observation. According to the patients' own assessment, at the end of the study period, the homeopathic treatment reduced the pruritus score by approximately 49%. Responders were more frequent in the treated group with statistical significance at 30 days (0% vs 45%, P=0.038). Homeopathic treatment may represent a worthwhile alternative to relieve pruritus in patients undergoing haemodialysis.

  6. Brief cognitive behavioural intervention for depression and anxiety symptoms improves quality of life in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Abel; Perez-Grovas, Héctor; Bermudez, Luis; Peralta-Pedrero, María L; Robles-García, Rebeca; Lerma, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    Psychological treatment of depression in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has focused on severely depressed patients. We designed and tested a brief (5 weeks) cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) to reduce mild and moderate depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with ESRD. For the purpose of this study, a single-blind, randomized controlled design was used to compare patients with ESRD under haemodialysis treatment with and without the CBI. Depression and anxiety symptoms were screened in 152 subjects (18-60 years old, 84 male). Sixty participants (age 41.8 ± 14.7, 29 males) with mild or moderate scores of depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory) were randomly assigned to CBI or the control group. CBI techniques consisted of positive self-reinforcement, deep breathing, muscle relaxation, and cognitive restructuring. Depression, anxiety, quality of life (QoL), and cognitive distortion scores were evaluated at baseline, after 5 weeks (end of treatment) and after 4-week follow-up. All scores were compared by ANOVA for repeated measures with post-hoc tests adjusted by Bonferroni's method (p < .05 was considered significant). At follow-up, depression, anxiety, and cognitive distortions had decreased, and QoL had increased in the intervention group, and there were no changes in the control group. Clinical utility was 33% for depression and 43% for anxiety. A brief CBI of 5 weeks is effective for decreasing mild or moderate depression and anxiety symptoms and improving QoL in ESRD haemodialysis patients. A brief, systematic and structured cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) decreases anxiety and depression symptoms and improves quality of life in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are being treated with haemodialysis. These benefits are not achieved when anxiety and depression symptoms are identified but not treated psychologically. This CBI consisted of cognitive restructuring of the distorted thoughts

  7. Body composition analysis and adipocytokine concentrations in haemodialysis patients: abdominal fat gain as an additional cardiovascular risk factor.

    PubMed

    González, Elena; Díez, Juan J; Pérez Torres, Almudena; Bajo, María Auxiliadora; Del Peso, Gloria; Sánchez-Villanueva, Rafael; Grande, Cristina; Rodríguez, Olaia; Coronado, Mónica; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Díaz-Almirón, Mariana; Iglesias, Pedro; Selgas, Rafael

    Abdominal fat and its increment over time in particular has become a cardiovascular risk factor in uraemic patients. To analyse changes in abdominal fat in haemodialysis patients over one year and study their possible correlation with the variation in adipocytokine serum levels. As a secondary objective, we tried to validate the data obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with data obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A prospective one-year study was performed in 18 patients on haemodialysis (HD). In each patient, body composition by BIA and DXA was estimated at baseline and after one year. Several adipocytokine and biochemical parameters were determined. A significant increase in phase angle [4.8° (4.1-5.6) vs. 5.2° (4.4-5.8), P<.05], BIA intracellular water [48.3% (43.1-52.3) vs. 50.3% (45.7-53.4), P<.05] and the ratio between the percentage of android/gynecoid (A/G) distribution of fat measured by DXA [1.00 (0.80-1.26) vs. 1.02 (0.91-1.30), P<.05] was observed. A statistically significant relationship between leptin and adiponectin concentrations and the percentage of fat mass measured by BIA, as well as the abdominal fat percentage estimated by DXA, was found (P<.01). HD patients exhibit a gain in fat mass over time, especially in the abdomen, evidenced by an increased A/G ratio. These findings might explain the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The outcome of the primary vascular access and its translation into prevalent access use rates in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Praehauser, Claudia; Breidthardt, Tobias; Moser-Bucher, Cora Nina; Wolff, Thomas; Baechler, Katrin; Eugster, Thomas; Dickenmann, Michael; Gurke, Lorenz; Mayr, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The American Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative currently aims for a 66% arterio-venous fistula (AVF) rate, while in the UK, best practice tariffs target AVF and arterio-venous graft (AVG) rates of 85%. The present study aims to assess whether these goals can be achieved. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients who initiated haemodialysis from 1995 to 2006. Outcomes were the final failure-free survival of the first permanent access and the type of second access created. Prevalent use rates for the access types were calculated on the 1st January of each year for the second half of the study period. Two hundred and eleven out of 246 patients (86%) received an AVF, 16 (6%) an AVG and 19 (8%) a permanent catheter (PC) as the first permanent access. Eighty-six (35%) patients had final failure of the primary access. One- and 3-year final failure-free survival rates were 73 and 65% for AVF compared with 40 and 20% for AVG and 62 and 0% for PC, respectively. In patients with primary AVF, female sex {hazard ratio (HR) 2.20 [confidence interval (CI) 1.29-3.73]} and vascular disease [HR 2.24 (CI 1.26-3.97)] were associated with a poorer outcome. A similar trend was observed for autoimmune disease [HR 2.14 (CI 0.99-4.65)]. As second accesses AVF, AVG and PC were created in 47% (n = 40), 38% (n = 33) and 15% (n = 13). The median prevalent use rate was 80.5% for AVF, 14% for AVG and 5.5% for PC. The vascular access targets set by initiatives from the USA and UK are feasible in unselected haemodialysis patients. High primary AVF rates, the superior survival rates of AVFs even in patient groups at higher risk of access failure and the high rate of creation of secondary AVFs contributed to these promising results.

  9. A Non-invasive, On-line Deuterium Dilution Technique for the Measurement of Total Body Water in Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cian; Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik; McIntyre, Christopher W.; Davies, Simon J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite its importance, total body water (TBW) is usually estimated rather than measured due to the complexity of isotope dilution methods. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the applicability in haemodialysis (HD) patients of a recently developed on-line breath test, previously validated in healthy subjects, that uses the gold standard deuterium dilution method to measure TBW. In particular we wished to show that a pre-dialysis estimation was as good as a post dialysis equilibrated measurement in order to avoid patients needing to remain behind after dialysis treatment. Methods The dispersal kinetics of breath HDO, measured using a flowing-afterglow mass spectrometer (FA-MS) following ingestion of D2O immediately post-dialysis, were determined in 12 haemodialysis patients and used to calculate the absolute TBWPostHD after full equilibration. TBWPreHD was then determined from breath samples taken immediately prior to the next dialysis. This measurement was adjusted for the inter-dialytic weight change and urine output (TBWPreHD-adjusted) and compared to the TBWPostHD. The accuracy and precision of FA-MS was also assessed using known concentrations deuterium enriched water samples. Results Mean TBWPostHD was 50.0 ± 9.3 L and TBWPreHD-adjusted 50.7 ± 9.0 L. They were highly correlated (R= 0.99, p<0.001) with a CV of 2.6%. The mean difference was +0.74 L (SEM 0.35, 95%CI -0.03 to 1.51 L, P= 0.059), compatible with a daily insensible loss of 0.37 L. Accuracy and precision of FA-MS were comparable to the previous validation work. Conclusions This non-invasive adaptation of the D isotope dilution method for determining TBW can be applied to haemodialysis patients who show deuterium equilibration kinetics identical to normal subjects; a pre-dialysis estimation may be used to determine TBW so avoiding the necessity to remain behind after dialysis making this suitable for application in the clinical setting. PMID:18326883

  10. A study of sertraline in dialysis (ASSertID): a protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial of drug treatment for depression in patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Friedli, Karin; Almond, Michael; Day, Clara; Chilcot, Joseph; Gane, Maria da Silva; Davenport, Andrew; Guirguis, Ayman; Fineberg, Naomi; Spencer, Benjamin; Wellsted, David; Farrington, Ken

    2015-10-26

    The prevalence of depression in people receiving haemodialysis is high with estimates varying between 20 and 40 %. There is little research on the effectiveness of antidepressants in dialysis patients with the few clinical trials suffering significant methodological issues. We plan to carry out a study to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial in patients on haemodialysis who have diagnosed Major Depressive Disorder. The study has two phases, a screening phase and the randomised controlled trial. Patients will be screened initially with the Beck Depression Inventory to estimate the number of patients who score 16 or above. These patients will be invited to an interview with a psychiatrist who will invite those with a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder to take part in the trial. Consenting patients will be randomised to either Sertraline or placebo. Patients will be followed-up for 6 months. Demographic and clinical data will be collected at screening interview, baseline interview and 2 weeks, and every month (up to 6 months) after baseline. The primary outcome is to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomised, double blind, placebo pilot trial in haemodialysis patients with depression. Secondary outcomes include estimation of the variability in the outcome measures for the treatment and placebo arms, which will allow for a future adequately powered definitive trial. Analysis will primarily be descriptive, including the number of patients eligible for the trial, drug exposure of Sertraline in haemodialysis patients and the patient experience of participating in this trial. There is an urgent need for this research in the dialysis population because of the dearth of good quality and adequately powered studies. Research with renal patients is particularly difficult as they often have complex medical needs. This research will therefore not only assess the outcome of anti-depressants in haemodialysis patients with depression but

  11. Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus forefoot and blood stream co-infection in a haemodialysis patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Valentiny, Christine; Dirschmid, Harald; Lhotta, Karl

    2015-05-28

    Streptococcus uberis, the most frequent cause of mastitis in lactating cows, is considered non-pathogenic for humans. Only a few case reports have described human infections with this microorganism, which is notoriously difficult to identify. We report the case of a 75-year-old male haemodialysis patient, who developed a severe foot infection with osteomyelitis and bacteraemia. Both Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified in wound secretion and blood samples using mass spectrometry. The presence of Streptococcus uberis was confirmed by superoxide dismutase A sequencing. The patient recovered after amputation of the forefoot and antibiotic treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam. He had probably acquired the infection while walking barefoot on cattle pasture land. This is the first case report of a human infection with Streptococcus uberis with identification of the microorganism using modern molecular technology. We propose that Staphylococcus aureus co-infection was a prerequisite for deep wound and bloodstream infection with Streptococcus uberis.

  12. Headache during haemodialysis in a patient with shunt: a cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Padraig; Sajjad, Jahangir; Abrar, Sahibzada; Marks, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman with a functioning ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt consistently reported unbearable vertex headaches and nausea during the last hour of her haemodialysis (HD) sessions. After one particularly severe episode, which was associated with vomiting, restlessness and blurred vision, her team suspected that she was developing dialysis disequilibrium syndrome. She improved fully on cessation of HD, requiring simple analgaesia only, and continued dialysis three times per week. Several more distressing episodes of nausea and headaches compelled us to give intravenous mannitol during HD, resulting in temporary improvement. Subsequently, shorter and more frequent dialysis sessions along with intravenous mannitol resulted in satisfactory clinical response. PMID:25819823

  13. Improvement of mineral and bone metabolism markers is associated with better survival in haemodialysis patients: the COSMOS study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martín, José Luis; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Dionisi, María Paula; Floege, Jürgen; Ketteler, Markus; London, Gérard; Locatelli, Francesco; Gorriz, José Luis; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Ferreira, Aníbal; Bos, Willem-Jan; Covic, Adrian; Rodríguez-García, Minerva; Sánchez, José Emilio; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B

    2015-09-01

    Abnormalities in serum phosphorus, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) have been associated with poor survival in haemodialysis patients. This COSMOS (Current management Of Secondary hyperparathyroidism: a Multicentre Observational Study) analysis assesses the association of high and low serum phosphorus, calcium and PTH with a relative risk of mortality. Furthermore, the impact of changes in these parameters on the relative risk of mortality throughout the 3-year follow-up has been investigated. COSMOS is a 3-year, multicentre, open-cohort, prospective study carried out in 6797 adult chronic haemodialysis patients randomly selected from 20 European countries. Using Cox proportional hazard regression models and penalized splines analysis, it was found that both high and low serum phosphorus, calcium and PTH were associated with a higher risk of mortality. The serum values associated with the minimum relative risk of mortality were 4.4 mg/dL for serum phosphorus, 8.8 mg/dL for serum calcium and 398 pg/mL for serum PTH. The lowest mortality risk ranges obtained using as base the previous values were 3.6-5.2 mg/dL for serum phosphorus, 7.9-9.5 mg/dL for serum calcium and 168-674 pg/mL for serum PTH. Decreases in serum phosphorus and calcium and increases in serum PTH in patients with baseline values of >5.2 mg/dL (phosphorus), >9.5 mg/dL (calcium) and <168 pg/mL (PTH), respectively, were associated with improved survival. COSMOS provides evidence of the association of serum phosphorus, calcium and PTH and mortality, and suggests survival benefits of controlling chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder biochemical parameters in CKD5D patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. Hybrid haemodialysis vascular access salvage.

    PubMed

    Potisek, Maja; Ključevšek, Tomaž; Leskovar, Boštjan

    2017-03-01

    A well-functioning vascular access is essential for successful haemodialysis in patients with end-stage kidney failure. Sometimes, when we have exploited all conventional ways of vascular access salvage, we have to find a unique solution to preserve it.

  15. Carnitine in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Gianfranco

    2015-03-01

    Carnitine is a conditionally essential metabolite that plays a critical role in cell physiology. Carnitine is necessary for fatty acid transport to sites of beta-oxidation in the mitochondria, where it also helps to prevent organic acid accumulation. Because of these key regulatory functions, carnitine represents a crucial determinant of mitochondrial energy metabolism, whose deficiency may lead to metabolic and clinical disturbances. Loss of carnitine through dialytic membranes occurs in maintenance hemodialysis, resulting in potential carnitine depletion and relative increments of esterified carnitine forms. Carnitine supplementation has been reported to counteract some of these alterations and has been associated with some clinical benefits, such as enhanced response to erythropoietin as well as improvement in exercise tolerance, intradialytic symptom, hyperparathyroidism, insulin resistance, inflammatory and oxidant status, protein balance, lipid profile, cardiac function, and quality of life. Carnitine supplementation has an attractive theoretical rationale; however, there are no definitive supportive studies and conclusive evidence that L-carnitine supplementation in maintenance hemodialysis patients could improve these conditions. A trial of carnitine administration could be attempted for 6 to 12 months only in selected patients on dialysis who do not adequately respond to standard therapies, in the presence of symptomatology, and in conjunction with patient dialysis age and documented L-carnitine deficiency.

  16. Effect of levamisole supplementation on tetanus vaccination response rates in haemodialysis patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; Sajjadi, Sharareh; Singh, Neeraj; Khajeh, Masomeh; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Levamisole as an immunomodulator drug has been demonstrated to improve the immune response to hepatitis B virus vaccination in haemodialysis patients. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of levamisole supplementation on tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine response rates in haemodialysis patients. Forty haemodialysis patients who had not received tetanus vaccination in a year before investigation and had unprotective anti-tetanus immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (<0.1 international unit/mL) were enrolled and randomized into two equal groups to receive one dose of intramuscular Td vaccine supplemented with either levamisole (100 mg) or placebo daily, for 6 days before and 6 days after vaccination. The anti-tetanus IgG levels were measured 1 and 6 months after vaccination. One month post-vaccination, four patients were excluded from the levamisole group and two from the placebo group because of either death or renal transplantation. At 1 month, 13 out of 16 (81%) patients in the levamisole group as compared with six out of 18 (33%) patients in the placebo group developed protective anti-tetanus IgG levels (relative risk = 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21, 4.88). From 1 to 6 months post-vaccination, one more patient in the levamisole group and two more patients in the placebo group were excluded because of renal transplantation. At 6 months, 11 out of 15 (73%) patients in the levamisole group as compared with four out of 16 (25%) patients in the placebo group still had protective anti-tetanus IgG levels (relative risk = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.19, 7.23). Supplementation of Td vaccination with levamisole may enhance seroconversion against tetanus in haemodialysis patients. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  17. Imaging of haemodialysis: renal and extrarenal findings.

    PubMed

    Degrassi, Ferruccio; Quaia, Emilio; Martingano, Paola; Cavallaro, Marco; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2015-06-01

    Electrolyte alterations and extra-renal disorders are quite frequent in patients undergoing haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The native kidneys may be the site of important pathologies in patients undergoing dialysis, especially in the form of acquired renal cystic disease with frequent malignant transformation. Renal neoplasms represents an important complication of haemodialysis-associated acquired cystic kidney disease and imaging surveillance is suggested. Extra-renal complications include renal osteodistrophy, brown tumours, and thoracic and cardiovascular complications. Other important fields in which imaging techniques may provide important informations are arteriovenous fistula and graft complications. Teaching points • Renal neoplasms represent a dreaded complication of haemodialysis.• In renal osteodystrophy bone resorption typically manifests along the middle phalanges.• Brown tumours are well-defined lytic lesions radiographically, possibly causing bone expansion.• Vascular calcifications are very common in patients undergoing haemodialysis.• Principal complications of the AV fistula consist of thrombosis, aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms.

  18. SHECTS multi-centre Spanish study: liver situation of patients with chronic hepatitis from HCV on renal replacement therapy with haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    García-Agudo, Rebeca; Aoufi-Rabih, Sami; Barril-Cuadrado, Guillermina

    2013-01-01

    The SHECTS study, approved by the Spanish Society of Nephrology, has the goal of analysing the level of examination and follow-up of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections on haemodialysis, and to determine the current prevalence of these patients. A national, multi-centre, cohort study carried out between September 2010 and September 2011. We sent a data collection folder to all Spanish haemodialysis units to include information regarding each centre and the nephrological/hepatological situation of their HCV-positive patients. A total of 187 haemodialysis units (71 hospital-based) participated in the study. The global prevalence of HCV was estimated at 5.6%. The most common cause of chronic kidney disease was glomerular (25%); of the 72.1% of patients who had undergone a renal biopsy, 23.2% had glomerulonephritis that could have been associated with HCV. Genotyping had not been carried out in 64%, liver ultrasound had not been applied in 61.3%, and liver biopsies were not performed in 87.7%. One-third of all patients received care from a gastroenterologist. Antiviral treatment was administered to 26.6% of patients, with a sustained viral response in 35.3% and suspension of treatment in 67.4%. The prevalence of HCV in patients on haemodialysis in Spain has decreased to the point of reaching similar rates to those of neighbouring countries. These patients receive incomplete analyses of liver condition, and individuals who receive antiviral treatment and untreated patients constitute a large proportion, despite having low viral loads and being candidates for kidney transplants.

  19. A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile and Cardiovascular Risk Biomarkers Among Chronic Haemodialysis Patients and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kadavanu, Tony Mathew; Green, Siva Ranganathan; Dutta, Tarun Kumar; Hemachandar, Radhakrishnan; Ramachandrappa, Arun Kumar; Tiwari, Shashank Rakesh; Govindasamy, Ezhumalai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lipid abnormalities and increase in inflammatory markers are common among patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and it tends to persist/worsen even after initiating Intermittent Haemodialysis (IHD). The cardiovascular mortality and morbidity remains significantly high in this population. Aim The present study was carried out to assess the pattern of lipid abnormality in our population and to find its association with inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional, observational study on ESRD patients undergoing Haemodialysis (HD) in comparison with age and sex matched healthy individuals in a tertiary care hospital. About 40 adult male and female patients aged >18 years, undergoing chronic HD for more than 6 months were enrolled in Group A. Patients who were alcoholics, tobacco consumers and those on steroids and hypolipidemic drugs were excluded. Group B consisted of healthy, age and sex matched controls. Serum lipid profile, lipoprotein A, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and apo B/A1 ratio, serum uric acid, homocysteine, hs-CRP and testosterone levels were estimated among patients undergoing intermittent HD and healthy individuals. Chi-square/Fisher’s-exact test was used for comparing ratios. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Non-HDL High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in HD patients as compared to control group with all the three parameters attaining statistical significance (p<0.005). The mean lipoprotein A level was significantly higher (p=0.037), while Apo A1 was found to be significantly lower (p=0.001) in patients receiving HD. Inflammatory markers like uric acid was high (p<0.005) and serum testotsterone level in male HD patient was significantly low (p<0.005). Conclusion The mean values of traditional serum lipid profile remained lower in HD patients than the control group. The

  20. How do Thai patients with end stage renal disease adapt to being dependent on haemodialysis?: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yodchai, Kantaporn; Dunning, Trisha; Hutchinson, Alison M; Oumtanee, Areewan; Savage, Sally

    2011-12-01

    Researchers have explored the experiences of patients on haemodialysis (HD); however, most studies do not include Thai patients. Thus, the way Thai patients experience and adapt to HD is unknown. To conduct a pilot study to explore how HD affects Thai patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) and understand HD patients' perspectives about adapting to being dependant on HD. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews that focused on problems, feelings, thoughts, attitudes and ways of adapting to HD. Grounded theory (GT) method was selected to guide data collection and analysis. Five patients (age range 24-66 years; mean 45.40 years; mode = 24) participated in the study. Four main coping processes emerged during data analysis: planning, adjustment and avoidance, belief in religion and superstition and living with hope. In addition, the patients reported a range of adverse effects of HD including fluid restriction, fatigue, effects on sexual activity, altered body image, fear of dying, stress and depression and suicide. Thai patients with ESRD felt treatment, including HD, adversely affected their lives and required physical, psychological and social changes to enable them to cope. They reported use of a range of strategies to deal with the adverse effects. © 2011 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  1. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P < 0.05). Susceptibilities of bilateral caudate head, putamen, substantia nigra, red nucleus and dentate nucleus were significantly higher (All P < 0.05). The increased brain iron deposition is negatively correlated with the decreased volume of bilateral putamen (P < 0.01). Neuropsychological scores positively correlated with decreased volume of left insular lobe (P < 0.05). Dialysis duration was negatively associated with decreased volume of bilateral putamen (P < 0.05). Our study indicated increased brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  2. Differences in prescribed Kt/V and delivered haemodialysis dose--why obesity makes a difference to survival for haemodialysis patients when using a 'one size fits all' Kt/V target.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Morbid obesity is reported to be a survival factor for haemodialysis patients compared with those with a normal body mass index (BMI), yet morbid obesity (BMI >35) is a mortality risk factor for obese patients in the general population. Traditionally, haemodialysis dosing is prescribed to achieve a target Kt/V corrected for total body water (TBW). As obese patients typically have increased body fat, which contains less water than muscle, then obese patients may have lower levels of body water than their slimmer counterparts, and as such delivered Kt/V could be greater than that estimated using standard anthropomorphic equations, and so increased dialysis dose may help explain the increased survival reported for obese patients. We compared multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) measurements of TBW in healthy haemodialysis outpatients, and compared TBW with that calculated from the Watson equation derived from anthropomorphic measurements. Three hundred and sixty-three adult patients, mean age 58.1 ± 16.7 years, 60.9% male and 29.9% diabetic were studied. MF-BIA-measured body composition showed that as BMI increased from <20 to >35, the percentage skeletal muscle mass fell from 42.8 ± 4.9 to 29.2 ± 5.5% (P < 0.01) whereas the % fat mass increased from 24.5 ± 11.6 to 46.7 ± 6.8% (P < 0.01). As such, TBW measured by MF-BIA was significantly lower from that predicted by the Watson equation at higher BMIs (BMI > 35; 38.9 ± 6.8 versus 44.7 ± 6.9 L, P < 0.01 and BMI = 30-35; 37.2 ± 7.5 versus 41.9 ± 7.3 L, P < 0.01), and as such the delivered Kt/V using MF-BIA was much greater than that using the Watson-based urea volume of distribution for the obese patients (BMI > 35; spKt/V 1.63 ± 0.48 versus 1.41 ± 0.35 and BMI 30-35; 1.65 ± 0.3 versus 1.46 ± 0.26, both P < 0.01). Prescribing dialysis or quantifying on-line clearance based on the anthropomorphically derived Watson equation leads to underestimation of the delivered dose to obese patients

  3. Thrice-weekly temocillin administered after each dialysis session is appropriate for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Stefaan J; Miranda Bastos, Ana C; Capron, Arnaud; Spinewine, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2015-12-01

    In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with intermittent haemodialysis, a limited number of antibiotics have been studied for their suitability for parenteral administration after dialysis sessions only in a thrice-weekly regimen. Temocillin is a β-lactam antibiotic with a long half-live and enhanced activity against most Gram-negative bacteria, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producers, thus making it an ideal candidate for use in this setting. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of thrice-weekly parenteral temocillin in haemodialysis patients by characterising the pharmacokinetics of total and free temocillin. Free and total temocillin concentrations were determined with a validated HPLC method in 448 samples derived from 48 administration cycles in 16 patients with ESRD treated with intermittent haemodialysis and temocillin. Pharmacokinetics were non-linear partly due to saturation in protein binding. Median clearance and half-life for the free drug during intradialysis and interdialysis periods were 113 mL/min vs. 26 mL/min and 3.6 h vs. 24 h, respectively, with dialysis extracting approximately one-half of the residual concentration. The free temocillin concentration remained >16 mg/L (MIC90 threshold for most Enterobacteriaceae) during 48%, 67% and 71% of the dosing interval for patients receiving 1 g q24h, 2 g q48h and 3 g q72h, respectively, suggesting appropriate exposure for the two latter therapeutic schemes. Temocillin administered on dialysis days only in a dosing schedule of 2 g q48h and 3 g q72h is appropriate for the treatment of serious and/or resistant Gram-negative infections in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent haemodialysis. These doses are higher than those previously recommended.

  4. Permanent Neurological Sequelae Despite Haemodialysis for Lithium Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    von Hartitzsch, B.; Hoenich, N. A.; Leigh, R. J.; Wilkinson, R.; Frost, T. H.; Weddel, A.; Posen, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Three patients with lithium toxicity are reported, two of whom were exposed to toxic lithium levels for a prolonged period: both survived with permanent damage to basal ganglia and cerebellar connexions despite effective lowering of lithium levels by haemodialysis. Data obtained during dialysis treatment show prolonged haemodialysis to be the treatment of choice. If facilities for haemodialysis are not available or the patient presents with toxic lithium levels and minimal symptoms peritoneal dialysis will effectively lower serum lithium levels, but more slowly than haemodialysis. PMID:4646505

  5. The Effect of Haemodialysis Access Types on Cardiac Performance and Morbidities in Patients with Symptomatic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Min-Kai; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chan, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about whether the arteriovenous type haemodialysis access affects cardiac function and whether it is still advantageous to the uremic patient with symptomatic heart disease. We conducted a retrospective comparative study. Patients with heart disease and end-stage renal disease that had a new chronic access created between January 2007 and December 2008 and met the inclusion criteria were assessed. The endpoint was major adverse event (MAE)-free survivals of arteriovenous access (AVA) and tunneled cuffed double-lumen central venous catheter (CVC) groups. Whether accesses worsened heart failure was also evaluated. There were 43 CVC patients and 60 AVA patients. The median follow-up time from access creation was 27.6 months (IQR 34.7, 10.9~45.6). Although CVC patients were older than AVA patients (median age 78.0, IQR 14.0 vs. 67.5, IQR 16.0, respectively, p = .009), they manifested non-inferior MAE-free survival (mean 17.1, 95% CI 10.3~24.0 vs. 12.9, 95% CI 8.5~17.4 months in CVC and AVA patients, respectively, p = .290). During follow-up, more patients in the AVA group than in the CVC group deteriorated in heart failure status (35 of 57 vs. 10 of 42, respectively, odds ratio 5.1, p < .001). Preoperative-postoperative pairwise comparison of echocardiographic scans revealed an increased number of abnormal findings in the AVA group (Z = 3.91, p < .001), but not in the CVC group. In patients with both symptomatic heart disease and end stage renal disease (ESRD), CVC patients showed non-inferior MAE-free survival in comparison to those in the AVA group. AV type access could deteriorate heart failure. Accordingly, uremic patients with symptomatic heart disease are not ideal candidates for AV type access creation.

  6. The Effect of Haemodialysis Access Types on Cardiac Performance and Morbidities in Patients with Symptomatic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Min-Kai; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chan, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about whether the arteriovenous type haemodialysis access affects cardiac function and whether it is still advantageous to the uremic patient with symptomatic heart disease. Methods We conducted a retrospective comparative study. Patients with heart disease and end-stage renal disease that had a new chronic access created between January 2007 and December 2008 and met the inclusion criteria were assessed. The endpoint was major adverse event (MAE)-free survivals of arteriovenous access (AVA) and tunneled cuffed double-lumen central venous catheter (CVC) groups. Whether accesses worsened heart failure was also evaluated. Results There were 43 CVC patients and 60 AVA patients. The median follow-up time from access creation was 27.6 months (IQR 34.7, 10.9~45.6). Although CVC patients were older than AVA patients (median age 78.0, IQR 14.0 vs. 67.5, IQR 16.0, respectively, p = .009), they manifested non-inferior MAE-free survival (mean 17.1, 95% CI 10.3~24.0 vs. 12.9, 95% CI 8.5~17.4 months in CVC and AVA patients, respectively, p = .290). During follow-up, more patients in the AVA group than in the CVC group deteriorated in heart failure status (35 of 57 vs. 10 of 42, respectively, odds ratio 5.1, p < .001). Preoperative-postoperative pairwise comparison of echocardiographic scans revealed an increased number of abnormal findings in the AVA group (Z = 3.91, p < .001), but not in the CVC group. Conclusions In patients with both symptomatic heart disease and end stage renal disease (ESRD), CVC patients showed non-inferior MAE-free survival in comparison to those in the AVA group. AV type access could deteriorate heart failure. Accordingly, uremic patients with symptomatic heart disease are not ideal candidates for AV type access creation. PMID:26848850

  7. Immunological profiling of haemodialysis patients and young healthy individuals with implications for clinical regulatory T cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Bergström, M; Joly, A-L; Seiron, P; Isringhausen, S; Modig, E; Fellström, B; Andersson, J; Berglund, D

    2015-05-01

    With the increasing interest in clinical trials with regulatory T cells (Tregs), immunological profiling of prospective target groups and standardized procedures for Treg isolation are needed. In this study, flow cytometry was used to assess peripheral blood lymphocyte profiles of young healthy individuals and patients undergoing haemodialysis treatment. Tregs obtained from the former may be used in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and Tregs from the latter in the prevention of kidney transplant rejection. FOXP3 mRNA expression with accompanying isoform distribution was also assessed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Flow-cytometric gating strategies were systematically analysed to optimize the isolation of Tregs. Our findings showed an overall similar immunological profile of both cohorts in spite of great differences in both age and health. Analysis of flow-cytometric gating techniques highlighted the importance of gating for both CD25high and CD127low expression in the isolation of FOXP3-positive cells. This study provides additional insight into the immunological profile of young healthy individuals and uraemic patients as well as in-depth analysis of flow-cytometric gating strategies for Treg isolation, supporting the development of Treg therapy using cells from healthy donors and uraemic patients.

  8. [Aluminium in chronic renal replacement therapy patients undergoing haemodialysis in two renal units in Bogotá].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Omayda; Segura, Omar; Puentes, William; Sanabria, Mauricio; Nava, Gerardo; Torrenegra, Rubén

    2010-08-01

    Determining aluminium concentrations in the serum of patients undergoing chronic renal replacement therapy with haemodialysis and concentration in distribution network water and dialysis in two renal units in Bogotá. This was a descriptive study of 63 haemodialysed patients and 20 healthy subjects. Aluminium concentration was determined in water and serum using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium lamp background corrector. Average aluminium concentration was 26.5 µg/L in patients (ranging from 11.2 to 49.2 µg/L; 8.03 standard deviation) and 8.05 µg/L in healthy individuals (ranging from undetectable to 17.2 µg/L; 4.31 standard deviation). Aluminium concentration in dialysis water and distribution network water was below 2 µg/L and 200 µg/L, respectively. Aluminium concentration in water and serum in this study was below international standard values, thereby indicating appropriate treatment. Additionally, aluminium concentration in pre-HD and post-HD sera was below that reported previously. Aluminium hydroxide uptake increases aluminium concentration in serum. Personal situation regarding age, gender, civil and work status were not risk factors determining aluminium concentrations in serum.

  9. The effects of a simulated laughter programme on mood, cortisol levels, and health-related quality of life among haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Heo, Eun Hwa; Kim, Sehyun; Park, Hye-Ja; Kil, Suk Yong

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a simulated laughter programme on mood, cortisol levels, and health-related quality of life among haemodialysis patients. Forty participants were randomly assigned to a laughter group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Eleven participants completed the laughter programme after haemodialysis sessions and 18 control participants remained. The 4-week simulated laughter programme included weekly 60 min group sessions of simulated laughter, breathing, stretching exercises, and meditation, as well as daily 15 s individual laughter sessions administered via telephone. Mood, cortisol levels, and health-related quality of life were analysed using the rank analysis of covariance, and Wilcoxon's signed rank test. The laughter group exhibited improvements in mood, symptoms, social interaction quality, and role limitations due to physical health. The simulated laughter programme may help improve mood and health-related quality of life among haemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An open-label, non-randomised, phase 1, single-dose study to assess the pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring intermittent haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sunzel, Maria; Learoyd, Maria; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yan; Ngo, Ngoc; Edeki, Timi

    2015-12-01

    For patients with normal renal function, the recommended ceftaroline fosamil dose is a 600 mg 1-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion every 12 h (q12h). In patients with a creatinine clearance of ≤30 mL/min, including those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the recommended dose is a 200 mg 1-h i.v. infusion q12h. This phase 1 study (NCT01664065) evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of ceftaroline fosamil 200 mg 1-h i.v. infusion in patients with ESRD. Patients with ESRD (n=8) participated in two treatment periods (ceftaroline fosamil 200 mg administered pre- and post-haemodialysis) separated by >1 week. Healthy volunteers (n=7) received a single 600 mg dose of ceftaroline fosamil. Blood (pre- and post-haemodialysis) and dialysate samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic analysis. In patients with ESRD, the geometric mean [coefficient of variation (%CV)] plasma ceftaroline area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) following post-haemodialysis ceftaroline fosamil 200 mg infusion was 64.8 (38.9)μg·h/mL, similar to that in volunteers following a 600 mg infusion [62.7 (9.4)μg·h/mL]. Ceftaroline AUC0-∞ decreased by ca. 50% when infusion was initiated pre-haemodialysis. In the pre-haemodialysis treatment period, 80% of the ceftaroline fosamil dose was recovered in dialysate as ceftaroline (73%) and ceftaroline M-1 (7%). The frequency of adverse events was similar across patients with ESRD (pre- and post-haemodialysis) and volunteers (43%, 50% and 43% of subjects, respectively). Ceftaroline fosamil 200 mg 1-h i.v. infusion q12h, administered post-haemodialysis on dialysis days, is an appropriate dosage regimen for ESRD patients.

  11. Attainment of guideline targets in EURODOPPS haemodialysis patients: are differences related to a country's healthcare expenditure and nephrologist workforce?

    PubMed

    Liabeuf, Sophie; Van Stralen, Karlijn J; Caskey, Fergus; Tentori, Francesca; Pisoni, Ronald L; Sajjad, Ayesha; Jager, Kitty J; Massy, Ziad A

    2017-10-01

    In the field of chronic kidney disease, global clinical practice guidelines have been developed and implemented with a view to improving patient care and outcomes. The attainment of international and European guideline targets for haemodialysis patients in European countries has not been audited recently. Hence, we sought to establish whether the attainment of the targets set out in guidelines and inappropriate care are similar across European countries and whether inter-country differences are related to disparities in national healthcare expenditures (as a percentage of gross domestic product) and/or the nephrologist workforce per capita. EURODOPPS is the European part of an international, prospective study of a cohort of adult, in-centre, haemodialysed patients. For the current project, 6317 patients from seven European countries were included between 2009 and 2011. Data on laboratory test results and medication prescriptions were extracted from patient records, in order to determine the overall percentage of patients treated according to the international guidelines on anaemia, dyslipidaemia, metabolic acidosis and mineral bone disease. Data related to macroeconomic indices were collected from World Health Organization database and World Bank stats. Attainment of the targets set in international guidelines was far from complete; only 34.1% of patients attained their target blood pressure and 31.2% attained their target haemoglobin level. Overall, only 5% of the patients attained all of the studied guideline targets. We observed marked inter-country differences in levels of guideline uptake/application and the use of pharmacological agents. The levels of national healthcare expenditures and nephrologist workforce were not correlated with the percentage of patients on-target for ≥50% of the studied variables or with inappropriate care (except for anaemia). Our analysis of EURODOPPS data highlighted a low overall level of guideline target attainment in Europe

  12. Associations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene CASR rs7652589 SNP with nephrolithiasis and secondary hyperparathyroidism in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E.; Paciorkowski, Mateusz; Mostowska, Adrianna; Frycz, Bartosz; Warchoł, Wojciech; Stolarek, Ireneusz; Figlerowicz, Marek; Jagodziński, Paweł P.

    2016-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), and cardiovascular complications are associated with disturbances in Ca handling and contribute to morbidity/mortality during haemodialysis (HD). Calcimimetics, activators of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), provide an effective means of reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in sHPT. Polymorphism in CaSR gene (CASR) influences Ca-related parameters, however it was not shown in HD patients for CASR rs7652589. The minor allele at this polymorphism modifies the binding sites of transcription factors and CaSR expression. We hypothesized that CASR rs7652589 variants may also influence CaSR in end stage renal disease (ESRD). We aimed to determine the associations of rs7652589 with nephrolithiasis-related ESRD, Ca, P, ALP, PTH, response to treatment with cinacalcet, prevalence of coronary artery disease, and all-cause/cardiovascular mortality in HD patients (n = 1162). Healthy individuals (n = 918) were controls. This study shows that the A allele of rs7652589 is a risk allele for nephrolithiasis-related ESRD. The AA genotype is associated with more severe sHPT (higher Ca and PTH concentrations). The A allele is associated with reduced CaSR transcript level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. According to computational analysis, potential binding sites for GLI3, AHR and TP53 are removed by the A allele, whereas binding sites for SOX18 and TP63 are created. PMID:27739473

  13. Acute Zinc Toxicity in Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Gallery, Eileen D. M.; Blomfield, Jeanette; Dixon, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    A country patient on home haemodialysis suffered acute nausea, vomiting, and fever during dialyses when she used water stored in a galvanized tank. She subsequently was found to have severe anaemia with raised plasma and erythrocyte zinc concentrations. Intercurrent hospital haemodialyses and subsequent home dialyses with deionized water were symptom-free. Experimental haemodialyses of dogs against small concentrations of zinc showed a disproportionate rise in plasma zinc and possible uptake of zinc by the liver. PMID:4637513

  14. Influence of religiosity and spiritual coping on health-related quality of life in Saudi haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Colet, Paolo C; Alquwez, Nahed; Inocian, Ergie P; Al-Otaibi, Raid Salman; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2017-01-01

    Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) are frequently troubled by psychiatric disorders and coping problems, which can pose a serious threat to their physical and mental well-being. Using religious and spiritual interventions as a means of coping with physical and mental challenges is widely recognized. Although this topic has been well studied, in the Middle East regions, where Islam is the dominant religion, studies are limited. Thus, this study was performed to explore the influence of religiosity and spiritual coping (SC) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Saudi patients receiving HD. A total of 168 HD patients from three hospitals in Saudi Arabia formed a convenient sample for this descriptive, cross-sectional hospital-based study. Data collection was done via questionnaire-guided interviews using the Muslim Religious Index as well as the Arabic Versions of the Spiritual Coping Strategies scale and Quality of Life Index Dialysis. Regression analysis enabled identification of the factors influencing HRQoL. Older patients were found to reveal higher levels of religiosity, whereas the younger ones expressed a lesser degree of religious and nonreligious coping. Unemployed patients reported greater involvement in religious practices (RP) and more frequently used religious coping than those employed. The latter showed lower intrinsic religiosity and nonreligious coping usage than the unemployed. The respondents reported the greatest satisfaction scores on their psychological/spiritual dimension and the least scores on the social and economic dimension. Therefore, the factors that could influence the HRQoL of the respondents were identified as involvement in RP, intrinsic religious beliefs, religious coping usage and age. This study revealed significant findings regarding the importance of religiosity and SC on the HRQoL of the Saudi HD patients. Therefore, it has been highly recommended to integrate religiosity into the health-care process for such

  15. Combining intra-dialytic exercise and nutritional supplementation in malnourished older haemodialysis patients: Towards better quality of life and autonomy.

    PubMed

    Hristea, Dan; Deschamps, Thibault; Paris, Anne; Lefrançois, Gaëlle; Collet, Valérie; Savoiu, Corneliu; Ozenne, Sophie; Coupel, Stéphanie; Testa, Angelo; Magnard, Justine

    2016-09-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW), defined as a loss of body protein mass and fuel reserves, is a powerful predictor of adverse outcomes in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Robust arguments suggest that intra-dialytic exercise, combined with oral/parenteral nutrition, enhances the effect of nutritional interventions in HD patients. This pilot randomized controlled trial investigated the feasibility and the effects of a 6 month intra-dialytic cycling program combined to a nutritional support on PEW, physical functioning (gait, balance, muscle strength) and quality of life (QoL) in older HD patients (mean age 69.7 ± 14.2 years).Twenty-one patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria of PEW were randomly assigned to Nutrition-Exercise group (GN-Ex , n = 10) or Nutrition group (GN , n = 11). Both groups received nutritional supplements in order to reach recommended protein and energy intake goals. In addition GN-Ex completed a cycling program. No significant difference between groups was found in the number of patients having reached remission of PEW. Likewise, no change was observed in serum-albumin, -prealbumin, C-reactive protein, body mass index, lean- and fat-tissue index, or quadriceps force. Interestingly, we found positive effects of exercise on physical function and QoL for the GN-Ex , as evidenced by a significant improvement in the 6-min walk test (+22%), the absence of decline in balance (unlike the GN ), and a noteworthy increase in QoL (+53%). Combining intra-dialytic exercise and nutrition in HD patients is feasible, and well accepted, improves physical function and QoL but it appears not to have the potential to reverse PEW. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. Association between long-term efficacy of cinacalcet and parathyroid gland volume in haemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Motoko; Nakanishi, Shohei; Komaba, Hirotaka; Itoh, Kazuko; Matsushita, Kazutaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Secondary hyperparathyroidism with nodular hyperplasia is resistant to medical therapies. Cinacalcet is an effective treatment for severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. This multicentre retrospective study was designed to determine the long-term efficacy of cinacalcet in patients with nodular hyperplasia, the advanced type of parathyroid hyperplasia. Subjects and methods. The study subjects were 20 haemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Patients with ultrasonographically confirmed large parathyroid glands (volume >0.5 cm3) were considered to have nodular hyperplasia (n = 8). Cinacalcet was started at the dose of 25 mg/day and titrated up to 100 mg/day to achieve the target intact-parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level of <250 pg/ml. Serum iPTH, corrected calcium, serum phosphorus, calcium × phosphorus product were measured and compared over the 48-week period of treatment with cinacalcet in all 20 patients and over 120 weeks in 6 of the patients (2 with nodular hyperplasia and 4 with non-nodular hyperplasia). We also examined the achievement rate of K/DOQI guideline treatment targets. The dosages of vitamin D preparation, sevelamer hydrochloride and calcium- containing phosphate binder were adjusted for the above target values. Results. iPTH levels were significantly lower at 48 weeks in both groups. However, corrected calcium levels, serum phosphorus levels and calcium phosphorus products were within the target values in the non-nodular hyperplasia group (n = 12), while the target value could not be achieved in the nodular hyperplasia group. In the long-term follow-up group, the levels of iPTH, corrected calcium, serum phosphorus and calcium × phosphorus products were significantly higher in nodular hyperplasia than in non-nodular hyperplasia. Conclusion. Our study suggests that cinacalcet lacks long-term efficacy in nodular hyperplasia, especially for controlling serum calcium and phosphorus levels. PMID:25983974

  17. Quality of life assessment among haemodialysis patients in a single centre: a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paulo R; Daher, Elizabeth F; Silva, Geraldo B; Libório, Alexandre B; Kerr, Ligia R

    2009-06-01

    Prospective studies of the effects of long-standing haemodialysis (HD) on quality of life (QOL) show conflicting results. We investigated how QOL progresses over time in HD patients and what factors are associated with this evolution. We included chronic HD patients over the age of 18 from a single unit, who had never had transplants and survived the first 3 months of treatment. Ninety-two patients were followed for 2 years, and the SF-36 questionnaire was administered at baseline and every 12 months. Comorbidity was assessed at baseline using the Khan index. We used repeated-measures analysis of variance to establish changes in QOL and stepwise linear regression to identify continuous variables that could explain variations of SF-36 sub-scales. Then, according to the rate of change of QOL, we stratified the sample to identify the association between categorical variables and the evolution of QOL. There was a higher (better) final score related to social functioning (63.8 vs. 75.0; P < 0.01), role-emotional (39.7 vs. 63.1; P < 0.01) and mental health (63.1 vs. 69.0; P < 0.01) in the all-sample analysis, and in two other domains in low-comorbidity patients: physical functioning (56.7 vs. 63.5; P = 0.01) and bodily pain (56.7 vs. 66.5; P < 0.01). Creatinine (r = 0.09; P = 0.04) and age (r = -0.03; P = 0.02) were correlated with the evolution of general health and bodily pain, respectively. There were more women who presented deteriorated physical function than men (50.0 vs. 21.2%; P < 0.01). There was improvement of QOL mental domains over time. However, the physical aspects improved only in low-comorbidity patients. More women than men worsened regarding physical functioning.

  18. Clearance of glucoregulatory peptide hormones during haemodialysis and haemodiafiltration in non-diabetic end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Morten B; Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Holst, Jens J; Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have increased fasting concentrations and disturbed postprandial responses of several glucoregulatory hormones. We aimed to evaluate the impact of high-flux haemodialysis (HD) and high-volume haemodiafiltration (HDF) on fasting and postprandial plasma levels of glucoregulatory pancreatic and gut peptide hormones in ESRD patients. Ten non-diabetic HD-treated ESRD patients were included to undergo a 3-h standardized liquid mixed meal test 1 h into an HD and an HDF, respectively. On a third, optional, examination day, the meal test was performed without concurrent dialysis treatment. Concentrations of glucose, C-peptide, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured in plasma and dialysate. Ten participants completed the meal test during HD, eight completed the meal test during HDF and four completed the optional meal test without dialysis. All plasma hormone concentrations declined significantly during the first fasting hour of dialysis with no differences between HD and HDF. Significant clearance of the investigated hormones was observed for both dialysis modalities with significantly higher clearance of insulin, C-peptide and GIP during HDF compared with HD. The fractional appearance of hormones entering the utilized dialysate was higher during HDF. Both dialysis modalities reduced postprandial plasma hormone concentrations in a similar manner. Our findings show that HD and HDF, respectively, significantly remove glucoregulatory peptide hormones from plasma of non-diabetic ESRD patients; a phenomenon which may affect the glucose metabolism in dialysis-treated ESRD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for patients with chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis: A feasibility open trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ramony; Dear, Blake F; Titov, Nick; Chow, Josephine; Suranyi, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Treating depression among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is imperative because of its high prevalence and health-related costs. However, many patients with CKD experience significant barriers to effective face-to-face psychological treatments. Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) may help overcome the treatment barriers. The aim of the present study was to explore the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of iCBT for depression and anxiety among patients with CKD on haemodialysis. A single-group open trial design involving 22 patients on dialysis and an established iCBT treatment for anxiety and depression was employed. The primary outcomes were symptoms of depression, anxiety and general psychological distress. The secondary and tertiary outcomes were disability, quality of life, kidney disease-related loss and kidney disease burden. A generalised estimation equation modelling technique was employed. Clinically significant improvements (avg. % of improvement) were observed in the primary outcomes of depression (34%), anxiety (31%) and general distress (26%), which were maintained or further improved to 3-month follow-up. Improvements were also observed for quality of life (12%) and kidney disease-related loss (30%). However, no improvements in disability and kidney disease burden were found. High levels of acceptability were reported and relatively little clinician time (99.45min; SD=14.61) was needed to provide the treatment. The present results provide encouraging support for the potential of iCBT as an innovative way of increasing access to effective psychological treatment for CKD patients. These results provide much needed support for further research in this area. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000103763. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The importance of serum transferrin receptor level in the diagnosis of functional iron deficiency due to recombinant human erythropoietin treatment in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tonbul, H Z; Kaya, H; Selçuk, N Y; Tekin, S B; San, A; Akçay, F; Akarsu, E

    1998-01-01

    In haemodialysis (HD) patients, functional iron deficiency frequently appears due to recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) treatment. However, the diagnosis of iron deficiency is not always easy in such patients. Recent studies have shown that the serum transferrin receptor (s-TfR) level is a sensitive, quantitative measure of tissue iron deficiency. In this study, we examined the changes in s-TfR levels in patients with iron deficiency anaemia due to r-HuEPO treatment. We compared s-TfR levels of 24 patients with i.v. administered r-HuEPO (50-70 U/kg/dose) at the end of each dialysis session (three times a week) and diagnosed as having iron deficiency anaemia by routine laboratory methods (ferritin <50 microg/l and transferrin saturation <16%) with s-TfR levels of 32 patients not receiving r-HuEPO and without iron deficiency anaemia. Also, 40 healthy volunteer subjects were included in the study as a control group. Serum ferritin and transferrin receptor levels were measured with ELISAs using monoclonal reagents. There were no differences between the two groups with and without iron deficiency anaemia with respect to mean age, body weight, haemodialysis duration, haemoglobin and serum creatinine levels (p>0.05). For s-TfR levels, while no difference was present between the control and the non-iron deficiency groups (p>0.05), the iron deficiency group had higher s-TfR values than those of both the control and non-iron deficiency groups (p<0.001). Besides, there was an inverse correlation between haemoglobin and s-TfR levels in patients with iron deficiency anaemia (r = -0.85, p<0.0001). We conclude that the measurement of s-TfR levels may be useful in the diagnosis of functional iron deficiency in haemodialysis patients receiving r-HuEPO.

  1. Differences between 2nd and 3rd generation seric parathormone determination methods on mortality in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Osorio, Laura; de la Piedra, Concepción; Rubert, Mercedes; Martín-Fernández, Marta; González Casaus, María Luisa; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Egido, Jesús; Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; González Parra, Emilio

    Parathormone plays a key role in controlling mineral metabolism. PTH is considered a uremic toxin causing cardiovascular damage and cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. There are two different assays to measure PTH called 2nd generation or intact PTH (iPTH) and 3rd generation or bioPTH (PTHbio). To evaluate the differences in mortality of dialysis patients between both assays to measure PTH, as well as the possible prognostic role of the PTHbio/iPTH ratio. 145 haemodialysis patients were included with 2-year monitoring including baseline laboratory test and annually thereafter. 21 patients died in the first year and 28 in the second. No correlation was found between PTH, PTHbio and PTHbio/iPTH ratio with mortality. Both PTH have a perfect correlation between them and correlate similarly with other molecules of the mineral metabolism. The extreme baseline values of PTH are those of higher mortality. In survival by iPTH intervals (according to guidelines and COSMOS study), a J curve is observed. When iPTH increases, the ratio decreases, possibly when increasing fragments no. 1-84. There is no greater prognostic approximation on mortality with PTHbio than PTHi. There was also no difference in mortality when progression ratio PTHbio/PTHi was analysed. We didn't find any advantages to using bioPTH vs. PTHi as a marker of mortality. BioPTH limits of normality must be reevaluated because its relationship with iPTH is not consistent. Not knowing these limits affects its prognostic value. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis for patients with end-stage renal disease in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Lau, Titus; Luo, Nan

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of haemodialysis (HD), continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Singapore. A Markov model was developed to examine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of HD, CAPD and APD over the 10-year time horizon from the societal perspective, using clinical data from an observational study and the national renal registry, utilities from published studies and costs from dialysis services providers. The base-case analysis was for a hypothetical cohort of 60-year-old non-diabetic ESRD patients. A high-risk group of 60-year-old diabetic ESRD patients was also studied. In the base-case analysis, the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were 3.27 with CAPD, 3.48 with APD and 4.69 with HD. The total costs were Singapore dollar $169 872 for CAPD, $201 509 for APD and $306 827 for HD. CAPD and HD had extended dominance over APD. The ICER of HD versus CAPD was $96 447 (US$69 121) per QALY. One-way sensitivity analyses indicated that the results were most sensitive to the utility of HD. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses demonstrated that CAPD had the maximum probability of being cost-effective among treatments under evaluation at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $60 000 (US$43 000) per QALY. The high-risk group analyses showed similar results. The ICER of HD versus CAPD was $106 281 (US$76 168) per QALY and the probability of CAPD being optimal was the highest using the same WTP threshold. Our analysis suggested that starting dialysis with CAPD is most cost-effective for ESRD patients in Singapore. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. Outcomes of arteriovenous fistula creation, effect of preoperative vein mapping and predictors of fistula success in incident haemodialysis patients: A single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kian-Guan; Chong, Tze-Tec; Goh, Nicholette; Achudan, Shaam; Tan, Yi-Liang; Tan, Ru-Yu; Choong, Hui-Lin; Tan, Chieh-Suai

    2017-05-01

    Vascular access in haemodialysis is critical for effective therapy. We aim to evaluate the outcomes of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation in incident haemodialysis patients, impact of preoperative vein mapping and predictors of successful AVF maturation in our centre. Data of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients initiated on haemodialysis from January 2010 to December 2012 in our centre were retrospectively obtained from electronic medical records and clinical notes. Demographic characteristics, medical comorbidities, perioperative details were collected, and patients were followed up until 1 January 2014. A total of 708 patients (median age 64, IQR 55-72) were included with mean duration of follow up of 2.3 ± 1.2 years, with access of AVF and arteriovenous graft (AVG) in 694 (98%) and 14 (2%) patients respectively. Eight patients were lost to follow-up. Successful AVF maturation was achieved in 542 patients (78%), with 1-year cumulative patency rate of 74%. Multivariate analysis revealed male gender, upper arm AVF and good postoperative thrill and pulse as predictors of successful AVF maturation. Preoperative vein mapping was performed in 42.5% (295/694) of patients, with mean vein diameter of 2.44 ± 0.82 mm. Maturation rates with and without vein mapping were 72.2% and 82.4%, respectively, (P = 0.001). In patients with vein diameters of <2 mm and ≥2 mm, there was no statistically significant difference in maturation rates (71.3% vs. 72.6%; P = 0.887) and median maturation time (66 vs. 78 days; P = 0.73). Arteriovenous fistula can be successfully created in most incident haemodialysis patients. Routine vein mapping is not necessary if veins are suitable on physical examination alone, and vein sizes of <2 mm on ultrasound is not associated with lower AVF maturation rate. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  4. Association between very low PTH levels and poor survival rates in haemodialysis patients: results from the French ARNOS cohort.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Lataillade, D; Genet, L; Legrand, E; Kuentz, F; Moreau-Gaudry, X; Fouque, D

    2011-01-01

    A very low parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (VLPL) is associated with an increased risk of adynamic bone disease, vascular calcification, and mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency, the associated factors, and the prognosis of non-surgical VLPL in a cohort of prevalent HD patients. In July 2005, a cross-sectional study was performed on the French ARNOS cohort in 1,348 prevalent HD patients from 24 dialysis centres in the Rhône-Alpes area. Patients with a baseline intact PTH level <50 pg/ml (VLPL, Group 1) and ≥ 50 pg/ml (Group 2) were compared and a 42-month survival analysis was performed. Patients with prevalent or incident parathyroidectomy were excluded. We studied 1,138 prevalent HD patients. As compared to patients of Group 2 (n = 1,019), patients with VLPL (Group 1, n = 119) had lower serum albumin levels (34.5 ± 5 vs. 36.4 ± 5 g/l, p < 0.0001), less protein intake (nPCR 0.99 ± 0.28 vs. 1.1 ± 0.28 g/kg/day, p = 0.01), higher calcaemia (2.30 ± 0.2 vs. 2.26 ± 0.2 mmol/l, p = 0.01) and were more frequently treated with calcium carbonate (67 vs. 54%, p < 0.001). Patients with VLPL had a higher mortality rate (HR: 1.4 (1.07-1.8), p = 0.006) after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and dialysis vintage. The odds ratios of mortality for patients with VLPL remained higher in all calcaemia and serum albumin quartiles. Only 3/119 patients in Group 1 did not receive any PTH-lowering therapies (i.e. calcium carbonate (67%), alfacalcidol (38%), cinacalcet (10.1%), and dialysate calcium ≥ 1.5 mmol/l (94%)). In this observational French cohort, VLPL was observed in 10% of prevalent HD patients and was associated with poor survival rates. An inadequate therapeutic strategy could be responsible for this observation. The real consequences of this iatrogenic adynamic bone disease remain hypothetical, but it may be related to the risk of developing vascular calcification. It is hypothesized that a more adequate

  5. Pegylated interferon alfa-2a (40 kD) and ribavirin in haemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    van Leusen, Robert; Adang, Rob P R; de Vries, Richard A; Cnossen, Trijntje T; Konings, Constantijn J A M; Schalm, Solko W; Tan, Adriaan C I T L

    2008-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with liver dysfunction and hepatocellular carcinoma. In patients with normal kidney function, treatment with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) frequently leads to eradication of HCV. Treatment in dialysis patients has long been controversial and until recently, the use of RBV was considered to be contra-indicated. We used plasma trough levels of RBV to promote tolerance, safety and efficacy. PEG-IFN alfa-2a (40 kD) was chosen because it is cleared predominantly via hepatic metabolism. Seven haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV infection were eligible and started with 135 microg PEG-IFN alfa-2a (40 kD) weekly and 200 mg RBV every other day. Dose adaptations were allowed following study guidelines. Genotypes 1 and 4 (five patients) were treated for 48 weeks and genotypes 2 and 3 (two patients) for 24 weeks. HCV-RNA was determined after 12, 24 and 48 weeks (and at 72 weeks for genotypes 1 and 4). RBV trough plasma levels were monitored regularly by HPLC-technique. All patients completed the treatment. In two patients, the PEG-IFN dose had to be reduced to 90 microg/week because of adverse events. To achieve the target range (1.5-2.5 microg/ml) of the plasma trough level, the mean RBV dose was increased to a dose between 133 and 200 mg each day in five patients. Despite an increase of the weekly erythropoietin (Epo) dose, two to a max of four red cell transfusions were given to four patients. A sustained viral response (SVR) was reached in five patients (3/5 with genotype 1/4 and 2/2 with genotype 2/3). In our series of seven patients, we were able to use RBV monitoring drug levels in combination with PEG-IFN alfa-2a (40 kD) and achieve high sustained response rates. However, Epo and transfusion requirements may increase. In two patients adverse events were observed, but manageable with dose reduction of PEG-IFN.

  6. Mortality in incident haemodialysis patients: time-dependent haemoglobin levels and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose are independent predictive factors in the ANSWER study.

    PubMed

    Fort, Joan; Cuevas, Xavier; García, Fernando; Pérez-García, Rafael; Lladós, Fina; Lozano, Javier; Martín-Malo, Alejandro

    2010-08-01

    Although the association between low haemoglobin levels and mortality is well established in haemodialysis patients, data are conflicting regarding levels >12 g/dl. In addition, divergent results have been reported on the relation between erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and mortality. This was a multicentre, observational, prospective, 24-month study, which recruited Spanish incident haemodialysis patients (N = 2310). Univariate and multivariate time-dependent Cox regression models examined the longitudinal association of mortality with haemoglobin and ESA dose; adjustment was made for iron deficiency and other confounders. After adjusting for age, functional status, body mass index, albumin levels, catheter as vascular access, previous history of cardiovascular disease, neoplasia, and ESA dose, mortality decreased with increasing haemoglobin. Adjusted hazard ratios relative to the reference category (11-12 g/dl) and 95% confidence intervals were: 1.36 (1.01-1.86) for 13 g/dl. Independent of haemoglobin, patients on sustained ESA doses of 1-4000 IU/week and 8001-16 000 IU/week had better survival than non-treated (reference) patients, with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.61 (0.41-0.90) and 0.68 (0.49-0.94), respectively. No significant difference was found for doses of 4001-8000 IU/week or >16,000 IU/week, adjusted hazard ratios of 0.87 (0.63-1.20) and 0.89 (0.63-1.28), respectively. Higher haemoglobin levels are associated with lower mortality in Spanish incident haemodialysis patients, regardless of ESA dose, comorbidity, vascular access or malnutrition. No increase in mortality occurs for high ESA doses, independent of haemoglobin levels.

  7. Defining the culture and attitude towards dietary management actions in people undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Onbe, Hiromi; Oka, Michiyo; Shimada, Mikiko; Motegi, Emiko; Motoi, Yuji; Okabe, Ayako

    2013-06-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the structure of culture and the three components of attitude in a desirable attitude toward dietary management actions in outpatient haemodialysis patients who are in the maintenance phase of treatment. The participants in the study included nine patients undergoing chronic maintenance haemodialysis who have received guidance related to diet and had good test results. Ethnography, by means of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, was chosen as the research method. Desirable attitude of haemodialysis patients in dietary management actions was found to have a chronological progression in one of the components of attitude: propensity of behaviour. Change in behaviour was influenced by affect and cognition. At the base of the structure of attitude lay three factors: valuing cooking with seasonal ingredients and creating special meals for seasonal occasions; family draws near, shows care and gives support; and belief in information perceived to be good for the health, which was influenced by three components of attitude: affect, cognition, and propensity of behaviour, as well as culture. Participants continue to value the food culture that they grew up with, which involves their affect towards, and cognition of, dietary management. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  8. Speckle tracking determination of mitral tissue annular displacement: comparison with strain and ejection fraction, and association with outcomes in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Diana Y Y; Abidin, Nik; Hughes, John; Sinha, Smeeta; Kalra, Philip A; Green, Darren

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are established poor prognostic risk factors in haemodialysis patients. Tissue motion annular displacement of mitral valve annulus (TMAD), determined by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), can be performed rapidly and is an indicator of systolic dysfunction, but has been less well explored. This study aims to compare TMAD with GLS and LVEF and its association with outcomes in haemodialysis patients. 198 haemodialysis patients (median age 64.2 years, 69 % men) had 2D echocardiography, with STE determined GLS and TMAD. Bland-Altman analysis and linear regression assessed relationship between GLS, LVEF and TMAD. Cox regression analysis investigated association of TMAD with mortality and cardiac events. TMAD had low inter- and intra-observer variability with small biases and narrow limits of agreement (LOA) (bias of -0.01 ± 1.32 (95 % LOA was -2.60 to 2.58) and -0.07 ± 1.27 (95 % LOA -2.55 to 2.41) respectively). There was a moderate negative correlation between GLS and LVEF (r = -0.383, p < 0.001) and a weak positive correlation between TMAD and LVEF (r = 0.248, p < 0.001). There was strong negative correlation of TMAD with GLS (r = -0.614, p < 0.001). In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, TMAD was not associated with mortality (HR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.91-1.19), cardiac death (HR 1.03, 95 % CI 0.80-1.32) or cardiac events (HR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.80-1.02). TMAD is a quick and reproducible alternative to GLS which may be very useful in cardiovascular risk assessment, but does not have the same prognostic value in HD patients as GLS.

  9. The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle strength, functional capacity and body composition in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Vicent; Carneiro, José; Moreno, Fátima; Fulquet, Miquel; Garriga, Salud; Pou, Mónica; Duarte, Verónica; Saurina, Anna; Tapia, Irati; Ramírez de Arellano, Manel

    Haemodialysis (HD) patients are characterised by significant muscle loss. Recently, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has emerged as a new therapeutic alternative to improve these patients' physical condition. To date, no studies on the effects of NMES on body composition in HD patients have been published. To analyse the effect of NMES on muscle strength, functional capacity and body composition in our HD patients. A 12-week, single-centre, prospective study. The patients were assigned to an electrical stimulation (ES) or control (CO) group. The ES group was subjected to intradialytic electrical stimulation of the quadriceps (Compex® Theta 500i), while the CO group received standard HD care. We analysed the following: 1) nutritional parameters; 2) muscle composition of the quadriceps; 3) maximum quadriceps extension strength (mes) and hand-grip (HG); 4) «sit to stand to sit» (STS10) and «six-minute walking test» (6MWT); 5) body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis). Of 20 patients, 55% were men. Mean age 67.7 years, 30.3 months in HD. Main aetiology: DM (35%). In the ES group were 13 patients, and 7 in the CO group. At the end of the study, an improvement was only observed in the ES group ((*)P<.05): MES(*) (11.7±7.1 vs. 13.4±7.4kg), STS10 (39.3±15.5 vs. 35.8±13.7s) and 6MWT(*) (9.9%, 293.2 vs. 325.2m). Furthermore, increased quadriceps muscle area (QMA(*): 128.6±30.2 vs. 144.6±22.4cm(2)) and lowered quadriceps fat area (QFA(*): 76.5±26.9 vs. 62.1±20.1cm(2)) were observed. No relevant changes in body composition, nutritional parameters and dialysis adequacy were found. 1) NMES improved muscle strength, functional capacity and quadriceps muscle composition in our patients. 2) Based on the results obtained, NMES could be a new therapeutic alternative to prevent muscle atrophy and progressive physical deterioration. 3) However, future studies are necessary to establish the potential beneficial effects of NMES in HD patients. Copyright

  10. Ochromobactrum intermedium: an emerging opportunistic pathogen-case of recurrent bacteraemia associated with infective endocarditis in a haemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, T; Sharma, D; Sharma, H; Kandil, H; Collier, S

    2017-01-01

    We describe the first clinical case report of infective endocarditis related to Ochrobactrum intermedium infection. The case involved a 23-year-old man receiving dialysis via an internal jugular long-term haemodialysis catheter. He improved with a prolonged course of meropenem and minocycline. Ochrobactrum spp. are recognized as rare emerging opportunistic pathogens.

  11. Intermittent saline flushes during haemodialysis do not alleviate coagulation and clot formation in stable patients receiving reduced doses of dalteparin.

    PubMed

    Sagedal, Solbjørg; Hartmann, Anders; Osnes, Kåre; Bjørnsen, Stine; Torremocha, Josephine; Fauchald, Per; Kofstad, Johan; Brosstad, Frank

    2006-02-01

    Heparin-free haemodialysis (HD) with intermittent saline flushes (ISF) in patients with bleeding risk is widely used. The aim of this study was to investigate if ISF reduce coagulation and clotting in stable patients receiving reduced doses of dalteparin. Inclusion criteria were stable chronic HD patients >or=18 years of age and haemoglobin >or=11 g/dl. Exclusion criteria were use of warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid. Six HD sessions were evaluated per patient. Dalteparin was given as one bolus dose at start of HD (50% of the conventional dose). In HD number 1, 3 and 5, 100 ml saline solution was flushed through the filter each 30 min. In HD 2, 4 and 6, no ISF were given. Potential clotting in the bubble trap was visually observed each hour and graded on a 4-point scale: 1 = normal, 2 = fibrinous ring, 3 = clot formation and 4 = coagulated system. The dialyser was visually inspected at the end of each session: 1 = normal, 2 = a few blood stripes (affecting less than 5% of the surface fibres), 3 = many blood stripes (more than 5% of the fibres) and 4 = coagulated filter. The coagulation marker PF1+2, the platelet activation marker beta-TG and anti-FXa activity were repeatedly measured during HD. Six men and two women were included. In four cases (four different patients), HD was stopped due to a coagulated system, all cases on days with ISF performed. Multiple linear regression analyses with repeated measurements showed that ISF adjusted for dalteparin dose/kg significantly increased mean clot in the bubble trap, estimate (B) = 0.717, P = 0.0001 and also showed that ISF increased PF1+2, B = 0.16, P = 0.001 when adjusted for anti-FXa activity and hours of dialysis, whereas beta-TG was only borderline increased, B = 0.09, P = 0.055. ISF during HD does not alleviate visible clotting or intravascular coagulation activity in stable patients receiving reduced doses of dalteparin and polysulphone dialysers. Whether this applies to unstable patients with increased bleeding

  12. Nutritional outcomes from a randomised investigation of intradialytic oral nutritional supplements in patients receiving haemodialysis, (NOURISH): a protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Louise; Sully, Benjamin; Cohen, Judith; Julious, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Haemodialysis is a form of renal replacement therapy but is a catabolic process that not only filters toxins but is also known to lead to amino acid losses. Patients with chronic kidney disease often have a poor appetite and this in combination with limited dietary intake and the detrimental effects of haemodialysis can lead to the development of malnutrition. Between 20% and 50% of haemodialysis patients are thought to be malnourished. Malnutrition can worsen clinical outcomes and increase the risk of hospitalisation. We hypothesise that a nutritional supplement taken during haemodialysis may help to improve nutritional status. The aim of this study is to conduct a pilot randomised controlled trial to assess the use of an intradialytic nutritional supplement on nutritional status. The objectives are to assess the feasibility of the trial including: recruitment and retention of participants; preference of nutritional supplements; compliance with the intervention; ease of completion of the questionnaires and appropriateness of the tools used. Secondary outcomes include clinical outcomes to obtain variance in the patient population and estimates of effect size to inform the sample size for a future definitive trial. The trial is a single centre, randomised, parallel-group, two armed external pilot with an intervention and control group. The intervention group will take a nutritional supplement each dialysis session from a choice of prescribable drink or pudding style supplements. The control group will receive standard care. Recruitment and feasibility elements are the primary outcomes. Recruitment will be to time (t = 6 weeks). In order to collect sufficient data to inform a future sample size calculation, we will aim to recruit 30 participants to obtain 12 evaluable per arm anticipating some drop out. Secondary outcome measures include clinical variables; hand grip strength, quality of life, weight and biochemistry completed at baseline, 1 and 2 months

  13. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis in Trinidad: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Bahall, Mandreker

    2017-05-04

    Despite the paucity of scientific evidence, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used for the prevention and treatment of illness, holistic care, and counteracting the adverse effects of conventional medicine (CM). This study investigates the use of CAM by patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis. This quantitative study was conducted from November 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014 in the haemodialysis unit at San Fernando General Hospital (San Fernando, Trinidad). Face-to-face questionnaire-based interviews were held with101of 125 eligible patients (response rate, 80.5%) at the chairside during haemodialysis. The completed questionnaires were entered into a secure computer database. Data analysis included descriptive analysis, χ(2) tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. A minority of the patients were CAM users (n = 19; 18.8%). All 19 CAM users took medicinal herbs, 78.9% (n = 15) used spiritual therapy, and 10.5% (n = 2) used alternative systems. Medicinal tea (n = 15; 78.9%), garlic (Allium sativum) (n = 17; 73.7%), and ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) (n = 13; 68.4%) were the most commonly used medicinal herbs. Seven (36.8%) patients used Chinese herbal medicines and 3 (15.8%) patients used Aloe vera. All CAM users were willing to use CAM without supervision or monitoring by their doctors while receiving CM. The use of CAM could not be predicted by age, sex, ethnicity, education, religion, marital status, or employment. Nearly all (98%) patients were satisfied with CAM. More than one-third (36.8%) of patients did not disclose their use of CAM to their doctors, who were generally indifferent to such therapy. The use of CAM by patients with ESRD was relatively infrequent. All patients used medicinal herbs, most patients used spiritual therapy, and a minority of patients used alternative systems. Complementary and alternative medicine was primarily used for spiritual reasons and the likelihood of its use

  14. Outcome of radiologically placed tunneled haemodialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Sayani, Raza; Anwar, Muhammad; Tanveer-ul-Haq; Al-Qamari, Nauman; Bilal, Muhammad Asif

    2013-12-01

    To study the outcome of radiologically placed double lumen tunneled haemodialysis catheters for the management of renal failure. Case series. Interventional Suite of Radiology Department at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from April 2010 to June 2011. All consecutive patients who were referred to the department of radiology by the nephrologists for double lumen tunneled haemodialysis catheter (Permacath) placement during the study period were included. Patients with septicemia, those for whom follow-up was not available, those coming for catheter exchange or who died due to a noncatheter related condition were excluded. A radio-opaque, soft silicone double lumen catheter was inserted through a subcutaneous tunnel created over the anterior chest wall. The catheter tip was placed in the right atrium via the internal jugular vein. Ultrasound guidance was used for initial venous puncture. The rest of the procedure was carried out under fluoroscopic guidance. Technical success, catheter related bacteremia rates, adequacy of dialysis, patency, and adverse events were analyzed. Overall 88 tunneled haemodialysis catheters were placed in 87 patients. Patients were followed-up for duration of 1 - 307 days with mean follow-up period of 4 months. Immediate technical success was 100%. The procedural complication rate was 5.6% (5 catheters). Eight patients died during the study period, seven from causes unrelated to the procedure. One patient died due to septicemia secondary to catheter related infection. Of the remaining 69 patients, 50 (72.4%) predominantly had uneventful course during the study period. Twelve patients developed infection (17.3%); two were successfully treated conservatively while in 10 patients catheter had to be removed. Seven catheters (10.1%) failed due to mechanical problems. In 3 patients the internal jugular veins got partially thrombosed. One catheter was accidentally damaged in the ward and had to be removed. Radiological guided tunneled

  15. Effect of gastric acid suppression with pantoprazole on the efficacy of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cervelli, Matthew J; Shaman, Ahmed; Meade, Anthony; Carroll, Robert; McDonald, Stephen P

    2012-07-01

      Metallic phosphate binders require acidity to dissociate to the free metallic ion and bind phosphorus. Altered gastric acidity may, therefore, influence phosphate-binding efficacy. We evaluated the clinical effect of pantoprazole on the efficacy of calcium carbonate phosphate binders in haemodialysis patients.   The study had two parts: a cross-sectional study (n = 67), and an interventional, crossover, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 26 patients given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo for two consecutive 6-week periods.   The cross-sectional study showed no difference between those on and off acid suppressants in phosphate (1.43 ± 0.45 vs 1.46 ± 0.31 mmol/L, P = 0.782) or other parameters except age (72.2 ± 9.8 vs 63.8 ± 14.8 years, P = 0.01). In the interventional study, phosphate was higher during pantoprazole than placebo (1.59 ± 0.3 vs 1.42 ± 0.3 mmol/L, P = 0.005). Serum calcium (2.37 ± 0.2 vs 2.46 ± 0.2 mmol/L, P = 0.012) and ionized calcium (1.17 ± 0.1 vs 1.22 ± 0.1 mmol/L, P = 0.013) were lower during pantoprazole treatment. CaxPO(4) (3.76 ± 0.7 vs 3.48 ± 0.7 mmol(2) /L(2) , P = 0.032) and intact parathyroid hormone (31.9 ± 21.4 vs 23.6 ± 17.7 pmol/L, P = 0.004) were higher on pantoprazole.   These results demonstrate clinical evidence for an adverse effect of gastric acid suppression on the effectiveness of calcium carbonate phosphate binders. Given their frequent co-prescription, this interaction may be a minor but common reason why some patients fail to control hyperphosphataemia. Clinicians should regularly assess the need for acid suppressants. Further studies are needed to investigate interactions with other phosphate binders. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. Clinician beliefs and attitudes about home haemodialysis: a multinational interview study

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Allison; Palmer, Suetonia; Manns, Braden; Craig, Jonathan C; Ruospo, Marinella; Gargano, Letizia; Johnson, David W; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Olsson, Måns; Fishbane, Steven; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore clinician beliefs and attitudes about home haemodialysis in global regions where the prevalence of home haemodialysis is low, and to identify barriers to developing home haemodialysis services and possible strategies to increase acceptance and uptake of home haemodialysis. Design Semistructured interviews, thematic analysis. Setting 15 dialysis centres in Italy, Portugal, France, Germany, Sweden and Argentina. Participants 28 nephrologists and 14 nurses caring for patients receiving in-centre haemodialysis. Results We identified four major themes as being central to clinician beliefs about home haemodialysis in regions without established services: external structural barriers (ready access to dialysis centres, inadequate housing conditions, unstable economic environment); dialysis centre characteristics (availability of alternative treatments, competing service priorities, commercial interests); clinician responsibility and motivation (preserving safety and security, lack of awareness, knowledge and experience, potential to offer lifestyle benefits, professional interest and advancement); and cultural apprehension (an unrelenting imposition, carer burden, attachment to professional healthcare provision, limited awareness). Conclusions Despite recognising the potential benefits of home haemodialysis, clinicians practicing in Europe and South America felt apprehensive and doubted the feasibility of home haemodialysis programmes. Programmes that provide clinicians with direct experience of home haemodialysis could increase acceptance and motivation for home-based haemodialysis, as might service prioritisation and funding models that favour home haemodialysis. PMID:23242245

  17. Clinical and patient‐reported outcomes of Chinese patients undergoing haemodialysis in hospital or in the community: A 1‐year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Eric YF; Choi, Edmond PH; Wong, Carlos KH; Chan, Anca KC; Chan, Karina HY; Li, Philip KT; Lam, Cindy LK

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim Little is known about the effect of haemodialysis (HD) setting on outcomes of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). The study aimed at comparing clinical outcomes and patient‐reported outcomes (PRO) of patients on community‐based (CBHD) and hospital‐based haemodialysis (HBHD). Methods A prospective cohort of Chinese ESRD patients receiving HBHD (n = 89) or CBHD (n = 117) in Hong Kong were followed up for 12 months. Subjects were assessed on clinical outcomes of dialysis adequacy (Kt/V) and blood haemoglobin and PRO of health‐related quality of life (SF‐12v2), general health condition (Global Rating Scale (GRS)) and confidence to cope with their illness (Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI)). Differences between groups were analyzed by independent t‐tests for the SF‐12v2, GRS and PEI scores. χ2 tests were used to analyze the difference in proportion of patients reaching the targets of Kt/V and blood haemoglobin and with GRS > 0 and PEI > 0. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed to assess the adjusted difference‐in‐difference estimation. Results The mean PEI and GRS scores of CBHD patients at 12 months were significantly higher than those of HBHD patients. CBHD patients had significantly greater improvement in self‐efficacy and were more likely to be enabled after 12 months than the HBHD patients. Conclusion The study showed similar clinical outcomes and PRO between CBHD and HBHD but CBHD was more effective than HBHD in promoting patient enablement over a 12‐month period. The results suggest added value for patients receiving CBHD and support the transfer of HD care from the hospital to the community. PMID:26616825

  18. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in chronic renal failure patients under haemodialysis in Porto Alegre, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jayme Eduardo; Mosmann, Camila Borges; Bau, Renata; Rosito, Guido Aranha

    2012-06-01

    The most common cause of chronic renal failure (CRF) among patients who are starting on dialysis in developed countries is diabetes mellitus (DM), with growing rates approaching 50%. In Brazil, the available data indicate a lower prevalence, around 27%, even though it is also increasing. To estimate the prevalence of DM in the adult population of patients on hemodialysis for CRF in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative and analytical survey study on the prevalence of DM among the 1,288 patients on hemodialysis (HD) in all the 15 clinics in the city from June to July, 2009. 488 diabetic patients were identified, a prevalence of 37.9%, ranging from 21 - 75% in the different clinics of the city. The prevalence of DM among chronic HD patients in Porto Alegre is higher than what was previously published as a cause of CRF in the country, which indicates the possibility that this etiology of CRF may have been underestimated.

  19. Intestinal Barrier Disturbances in Haemodialysis Patients: Mechanisms, Consequences, and Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    Graham-Brown, M. P. M.; Burton, J. O.

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the intestinal barrier and the microbiota may play a role in the systemic inflammation present in HD patients. HD patients are subject to a number of unique factors, some related to the HD process and others simply to the uraemic milieu but with common characteristic that they can both alter the intestinal barrier and the microbiota. This review is intended to provide an overview of the current methods for measuring such changes in HD patients, the mechanisms behind these changes, and potential strategies that may mitigate these modifications. Lastly, intradialytic exercise is an increasingly employed intervention in HD patients; however the potential implications that this may have for the intestinal barrier are not known; therefore future research directions are also covered. PMID:28194419

  20. Use of telemedicine for haemodialysis: perceptions of patients and health-care providers, and clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Pamela; Buis, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    In Michigan, the use of telemedicine for dialysis patients began in three centres in 2005. A total of 747 clinical consultations was conducted in the following 22 months. Telephone surveys were conducted with 34 patients and four providers. The patients and providers all had positive perceptions of the telemedicine system and the care that was delivered. Most of the clinical measures of the patients met or exceeded the recommendations made by Renal Network 11. In addition to the clinical work, the telemedicine equipment was used for educational events. Twenty-six professional educational events were provided with a total audience of 105 individuals, and 35 administrative meetings were provided with 286 staff members in attendance. The study showed that patients and providers could participate in educational events that might not be available locally. Despite the success of dialysis telemedicine, the Marquette General Health System discontinued its use in 2007 when the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services re-affirmed that dialysis centres were not approved sites for telemedicine.

  1. Lipoprotein(a) concentrations, apolipoprotein(a) isoforms and clinical endpoints in haemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from the 4D Study.

    PubMed

    Kollerits, Barbara; Drechsler, Christiane; Krane, Vera; Lamina, Claudia; März, Winfried; Dieplinger, Hans; Ritz, Eberhard; Wanner, Christoph; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-11-01

    High lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations and low molecular weight (LMW) apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] isoforms are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population. We examined the association of both with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular endpoints in haemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus. This is a post hoc analysis of the prospective 4D Study (German Diabetes Dialysis Study) that evaluated atorvastatin compared with placebo in 1255 haemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (median follow-up 4 years). The association of natural logarithm-transformed Lp(a) concentrations (increment one unit) and apo(a) isoforms with outcomes was analysed by Cox proportional hazards regression. The influence of age (median 66 years) was evaluated by stratified survival analyses. The median baseline Lp(a) concentration was 11.5 mg/dL (IQR 5.0-41.8). A quarter of patients had at least one LMW apo(a) isoform. Increased Lp(a) concentrations were associated with all-cause mortality in the total group [hazard ratio (HR) 1.09 (95% CI 1.03-1.16), P = 0.004]. LMW apo(a) isoforms were only associated with all-cause mortality in patients ≤ 66 years [HR 1.38 (95% CI 1.05-1.80), P = 0.02]. The strongest association for Lp(a) concentrations and LMW apo(a) isoforms was found for death due to infection in patients ≤ 66 years [HR 1.39 (95% CI 1.14-1.71), P = 0.001; HR 2.17 (95% CI 1.26-3.75), P = 0.005]. Lp(a) concentrations were also associated with fatal stroke in patients ≤66 years of age [HR 1.54 (95% CI 1.05-2.24), P = 0.03]. Neither Lp(a) nor LMW apo(a) isoforms were associated with other atherosclerosis-related events. High Lp(a) concentrations and LMW apo(a) isoforms are risk predictors for all-cause mortality and death due to infection in haemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus. These associations are modified by age. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Advancing renal education: hybrid simulation, using simulated patients to enhance realism in haemodialysis education.

    PubMed

    Dunbar-Reid, Kylie; Sinclair, Peter M; Hudson, Denis

    2015-06-01

    Simulation is a well-established and proven teaching method, yet its use in renal education is not widely reported. Criticisms of simulation-based teaching include limited realism and a lack of authentic patient interaction. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of high-fidelity simulation and suggests hybrid simulation as a complementary model to existing simulation programmes. Through the use of a simulated patient, hybrid simulation can improve the authenticity of renal simulation-based education while simultaneously teaching and assessing technologically enframed caring. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  3. A review of patients on methadone maintenance.

    PubMed

    Taj, R; Keenan, E; O'Connor, J J

    1995-01-01

    This study involves a review of 178 patients on a strictly monitored methadone maintenance programme. All patients had a minimum of 9 years of intravenous drug misuse. 35.7% were HIV positive, 55.7% males and 29% females had previous prison sentences. On average patients had undergone 3.26 out-patient and 0.9 in-patient detoxification. 46.1% had attempted rehabilitation in the past. Out of 25,470 urine samples obtained while on the programme, 10.8% were positive for opiates, 19.2% for benzodiazepines, 32.5% for cannabis, 4.92% for alcohol and 2.27% for amphetamines. Long history of misuse, multiple custodial sentences, previous unsuccessful rehabilitation and positive HIV status were associated with acceptance for maintenance. Frequency of urinalysis, and results triggering dose change can effectively reduce illicit drug use.

  4. High cut-off dialysis in chronic haemodialysis patients reduces serum procalcific activity.

    PubMed

    Zickler, Daniel; Willy, Kevin; Girndt, Matthias; Fiedler, Roman; Martus, Peter; Storr, Markus; Schindler, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    Vascular calcification is enhanced in chronic dialysis patients, possibly due to the insufficient removal of various intermediate molecular weight uraemic toxins such as interleukins with conventional membranes. In this study, we assessed the modulation of in vitro vascular calcification with the use of high cut-off (HCO) membranes in chronic dialysis patients. In a PERCI trial, 43 chronic dialysis patients were treated with conventional high-flux and HCO filters for 3 weeks in a randomized order following a 2-period crossover design. After each phase, serum predialysis samples were drawn. Calcifying human coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were incubated with the patient's serum samples. Calcification was assessed with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red staining. In the clinical trial, HCO dialysis reduced the serum levels of the soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) 1 and 2, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R). We therefore investigated the in vitro effects of these mediators on vascular calcification. VSMCs incubated with HCO dialysis serum showed a 26% reduction of ALP with HCO serum compared with high-flux serum. Alizarin was 43% lower after incubation with the HCO serum compared with the high-flux serum. While sIL2R and sTNFR 1 and 2 showed no effects on VSMC calcification, VCAM-1 caused a dose-dependent enhancement of calcification. The use of HCO dialysis membranes in chronic dialysis patients reduces the procalcific effects of serum on VSMC in vitro. The mechanisms of the strong effect of HCO on in vitro calcification are not completely understood. One factor may be lower levels of VCAM-1 in HCO serum samples, since VCAM-1 was able to induce vascular calcification in our experiments. Neither sTNFR 1, sTNFR 2 nor sIL2R enhance vascular calcification in vitro. Regardless of the mechanisms, our results encourage further studies of highly permeable filters in chronic dialysis

  5. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura masking the fatal potential of calciphylaxis in a haemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Lim, Thiam Seong Christopher; Thong, Kah Mean; Zakaria, Nor Fadhlina Binti; Thevandran, Kalaiselvam; Shah, Anim Md

    2016-05-01

    Calciphylaxis on the background of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has never been described. The pathogenesis of calciphylaxis is complex and not fully understood as yet. ITP has a complex pathogenesis that leads to bleeding or thrombotic events. Although ITP is treatable and reversible, calciphylaxis on the other hand, responds poorly to treatment and carries high mortality and morbidity. We present a case of a 56-year-old lady with end-stage renal disease with ITP, who complained of 1-month history of painful necrotic patches over the thighs. Due to delayed diagnosis, the patient deteriorated and passed away despite aggressive multidisciplinary approach. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of the increased thrombotic risk in an end-stage renal failure patient with poor phosphate control and ITP.

  6. Effect of acetate-free biofiltration on the anaemia of haemodialysis patients: a prospective cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Basile, C; Giordano, R; Montanaro, A; De Maio, P D; De Padova, F D; Marangi, A L; Semeraro, A

    2001-09-01

    The discussion about the pathogenesis of renal anaemia, whether it is primarily due to relative erythropoietin (Epo) deficiency or to uraemic inhibition of erythropoiesis, is still open. Although it has so far not been possible to identify or isolate a substance retained in uraemia with a suppressive action directed specifically against red-cell production, dialysis therapy can improve the effect of both residual endogenous Epo and exogenous rHuEpo. To what extent the mode and/or the dose of dialysis influence Epo efficacy is as yet poorly understood. This study was performed as a single-centre trial. The protocol included a run-in period of 4 months followed by a prospective cross-over study including 6 months each of acetate-free biofiltration (AFB) with a high-flux biocompatible membrane and standard bicarbonate dialysis (BD) with a low-flux cellulosic membrane in a random sequence. AFB is a haemodiafiltration technique based on a continuous post-dilution infusion of a sterile isotonic bicarbonate solution. At the start of the run-in period (and for the entire length of the study), rHuEpo administration was withdrawn; patients whose haemoglobin (Hb) levels dropped at a level <8.0 g/dl at one single monthly check, had to be withdrawn from the study. A blood sample was collected every month for the blood gas analysis and for the determination of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, Hb, erythrocyte, reticulocyte, leukocyte and thrombocyte cell counts, mean globular volume and haematocrit. An equilibrated single pool Kt/V(urea)>1.2 was mandatory in both treatment modalities. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin were checked every 3 months. Twenty-three of 137 haemodialysis patients were considered eligible for the trial on the basis of the entry criteria. Of these, 15 volunteered and only 10 completed the study. No significant differences in the haematological indices, in the biochemical parameters assessing

  7. Rationale and design of BISTRO: a randomized controlled trial to determine whether bioimpedance spectroscopy-guided fluid management maintains residual kidney function in incident haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Davies, Simon J; Caskey, Fergus J; Coyle, David; Lindley, Elizabeth; Macdonald, Jamie; Mitra, Sandip; Wilkie, Martin; Davenport, Andrew; Farrington, Ken; Dasgupta, Indranil; Ormandy, Paula; Andronis, Lazaros; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Sim, Julius

    2017-04-26

    Preserved residual kidney function (RKF) and normal fluid status are associated with better patient outcomes in incident haemodialysis patients. The objective of this trial is to determine whether using bioimpedance technology in prescribing the optimal post-dialysis weight can reduce the rate of decline of RKF and potentially improve patient outcomes. 516 pateints commencing haemodialysis, aged >18 with RKF of > 3 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or a urine volume >500 ml per day or per the shorter inter-dialytic period will be consented and enrolled into a pragmatic, open-label, randomized controlled trial. The intervention is incorporation of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BI) determination of normally hydrated weight to set a post-dialysis target weight that limits volume depletion, compared to current standard practice. Clinicians and participants will be blinded to BI measures in the control group and a standardized record capturing management of fluid status will be used in all participants. Primary outcome is preservation of residual kidney function assessed as time to anuria (≤100 ml/day or ≤200 ml urine volume in the short inter-dialytic period). A sample size of 516 was based upon a cumulative incidence of 30% anuria in the control group and 20% in the treatment group and 11% competing risks (death, transplantation) over 10 months, with up to 2 years follow-up. Secondary outcomes include rate of decline in small solute clearance, significant adverse events, hospitalization, loss of vascular access, cardiovascular events and interventions, dialysis efficacy and safety, dialysis-related symptoms and quality of life. Economic evaluation will be carried out to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Analyses will be adjusted for patient characteristics and dialysis unit practice patterns relevant to fluid management. This trial will establish the added value of undertaking BI measures to support clinical management of fluid status and establish the

  8. Effect of stage-based education provided by dedicated dietitians on hyperphosphataemic haemodialysis patients: results from the Nutrition Education for Management of Osteodystrophy randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rizk, R; Karavetian, M; Hiligsmann, M; Evers, S M A A

    2017-03-21

    The Nutrition Education for Management of Osteodystrophy trial showed that stage-based nutrition education by dedicated dietitians surpasses existing practices in Lebanon with respect to lowering serum phosphorus among general haemodialysis patients. The present study explores the effect of nutrition education specifically on hyperphosphataemic patients from this trial. Hyperphosphataemic haemodialysis patients were allocated to a dedicated dietitian (DD), a trained hospital dietitian (THD) and existing practice (EP) protocols. From time-point (t)-0 until t-1 (6 months), the DD group (n = 47) received 15 min of biweekly nutrition education by dedicated dietitians trained on renal nutrition; the THD group (n = 89) received the usual care from trained hospital dietitians; and the EP group (n = 42) received the usual care from untrained hospital dietitians. Patients were followed-up from t-1 until t-2 (6 months). Analyses used two-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Cohen's effect sizes (d). At t-1, phosphataemia significantly decreased in all groups (DD:-0.27 mmol L(-1) ; EP:-0.15 mmol L(-1) ; THD:-0.12 mmol L(-1) ; P < 0.05); the DD protocol had the greatest effect relative to EP (d = -0.35) and THD (d = -0.50). Only the DD group showed more readiness to adhere to a low phosphorus diet at t-1; although, at t-2, this regressed to baseline levels. The malnutrition inflammation score remained stable only in the DD group, whereas the EP and THD groups exhibited a significant increase (DD: 6.74, 6.97 and 7.91; EP: 5.82, 8.69 and 8.13; THD: 5.33, 7.92 and 9.42, at t-0, t-1 and t-2, respectively). The results of the present study suggest that the DD protocol decreases serum phosphorus compared to EP and THD, at the same time as maintaining the nutritional status of hyperphosphataemic haemodialysis patients. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of the DD protocol is recommended. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Fixed dose of long-acting erythropoietic stimulating agents at higher frequency improves appetite, reduces inflammation and corrects anaemia in patients on haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Sheng; Chu, Da-Chen; Chan, Hsiang-Lin; Li, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Chih-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Yu-Wei; Lee, Pui-Ching; Lai, Yen-Ting; Lin, Chih-Ching

    2016-10-01

    Anaemia is an important issue in patients undergoing haemodialysis. We aimed to identify a better dosing schedule of a fixed monthly dose of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on haemodialysis. The CERA dosing schedule included 100 μg once monthly for 2 months, 50 μg twice monthly for 2 months and then 100 μg once monthly for two months. The effectiveness was determined by comparing haematocrit, nutritional status (serum protein and albumin) and inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and Hepcidin) at the beginning of the study with those at the end of the study. Forty-seven out of 67 patients completed the trial. At the end, haematocrit was significantly higher (34.51 vs 33.22%, P=.004), levels of inflammatory markers were significantly lower (TNF-α (30.71 vs 35.67 ng/mL, P=.007), IL-6 (5.12 vs 7.95 ng/mL, P=.033), hepcidin (60.39 vs 74.39 ng/mL, P=.002)), blood glucose levels were significantly lower (112.40 vs 139.02 mg/dL, P=.003) and albumin was significantly higher (4.11 vs 3.98, P=.001). Patients with a better than average response had a lower initial number of red blood cells (3.3 vs 3.6 × 10(6) /mm(3) , P=.025) and a lower IL-1 (3.8 vs 12.9 ng/mL, P=.01). They also had significantly lower blood glucose levels at the end. (91.3 vs 124.0 mg/dL, P=.03). We demonstrate that a fixed monthly dose of CERA at a twice monthly dosing schedule improves nutrition, reduces the inflammation and corrects anaemia in patients on haemodialysis. This finding may provide a new strategy for treating CKD-related anaemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Douglas, Clint; Bonner, Ann

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationships among nurse and work characteristics, job satisfaction, stress, burnout and the work environment of haemodialysis nurses. Haemodialysis nursing is characterised by frequent and intense contact with patients in a complex and intense environment. A cross-sectional online survey of 417 haemodialysis nurses that included nurse and work characteristics, the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure, Index of Work Satisfaction, Nursing Stress Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Haemodialysis nurses reported an acceptable level of job satisfaction and perceived their work environment positively, although high levels of burnout were found. Nurses who were older and had worked in haemodialysis the longest had higher satisfaction levels, experienced less stress and lower levels of burnout than younger nurses. The in-centre type of haemodialysis unit had greater levels of stress and burnout than home training units. Greater satisfaction with the work environment was strongly correlated with job satisfaction, lower job stress and emotional exhaustion. Haemodialysis nurses experienced high levels of burnout even though their work environment was favourable and they had acceptable levels of job satisfaction. Targeted strategies are required to retain and avoid burnout in younger and less experienced nurses in this highly specialised field of nursing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of atenolol in patients with terminal renal failure and influence of haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Flouvat, B; Decourt, S; Aubert, P; Potaux, L; Domart, M; Goupil, A; Baglin, A

    1980-01-01

    1 The pharmacokinetics of atenolol, after 200 mg orally, were studied in 18 patients with terminal renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance less than 5 ml/min), of whom twelve were being treated by chronic dialysis. 2 The peak plasma level, 1.59 +/- 0.43 mg/l, was reached in 4.7 +/- 2.1 h. 3 Without dialysis treatment, the apparent plasma half-life of atenolol was greatly increased (73.4 +/- 28.8 /). During dialysis, it dropped to 7.5 +/- 3.7 h but returned to 51.2 +/- 17.3 h after dialysis. The plasma atenolol plot was a rising slope for a few hours after the end of dialysis. 4 Renal clearance of atenolol was very low (4.6 +/- 1.5 ml/min). 5 Plasma clearance during dialysis was 42.6 +/- 21.3 ml/min for a mean blood flow-rate of 236 +/- 25 ml/min through a cuprophane membrane dialyser. 6 These results suggest that dosage should be modified for these patients. PMID:7378254

  12. Echocardiographic findings in haemodialysis patients according to their state of hydration.

    PubMed

    Cristina Di Gioia, María; Gascuena, Raul; Gallar, Paloma; Cobo, Gabriela; Camacho, Rosa; Acosta, Nuria; Baranyi, Zsofia; Rodriguez, Isabel; Oliet, Aniana; Ortega, Olimpia; Fernandez, Inmaculada; Mon, Carmen; Ortiz, Milagros; Manzano, Mari C; Herrero, Juan C; Martinez, José I; Palma, Joaquín; Vigil, Ana

    Chronic fluid overload is frequent in hemodialysis patients (P) and it associates with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and higher mortality. Moreover, echocardiographic data assessing fluid overload is limited. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between fluid overload measured by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and different echocardiographic parameters. Cross-sectional observational study including 76 stable patients. Dry weight was clinically assessed. BIS and echocardiography were performed. Weekly time-averaged fluid overload (TAFO) and relative fluid overload (FO/ECW) were calculated using BIS measurements. Based on TAFO three groups were defined: A- dehydrated, TAFO <-0.25 L 32 P (42%); B- normohydrated, TAFO between -0.25 and 1.5 l: 26 (34%); C- overhydrated, TAFO>1.5 l: 18 (24%). We found significant correlation between TAFO and left atrial volume index (LAVI) (r: 0.29; p=0.013) but not with FO/ECW (r 0.06; p=0.61). TAFO, but not FO/ECW kept a significant relationship with LAVI (p=0.03) using One-Way ANOVA test and linear regression methods. LVH was present in 73.7% (concentric 63.2%, eccentric in 10.5%). No differences between groups in the presence of LVH or left ventricular mass index were found. We found that left atrial volume index determined by echocardiographic Area-length method, but not left ventricle hypertrophy or dimensions of cavities, are related on hydration status based on bioimpedance measured time-averaged fluid overload (TAFO), and not with FO/ECW. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. An exploration of the relationship between adherence with dietary sodium restrictions and health beliefs regarding these restrictions in Irish patients receiving haemodialysis for end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Ella; Lehane, Elaine

    2011-02-01

    To measure adherence levels with dietary restrictions in Irish patients with end-stage renal disease receiving haemodialysis and to explore the relationships between adherence with dietary sodium restrictions and health beliefs in relation to following these restrictions in this group. Non-adherence to medical regimes is an important healthcare issue and an ever-present problem, particularly in patients with a chronic illness. The literature revealed a lack of studies measuring adherence with the sodium component of the renal dietary restrictions and associated factors; despite the fact that adherence with sodium restrictions is essential to the optimal management of end-stage renal disease. Furthermore, despite increased emphasis on 'the patients' view' in healthcare no study to date has contextualised health beliefs and adherence in end-stage renal disease from an Irish perspective. A quantitative, descriptive, correlational design was employed using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework. A convenience sample (n = 79) was recruited from the haemodialysis units of a large hospital. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. Data were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Non-adherence with dietary restrictions was a problem among a proportion of the sample. Greater adherence levels with dietary sodium restrictions were associated with greater 'perceived benefits' and fewer 'perceived barriers.' For the Irish patient, beliefs in relation to following a low sodium diet significantly affected adherence levels with this diet. This is an important finding as delineating key beliefs, particularly key barriers, facilitates an increased understanding of non-adherence for nurses. These findings have implications for the care of patients with end-stage renal disease in that they can provide guidance in terms of developing interventions designed to improve adherence. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Impact of Uraemic Pruritus on Quality of Life among End Stage Renal Disease Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed K.; Elshahid, Ahmed R.; El Baz, Tarek Z.; Elazab, Raed M.; Elhoseiny, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Uraemic pruritus is significant complication in (ESRD) patients and substantially impairs their quality of life (QOL). ESRD is a bothersome problem with attempts being made to increase the survival of patients on dialysis. Aim An attempt was made to compare the QOL of haemodialysis patients and suffering from uraemic pruritus with the QOL of those on haemodialysis but with no presenting uraemic pruritus. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the QOL of haemodialysis patients suffering from uraemic pruritus. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to assess the QOL. Haemodialysis patients with pruritus who had completed three months of maintenance haemodialysis (n=100) were enrolled into the study and 100 controls (n=100) on haemodialysis but with no pruritus were further enrolled. Results The QOL of haemodialysis patients with pruritus was found to be significantly impaired (p < 0.05) in comparison to those on haemodialysis with no prutitis, particularly with respect to all the four WHOQOL-BREF domains. Conclusion Quality of life of ESRD patients on dialsysis was siginificantly affected by pruritis. PMID:27134981

  15. Aggression on haemodialysis units: a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julia; Nijman, Henk; Ross, Jamie; Ashman, Neil; Callaghan, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Aggression on haemodialysis units is a growing problem internationally that has received little research attention to date. Aggressive behaviour by patients or their relatives can compromise the safety and well-being of staff and other patients sharing a haemodialysis session. The objectives of the study were twofold: First, to identify the prevalance and nature of aggression on haemodialysis units; and second, to investigate factors that contribute to aggressive behaviour on haemodialysis units. A cross-sectional, sequential mixed method research design was adopted, with two research methods utilised. Incidents of aggressive behaviour were recorded over a 12-month period, using a renal version of the Staff Observation Aggression Scale. Six months after the incident data collection had commenced, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 29 multidisciplinary members of staff. Over 12 months, 74 aggressive incidents were recorded. The majority of incidents involved verbal aggression, and the perpetrators were a minority of patients, relatives and staff. Two patients were responsible for 38% of all incidents; both patients had mental health problems. Distinct temporal patterns to the aggressive behaviour were observed according to the day of the week and time of day. This study demonstrates that aggression is a significant problem on haemodialysis units, with verbal aggression most prevalent. The temporal patterns to aggression observed are related to the uniqueness of the haemodialysis setting, with a distinctly different treatment environment compared with other healthcare settings. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  16. Vascular calcification in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mi; Wang, Mei; Gan, Liang-Ying; Li, Si-Jun; Hong, Nan; Zhang, Meng

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the status of vascular calcification, and to explore factors influencing vascular calcification in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Vascular calcification was quantitatively evaluated using radiographic films of the abdomen, pelvis and hands. Plasma fetuin-A and other parameters related to calcification were examined. 33/50 cases of vascular calcification were identified by radiographic film. Calcifications of the abdominal aorta and peripheral muscular arteries were seen in 90.9 and 36.4%. Patients with moderate to severe calcification were older, more likely to be male, had lower diastolic blood pressure and fetuin-A levels, and a higher incidence of diabetes than those with mild calcification. Logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes and plasma fetuin-A were independent risk factors for vascular calcification. Vascular calcification was present in a large proportion of maintenance hemodialysis patients, most frequently in the abdominal aorta. Diabetes and plasma fetuin-A levels were independent risk factors for vascular calcification in maintenance hemodialysis patients. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Maintaining residual renal function in patients on haemodialysis: 5-year experience using a progressively increasing dialysis regimen.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lucas, Milagros; Teruel-Briones, José L; Gomis-Couto, Antonio; Villacorta-Pérez, Javier; Quereda-Rodríguez-Navarro, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, those on periodical haemodialysis (HD) do not receive programmed progressive increases in dialysis dosage, nor is residual renal function taken into account in the calculation of the total dialysis prescription; rather, only dialyser clearance is factored into the equation. In 2006, we decided to establish a progressively increasing dialysis regimen at the start of renal replacement therapy, evaluating the possibility of starting with 2 sessions of HD/week when renal clearance of urea was equal to or greater than 2.5 ml/min. This study summarises our experience during the first 5 years of application of this progressively increasing HD prescription and its repercussions on residual renal function. We included all patients who started periodical HD between 1/1/2006 and 30/9/2010 and remained on dialysis for more than three months. The follow-up period ended on 31/12/2010 (study end date). When a patient started HD, urea and creatinine clearance levels were measured based on urea and creatinine concentrations in blood samples taken before dialysis and in urine samples taken 24 hours prior to starting the first dialysis session of the week. If urea clearance was equal to or greater than 2.5 ml/min, 2 sessions of HD per week were applied, as long as the patient's clinical situation allowed for it (according to the criteria of the attending physician). Residual renal function was analysed every 2 months until diuresis was less than 100ml/day, which is considered to be basically null. We evaluated the decrease in residual renal function, calculating the rate of decrease in glomerular filtration (ml/min/month) and 24-hour diuresis (ml/month) in patients receiving 2 and 3 HD sessions per week. In January 2010, we took a cross-sectional sample, evaluating glomerular filtration and how this value was associated with various clinical and laboratory parameters in patients receiving 2 or 3 dialysis sessions per week

  18. The Cost-Effectiveness of Continuous Erythropoiesis Receptor Activator Once Monthly versus Epoetin Thrice Weekly for Anaemia Management in Chronic Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maoujoud, Omar; Ahid, Samir; Dkhissi, Hocein; Oualim, Zouhair; Cherrah, Yahia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) once monthly to epoetin beta (EpoB) thrice weekly to maintain haemoglobin (Hb) within the range 10.5–12 g/dL. Methods. Prospective cohort study and cost-effectiveness analysis. Chronic haemodialysis patients (CHP), being treated with EpoB, were selected for two periods of follow-up: period 1, maintaining prior treatment with EpoB, and period 2, conversion to CERA once monthly. Hb concentrations and costs were measured monthly. Health care payer perspective for one year was adopted. Results. 75 CHP completed the study, with a mean age of 52.9 ± 14.3 years. Baseline Hb was 11.14 ± 1.18 g/dL in EpoB phase and 11.46 ± 0.79 g/dL in CERA phase; we observed a significant increase in the proportion of patients successfully treated (Hb within the recommended range), 65.3% versus 70.7%, p: 0.008, and in the average effectiveness by 4% (0.55 versus 0.59). Average cost-effectiveness ratios were 6013.86 and 5173.64$, with an ICER CERA to EpoB at −6457.5$. Conclusion. Our health economic evaluation of ESA use in haemodialysis patients suggests that the use of CERA is cost-effective compared with EpoB. PMID:26843983

  19. Multicentre study of haemodialysis costs.

    PubMed

    Parra Moncasi, E; Arenas Jiménez, M D; Alonso, M; Martínez, M F; Gámen Pardo, A; Rebollo, P; Ortega Montoliú, T; Martínez Terrer, T; Alvarez-Ude, F

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies to determine the cost of haemodialysis (HD) in Spain have significant limitations: they are outdated or used indirect methods. There is also a lack of analysis performed simultaneously on Public centres (PC), with direct HD services, and partially state-subsidised centres (SC). This is an important issue since the two systems coexist in Spain. To estimate the cost of HD replacement therapy for chronic renal failure in several centres. This is a prospective and publicly-funded study, which estimates the costs for 2008 using a cost accounting system with specific allocation criteria. We collected demographic and comorbidity data for each centre. Six centres participated, two PC and four SC. There were no significant differences between centres in terms of patient demographics, time on haemodialysis and the Charlson comorbidity index. The total cost per patient per year ranged between € 46, 254 and € 33,130. The cost per patient per year (excluding vascular access and hospital admission) for PC was € 42, 547 and € 39, 289 and for SC € 32 872, € 29, 786, € 35, 461 and € 35, 294 (23% more in PC than SC). Costs related to staff/patient/year and consumables/patient/year were 67% and 83% respectively, higher for PC than SC. The highest percentage cost was for staff (average 30.9%), which showed significant variability between centres, both in absolute numbers (staff cost per patient per year between € 18,151 and € 8504) and as a percentage (between 42.6 % and 25.4%). Cost variability exists among different HD centres, and this can be attributed primarily to staff and consumables costs, which is higher for PC than SC.

  20. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis. Methods: A total of 112 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on who were haemodialysis participated in this study. The periapical and the panoramic radiographs for all the patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of the dental pulps and for pulp stones in the pulp chambers and the pulp canals. The panoramic radiographs were also evaluated to determine the carotid calcification. Results: Carotid calcifications were detected in none of the patients. 84 (74.99%) patients had dental pulp narrowing, and 38 (33.92%) patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and Carotid Artery Calcification (CAC) in the haemodialysis patient group. There was also no statistical correlation between pulp stones and CAC in the haemodialysis patients. Conclusion: However, the incidental finding of CAC on a panoramic radiograph can provide life-saving information for the vascular disease patients, but in the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of the pulpal calcification and CAC in the ESRD patients who were on haemodialysis. Therefore, the presence of pulp calcification does not seem to serve as a diagnostic marker for carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:23905147

  1. Creatinine index as a surrogate of lean body mass derived from urea Kt/V, pre-dialysis serum levels and anthropometric characteristics of haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Canaud, Bernard; Granger Vallée, Alexandre; Molinari, Nicolas; Chenine, Leila; Leray-Moragues, Hélène; Rodriguez, Annie; Chalabi, Lotfi; Morena, Marion; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting is common in long-term haemodialysis (HD) patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The creatinine index (CI) is a simple and useful nutritional parameter reflecting the dietary skeletal muscle protein intake and skeletal muscle mass of the patient. Because of the complexity of creatinine kinetic modeling (CKM) to derive CI, we developed a more simplified formula to estimate CI in HD patients. A large database of 549 HD patients followed over more than 20 years including monthly CKM-derived CI values was used to develop a simple equation based on patient demographics, predialysis serum creatinine values and dialysis dose (spKt/V) using mixed regression models. The equation to estimate CI was developed based on age, gender, pre-dialysis serum creatinine concentrations and spKt/V urea. The equation-derived CI correlated strongly with the measured CI using CKM (correlation coefficient  = 0.79, p-value <0.001). The mean error of CI prediction using the equation was 13.47%. Preliminary examples of few typical HD patients have been used to illustrate the clinical relevance and potential usefulness of CI. The elementary equation used to derive CI using demographic parameters, pre-dialysis serum creatinine concentrations and dialysis dose is a simple and accurate surrogate measure for muscle mass estimation. However, the predictive value of the simplified CI assessment method on mortality deserves further evaluation in large cohorts of HD patients.

  2. Measurement of free GH and bioactive IGF-I in non-diabetic haemodialysis patients treated with GH for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Frystyk, Jan; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Johansen, Thue; Lange, Martin; Smidt, Kamille; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2012-11-01

    End-stage renal failure (ESRF) patients demonstrate augmented growth hormone (GH) secretion, but normal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations, indicating a state of GH resistance. To test this hypothesis, we compared the IGF-I response with exogenous GH in haemodialysis patients and healthy controls, with special focus on free GH and bioactive IGF-I. Ultrafiltered free GH and total GH were measured in serum collected hourly for 24 h at baseline and after 7 days of recombinant human (rh) GH (50 µg/kg/day) treatment in 11 non-diabetic haemodialysis patients and 10 matched controls. Serum levels of bioactive IGF-I (determined by cell-based IGF-I receptor activation assay), total IGF-I and the GH-binding protein (GHBP) were assayed twice daily. At baseline, patients showed elevated total GH (24 ± 5 versus 9 ± 1 µg/L × h, P < 0.02), free GH (21 ± 5 versus 7 ± 1 µg/L × h, P < 0.02), reduced GHBP (1.5 ± 0.3 versus 2.5 ± 0.2 nmol/L, P < 0.01), high-normal total IGF-I (173 ± 18 versus 135 ± 14 µg/L, P = 0.12) and subnormal bioactive IGF-I (2.1 ± 0.3 versus 2.8 ± 0.2 µg/L, P < 0.05) when compared with controls. After 7 days of rhGH treatment, there was a greater GH increase in the non-diabetic haemodialysis patients than in controls (total GH: 293 ± 33 versus 166 ± 13 µg/L × h, P < 0.001; free GH: 284 ± 40 versus 126 ± 15 µg/L × h, P < 0.001). GHB remained unaffected and total IGF-I increased to the same extent in patients and controls (701 ± 87 versus 572 ± 33 µg/L, P = 0.17), whereas bioactive IGF-I tended to be lower in patients (5.37 ± 0.55 versus 6.63 ± 0.25 µg/L, P < 0.10). When adjusting for the actual increments in plasma GH, the ability of exogenous GH to stimulate bioactive IGF-I levels was reduced by ~50% in ESRF (P < 0.02), whereas the response of total IGF-I remained normal (74%; P= 0.18) The study demonstrates that ESRF is associated with markedly elevated serum levels of free GH. Furthermore changes in bioactive

  3. Defected red blood cell membranes and direct correlation with the uraemic milieu: the connection with the decreased red blood cell lifespan observed in haemodialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamopoulos, D.; Grapsa, E.; Manios, E.; Gogola, V.; Bakirtzi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Together with impaired production of erythropoietin and iron deficiency, the decreased lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs) is a main factor contributing to the chronic anaemia observed in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Atomic force microscopy is employed in this work to thoroughly survey the membrane of intact RBCs (iRBCs) of HD patients in comparison to those of healthy donors, aiming to obtain direct information on the structural status of RBCs that can be related to their decreased lifespan. We observed that the iRBC membrane of the HD patients is overpopulated with extended circular defects, termed ‘orifices’, that have typical dimension ranging between 0.2 and 1.0 μm. The ‘orifice’ index—that is, the mean population of ‘orifices’ per top membrane surface—exhibits a pronounced relative increase of order 54 ± 12% for the HD patients as compared to healthy donors. Interestingly, for the HD patients, the ‘orifice’ index, which relates to the structural status of the RBC membrane, correlates strongly with urea concentration, which is a basic index of the uraemic milieu. Thus, these results indicate that the uraemic milieu downgrades the structural status of the RBC membrane, possibly triggering biochemical processes that result in their premature elimination from the circulation. This process could decrease the lifespan of RBCs, as observed in HD patients.

  4. Managing multiple chronic conditions in Singapore - Exploring the perspectives and experiences of family caregivers of patients with diabetes and end stage renal disease on haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vanessa Y W; Seah, Wei Ying; Kang, Augustine W C; Khoo, Eric Y H; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Griva, Konstadina

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the commonest cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite increasing DM-ESRD prevalence and high dependency on care, there is a lack of literature on DM-ESRD caregivers. We sought to explore the perspectives and experiences of caregivers of patients with DM undergoing haemodialysis in Singapore. This study employed an exploratory, qualitative design comprising in-depth interviews with caregivers of DM-ESRD patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 20 family caregivers (54.2 ± 12.6 years; 75% female) of DM-ESRD patients. Data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Key caregiving challenges identified were managing diet, care recipients' emotions and mobility dependence. Patients' emotional reactions caused interpersonal conflicts and hindered treatment management. Difficulties in dietary management were linked to patients' erratic appetite, caregivers' lack/poor understanding of the dietary guidelines and caregivers' low perceived competence. Limited resources in terms of social support and finances were also noted. Physical and psychological well-being and employment were adversely affected by caregiving role. This study highlights distinctive aspects of the DM-ESRD caregiving experience, which impact on caregivers' health and challenge care. Disease management programmes should be expanded to support caregivers in dealing with multimorbidity.

  5. Higher serum levels of soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule predict peripheral artery disease in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Hung; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Horng-Rong; Chou, Ming-Chih

    2012-11-01

    Serum levels of soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), are elevated in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, the levels of these cell adhesion molecules in patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) are unclear. A total of 112 HD patients were included and PAD was diagnosed using the ankle-brachial index and Doppler ultrasound. Serum levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and MCP-1 were assayed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Out of 106 HD patients, 31 (27.7%) were diagnosed with PAD. After adjusting for risk factors, higher serum levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with PAD in HD patients, with an odds ratio of 5.3 (95% CI 3.3-65.5) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.2-21.8) respectively. Using sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 for diagnosis of PAD in HD patients, sVCAM-1 had a sensitivity of 72.4% and specificity of 62.3% for sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 had a sensitivity of 89.3% and a specificity of 40%. MCP-1 was not associated with PAD in HD patients. In addition, the fistula of HD patients with PAD had a lower A-V access flow. sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 was associated with higher risk of PAD in HD patients. Moreover, HD patients with PAD had a lower blood flow and lower A-V access flow. Our results showed that sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 may be used as screening markers for PAD in HD patients. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Broadening Options for Long-term Dialysis in the Elderly (BOLDE): differences in quality of life on peritoneal dialysis compared to haemodialysis for older patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Edwina A; Johansson, Lina; Farrington, Ken; Gallagher, Hugh; Sensky, Tom; Gordon, Fabiana; Da Silva-Gane, Maria; Beckett, Nigel; Hickson, Mary

    2010-11-01

    Health-related quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome for older people who are often on dialysis for life. Little is, however, known about differences in QOL on haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in older age groups. Randomising patients to either modality to assess outcomes is not feasible. In this cross-sectional, multi-centred study we conducted QOL assessments (Short Form-12 Mental and Physical Component Summary scales, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale) in 140 people (aged 65 years or older) on PD and HD. The groups were similar in age, gender, time on dialysis, ethnicity, Index of Deprivation (based on postcode), dialysis adequacy, cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Exam and Trail-Making Test B), nutritional status (Subjective Global Assessment) and social networks. There was a higher comorbidity score in the HD group. Regression analyses were undertaken to ascertain which variables significantly influence each QOL assessment. All were influenced by symptom count highlighting that the patient's perception of their symptoms is a critical determinant of their mental and physical well being. Modality was found to be an independent predictor of illness intrusion with greater intrusion felt in those on HD. Overall, in two closely matched demographic groups of older dialysis patients, QOL was similar, if not better, in those on PD. This study strongly supports offering PD to all suitable older people.

  7. Effects of angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with long-term haemodialysis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Kohagura, Kentaro; Komiya, Ichiro; Ueda, Shinichiro; Tokuyama, Kiyoyuki; Shiohira, Yoshiki; Uehara, Hajime; Toma, Shigeki

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for death and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis (HD), but there is uncertainty surrounding the effects of blood pressure (BP) lowering on this high-risk patient group. In a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial, 469 patients with chronic HD and elevated BP (140-199/90-99 mmHg) were assigned to receive the angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) olmesartan (at a dose of 10-40 mg daily; n = 235) or another treatment that does not include angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (n = 234). The primary outcomes were the following: (i) composite of death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization and (ii) all-cause death. During a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, the mean BP was 0.9/0.0 mmHg lower in the olmesartan group than in the control group (not significant). A total of 68 patients (28.9%) in the olmesartan group and 67 patients (28.6%) in the control group had subsequent primary composite endpoints [hazard ratio (HR) in the olmesartan group 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-1.40, P = 0.99]. All-cause deaths occurred in 38 patients (16.2%) in the olmesartan group and 39 (16.7%) in the control group (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.62-1.52, P = 0.91). Olmesartan did not alter the risks of serious adverse events. BP-lowering treatment with an ARB did not significantly lower the risks of major cardiovascular events or death among patients with hypertension on chronic HD. (Cochrane Renal Group Prospective Trial Register number CRG010600030).

  8. Sleep quality predicts quality of life and mortality risk in haemodialysis patients: results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

    PubMed

    Elder, Stacey J; Pisoni, Ronald L; Akizawa, Tadao; Fissell, Rachel; Andreucci, Vittorio E; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Rayner, Hugh C; Furniss, Anna L; Port, Friedrich K; Saran, Rajiv

    2008-03-01

    Poor sleep quality (SQ) affects many haemodialysis (HD) patients and could potentially predict their morbidity, mortality, quality of life (QOL) and patterns of medication use. Data on SQ were collected from 11,351 patients in 308 dialysis units in seven countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) between 1996 and 2001 through a patient self-reported SQ scale, ranging from 0 (worst) to 10 (best). A score of <6 reflected poor SQ. Sleep disturbance was also assessed by self-reported daytime sleepiness, feeling drained and nocturnal awakening. Logistic and multiple linear regression were used to assess predictors of SQ and associations with QOL. Cox regression examined associations with mortality. Analyses accounted for case-mix, facility clustering and country. Nearly half (49%) of patients experienced poor SQ. Mean SQ scores varied by country, ranging from 4.9 in Germany to 6.5 in Japan. Patients with poor SQ were more likely to be prescribed antihistamines, antidepressants, anti-inflammatories, narcotics, gastrointestinal (GI) medications, anti-asthmatics or hypnotics. Physical exercise at least once a week (vs < once a week) was associated with lower odds of poor SQ (AOR = 0.55-0.85, P < 0.05). Poorer SQ was associated with significantly lower mental and physical component summary (MCS/PCS) scores (MCS scores 1.9-13.2 points lower and PCS scores 1.5-7.7 points lower when SQ scores were <10 vs 10). The RR of mortality was 16% higher for HD patients with poor SQ. Poor SQ is common among HD patients in DOPPS countries and is independently associated with several QOL indices, medication use patterns and mortality. Assessment and management of SQ should be an important component of care.

  9. Comparison of resting energy equations and total energy expenditure in haemodialysis patients and body composition measured by multi-frequency bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ben; Sridharan, Sivakumar; Farrington, Ken; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-07-13

    Waste products of metabolism are retained in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Cellular metabolism generates energy, and patients with greater energy expenditure may therefore require more dialysis. To determine the amount of dialysis required, equations estimating resting and total energy expenditure (REE,TEE) are required. We compared estimates of REE in HD patients using established equations with a novel equation recently validated in HD patients (HD equation). TEE was derived from REE (HD equation) and estimates of physical activity obtained by questionnaire. REE and TEE relationships with bioimpedance measured body composition were then determined. We studied 317 HD patients; 195 males (61.5%), 123 diabetic (38.9%), mean age 65.0 ± 15.3 and weight 73.1 ± 16.8 kg. REE from HD Equation was 1509 ± 241 kcal/day, which was greater than for Mifflin St Joer 1384 ± 259, Harris-Benedict 1437 ± 244, Katch-McArdle 1345 ± 232 (all p < 0.05 vs HD Equation), but less than Cunningham 1557 ± 236 kcal/day. Bland Altman mean bias ranged from -263 to 55 kcal/day. TEE was 1727 (1558-1976) kcal/day, and on multi-variable analysis was positively associated with skeletal muscle mass (β 23.3, p < 0.001), employment (β 406.5, p < 0.001), low co-morbidity (β 105.1, p = 0.006), and protein nitrogen appearance (β 2.7, p = 0.015), and negatively with age (β -7.9, p < 0.001), and dialysis vintage (β -121.2, p = 0.002). Most standard equations underestimate REE in HD patients compared to the HD Equation. TEE was greater in those with higher skeletal muscle mass and protein nitrogen appearance, lower co-morbidity, age, and dialysis vintage, and the employed. More metabolically active patients may require greater dialytic clearances. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy balance in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients assessed by a 7-day weighed food diary and a portable armband device.

    PubMed

    Bovio, G; Montagna, G; Brazzo, S; Piazza, V; Segagni, S; Cena, H

    2013-06-01

    Energy balance (EB) is important when assessing nutritional status. EB has never been assessed in haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The present study aimed to assess weekly EB in these patients. This clinical cross-sectional study was conducted for 7 days in eight HD and eight PD patients. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis and biochemical markers. Energy intake (EI per day) and total energy expenditure (TEE per day) were determined by a 7-day weighed food diary and a portable armband device, respectively. No significant differences in age, body mass index, fat free mass (FFM), parathyroid hormone were found between the two groups. EB was calculated by subtracting TEE per day from EI per day. EB was negative in HD {-1347 (1276) kJ day(-1) [-322 (305) kcal day(-1) ]}, as well as in PD patients {-427 (5338) kJ day(-1) [-102 (395) kcal day(-1) ]}. TEE per day was positively correlated with EI per day, prealbumin, FFM. EI per day was positively correlated with prealbumin. C-reactive protein was negatively correlated with TEE and FFM (P < 0.05). EB showed a positive correlation with EI per day (P = 0.012) and a negative trend with TEE. HD and PD patients have a negative EB and are at risk of malnutrition. Inflammatory status determines a lower EI per day and a reduction in TEE per day. The most important parameter in determining EB in HD and PD patients is EI per day. This topic deserves further investigation to better understand the mechanisms of impaired EB with respect to preserving patients' nutritional status. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of combined treatment with acetyl salicylic acid and atorvastatin in haemodialysis patients affected by Normal Weight Obese syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Noce, Annalisa; De Angelis, Sandro; Miani, Natascia; Di Daniele, Nicola; Tozzo, Carmela; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2008-02-01

    Low-grade inflammation is a common feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and persistent systemic inflammation is thought to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. Inflammation plays a role in determining the serum albumin levels in haemodialysis patients (HD) independently of the nutritional status. Increased cardiovascular mortality in CKD has been associated with the increased incidence of obesity in uremic patients. Ingenbleek suggested a prognostic inflammation and nutritional index (PINI), based on serum albumin, pre-albumin, C-reactive protein, and alpha1 acid glycoprotein, to identify and to follow up acutely ill patients at risk of major complications. The aims of the present study were: to verify the incidence of Normal Weight Obese (NWO) syndrome; to evaluate by PINI the effect of 8 weeks acetyl salicylic (100 mg/die) and atorvastatin (10 mg/die) combined treatment on chronic inflammation in 52 selected HD patients. Laboratory evaluation, anthropometric and body composition measurements were detected. At baseline the 56.25% of non-obese, the 84.21% of pre-obese-obese, and the 41.17% of NWO women showed PINI values >1 (normal status PINI<1). After the pharmacological treatment, high significant (P<0.001) reduction in lipid profile, an elevated increase of HDL levels, and a significant reduction of inflammatory markers were obtained. Firstly, our results showed that ASA and atorvastatin combined treatment was effective in reducing inflammatory status in HD patients independently of body composition: at the end of the study only 7.49% of the patients exhibited PINI>1. Further studies will be necessary to understand the causes of inflammation in non-responder patients.

  12. Creatinine Index as a Surrogate of Lean Body Mass Derived from Urea Kt/V, Pre-Dialysis Serum Levels and Anthropometric Characteristics of Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Canaud, Bernard; Granger Vallée, Alexandre; Molinari, Nicolas; Chenine, Leila; Leray-Moragues, Hélène; Rodriguez, Annie; Chalabi, Lotfi; Morena, Marion; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Protein-energy wasting is common in long-term haemodialysis (HD) patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The creatinine index (CI) is a simple and useful nutritional parameter reflecting the dietary skeletal muscle protein intake and skeletal muscle mass of the patient. Because of the complexity of creatinine kinetic modeling (CKM) to derive CI, we developed a more simplified formula to estimate CI in HD patients. Design, Setting, Participants & Measurements A large database of 549 HD patients followed over more than 20 years including monthly CKM-derived CI values was used to develop a simple equation based on patient demographics, predialysis serum creatinine values and dialysis dose (spKt/V) using mixed regression models. Results The equation to estimate CI was developed based on age, gender, pre-dialysis serum creatinine concentrations and spKt/V urea. The equation-derived CI correlated strongly with the measured CI using CKM (correlation coefficient  = 0.79, p-value <0.001). The mean error of CI prediction using the equation was 13.47%. Preliminary examples of few typical HD patients have been used to illustrate the clinical relevance and potential usefulness of CI. Conclusions The elementary equation used to derive CI using demographic parameters, pre-dialysis serum creatinine concentrations and dialysis dose is a simple and accurate surrogate measure for muscle mass estimation. However, the predictive value of the simplified CI assessment method on mortality deserves further evaluation in large cohorts of HD patients. PMID:24671212

  13. Frequency spectrum analysis of finger photoplethysmographic waveform variability during haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Javed, Faizan; Middleton, Paul M; Malouf, Philip; Chan, Gregory S H; Savkin, Andrey V; Lovell, Nigel H; Steel, Elizabeth; Mackie, James

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates the peripheral circulatory and autonomic response to volume withdrawal in haemodialysis based on spectral analysis of photoplethysmographic waveform variability (PPGV). Frequency spectrum analysis was performed on the baseline and pulse amplitude variabilities of the finger infrared photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveform and on heart rate variability extracted from the ECG signal collected from 18 kidney failure patients undergoing haemodialysis. Spectral powers were calculated from the low frequency (LF, 0.04-0.145 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 0.145-0.45 Hz) bands. In eight stable fluid overloaded patients (fluid removal of >2 L) not on alpha blockers, progressive reduction in relative blood volume during haemodialysis resulted in significant increase in LF and HF powers of PPG baseline and amplitude variability (P < 0.01), when expressed in mean-scaled units. The augmentation of LF powers in PPGV during haemodialysis may indicate the recovery and possibly further enhancement of peripheral sympathetic vascular modulation subsequent to volume unloading, whilst the increase in respiratory HF power in PPGV is most likely a sign of preload reduction. Spectral analysis of finger PPGV may provide valuable information on the autonomic vascular response to blood volume reduction in haemodialysis, and can be potentially utilized as a non-invasive tool for assessing peripheral circulatory control during routine dialysis procedure.

  14. Pre-dialysis and post-dialysis hydration status and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and survival in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tangvoraphonkchai, Kamonwan; Davenport, Andrew

    2016-08-19

    Many dialysis centres have no formal program for assessing and adjusting post-haemodialysis (HD) target weight. Apart from clinical assessment, there are bioimpedance devices and natriuretic peptides that could potentially aid clinical management. We wished to determine whether pre- or post-HD bioimpedance assessment of extracellular water (ECW) or N terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) affected patient outcomes. Multi-frequency bioimpedance assessments (MFBIA) were made before and after the midweek dialysis session, along with a post-dialysis NT-proBNP measurement. Data from 362 patients, median age of 63 (50-76) years, 59.7% male, 41.2% Caucasoid, with a median dialysis vintage of 31.4 (13.5-61.7) months were available for review. During a median follow-up of 49.6 (21.9-50.2) months there were 110 (30.4%) deaths. Patients who died had significantly increased ECW, as % over-hydrated both pre-HD 6.6 (5.8-7.6)% vs. survivors 5.1 (4-6.6)%, and post-HD 5.1 (4-6.6)% vs. 0.5 (-1-2.2.0, p<0.001, respectively. They also had higher NT-proBNP 325 (122-791) vs. 102 (48-342) pmol/l, p = 0.002. Using an adjusted Cox model, pre-HD ECW overhydration remained an independent factor associated with mortality (overhydration %: hazard ratio 1.15, 95% limits 1.03-1.28, p = 0.013), with a receiver operator curve (ROC) value of 0.7. ECW excess is associated with increased mortality for HD patients, with ECW excess pre-dialysis being the strongest association, although these patients also had increased ECW post dialysis. Future trials are required to determine whether achieving euvolaemia as determined by bioimpedance improves patient survival.

  15. Extra-anatomical veno-venous surgical bypass for central vein occlusion in patients with ipsilateral arterio-venous fistula (AVF) for haemodialysis - A single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Saravana, K S; Zainal, A A

    2017-02-01

    Central vein occlusion is a common complication related to central vein catheter insertion for haemodialysis which can be unmasked by an ipsilateral fistula creation, leading to a dysfunctional arteriovenous fistula (AVF). We describe an extra-anatomical venous bypass surgical procedure performed to maintain vascular access and reduce the symptoms of swelling of the ipsilateral upper limb, neck and face. We report 20 consecutive patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) who had central vein occlusion and were not amenable to endovascular intervention. They underwent extra-anatomical vein to vein surgical bypass. The axillary and iliac or femoral veins were approached via infraclavicular and extraperitoneal groin incisions respectively. In all the patients, an externally supported 6 or 8 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft was used as a conduit and was tunnelled extra-anatomical. All patients had double antiplatelet (Aspirin and Clopidogrel) therapy post-operatively. Substantial improvement in the facial, neck and upper limb swelling was noticed following this diversion surgery. The vein to vein bypass was patent at 12 months in 10 out of 20 patients. Graft infection occurred in two (10%) cases. Re-thrombectomy or assisted patency procedure (stent/plasty) was done in four (20%) cases. The patients with preoperative fistula flow rate of more than 1500 ml/min and post-operative graft flow rate of more than a 1000 ml/min were patent at 12 months (P=0.025 and p=0.034 respectively). Axillary to iliac/femoral vein bypass can salvage functioning ipsilateral fistula threatened by occluded upper central vein.

  16. Blood lines conduct leakage current during haemodialysis: a potential safety risk during first failure, especially for patients with central dialysis catheter as access.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, P; Eliasson, G; Stegmayr, B G

    2005-11-01

    Haemodialysis (HD) machines are IEC-classified as I type B. When central dialysis catheters (CDCs) are used for access, there will be close electrical contact with the heart. To investigate the risk for HD patients, the leakage of current through the tubing set was measured during in vitro dialysis performed according to the IEC 60601-1 standard for class I cardiac floating (CF) devices. A series of eight measurements were made with Gambro GFS + 12 dialysers, first with saline and then with blood in the blood lines. The leakage current exceeded the CF limit (50 microA) at the top of the CDC using the test 'mains on applied part' for saline (median 1008 microA, range 720-1241 microA), for blood (median 610 microA, range 449-772 microA) and also for a 'single fault condition' using saline (median 68 microA, range 35-118 microA) or blood (47 microA, range 4-128 microA). In the single fault condition, the highest leakage current at the CDC (128 microA) almost exceeded the earth leakage current in normal conditions. A safety risk can appear if a single fault arises in the dialysis machine or another device connected to the same patient, or during 'mains contact to the patient'. Then the current flow may be high enough to induce arrhythmias in the patient, especially when a CDC is used. These data and the use of CDCs as access for dialysis indicate that HD machines should be classified as cardiac floating rather than body (B) devices.

  17. Relationship between the course of depression symptoms and the left ventricular mass index and left ventricular filling pressure in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Park, Chan S; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Yeol; Hong, Tai Y; Kim, Dai J; Pae, Chi-Un; Song, Ho C; Kim, Yong-Soo; Choi, Euy J

    2011-02-01

    Multiple measurements of depression symptoms over time were more predictive of cardiovascular mortality than a single time measurement performed at baseline. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of the course of depression symptoms, based on repeated assessments of depression symptoms over time, with left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) in patients on haemodialysis (HD). The level of depression symptoms in 61 patients on HD were prospectively assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline and at three intervals (5, 10, 15 months). Doppler echocardiographic examinations were performed at the end of follow up. At the end of follow up, the patients were divided into three groups according to their course of depression symptoms: non-depression (n = 21), intermittent depression (n = 23) and persistent depression (n = 17). LVMI and LVFP were significantly increased in the persistent depression symptoms group compared to those of the non-depression symptoms group and the intermittent depression symptoms group. Persistent depression symptoms were independently associated with LVMI (β-coefficient = 0.347, P = 0.017) and LVFP (β-coefficient = 0.274, P = 0.048) after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, diabetes and interdialytic weight gain. In our study, persistent depression symptoms were associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Our data may provide a more complete understanding of cardiovascular risk associated with depression symptoms in patients on HD. © 2010 The Authors. Nephrology © 2010 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  18. Three-month variation of plasma pentraxin 3 compared with C-reactive protein, albumin and homocysteine levels in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sjöberg, Bodil; Snaedal, Sunna; Stenvinkel, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Heimbürger, Olof; Bárány, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammatory markers vary considerably over time in haemodialysis (HD) patients, yet the variability is poorly defined. The aim of the study was to assess changes of plasma levels of pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin and homocysteine (Hcy) over 3 months and the association between the changes in these biomarkers and mortality. Methods In 188 prevalent HD patients, inflammatory markers were measured at inclusion and after 3 months. Mortality was recorded during a median follow-up of 41 months. The changes of the biomarker levels were categorized according to change in tertile for the specific biomarker. The variation was calculated as the intra-class correlation (ICC). Mortality was analysed by Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards model. The predictive strength was calculated for single measurements and for the variation of each inflammatory marker. Results The intra-individual variation (low ICC) was largest for PTX-3 [ICC 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33–0.55], albumin (ICC 0.58; 95% CI: 0.49–0.67) and CRP (ICC 0.59; 95% CI: 0.51–0.68) and lowest for Hcy (ICC 0.81; 95% CI: 0.77–0.86). During follow-up, 88 patients died. Conclusions PTX-3 measurements are less stable and show higher variation within patients than CRP, albumin and Hcy. Persistently elevated PTX-3 levels are associated with high mortality. Moreover, in multivariate logistic regression we found that stable high PTX-3 adds to the mortality risk, even after inclusion of clinical factors and the three other biomarkers. The associations of decreasing albumin levels as well as low Hcy levels with worse outcome reflect protein-energy wasting. PMID:25852911

  19. Influence of post haemodialysis sampling on Kt/V result.

    PubMed

    Gago, C; Marco, B; Fernández, J; Piña, M D; Gálvez, C; González, A; Martínez, S; Hernando, P; Gruss, E

    2000-01-01

    The recommended Kt/V is 1.2. Unfortunately there is no written policy for nurses on the procedure for taking blood urea nitrogen samples post haemodialysis. The aim of this study was to establish the Kt/V variability of haemodialysis patients depending on the method of collection of post-haemodialysis blood urea nitrogen. Twenty-two patients were analysed. A Kt/V was performed every 15 days during a period of 2 months. It was taken five times on each patient: 30 minutes before the end of a haemodialysis session (Kt/V30), at the end of haemodialysis (Kt/V1), after slowing flows (50 ml/min) for 2 minutes (Kt/V2) and after the blood circuit had been returned to the patient at 5 and 15 minutes respectively. (Kt/V5, Kt/V15). The Kt/V results were: Kt/V1 1.23 +/- 0.2 Vs Kt/V2 1.14 +/- 0.19 (p < 0.003); Kt/V5- 1.05 +/- 0.19 (p < 0.002 Vs Kt/V2); Kt/V15 1 +/- 0.16 (p < 0.05 Vs Kt/V5); Kt/V30 1.12 +/- 0.21 (pNS Vs Kt/V2). In conclusion, there was a large variability in the Kt/V depending on the method of collection of the blood urea nitrogen sample post-haemodialysis.

  20. Improving distress in dialysis (iDiD): a feasibility two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of an online cognitive behavioural therapy intervention with and without therapist-led telephone support for psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Joanna L; Moss-Morris, Rona; Game, David; Carroll, Amy; McCrone, Paul; Hotopf, Matthew; Yardley, Lucy; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psychological distress is common in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is associated with poorer health outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended in UK clinical guidelines for the management of depression in people with long-term conditions. Access to skilled therapists competent in managing the competing mental and physical health demands of ESKD is limited. Online CBT treatments tailored to the needs of the ESKD population offers a pragmatic solution for under-resourced services. This study examines the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of online CBT with (intervention arm) and without (control arm) therapist support to improve psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Methods Patients will be screened for depression and anxiety while attending for their haemodialysis treatments. We aim to recruit 60 adult patients undergoing haemodialysis who meet criteria for mild to moderately severe symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. Patients will be randomised individually (using a 1:1 computerised sequence ratio) to either online CBT with therapist telephone support (intervention arm), or online CBT with no therapist (control arm). Outcomes include feasibility and acceptability descriptive data on rates of recruitment, randomisation, retention and treatment adherence. Self-report outcomes include measures of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7), quality of life (Euro-QoL), service use (client service receipt inventory) and illness cognitions (brief illness perception questionnaire). A qualitative process evaluation will also be conducted. The statistician will be blinded to treatment allocation. Ethics and dissemination A National Health Service (NHS) research ethics committee approved the study. Data from this study will provide essential information for the design and testing of further interventions to

  1. Quality of Life in Patients with NSCLC Receiving Maintenance Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rittmeyer, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the past few years many trials have evaluated the use of maintenance therapy in the treatment of NSCLC stage IV. Both switch as well as continuation maintenance show an improved PFS and overall survival. HRQoL data was only partially published. The aim of this article is to review the published effects of maintenance therapy on HRQoL. Methods: Two PubMed searches were performed using the terms: “maintenance therapy and NSCLC” and “maintenance therapy and NSCLC and HRQoL”. The published data was compared, analysed and evaluated. Results: 272 articles were found dealing with maintenance therapy, and of these 85 articles were found regarding maintenance therapy and HRQoL in NSCLC. Maintenance therapy showed no negative impact on HRQoL but failed to show a real benefit. Some symptoms showed positive trends during maintenance therapy. HRQoL can be used to select patients for maintenance therapy. Conclusions: Maintenance therapy is very safe, improves PFS and OS without impairing HRQoL. Although a positive impact on general QoL could not be demonstrated this is possibly due to the mode of evaluating HRQoL. Patient reported outcomes should be simplified and examined for a longer period of time. PMID:26035509

  2. The Diet and Haemodialysis Dyad: Three Eras, Four Open Questions and Four Paradoxes. A Narrative Review, Towards a Personalized, Patient-Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Moio, Maria Rita; Fois, Antioco; Sofronie, Andreea; Gendrot, Lurlinys; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; D’Alessandro, Claudia; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2017-01-01

    The history of dialysis and diet can be viewed as a series of battles waged against potential threats to patients’ lives. In the early years of dialysis, potassium was identified as “the killer”, and the lists patients were given of forbidden foods included most plant-derived nourishment. As soon as dialysis became more efficient and survival increased, hyperphosphatemia, was identified as the enemy, generating an even longer list of banned aliments. Conversely, the “third era” finds us combating protein-energy wasting. This review discusses four questions and four paradoxes, regarding the diet-dialysis dyad: are the “magic numbers” of nutritional requirements (calories: 30–35 kcal/kg; proteins > 1.2 g/kg) still valid? Are the guidelines based on the metabolic needs of patients on “conventional” thrice-weekly bicarbonate dialysis applicable to different dialysis schedules, including daily dialysis or haemodiafiltration? The quantity of phosphate and potassium contained in processed and preserved foods may be significantly different from those in untreated foods: what are we eating? Is malnutrition one condition or a combination of conditions? The paradoxes: obesity is associated with higher survival in dialysis, losing weight is associated with mortality, but high BMI is a contraindication for kidney transplantation; it is difficult to limit phosphate intake when a patient is on a high-protein diet, such as the ones usually prescribed on dialysis; low serum albumin is associated with low dialysis efficiency and reduced survival, but on haemodiafiltration, high efficiency is coupled with albumin losses; banning plant derived food may limit consumption of “vascular healthy” food in a vulnerable population. Tailored approaches and agreed practices are needed so that we can identify attainable goals and pursue them in our fragile haemodialysis populations. PMID:28394304

  3. Standardised outcomes in nephrology - Haemodialysis (SONG-HD): study protocol for establishing a core outcome set in haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Wheeler, David C; Tugwell, Peter; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; van Biesen, Wim; Crowe, Sally; Kerr, Peter G; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Howard, Kirsten; Pollock, Carol; Hawley, Carmel M; Johnson, David W; McDonald, Stephen P; Gallagher, Martin P; Urquhart-Secord, Rachel; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-08-19

    Chronic kidney disease is a significant contributor to mortality and morbidity worldwide, and the number of people who require dialysis or transplantation continues to increase. People on dialysis are 15 times more likely to die than the general population. Dialysis is also costly, intrusive, and time-consuming and imposes an enormous burden on patients and their families. This escalating problem has spurred a proliferation of trials in dialysis, yet health and quality of life remain poor. The reasons for this are complex and varied but are attributable in part to problems in the design and reporting of studies, particularly outcome selection. Problems related to outcomes include use of unvalidated surrogates, outcomes of little or no relevance to patients, highly variable outcome selection limiting comparability across studies, and bias in reporting outcomes. The aim of the Standardised Outcomes in Nephrology-Haemodialysis (SONG-HD) study is to establish a core outcome set for haemodialysis trials, to improve the quality of reporting, and the relevance of trials conducted in people on haemodialysis. SONG-HD is a five-phase project that includes the following: a systematic review to identify outcomes that have been reported in haemodialysis systematic reviews and trials; nominal group technique with patients and caregivers to identify, rank, and describe reasons for their choices; qualitative stakeholder interviews with patients, caregivers, clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to elicit individual values and perspectives on outcomes for haemodialysis trials; a three-round Delphi survey with stakeholder groups to distil and generate a prioritised list of core outcomes; and a consensus workshop to establish a core outcome set for haemodialysis trials. Establishing a core outcome set to be consistently measured and reported in haemodialysis trials will improve the integrity, transparency, usability, and contribution of research relevant to patients requiring

  4. Rationale and design of the HEALTHY-CATH trial: a randomised controlled trial of Heparin versus EthAnol Lock THerapY for the prevention of Catheter Associated infecTion in Haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Broom, Jennifer K; O'Shea, Stacey; Govindarajulu, Sridevi; Playford, E Geoffrey; Hawley, Carmel M; Isbel, Nicole M; Campbell, Scott B; Mudge, David W; Carpenter, Sally; Johnson, Barbara C; Underwood, Neil P; Johnson, David W

    2009-08-20

    Catheter-related bacteraemias (CRBs) contribute significantly to morbidity, mortality and health care costs in dialysis populations. Despite international guidelines recommending avoidance of catheters for haemodialysis access, hospital admissions for CRBs have doubled in the last decade. The primary aim of the study is to determine whether weekly instillation of 70% ethanol prevents CRBs compared with standard heparin saline. The study will follow a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled design. Inclusion criteria are adult patients with incident or prevalent tunneled intravenous dialysis catheters on three times weekly haemodialysis, with no current evidence of catheter infection and no personal, cultural or religious objection to ethanol use, who are on adequate contraception and are able to give informed consent. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive 3 mL of intravenous-grade 70% ethanol into each lumen of the catheter once a week and standard heparin locks for other dialysis days, or to receive heparin locks only. The primary outcome measure will be time to the first episode of CRB, which will be defined using standard objective criteria. Secondary outcomes will include adverse reactions, incidence of CRB caused by different pathogens, time to infection-related catheter removal, time to exit site infections and costs. Prospective power calculations indicate that the study will have 80% statistical power to detect a clinically significant increase in median infection-free survival from 200 days to 400 days if 56 patients are recruited into each arm. This investigator-initiated study has been designed to provide evidence to help nephrologists reduce the incidence of CRBs in haemodialysis patients with tunnelled intravenous catheters. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12609000493246.

  5. Correction of 25-OH-vitamin D deficiency improves control of secondary hyperparathyroidism and reduces the inflammation in stable haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ojeda López, Raquel; Esquivias de Motta, Elvira; Carmona, Andrés; García Montemayor, Victoria; Berdud, Isabel; Martín Malo, Alejandro; Aljama García, Pedro

    2017-06-30

    Patients on haemodialysis (HD) have a high prevalence of 25-OH-vitamin D (25-OH-D)deficiency. Secondary hyperparathyroidismis a common condition in these patients, which is very important to control. 25-OH-D is involved in regulating calcium homeostasis. As such, appropriate levels of this vitamin could help to control bone mineral metabolism. To evaluate the effect 25-OH-D repletion in HD patients with 25-OH-D deficiency (<20ng/ml) on the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism and microinflammation status. Prospective observational study in which stable patients on HD with 25-OH-D deficiency (<20ng/ml) were treated with oral calcifediol 0.266mcg/every 2 weeks for three months. Dialysis characteristics, biochemical parameters and drug doses administered were analysed before and after the correction of the deficiency. Forty-five stable HD patients with a mean age of 74.08±12.49 years completed treatment. Twenty-seven patients (60%) achieved 25-OH-D levels above 20ng/ml (23 with levels>30ng/ml and 4 between 20-30ng/ml). Parathyroid hormone levels decreased in 32 of the 45 patients, 23 of which (51%) achieved a>30% decrease from baseline. In terms of concomitant treatment, we observed a significant reduction in the selective vitamin D receptor activator dose, but no changes in calcimimetic or phosphate binders administration. In terms of malnutrition-inflammation status, a decrease in C-reactive protein was noted, although other microinflammation parameters, such as activated monocytes (CD14+/CD16+ and CD 14++/CD16+) were unchanged. No changes were observed in the levels of FGF-23. Correcting 25-OH-D deficiency in HD patients is associated with better secondary hyperparathyroidism control with lower doses of vitamin D analogues, as well as an improvement in inflammatory status. Our results support the recommendation to determine 25-OH-D levels and correct its deficiency in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier

  6. NURSE STAFFING AND RENAL ANAEMIA OUTCOMES IN HAEMODIALYSIS CARE.

    PubMed

    Erlingmark, Julia; Hedström, Mariann; Lindberg, Magnus

    2016-09-01

    Current trends in renal anaemia management place greater emphasis, and thus increased workload, on the role of the nurse in haemodialysis settings. However, there is little evidence that demonstrates the relationship between nurse staffing and patient outcomes. To describe nurse staffing in haemodialysis settings, its relationship with target levels of renal anaemia management and to describe target level achievement for different ways of organising anaemia management. Cross-sectional audit. Forty (out of 78) haemodialysis centres in Sweden reported quality assurance data. The numbers of bedside registered nurses, licensed nurse assistants and patients undergoing haemodialysis during a predefined morning shift; type of anaemia management and achieved target levels of anaemia management. The mean patient:registered nurse ratio was 2.4 and the mean patient:nurse assistant ratio was 12.8. There were no significant relationships between registered nurse staffing and target level achievement. On average, 45.6% of the patients had haemoglobin within the target levels at centres applying nurse-driven anaemia management, compared with 47.3% at physician-driven centres. These cross-sectional data suggest that renal anaemia outcomes are unrelated to the patient:registered nurse ratio. There is, however, room for improvement in renal anaemia management in the units included in this study, particularly the achievement of target levels of haemoglobin and transferrin saturation. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of nurse education on patient-reported foot checks and foot care behaviour of people with diabetes receiving haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Brand, S L; Musgrove, A; Jeffcoate, W J; Lincoln, N B

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether a programme of nurse education increased the frequency with which nurses conducted foot checks on people with diabetes undergoing haemodialysis and to evaluate whether this influenced self-reported foot care behaviour. A non-randomized stepped-wedge design was used to evaluate a nurse education programme implemented in four UK National Health Service dialysis units. People with diabetes undergoing haemodialysis were invited to complete a questionnaire on the frequency of foot examination by health professionals, on the presence of foot problems and on their own foot care behaviour, using the Nottingham Assessment of Functional Foot-care (NAFF). An education session for nurses, including procedures for foot examination, was conducted sequentially in each of four haemodialysis units. The questionnaire was repeated at 2-monthly intervals. The education session resulted in a significant increase in the reported number of foot examinations by nurses (P = 0.007). There was also a significant improvement in reported foot care behaviour (P < 0.001), but this occurred between the first and second 2-monthly assessments and was unrelated to the timing of the intervention. A single education session can improve the routine checking of the feet of people with diabetes undergoing haemodialysis. The administration of the Nottingham Assessment of Functional Foot-care questionnaire was associated with improved self-reported foot care behaviour, reflecting greater awareness of risk in this population. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  8. Elective haemodialysis increases exhaled isoprene.

    PubMed

    Lirk, Philipp; Bodrogi, Florian; Raifer, Hartmann; Greiner, Karin; Ulmer, Hanno; Rieder, Josef

    2003-05-01

    Uraemic odour is a characteristic feature of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, few investigations have been carried out into the composition of exhaled air in ESRD patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). Increases of exhaled isoprene levels by a factor of up to 2.7 following HD have been reported. We attempted to confirm these findings in 50 patients undergoing HD using haemophan (n=23) or polysulphone (n=27) dialysis membranes. Parallel evaluation of ambient air, calorie intake, medication and haemodynamic variables was performed. Samples were analysed using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Significant changes in breath isoprene concentration were observed when comparing patients before [39.14+/-14.96 parts per billion (ppbv)] and after (63.54+/-27.59 ppbv) dialysis (P<0.001). The quotient of values before and after dialysis was 1.84 (SD 1.41). No significant differences in isoprene kinetics were found between the use of haemophan and polysulphone membranes. No significant correlations were observed between isoprene quotients and variations in blood pressure during HD, calorie intake, ingestion of lipid-lowering drugs or serum lipid levels. Isoprene concentration was higher in the exhaled air of patients after HD as compared with values before HD. Large interindividual variability existed in isoprene kinetics. Oxidative stress appears to be an unlikely cause for this rise. An alternative hypothesis is an influence of respiratory variables on isoprene exhalation based upon Henry's law constant. We therefore propose to perform online monitoring of isoprene exhalation by PTR-MS during the HD session to investigate the possible influence of respiratory variables.

  9. Barriers to successful implementation of care in home haemodialysis (BASIC-HHD):1. Study design, methods and rationale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ten years on from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence’ technology appraisal guideline on haemodialysis in 2002; the clinical community is yet to rise to the challenge of providing home haemodialysis (HHD) to 10-15% of the dialysis cohort. The renal registry report, suggests underutilization of a treatment type that has had a lot of research interest and several publications worldwide on its apparent benefit for both physical and mental health of patients. An understanding of the drivers to introducing and sustaining the modality, from organizational, economic, clinical and patient perspectives is fundamental to realizing the full benefits of the therapy with the potential to provide evidence base for effective care models. Through the BASIC-HHD study, we seek to understand the clinical, patient and carer related psychosocial, economic and organisational determinants of successful uptake and maintenance of home haemodialysis and thereby, engage all major stakeholders in the process. Design and methods We have adopted an integrated mixed methodology (convergent, parallel design) for this study. The study arms include a. patient; b. organization; c. carer and d. economic evaluation. The three patient study cohorts (n = 500) include pre-dialysis patients (200), hospital haemodialysis (200) and home haemodialysis patients (100) from geographically distinct NHS sites, across the country and with variable prevalence of home haemodialysis. The pre-dialysis patients will also be prospectively followed up for a period of 12 months from study entry to understand their journey to renal replacement therapy and subsequently, before and after studies will be carried out for a select few who do commence dialysis in the study period. The process will entail quantitative methods and ethnographic interviews of all groups in the study. Data collection will involve clinical and biomarkers, psychosocial quantitative assessments and neuropsychometric

  10. Efficacy and safety of sucroferric oxyhydroxide compared with sevelamer hydrochloride in Japanese haemodialysis patients with hyperphosphataemia: A randomized, open‐label, multicentre, 12‐week phase III study

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Keitaro; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Terao, Akira; Akizawa, Tadao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim We aimed to investigate the non‐inferiority of PA21 (sucroferric oxyhydroxide) to sevelamer hydrochloride (sevelamer) in terms of efficacy and safety in Japanese haemodialysis patients with hyperphosphataemia. Methods In this Phase III, open‐label, multicentre study, 213 haemodialysis patients with hyperphosphataemia were randomized to PA21 or sevelamer treatment for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was adjusted serum phosphorus concentration at the end of treatment; the non‐inferiority of PA21 was confirmed if the upper limit of the two‐sided 95% confidence interval (CI) is ≤0.32 mmol/L. Secondary outcomes were corrected serum calcium and intact‐parathyroid hormone concentrations. Adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were evaluated. Results The adjusted mean serum phosphorus concentration at the end of treatment confirmed the non‐inferiority of PA21 for lowering serum phosphorus compared with sevelamer (1.62 vs 1.72 mmol/L; difference, −0.11 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.20 to −0.02 mmol/L). The mean daily tablet intake was 5.6 ± 2.6 and 18.7 ± 7.1 tablets in the PA21 and sevelamer groups, respectively. The incidences of AEs and ADRs were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion The non‐inferiority of PA21 to sevelamer was confirmed for the treatment of Japanese haemodialysis patients with hyperphosphataemia. PA21 was effective, safe, and well tolerated, while having a considerably lower pill burden than sevelamer. PMID:27496336

  11. Nitric oxide production and blood pressure reduction during haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chien, Ming-Hui; Yang, Kai-Liang; Yu, Chien-Chih; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Wang, I-Kuan; Lim, Paik-Seong; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2014-09-01

    A decrease of systolic blood pressure in excess of 20 mmHg during haemodialysis treatment (IDD) is common for haemodialysis patients. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is symptomatic IDD by definition. Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) is a possible cause of IDD. Dialysate nitrate and nitrite amount can be used as an indicator of intradialysis NO production. Our aim was to find the predictor of NO production in IDD patients. Partial dialysate samples were collected during the whole haemodialysis session and total dialysate nitrate and nitrite amount was measured to assess the association of intradialysis NO production with blood pressure change. There were 31 IDD patients and 71 patients who did not develop IDD (NIDD) included in the study. Among the IDD patients, 13 were IDH patients with a mean systolic blood pressure lower than that of the other 18 symptomless IDD patients (96.6 ± 3.4 mmHg vs 125.0 ± 3.8 mmHg, P<0.001). The median value of NO production was higher in the IDD than in the NIDD patients (447.7 μg vs 238.8 μg, P<0.001). The NO production correlated linearly with blood pressure reduction (R=0.487, P<0.001). The multivariate analysis showed that NO production was positively associated with predialysis systolic blood pressure. Nitric oxide production during haemodialysis was higher in IDD than in NIDD patients. IDH often occurred when systolic blood pressure was reduced to below 100 mmHg. The amount of NO produced during haemodialysis, which may be associated with predialysis systolic blood pressure, can be used to predict intradialysis blood pressure decrease. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  12. The cost-effectiveness of contemporary home haemodialysis modalities compared with facility haemodialysis: a systematic review of full economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachael; Marshall, Mark R; Morton, Rachael L; McFarlane, Philip; Howard, Kirsten

    2014-08-01

    The financial burden of the increasing dialysis population challenges healthcare resources internationally. Home haemodialysis offers many benefits over conventional facility dialysis including superior clinical, patient-centred outcomes and reduced cost. This review updates a previous review, conducted a decade prior, incorporating contemporary home dialysis techniques of frequent and nocturnal dialysis. We sought comparative cost-effectiveness studies of home versus facility haemodialysis (HD) for people with end-stage kidney failure (ESKF). We conducted a systematic review of literature from January 2000-March 2014. Studies were included if they provided comparative information on the costs, health outcomes and cost-effectiveness ratios of home HD and facility HD. We searched medical and health economic databases using MeSH headings and text words for economic evaluation and haemodialysis. Six studies of economic evaluations that compared home to facility HD were identified. Two studies compared home nocturnal HD, one home nocturnal and daily home HD, and three compared contemporary home HD to facility HD. Overall these studies suggest that contemporary home HD modalities are less costly and more effective than facility HD. Home HD start-up costs tend to be higher in the short term, but these are offset by cost savings over the longer term. Contemporaneous dialysis modalities including nocturnal and daily home haemodialysis are cost-effective or cost-saving compared with facility-based haemodialysis. This result is largely driven by lower staff costs, and better health outcomes for survival and quality of life. Expanding the proportion of haemodialysis patients managed at home is likely to produce cost savings. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  13. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations are more deficient/insufficient in peritoneal dialysis than haemodialysis patients in a sunny climate.

    PubMed

    Hanna, K; Fassett, R G; Gill, E; Healy, H; Kimlin, M; Ross, L; Ash, S

    2015-06-01

    Research has identified associations between serum 25(OH)D and a range of clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease and wider populations. The present study aimed to investigate vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in dialysis patients and the relationship with vitamin D intake and sun exposure. A cross-sectional study was used. Participants included 30 peritoneal dialysis (PD) (43.3% male; 56.87 ± 16.16 years) and 26 haemodialysis (HD) (80.8% male; 63.58 ± 15.09 years) patients attending a department of renal medicine. Explanatory variables were usual vitamin D intake from diet/supplements (IU day(-1) ) and sun exposure (min day(-1) ). Vitamin D intake, sun exposure and ethnic background were assessed by questionnaire. Weight, malnutrition status and routine biochemistry were also assessed. Data were collected during usual department visits. The main outcome measure was serum 25(OH)D (nm). Prevalence of inadequate/insufficient vitamin D intake differed between dialysis modality, with 31% and 43% found to be insufficient (<50 nm) and 4% and 33% found to be deficient (<25 nm) in HD and PD patients, respectively (P < 0.001). In HD patients, there was a correlation between diet and supplemental vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D (ρ = 0.84, P < 0.001) and average sun exposure and 25(OH)D (ρ = 0.50, P < 0.02). There were no associations in PD patients. The results remained significant for vitamin D intake after multiple regression, adjusting for age, gender and sun exposure. The results highlight a strong association between vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D in HD but not PD patients, with implications for replacement recommendations. The findings indicate that, even in a sunny climate, many dialysis patients are vitamin D deficient, highlighting the need for exploration of determinants and consequences. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. [Haemodialysis and its impact on the quality of life].

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohamed; Hadj Ammar, Mohamed; Khammouma, Sami; Ben Dhia, Nasr; Ghachem, Anouar

    2008-02-01

    The haemodialysis has considerably transformed the evolution of chronic renal failure which usually has a precarious evolution. However, this palliative treatment disturbed in several manners the universe of the patient. Our purposes were to evaluate the quality of life of patient on haemodialysis and to identify the risk factors that can deteriorate it. Our work was a transversal study realized in four centers of haemodialysis during a period of three months (2004). One hundred and sixty-two patients participated. The quality of life was assessed with a specific scale Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short-Form (KDQDL-SF). A standardization of the initial average scores of SF-36 was realized. The global average score, according to KDQOL-SF, was 55,2. The standardization showed a physical component more alterated than the mental one with respective scores 36,8 and 44,7. The logistic regression permitted us to identify that the quality of life's alteration was correlated with an absent autonomy, a diabetic origin of renal insufficiency, a predialytic serum creatine concentration inferior to 800micromol/l and haemodialysis demographic social features. This clinimetric approach not only precises the more deteriorated sectors through the regard of patient, but also reintroduces its point of view about the treatment permitting a personalization of therapies and consequently a better adhesion.

  15. Haemodialysis practice in a resource-limited setting in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Okunola, Y; Ayodele, O; Akinwusi, P; Gbadegesin, B; Oluyombo, R

    2013-03-01

    To provide information on the challenges of haemodialysis in a resource limited setting in South-Western Nigeria. This is a 5 year audit of all haemodialysis sessions carried out at the renal unit of the Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital (LAUTECH), Osogbo, Nigeria. A total of 225 patients were offered haemodialysis (HD) during this period with age range of 10 to 85 years (mean age of 49 years±16.25). There were 155 males and 70 females (male to female ratio of 2.2:1). Chronic kidney failure accounted for 180 (80%) of the cases while acute kidney injury (AKI) constituted 45 (20%) of the cases offered haemodialysis. The sessions of HD in both cases ranged from 1 to 27 with an average of 3 sessions. Hypotension is still the commonest intradialytic complication at our setting while diabetic nephropathy is rapidly emerging as a major cause of end stage renal disease at our setting requiring HD. As seen in other parts of the tropics sepsis, nephrotoxins and pregnancy related cases still accounted for a large percentage of AKI cases requiring haemodialysis. Only three patients were able to afford haemodialysis support for more than three months. Haemodialysis still remains a veritable option in renal replacement therapy. Problems encountered were similar to many other settings in the tropics. Intensive efforts should still be geared at preventing the risk factors for both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease in our environment.

  16. Economic evaluation of centre haemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in Ministry of Health hospitals, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hooi, Lai Seong; Lim, Teck Onn; Goh, Adrian; Wong, Hin Seng; Tan, Chwee Choon; Ahmad, Ghazali; Morad, Zaki

    2005-02-01

    This is a multi-centre study to determine cost efficiency and cost effectiveness of the Ministry of Health centre haemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) programme. Forty-four haemodialysis and 11 CAPD centres were enrolled in this study in 2001. Sixty patients, 30 from each modality, were evaluated. Micro-costing was used to determine costs. The number of haemodialyses conducted ranged from 402 to 23,000 procedures per year, while for CAPD, output ranged from 70 to 2300 patient months/year. Cost ranged from RM79.61 to RM475.79 per haemodialysis treatment, with a mean cost of RM169 per HD (USD 1 = RM 3.80). The cost of CAPD treatment ranged from RM1400 to RM3200 per patient month, with a mean of RM2186. Both modalities incurred similar outpatient costs. The cost of erythropoeitin per year is RM4500 and RM2500 for haemodialysis and CAPD, respectively. The number of life years saved is 10.96 years for haemodialysis and 5.21 years for CAPD. Cost per life year saved is RM33 642 for haemodialysis and RM31 635 for CAPD. The cost for land, building, equipment, overheads, and staff were higher for haemodialysis, while consumables and hospitalization cost more for CAPD. Sensitivity analysis was performed for two discount rates (3 and 5%), varying erythropoietin doses and maximum and minimum overheads. Relative cost effectiveness of haemodialysis and CAPD was unchanged in all sensitivity scenarios, except for overhead costs, which influenced the cost effectiveness of HD. It is economically viable to promote the use of both CAPD and haemodialysis because the cost effectiveness of both are nearly equal.

  17. The basic needs of children on haemodialysis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ensari, Cüneyt

    2008-04-01

    Haemodialysis treatment can be very tiring and unpleasant, particularly for paediatric patients, families and also for the treatment team. In this study, the basic needs of children on haemodialysis were determined in order to improve the conditions of their therapy environment. The requirements of 20 children and 40 adults, who were on haemodialysis therapy for a minimum of five sessions, were recorded by means of a questionnaire. The majority of children and adults preferred to be treated in separate units. All children and adults stated that they needed a constant transportation facility to be provided by the dialysis unit. All children wanted their parents/relatives to be with them during the dialysis sessions while only a minority of adults required an accompanying relative. The majority of both paediatric and adult patients preferred daytime sessions. The majority of children preferred to have the same nurse to needle their fistula and supervise their therapy session. The health authority should recognize the role of the therapy team, including a paediatric nephrologist, in providing the basic needs and fulfilling the expectations of paediatric haemodialysis patients in order to increase the efficiency of the treatment.

  18. Surgical Options in the Problematic Arteriovenous Haemodialysis Access.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Rachael O; Chemla, Eric S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to review surgical options in problematic arteriovenous haemodialysis access--in particular, to explore and discuss some surgical alternatives to interventional radiology in the case of failing, failed or complicated arteriovenous access. There is copious evidence to support endovascular techniques to treat non-maturation, stenosis, thrombosis and other complications of arteriovenous access. However, there may be times when the surgery-first approach might be a useful adjunct, alternative or even preferable, including the creation or revision of an anastomosis in the forearm, which may yield better patency rates than endovascular intervention. The creation and maintenance of haemodialysis access can be a complex process and the surgeon and the interventional radiologist should work closely together. The distinct roles of the surgeon and the interventional radiologist in the treatment of a problematic arteriovenous access remain debatable and the authors suggest a multidisciplinary team approach when planning treatment of access complications, which may require repeated interventions.

  19. Impact of rapid ultrafiltration rate on changes in the echocardiographic left atrial volume index in patients undergoing haemodialysis: a longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Song, Young Rim; Park, GunHa; Kim, Hyung Jik; Kim, Sung Gyun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Optimal fluid management is essential when caring for a patient on haemodialysis (HD). However, if the fluid removal is too rapid, the resultant higher ultrafiltration rate (UFR) disadvantageously promotes haemodynamic instability and cardiac injury. We evaluated the effects of a rapid UFR on changes in the echocardiographic left atrial volume index (LAVI) over a period of time. Design Longitudinal observational study. Setting and participants A total of 124 new patients on HD. Interventions Echocardiography was performed at baseline and repeated after 19.7 months (range 11.3–23.1 months). Changes in LAVI (ΔLAVI/year, mL/m2/year) were calculated. The UFR was expressed in mL/hour/kg, and we used the mean UFR over 30 days (∼12–13 treatments). Main outcome measures The 75th centile of the ΔLAVI/year distribution was regarded as a ‘pathological’ increment. Results The mean interdialytic weight gain was 1.73±0.94 kg, and the UFR was 8.01±3.87 mL/hour/kg. The significant pathological increment point in ΔLAVI/year was 4.89 mL/m2/year. Correlation analysis showed that ΔLAVI/year was closely related to the baseline blood pressure, haemoglobin level, residual renal function and UFR. According to the receiver operating characteristics curve, the ‘best’ cut-off value of UFR for predicting the pathological increment was 10 mL/hour/kg, with an area under the curve of 0.712. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, a history of coronary artery disease, haemoglobin <10 g/dL and high UFR were significant predictors. An increase of 1 mL/hour/kg in the UFR was associated with a 22% higher risk of a worsening LAVI (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.41). Conclusions An increased haemodynamic load could affect left atrial remodelling in incident patients on HD. Thus, close monitoring and optimal control of UFR are needed. PMID:28148536

  20. Hyponatraemia, mortality and haemodialysis: An unexplained association.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Rafael; Palomares, Inés; Merello, José Ignacio; Ramos, Rosa; Maduell, Francisco; Molina, Manolo; Aljama, Pedro; Marcelli, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    As in the general population, in patients on haemodialysis (HD) hyponatraemia is associated with higher mortality risk. The objective of this article was to study the relationship between predialysis serum sodium (sNa) and mortality in an HD population. We also intended to define hyponatraemia and determine the characteristics of hyponatraemic patients in terms of anthropometric data, analytical features, dialysis measurements and hydration (bioimpedance). Observational, descriptive study of a cohort of HD incident patients. The independent variable was the mean of each patient's sNa analysed during their first 6 months on HD. A total of 4,153 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 64.7 years; 65.2% of the patients were male and 35% were diabetics. Mean follow-up time was 21.48 (SD) (1.31) months. sNa had a normal distribution, with a mean (SD)=138.46 (2.7) mEq/l. Body weight, diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, interdialytic weight gain, total ultrafiltration, serum glucose, albumin and creatinine, vascular access and haemodialysis type, acquire significant differences between sodium quartiles. Lean tissue index (LTI) in patients with low serum sodium, Q1 (135 mEq/l), was significantly lower than the LTI of patients from the other serum sodium quartiles. Patients with sNa<136 mEq/l had a higher independent mortality risk (OR=1.62) (Cox regression analysis). HD patients with hyponatraemia patients have a poor prognosis and present malnutrition or fluid overload. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk-based individualisation of target haemoglobin in haemodialysis patients with renal anaemia in the post-TREAT era: theoretical attitudes versus actual practice patterns (MONITOR-CKD5 study).

    PubMed

    Gesualdo, Loreto; Combe, Christian; Covic, Adrian; Dellanna, Frank; Goldsmith, David; London, Gérard; Mann, Johannes F; Zaoui, Philippe; Turner, Matthew; Muenzberg, Mike; MacDonald, Karen; Abraham, Ivo

    2015-05-01

    Data from an ongoing European pharmacoepidemiological study (MONITOR-CKD5) were used to examine congruence between physician-reported risk-based individualisation of target haemoglobin (Hb) and the actual Hb targets set by these physicians for their patients, as well as actual Hb levels in their patients. Physician investigators participating in the study completed a questionnaire about their anaemia practice patterns and attitudes post-TREAT at the start of the study (T1) and in summer 2013 (T2). These data were compared with the Hb targets identified at baseline for actual patients (n = 1197) enrolled in the study. Risk groups included presence/absence of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular complications, history of stroke, history of cancer, and age/activity level (elderly/inactive or young/active). At each time point, more than three quarters of physicians responded that results from the TREAT study, in patients not on dialysis, have influenced their use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients on haemodialysis. At T1, there was a clear difference in physician-reported (theoretical) target Hb levels for patients across the different risk groups, but there was no difference in patients' actual Hb levels across the risk groups. A similar disparity was noted at T2. Physicians' theoretical attitudes to anaemia management in patients on haemodialysis appear to have been influenced by the results of the TREAT study, which involved patients not on dialysis. Physicians claim to use risk-based target Hb levels to guide renal anaemia care. However, there is discrepancy between these declared risk-based target Hb levels and actual target Hb levels for patients with variable risk factors.

  2. Association between human resources and risk of hospitalisation in end-stage renal disease outpatients receiving haemodialysis: a longitudinal cohort study using claim data during 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon-Hee; Han, Kyu-Tae; Nam, Chung Mo; Moon, Ki Tae; Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objective The number of patients requiring haemodialysis has gradually increased in South Korea. Owing to this growth, concerns have been raised regarding haemodialysis quality of care, and healthcare professionals must consider alternatives for appropriate management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, we investigated the association between risk of hospitalisation of outpatients who received haemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the human resources of the haemodialysis unit. Setting We used data from National Health Insurance (NHI) claims during October 2013 to September 2014. Participants These data comprised 40 543 outpatients with ESRD (4 751 047 outpatient cases) who received haemodialysis. Interventions No interventions were made. Outcome measure We performed Poisson regression analysis using a generalised estimating equation that included both patient and haemodialysis unit characteristics to examine the factors associated with hospitalisation of outpatients with ESRD. Results Among 4 751 047 outpatient cases, 27 997 (0.59%) were hospitalised during the study period. A higher proportion of haemodialysis patient care specialists and a higher number of nurses experienced in haemodialysis were inversely associated with the risk of hospitalisation (per 10% increase in haemodialysis patient care specialists: relative risk (RR)=0.987, 95% CI 0.981 to 0.993; per 10-person increase in nurses who provided haemodialysis: RR=0.876, 95% CI 0.833 to 0.921). In addition, such associations were greater in severe patients. Conclusions Our findings suggest that haemodialysis units with high-quality, haemodialysis-specialised human resources could positively affect the outcomes of outpatients with ESRD. Based on our findings, health policymakers and professionals should implement strategies for the optimal management of patients with CKD. PMID:27534988

  3. Effect of L-carnitine on the kinetics of carnitine, acylcarnitines and butyrobetaine in long-term haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Vernez, Laurence; Dickenmann, Michael; Steiger, Jürg; Wenk, Markus; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2006-02-01

    The current study was performed to investigate the kinetics of carnitine, individual acylcarnitines and butyrobetaine in patients on haemodialysis. Eight stable long-term haemodialysis patients were studied under basal conditions (no carnitine supplementation) and 3 weeks after intravenous supplementation with l-carnitine (10 or 20 mg/kg body weight) after each haemodialysis session. The kinetic studies included serial determinations of carnitine and metabolites just before, during or between haemodialysis sessions. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Before haemodialysis, the plasma concentrations were (micromol/l) 15.1+/-0.6 (mean+/-SEM) for carnitine, 5.9+/-0.7 for acetylcarnitine, 0.66+/-0.04 for propionylcarnitine and 0.98+/-0.08 for butyrobetaine (basal conditions) or 142+/-23 for carnitine, 69+/-12 for acetylcarnitine, 6.0+/-1.1 for propionylcarnitine and 2.6+/-0.3 for butyrobetaine (carnitine 20 mg/kg). During haemodialysis, the plasma concentrations dropped by approximately 80% for all compounds determined, with extraction coefficients ranging from 0.65 to 0.86. In patients supplemented with 20 mg/kg carnitine, the amount of carnitine removed by haemodialysis equalled 42% of the dose administered, consisting of 2.08 mmol carnitine, 1.03 mmol acetylcarnitine and 0.051 mmol propionylcarnitine. Between the haemodialysis sessions, carnitine, acylcarnitines and butyrobetaine reached apparent steady-state concentrations within 1 day both under basal conditions and after supplementation. Patients on haemodialysis have reduced carnitine, acylcarnitine and butyrobetaine plasma levels, which can be increased by supplementing carnitine. Propionylcarnitine, an important constituent of the acylcarnitine pool, can be removed by haemodialysis. Removal of potentially toxic acyl-groups may represent a mechanism for a beneficial effect of carnitine in these patients.

  4. Effect of a quality improvement strategy on several haemodialysis outcomes.

    PubMed

    Parra, Eduardo; Ramos, Rosa; Betriu, Angels; Paniagua, José; Belart, Montse; Martínez, Tomás

    2008-09-01

    Intermediate outcomes are associated with the survival of long-term haemodialysis patients; however, outcome variability across centres may result in heterogeneous quality of care. The study aim was to evaluate a multifaceted quality improvement activity (QIA) targeting several haemodialysis clinical performance measures. A total (prevalent and incident) of 313 patients from four dialysis units were included. The QIA was based on a multifaceted strategy involving collection of haemodialysis clinical performance measures every 6-8 months, feedback about results, improvement plans and benchmarking, and it was tested in a 3-year prospective interventional study. Two timepoints of clinical performance measures were considered for evaluating the QIA: baseline (February 2003, pre-QIA) and final (February 2006, post-QIA). Centres showed significant improvement in percentage of patients with haemoglobin <11 g/dl, mean haemoglobin; percentage of patients with Kt/v <1.2, mean Kt/v; percentage of patients with phosphorous >5.5 mg/dl, mean phosphorous; percentage of patients with calcium phosphate product >55, mean calcium phosphate product; and percentage of patients with ferritin <200 ng/ml, mean ferritin. No change was observed in percentage of patients with haemoglobin between 11 and 13 g/dl, erythropoietin consumed; percentage of patients with ferritin <100 ng/ml; percentage of patients with ferritin >800 ng/ml; percentage of patients with albumin <3.5 g/dl, mean albumin; or percentage of native arteriovenous fistula. The percentage of patients with haemoglobin >13 g/dl was increased. Quality-improvement strategies can help improve haemodialysis performance for anaemia, dialysis dose and bone metabolism. The importance of assessing patients with high haemoglobin level should be stressed.

  5. Paricalcitol versus cinacalcet plus low-dose vitamin D therapy for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving haemodialysis: results of the IMPACT SHPT study

    PubMed Central

    Ketteler, Markus; Martin, Kevin J.; Wolf, Myles; Amdahl, Michael; Cozzolino, Mario; Goldsmith, David; Sharma, Amit; Marx, Steven; Khan, Samina

    2012-01-01

    Background Optimal treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) has not been defined. The IMPACT SHPT (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00977080) study assessed whether dose-titrated paricalcitol plus supplemental cinacalcet only for hypercalcaemia is superior to cinacalcet plus low-dose vitamin D in controlling intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels in patients with SHPT on haemodialysis. Methods In this 28-week, multicentre, open-label Phase 4 study, participants were randomly selected to receive paricalcitol or cinacalcet plus low-dose vitamin D. Randomization and analyses were stratified by mode of paricalcitol administration [intravenous (IV) or oral]. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of subjects who achieved a mean iPTH value of 150–300 pg/mL during Weeks 21–28. Results Of 272 subjects randomized, 268 received one or more dose of study drug; 101 in the IV and 110 in the oral stratum with two or more values during Weeks 21–28 were included in the primary analysis. In the IV stratum, 57.7% of subjects in the paricalcitol versus 32.7% in the cinacalcet group (P = 0.016) achieved the primary end point. In the oral stratum, the corresponding proportions of subjects were 54.4% for paricalcitol and 43.4% for cinacalcet (P = 0.260). Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel analysis, controlling for stratum, revealed overall superiority of paricalcitol (56.0%) over cinacalcet (38.2%; P = 0.010) in achieving iPTH 150–300 pg/mL during Weeks 21–28. Hypercalcaemia occurred in 4 (7.7%) and 0 (0%) of paricalcitol-treated subjects in the IV and oral strata, respectively. Hypocalcaemia occurred in 46.9% and 54.7% of cinacalcet-treated subjects in the IV and oral strata, respectively. Conclusion Paricalcitol versus cinacalcet plus low-dose vitamin D provided superior control of iPTH, with low incidence of hypercalcaemia. PMID:22387567

  6. [Control measures for a VRE outbreak in a haemodialysis unit].

    PubMed

    Diguio, N; Chanet, P; Hautemanière, A; Cao-Huu, T; Hartemann, P; Kessler, M

    2009-06-01

    We report an outbreak of colonization with Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) in the Haemodialysis unit of our hospital. From October 2004 to September 2008, 19 patients were found positive. The risk of acquiring this multi-resistant bacterium is extremely important in patients undergoing haemodialysis, heightened measures have gradually been set to control cross transmissions: first isolation, then geographic clustering of carriers and finally creating cohorting sectors with different staff for carriers, contacts and VRE free patients. This re-organization was supplemented by strengthening procedures for hand hygiene, active screening of patients and enhanced cleaning. Monitoring of the epidemic curve has allowed us to demonstrate the effectiveness of measures introduced. However, deleterious effects were observed in patients whose habits were changed; we could also highlight significant impact on the activity of the unit.

  7. Innovations in agonist maintenance treatment of opioid-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Haasen, Christian; van den Brink, Wim

    2006-11-01

    To provide an overview of published studies on agonist maintenance treatment options for opioid-dependent patients. The recent publication of controlled trials confirms earlier clinical evidence of the efficacy of diamorphine (heroin) in the treatment of opioid dependence. Findings show not only efficacy with respect to improvement of health, reduction of illicit drug use, reduction of criminality and stabilization of social conditions, but also cost effectiveness in the treatment of chronic treatment-resistant heroin addicts. Agonist maintenance treatment has become the first-line treatment for chronic opioid dependence. High-quality studies demonstrate the effectiveness of a growing number of different agonist maintenance treatments for opioid dependence such as methadone and buprenorphine. In addition, there is new evidence for the effectiveness of other agonists, mainly slow-release morphine, intravenous and inhalable diamorphine and possibly oral diamorphine. Maintenance treatment with intravenous or inhalable diamorphine should be implemented into the healthcare system to treat a group of severely dependent treatment-resistant patients. Furthermore, the opioid-dependent patients not under treatment need to be engaged in maintenance treatments through other harm reduction measures. Agonist maintenance treatment is very effective in stabilizing the health condition and social situation, while also reducing harm, thereby increasing life expectancy and quality of life.

  8. Cognitive performance in methadone maintenance patients: Effects of time relative to dosing and maintenance dose level

    PubMed Central

    Rass, Olga; Kleykamp, Bethea A.; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Bigelow, George E.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Strain, Eric; Copersino, Marc L.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.

    2014-01-01

    Given the long-term nature of methadone maintenance treatment, it is important to assess the extent of cognitive side effects. This study investigated cognitive and psychomotor performance in fifty-one methadone maintenance patients (MMP) as a function of time since last methadone dose and maintenance dose level. MMP maintained on doses ranging from 40 to 200 mg (Mean = 97 mg) completed a battery of psychomotor and cognitive measures across two sessions, during peak and trough states, in a double-blind crossover design. Peak sessions were associated with worse performance on measures of sensory processing, psychomotor speed, divided attention, and working memory, compared to trough sessions. The effects of maintenance dose were mixed, with higher dose resulting in worse performance on aspects of attention and working memory, improved performance on executive function, and no effects on several measures. Longer treatment duration was associated with better performance on some measures, but was also associated with increased sensitivity to time since last dose (i.e., worse performance at peak vs. trough) on some measures. The results suggest that cognitive functioning can fluctuate as a function of time since last dose even in MMP who have been maintained on stable doses for an extended time (mean duration in treatment = 4 years), but worsened performance at peak is limited to a subset of functions and may not be clinically significant at these modest levels of behavioral effect. For patients on stable methadone maintenance doses, maintenance at higher doses may not significantly increase the risk of performance impairment. PMID:24548244

  9. A phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel intravenous calcimimetic, for secondary hyperparathyroidism in Japanese haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Shigematsu, Takashi; Akiba, Takashi; Fujii, Akifumi; Kuramoto, Takuto; Odani, Motoi; Akizawa, Tadao

    2017-10-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a major complication associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel intravenous calcimimetic, in Japanese haemodialysis patients with SHPT. In this phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, etelcalcetide was administered three times per week at an initial dose of 5 mg, and subsequently adjusted to doses between 2.5 and 15 mg at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. A total of 155 SHPT patients with serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels ≥300 pg/mL were assigned to receive etelcalcetide (n = 78) or placebo (n = 77). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with decreased serum iPTH to the target range proposed by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (60-240 pg/mL). The major secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients with ≥30% reductions in serum iPTH from baseline. The proportion of patients meeting the primary endpoint was significantly higher for etelcalcetide (59.0%) versus placebo (1.3%). Similarly, the proportion of patients meeting the major secondary endpoint was significantly higher for etelcalcetide (76.9%) versus placebo (5.2%). Serum albumin-corrected calcium, phosphorus and intact fibroblast growth factor-23 levels were decreased in the etelcalcetide group. Nausea, vomiting and symptomatic hypocalcaemia were mild with etelcalcetide. Serious adverse events related to etelcalcetide were not observed. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide. As the only available intravenous calcium-sensing receptor agonist, etelcalcetide is likely to provide a new treatment option for SHPT in haemodialysis patients.

  10. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of edoxaban in end-stage renal disease subjects undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Parasrampuria, Dolly A; Marbury, Thomas; Matsushima, Nobujo; Chen, Shuquan; Wickremasingha, Prachi K; He, Ling; Dishy, Victor; Brown, Karen S

    2015-04-01

    Edoxaban is an oral, direct, once-daily, factor Xa inhibitor developed for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and for the treatment and secondary prevention of recurrent thromboembolism in patients with acute symptomatic venous thromboembolism. Among elderly patients who require anticoagulation therapies, some may have end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This open-label, phase 1, randomised, two-way crossover study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of edoxaban in 10 subjects on haemodialysis. Eligible subjects with ESRD on chronic haemodialysis received a single, oral dose of edoxaban 15 mg 2 hours (h) prior to (on-dialysis) or in between (off-dialysis) haemodialysis sessions. Haemodialysis resulted in a minor decrease in mean total exposure (AUC0-∞; 676.2 ng·h/ml) as compared with that observed in subjects off-dialysis (691.7 ng·h/ml). Mean maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) values were comparable between on-dialysis and off-dialysis treatments (53.3 vs 56.3 ng/ml, respectively). Mean apparent total body clearance (CL/F) values were 24.1 and 22.5 l/h during the on-dialysis and off-dialysis treatment periods, respectively. Dialyser clearance was 5.7 l/h and haemodialysis clearance was 6.1 l/h. Haemodialysis clearance was only 6.1 l/h, suggesting that it only accounts for one-fourth of the total clearance in these subjects. A single, oral dose of 15 mg of edoxaban was well tolerated by subjects with ESRD. In conclusion, based on these single-dose PK data, a supplementary dose of edoxaban may not be required following a haemodialysis session. Importantly, haemodialysis is not an effective mechanism for removal of edoxaban from the blood.

  11. Empathy and stress in nurses working in haemodialysis: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Vioulac, Christel; Aubree, Colette; Massy, Ziad A; Untas, Aurélie

    2016-05-01

    To explore the concepts of empathy and stress in nurses working in haemodialysis units in France and their possible interactions. Nurses' work in haemodialysis is rather complex. It requires technical expertise, because of the peculiarity of the treatment, and emotional skills, to care for patients throughout a long-lasting therapy. Empathy is considered as a key in the concept of caring, which allows nurses to give appropriate answers to their patients' needs. In addition, nurses' work environment can generate stress. A qualitative descriptive design. Nurses (N = 23) working in haemodialysis units were interviewed in three different sites in 2014. The analysis of nurses' speech emphasized a predominance of the cognitive attributes of empathy: understanding, communication, adjusted response (43%), and a special feature of the relationship due to the chronicity of the care (23%). The main stressors highlighted were time management (14%), emergencies (12%) and technical nature of the task (8%). Nurses' experience in haemodialysis seemed to be a modulating factor regarding empathy and stress. The main stressors highlighted were time management (14%), emergencies (12%) and technical nature of the task (8%). Nurses' experience in haemodialysis seemed to be a modulating factor regarding empathy and stress. The results showed the special features of nurses' work in haemodialysis and the need for further studies to investigate these concepts. The influence of stress on empathy needs to be explored more precisely, especially regarding nurses' experience and its impact on patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Patient Comprehension and Attitudes toward Maintenance Chemotherapy for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, David E.; Hamann, Heidi A.; Rasco, Drew W.; Woodruff, Sharon; Craddock Lee, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Maintenance chemotherapy is a recently approved approach to the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sought to gain insight into patients’ perceptions of maintenance chemotherapy using qualitative methods. Methods We conducted thematic content analysis of focus groups at a freestanding cancer center and at an associated safety-net county hospital. Patients with advanced NSCLC who had started but not yet completed first-line platinum doublet chemotherapy were provided visual and written explanations of maintenance chemotherapy before being guided in group discussion. Results Key themes to emerge for consideration of maintenance chemotherapy included (1) survival benefits, disease control, and “buying time”; (2) the importance of “doing something”; (3) quality of life concerns; (4) the role of provider opinion/preference; and (5) the importance of logistics. Conclusions Patients undergoing first-line chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC were able to understand the concept of maintenance chemotherapy, distinguish it from traditional treatment paradigms, identify pros and cons of this approach, and convey reasons for considering it. Practice Implications Advances in oncology care that alter therapy modalities and delivery may significantly impact patient perceptions and treatment experiences. Clinical team members may wish to elicit treatment preferences of first-line patients through clinical discussions that anticipate these considerations. PMID:22632736

  13. Flash pulmonary oedema after relief of haemodialysis graft stenosis.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Martínez, Mariella; Weinberg, Brent D; Mishkin, Joseph D

    2013-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are undoubtedly very much interrelated, especially in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are dependent on renal replacement therapy. Haemodialysis (HD) is of particular interest in cardiovascular patients due to the creation of a haemodialysis vascular access and the haemodynamic changes associated with it. Adequate HD though is very dependent on a properly functioning vascular access. Unfortunately, these surgical vascular accesses are vulnerable to stenoses and occlusions. Percutaneous endovascular treatment of these stenoses is often performed and has been found to be safe and effective. Despite its frequent use, acute medical complications of this percutaneous procedure have not been well-documented. In this report, we describe a patient who developed flash pulmonary oedema after balloon angioplasty treatment of an arteriovenous graft (AVG) stenosis.

  14. Nurse stress in hospital and satellite haemodialysis units.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Kirsten; Bennett, Paul N

    2008-03-01

    To explore nurse stress in both in-centre hospital haemodialysis and satellite haemodialysis unit in an Australian city's health service. Focus groups from both in-centre and satellite dialysis units were undertaken followed by questionnaires generated by the focus group data. In-centre nursing staff rated the busyness of the unit as the maximum stress and stated that they felt this high level of stress on a daily basis. The most notable stressor for the staff at the satellite unit related to patient behaviour and the perceived unrealistic expectations of the patient followed by patients arriving unwell at the unit. Nurses suffer stress on a daily basis in both in-centre and satellite dialysis units. The major stressors differ from in-centre to satellite dialysis units.

  15. Home haemodialysis dose: how much of a good thing?

    PubMed

    Pickering, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Home dialysis (peritoneal or haemodialysis) in any reasonable guise offers potential benefits compared with in-centre dialysis. Benefits may be overtly patient centred (independence, quality of life), outcome oriented (survival, resolution of left ventricular hypertrophy) or resource friendly (savings on staff costs). The priority placed on each of these areas is likely to vary from patient to patient, and possibly provider to provider. This is the one strength of home haemodialysis (HHD) rather than being viewed as a weakness, as it can offer different benefits to different people. Intuitively, more haemodialysis is better than less, and this is most realistically achieved at home. Indications are that both long nocturnal dialysis and short daily dialysis can offer real objective benefits. Critics argue correctly that there is a paucity of robust randomised controlled study data. The complexity of HHD regimens and practice and in-homogeneity of patients means such firm data are unlikely to be forthcoming. However, the positive reports both subjective and objective of patients dialysing at home, and results from the available research suggest that advantages may be seen purely with changing the location of dialysis to home, and independently with enhancing dialysis schedules. The logical conclusion is that patients undertaking haemodialysis at home should have at least the recommended minimum of four hours three times per week (or equivalent), preferably avoiding the long inter-dialytic interval, but beyond that rigid adherence to a schedule as dogma should be subjugated to patient choice and flexibility, albeit by prior agreement with supervising medical and nursing staff. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  16. Lack of health maintenance examinations and risk in myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Tariman, Joseph D; Gleason, Charise; Faiman, Beth; Doss, Deborah; Catamero, Donna; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Katz, Mike; Kurtin, Sandra; Moran, Diane; Lonial, Sagar

    2016-07-01

    Health maintenance (HM) practices are essential to prevent illness, promote well-being, and maximize health. Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancers, yet, research on HM practices and preventative care of MM survivors has limited report. The study comprised a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional online survey design. Survey of patients with MM was carried out through the International Myeloma Foundation (IMF) and the Association of Cancer Online Resources (ACOR) e-mail list services. The members of the IMF and ACOR e-mail list services were surveyed, of which 237 patients responded. The modified Medical Expenditure Preventive Survey-Preventive Care questionnaire was used; it included items that ask patients regarding their healthcare practices that relate to dental care, cancer prevention, addiction, lifestyles, sensory screening, immunizations, cardiovascular, endocrine, psychosocial, and bone health. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's chi-square, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient were obtained. In this study, men had statistically significant inferior global health maintenance scores than women (P = 0.002). Being employed (P = 0.054) and married or partnered (P = 0.017) were significantly correlated with better health maintenance patterns among male respondents. In contrast, no statistically significant correlations between sociodemographic factors and health maintenance patterns were found in women. Patients with MM, particularly men, require continued education and close monitoring of health maintenance practices. These findings are consistent with publications looking at gender disparities in healthcare utilization in the United States. Studies show that men, in general, are less likely to seek preventative healthcare screenings. Healthcare providers must incorporate health maintenance promotion during clinic visits.

  17. Methadone maintenance in general practice: patients, workload, and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, P.; Watson, R.; Ralston, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess recruitment to and work-load associated with methadone maintenance clinics in general practice; to investigate the characteristics of patients and outcomes associated with treatment. DESIGN--Study of case notes. SETTING--Methadone maintenance clinics run jointly by general practitioners and drug counsellors in two practices in Glasgow. PARTICIPANTS--46 injecting drug users receiving methadone maintenance during an 18 month period, 31 of whom were recruited to clinic based methadone maintenance treatment and 15 of whom were already receiving methadone maintenance treatment from the general practitioners. Mean (SD) age of patients entering treatment was 29.6 (5.5) years; 29 were male. They had been injecting opiates for a mean 9.9 (5.1) years, and most had a concurrent history of benzodiazepine misuse. Average reported daily intake of heroin was approximately 0.75 g. Participants in treatment had high levels of preexisting morbidity, and most stated that they committed crime daily. RESULTS--2232 patient weeks of treatment were studied. Mean duration of treatment during the study period was 50.7 (21.1) weeks and retention in treatment at 26 weeks was 83%. No evidence of illicit opiate use was obtained at an average of 78% of patients' consultations where methadone had been prescribed in the previous week; for opiate injection the corresponding figure was 86%. CONCLUSIONS--Providing methadone maintenance in general practice is feasible. Although costs are considerable, the reduction in drug use, especially of intravenous opiates, is encouraging. Attending clinics also allows this population, in which morbidity is considerable, to receive other health care. PMID:8086989

  18. Severe theophylline poisoning: charcoal haemoperfusion or haemodialysis?

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R. M.; Hearing, S.; Goldsmith, D. J.; Keevil, B.; Venning, M. C.; Ackrill, P.

    1995-01-01

    Theophylline poisoning with a blood level of 183 mg/l in a 38-year-old man was treated with activated charcoal by mouth, but despite this the blood level of theophylline rose and there was circulatory collapse with rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and hyperthermia. Treatment with charcoal haemoperfusion and simultaneous haemodialysis was given, followed by continuous arteriovenous haemodialysis (CAVHD). Mean extraction rates of theophylline were 26% during CAVHD, and 86% during combined dialysis and charcoal haemoperfusion. During combined treatment, the mean extraction rate of haemodialysis was 62%, compared with 48% for charcoal haemoperfusion. In summary, activated charcoal given by mouth may be unable to prevent a rise in blood levels and the development of complications after substantial theophylline overdose. If theophylline is to be removed from the blood, a combination of charcoal haemoperfusion and haemodialysis will give the best clearance, but haemodialysis alone may be effective. PMID:7784283

  19. Predicting emotional exhaustion among haemodialysis nurses: a structural equation model using Kanter's structural empowerment theory.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Douglas, Clint; Bonner, Ann

    2014-12-01

    To test an explanatory model of the relationships between the nursing work environment, job satisfaction, job stress and emotional exhaustion for haemodialysis nurses, drawing on Kanter's theory of organizational empowerment. Understanding the organizational predictors of burnout (emotional exhaustion) in haemodialysis nurses is critical for staff retention and improving nurse and patient outcomes. Previous research has demonstrated high levels of emotional exhaustion among haemodialysis nurses, yet the relationships between nurses' work environment, job satisfaction, stress and emotional exhaustion in this population are poorly understood. A cross-sectional online survey. 417 nurses working in haemodialysis units completed an online survey between October 2011-April 2012 using validated measures of the work environment, job satisfaction, job stress and emotional exhaustion. Overall, the structural equation model demonstrated adequate fit and we found partial support for the hypothesized relationships. Nurses' work environment had a direct positive effect on job satisfaction, explaining 88% of the variance. Greater job satisfaction, in turn, predicted lower job stress, explaining 82% of the variance. Job satisfaction also had an indirect effect on emotional exhaustion by mitigating job stress. However, job satisfaction did not have a direct effect on emotional exhaustion. The work environment of haemodialysis nurses is pivotal to the development of job satisfaction. Nurses' job satisfaction also predicts their level of job stress and emotional exhaustion. Our findings suggest staff retention can be improved by creating empowering work environments that promote job satisfaction among haemodialysis nurses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Spanish study of anticoagulation in haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Calvo, José A; González-Parra, Emilio; Pérez-García, Rafael; Tornero-Molina, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This study’s objectives were to determine which anticoagulation methods are commonly used in patients who are undergoing haemodialysis (HD) in Spain, on what criteria do they depend, and the consequences arising from their use. Ours was a cross-sectional study based on two types of surveys: a "HD Centre Survey" and a "Patient Survey". The first survey was answered by 87 adult HD units serving a total of 6093 patients, as well as 2 paediatric units. Among these units, 48.3% were part of the public health system and the remaining 51.7% units were part of the private health system. The patient survey analysed 758 patients who were chosen at random from among the aforementioned 78 HD units. A) HD Centre Survey: The majority of adult HD units (n=61, 70.2%) used both kinds of heparin, 19 of them (21.8%) only used LMWH and 7 of them (8%) only used UFH. The most frequently applied criteria for the use of LMWH were medical indications (83.3% of HD units) and ease of administration (29.5%). The most frequently used methods for adjusting the dosage were clotting of the circuit (88.2% of units), bleeding of the vascular access after disconnection (75.3%), and patient weight (57.6%). B) Patient Survey: The distribution of the types of heparin used was: UFH: 44.1%, LMWH: 51.5%, and dialysis without heparin in 4.4% of patients. LMWH was more frequently used in public medical centres (64.2% of patients) than in private medical centres (46.1%) (P<.001). LMWH was more frequently used in on-line haemodiafiltration (HF) than in high-flux HD (P<.001). Antiplatelet agents were given to 45.5% of patients, oral anticoagulants to 18.4% of patients, and both to 5% of patients. Additionally, 4.4% of patients had suffered bleeding complications during the previous week, and 1.9% of patients suffered thrombotic complications. Bleeding complications were more frequent in patients with oral anticoagulants (P=.001), although there was no association between the type of heparin and the

  1. Haemodialysis, nutritional disorders and hypoglycaemia in critical care.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Jeiel Carlos Lamonica; Gomes, Vanessa Rossato; Barbosa, Ricardo Luís; Padilha, Katia Grillo; Secoli, Silvia Regina

    2017-03-09

    This study aimed to determine hypoglycemia incidence and associated factors in critically ill patients. It looked at a retrospective cohort with 106 critically ill adult patients with 48 hours of glycaemic control and 72 hours of follow up. The dependent variable, hypoglycaemia (≤70 mg/dl), was assessed with respect to independent variables: age, diet, insulin, catecholamines, haemodialysis, nursing workload and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression at 5% significance level. Incidence of hypoglycaemia was 14.2%. Hypoglycaemia was higher in the group of patients on catecholamines (p=0.040), with higher glycaemic variability (p<0.001) and death in the intensive care unit (p=0.008). Risk factors were identified as absence of oral diet (OR 5.11; 95% CI 1.04-25.10) and haemodialysis (OR 4.28; 95% CI 1.16-15.76). Patients on haemodialysis and with no oral diet should have their glycaemic control intensified in order to prevent and/or manage hypoglycaemic episodes.

  2. Ambulatory aortic blood pressure, wave reflections and pulse wave velocity are elevated during the third in comparison to the second interdialytic day of the long interval in chronic haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumbas, Georgios; Georgianos, Panagiotis I.; Sarafidis, Pantelis A.; Protogerou, Athanase; Karpetas, Antonios; Vakianis, Pantelis; Raptis, Vassilios; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Panagoutsos, Stylianos; Syrganis, Christos; Passadakis, Ploumis

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased arterial stiffness and aortic blood pressure (BP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular outcomes in end-stage renal disease. The 3-day interdialytic interval is associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in haemodialysis. This study investigated differences in ambulatory aortic BP and arterial stiffness between the second and third day of the long interdialytic interval. Methods Ambulatory BP monitoring with Mobil-O-Graph monitor (IEM, Stolberg, Germany) was performed in 55 haemodialysis patients during a 3-day interval. Mobil-O-Graph records oscillometric brachial BP and pulse waves and calculates aortic BP and augmentation index (AIx) as measure of wave reflections, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as measure of arterial stiffness. Results Ambulatory aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were higher during the third versus second interdialytic day (123.6 ± 17.0 versus 118.5 ± 17.1 mmHg, P < 0.001; 81.5 ± 11.8 versus 78 ± 11.9 mmHg, P < 0.001, respectively). Similar differences were noted for brachial BP. Ambulatory AIx and PWV were also significantly increased during the third versus second day (30.5 ± 9.9 versus 28.8 ± 9.9%, P < 0.05; 9.6 ± 2.3 versus 9.4 ± 2.3 m/s, P < 0.001, respectively). Differences between Days 2 and 3 remained significant when day-time and night-time periods were compared separately. Aortic SBP and DBP, AIx and PWV showed gradual increases from the end of dialysis session onwards. Interdialytic weight gain was a strong determinant of the increase in the above parameters. Conclusions This study showed significantly higher ambulatory aortic BP, AIx and PWV levels during the third compared with the second interdialytic day. These findings support a novel pathway for increased cardiovascular risk during the third interdialytic day in haemodialysis. PMID:25920919

  3. Value of bioimpedance analysis estimated "dry weight" in maintenance dialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Covic, Adrian; Ciumanghel, Adi-Ionut; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Kanbay, Mehmet; Dumea, Raluca; Gavrilovici, Cristina; Nistor, Ionut

    2017-09-30

    Volume overload is a common complication in patients with end-stage kidney disease who undergo maintenance dialysis therapy and associated with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and mortality in this population. Although bioimpedance analysis (BIA), an objective method to assess overhydration, is associated with poor outcomes in observational studies, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) the results were conflicting. We have examined the role of BIA for assessing the "dry weight" and fluid status in order to improve fluid overload in comparison with a control or clinical-based prescription in patients with ESKD receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. All RCTs and quasi-RCTs in which BIA was used to improve fluid overload and assess the effect on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, systolic blood pressure and volume control and arterial stiffness were included. Seven RCTs with 1312 patients could be included in this review. In low-to-medium quality of the evidence, the use of BIA did not reduce all-cause mortality (relative risk 0.87, 95% CI 0.54-1.39) and had small to no effect on body change, but it improved systolic blood pressure control (mean difference (MD) -2.73 mmHg, 95% CI -5.00 to -0.46 mmHg) and reduce overhydration, as measured by BIA, with 0.43 L [(MD), 95% CI 0.71-0.15 L]. In ESKD patients, BIA-based interventions for correction of overhydration have little to no effect on all-cause mortality, whereas BIA improved systolic blood pressure control. Our results should be interpreted with caution as the size and power of the included studies are low. Further studies, larger or with a longer follow-up period, should be performed to better describe the effect of BIA-based strategies on survival.

  4. Progression of residual renal function with an increase in dialysis: haemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Teruel-Briones, José L; Fernández-Lucas, Milagros; Rivera-Gorrin, Maite; Ruiz-Roso, Gloria; Díaz-Domínguez, Marta; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Nuria; Quereda-Rodríguez-Navarro, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to analyse the progression of residual renal function according to the dialysis technique (peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis) and the frequency of treatment (two or three sessions of haemodialysis per week). As secondary objectives, we studied the progression of the serum concentration levels of β2 microglobulin and the response of anaemia to erythropoietic agents. 193 non-anuric patients were included and began renal replacement therapy with dialysis in our hospital between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011, with a follow-up period of over three months. 61 patients (32%) began treatment with two haemodialysis sessions per week, 49 patients (25%) with three haemodialysis sessions per week and 83 patients (43%) with peritoneal dialysis. The glomerular filtration rate was measured as the mean of the renal clearances of urea and creatinine. The rate of decrease in glomerular filtration was the same in patients who began treatment with two haemodialysis sessions per week and with peritoneal dialysis (median 0.18 ml/min/month) and it was higher in patients who began treatment with three sessions of haemodialysis per week (median 0.33 ml/min/month, P<.05). Throughout progression, the glomerular filtration rate did not display differences between the group that began with two weekly sessions of haemodialysis and the group on peritoneal dialysis, and it was lower in the group that began treatment with three sessions of haemodialysis per week with statistical significance during the first 24 months of follow up. In the three patient groups, β2-microglobulin concentration increased as the glomerular filtration rate decreased and it was higher in the group on three weekly haemodialysis sessions for the first 12 months of follow up. In all the controls carried out, there was a negative correlation between the beta-2 microglobulin concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (P<.001). The erythropoietin dose was negatively related

  5. Patients' satisfaction and maintenance of fixed partial denture

    PubMed Central

    Geiballa, Ghada Hassan; Abubakr, Neamat Hassan; Ibrahim, Yahia Eltayib

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate patient satisfaction with fixed prosthesis following placement and to assess the oral health and oral hygiene practices awareness by survey questionnaire. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety-two questionnaires were filled by patients wearing fixed prosthesis; the questionnaire included the subjective perception of treatment with fixed prosthesis, patients' perception of clinical outcome, regarding esthetics, masticatory function, speech, and together patient's attitude toward oral hygiene measures. Results: Results showed that 84% of the patients were satisfied with their fixed prosthesis, while only 46.4% of patients were satisfied with the chewing ability. In concern, with esthetic outcome, 80% of patients showed that they were satisfied with the esthetic. The results showed that a high significantly number of patients did not use any form of interdental aids' to clean their fixed prosthesis (94%). The main reason for not using any dental aids' (91.1%) was a lack of post fixed prosthodontics instructions and not been informed by the dentist. Conclusion: High percentages of patients were satisfied with their fixed prosthesis. The most important finding of this study was that majority of patients showed a lack of knowledge regarding post fixed prosthodontics instructions and the significance of maintenance of fixed prosthesis using dental aids'. Of particular concern was the majority of dentists did not pay attention to the post treatment instructions concerning the maintenance of fixed prosthesis. PMID:27095906

  6. Patients' satisfaction and maintenance of fixed partial denture.

    PubMed

    Geiballa, Ghada Hassan; Abubakr, Neamat Hassan; Ibrahim, Yahia Eltayib

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate patient satisfaction with fixed prosthesis following placement and to assess the oral health and oral hygiene practices awareness by survey questionnaire. One hundred and ninety-two questionnaires were filled by patients wearing fixed prosthesis; the questionnaire included the subjective perception of treatment with fixed prosthesis, patients' perception of clinical outcome, regarding esthetics, masticatory function, speech, and together patient's attitude toward oral hygiene measures. Results showed that 84% of the patients were satisfied with their fixed prosthesis, while only 46.4% of patients were satisfied with the chewing ability. In concern, with esthetic outcome, 80% of patients showed that they were satisfied with the esthetic. The results showed that a high significantly number of patients did not use any form of interdental aids' to clean their fixed prosthesis (94%). The main reason for not using any dental aids' (91.1%) was a lack of post fixed prosthodontics instructions and not been informed by the dentist. High percentages of patients were satisfied with their fixed prosthesis. The most important finding of this study was that majority of patients showed a lack of knowledge regarding post fixed prosthodontics instructions and the significance of maintenance of fixed prosthesis using dental aids'. Of particular concern was the majority of dentists did not pay attention to the post treatment instructions concerning the maintenance of fixed prosthesis.

  7. Fair hearing outcomes of patients recommended discharge from methadone maintenance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jamie Suki; Chiu, Joshua D; Gruber, Valerie A; Sorensen, James L

    2017-07-26

    A system known as fair hearings is a due process opportunity for patients who are involuntarily discharged from methadone maintenance treatment to challenge the discharge recommendation. We know very little about the processes and outcomes of fair hearings. For this study, we used a mixed methods approach to retrospectively analyze 73 fair hearing reports that were documented from a California methadone maintenance treatment program between 2000 and 2014. The aims of the study were to identify the reasons for involuntary discharge recommendation from methadone maintenance, describe the factors involved when fair hearing outcomes decided in favor of the clinic, and describe the factors involved when fair hearing outcomes decided in favor of the patient. We found that patient attendance at the fair hearing meeting was significantly related to the outcome ruling in favor of the patient. We organized the reasons for discharge recommendations into five categories: 1) suspected diversion, 2) behavioral/interpersonal, 3) repeated, unexcused absences, 4) co-occurring substance use, and 5) multiple sources of opioids. For each category, we use excerpts from fair hearing reports to provide context to the circumstances involved in an outcome favoring the patient or the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Two-stage brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistula for chronic haemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Francis, David M A; Lu, Yufan; Robertson, Amanda J; Millar, Robert J; Amy, Jayne

    2007-03-01

    Many haemodialysis patients are unable to have or maintain distal upper limb arteriovenous (AV) fistulas because of inadequate veins or arteries and therefore require more proximal access. We have reviewed our experience with a two-stage brachiobasilic AV haemodialysis fistula fashioned in the arm. Ninety-one brachiobasilic AV fistulas were fashioned in 87 patients between August 1999 and October 2004. Four AV fistulas failed because of early thrombosis. The second stage 'superficialization' was carried out at a median (range) of 73 days (32-1827 days) after fistula formation and involved mobilizing the arterialized basilic vein through a curved longitudinal incision on the anteromedial aspect of the arm and transposing it beneath the skin incision. Primary and secondary patency rates were 87 and 89%, respectively, at 1 year and 78 and 84%, respectively, at 2 years. Early complications included infection (3%) and haemorrhage (4%) and late complications included thrombosis (15%) and stenosis (14%). The two-stage superficialized brachiobasilic AV fistula described in this article has good patency. The operative techniques are straightforward, have relatively low complication rates and result in a large-diameter fistula on the anteromedial aspect of the arm allowing easy and painless cannulation for haemodialysis.

  9. Venous versus arterial iron administration in haemodialysis. Influence on erythrocytes antioxidant parameters.

    PubMed

    Dogaru, C B; Capusa, C; Gaman, L; Torac, E; Lixandru, D; Gilca, M; Iosif, L; Muscurel, C; Stoian, I; Mircescu, G; Atanasiu, V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intravenous iron administration in patients treated by haemodialysis for end stage renal disease can exacerbate oxidative stress by increasing the level of free redox active iron. A way to reduce the impact of iron on oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients may be the administration of iron through arterial extracorporeal circuit. Objective The aim of our study was to compare the influence of iron route of administration (venous versus arterial extracorporeal circuit infusion) on antioxidant parameters in red blood cells of haemodialysis patients in order to clarify if arterial iron administration can have positive impacts related to iron induced oxidative stress. Method Twenty stable patients on regular haemodialysis treatment were selected for the study. They were investigated in a cross-over design at 3 mid-week HD sessions, one week apart, without iron [HD basal] and with either IV infusion of 100mg iron sucrose over the first 20 minutes of HD session, via venous line [HDvenous], or the same solution infused on the arterial extracorporeal circulation [HDarterial]. Blood samples were drawn at 0 min, 40 min and 270 min. Erythrocytes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, non-protein thiol levels and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were analysed. Conclusion Haemodialysis significantly decreases the total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes. Iron supplementation, through venous or arterial extracorporeal route has no impact on the total antioxidant activity in red blood cells. Venous iron administration increases GPx activity in erythrocytes suggesting increased lipid peroxidation compared with arterial extracorporeal administration.

  10. Compartmentalising time and space: a phenomenological interpretation of the temporal experience of commencing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Janice; Monaro, Susan; Stewart, Glenn

    2017-11-01

    To interpret the spatio-temporal experience of people with end-stage kidney disease and their families in the first months of haemodialysis. While dialysis is the mainstay of end-stage kidney disease management, the actual initiation of treatment is often unexpected by people and families. Poor biopsychosocial preparation means haemodialysis commencement is experienced as a crisis. While previous phenomenological studies suggest that over time, a habitual incorporation of dialysis into one's self-concept is possible, the spatio-temporal experience of people new to haemodialysis is not well understood. A phenomenological study. Following purposive sampling, 18 participants were recruited either during an inpatient admission or while attending a public hospital-based haemodialysis unit in Sydney, Australia. Eleven people who had commenced haemodialysis within the previous three months and five close family members were separately engaged in semistructured interviews. Hermeneutic interpretation within a Heideggerian framework occurred through a backward-and-forward analysis between the early haemodialysis experience and its relationship to Being. Themes that related to a temporal and spatial understanding of Being-in-the-world as a new haemodialysis patient or carer included the following: 'compartmentalising life into dialysis and non-dialysis days' (lost time, clock time and lived time); 'compartmentalising before, now and future' (normalising the 'before', dealing with the 'now' and the 'foreverness' of dialysis); and finally, 'compartmentalising space'. In the months after dialysis commencement, patients and family carers compartmentalise time and space with a loss of continuity of meaningful, lived time that had framed people's past sense of normal. Resource enhancement activities should focus on social connectivity and provision of personnel and/or infrastructure to reduce boredom, to facilitate engagement with meaningful tasks and, where appropriate, to support

  11. Central line maintenance bundles and CLABSIs in ambulatory oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Rinke, Michael L; Bundy, David G; Chen, Allen R; Milstone, Aaron M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Pehar, Miriana; Herpst, Cynthia; Fratino, Lisa; Miller, Marlene R

    2013-11-01

    Pediatric oncology patients are frequently managed with central lines as outpatients, and these lines confer significant morbidity in this immune-compromised population. We aimed to investigate whether a multidisciplinary, central line maintenance care bundle reduces central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and bacteremias in ambulatory pediatric oncology patients. We conducted an interrupted time-series study of a maintenance bundle concerning all areas of central line care. Each of 3 target groups (clinic staff, homecare agency nurses, and patient families) (1) received training on the bundle and its importance, (2) had their practice audited, and (3) were shown CLABSI rates through graphs, in-service training, and bulletin boards. CLABSI and bacteremia person-time incidence rates were collected for 23 months before and 24 months after beginning the intervention and were compared by using a Poisson regression model. The mean CLABSI rate decreased by 48% from 0.63 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days at baseline to 0.32 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days during the intervention period (P = .005). The mean bacteremia rate decreased by 54% from 1.27 bacteremias per 1000 central line days at baseline to 0.59 bacteremias per 1000 central line days during the intervention period (P < .001). Implementation of a multidisciplinary, central line maintenance care bundle significantly reduced CLABSI and bacteremia person-time incidence rates in ambulatory pediatric oncology patients with central lines. Further research is needed to determine if maintenance care bundles reduce ambulatory CLABSIs and bacteremia in other adult and pediatric populations.

  12. Central Line Maintenance Bundles and CLABSIs in Ambulatory Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, David G.; Chen, Allen R.; Milstone, Aaron M.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Pehar, Miriana; Herpst, Cynthia; Fratino, Lisa; Miller, Marlene R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pediatric oncology patients are frequently managed with central lines as outpatients, and these lines confer significant morbidity in this immune-compromised population. We aimed to investigate whether a multidisciplinary, central line maintenance care bundle reduces central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and bacteremias in ambulatory pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: We conducted an interrupted time-series study of a maintenance bundle concerning all areas of central line care. Each of 3 target groups (clinic staff, homecare agency nurses, and patient families) (1) received training on the bundle and its importance, (2) had their practice audited, and (3) were shown CLABSI rates through graphs, in-service training, and bulletin boards. CLABSI and bacteremia person-time incidence rates were collected for 23 months before and 24 months after beginning the intervention and were compared by using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The mean CLABSI rate decreased by 48% from 0.63 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days at baseline to 0.32 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days during the intervention period (P = .005). The mean bacteremia rate decreased by 54% from 1.27 bacteremias per 1000 central line days at baseline to 0.59 bacteremias per 1000 central line days during the intervention period (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a multidisciplinary, central line maintenance care bundle significantly reduced CLABSI and bacteremia person-time incidence rates in ambulatory pediatric oncology patients with central lines. Further research is needed to determine if maintenance care bundles reduce ambulatory CLABSIs and bacteremia in other adult and pediatric populations. PMID:24101764

  13. Dynamic changes in right ventricular pressures during haemodialysis recorded with an implantable haemodynamic monitor.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Frieder; Kjellström, Barbro; Söderhäll, Mats; Clyne, Naomi; Linde, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Intermittent and chronic volume overload contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease in patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD). Continuous monitoring of central haemodynamic parameters may provide valuable information to improve volume control, particularly in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Five patients on HD, age 53-76 years, with systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction (EF 20-50%) received an implantable haemodynamic monitor (IHM) (Chronicle model 9520, Medtronic). The IHM consists of a memory device implanted subcutaneously and a transveneous right ventricular (RV) lead carrying a pressure sensor. It continuously records heart rate, RV systolic (RVSP) and diastolic pressures (RVDP), RV dP/dt and an estimate of pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (ePAD). Continuous haemodynamic profiles were recorded in all patients. During dialysis RVSP and ePAD dropped by a mean of 39 and 50%, respectively. RVDP decreased by 6.6 mmHg. The lowest pressures occurred during the first 90 min of dialysis and were partly restored at the end of the procedure. Long-term haemodynamic monitoring unmasked severe volume overload in one patient, when dry weight was kept stable despite a decrease in lean body mass. In another patient with recurrent dyspnea after dialysis, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, regularly occurring during dialysis, was identified as the cause of symptoms. The implanted haemodynamic monitor was a sensitive indicator for changes in volume load. Continuous haemodynamic monitoring may offer a valuable tool to improve volume management in dialysis patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

  14. Conserving water in and applying solar power to haemodialysis: 'green dialysis' through wiser resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Agar, John W M

    2010-06-01

    Natural resources are under worldwide pressure, water and sustainable energy being the paramount issues. Haemodialysis, a water-voracious and energy-hungry healthcare procedure, thoughtlessly wastes water and leaves a heavy carbon footprint. In our service, 100 000 L/week of previously discarded reverse osmosis reject water--water which satisfies all World Health Organisation criteria for potable (drinking) water--no longer drains to waste but is captured for reuse. Reject water from the hospital-based dialysis unit provides autoclave steam for instrument sterilization, ward toilet flushing, janitor stations and garden maintenance. Satellite centre reject water is tanker-trucked to community sporting fields, schools and aged-care gardens. Home-based nocturnal dialysis patient reuse reject water for home domestic utilities, gardens and animal watering. Although these and other potential water reuse practices should be mandated through legislation for all dialysis services, this is yet to occur. In addition, we now are piloting the use of solar power for the reverse osmosis plant and the dialysis machines in our home dialysis training service. If previously attempted, these have yet to be reported. After measuring the power requirements of both dialytic processes and modelling the projected costs, a programme has begun to solar power all dialysis-related equipment in a three-station home haemodialysis training unit. Income-generation with the national electricity grid via a grid-share and reimbursement arrangement predicts a revenue stream back to the dialysis service. Dialysis services must no longer ignore the non-medical aspects of their programmes but plan, trial, implement and embrace 'green dialysis' resource management practices.

  15. Regular short haemodialysis in end-stage renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, A M; Oduro-Dominah, A; Gibbins, J K; Devapal, D; Mitchell, D C

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of thrice weekly haemodialysis of 3-3 1/2 hours' duration using a large surface area dialyser in patients with end-stage renal failure. Body water, potassium, and blood pressure control were satisfactory and comparable with the more widely used long dialysis schedules (6-9 hours thrice weekly). Patient rehabilitation was improved overall and the regimen enabled the dialysis unit to treat more patients despite a reduction in technical and nursing staff. The technique proved inadequate, however, in two patients with an intercurrent infection, and more intensive dialysis in recommended in such cases. PMID:1174885

  16. Polydrug abuse among opioid maintenance treatment patients is related to inadequate dose of maintenance treatment medicine.

    PubMed

    Heikman, Pertti Kalevi; Muhonen, Leea Hellevi; Ojanperä, Ilkka Antero

    2017-07-06

    Polydrug abuse is a known problem among opioid-dependent patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). However, improved laboratory diagnostics is required to reveal polydrug abuse in its current scope. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on the relationship between polydrug abuse and adequacy of the dose of OMT medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the polydrug abuse among opioid-dependent patients receiving OMT with inadequate (Group IA) and adequate (Group A) doses of OMT medicine as experienced by the patients. Craving for opioids and withdrawal symptoms were evaluated as indicators of the adequacy rating. This is a retrospective register-based study of 60 OMT patients on either methadone or sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone medication, whose polydrug abuse was studied from urine samples by means of a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Inadequate doses of the OMT medicines were associated with higher subjective withdrawal scores and craving for opioids. Six groups of abused substances (benzodiazepines, amphetamines, opioids, cannabis, new psychoactive substances, and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines) were found among OMT patients. Group IA patients showed significantly more abuse of benzodiazepines and amphetamines than the Group A patients. All the new psychoactive substances and most of the non-prescribed psychotropic medicines were detected from the Group IA patients. There was no difference in the doses of the OMT medicine between Groups IA and A patients. Polydrug abuse, detected by definitive laboratory methods, was widespread and more common among Group IA than Group A patients, emphasizing the requirement for individual OMT medicine dose adjustment.

  17. Why did I start dialysis? A qualitative study on views and expectations from an elderly cohort of patients with end-stage renal failure starting haemodialysis in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Stephanie; Baharani, Jyoti

    2012-02-01

    It is now common for elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease to be offered treatment by dialysis. However, what these patients expect from dialysis is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the expectations of elderly patients starting dialysis and to investigate whether their views change after 6 months on this treatment. This was a prospective observational qualitative study of patients commencing haemodialysis in our centre from 2006 to 2007. Data were collected by interview and review of case notes at the time of starting dialysis and after 6 months of treatment. Patients were asked about their expectations from dialysis, symptoms, and views on advance care planning. Data were collected from 22 patients (mean age 69.1 years) within a month from starting dialysis. Seventy per cent of these patients had attended a pre-dialysis clinic for at least 4 months previously; despite this, many of the patients complained about having had little choice in starting dialysis and seemed uncertain about what dialysis would involve. Even so, over 90% of those interviewed were optimistic about dialysis, had high expectations from treatment and were not keen to discuss advance care planning at first interview. Sixteen patients were re-interviewed at 6 months (four patients had died meanwhile and two had been transferred to other centres). After 6 months, there was a change in patients' attitude, with only 45% of them still finding dialysis acceptable and more patients now keen to discuss advance care planning. Symptom burden was higher at 6 months than at initiation of dialysis treatment. Most elderly patients have unrealistic expectations from dialysis at the start of treatment. There is a need for more specific counselling of these patients to ensure that they make informed decisions about treatment modality and have realistic expectations if they chose to receive RRT.

  18. Social relationships and intravenous drug use among methadone maintenance patients.

    PubMed

    Gogineni, A; Stein, M D; Friedmann, P D

    2001-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which social relationships were associated with continued injection drug use and needle sharing among 252 methadone maintenance patients. Logistic regression analyses indicated that drug use was highest among persons who had a substance using live-in partner and among those with more drug-using social relationships. Among injectors, whites and those who had more people present during IV drug use were more likely to share needles, while those with more emotional support were less likely to do so. These findings suggest that personal relationships strongly influence continued injection drug use and that methadone programs should help patients develop social networks of non-users.

  19. Isotopic bone mineralization rates in maintenance dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.; Stephens, E.

    1983-09-01

    The expanding pool model of radiocalcium kinetics has been used in 13 maintenance dialysis patients to measure bone mineralization rate. No difficulties were met in applying the data to the model, and values for the bone mineralization rate ranged from 0.0 to 2.0 mmol/kg Ca++ per day. The bone histology obtained at the time of the study showed a correlation between the degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the bone mineralization rate, with low values of the latter occurring in atypical osteomalacia (two patients) or inactive-looking bone (one patient) and raised values in seven patients. The plasma alkaline phosphatase and immunoassayable parathyroid hormone levels each correlated significantly with the bone mineralization rate. These findings suggest that the technique is valid when applied to hemodialysis patients and provides quantitative information about skeletal calcium metabolism in different types of renal bone disease.

  20. Multidisciplinary staff attitudes to home haemodialysis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Foden, Philip; Mitra, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: More than a decade after the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommendation of home haemodialysis (home HD) for 10–15% of those needing renal replacement therapy, the uptake across different regions in the UK remains uneven. Methods: This survey is part of the Barriers to Successful Implementation of Care in Home Haemodialysis (BASIC-HHD) study, an observational study of patient and organizational factor barriers and enablers of home HD uptake, in the UK. The study centres had variable prevalence of home HD by design [low: <3% (2), medium: 5–8% (2) and high: >8% (1)]. This survey was administered electronically in 2013, and had 20 questions pertaining to home HD beliefs and practices. A total of 104 members of staff across five study centres were approached to complete the survey. Results: The response rate was 46%, mostly from experienced HD practitioners. Most believed in the benefits of home HD therapy. Across all centres, respondents believed that preconceptions about patients’ and carers’ ability to cope with home HD (35% to a great or very great extent) and staff knowledge and bias influenced offer of home HD therapy (45%). Also, compared with respondents from high prevalence (HP) centre, those from low prevalence (LP) centres felt that display and presentation of dialysis information lacked clarity and uniformity (44% versus 18%), and that a better set-up for training patients for self-care HD was required (72.8% versus 33.3%). A greater proportion of respondents from the HP centre expressed concerns over caregiver support and respite care for patients on home HD (63.7% versus 33.3%). Conclusions: Survey results indicate that across all centres in the study, there is an appetite for growing home HD. There are some differences in attitudes and practice between LP and HP centres. There are other domains where all centres have expressed concern and addressing these will be influential in navigating change

  1. [Maintenance Treatment With Antipsychotics for Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness and security of the antipsychotics available for the management of adult patients with schizophrenia in the maintenance phase. To develop recommendations of treatment for the maintenance phase of the disease. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. 18 studies were included to evaluate the effectiveness and / or safety of different antipsychotic drugs first and second generation. Overall, antipsychotics (AP) showed superiority over placebo in relapse rate over 12 months (RR 0.59 95% CI 0.42, 0.82) and hospitalization rate over 24 months of follow-up (RR 0.38 95% 0.27, 0.55); its use is associated with increased risk of treatment dropout (RR 0.53 95% CI 0.46, 0.61) and adverse events such as weight gain, dystonia, extrapyramidal symptoms and sedation. There was no difference in the outcome of re hospitalizations, comparisons on quality of life, negative symptoms or weight gain between AP first and second generation. Continuous or standard dose regimens appear to be superior to intermittent or low doses in reducing the risk of abandonment of treatment regimes. Adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia should receive maintenance treatment with antipsychotics. The medication of choice will depend on the management of the acute phase, the patient's tolerance to it and the presentation of adverse events. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. An adsorbent monolith device to augment the removal of uraemic toxins during haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sandeman, Susan R; Howell, Carol A; Phillips, Gary J; Zheng, Yishan; Standen, Guy; Pletzenauer, Robert; Davenport, Andrew; Basnayake, Kolitha; Boyd, Owen; Holt, Stephen; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V

    2014-06-01

    Adsorbents designed with porosity which allows the removal of protein bound and high molecular weight uraemic toxins may improve the effectiveness of haemodialysis treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A nanoporous activated carbon monolith prototype designed for direct blood contact was first assessed for its capacity to remove albumin bound marker toxins indoxyl sulphate (IS), p-cresyl sulphate (p-CS) and high molecular weight cytokine interleukin-6 in spiked healthy donor studies. Haemodialysis patient blood samples were then used to measure the presence of these markers in pre- and post-dialysis blood and their removal by adsorbent recirculation of post-dialysis blood samples. Nanopores (20-100 nm) were necessary for marker uraemic toxin removal during in vitro studies. Limited removal of IS and p-CS occurred during haemodialysis, whereas almost complete removal occurred following perfusion through the carbon monoliths suggesting a key role for such adsorbent therapies in CKD patient care.

  3. Relationship between resistin and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chi, Po-Jui; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Hsu, Bang-Gee; Tasi, Jen Pi

    2016-09-01

    Determine the relationship of serum resistin level with outcome in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. This 49-month prospective study enrolled 101 HD patients and examined their clinical and demographic characteristics. 23 of the 87 patients in the cohort died. Survivors were younger, had higher body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, and serum levels of albumin, creatinine, potassium, and phosphate, and lower serum levels of resistin. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated the optimal cut-off value of resistin for prediction of mortality was 127.4 ng/mL (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.667, p = 0.01). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis indicated that advanced age (p < 0.001) and resistin level above 127.4 ng/mL (p = 0.004) were associated with increased mortality risk. Albumin (p = 0.048), creatinine (p = 0.014), potassium (p = 0.023), calcium (p = 0.021), and phosphate (p = 0.001) were associated with decreased mortality risk. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that advanced age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.11, p < 0.0001) and elevated resistin concentration (aHR = 2.442, p = 0.0387) increased the risk for mortality. Advanced age and serum resistin concentration above 127.4 ng/mL are independent risk factors for mortality in patients undergoing maintenance HD.

  4. Medtronic Freestyle aortic bioprosthesis: a potential option for haemodialysis patients†.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Yasser Y; Rayan, Amr; Sodian, Ralf; Hassanein, Wael; Ennker, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    End-stage renal disease patients on regular haemodialysis are at higher risk of calcification. Therefore, many surgeons have concerns regarding the implantation of bioprostheses in such patients. The haemodynamic advantages of stentless aortic bioprostheses support their use; however, these have not been studied yet in end-stage renal disease patients. We studied accordingly the early and mid-term outcomes of aortic valve replacement (AVR) using Medtronic Freestyle stentless aortic bioprostheses in this subset of patients in comparison with stented aortic bioprostheses. We retrospectively studied two groups of consecutive patients on regular haemodialysis who required AVR between 2007 and 2013. Non-Freestyle (NFS) group received stented aortic bioprostheses (36 patients) and Freestyle (FS) group received Medtronic Freestyle aortic bioprostheses (48 patients). Follow-up ranged from 2 to 76 months with a mean follow-up of 36.3 ± 25 months. Patients in both groups showed similar demographic characters regarding age (76.4 ± 8.1 vs 74.9 ± 7.2 years; P = 0.35), male gender (58 vs 60%; P = 0.57) and diabetes mellitus (42 vs 48%; P = 0.57). Smaller aortic bioprostheses were implanted in the NFS (23.3 ± 1.2 vs 25.4 ± 2.1; P < 0.001) with consequently higher postoperative mean gradients (14.1 ± 4.1 vs 11.9 ± 5.3 mmHg; P = 0.004). No significant differences were noted regarding postoperative neurological disorder (8 vs 12%; P = 0.73), deep sternal wound infection (3 vs 4%; P = 0.68), re-exploration (8 vs 8%; P = 0.91) and in-hospital mortality (6 vs 4%; P = 0.92). Mid-term follow-up showed higher prosthetic valve calcification and/or sclerosis in NFS group (25 vs 6%; P = 0.015), whereas no significant differences were noticed between the two groups regarding stroke (0 vs 8%; P = 0.13), endocarditis (0 vs 4%; P = 0.50), 36- and 72-month survival (51 ± 2%, 14 ± 4% vs 55 ± 2%, 19 ± 3%, respectively; P = 0.45). Aortic bioprostheses are a good option for haemodialysis

  5. Evaluating hazardous waste generation in for-profit outpatient haemodialysis centres.

    PubMed

    García-Vicente, Sergio; Llopis-González, A; González-Steinbauer, C; Morales Suárez-Varela, M

    2016-03-01

    "Green" haemodialysis management to reduce the environmental impact of haemodialysis is growing. Dealing with hazardous waste production could heighten healthcare professionals' awareness of this problem, and improve their healthcare involvement in environmental sustainability and environmental-friendliness. A list of for-profit outpatient haemodialysis centres in the Valencian Community (E Spain) was compiled. Data on their hazardous waste production from 2008 to 2012 through the annual waste reports issued by official organisations competent in environmental issues were collected. There are 22 for-profit dialysis centres, that managed the treatment for 69.1% of all dialysis patients in the region. Data were collected from 16 centres that collectively offer 350 dialysis places (33.8% of all the places in this region). Mean annual hazardous waste production per dialysis session increased by 14% during the study period: 0.640 kg per session in 2008 vs. 0.740 kg in 2012. As hazardous waste production is high, we must examine the reasons why it is growing. Information about haemodialysis waste production and management is scarce and difficult to access. Having an evaluation of its production would motivate further research, especially as end-stage kidney disease is increasing, and whose main long-term treatment, haemodialysis, produces hazardous waste and employs substantial natural resources. Minimising its environmental impact is not mission impossible. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  6. Central venous access for haemodialysis: prospective evaluation of possible complications.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Denise; Ferreira, Viviane

    2007-02-01

    The combination of chronic renal insufficiency and haemodialysis represents a challenge for health professionals. Chronic renal insufficiency patients undergoing haemodialysis treatment through a temporary double-lumen catheter were prospectively studied in order to identify the type and frequency of local and systemic complications. A six-month period was established with a view to the inclusion of new cases. Data were acquired through interviews, clinical assessment and patient records, and entered into a Microsoft Excel database through a double entry system and exported to the Statistical Package Social Sciences software. Sixty-four patients were evaluated prospectively, of which thirty-eight (59.4%) were men and 35 (54.7%) required catheter insertion for immediate treatment. During the study period, 145 catheters were inserted, ranging from 1 to 7 implants per patient, 29 (45.3%) were single insertions and 127 (87.6%) catheters were inserted into the jugular vein. The catheters were left in place for an average of 30 days. Forty-one (64%) presented inadequate functioning, after about 26 days. A febrile state occurred in 24 (37.5%) patients after 34 days, secretion at the catheter entry site in 27 (42.2% after 26 days and bloodstream infection was encountered in 34(53%) after 34 days. Of the 61 blood culture samples, thirty (49%) were positive for Staphylococcus aureus that was the microorganism most frequently isolated. The findings indicate worrying aspects such as the catheters permanence time, exposing patients to different complications, including infection. Furthermore, inadequate catheter functioning leads to inefficient haemodialysis treatment. Knowledge about complications allows for systematic care planning, prevention and control actions.

  7. Non-convulsive status epilepticus and consciousness disturbance after star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) ingestion in a dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Hsin; Yeh, Jiann-Horng

    2004-12-01

    Star fruit ingestion may induce severe neurological complications in chronic renal failure patients. We present a case on maintenance dialysis therapy who developed a consciousness disturbance without convulsion after eating star fruit. The symptoms became aggravated after haemodialysis. The brain computed tomography scan showed no abnormal findings, but the electroencephalogram found active focal sharp waves in the left central regions and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging also showed hyperintense lesions in the left central regions that were compatible with non-convulsive status epilepticus. His condition improved dramatically after anticonvulsant therapy and regular haemodialysis. The patient was discharged 20 days later without neurological sequela.

  8. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in human blood: effects of extended haemodialysis in the critically ill patient with acute kidney injury, protein binding to human serum albumin and proteolysis by thermolysin.

    PubMed

    Sitar, Mustafa Erinc; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Beckmann, Bibiana; Kielstein, Jan T; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    Free, non-protein bound asymmetrically guanidine-dimethylated arginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Human erythrocytic membrane comprises considerable amounts of large (>50 kDa) ADMA-containing proteins. Location in the erythrocyte membrane and identity and physiological functions of ADMA-containing proteins are unrevealed. In healthy subjects, the concentration of free ADMA in heparinised plasma is almost identical to that of serum. We hypothesised that the robustness of free ADMA concentration in human blood is due to a remarkable resistance of erythrocytic ADMA-containing proteins against proteases. In vivo, we investigated the course of the concentration of ADMA in serum and EDTA plasma of a critically ill patient with acute kidney injury during extended haemodialysis. In vitro, we studied the effects of thermolysin, a useful experimental proteolytic enzyme of erythrocyte membrane proteins, on erythrocytic ADMA. The protein binding (PB) of ADMA to human serum albumin (HSA) was also determined. In these studies, ADMA was measured by a previously reported, fully validated GC-MS/MS method. We measured almost identical ADMA concentrations in plasma and serum samples of the patient. During dialysis, the circulating ADMA concentration decreased slowly and moderately indicating removal of this substance, which was however much less than expected from its low molecular weight (202 Da) and high water solubility. After dialysis, circulating ADMA concentration increased again, a phenomenon called rebound, and ADMA reached higher levels compared to the baseline. The PB value of ADMA to HSA was about 30 %. This surprisingly high PB value of ADMA to HSA may be an explanation for the rather poor dialysance of ADMA. Washed human erythrocytes suspended in phosphate-buffered physiological saline were found not to release appreciable amounts of free and ADMA-containing proteins. The lack of effect of coagulation or anticoagulation on the

  9. Predicting Maintenance Doses of Vancomycin for Hospitalized Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    El Nekidy, Wasim S; El-Masri, Maher M; Umstead, Greg S; Dehoorne-Smith, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, controversy exists about the optimal dose of vancomycin that will yield the recommended pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15–20 mg/L. Objective To develop a data-driven model to optimize the accuracy of maintenance dosing of vancomycin for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods A prospective observational cohort study was performed with 164 observations obtained from a convenience sample of 63 patients undergoing hemodialysis. All vancomycin doses were given on the floor after completion of a hemodialysis session. Multivariate linear generalized estimating equation analysis was used to examine independent predictors of pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration. Results Pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration was independently associated with maintenance dose (B = 0.658, p < 0.001), baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug (B = 0.492, p < 0.001), and interdialytic interval (B = −2.133, p < 0.001). According to the best of 4 models that were developed, the maintenance dose of vancomycin required to achieve a pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15–20 mg/L, if the baseline serum concentration of the drug was also 15–20 mg/L, was 5.9 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 48 h and 7.1 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 72 h. However, if the baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration was 10–14.99 mg/L, the required dose increased to 9.2 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 48 h and 10.0 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 72 h. Conclusions The maintenance dose of vancomycin varied according to baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug and interdialytic interval. The current practice of targeting a pre-hemodialysis concentration of 15–20 mg/L may be difficult to achieve for the majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27826151

  10. Predictive factors for relapse in patients on buprenorphine maintenance.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Michael; Finlayson, Alistair J Reid; Wang, Li; Martin, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid dependence, clinical outcomes of this treatment approach continue to need evaluation. This study examines factors associated with relapse and retention during buprenorphine treatment in a sample of opioid dependent outpatients. In a retrospective chart review of 62 patients with opioid dependence, relapse was determined by self-report, urine toxicology screens, and by checking the state controlled substance monitoring database. Data was analyzed using two-way tests of association and logistic regression. Patients with comorbid anxiety disorders, active benzodiazepine use (contrary to clinic policy), or active alcohol abuse, were significantly more likely to relapse. Patients who relapsed were also more likely to be on a higher buprenorphine maintenance dose. This study identifies relapse risk factors during buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. Future research is needed to determine whether modifying these factors may lead to improved treatment outcomes. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. [Kt calculation as a quality indicator of haemodialysis adequacy].

    PubMed

    Molina Núñez, M; Roca Meroño, S; de Alarcón Jiménez, R M; García Hernández, M A; Jimeno Griño, C; Alvarez Fernández, G M; Navarro Parreño, M J; Pérez Silva, F M

    2010-01-01

    The haemodialysis dose is a good marker of dialysis adequacy, and we usually monitor it with Kt/V measure. The dialysis dose monitored with Kt allows a better discrimination, detecting a percentage of the patients that perhaps do not get an adequate dose for their gender or body surface area after treatment with a minimum recommended dose of Kt/V. The objective of this study was to evaluate Kt as a clinical indicator referred to dialysis adequacy in the haemodialysis population. The aim was that more than 85% of the patients would achieve the recommended Kt target for their gender (at least 50 litres in men and 45 litres in women), or their body surface area. In each of the patients (mean 129) the Kt mean value was determined for three consecutive dialysis sessions, one every two months, during the follow-up period (14 months). At the beginning, the Kt/V value was on target (> 1.3) in 93.2% of the patients, but only in 58% according to Kt measure for their gender. After 4 months, we observed that 85% of patients' Kt target increased for their gender, but only 68% did if we used the Kt individualised for their body surface area. From month 6 to the end of the follow-up period, more than 85% of patients obtained an adequate Kt for their body surface area (p < 0.001). A significant increase of Kt mean (5.4 litres) was observed at the end of the study (p < 0.001). The usual dialysis prescription parameters were modified increasing blood flow rate (34.14 ml/min, p < 0.001), session effective duration (8.04 minutes, p < 0.001), dialyser surface area (24.1% of patients changed from helixone 1.3 to 1.6 m2, p < 0.001) and haemodialysis modality (56.8% of patients changed from conventional haemodialysis to on-line haemodiafiltration, p < 0.001). We conclude that monitoring dialysis dose with Kt is a good clinical measure of adequacy, and using it as a quality indicator can be done in line with the more demanding quality standards.

  12. Respiratory Variability during Sleep in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chinh D.; Kim, Jong Won; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Thamrin, Cindy; Wang, David

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients have a high prevalence of central sleep apnea and ataxic breathing related to damage to central respiratory rhythm control. However, the quantification of sleep apnea indices requires laborious manual scoring, and ataxic breathing pattern is subjectively judged by visual pattern recognition. This study proposes a semi-automated technique to characterize respiratory variability in MMT patients. Methods: Polysomnography, blood, and functional outcomes of sleep questionnaire (FOSQ) from 50 MMT patients and 20 healthy subjects with matched age, sex, and body mass index, were analyzed. Inter-breath intervals (IBI) were extracted from the nasal cannula pressure signal. Variability of IBI over 100 breaths was quantified by standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and scaling exponent (α) from detrended fluctuation analysis. The relationships between these variability measures and blood methadone concentration, central sleep apnea index (CAI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and clinical outcome (FOSQ), were then examined. Results: MMT patients had significantly higher SD and CV during all sleep stages. During NREM sleep, SD and CV were correlated with blood methadone concentration (Spearman R = 0.52 and 0.56, respectively; p < 0.01). SD and CV were also correlated with CAI (R = 0.63 and 0.71, p < 0.001, respectively), and AHI (R = 0.45 and 0.58, p < 0.01, respectively). Only α showed significant correlation with FOSQ (R = −0.33, p < 0.05). Conclusions: MMT patients have a higher respiratory variability during sleep than healthy controls. Semi-automated variability measures are related to apnea indices obtained by manual scoring and may provide a new approach to quantify opioid-related sleep-disordered breathing. Citation: Nguyen CD, Kim JW, Grunstein RR, Thamrin C, Wang D. Respiratory variability during sleep in methadone maintenance treatment patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):607–616

  13. Seasonal Variations of Nutritional Status in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ilić Begović, Tanja; Radić, Josipa; Radić, Mislav; Kovačić, Vedran; Šain, Milenka; Ljutić, Dragan

    2016-10-01

    Nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD) patients is influenced by a multitude of factors and it strongly correlates with morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of seasonal changes on nutritional status in maintenance HD patients. A selected population of 84 adult (40 females and 44 males, aged 68.98 ± 13.45 years) HD (5.94 ± 6.44 years) patients were investigated. Clinical, biochemical and nutritional parameters (BMI, creatinine, urea, serum albumin, total cholesterol and Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) were measured in cold (January and December) and mild (June and September) months, altogether in 336 HD sessions. Statistically significant differences between cold and mild months were found in BMI (P = 0.046), creatinine before HD (P = 0.011), urea before HD (P ≤ 0.001), urea after HD (P ≤ 0.001) and glucose (P =  0.001). Differences between male and female patients in DMS, serum albumin and creatinine level in cold and mild months were found; where females altogether had higher DMS score and lower serum albumin and creatinine levels. These results suggest that seasonal variations of clinical and laboratory variables that reflect nutritional status occur commonly among maintenance HD patients and might lead to biases in the interpretation of results in clinical studies in which measurement schedules vary during the year. Also, results suggested that female HD patients may constitute an especially vulnerable population for seasonal oscillations of nutritional status. The reasons for most of these variations are not apparent and require further investigation. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  14. Time to recovery from haemodialysis : location, intensity and beyond.

    PubMed

    Jayanti, Anuradha; Foden, Philip; Morris, Julie; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip

    2016-12-01

    Prolonged recovery time (RT) affects patient's quality-of-life adversely. Shorter dialysis RT in home haemodialysis (HHD) noted in observational studies has been attributed to intensive dialysis regimens. Home patients adopt different haemodialysis (HD) schedules. There is insufficient literature on RT in HHD patients receiving different HD schedules. Data was prospectively collected for BASIC-HHD study, a multicentre study of home and hospital HD across five tertiary centres in the UK. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients answered the question, 'how long does it take for you to recover from a haemodialysis session?' Ninety-one patients (31.8%) of study population performed HHD. Participants completed neuropsychometric tests and depression and anxiety screening inventories. Recovery time is longest amongst 'in-centre' HD recipients (Mean 193 min; SD 295.37) and significantly higher than the mean RT of home HD recipients (Mean 67.3 min; SD 86.8). Within the home setting, RT was not significantly different between the intensive HD and conventional HD (67.8 vs 66.5 min; P > 0.05) groups but higher residual urine volumes in the standard home group had significantly shorter RT. Location of HD, not intensity, remained significant (P = 0.001) in the unadjusted and adjusted multivariable analysis. Longer RT was associated with female gender, unemployed or retired 'work' status, 'non-white' ethnicity, lower predialysis systolic blood pressure and greater depression screening score. Home-based HD and higher residual urine volumes are significantly associated with shorter RT. This home advantage for RT may be sustained by preserving residual renal function (in early stages) and increasing HD intensity (in later stages) of dialysis therapy. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. Characteristics of methadone maintenance treatment patients prescribed opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Matthew C; Sohler, Nancy L; Starrels, Joanna L; Maradiaga, Jeronimo; Jost, John J; Arnsten, Julia H; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2016-01-01

    Opioid analgesic use and disorders have dramatically increased among the general American population and those receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Most research among MMT patients focuses on opioid analgesics misuse or disorders; few studies focus on MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics. We describe demographic, clinical, and substance use characteristics of MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics and compare them with MMT patients not prescribed opioid analgesics. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis using screening interviews from a parent study. From 2012 to 2015, we recruited adults from 3 MMT Bronx clinics. Questionnaire data included patterns of opioid analgesic use, substance use, comorbid illnesses, and demographic characteristics. Our main dependent variable was patients' report of currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics. To compare characteristics between MMT patients prescribed and not prescribed opioid analgesics, we conducted chi-square tests, t tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Of 611 MMT patients, most reported chronic pain (62.0%), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (52.1%), and current use of illicit substances (64.2%). Of the 29.8% who reported currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics, most misused their opioid analgesics (57.5%). Patients prescribed (versus not prescribed) opioid analgesics were more likely to report human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.3) and chronic pain (aOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 4.6-12.6). Among MMT patients primarily in 3 Bronx clinics, nearly one third reported taking prescribed opioid analgesics. Compared with patients not prescribed opioid analgesics, those prescribed opioid analgesics were more likely to report chronic pain and HIV infection. However, between these patients, there was no difference in illicit substance use. These findings highlight the complexity of addressing chronic pain in MMT patients.

  16. Characteristics of methadone maintenance treatment patients prescribed opioid analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Matthew C.; Sohler, Nancy L.; Starrels, Joanna L.; Maradiaga, Jeronimo; Jost, John J.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid analgesic use and disorders have dramatically increased among the general American population and those receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Most research among MMT patients focuses on opioid analgesics misuse or disorders; few studies focus on MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics. We describe demographic, clinical, and substance use characteristics of MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics and compare them to MMT patients not prescribed opioid analgesics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis using screening interviews from a parent study. From 2012–2015, we recruited adults from 3 MMT Bronx clinics. Questionnaire data included: patterns of opioid analgesic use, substance use, comorbid illnesses, and demographic characteristics. Our main dependent variable was patients’ report of currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics. To compare characteristics between MMT patients prescribed and not prescribed opioid analgesics, we conducted chi-squared tests, t-tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Of 611 MMT patients, most reported chronic pain (62.0%), HCV infection (52.1%), and currently using illicit substances (64.2%). Of the 29.8% who reported currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics, most misused their opioid analgesics (57.5%). Patients prescribed (versus not prescribed) opioid analgesics were more likely to report HIV infection (aOR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3) and chronic pain (aOR=7.6, 95% CI: 4.6–12.6). Conclusion Among MMT patients primarily in three Bronx clinics, nearly one-third reported taking prescribed opioid analgesics. Compared to patients not prescribed opioid analgesics, those prescribed opioid analgesics were more likely to report chronic pain and HIV infection. However, between these patients, there was no difference in illicit substance use. These findings highlight the complexity of addressing chronic pain in MMT patients. PMID:26731299

  17. Onsite QTc interval screening for patients in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Fareed, Ayman; Vayalapalli, Sreedevi; Byrd-Sellers, Johnita; Casarella, Jennifer; Drexler, Karen; Amar, Richard; Smith-Cox, Jocelyn; Lutchman, Tamara Shaw

    2010-01-01

    To improve the electrocardiogram screening process and early detection of patients at high risk for cardiac arrhythmias, the authors created a model in their clinic where they provided an onsite electrocardiogram screening that might be feasible and practical. The authors then performed a retrospective chart review to access the efficacy and feasibility of their new onsite procedure in identifying methadone maintained patients at high risk for cardiac arrhythmias. Records from all patients who are currently or had previously been maintained on methadone in the methadone maintenance program at the Atlanta VA Medical Center between 2002 and 2009 were evaluated. Of the 140 patients treated at the clinic between 2002 and 2009, 85 were excluded from the study because they had been treated as guests (had been in treatment in other clinics but received methadone dosing temporarily from our clinic), were treated in the clinic for less than 6 months, or dropped out of treatment. Thus, 55 patient charts were selected for review. Most patients (95%) received baseline and annual electrocardiogram screening. The average baseline QTc was (417 +/- 30) and most recent QTc (442 +/- 25). This QTc prolongation from baseline showed statistical significance (P < .0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients had statistically significant QTc prolongation from baseline but was less than 450 ms (mean: 428 +/- 16, P = .008). Twenty-seven percent of patients had statistically significant QTc prolongation from baseline of more 450 ms but was less than 500 ms (mean: 460 +/- 8, P < .0001). Six percent of patients had statistically significant QTc prolongation from baseline of more 500 ms (mean: 503 +/- 1.15, P = .027). Recent cocaine use was the only individual variable that showed statistically significant correlation with QTc prolongation (F = 6.98, P = .01). The authors demonstrated in this study that providing an onsite electrocardiogram screening with a focus on patient education and limiting

  18. Psychological Distress Among Methadone Maintenance Patients in Vietnamese Mountainous Areas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Le, Hai Quan; Van Nguyen, Hung; Le, Huong Thi; Tran, Tho Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Thuc Minh Thi

    2017-04-24

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in Tuyen Quang Province, a mountainous province in northern Vietnam, to examine rates of psychological distress among 241 patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Using the Kessler psychological distress Scale, we found that approximately one-fourth (26.8%) of respondents suffered from mental health pathologies. Physical health problems, current drug use, and alcohol abuse were found to be associated with mental health problems among the participants. Our findings highlight the high prevalence of psychological distress among MMT patients in northern Vietnam, and the need to integrate mental and physical health care services, as well as behavioral health counseling, into currently existing MMT clinics in this region.

  19. Haemodialysis work environment contributors to job satisfaction and stress: a sequential mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Bonner, Ann; Douglas, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Haemodialysis nurses form long term relationships with patients in a technologically complex work environment. Previous studies have highlighted that haemodialysis nurses face stressors related to the nature of their work and also their work environments leading to reported high levels of burnout. Using Kanters (1997) Structural Empowerment Theory as a guiding framework, the aim of this study was to explore the factors contributing to satisfaction with the work environment, job satisfaction, job stress and burnout in haemodialysis nurses. Using a sequential mixed-methods design, the first phase involved an on-line survey comprising demographic and work characteristics, Brisbane Practice Environment Measure (B-PEM), Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS), Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The second phase involved conducting eight semi-structured interviews with data thematically analyzed. From the 417 nurses surveyed the majority were female (90.9 %), aged over 41 years of age (74.3 %), and 47.4 % had worked in haemodialysis for more than 10 years. Overall the work environment was perceived positively and there was a moderate level of job satisfaction. However levels of stress and emotional exhaustion (burnout) were high. Two themes, ability to care and feeling successful as a nurse, provided clarity to the level of job satisfaction found in phase 1. While two further themes, patients as quasi-family and intense working teams, explained why working as a haemodialysis nurse was both satisfying and stressful. Nurse managers can use these results to identify issues being experienced by haemodialysis nurses working in the unit they are supervising.

  20. Pain Among High-Risk Patients on Methadone Maintenance Treatment.

    PubMed

    Voon, Pauline; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The complexity of treating concurrent pain and opioid dependence among many methadone-maintained individuals presents a major challenge in many clinical settings. Furthermore, recent expert guidelines have called for increased research on the safety of methadone in the context of chronic pain. This study explores the prevalence and correlates of pain among a prospective cohort of people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, who reported enrollment in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) between 2011 and 2014. Among the 823 participants eligible for this analysis, 338 (40.9%) reported moderate pain and 91 (11.1%) reported extreme pain at the first s