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Sample records for maire ratassepp ervi

  1. Larval competition between Aphidius ervi and Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Sidney, Lívia Alvarenga; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Lins, Juracy Caldeira; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius; Silva, Diego Bastos

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific competition between parasitoid larvae may influence the size, structure, and stability of the population, leading to a reduction in total parasitism and thus restricting the pest control. Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and Praon volucre (Haliday) are endoparasitoids that possess a wide host range and present considerable potential for the biological control of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). The larval competition between A. ervi and P. volucre, and the possible intrinsic competitive superiority of one of the parasitoids in M. euphorbiae, have been studied. In single parasitism experiments, mated parasitoid females (n=10) were maintained individually in contact with M. euphorbiae hosts (n=30) inside petri dishes containing lettuce leaf discs and maintained in environmental chamber at 22 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12-h photophase. The multiple parasitism experiments consisted of exposing single parasitized aphids (n=120) to the second parasitoid species. Two oviposition events were performed with a 4-h interval between them, namely the following: sequence A (oviposition by A. ervi, followed by P. volucre) and sequence B (oviposition by P. volucre, followed by A. ervi). Oviposition sequence A generated 24 A. ervi and 55 P. volucre adults, whereas oviposition sequence B generated 23 and 49 adults. P. volucre is an intrinsically superior competitor compared with A. ervi, and the use of the two species simultaneously may result in competitive exclusion and influence the stability of the parasitoid population.

  2. [Quality of different aphids species as hosts for the parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)].

    PubMed

    Sidney, Lívia A; Bueno, Vanda H P; Lins, Juracy C; Silva, Diego B; Sampaio, Marcus V

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) and Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as hosts for the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday was evaluated by assessing host size, host preference, and host quality. Tests were carried out in an environmental chamber at 22±1ºC, 70±10% RH and 12h photophase. Replicates (11) consisted of one 24h-old mated female of A. ervi without a previous oviposition experience. Female was released into a Petri dish (5 cm) with 20 2nd and 3rd instars of one of each aphid species tested on a leaf disc of the host plant onto a 1% water-agar layer. Parasitoid emergency was lower in A. kondoi (78.7%) compared to M. euphorbiae (92.2%) and A. solani (91.7%). Acyrthosiphon kondoi (0.36 mm) was the smallest host. The parasitoid showed preference (74.0% parasitism) for M. euphorbiae, the largest host (hind tibia length=0.73 mm), which in turn yielded larger A. ervi females (0.75 mm).

  3. Morphological variation of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with different aphid hosts

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Cinthya M.; Žikić, Vladimir; Stanković, Saša S.; Ortiz-Martínez, Sebastián A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation). The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis. Methods We examined Aphidius ervi, an important introduced biological control agent in Chile associated with a great number of aphid species, which are exploiting different plant hosts and habitats. Several combinations (biotypes) of parasitoids with various aphid/host plant combinations were analyzed in order to obtain measures of forewing shape and size. To show the differences among defined biotypes, we chose 13 specific landmarks on each individual parasitoid wing. The analysis of allometric variation calculated in wing shape and size over centroid size (CS), revealed the allometric changes among biotypes collected from different hosts. To show all differences in shape of forewings, we made seven biotype pairs using an outline-based geometric morphometrics comparison. Results The biotype A. pis_pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum on pea) was the extreme wing size in this study compared to the other analyzed biotypes. Aphid hosts have a significant influence in the morphological differentiation of the parasitoid forewing, splitting biotypes in two groups. The first group consisted of biotypes connected with Acyrthosiphon pisum on legumes, while the second group is composed of biotypes connected with aphids attacking cereals, with the exception of the R. pad_wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi on wheat) biotype. There was no significant effect of plant species on parasitoid

  4. Morphological variation of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with different aphid hosts.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Cinthya M; Žikić, Vladimir; Stanković, Saša S; Ortiz-Martínez, Sebastián A; Peñalver-Cruz, Ainara; Lavandero, Blas

    2017-01-01

    Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation). The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis. We examined Aphidius ervi, an important introduced biological control agent in Chile associated with a great number of aphid species, which are exploiting different plant hosts and habitats. Several combinations (biotypes) of parasitoids with various aphid/host plant combinations were analyzed in order to obtain measures of forewing shape and size. To show the differences among defined biotypes, we chose 13 specific landmarks on each individual parasitoid wing. The analysis of allometric variation calculated in wing shape and size over centroid size (CS), revealed the allometric changes among biotypes collected from different hosts. To show all differences in shape of forewings, we made seven biotype pairs using an outline-based geometric morphometrics comparison. The biotype A. pis_pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum on pea) was the extreme wing size in this study compared to the other analyzed biotypes. Aphid hosts have a significant influence in the morphological differentiation of the parasitoid forewing, splitting biotypes in two groups. The first group consisted of biotypes connected with Acyrthosiphon pisum on legumes, while the second group is composed of biotypes connected with aphids attacking cereals, with the exception of the R. pad_wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi on wheat) biotype. There was no significant effect of plant species on parasitoid wing size and shape

  5. Optimisation of a semiochemical slow-release alginate formulation attractive towards Aphidius ervi Haliday parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Heuskin, Stéphanie; Lorge, Stéphanie; Godin, Bruno; Leroy, Pascal; Frère, Isabelle; Verheggen, François J; Haubruge, Eric; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Mestdagh, Michèle; Hance, Thierry; Lognay, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Optimisation of alginate formulations is described in order to develop semiochemical (E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene) slow-release devices in biological control approaches by attracting predators and parasitoids of aphids. Various formulation criteria were optimised with respect to semiochemical encapsulation capacity. Moreover, the optimised formulation was characterised by texturometry and confocal microscopy. The slow-release rates of semiochemicals were calculated in laboratory controlled conditions. The attractiveness of semiochemical formulations towards Aphidius ervi was demonstrated by olfactometry. Two major parameters were highlighted in encapsulation optimisation: the type of alginate (Sigma L) and the type of crosslinker ion (Ca(2+)). Other formulation parameters were optimised: ionic strength (0.5 M), Ca(2+) (0.2 M) and alginate (1.5%) concentrations and the maturation time of beads in CaCl(2) solution (48 h). After physical characterisation of beads, semiochemical slow-release measurements showed that alginate formulations were efficient sesquiterpene releasers, with 503 µg of E-β-farnesene and 1791 µg of E-β-caryophyllene totally released in 35 days. The efficiency of semiochemical alginate beads as attractants for female parasitoids was demonstrated, with high percentages of attraction for semiochemical odours (88 and 90% for E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene respectively) and significant statistical results. Semiochemical alginate beads can be considered as efficient slow-release systems in biological control. These formulations could be very useful to attract aphid parasitoids on crop fields. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Identification of the main venom protein components of Aphidius ervi, a parasitoid wasp of the aphid model Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Dominique; Anselme, Caroline; Deleury, Emeline; Mancini, Donato; Poulain, Julie; Azéma-Dossat, Carole; Belghazi, Maya; Tares, Sophie; Pennacchio, Francesco; Poirié, Marylène; Gatti, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-06

    Endoparasitoid wasps are important natural enemies of the widely distributed aphid pests and are mainly used as biological control agents. However, despite the increased interest on aphid interaction networks, only sparse information is available on the factors used by parasitoids to modulate the aphid physiology. Our aim was here to identify the major protein components of the venom injected at oviposition by Aphidius ervi to ensure successful development in its aphid host, Acyrthosiphon pisum. A combined large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to identify 16 putative venom proteins among which three γ-glutamyl transpeptidases (γ-GTs) were by far the most abundant. Two of the γ-GTs most likely correspond to alleles of the same gene, with one of these alleles previously described as involved in host castration. The third γ-GT was only distantly related to the others and may not be functional owing to the presence of mutations in the active site. Among the other abundant proteins in the venom, several were unique to A. ervi such as the molecular chaperone endoplasmin possibly involved in protecting proteins during their secretion and transport in the host. Abundant transcripts encoding three secreted cystein-rich toxin-like peptides whose function remains to be explored were also identified. Our data further support the role of γ-GTs as key players in A. ervi success on aphid hosts. However, they also evidence that this wasp venom is a complex fluid that contains diverse, more or less specific, protein components. Their characterization will undoubtedly help deciphering parasitoid-aphid and parasitoid-aphid-symbiont interactions. Finally, this study also shed light on the quick evolution of venom components through processes such as duplication and convergent recruitment of virulence factors between unrelated organisms.

  7. Heme-binding activity of methoxyflavones from Pentzia monodiana Maire (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Sergio; Dali-Yahia, Kamel; Vasquez-Ocmin, Pedro; Grougnet, Raphaël; Grellier, Philippe; Michel, Sylvie; Maciuk, Alexandre; Boutefnouchet, Sabrina

    2017-04-01

    A heme-binding assay based on mass spectrometry was performed on P. monodiana Maire (Asteraceae) extracts to identify metabolites able to form adducts with heminic part of haemoglobin, as potential antimalarial drugs. Main adducts were characterized and their stability was measured. Isolation of main constituents of P. monodiana Maire lead to identification of the two methoxyflavones 3'-O-methyleupatorin (7) and artemetin (8) involved in the adducts formation. Four seco-tanapartholides (1-4), a guaianolide (5), a germacranolide (6) and two other methoxyflavones (9, 10) were also characterized. Evaluation of isolated compounds on P. falciparum and T. brucei brucei showed a moderate antiprotozoal activity of the two methoxyflavones.

  8. Placenta-Like Structure of the Aphid Endoparasitic Wasp Aphidius ervi: A Strategy of Optimal Resources Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Ahmed; Hance, Thierry; Leroy, Pascal D.; Frère, Isabelle; Haubruge, Eric; Destain, Jacqueline; Compère, Philippe; Thonart, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an entomophagous parasitoid known to be an effective parasitoid of several aphid species of economic importance. A reduction of its production cost during mass rearing for inundative release is needed to improve its use in biological control of pests. In these contexts, a careful analysis of its entire development phases within its host is needed. This paper shows that this parasitoid has some characteristics in its embryological development rather complex and different from most other reported insects, which can be phylogenetically very close. First, its yolkless egg allows a high fecundity of the female but force them to hatch from the egg shell rapidly to the host hemocoel. An early cellularisation allowing a rapid differentiation of a serosa membrane seems to confirm this hypothesis. The serosa wraps the developing embryo until the first instar larva stage and invades the host tissues by microvilli projections and form a placenta like structure able to divert host resources and allowing nutrition and respiration of embryo. Such interspecific invasion, at the cellular level, recalls mammal's trophoblasts that anchors maternal uterine wall and underlines the high adaptation of A. ervi to develop in the host body. PMID:21526196

  9. Learning by the parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), alters individual fixed preferences for pea aphid color morphs.

    PubMed

    Langley, Shaun A; Tilmon, Kelley J; Cardinale, Bradley J; Ives, Anthony R

    2006-11-01

    Learning, defined as changes in behavior that occur due to past experience, has been well documented for nearly 20 species of hymenopterous parasitoids. Few studies, however, have explored the influence of learning on population-level patterns of host use by parasitoids in field populations. Our study explores learning in the parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday that attacks pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). We used a sequence of laboratory experiments to investigate whether there is a learned component in the selection of red or green aphid color morphs. We then used the results of these experiments to parameterize a model that examines whether learned behaviors can explain the changes in the rates of parasitism observed in field populations in South-central Wisconsin, USA. In the first of two experiments, we measured the sequence of host choice by A. ervi on pea aphid color morphs and analyzed this sequence for patterns in biased host selection. Parasitoids exhibited an inherent preference for green aphid morphs, but this preference was malleable; initial encounters with red aphids led to a greater chance of subsequent orientation towards red aphids than predicted by chance. In a second experiment, we found no evidence that parasitoids specialize on red or green morphs; for the same parasitoids tested in trials separated by 2 h, color preference in the first trial did not predict color preference in the second, as would be expected if they differed in fixed preferences or exhibited long-term (> 2 h) learning. Using data from the two experiments, we parameterized a population dynamics model and found that learning of the magnitude observed in our experiments leads to biased parasitism towards the most common color morph. This bias is sufficient to explain changes in the ratio of aphid color morphs observed in field sites over multiple years. Our study suggests that for even relatively simple organisms, learned behaviors may be important for explaining the

  10. Potential effects of plant protease inhibitors, oryzacystatin I and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor, on the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Azzouz, H; Campan, E D M; Cherqui, A; Saguez, J; Couty, A; Jouanin, L; Giordanengo, P; Kaiser, L

    2005-08-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) have been shown to cause lethal and sublethal effects on aphids depending on the kind of PI and aphid species. Therefore, these proteins might affect aphid parasitoids directly by inhibiting their digestive proteolysis or indirectly via their development in a less suitable host. In our study, the risk of exposure and the potential effects of soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (SbBBI) and oryzacystatin I (OCI) on the aphid endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi were investigated using artificial diet to deliver PIs. Immunoassays showed that both SbBBI and OCI were detected in the honeydew of aphids reared on artificial diet containing these recombinant proteins at 100 microg/mL. However, only SbBBI was detected in parasitoid larvae, while this PI could not be detected in adult parasitoids emerged from PI-intoxicated aphids. Enzymatic inhibition assays showed that digestive proteolytic activity of larvae and adults of A. ervi predominantly relies on serine proteases and especially on chymotrypsin-like activity. Bioassays using SbBBI and OCI on artificial diet were performed. A. ervi that developed on intoxicated aphids had impaired fitness. Thus development and parasitism success of parasitoids exposed to OCI were severely affected. On the contrary, SbBBI only altered significantly female size and sex ratio. Direct exposure to PIs through adult food intake did not affect female's longevity, while SbBBI and OCI (100 microg/mL) induced 69% and 30% inhibition of digestive protease activity, respectively. These studies made it possible to estimate the risk of exposure to plant PIs and the sensitivity of the aphid parasitoid A. ervi to these entomotoxins, by combining immunological, biochemical and biological approaches. First it pointed out that only immature stages are affected by PIs. Secondly, it documented two different modes of effect, according to the nature of the PIs and both host and parasitoid susceptibility. OCI prevented the development of A. ervi

  11. The effect of larval and early adult experience on behavioural plasticity of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Villagra, Cristian A; Pennacchio, Francesco; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2007-11-01

    The relevance of the integration of preimaginal and eclosion experiences on the subsequent habitat preferences and mate finding by the adult has been rarely tested in holometabolous insects. In this work, the effect of larval and early adult experiences on the behavioural responses of adult males of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, towards volatiles from the host-plant complex (HPC) and from conspecific females were evaluated. Two experience factors were considered: host diet (normal diet=ND; artificial diet=AD), and eclosion, i.e. extraction or non-extraction of the parasitoid larva from the parasitised aphid (extracted=EX; non-extracted=NE). Thus, four treatments were set up: ND/NE, ND/EX, AD/NE and AD/EX. Glass Y-tube olfactometers were used to investigate the responses of adult A. ervi males to the odour sources used. Males from the ND/NE treatment showed a shorter latency to the first choice of olfactometer arms, displayed a marked preference towards the HPC olfactometer arm, and spent more time in the HPC arm than males from the other treatments. Only the interaction of host diet and eclosion experiences proved to be relevant in explaining the differences in latency to first choice, time spent in olfactometers arms, and behaviours displayed in the olfactometer arms. These results show the importance of the integration of larval and eclosion experiences in the development of stereotyped responses of the adults. This process may involve memory retention from the preimaginal and emergence period, but further research is needed to disentangle the contribution of each stage. The response to conspecific females was much less affected by the treatments in relation to first arm choice and times in olfactometer arms, suggesting a pheromone-mediated behaviour, even though a prompter and more intense wing fanning courtship behaviour was registered in the ND/NE males compared to males from the AD/NE treatment. These results show that sexual behaviours are less

  12. The effect of larval and early adult experience on behavioural plasticity of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagra, Cristian A.; Pennacchio, Francesco; Niemeyer, Hermann M.

    2007-11-01

    The relevance of the integration of preimaginal and eclosion experiences on the subsequent habitat preferences and mate finding by the adult has been rarely tested in holometabolous insects. In this work, the effect of larval and early adult experiences on the behavioural responses of adult males of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, towards volatiles from the host-plant complex (HPC) and from conspecific females were evaluated. Two experience factors were considered: host diet (normal diet=ND; artificial diet=AD), and eclosion, i.e. extraction or non-extraction of the parasitoid larva from the parasitised aphid (extracted=EX; non-extracted=NE). Thus, four treatments were set up: ND/NE, ND/EX, AD/NE and AD/EX. Glass Y-tube olfactometers were used to investigate the responses of adult A. ervi males to the odour sources used. Males from the ND/NE treatment showed a shorter latency to the first choice of olfactometer arms, displayed a marked preference towards the HPC olfactometer arm, and spent more time in the HPC arm than males from the other treatments. Only the interaction of host diet and eclosion experiences proved to be relevant in explaining the differences in latency to first choice, time spent in olfactometers arms, and behaviours displayed in the olfactometer arms. These results show the importance of the integration of larval and eclosion experiences in the development of stereotyped responses of the adults. This process may involve memory retention from the preimaginal and emergence period, but further research is needed to disentangle the contribution of each stage. The response to conspecific females was much less affected by the treatments in relation to first arm choice and times in olfactometer arms, suggesting a pheromone-mediated behaviour, even though a prompter and more intense wing fanning courtship behaviour was registered in the ND/NE males compared to males from the AD/NE treatment. These results show that sexual behaviours are less

  13. Optimal Experimental Condition of IR pMAIRS Calibrated by Using an Optically Isotropic Thin Film Exhibiting the Berreman Effect.

    PubMed

    Shioya, Nobutaka; Norimoto, Shingo; Izumi, Naoki; Hada, Miyako; Shimoaka, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2016-07-08

    Infrared (IR) p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution spectrometry (pMAIRS) is a useful spectroscopic tool for revealing the molecular anisotropic structure in a thin film, which is used for the molecular orientation analysis of many functionalized organic thin films. Infrared pMAIRS provides both in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OP) vibrational mode spectra, which are influenced by the choice of the angles of incidence, i.e., angle set. To obtain quantitatively reliable pMAIRS spectra, therefore, the optimal angle set must be revealed. In a former study, an optimization study was carried out on a silicon substrate by using the band intensity ratio of the IP and OP spectra of highly oriented molecules in a thin film, which has a problem that the optimized results cannot be used for another substrate. In the present study, a totally new idea using an optically isotropic thin film as a standard sample is proposed to comprehensively explore the optimal angle set on various substrates: the band shift due to the Berreman effect of a strongly absorbing compound is used, instead of the band intensity. This new approach makes the pMAIRS calibration for various substrates a much easier task. With the optimal angle set, the molecular orientation angle in the film calculated by the pMAIRS spectra is also found to be reliable quantitatively. This technique opens a user-friendly way to a reliable molecular orientation analysis in an ultrathin film using IR pMAIRS.

  14. NASA Satellite and Model Data and Services to Support NEESPI and MAIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Gerasimov, I.

    2009-12-01

    During the past two to three decades, the Northern Eurasia and Asian Monsoon regions have experienced significant changes in agriculture, industry and economics. Studies have indicated that land use and land cover changes due to climate change and human activities not only changes local climate but also influence global climate system. However, the interaction between human activity, land processes, and climate change are not fully understood. Having integrated interdisciplinary multi-sensor data are important for speeding up studies of climate and environmental changes. During the past three years, more than thirty monthly and daily global satellite datasets for atmospheric, land surface, and cryosphere were collected and an automated data processing, archive, and distribution system was established in supporting the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) project. Data tools and services, such as temporal and spatial search, parameter and spatial subsetting, advanced data downloading, are available. Most data have been integrated into the Web-based online data analyses and visualizations system, Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). The established data services infrastructure will be used and improved further for supporting Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MARIS) project. We plan to integrate higher resolution land process data into the Giovanni system, such as vegetation index, land surface temperature, and active fire at 5km and 1km from the standard MODIS products. About 30 years (since 1979) simulated land products from the NASA Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), and simulated atmospheric products from the NASA MERRA project will be available through the NASA MAIRS data portal. Due to large overlap of the geographic coverage and many similar interesting of NEESPI and MAIRS, collected data will serve for both projects. In this presentation, in addition to the introduction of

  15. Pre-pupation behaviour of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and its consequences for pre-imaginal learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Villagra, Cristian A.; Niemeyer, Hermann M.

    2007-07-01

    Olfactory learning may occur at different stages of insect ontogeny. In parasitoid wasps, it has been mostly shown at adult emergence, whilst it remains controversial at pre-imaginal stages. We followed larval growth of the parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi Haliday, inside the host aphid, Acyrthosiphom pisum Harris, and characterised in detail the behaviour of third instar larvae. We found that just before cocoon spinning begins, the third instar larva bites a hole through the ventral side of the mummified aphid exoskeleton. We then evaluated whether this period of exposure to the external environment represented a sensitive stage for olfactory learning. In our first experiment, the third instar larvae were allowed to spin their cocoon on the host plant ( Vicia faba L.) surface or on a plastic plate covering the portion of the host plant exposed to the ventral opening. Recently emerged adults of the first group showed a preference for plant volatiles in a glass Y-olfactometer, whereas no preference was found in adults of the second group. In a second experiment, during the period in which the aphid carcass remains open or is being sealed by cocoon spinning, third instar larvae were exposed for 24 h to either vanilla odours or water vapours as control. In this experiment, half of the parasitoid larvae were later excised from the mummy to avoid further exposure to vanilla. Adult parasitoids exposed to vanilla during the larval ventral opening of the mummy showed a significant preference for vanilla odours in the olfactometer, regardless of excision from the mummy. The larval behaviour described and the results of the manipulations performed are discussed as evidences for the acquisition of olfactory memory during the larval stage and its persistence through metamorphosis.

  16. Glaucasides A-C, three saikosaponins from Atriplex glauca L. var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire.

    PubMed

    Jabrane, Aymen; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Harzallah-Skhiri, Féthia; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2011-02-01

    From the roots of Atriplex glauca L. var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire (syn. of Atriplex parvifolia Lowe var. genuina Maire), three new saikosaponins designated as glaucasides A-C (1-3) were isolated together with the known 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-saikogenin F (4). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive analysis of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, FABMS, HR-ESIMS and chemical evidence as 13β,28-epoxy-16β,21β-dihydroxyolean-11-en-3β-yl O-β-D-[2-O-sulfate]-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranoside (1), 13β,28-epoxy-16β,21β-dihydroxyolean-11-en-3β-yl O-β-D-[2-O-sulfate]-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl 21-O-{4-(secbutylamido)-butanoyl ester} (2) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl saikogenin G (3). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated against the HT-29 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The phylogenetic placement of Picoa, with a first report on Picoa lefebvrei (Pat.) Maire (=Phaeangium lefebvrei) from Iran

    Treesearch

    A. Ammarellou; M.E. Smith; M.A. Tajick; J.M. Trappe

    2011-01-01

    Desert truffles, hypogeous Pezizales (Ascomycota), are difficult to identify due to evolutionary convergence of morphological characters among taxa that share a similar habitat and mode of spore dispersal. In this paper we document the presence of Picoa lefebvrei (Pat.) Maire (=Phaeangium lefebvrei) in Iran and use phylogenetic...

  18. Parasitic Wasps Aphidius ervi are More Attracted to a Blend of Host-Induced Plant Volatiles than to the Independent Compounds.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroyuki; Takabayashi, Junji

    2015-09-01

    Arthropodal natural enemies respond to volatiles from plants infested by their prey/host herbivores (herbivore-induced plant volatiles; HIPVs). However, the relative importance of HIPV blends vs. each compound in the blend in attracting natural enemies is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the response of a parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, to HIPVs that were specific or nonspecific to infestations by its host aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. To select such compounds, we compared the volatiles emitted from broad bean plants infested by either A. pisum (host) or by Aphis craccivora (nonhost), and selected the host-specific HIPVs β-myrcene, n-octanal, and α-phellandrene, and host-nonspecific HIPVs (E)-β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, and linalool as test compounds. For each compound, we used a range that covered the amounts emitted from infested broad bean plants for bioassays. Female wasps preferred n-octanal and (E)-β-ocimene at 10-ng and 30-ng doses over clean air. Interestingly, the wasps preferred α-phellandrene at 0.1-ng and 30-ng doses, but not at 1-ng and 10-ng doses. The wasps repelled linalool over clean air at 1-ng and 0.1-ng doses. We then mixed the equivalent amounts of the six compounds to test the effect of the blend. The wasps responded to a blend of six HIPV components at all concentrations tested (0.001 ng each to 5 ng each). These results suggested that the blend provided more useful information for female wasps than the individual compounds. The possible use of the single component and the blend for the biological control of A. ervi is discussed.

  19. Therapeutic potentials of Crataegus azarolus var. eu- azarolus Maire leaves and its isolated compounds.

    PubMed

    Abu-Gharbieh, Eman; Shehab, Naglaa Gamil

    2017-04-18

    Hyperglycemia is a complicated condition accompanied with high incidence of infection and dyslipidemia. This study aimed to explore the phyto-constituents of Crataegus azarolus var. eu- azarolus Maire leaves, and to evaluate the therapeutic potentials particularly antimicrobial, antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic of the extract and the isolated compound (3β-O-acetyl ursolic acid). Total phenolics and flavonoidal contents were measured by RP-HPLC analysis. Free radicals scavenging activity of different extraction solvents was tested in-vitro on DPPH free radicals. The antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract and its fractions as well as the isolated compounds were evaluated in-vitro on variable microorganisms. Animal models were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of the ethanolic extract along with the isolated compound (3β-O acetyl ursolic acid). RP- HPLC analysis of the phenolics revealed high content of rutin, salicylic and ellagic acids. Six compounds belonging to triterpenes and phenolics were isolated from chloroform and n-butanol fractions namely: ursolic acid, 3β-O-acetyl ursolic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin 3-O-β methyl ether, rutin and apigenin7-O-rutinoside. Ethanolic extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenger activity compared to other solvents. Ethanolic extract, hexane fraction, ursolic acid, 3β-O acetyl ursolic acid and quercetin 3-O-methyl ether showed variable antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and C. albicans. Administration of the ethanolic extract or 3β-O acetyl ursolic acid orally to the mice reduced blood glucose significantly in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Ethanolic extract significantly reduced LDL-C, VLDL-C, TC and TG and increased HDL-C in rats. Ethanolic extract and 3β-O acetyl ursolic acid reduced in-vitro activity of pancreatic lipase. This study reveals that Crataegus azarolus var. eu- azarolus Maire has the efficiency to control

  20. New bioactive dihydrofuranocoumarins from the roots of the Tunisian Ferula lutea (Poir.) Maire.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Saoussen; Jabrane, Aymen; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Ben Jannet, Hichem

    2013-07-15

    A phytochemical investigation of the roots of Ferula lutea (Poir.) Maire led to the isolation of new dihydrofuranocoumarins as two inseparable isomers, (-)-5-hydroxyprantschimgin 1 and (-)-5-hydroxydeltoin 2, together with eight known compounds, (-)-prantschimgin 3, (-)-deltoin 4, psoralen 5, xanthotoxin 6, umbelliferone 7, caffeic acid 8, β-sitosterol 9 and stigmasterol 10. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectroscopy analysis, as well as by comparison with literature data. The anti-acetylcholinesterase and cytotoxic effects of the isolates and antioxidant activities of the mixture (1+2) were also evaluated in this work. Results showed that the mixture (1+2) has the most cytotoxic activity with IC50 values 0.29±0.05 and 1.61±0.57μM against the cell lines HT-29 and HCT 116, respectively. The greatest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50=0.76±0.03) was exhibited by the xanthotoxin 6. In addition, the mixture (1+2) was investigated for its antioxidant activity and showed IC50 values 18.56, 13.06, 7.59, and 4.81μM towards DPPH free radical scavenging, ABTS radical monocation, singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, respectively.

  1. [Primary pharmacological screening of an endemic plant from the Southern Morocco (Tetraena gaetula [Emb. & Maire] Beier & Thulin)].

    PubMed

    El Hamsas El Youbi, Amal; Bousta, Dalila; Ouahidi, Ibtissam; Aarab, Lotfi

    2010-10-01

    Tetraena gaetula (Emb. & Maire) Beier & Thulin (Zygophyllum gaetulum Emb. & Maire, Zygophyllaceae) is an endemic plant from the southern Morocco. This plant is widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine as an antispasmodic and antidiabetic. Our work aims to evaluate several pharmacological properties of extracts of T. gaetula such pro- or antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, analgesic and antidepressant effects. Initially, we studied intraperitoneally the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of T. gaetula in mice; the lethal dose 50 is 1.2 g/kg of body weight. Our results also showed a stimulating proliferative activity of T. gaetula, particularly at 6 μg/μL of the proteic extract on T lymphocytes. However, this same concentration of proteic extract induced rather cytotoxicity on B cells and macrophages. Our ex vivo results showed a dose-dependent response: (i) stimulation of lymphocyte subpopulations and monocytes in a dose 600 mg/kg, and (ii) immunosuppression at a dose 300 mg/kg. The pharmacological results in vivo showed a pronounced antidepressant effect of the proteic extract at all doses. However, the aqueous extract showed analgesic and anti-depressant effects, mainly at doses 300 and 600 mg/kg. Copyright © 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Calligonum azel Maire, a North African desert plant, for its nutritional potential as a sustainable food and feed.

    PubMed

    Bannour, Marwa; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Straub, Irene; Kohl-Himmelseher, Matthias; Khadhri, Ayda; Aschi-Smiti, Samira; Kuballa, Thomas; Belgacem, Hanchi

    2016-11-01

    This study is the first to evaluate the potential of Calligonum azel Maire as a food ingredient. The plant materials flowers, leaves, stems and roots were analyzed by wet-chemical and instrumental methods for major and minor composition. The highest protein and sugar contents were recorded in the flowers (17.8% and 1.6% respectively), while the fat content was most abundant in the leaves (2.9%). Hexane extracts screened by gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid composition showed 14 major compounds such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid, but also ω3 and ω6 unsaturated fatty acids. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation were screened by GC/MS and 31 compounds were identified including estragole, naphthalene, anethole, phytol and curcumene. The HPLC-DAD screening revealed that the methanolic extracts do not contain any pharmacologically active compound with adverse properties, but quercetin, hordenine and vanillin were abundant in the flowers, leaves and roots. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy showed that glucose, sucrose and fructose were abundant in acetone and methanol extracts, while urea and glycerol were abundant in the aqueous extracts. A sensory evaluation of the aqueous infusions showed properties of the flowers reminiscent of other herbal teas. In conclusion, our results corroborate the suitability of the traditionally described use of Calligonum azel Maire as food and feed. The further study of this plant as a sustainable nutritional ingredient appears to be worthwhile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical evaluation of the LeMaire anterior cruciate [correction of concrete] ligament lateral substitution procedure. A quality audit of the Leicester modification.

    PubMed

    Thomas, O L; Oni, O O; Howard, L

    1998-07-01

    The results of a modified LeMaire anterior cruciate [corrected] ligament (ACL) lateral substitution procedure have been assessed using a variety of methods. Of the patients, 87.5 per cent obtained a satisfactory result 3-4 years after the operation. The post-operative morbidity was relatively minor.

  4. [Analgesic activity of different nonvolatile extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta Tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].

    PubMed

    Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Chammache, Malika; Il Idrissi, Abdelkader

    2008-01-01

    Different extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire contain mainly secondary metabolites with iridoïd lactonic and glucosidic type, also with triterpine lupan type.The aerial part of each species is crushed, then extracted in methanol by cold maceration, called global extracts. The global extracts will be extracted through various solvents: initially by hexane, then by dichloromethane, after that by ethyl acetate and at the end by buthanol. Each one of the obtained extracts will be used for the following trials: i) Tail flick trial on the rat for central morphine-like analgesic activity; ii) Koster trial on the mouse for peripheral analgesic activity. The evaluation of the central and peripheral analgesic activities for the pre-cited extracts was realized after optimal doses determination of the global extracts activities for both species.The peripheral analgesic activity test on the mouse showed that, for 60 mg/kg intra peritoneum (IP), the hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethyl acetate and butanic extracts have a protection power against abdominal cramp respectively around 89.78%, 81.73%, 70.9% et 69.05% for Nepeta atlantica Ball, and around 89.16%, 82.98%, 71.52% et 70.27% for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata.Central morphine-like analgesic activity on the rat showed that, for both spices under 60 mg/kg IP, the central analgesic activity effect is significantly for two extracts only: dichloromethane and ethyl acetate.

  5. [Acute toxicity and analgesic activity of the global extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].

    PubMed

    Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Fkih-Tetouani, Souad; Idrissi, Abdelkader Il

    2006-01-01

    The global extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire are especially rich in secondary metabolites of the type iridoid lactonique and glucosidique and of type lupane triterpine. The aerial part of each species is crushed, and then extracted by cold maceration in methanol. These total extracts are in the form of suspension in Arabic gum with 5%, they are tested on the mice for the tests of acute toxicity like for the peripheral analgesic activity according to the test of Koster; and also on the rats for the central analgesic activity of the morphine type based on the test "Tail Flick". The acute toxicity evaluation of these extracts follows upon the determination of the lethal amounts 50% of essential oils from these two species, already given it is specified here by the lethal dose 50% (DL50) of 1672 +/- 232 mg/kg with confidence limits [1030 - 2320] mg/kg for Nepeta atlantica and 1401 +/- 97.29 mg/kg with confidence limits [1130 - 1670] mg/kg for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata. The tests of Koster in the mouse and the "Tail Flik" in the rat showed that the global extracts of the studied species have all two greatly peripheral analgesic activity with an important protection against abdominal cramp 67.91% and 75.53% for 60 mg/kg IP respectively for Nepeta atlantica and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. Reticulata, which rise up to 90.10% and 92.89% for 120 mg/kg IP. A central morphine like analgesic activity is record with 120 mg/kg IP for the two species.

  6. Protective Activity of Total Polyphenols from Genista quadriflora Munby and Teucrium polium geyrii Maire in Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Baali, Nacera; Belloum, Zahia; Baali, Samiya; Chabi, Beatrice; Pessemesse, Laurence; Fouret, Gilles; Ameddah, Souad; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Cabello, Gérard; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a major cause of drug-induced hepatic diseases and several studies have demonstrated that diet supplementation with plants rich in antioxidant compounds provides a variety of health benefits in these circumstances. Genista quadriflora Munby (Gq) and Teucrium polium geyrii Maire (Tp) are known to possess antioxidant and numerous biological properties and these endemic plants are often used for dietary or medicinal applications. Herein, we evaluated the beneficial effect of rich-polyphenol fractions of Gq and Tp to prevent Acetaminophen-induced liver injury and investigated the mechanisms involved in this protective action. Rats were orally administered polyphenolic extracts from Gq or Tp (300 mg/kg) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC: 200 mg/kg) once daily for ten days prior to the single oral administration of Acetaminophen (APAP: 1 g/kg). The results show that preventive administration of polyphenolic extracts from Gq or Tp exerts a hepatoprotective influence during APAP treatment by improving transaminases leakage and liver histology and stimulating antioxidant defenses. Besides, suppression of liver CYP2E1, GSTpi and TNF-α mRNA levels, with enhancement of mitochondrial bioenergetics may contribute to the observed hepatoprotection induced by Gq and Tp extracts. The effect of Tp extract is significantly higher (1.5-2 fold) than that of Gq extract and NAC regarding the enhancement of mitochondrial functionality. Overall, this study brings the first evidence that pretreatment with these natural extracts display in vivo protective activity against APAP hepatotoxicity through improving mitochondrial bioenergetics, oxidant status, phase I and II enzymes expression and inflammatory processes probably by virtue of their high total polyphenols content.

  7. Protective Activity of Total Polyphenols from Genista quadriflora Munby and Teucrium polium geyrii Maire in Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Baali, Nacera; Belloum, Zahia; Baali, Samiya; Chabi, Beatrice; Pessemesse, Laurence; Fouret, Gilles; Ameddah, Souad; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Cabello, Gérard; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major cause of drug-induced hepatic diseases and several studies have demonstrated that diet supplementation with plants rich in antioxidant compounds provides a variety of health benefits in these circumstances. Genista quadriflora Munby (Gq) and Teucrium polium geyrii Maire (Tp) are known to possess antioxidant and numerous biological properties and these endemic plants are often used for dietary or medicinal applications. Herein, we evaluated the beneficial effect of rich-polyphenol fractions of Gq and Tp to prevent Acetaminophen-induced liver injury and investigated the mechanisms involved in this protective action. Rats were orally administered polyphenolic extracts from Gq or Tp (300 mg/kg) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC: 200 mg/kg) once daily for ten days prior to the single oral administration of Acetaminophen (APAP: 1 g/kg). The results show that preventive administration of polyphenolic extracts from Gq or Tp exerts a hepatoprotective influence during APAP treatment by improving transaminases leakage and liver histology and stimulating antioxidant defenses. Besides, suppression of liver CYP2E1, GSTpi and TNF-α mRNA levels, with enhancement of mitochondrial bioenergetics may contribute to the observed hepatoprotection induced by Gq and Tp extracts. The effect of Tp extract is significantly higher (1.5–2 fold) than that of Gq extract and NAC regarding the enhancement of mitochondrial functionality. Overall, this study brings the first evidence that pretreatment with these natural extracts display in vivo protective activity against APAP hepatotoxicity through improving mitochondrial bioenergetics, oxidant status, phase I and II enzymes expression and inflammatory processes probably by virtue of their high total polyphenols content. PMID:27043622

  8. Retracted: Mice lacking the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein exhibit exaggerated hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, by I Morecroft, B Doyle, M Nilsen, W Kolch, K Mair and MR MacLean. British Journal of Pharmacology, volume 163(5): 948-963, published in June 2011; DOI 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01305.x.

    PubMed

    2017-05-01

    The above article, published by the British Journal of Pharmacology in June 2011 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01305.x/full), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Formal internal investigations by the British Journal of Pharmacology have concluded that inappropriate manipulation of western blots depicted in Figures 1, 8 and 9 has occurred. The non-corresponding authors (M MacLean, B Doyle, K Mair, M Nilsen, W Kolch) wish to state that they had no knowledge that the figures in question had been manipulated. These issues are currently being investigated by the University of Glasgow. The retraction statement has also been approved by The University of Glasgow Research Integrity Council. Reference Morecroft I, Doyle B, Nilsen M, Kolch W, Mair K and MacLean MR (2011). Mice lacking the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein exhibit exaggerated hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Brit J Pharmacol 163: 948-963. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01305.x. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Meroterpenoids from the alga-derived fungi Penicillium thomii Maire and Penicillium lividum Westling.

    PubMed

    Zhuravleva, Olesya I; Sobolevskaya, Maria P; Leshchenko, Elena V; Kirichuk, Natalya N; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A; Zakharenko, Alexander M; Kim, Natalya Yu; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh

    2014-06-27

    Ten new austalide meroterpenoids (1-10) were isolated from the alga-derived fungi Penicillium thomii KMM 4645 and Penicillium lividum KMM 4663. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with related known compounds. The absolute configurations of some of the metabolites were assigned by the modified Mosher's method and CD data. Compounds 1, 2, 8, and 9 were able to inhibit AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity in JB6 Cl41 cell lines at noncytotoxic concentrations. Austalides 1-5, 8, and 9 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase from a crystalline stalk of the marine mollusk Pseudocardium sachalinensis.

  10. Morphological characterization of the mycorrhiza formed by Helianthemum almeriense Pau with Terfezia claveryi Chatin and Picoa lefebvrei (Pat.) Maire.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A; Morte, A; Honrubia, M

    2003-12-01

    This work presents the first anatomical description of the mycorrhizal systems of Helianthemum almeriense, and of the structure and ultrastructure of the mycorrhizae formed by this plant species with the ascomycetes Terfezia claveryi and Picoa lefebvrei. Four different mycorrhizal systems are described, the club-shaped mycorrhiza being the most abundant. The type of mycorrhiza formed depended on the mycorrhiza culture conditions, but not on the fungal species. For both fungal species, H. almeriense formed an endomycorrhiza in natural field conditions, an ecto- and ectendomycorrhiza without a sheath in pot cultures, and an ectomycorrhiza with a characteristic sheath and Hartig net in in vitro cultures. This is the first report of a typical sheath in Helianthemum-desert truffle mycorrhizal associations. The results support the idea that culture conditions can induce changes in mycorrhiza morphology and that there is no clear barrier between the two main types of mycorrhiza organization in Helianthemum species. The ultrastructural study confirmed the regular presence of T. claveryi intracellular hyphae in direct contact with the host wall, a localization which seems to be a characteristic of the T. claveryi mycorrhiza organization. The P. lefebvrei mycorrhiza organization was characterized by intracellular hyphae with large amounts of electron-dense globules, probably with a lipidic content, and a warty ornamentation on the wall of the root external hyphae.

  11. Influence of salt stress on essential oil yield and composition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng. ssp. Laniger (Hook) Maire et Weil).

    PubMed

    Khadhri, Ayda; Neffati, Mohamed; Smiti, Samira; Nogueira, José Manuel F; Araujo, Maria Eduarda M

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon is an aromatic plant valued for its citrus scent aroma. In this article, the effect of saline irrigation water on yield and quality of Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. was evaluated. Compounds of essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and/or (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that the growth of the aerial part was not affected at a concentration of 50 mmol NaCl. Under salt stress, the content of major chemical compounds was affected differently by the treatment level.

  12. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis.

  13. Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…

  14. Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…

  15. Analytical understanding of multiple-angle incidence resolution spectrometry based on a classical electromagnetic theory.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuki; Kasuya, Akiyoshi; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2009-07-09

    Infrared multiple-angle incidence resolution spectrometry (IR-MAIRS) is a unique spectroscopic technique to retrieve both surface-parallel (in-plane; IP) and -perpendicular (out-of-plane; OP) molecular vibration spectra simultaneously from an identical thin-film deposited on a high refractive index substrate, and the measurement theory was constructed by the use of a theoretical framework of regression equation. The core part of the MAIRS theory is found in the weighting factor matrix, R, used for a linear combination, which was constructed in an unusual manner. Because a regression equation does not strictly correlate the left- and right-hand sides of the equation, R matrix cannot directly be deduced from Maxwell's equation. Although the conventional studies using IR-MAIRS gave excellent empirical results, a strict physical understanding of MAIRS is necessary; otherwise, we cannot rely on it at least quantitatively. In the present study, the MAIRS theory has first been analyzed by the use of Maxwell's equations inductively. As a result, both MAIRS-IP and -OP spectra have readily been expressed as a linear combination of the Im(epsilon(x)) and Im(-1/epsilon(z)) functions that correspond to the conventional transmission and reflection-absorption spectra. Through the analysis of coefficients of the linear combination, MAIRS has proved to be reliably useful for analysis of thin film on a high refractive index substrate.

  16. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont). Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism), then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. Results We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Conclusions Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont-based defense. More generally

  17. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kerry M; Noge, Koji; Huang, Emma M; Campos, Jaime M; Becerra, Judith X; Hunter, Martha S

    2012-02-24

    Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont). Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism), then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont-based defense. More generally, our results indicate that

  18. Specialization of bacterial endosymbionts that protect aphids from parasitoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infection by the bacterial endosymbiont HAMILTONELLA DEFENSA is capable of protecting the pea aphid from parasitism by APHIDIUS ERVI and the black bean aphid from parasitism by LYSIPHLEBUS FABARUM. Here we investigate protection of a third aphid species, the cowpea aphid, APHIS CRACCIVORA, from 4 p...

  19. Intraguild interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis and an aphid predator and parasitoid at the population scale.

    PubMed

    Baverstock, J; Clark, S J; Alderson, P G; Pell, J K

    2009-10-01

    The interactions that occur between the entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis and a predator (Coccinella septempunctata) and a parasitoid (Aphidius ervi) were assessed in microcosm and polytunnel experiments. Transmission of P. neoaphidis to the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, was enhanced in the presence of both C. septempunctata and A. ervi in microcosm experiments done under fixed abiotic conditions. In contrast, the reproductive success of A. ervi was reduced in the presence of P. neoaphidis. Despite the increased fungal transmission in the presence of C. septempunctata, there was no additional decrease in the aphid population indicating that P. neoaphidis is functionally redundant in the presence of the coccinellid. In polytunnel experiments the reproductive success of A. ervi was not affected by P. neoaphidis. These results do not support those of the microcosm and may be due to the more natural abiotic conditions in the polytunnel reducing the competitive advantage of the fungus. Microcosms therefore provide an arena in which the interactions between fungal pathogens and other aphid-natural enemies can be assessed however, further assessments at increased spatial scales under more natural abiotic conditions are also required to accurately determine the outcome of these interactions.

  20. Specificity of Multi-Modal Aphid Defenses against Two Rival Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Adam J.; Kim, Kyungsun L.; Harmon, Jason P.; Oliver, Kerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Insects are often attacked by multiple natural enemies, imposing dynamic selective pressures for the development and maintenance of enemy-specific resistance. Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) have emerged as models for the study of variation in resistance against natural enemies, including parasitoid wasps. Internal defenses against their most common parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi, are sourced through two known mechanisms– 1) endogenously encoded resistance or 2) infection with the heritable bacterial symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa. Levels of resistance can range from nearly 0–100% against A. ervi but varies based on aphid genotype and the strain of toxin-encoding bacteriophage (called APSE) carried by Hamiltonella. Previously, other parasitoid wasps were found to commonly attack this host, but North American introductions of A. ervi have apparently displaced all other parasitoids except Praon pequodorum, a related aphidiine braconid wasp, which is still found attacking this host in natural populations. To explain P. pequodorum’s persistence, multiple studies have compared direct competition between both wasps, but have not examined specificity of host defenses as an indirectly mediating factor. Using an array of experimental aphid lines, we first examined whether aphid defenses varied in effectiveness toward either wasp species. Expectedly, both types of aphid defenses were effective against A. ervi, but unexpectedly, were completely ineffective against P. pequodorum. Further examination showed that P. pequodorum wasps suffered no consistent fitness costs from developing in even highly ‘resistant’ aphids. Comparison of both wasps’ egg-larval development revealed that P. pequodorum’s eggs have thicker chorions and hatch two days later than A. ervi’s, likely explaining their differing abilities to overcome aphid defenses. Overall, our results indicate that aphids resistant to A. ervi may serve as reservoirs for P. pequodorum, hence contributing to

  1. Diagnosis of diabetes diseases using an Artificial Immune Recognition System2 (AIRS2) with fuzzy K-nearest neighbor.

    PubMed

    Chikh, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Meryem; Settouti, Nesma

    2012-10-01

    The use of expert systems and artificial intelligence techniques in disease diagnosis has been increasing gradually. Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS) is one of the methods used in medical classification problems. AIRS2 is a more efficient version of the AIRS algorithm. In this paper, we used a modified AIRS2 called MAIRS2 where we replace the K- nearest neighbors algorithm with the fuzzy K-nearest neighbors to improve the diagnostic accuracy of diabetes diseases. The diabetes disease dataset used in our work is retrieved from UCI machine learning repository. The performances of the AIRS2 and MAIRS2 are evaluated regarding classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values. The highest classification accuracy obtained when applying the AIRS2 and MAIRS2 using 10-fold cross-validation was, respectively 82.69% and 89.10%.

  2. Mechanisms Underlying the Nonconsumptive Effects of Parasitoid Wasps on Aphids.

    PubMed

    Ingerslew, K S; Finke, D L

    2017-02-01

    Natural enemies need not consume herbivores to suppress herbivore populations. Behavioral interactions can adversely impact herbivore fitness from reduced time feeding, investment in defense, or injury from failed attacks. The importance of such "nonconsumptive effects" for herbivore suppression may vary across species based on the specificity and intensity of the herbivore defensive response. In a series of manipulative studies, we quantified the nature and consequences of nonconsumptive interactions between two parasitoid wasps, Aphidius ervi Haliday and Aphidius colemani Viereck, on two aphid species, pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) and green peach aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer)). Both wasps successfully parasitize green peach aphids, but only A. ervi parasitizes pea aphids. We observed A. ervi antennating and stinging pea aphids and documented a decrease in pea aphid longevity in response to stinging even when the aphid survived the interaction and no mummy formed. The primary defensive tactic of pea aphids in response to either wasp species was dropping from the host plant. Both wasp species antennated and stung green peach aphids, but they elicited unique defensive behaviors. Green peach aphids kicked or emitted cornicle secretions in response to A. colemani but spent more time off the plant in the presence of A. ervi. Green peach aphid longevity and fecundity were not affected by wasp stings when the aphid survived and no mummy formed. Our study demonstrates the complexity of behavioral interactions between parasitoids and their potential hosts and contributes to a mechanistic understanding of variation in the nonconsumptive suppression of herbivore populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Utilizing Higher Resolution Land Surface Remote Sensing Data for Assessing Recent Trends over Asia Monsoon Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The slide presentation discusses the integration of 1-kilometer spatial resolution land temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with 8-day temporal resolution, into the NASA Monsoon-Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) Data Center. The data will be available for analysis and visualization in the Giovanni data system. It discusses the NASA MAIRS Data Center, presents an introduction to the data access tools, and an introduction of Products available from the service, discusses the higher resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) and presents preliminary results of LST Trends over China.

  4. Mesocosm experiments to assess the transmission of Pandora neoaphidis within simple and mixed field margins and over the crop-margin interface.

    PubMed

    Baverstock, J; Torrance, M T; Clark, S J; Pell, J K

    2012-05-01

    Although considerable research on the development of agri-environment schemes has focussed on the value of managed field margins as reservoirs for arthropod natural enemies, their potential as reservoirs of entomopathogenic fungi has received less attention. Whether field margins that are most beneficial for arthropod natural enemies are the same as those for entomopathogenic fungi is unknown. Here, within glasshouse mesocosms, we assessed the reproductive success of the aphid-specific entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis on aphids in a 'simple margin' containing one plant species and on the same species of aphid in a 'mixed margin' containing seven plant species. These assessments were done in the presence of Aphidius ervi, a hymenopteran parasitoid of aphids regarded as being a key species to conserve in agri-environment schemes in the UK. When only the plants initially infested with aphids were assessed, transmission of P. neoaphidis was significantly greater (p<0.001) in the mixed margin as was parasitisation by A. ervi (p<0.05). However, when all of the plants in the mesocosms were assessed, transmission of P. neoaphidis remained greater in the mixed margin (p<0.05) whereas parasitisation by A. ervi was greater in the simple margin (p<0.05). This difference may be due to aphid dispersal which was greater in the simple margin thereby benefitting the actively foraging parasitoid whereas clustering of aphids in the mixed margin benefited the passively dispersed fungus. In a second mesocosm experiment, the movement of P. neoaphidis over the crop-margin interface was similar to that of A. ervi despite the fungus only being passively dispersed in contrast to the actively foraging parasitoid. The results presented here indicate that, although the optimal plant composition of field margins may differ for P. neoaphidis and A. ervi, both species can co-exist and reproduce in field margins and will move over the crop-margin interface. Managed field margins that

  5. Beyond Mastery: Postmodern College Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juncker, Clara

    1990-01-01

    Describes a modestly postmodern experiment (in an Advanced Composition course) with feminine linguistic spaces (Woolf, Welty, and Mairs) crisscrossing academic borders and existing simultaneously within and without traditional institutional modes. Uses Luce Irigaray's essay "Is the Subject of Science Sexed?" to comment on this undertaking. (SR)

  6. Extrathalamic Modulation of Cortical Responsiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    1988). McEntee, W. J. & Mair, R. G. (1990). The Korsakoff syndrome : a Clonidine improves memory function in schizophrenia indepen- neurochemical...cognition and putati% e neurotransmitters on neuronal activity in monkey auditory rCBF in Korsakoffs psychosis. Psychological Medicine (in the cortw. Brain

  7. Generalized Disjunctive Well-Founded Semantics for Logic Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    0 e, -o’se ’Mair t?’* te- ’r 0’e’"A #w ’ ntre. .. rnn ir 141* vo~rc, 1 pnec "’ 1"a -I ! 9!e ata leea.. 1"d :Cn’a.0ting Jrnc I*..... q -..e IIcCti on

  8. Beyond Mastery: Postmodern College Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juncker, Clara

    1990-01-01

    Describes a modestly postmodern experiment (in an Advanced Composition course) with feminine linguistic spaces (Woolf, Welty, and Mairs) crisscrossing academic borders and existing simultaneously within and without traditional institutional modes. Uses Luce Irigaray's essay "Is the Subject of Science Sexed?" to comment on this undertaking. (SR)

  9. Toward a Rhetorical Theory of Metaphor: A Transactive Analysis of Metaphor in the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannister, Linda; And Others

    Three professors at Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, reflected about a course they taught together on the use of metaphor in language, art and literature. In examining a wide range of art works with their students, including prose by E. A. Poe, Nancy Mairs, Henry James, and Woody Allen and movies such as "Dr.…

  10. Expectations About Civilian Labor Markets and Army Officer Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Design and Structure: New Lessons from Behavioral Finance , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 137–153. Feldman, Daniel C., “The Nature...from Behavioral Finance , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 157–184. Mackin, Patrick C., Paul F. Hogan, and Lee S. Mairs, A Multiperiod Model

  11. The `Alice in Wonderland' Experience—Ergot Alkaloid Therapy for Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ralph C.; Sherman, Charles; Buckman, Maire T.

    1983-01-01

    This discussion was selected from the weekly Grand Rounds in the Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Albuquerque. Taken from a transcription, it has been edited by Drs Charles Sherman, Resident in Medicine, and Maire T. Buckman, Associate Professor of Medicine and Chief, Endocrinology Section, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Alburquerque. Images PMID:6858128

  12. Understanding China. Footnotes. Volume 12, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2007-01-01

    On October 21-22, 2006, FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 46 teachers from 26 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about China. Sessions included: (1) Classical Chinese Thought and Culture and Early Chinese History (Victor Mair); (2) State and Society in Late Imperial China (Matthew Sommer);…

  13. Influence of temperature on patch residence time in parasitoids: physiological and behavioural mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiroux, Joffrey; Abram, Paul K.; Louâpre, Philippe; Barrette, Maryse; Brodeur, Jacques; Boivin, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Patch time allocation has received much attention in the context of optimal foraging theory, including the effect of environmental variables. We investigated the direct role of temperature on patch time allocation by parasitoids through physiological and behavioural mechanisms and its indirect role via changes in sex allocation and behavioural defences of the hosts. We compared the influence of foraging temperature on patch residence time between an egg parasitoid, Trichogramma euproctidis, and an aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi. The latter attacks hosts that are able to actively defend themselves, and may thus indirectly influence patch time allocation of the parasitoid. Patch residence time decreased with an increase in temperature in both species. The increased activity levels with warming, as evidenced by the increase in walking speed, partially explained these variations, but other mechanisms were involved. In T. euproctidis, the ability to externally discriminate parasitised hosts decreased at low temperature, resulting in a longer patch residence time. Changes in sex allocation with temperature did not explain changes in patch time allocation in this species. For A. ervi, we observed that aphids frequently escaped at intermediate temperature and defended themselves aggressively at high temperature, but displayed few defence mechanisms at low temperature. These defensive behaviours resulted in a decreased patch residence time for the parasitoid and partly explained the fact that A. ervi remained for a shorter time at the intermediate and high temperatures than at the lowest temperature. Our results suggest that global warming may affect host-parasitoid interactions through complex mechanisms including both direct and indirect effects on parasitoid patch time allocation.

  14. Survival to Parasitoids in an Insect Hosting Defensive Symbionts: A Multivariate Approach to Polymorphic Traits Affecting Host Use by Its Natural Enemy

    PubMed Central

    Bilodeau, Emilie; Guay, Jean-Frédéric; Turgeon, Julie; Cloutier, Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Insect parasitoids and their insect hosts represent a wide range of parasitic trophic relations that can be used to understand the evolution of biotic diversity on earth. Testing theories of coevolution between hosts and parasites is based on factors directly involved in host susceptibility and parasitoid virulence. We used controlled encounters with potential hosts of the Aphidius ervi wasp to elucidate behavioral and other phenotypic traits of host Acyrthosiphon pisum that most contribute to success or failure of parasitism. The host aphid is at an advanced stage of specialization on different crop plants, and exhibits intra-population polymorphism for traits of parasitoid avoidance and resistance based on clonal variation of color morph and anti-parasitoid bacterial symbionts. Randomly selected aphid clones from alfalfa and clover were matched in 5 minute encounters with wasps of two parasitoid lineages deriving from hosts of each plant biotype in a replicated transplant experimental design. In addition to crop plant affiliation (alfalfa, clover), aphid clones were characterized for color morph (green, pink), Hamiltonella defensa and Regiella insecticola symbionts, and frequently used behaviors in encounters with A. ervi wasps. A total of 12 explanatory variables were examined using redundancy analysis (RDA) to predict host survival or failure to A. ervi parasitism. Aphid color was the best univariate predictor, but was poorly predictive in the RDA model. In contrast, aphid host plant and symbionts were not significant univariate predictors, but significant predictors in the multivariate model. Aphid susceptibility to wasp acceptance as reflected in host attacks and oviposition clearly differed from its suitability to parasitism and progeny development. Parasitoid progeny were three times more likely to survive on clover than alfalfa host aphids, which was compensated by behaviorally adjusting eggs invested per host. Strong variation of the predictive power of

  15. Influence of temperature on patch residence time in parasitoids: physiological and behavioural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Moiroux, Joffrey; Abram, Paul K; Louâpre, Philippe; Barrette, Maryse; Brodeur, Jacques; Boivin, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Patch time allocation has received much attention in the context of optimal foraging theory, including the effect of environmental variables. We investigated the direct role of temperature on patch time allocation by parasitoids through physiological and behavioural mechanisms and its indirect role via changes in sex allocation and behavioural defences of the hosts. We compared the influence of foraging temperature on patch residence time between an egg parasitoid, Trichogramma euproctidis, and an aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi. The latter attacks hosts that are able to actively defend themselves, and may thus indirectly influence patch time allocation of the parasitoid. Patch residence time decreased with an increase in temperature in both species. The increased activity levels with warming, as evidenced by the increase in walking speed, partially explained these variations, but other mechanisms were involved. In T. euproctidis, the ability to externally discriminate parasitised hosts decreased at low temperature, resulting in a longer patch residence time. Changes in sex allocation with temperature did not explain changes in patch time allocation in this species. For A. ervi, we observed that aphids frequently escaped at intermediate temperature and defended themselves aggressively at high temperature, but displayed few defence mechanisms at low temperature. These defensive behaviours resulted in a decreased patch residence time for the parasitoid and partly explained the fact that A. ervi remained for a shorter time at the intermediate and high temperatures than at the lowest temperature. Our results suggest that global warming may affect host-parasitoid interactions through complex mechanisms including both direct and indirect effects on parasitoid patch time allocation.

  16. Survival to parasitoids in an insect hosting defensive symbionts: a multivariate approach to polymorphic traits affecting host use by its natural enemy.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Emilie; Guay, Jean-Frédéric; Turgeon, Julie; Cloutier, Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Insect parasitoids and their insect hosts represent a wide range of parasitic trophic relations that can be used to understand the evolution of biotic diversity on earth. Testing theories of coevolution between hosts and parasites is based on factors directly involved in host susceptibility and parasitoid virulence. We used controlled encounters with potential hosts of the Aphidius ervi wasp to elucidate behavioral and other phenotypic traits of host Acyrthosiphon pisum that most contribute to success or failure of parasitism. The host aphid is at an advanced stage of specialization on different crop plants, and exhibits intra-population polymorphism for traits of parasitoid avoidance and resistance based on clonal variation of color morph and anti-parasitoid bacterial symbionts. Randomly selected aphid clones from alfalfa and clover were matched in 5 minute encounters with wasps of two parasitoid lineages deriving from hosts of each plant biotype in a replicated transplant experimental design. In addition to crop plant affiliation (alfalfa, clover), aphid clones were characterized for color morph (green, pink), Hamiltonella defensa and Regiella insecticola symbionts, and frequently used behaviors in encounters with A. ervi wasps. A total of 12 explanatory variables were examined using redundancy analysis (RDA) to predict host survival or failure to A. ervi parasitism. Aphid color was the best univariate predictor, but was poorly predictive in the RDA model. In contrast, aphid host plant and symbionts were not significant univariate predictors, but significant predictors in the multivariate model. Aphid susceptibility to wasp acceptance as reflected in host attacks and oviposition clearly differed from its suitability to parasitism and progeny development. Parasitoid progeny were three times more likely to survive on clover than alfalfa host aphids, which was compensated by behaviorally adjusting eggs invested per host. Strong variation of the predictive power of

  17. Trans-Generational Effects of Mild Heat Stress on the Life History Traits of an Aphid Parasitoid

    PubMed Central

    Ismaeil, Ibrahim; Doury, Géraldine; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Dubois, Françoise; Prevost, Geneviève; Couty, Aude

    2013-01-01

    Temperature changes are common in nature and insects are particularly exposed and sensitive to such variations which can be potential stresses, ultimately affecting life history traits and overall fitness. Braconids have been widely used to study the effects of temperature on host-parasitoid interactions and the present work focused on the solitary endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Aphidiidae), an efficient biological control agent commercially used against aphids such as the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae). Contrary to previous studies using heat shocks at extreme temperatures, we evaluated the effects of mild heat stresses by transferring young parasitoid adults from the constant temperature of 20°C to either a warm (25°C) or hot (28°C) temperature, for either 1 h or 48 h. Such treatments are consistent with situations commonly experienced by parasitoids when moved from their rearing conditions to greenhouses or field conditions. The effects were evaluated both on the heat stressed A. ervi adults (G0) (immediate effects) and on their first generation (G1) progeny (trans-generational effects). G0 wasps’ mortality was significantly affected by the temperature in interaction with the duration of the stress. Longevity of G0 wasps surviving the heat stress was negatively affected by the temperature and females lived longer than males. Heat stress applied to A. ervi parents also had consequences on their G1 progeny whose developmental time, rates of mummification and percentage of parasitoid completing total development were negatively affected. Surprisingly, the egg load at emergence of the G1 female progeny was increased when their mothers had been submitted to a mild heat stress of 25°C or 28°C. These results clearly demonstrate trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, showing that adaptation to thermal stresses may be achieved via maternal effects. This study also sheds light on the

  18. Hydroclimate of the Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation in southern Australia's arid margin interpreted from speleothem records (23-15 ka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, Pauline C.; Baker, Andy; Ayliffe, Linda K.; Cohen, Timothy J.; Hellstrom, John C.; Gagan, Michael K.; Frisia, Silvia; Drysdale, Russell N.; Griffiths, Alan D.; Borsato, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Terrestrial data spanning the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation from the southern Australian region are sparse and limited to discontinuous sedimentological and geomorphological records with relatively large chronological uncertainties. This dearth of records has hindered a critical assessment of the role of the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude westerly winds on the region's climate during this time period. In this study, two precisely dated speleothem records for Mairs Cave, Flinders Ranges, are presented, providing for the first time a detailed terrestrial hydroclimatic record for the southern Australian drylands during 23-15 ka. Recharge to Mairs Cave is interpreted from the speleothem record by the activation of growth, physical flood layering, and δ18O and δ13C minima. Periods of lowered recharge are indicated by 18O and 13C enrichment, primarily affecting δ18O, argued to be driven by evaporation of shallow soil/epikarst water in this water-limited environment. A hydrological driver is supported by calcite fabric changes. These include the presence of laminae, visible organic colloids, and occasional dissolution features, related to recharge, as well as the presence of sediment bands representing cave floor flooding. A shift to slower-growing, more compact calcite and an absence of lamination is interpreted to represent reduced recharge. The Mairs Cave record indicates that the Flinders Ranges were relatively wet during the LGM and early deglaciation, particularly over the interval 18.9-15.8 ka. This wetter phase ended abruptly with a shift to drier conditions at 15.8 ka. These findings are in agreement with the geomorphic archives for this region, as well as the timing of events in records from the broader Australasian region. The recharge phases identified in the Mairs Cave record are correlated with, but antiphase to, the position of the westerly winds interpreted from marine core MD03-2611, located 550 km south of Mairs Cave in the Murray

  19. Fort Sill Oklahoma/Post Field. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-23

    uvious Willows ow Tnil bIA MI oIW U ~-A -- j f ;746 Y -imir,- 77---~ ( DATA PROCESSING qRAN;C4 1 ~ 1 C/UAF ERVIE/~AC INDSURFACE WINDSARWEATHER EVC /NA...PR "CESS.U 8Ak C ETAC/USAF- SURFACE WINDSAI ETE EVC /A ERETG RQEC FWN DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 1J94 FidAT SILL QKLAIH0M4/P0ST FLO...FcIm An Iomei, -.1- 1 1; X. - ! ;; -~i m *v ’g. i DATA PRUCESSLMG BRAfCri USAF ETAC SIFMC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY AIR WEATHER EVC /A 13945 FORT SILL

  20. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  1. Development of Methodology and Technology for Identifying and Quantifying Emission Products from Open Burning and Open Detonation Thermal Treatment Methods. Bangbox Test Series. Volume 2. Test Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Mair.tenance Management Division Demilitarization and Technology Branch Rock Island, Illinois 61299-0t•00 S,3DSN: 79)-39•0o/,55 92313477 Commercial...Division, ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO Dcmilita1izadon and’ Technology Branch Rnck ’sland. Illinnis 61299-6,00 I .TTLF (inLAude Security...Evaluation Branch , I Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. provided planning guidance, quality assurance/quality contro! support. and field and laboratory

  2. cis-Jasmone induces Arabidopsis genes that affect the chemical ecology of multitrophic interactions with aphids and their parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Toby J. A.; Matthes, Michaela C.; Chamberlain, Keith; Woodcock, Christine M.; Mohib, Abdul; Webster, Ben; Smart, Lesley E.; Birkett, Michael A.; Pickett, John A.; Napier, Johnathan A.

    2008-01-01

    It is of adaptive value for a plant to prepare its defenses when a threat is detected, and certain plant volatiles associated with insect damage, such as cis-jasmone (CJ), are known to switch-on defense metabolism. We used aphid and aphid parasitoid responses to Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system for studying gene expression and defense chemistry and its impact at different trophic levels. Differential responses to volatiles of induced Arabidopsis occurred for specialist and generalist insects: the generalist aphid, Myzus persicae, was repelled, whereas the specialist, Lipaphis erysimi, was attracted; the generalist aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi was attracted, but the specialist parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae was not affected. A. ervi also spent longer foraging on induced plants than on untreated ones. Transcriptomic analyses of CJ-induced Arabidopsis plants revealed that a limited number of genes, including a gene for a cytochrome P450, CYP81D11, were strongly up-regulated in the treated plants. We examined transgenic Arabidopsis lines constitutively overexpressing this gene in bioassays and found insect responses similar to those obtained for wild-type plants induced with CJ, indicating the importance of this gene in the CJ-activated defense response. Genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis and catabolism are unaffected by CJ and, because these genes relate to interactions with herbivores and parasitoids specific to this family of plants (Brassicaceae), this finding may explain the differences in behavioral response of specialist and generalist insects. PMID:18356298

  3. Adaptive evolution of a generalist parasitoid: implications for the effectiveness of biological control agents

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda-Paulo, Francisca A; Ortiz-Martínez, Sebastián A; Figueroa, Christian C; Lavandero, Blas

    2013-01-01

    The use of alternative hosts imposes divergent selection pressures on parasitoid populations. In response to selective pressures, these populations may follow different evolutionary trajectories. Divergent natural selection could promote local host adaptation in populations, translating into direct benefits for biological control, thereby increasing their effectiveness on the target host. Alternatively, adaptive phenotypic plasticity could be favored over local adaptation in temporal and spatially heterogeneous environments. We investigated the existence of local host adaptation in Aphidius ervi, an important biological control agent, by examining different traits related to infectivity (preference) and virulence (a proxy of parasitoid fitness) on different aphid-host species. The results showed significant differences in parasitoid infectivity on their natal host compared with the non-natal hosts. However, parasitoids showed a similar high fitness on both natal and non-natal hosts, thus supporting a lack of host adaptation in these introduced parasitoid populations. Our results highlight the role of phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits of parasitoids, enabling them to maximize fitness on alternative hosts. This could be used to increase the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, A. ervi females showed significant differences in infectivity and virulence across the tested host range, thus suggesting a possible host phylogeny effect for those traits. PMID:24062806

  4. Adaptive evolution of a generalist parasitoid: implications for the effectiveness of biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Zepeda-Paulo, Francisca A; Ortiz-Martínez, Sebastián A; Figueroa, Christian C; Lavandero, Blas

    2013-09-01

    The use of alternative hosts imposes divergent selection pressures on parasitoid populations. In response to selective pressures, these populations may follow different evolutionary trajectories. Divergent natural selection could promote local host adaptation in populations, translating into direct benefits for biological control, thereby increasing their effectiveness on the target host. Alternatively, adaptive phenotypic plasticity could be favored over local adaptation in temporal and spatially heterogeneous environments. We investigated the existence of local host adaptation in Aphidius ervi, an important biological control agent, by examining different traits related to infectivity (preference) and virulence (a proxy of parasitoid fitness) on different aphid-host species. The results showed significant differences in parasitoid infectivity on their natal host compared with the non-natal hosts. However, parasitoids showed a similar high fitness on both natal and non-natal hosts, thus supporting a lack of host adaptation in these introduced parasitoid populations. Our results highlight the role of phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits of parasitoids, enabling them to maximize fitness on alternative hosts. This could be used to increase the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, A. ervi females showed significant differences in infectivity and virulence across the tested host range, thus suggesting a possible host phylogeny effect for those traits.

  5. Protection of Pea Aphids Associated with Coinfecting Bacterial Symbionts Persists During Superparasitism by a Braconid Wasp.

    PubMed

    Donald, K J; Clarke, H V; Mitchell, C; Cornwell, R M; Hubbard, S F; Karley, A J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts that associate facultatively with insect herbivores can influence insect fitness and trophic interactions. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, can be protected from parasitism by the braconid wasp Aphidius ervi when harbouring particular symbiotic bacteria, with specific endosymbiont coinfections providing almost complete protection. However, studies often quantify aphid mummification with no control over parasitoid oviposition per aphid; thus, if mummy production fails or is low, the causes are often unclear. Here, we show that the high level of protection associated with the coinfecting endosymbionts Hamiltonella defensa and X-type is maintained even when pea aphids are superparasitised. This contrasts strongly with the protection provided by H. defensa alone, which has been shown by others to be overcome by superparasitism. By dissecting aphids exposed to two parasitoid attacks, we reveal that A. ervi deposits eggs equally freely in endosymbiont-infected and uninfected nymphs, and lack of mummification in endosymbiont-protected nymphs arises from failure of the wasp eggs to hatch or emerging larvae to develop.

  6. Shifts in the life history of parasitic wasps correlate with pronounced alterations in early development.

    PubMed

    Grbić, M; Strand, M R

    1998-02-03

    Developmental processes have been traditionally viewed to be invariant within higher taxa. However, examples are known whereby closely related species exhibit alterations in early embryogenesis yet appear very similar as adults. Such developmental changes are thought to occur in response to shifts in life history. In insects, the regulation of embryonic development has been intensively studied in model species like Drosophila melanogaster. Previous comparative studies suggest that the developmental processes documented in Drosophila well describe embryogenesis of advanced, holometabolous, insects generally. There have been few attempts, however, to take into account how life history has influenced early development of insects or to characterize early development of species with life histories fundamentally different from flies. Here we compared early development of two species from the same family of parasitic wasps that exhibit very different life histories. Bracon hebetor is an ectoparasite that lays large, yolky eggs on the integument of its host that develop much like the free-living honeybee and Drosophila. In contrast, Aphidius ervi is an endoparasite that lays small and apparently yolk-free eggs that develop in the hemocoel of the host. This wasp exhibits a radically different mode of early development at both the cellular and molecular level from B. hebetor. The developmental changes in A. ervi reflect functional adaptations for its derived life history and argue that departures from the fly paradigm may occur commonly among insects whose eggs develop under conditions different from typical terrestrial species.

  7. Shifts in the life history of parasitic wasps correlate with pronounced alterations in early development

    PubMed Central

    Grbic, Miodrag; Strand, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Developmental processes have been traditionally viewed to be invariant within higher taxa. However, examples are known whereby closely related species exhibit alterations in early embryogenesis yet appear very similar as adults. Such developmental changes are thought to occur in response to shifts in life history. In insects, the regulation of embryonic development has been intensively studied in model species like Drosophila melanogaster. Previous comparative studies suggest that the developmental processes documented in Drosophila well describe embryogenesis of advanced, holometabolous, insects generally. There have been few attempts, however, to take into account how life history has influenced early development of insects or to characterize early development of species with life histories fundamentally different from flies. Here we compared early development of two species from the same family of parasitic wasps that exhibit very different life histories. Bracon hebetor is an ectoparasite that lays large, yolky eggs on the integument of its host that develop much like the free-living honeybee and Drosophila. In contrast, Aphidius ervi is an endoparasite that lays small and apparently yolk-free eggs that develop in the hemocoel of the host. This wasp exhibits a radically different mode of early development at both the cellular and molecular level from B. hebetor. The developmental changes in A. ervi reflect functional adaptations for its derived life history and argue that departures from the fly paradigm may occur commonly among insects whose eggs develop under conditions different from typical terrestrial species. PMID:9448291

  8. Partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Lanteigne, Marie-Eve; Brodeur, Jacques; Jenni, Sylvie; Boivin, Guy

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of partial plant resistance on the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a major pest of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and one of its parasitoids, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids were reared on susceptible (L. sativa variety Estival; S) or partially resistant (Lactuca serriola L. PI 491093; PR) lettuce, and next parasitized by A. ervi females. Fitness proxies were measured for both aphids and parasitoids. Developmental time to adult stage took longer for alate and apterous aphids (an average of 3.5 and 1.5 additional days, respectively) on PR than on S lettuce, and fecundity of alate aphids reared on PR lettuce was reduced by 37.8% relative to those reared on S lettuce. Size (tibia length) and weight of aphids reared on PR lettuce were lower than for aphids reared on S lettuce from the third and second instar onward, respectively. Parasitism of aphids reared on PR plants resulted in lower parasitoid offspring emergence (-49.9%), lower adult female (-30.3%) and male (-27.5%) weight, smaller adult female (-17.5%) and male (-11.9%) size, and lower female fecundity (37.8% fewer eggs) than when parasitoids developed from aphids reared on S plants. Our results demonstrate that partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects both the second and third trophic levels. Host plant resistance in cultivated lettuce may therefore create an ecological sink for aphid parasitoids.

  9. Tobacco overexpressing β-ocimene induces direct and indirect responses against aphids in receiver tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Cascone, Pasquale; Iodice, Luigi; Maffei, Massimo E; Bossi, Simone; Arimura, Gen-Ichiro; Guerrieri, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    In the last decade plant-to-plant communication has received an increasing attention, particularly for the role of Volatile Organic Compounds as possible elicitors of plant defense. The role of β-ocimene as an interspecific elicitor of plant defense has been recently assessed in multitrophic systems including different plant species (Solanaceae, Poaceae, legumes) and different pest species including chewer insects and phytophagous mites. Both chewer insects and phytophagous mites are known to elicit specific plant defensive pathways which are different (at least in part) from those elicited by sap feeders. The aim of this research was to fill this gap of knowledge and to assess the role of β-ocimene as an elicitor of plant defense against aphid pests, which are sap feeders. For this purpose we used as transgenic tobacco plant releasing an odour plume enriched in this compound as emitter and a tomato plant as receiver. We selected the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and its natural enemy, the parasitoid Aphidius ervi, as the targets of plant induced defense. Tomato plant defense induced by β-ocimene was assessed by characterizing the aphid performance in terms of fixing behaviour, development and reproduction (direct plant defense) and the parasitoid performance in terms of attraction towards tomato plants (indirect plant defense). The characterization of tomato response to β-ocimene was completed by the identification of Volatile Organic Compounds as released by conditioned tomato plants. Tomato plants that were exposed to the volatiles of transgenic tobacco enriched in β-ocimene resulted in less suitable for the aphids in respect to control ones (direct defense). On tomato plants "elicited" by β-ocimene we recorded: a significant lower number of aphids settled; a significant lower number newborn nymphs; a significant lower weight of aphids feeding. In addition, tomato plants "elicited" by β-ocimene resulted became more attractive towards the parasitoid A. ervi

  10. Does sex-biased dispersal account for the lack of geographic and host-associated differentiation in introduced populations of an aphid parasitoid?

    PubMed

    Zepeda-Paulo, Francisca; Lavandero, Blas; Mahéo, Frédérique; Dion, Emilie; Outreman, Yannick; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Figueroa, Christian C

    2015-06-01

    Host recognition and use in female parasitoids strongly relies on host fidelity, a plastic behavior which can significantly restrict the host preferences of parasitoids, thus reducing the gene flow between parasitoid populations attacking different insect hosts. However, the effect of migrant males on the genetic differentiation of populations has been frequently ignored in parasitoids, despite its known impact on gene flow between populations. Hence, we studied the extent of gene flow mediated by female and male parasitoids by assessing sibship relationships among parasitoids within and between populations, and its impact on geographic and host-associated differentiation in the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi. We report evidences of a high gene flow among parasitoid populations on different aphid hosts and geographic locations. The high gene flow among parasitoid populations was found to be largely male mediated, suggested by significant differences in the distribution of full-sib and paternal half-sib dyads of parasitoid populations.

  11. Does sex-biased dispersal account for the lack of geographic and host-associated differentiation in introduced populations of an aphid parasitoid?

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda-Paulo, Francisca; Lavandero, Blas; Mahéo, Frédérique; Dion, Emilie; Outreman, Yannick; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Figueroa, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    Host recognition and use in female parasitoids strongly relies on host fidelity, a plastic behavior which can significantly restrict the host preferences of parasitoids, thus reducing the gene flow between parasitoid populations attacking different insect hosts. However, the effect of migrant males on the genetic differentiation of populations has been frequently ignored in parasitoids, despite its known impact on gene flow between populations. Hence, we studied the extent of gene flow mediated by female and male parasitoids by assessing sibship relationships among parasitoids within and between populations, and its impact on geographic and host-associated differentiation in the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi. We report evidences of a high gene flow among parasitoid populations on different aphid hosts and geographic locations. The high gene flow among parasitoid populations was found to be largely male mediated, suggested by significant differences in the distribution of full-sib and paternal half-sib dyads of parasitoid populations. PMID:26078852

  12. Aphid-encoded variability in susceptibility to a parasitoid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many animals exhibit variation in resistance to specific natural enemies. Such variation may be encoded in their genomes or derived from infection with protective symbionts. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, for example, exhibits tremendous variation in susceptibility to a common natural enemy, the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi. Pea aphids are often infected with the heritable bacterial symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa, which confers partial to complete resistance against this parasitoid depending on bacterial strain and associated bacteriophages. That previous studies found that pea aphids without H. defensa (or other symbionts) were generally susceptible to parasitism, together with observations of a limited encapsulation response, suggested that pea aphids largely rely on infection with H. defensa for protection against parasitoids. However, the limited number of uninfected clones previously examined, and our recent report of two symbiont-free resistant clones, led us to explicitly examine aphid-encoded variability in resistance to parasitoids. Results After rigorous screening for known and unknown symbionts, and microsatellite genotyping to confirm clonal identity, we conducted parasitism assays using fifteen clonal pea aphid lines. We recovered significant variability in aphid-encoded resistance, with variation levels comparable to that contributed by H. defensa. Because resistance can be costly, we also measured aphid longevity and cumulative fecundity of the most and least resistant aphid lines under permissive conditions, but found no trade-offs between higher resistance and these fitness parameters. Conclusions These results indicate that pea aphid resistance to A. ervi is more complex than previously appreciated, and that aphids employ multiple tactics to aid in their defense. While we did not detect a tradeoff, these may become apparent under stressful conditions or when resistant and susceptible aphids are in direct competition. Understanding

  13. Analog earthquakes: Friction experiments with bulk solids and implications for fault dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, M.; Klinkmueller, M.; Oppelt, A.; Kemnitz, H.; Oncken, O.; Schreurs, G.

    2008-12-01

    We report on friction experiments on dry bulk solids used to simulate slow ("aseismic") and fast ("seismic") slip in analog laboratory experiments. Ring shear tests have been performed at typical experimental conditions, i.e. in the very low stress regime (normal loads < 0.02 MPa, shear velocities 0.05 - 25 mm/min, T = 23°), and compared to similar tests at higher stresses (Mair and Marone 1999; Mair et al., 2002). Friction tests have been complemented with scanning electron microscope analysis to explore the control of particle characteristics (size, shape, sorting, roughness) on the strength and stability of frictional deformation. By varying the ratio between particle size and displacement we aim at simulating different brittle deformation mechanisms: Fine-grained material (sand, glass beads, sugar, salt) exposed to relatively fast shear undergoes distributed granular flow (DGF) including particle rotation, dilation and sliding. Rather slow shear of coarse material (rice) is accommodated mainly by localized particle boundary sliding (LBS). Both mechanisms are capable to produce frictional instabilities resulting in stick-slip motion. We found that frictional strength during DGF is controlled by particle shape: the frictional coefficient increases with the amount of angular particles consistent with previous findings by Mair et al. (2002) in the high stress regime (> 5 MPa). Also consistent with their work, unstable slip during DGF occurs if well-sorted and isometric particles dominate presumably controlled by the breakdown of force bridges. Frictional strength and stability during LBS seems to be controlled by surface roughness consistent with the concept of asperities. For particle surfaces with a scale-invariant roughness similar to natural faults, the critical distance over which slip has to accelerate to become unstable is not constant but increases with "interseismic" sliding velocity both during LBS (this study) and DGF (Mair and Marone, 1999). We found

  14. Dominant gene for rust resistance in pearl millet

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, W.W.; Wells, H.D.; Burton, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    Rust (Puccinia substriata var. indica) resistance was discovered in three Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke subspecies monodii (Maire) Brunken accessions from Senegal. Resistant plant were free of rust, although the bottom one or two leaves of some plants did develop a brown discoloration without pustules. Resistance was controlled by a dominant gene assigned the gene symbol Rr1. Backcrossing has been effective in transferring resistance from the wild grassy, monodii to cultivated pearl millet. The Rr1 gene should be useful in the production of rust resistant pearl millet hybrids and cultivars. 6 references, 1 table.

  15. Robins AFB, Warner Robins, Georgia. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-31

    73 - FED 79 POR FROM DAILY OBS: MAIR 49 - FEB 79 - AUG 3 11979- j FEDERAL BUILDING ASHEVILLE, N. C . - t~ 10 02 057j$9.tO J" *~-X* 33,... *,i 7...IZY WOflOS ( C oiliu ove.’o old. It . coory and lIdentify by block Ooosb.r)- *RUSSWO Daily temperature Atmospheric pressure Snowfall Extreme Snow depth...Phenomena; (8) Precipitation, Snowfall and Snow Depth (daily amounts and extreme values); ( C ) Surface winds; (D) Ceiling Versus Visibility; Sky Cover; (E

  16. A new schematic for poly(3-alkylthiophene) in an amorphous film studied using a novel structural index in infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shioya, N; Shimoaka, T; Eda, K; Hasegawa, T

    2015-05-28

    The molecular structure of poly(3-alkylthiophene-2,5-diyl) in an amorphous film reveals that the short axis of the thiophene ring is kept highly oriented parallel to the substrate, whereas the long axis along the polymer chain is largely disordered. This is unveiled by infrared p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution spectroscopy (pMAIRS), achieved by analyzing the orientation angles of three mutually orthogonal vibrational modes localized on the thiophene ring with the aid of a newly developed structural index. This new analytical technique is useful irrespective of the crystallinity of the thin film. As a result, the intrinsic chemical parameters controlling the molecular orientation are understood in a unified manner, and the reason that the hexyl group gives the best results for a photovoltaic cell is also revealed.

  17. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120-670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  18. Mediation and causality at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lars R

    2009-09-01

    Within a person-oriented research paradigm the focus is on individuals characterized by patterns of information that are regarded as indivisible wholes. It is then not sufficient to carry out standard variable-oriented mediation analysis. The procedure suggested by von Eye, Mun, and Mair (2009) for pattern-oriented mediation analysis is much better aligned to this person-oriented framework. An important new feature in their approach is that it can detect mediator configurations that prohibit predictor and outcome connections at a pattern level. Two extensions of their procedure are suggested, namely (1) the use of cluster analysis to arrive at the categories and (2) the use of other models for estimating the expected frequencies. It is pointed out that in their context a functional relations perspective might be more relevant than the standard causality perspective.

  19. Hearing Thresholds of a Non-noise-exposed Population in Dundee

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W.; Pearson, J.; Mair, A.

    1967-01-01

    In order to provide a control population for a previous investigation of noise-induced hearing loss in a population of female jute weavers (Taylor, Pearson, Mair, and Burns, 1965) a survey was conducted on the hearing thresholds of 296 school teachers in Dundee, Scotland, by pure tone earphone listening. This population, although not exposed to industrial noise, is subjected to city noise and differs, therefore, from the rural population of Hinchcliffe (1959), whose presbycusis data have been used in previous studies. The results show that Dundee female school teachers do not conform to British Standard in the age group 18-24 years. The presbycusis data (18-65 years age group), however, show close agreement with those of Hinchcliffe (1959) and Corso (1963). The distributions of hearing threshold observed were normal. PMID:6023076

  20. Closed form analysis of a gamma, back-to-back free displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.L.; Kilgour, D.B.; Lazarides, Y.G.; Rallis, C.J.

    1983-08-01

    A back-to-back, free displacer, gamma type Stirling engine has been designed and is currently under manufacture and development at the University of the Witwatersrand. This paper presents a simple idealized analysis for such an engine. It involves the coupling together of the thermodynamic and mechanical equations, and by the use of classical control and vibration theory, closed form solutions are obtained. This work follows up on previous methods of analysis developed by Berchowitz, WyattMair and Goldberg for similar types of engines. A numerical application of the analysis has been carried out for the design in order to evaluate the operating frequency, phase displacements, amplitude of oscillation and basic output power. Performance characteristics are obtained and detailed in the paper. The analysis has provided analytic proof of the viability of the proposed engine configuration, highlighted weak areas and provided a background to higher order analysis. A programme of experimental validation is under way.

  1. A numerical taxonomic study of Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Sneath, P H; Stevens, M

    1985-10-01

    A numerical taxonomic study of strains of Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Yersinia, with some allied bacteria, showed 23 reasonably distinct groups. These fell into three major areas. Area A contained species of Actinobacillus and Pasteurella: A. suis, A. equuli, A. lignieresii, P. haemolytica biovar A, P. haemolytica biovar T, P. multocida, A. actinomycetemcomitans, 'P. bettii', 'A. seminis', P. ureae and P. aerogenes. Also included in A was a composite group of Pasteurella pneumotropica and P. gallinarum, together with unnamed groups referred to as 'BLG', 'Mair', 'Ross' and 'aer-2'. Area B contained species of Yersinia: Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. pestis and a group 'ent-b' similar to Y. enterocolitica. Area C contained non-fermenting strains: Y. philomiragia, Moraxella anatipestifer and a miscellaneous group 'past-b'. There were also a small number of unnamed single strains.

  2. Metabolic acidosis aggravates experimental acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Patrícia Andréa da Fonseca; de Brito, Teresinha Silva; Freire, Rosemayre Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Vale, Mariana Lima; de Menezes, Dalgimar Beserra; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Libório, Alexandre Braga

    2016-02-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and metabolic acidosis (MA) are two critical conditions that may simultaneously occur in clinical practice. The result of this combination can be harmful to the kidneys, but this issue has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study evaluated the influence of low systemic pH on various parameters of kidney function in rats that were subjected to an experimental model of renal I/R injury. Metabolic acidosis was induced in male Wistar rats by ingesting ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in tap water, beginning 2 days before ischemic insult and maintained during the entire study. Ischemia/reperfusion was induced by clamping both renal arteries for 45 min, followed by 48 h of reperfusion. Four groups were studied: control (subjected to sham surgery, n=8), I/R (n=8), metabolic acidosis (MA; 0.28 M NH4Cl solution and sham surgery, n=6), and MA+I/R (0.28 M NH4Cl solution plus I/R, n=9). Compared with I/R rats, MA+I/R rats exhibited higher mortality (50 vs. 11%, p=0.03), significant reductions of blood pH, plasma bicarbonate (pBic), and standard base excess (SBE), with a severe decline in the glomerular filtration rate and tubular function. Microscopic tubular injury signals were detected. Immunofluorescence revealed that the combination of MA and I/R markedly increased nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), but it did not interfere with the decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression that was caused by I/R injury. Acute ischemic kidney injury is exacerbated by acidic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The heuristic value of redundancy models of aging.

    PubMed

    Boonekamp, Jelle J; Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Molecular studies of aging aim to unravel the cause(s) of aging bottom-up, but linking these mechanisms to organismal level processes remains a challenge. We propose that complementary top-down data-directed modelling of organismal level empirical findings may contribute to developing these links. To this end, we explore the heuristic value of redundancy models of aging to develop a deeper insight into the mechanisms causing variation in senescence and lifespan. We start by showing (i) how different redundancy model parameters affect projected aging and mortality, and (ii) how variation in redundancy model parameters relates to variation in parameters of the Gompertz equation. Lifestyle changes or medical interventions during life can modify mortality rate, and we investigate (iii) how interventions that change specific redundancy parameters within the model affect subsequent mortality and actuarial senescence. Lastly, as an example of data-directed modelling and the insights that can be gained from this, (iv) we fit a redundancy model to mortality patterns observed by Mair et al. (2003; Science 301: 1731-1733) in Drosophila that were subjected to dietary restriction and temperature manipulations. Mair et al. found that dietary restriction instantaneously reduced mortality rate without affecting aging, while temperature manipulations had more transient effects on mortality rate and did affect aging. We show that after adjusting model parameters the redundancy model describes both effects well, and a comparison of the parameter values yields a deeper insight in the mechanisms causing these contrasting effects. We see replacement of the redundancy model parameters by more detailed sub-models of these parameters as a next step in linking demographic patterns to underlying molecular mechanisms.

  4. Climate Change Studies over Bangalore using Multi-source Remote Sensing Data and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, S.; Gouda, K. C.; Laxmikantha, B. P.; Bhat, N.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of metropolitan growth that is a response to often bewildering sets of economic, social, and political forces and to the physical geography of an area. Some of the causes of the sprawl include - population growth, economy, patterns of infrastructure initiatives like the construction of roads and the provision of infrastructure using public money encouraging development. The direct implication of such urban sprawl is the change in land use and land cover of the region. In this study the long term climate data from multiple sources like NCEP reanalysis, IMD observations and various satellite derived products from MAIRS, IMD, ERSL and TRMM are considered and analyzed using the developed algorithms for the better understanding of the variability in the climate parameters over Bangalore. These products are further mathematically analyzed to arrive at desired results by extracting land surface temperature (LST), Potential evapo-transmission (PET), Rainfall, Humidity etc. Various satellites products are derived from NASA (National Aeronautics Space Agency), Indian meteorological satellites and global satellites are helpful in massive study of urban issues at global and regional scale. Climate change analysis is well studied by using either single source data such as Temperature or Rainfall from IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) or combined data products available as in case of MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Scale) program to get rainfall at regional scale. Finally all the above said parameters are normalized and analyzed with the help of various open source available software's for pre and post processing our requirements to obtain desired results. A sample of analysis i.e. the Inter annual variability of annual averaged Temperature over Bangalore is presented in figure 1, which clearly shows the rising trend of the temperature (0.06oC/year). Also the Land use and land cover (LULC) analysis over Bangalore, Day light hours from

  5. Chemically mediated intraguild predator avoidance by aphid parasitoids: interspecific variability in sensitivity to semiochemical trails of ladybird predators.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoshitaka; Birkett, Michael A; Pye, Barry J; Powell, Wilf

    2006-09-01

    The avoidance responses of aphid parasitoids with varying host ranges (Aphidius eadyi, Aphidius ervi, and Praon volucre) to chemical trails deposited by intraguild predatory ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata and Adalia bipunctata, were investigated. Females of all three parasitoid species avoided leaves previously visited by C. septempunctata or A. bipunctata adults. The avoidance responses shown by the two Aphidius species were stronger to trails of C. septempunctata than to those of A. bipunctata. However, P. volucre avoided trails of both ladybird species to a similar degree. Dose responses of these three parasitoid species to the hydrocarbons n-tricosane (C23H48), n-pentacosane (C25H52), and n-heptacosane (C27H56), which are components of the trails of both C. septempunctata and A. bipunctata, were evaluated. Dual-choice bioassays indicated the following: (1) A. eadyi showed more sensitive avoidance responses to n-tricosane than did the other two parasitoid species, (2) all three species showed similar responses to n-pentacosane across a range of doses, and (3) only P. volucre showed avoidance responses to n-heptacosane. Quantitative analyses of each hydrocarbon in the trails of the two ladybird species showed that n-pentacosane and n-heptacosane occur in significantly greater amounts in C. septempunctata trails than in those of A. bipunctata. The trails of the two species also differ qualitatively in the other hydrocarbons present.

  6. Evidence for specificity in symbiont-conferred protection against parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Ailsa H. C.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Many insects harbour facultative symbiotic bacteria, some of which have been shown to provide resistance against natural enemies. One of the best-known protective symbionts is Hamiltonella defensa, which in pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) confers resistance against attack by parasitoid wasps in the genus Aphidius (Braconidae). We asked (i) whether this symbiont also confers protection against a phylogenetically distant group of parasitoids (Aphelinidae) and (ii) whether there are consistent differences in the effects of bacteria found in pea aphid biotypes adapted to different host plants. We found that some H. defensa strains do provide protection against an aphelinid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis. Hamiltonella defensa from the Lotus biotype provided high resistance to A. abdominalis and moderate to low resistance to Aphidius ervi, while the reverse was seen from Medicago biotype isolates. Aphids from Ononis showed no evidence of symbiont-mediated protection against either wasp species and were relatively vulnerable to both. Our results may reflect the different selection pressures exerted by the parasitoid community on aphids feeding on different host plants, and could help explain the maintenance of genetic diversity in bacterial symbionts. PMID:26136451

  7. Covariance of phenotypically plastic traits induces an adaptive shift in host selection behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lee M; Roitberg, Bernard D; Gillespie, David R

    2006-01-01

    Flexibility in adult body size allows generalist parasitoids to use many host species at a cost of producing a range of adult sizes. Consequently, host selection behaviour must also maintain a level of flexibility as adult size is related to capture efficiency. In the present study, we investigated covariance of two plastic traits—size at pupation and host size selection behaviour—using Aphidius ervi reared on either Acyrthosiphon pisum or Aulacorthum solani, generating females of disparate sizes. Natal host was shown to change the ranking of perceived host quality with relation to host size. Parasitoids preferentially attacked hosts that corresponded to the size of the second instar of their natal host species. This resulted in optimal host selection behaviour when parasitoids were exposed to the same host species from which they emerged. Parasitoid size was positively correlated with host size preference, indicating that females use relative measurements when selecting suitable hosts. These coadapted gene complexes allow generalist parasitoids to effectively use multiple host species over several generations. However, the fixed nature of the behavioural response, within a parasitoid's lifetime, suggests that these traits may have evolved in a patchy host species environment. PMID:17015365

  8. A facultative endosymbiont in aphids can provide diverse ecological benefits.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, E R; Ferrari, J

    2015-10-01

    Ecologically important traits of insects are often affected by facultative bacterial endosymbionts. This is best studied in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, which is frequently infected by one or more of eight facultative symbiont species. Many of these symbiont species have been shown to provide one ecological benefit, but we have little understanding of the range of effects that a single strain can have. Here, we describe the phenotypes conferred by three strains of the recently discovered bacterium known as X-type (Enterobacteriaceae), each in their original aphid genotype which also carries a Spiroplasma symbiont. All comparisons are made between aphids that are coinfected with Spiroplasma and X-type and aphids of the same genotype that harbour only Spiroplasma. We show that in all cases, infection with X-type protects aphids from the lethal fungal pathogen Pandora neoaphidis, and in two cases, resistance to the parasitoid Aphidius ervi also increases. X-type can additionally affect aphid stress responses--the presence of X-type increased reproduction after the aphids were heat-stressed. Two of the three strains of X-type are able to provide all of these benefits. Under benign conditions, the aphids tended to suffer from reduced fecundity when harbouring X-type, a mechanism that might maintain intermediate frequencies in field populations. These findings highlight that a single strain of a facultative endosymbiont has the potential to provide diverse benefits to its aphid host.

  9. Facultative bacterial symbionts in aphids confer resistance to parasitic wasps

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Kerry M.; Russell, Jacob A.; Moran, Nancy A.; Hunter, Martha S.

    2003-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships between animals and microorganisms are common in nature, yet the factors controlling the abundance and distributions of symbionts are mostly unknown. Aphids have an obligate association with the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola (the primary symbiont) that has been shown to contribute directly to aphid fitness. In addition, aphids sometimes harbor other vertically transmitted bacteria (secondary symbionts), for which few benefits of infection have been previously documented. We carried out experiments to determine the consequences of these facultative symbioses in Acyrthosiphon pisum (the pea aphid) for vulnerability of the aphid host to a hymenopteran parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, a major natural enemy in field populations. Our results show that, in a controlled genetic background, infection confers resistance to parasitoid attack by causing high mortality of developing parasitoid larvae. Compared with uninfected controls, experimentally infected aphids were as likely to be attacked by ovipositing parasitoids but less likely to support parasitoid development. This strong interaction between a symbiotic bacterium and a host natural enemy provides a mechanism for the persistence and spread of symbiotic bacteria. PMID:12563031

  10. Mechanisms for stable coexistence in an insect community.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Zhang, Bingbing; Li, Michael Yi

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we formulate a three-species ecological community model consisting of two aphid species (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Megoura viciae) and a specialist parasitoid (Aphidius ervi) that attacks only one of the aphids (A pisum). The model incorporates both density-mediated and trait-mediated host-parasitoid interactions. Our analysis shows that the model possesses much richer and more realistic dynamics than earlier models. Our theoretical results reveal a new mechanism for stable coexistence in a three-species community in which any two species alone do not co-exist. More specifically, it is known that, when a predator is introduced into a community of two competing species, if the predator only predates on the strong competitor, it can allow the weak competitor to survive, but may drive the strong competitor to extinction through over-exploitation. We show that if the weak competitor interferes the predation on the strong competitor through trait-mediated indirect effects, then all three species can stably co-exist.

  11. Endotoxin removal by radio frequency gas plasma (glow discharge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Angela

    2011-12-01

    Contaminants remaining on implantable medical devices, even following sterilization, include dangerous fever-causing residues of the outer lipopolysaccharide-rich membranes of Gram-negative bacteria such as the common gut microorganism E. coli. The conventional method for endotoxin removal is by Food & Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended dry-heat depyrogenation at 250°C for at least 45 minutes, an excessively time-consuming high-temperature technique not suitable for low-melting or heat-distortable biomaterials. This investigation evaluated the mechanism by which E. coli endotoxin contamination can be eliminated from surfaces during ambient temperature single 3-minute to cumulative 15-minute exposures to radio-frequency glow discharge (RFGD)-generated residual room air plasmas activated at 0.1-0.2 torr in a 35MHz electrodeless chamber. The main analytical technique for retained pyrogenic bio-activity was the Kinetic Chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay, sufficiently sensitive to document compliance with FDA-required Endotoxin Unit (EU) titers less than 20 EU per medical device by optical detection of enzymatic color development corresponding to < 0.5 EU/ml in sterile water extracts of each device. The main analytical technique for identification of chemical compositions, amounts, and changes during sequential reference Endotoxin additions and subsequent RFGD-treatment removals from infrared (IR)-transparent germanium (Ge) prisms was Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection (MAIR) infrared spectroscopy sensitive to even monolayer amounts of retained bio-contaminant. KimaxRTM 60 mm x 15 mm and 50mm x 15mm laboratory glass dishes and germanium internal reflection prisms were inoculated with E. coli bacterial endotoxin water suspensions at increments of 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 EU, and characterized by MAIR-IR spectroscopy of the dried residues on the Ge prisms and LAL Assay of sterile water extracts from both glass and Ge specimens. The Ge prism MAIR

  12. Shallot Aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in Strawberry: Biocontrol Potential of Three Predators and Three Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish assays, both Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and A. ervi Haliday readily stung shallot aphids, with no significant difference in stinging frequency between the two species. A. ervi induced a significantly higher mortality (79.0 ± 7.2%) in terms of stung aphids compared with A. colemani (55.3 ± 4.1%); however, only a minor fraction (2.7 ± 1.8% and 7.1 ± 3.1%, respectively) of the killed aphids resulted in formation of mummies, presumably due to a physiological response to parasitism. The low percentage of mummification precludes the use of either Aphidius species in anything but inundative biocontrol. In similar set-ups, Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) killed almost half (49.6 ± 5.3%) of the exposed aphids through host feeding. In addition, 23.2 ± 7.3% of non-host-fed aphids developed into mummified aphids, and 38.1 ± 13.2% of non-host-fed aphids died from other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Third instars of all 3 predators readily preyed upon the shallot aphid in Petri dish set-ups with significant differences in daily

  13. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry: biocontrol potential of three predators and three parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish assays, both Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and A. ervi Haliday readily stung shallot aphids, with no significant difference in stinging frequency between the two species. A. ervi induced a significantly higher mortality (79.0 ± 7.2%) in terms of stung aphids compared with A. colemani (55.3 ± 4.1%); however, only a minor fraction (2.7 ± 1.8% and 7.1 ± 3.1%, respectively) of the killed aphids resulted in formation of mummies, presumably due to a physiological response to parasitism. The low percentage of mummification precludes the use of either Aphidius species in anything but inundative biocontrol. In similar set-ups, Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) killed almost half (49.6 ± 5.3%) of the exposed aphids through host feeding. In addition, 23.2 ± 7.3% of non-host-fed aphids developed into mummified aphids, and 38.1 ± 13.2% of non-host-fed aphids died from other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Third instars of all 3 predators readily preyed upon the shallot aphid in Petri dish set-ups with significant differences in daily

  14. Multitrophic interactions involving genetically modified potatoes, nontarget aphids, natural enemies and hyperparasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cowgill, S E; Danks, C; Atkinson, H J

    2004-03-01

    Genetically modified (GM) potatoes expressing a cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) have been developed as an option for the management of plant parasitic nematodes. The relative impact of such plants on predators and parasitoids (natural enemies) of nontarget insects was determined in a field trial. The trial consisted of GM plants, control plants grown in soil treated with a nematicide and untreated control plants. The quantity of nontarget aphids and their quality as hosts for natural enemies were studied. Aphid density was significantly reduced by nematicide treatment and few natural enemies were recorded from treated potatoes during the study. In contrast, similar numbers of aphids and their more abundant predators were recorded from the untreated control and the GM potatoes. The size of aphids on GM and control plants was recorded twice during the study. During the first sampling period (2-9 July) aphids clip-caged on GM plants were smaller than those on control plants. During the second sampling period (23-30 July) there was no difference in aphid size between those from the GM and control plants. Host size is an important component of host quality. It can affect the size and fecundity of parasitoid females and the sex ratio of their offspring. However, neither the fitness of females of Aphidius ervi, the most prevalent primary parasitoid, nor the sex ratio of their progeny, were affected when the parasitoids developed on aphids feeding on GM plants. Two guilds of secondary parasitoid were also recorded during the study. The fitness of the most abundant species, Aspahes vulgaris, was not affected when it developed on hosts from GM plants. The transgene product, OC I Delta D86, was not detected in aphids that had fed on GM plants in the field, suggesting that there is minimal secondary exposure of natural enemies to the inhibitor. The results indicate that transgenic nematode resistance is potentially more compatible with aphid biological control than is

  15. Influence of temperature on pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) resistance to natural enemy attack.

    PubMed

    Stacey, D A; Fellowes, M D E

    2002-08-01

    The ability to resist or avoid natural enemy attack is a critically important insect life history trait, yet little is understood of how these traits may be affected by temperature. This study investigated how different genotypes of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, a pest of leguminous crops, varied in resistance to three different natural enemies (a fungal pathogen, two species of parasitoid wasp and a coccinellid beetle), and whether expression of resistance was influenced by temperature. Substantial clonal variation in resistance to the three natural enemies was found. Temperature influenced the number of aphids succumbing to the fungal pathogen Erynia neoaphidis Remaudière & Hennebert, with resistance increasing at higher temperatures (18 vs. 28 degrees C). A temperature difference of 5 degrees C (18 vs. 23 degrees C) did not affect the ability of A. pisum to resist attack by the parasitoids Aphidius ervi Haliday and A. eadyi Starý, González & Hall. Escape behaviour from foraging coccinellid beetles (Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville) was not directly influenced by aphid clone or temperature (16 vs. 21 degrees C). However, there were significant interactions between clone and temperature (while most clones did not respond to temperature, one was less likely to escape at 16 degrees C), and between aphid clone and ladybird presence (some clones showed greater changes in escape behaviour in response to the presence of foraging coccinellids than others). Therefore, while larger temperature differences may alter interactions between Acyrthosiphon pisum and an entomopathogen, there is little evidence to suggest that smaller changes in temperature will alter pea aphid-natural enemy interactions.

  16. Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Soils of Sopron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: anthropogenic effects, land use types, heavy metal content, polluted urban soils, GIS methods Our aim was to identify the main feedback effects between the town and its environment. In the course of our investigation we have analysed the heavy metal contents of urban soil in Sopron town in Hungary. We collected 208 samples on 104 points from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth in a standard network and also at industrial territories. We have been represented our results in a GIS system. We analysed the soils with Lakanen-Erviö method and we measured 24 elements but we have been focused on Co, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Using the data we observed the relationship between these elements in both layers. In the downtown the acidity of soils were alkaline by the greatest number of point, therefore the pollution of these soils is not leach in deeper layers yet. The lead was very high (> 100 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas by us. Cadmium contents were the highest (6.14 mg Cd/kg) in traffic zones, where these values could be more than 3 mg Cd/kg according to the literature. The cobalt and zinc results were under the limits. According to our measurements we founded the highest average values in the soils of parks. This could be contamination of the lead from traffic, which bind in the soil of urban green spaces. Now we could continue our examinations with the investigations of these polluted green areas, which can effect to human health.

  17. Deriving leaf chlorophyll content of green-leafy vegetables from hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lihong; Yang, Linzhang

    Different nitrogen (N) treatments of four common green-leafy vegetable varieties with different leaf color: lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa L.) with yellow green leaves, pakchoi ( Brassica chinensis L.) var. aijiaohuang in Chinese (AJH) with middle green leaves, spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) with green leaves and pakchoi ( B. chinensis L.) var. shanghaiqing in Chinese (SHQ) with dark green leaves, were carried out to achieve a wide range of chlorophyll content. The relationship of vegetable leaf hyperspectral response to its chlorophyll content was examined in this study. Almost all reported successful leaf chlorophyll indices in the literature were evaluated for their ability to predict the chlorophyll content in vegetable leaves. Some new indices based on the first derivative curve were also developed, and compared with the chlorophyll indices published. The results showed that most of the indices showed a strong relation with leaf chlorophyll content. In general, modified indices with the blue or near red edge wavelength performed better than their simple counterpart without modification, ratio indices performed a little better than normalized indices when chlorophyll expressed on area basis and reversed when chlorophyll expressed on fresh weight basis. A normalized derivative difference ratio (BND: (D722-D700)/(D722+D700) calibrated by Maire et al. [Maire, G., Francois, C., Dufrene, E., 2004. Towards universal broad leaf chlorophyll indices using PROSPECT simulated database and hyperspectral reflectance measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment 89 (1), 1-28]) gave the best results among all published indices in this study (RMSE=22.1 mg m -2), then the mSR-like indices with the RMSE between 22.6 and 23.0 mg m -2. The new indices EBAR (ratio of the area of red and blue, ∑ dRE/∑ dB), EBFN (normalized difference of the amplitude of red and blue, (dRE-dB)/(dRE+dB)) and EBAN (normalized difference of the area of red and blue, (∑ dRE-∑ dB)/(∑ d

  18. Delmopinol-induced matrix removal facilitates photodynamic therapy and chlorhexidine methods for disinfecting mixed oral biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Stephen Christopher

    It is often observed that the slimy matrixes of various bacterial-formed biofilms can limit their disinfection. This investigation demonstrated that disinfection effectiveness by either photodynamic therapy (PDT) or chlorhexidine irrigation is significantly improved by collapse of that matrix using the non-bactericidal reagent delmopinol as part of the treatment sequence. Cyclic shear-producing conditions were used to grow 4-day, whole salivary and growth media biofilms on glow-discharge-treated polystyrene (N=46) and mini-germanium internal reflection prisms to serve in a periodontal crypt model of disinfection by either methylene-blue-mediated PDT or by chlorhexidine irrigation. Assays for bacterial viability, with and without treatments, were performed by alamarBlueRTM fluorescent methods, statistically applied (ANOVA, Tukey's HSD). Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection Infrared (MAIR-IR) assays confirmed selective removal of the predominantly polysaccharide matrix materials by the delmopinol treatment, but not by equivalent water or chlorhexidine methods. Confocal-IR microscopy showed that the delmopinol reagent, alone, caused about one-third of each wet biofilm to be removed, while bacterial re-growth was confirmed by alamarBlueRTM assay. Chlorhexidine and PDT suppression of bacterial activity without regrowth was significantly improved with the added delmopinol treatment, and is likely to provide similarly beneficial results in the effective disinfection of diverse biofilms in many settings.

  19. Visualization and Analysis of Multi-scale Land Surface Products via Giovanni Portals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.; Gerasimov, Irina V.

    2013-01-01

    Large volumes of MODIS land data products at multiple spatial resolutions have been integrated into the Giovanni online analysis system to support studies on land cover and land use changes,focused on the Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions through the LCLUC program. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data.Customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI andGiovanni-MAIRS) have been created to integrate land, atmospheric,cryospheric, and societal products, enabling researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes, and their relationships to climate, at global and regional scales. This presentation shows a sample Giovanni portal page, lists selected data products in the system, and illustrates potential analyses with imagesand time-series at global and regional scales, focusing on climatology and anomaly analysis. More information is available at the GES DISCMAIRS data support project portal: http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govmairs.

  20. A radiographic survey of monumental masonry workers in Aberdeen

    PubMed Central

    Davies, T. A. Lloyd; Doig, A. T.; Fox, A. J.; Greenberg, M.

    1973-01-01

    Lloyd Davies, T. A., Doig, A. T., Fox, A. J., and Greenberg, M. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 227-231. A radiographic survey of monumental masonry workers in Aberdeen. A survey of radiographic appearances of the lungs of monumental masonry workers in Aberdeen was carried out to determine the present prevalence of abnormalities and to serve as a standard for future comparisons in view of changes in methods of working. No major change could be detected in the status of these granite workers in Aberdeen over the past 20 years but the different methods of survey used by Mair in 1951 and by the present study did not allow of strict comparison. Chest radiographs were reported on by three readers independently using the National Coal Board elaboration of the ILO classification and a score was given to each film using Oldham's method. Multiple regression analysis showed that ϰ-ray changes were related to years in granite but progression was slow in comparison with foundry workers. The prevalence of radiographic appearances of category 1 or greater was 3·0% overall and 4·6% for workers in dusty jobs. Evidence of pneumoconiosis was not observed in workers exposed for less than 20 years. With the environmental control attained the threshold limit values for respirable dust were not often much exceeded. PMID:4353240

  1. In situ mass spectrometry monitoring of fungal cultures led to the identification of four peptaibols with a rare threonine residue.

    PubMed

    Sica, Vincent P; Rees, Evan R; Raja, Huzefa A; Rivera-Chávez, José; Burdette, Joanna E; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2017-11-01

    Peptaibols are an intriguing class of fungal metabolites due both to their wide range of reported bioactivities and to the structural variability that can be generated by the exchange of variable amino acid building blocks. In an effort to streamline the discovery of structurally diverse peptaibols, a mass spectrometry surface sampling technique was applied to screen the chemistry of fungal cultures in situ. Four previously undescribed peptaibols, all containing a rare threonine residue, were identified from a fungal culture (MSX53554), which was identified as Nectriopsis Maire (Bionectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota). These compounds not only increased the known threonine-containing peptaibols by nearly 20%, but also, the threonine residue was situated in a unique place compared to the other reported threonine-containing peptaibols. After the initial in situ detection and characterization, a large-scale solid fermentation culture was grown. The four peptaibols were isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry. In addition, one of the peptaibols was fully characterized by NMR and amino acid analysis using Marfey's reagent and exhibited moderate in vitro anticancer activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Accessing Recent Trend of Land Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Romanov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Land surface temperature (Ts) is an important element to measure the state of terrestrial ecosystems and to study surface energy budgets. In support of the land cover/land use change-related international program MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study), we have collected global monthly Ts measured by MODIS since the beginning of the missions. The MODIS Ts time series have approximately 11 years of data from Terra since 2000 and approximately 9 years of data from Aqua since 2002, which makes possible to study the recent climate, such as trend. In this study, monthly climatology from two platforms are calculated and compared with that from AIRS. The spatial patterns of Ts trends are accessed, focusing on the Eurasia region. Furthermore, MODIS Ts trends are compared with those from AIRS and NASA's atmospheric assimilation model, MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications). The preliminary results indicate that the recent 8-year Ts trend shows an oscillation-type spatial variation over Eurasia. The pattern is consistent for data from MODIS, AIRS, and MERRA, with the positive center over Eastern Europe, and the negative center over Central Siberia. The calculated climatology and anomaly of MODIS Ts will be integrated into the online visualization system, Giovanni, at NASA GES DISC for easy use by scientists and general public.

  3. Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Sassi, A Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, F; Bourgougnon, N; Aouni, M

    2008-01-10

    Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae), Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae), Hypericum crispum L. (Hypericaceae), Plantago coronopus L. ssp. eu-coronopus Pilger var. vulgaris G.G. (Plantaginaceae) and Zygophyllum album L. (Zygophyllaceae). Fifty extracts prepared from those plants were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), using neutral red incorporation. Extracts from eight plants among these 15 showed some degree of antiviral activity, while the methanolic extract of E. multiflora was highly active with EC(50) of 132.6 microg mL(-1). These results corroborate that medicinal plants from Tunisia can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  4. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    PubMed

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-15

    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A robust method to screen detergents for membrane protein stabilization, revisited.

    PubMed

    Champeil, Philippe; Orlowski, Stéphane; Babin, Simon; Lund, Sten; le Maire, Marc; Møller, Jesper; Lenoir, Guillaume; Montigny, Cédric

    2016-10-15

    This report is a follow up of our previous paper (Lund, Orlowski, de Foresta, Champeil, le Maire and Møller (1989), J Biol Chem 264:4907-4915) showing that solubilization in detergent of a membrane protein may interfere with its long-term stability, and proposing a protocol to reveal the kinetics of such irreversible inactivation. We here clarify the fact that when various detergents are tested for their effects, special attention has of course to be paid to their critical micelle concentration. We also investigate the effects of a few more detergents, some of which have been recently advertised in the literature, and emphasize the role of lipids together with detergents. Among these detergents, lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (LMNG) exerts a remarkable ability, even higher than that of β-dodecylmaltoside (DDM), to protect our test enzyme, the paradigmatic P-type ATPase SERCA1a from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Performing such experiments for one's favourite protein probably remains useful in pre-screening assays testing various detergents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Midline thalamic reuniens lesions improve executive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Prasad, J A; Abela, A R; Chudasama, Y

    2017-03-14

    The role of the thalamus in complex cognitive behavior is a topic of increasing interest. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the nucleus reuniens (NRe), a midline thalamic nucleus interconnected with both hippocampal and prefrontal circuitry, lead to enhancement of executive behaviors typically associated with the prefrontal cortex. Rats were tested on four behavioral tasks: (1) the combined attention-memory (CAM) task, which simultaneously assessed attention to a visual target and memory for that target over a variable delay; (2) spatial memory using a radial arm maze, (3) discrimination and reversal learning using a touchscreen operant platform, and (4) decision-making with delayed outcomes. Following NRe lesions, the animals became more efficient in their performance, responding with shorter reaction times but also less impulsively than controls. This change, combined with a decrease in perseverative responses, led to focused attention in the CAM task and accelerated learning in the visual discrimination task. There were no observed changes in tasks involving either spatial memory or value-based decision making. These data complement ongoing efforts to understand the role of midline thalamic structures in human cognition, including the development of thalamic stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for acquired cognitive disabilities (Schiff, 2008; Mair et al., 2011), and point to the NRe as a potential target for clinical intervention.

  7. A near-infrared SETI experiment: instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Shelley A.; Werthimer, Dan; Treffers, Richard R.; Maire, Jérôme; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Stone, Remington P. S.; Drake, Frank; Meyer, Elliot; Dorval, Patrick; Siemion, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    We are designing and constructing a new SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) instrument to search for direct evidence of interstellar communications via pulsed laser signals at near-infrared wavelengths. The new instrument design builds upon our past optical SETI experiences, and is the first step toward a new, more versatile and sophisticated generation of very fast optical and near-infrared pulse search devices. We present our instrumental design by giving an overview of the opto-mechanical design, detector selection and characterization, signal processing, and integration procedure. This project makes use of near-infrared (950 - 1650 nm) discrete amplification Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) that have > 1 GHz bandwidths with low noise characteristics and moderate gain (~104). We have investigated the use of single versus multiple detectors in our instrument (see Maire et al., this conference), and have optimized the system to have both high sensitivity and low false coincidence rates. Our design is optimized for use behind a 1m telescope and includes an optical camera for acquisition and guiding. A goal is to make our instrument relatively economical and easy to duplicate. We describe our observational setup and our initial search strategies for SETI targets, and for potential interesting compact astrophysical objects.

  8. Exploring Remote Sensing Products Online with Giovanni for Studying Urbanization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina; Kempler, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a Large amount of MODIS land products at multi-spatial resolutions have been integrated into the online system, Giovanni, to support studies on land cover and land use changes focused on Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data. The customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI and Giovanni-MAIRS) are created to integrate land, atmospheric, cryospheric, and social products, that enable researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes and their relationships to climate at global and regional scales. This presentation documents MODIS land surface products in Giovanni system. As examples, images and statistical analysis results on land surface and local climate changes associated with urbanization over Yangtze River Delta region, China, using data in Giovanni are shown.

  9. Analysis of Vegetation Index Variations and the Asian Monsoon Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Sunhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation growth depends on local climate. Significant anthropogenic land cover and land use change activities over Asia have changed vegetation distribution as well. On the other hand, vegetation is one of the important land surface variables that influence the Asian Monsoon variability through controlling atmospheric energy and water vapor conditions. In this presentation, the mean and variations of vegetation index of last decade at regional scale resolution (5km and higher) from MODIS have been analyzed. Results indicate that the vegetation index has been reduced significantly during last decade over fast urbanization areas in east China, such as Yangtze River Delta, where local surface temperatures were increased significantly in term of urban heat Island. The relationship between vegetation Index and climate (surface temperature, precipitation) over a grassland in northern Asia and over a woody savannas in southeast Asia are studied. In supporting Monsoon Asian Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, the data in this study have been integrated into Giovanni, the online visualization and analysis system at NASA GES DISC. Most images in this presentation are generated from Giovanni system.

  10. Image formation by bifocal lenses in a trilobite eye?

    PubMed

    Gál, J; Horváth, G; Clarkson, E N; Haiman, O

    2000-01-01

    In this work we report on a unique and ancient type of eye, in which the lower surface of the upper calcite lens units possessed an enigmatic central bulge making the dioptric apparatus similar to a bifocal lens. This eye belonged to the trilobite Dalmanitina socialis, which became extinct several hundred million years ago. As far as we know, image formation by bifocal lenses of this kind did/does not occur in any other ancient or modern animal visual system. We suggest that the function of these bifocal lenses may be to enable the trilobite to see simultaneously both very near (e.g. floating food particles and tiny preys) and far (e.g. sea floor, conspecifics, or approaching enemies) in the optical environment through the central and peripheral lens region, respectively. This was the only reasonable function we could find to explain the puzzling lens shape. We admit that it is not clear whether bifocality was necessary for the animal studied. We show that the misleading and accidental resemblance of an erroneous correcting lens surface (designed by René DesCartes in 1637 [DesCartes, R. (1637). Oeuvres de DesCartes. La Géometrie. Livre 2. pp. 134. J. Maire, Leyden] to the correcting interface in the compound Dalmanitina lens may be the reason why the earlier students of the Dalmanitina lens did not recognize its possible bifocality.

  11. Application of the micro-forward mutation assay to assess mutagenicity of airborne particulates in indoor

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Y.; Goto, S.; Murata, M.; Matsushita, H.; Lewtas, J.

    1988-01-01

    A validity test of the micro-forward mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium strain TM677 was carried out using benzene-ethanol extracts from airborne particulates as test materials. Sensitivity of this assay in the presence and absence of S-9 mix was five to ten times higher than the pre-incubation method, a modified method of Ames's original method, using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. This means that the virtual sensitivity of the micro-forward mutation assay is greater by ten times or more than the pre-incubation method, because two or more strains are necessary in the latter method. Repeatability of the micro-forward mutation assay was nearly same with that of the pre-incubation method. That is, the coefficient of variation of mutagenic frequency of the particulate extracts was about 10%. This forward mutation assay was applied to airborne particulates indoors, and proved to be able to measure easily the mutagenic activity of the extracts from particulates collected by 30 cu m-air sampling. Some indoor pollutants, especially ones collected in a room in which cigarette smoking was done, showed higher mutagenic activity than that of outdoor sample.

  12. Fluid management in traumatic shock: a practical approach for mountain rescue. Official recommendations of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM).

    PubMed

    Sumann, Günther; Paal, Peter; Mair, Peter; Ellerton, John; Dahlberg, Tore; Zen-Ruffinen, Gregoire; Zafren, Ken; Brugger, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Sumann, Günther, Peter Paal, Peter Mair, John Ellerton, Tore Dahlberg, Gregoire Zen-Ruffinen, Ken Zafren, and Hermann Brugger. Fluid management in traumatic shock: a practical approach for mountain rescue. High Alt. Med. Biol. 10:71-75, 2009.-The management of severe injuries leading to traumatic shock in mountains and remote areas is a great challenge for emergency physicians and rescuers. Traumatic brain injury may further aggravate outcome. A mountain rescue mission may face severe limitations from the terrain and required rescue technique. The mission may be characterized by a prolonged prehospital care time, where urban traumatic shock protocols may not apply. Yet optimal treatment is of utmost importance. The aim of this study is to establish scientifically supported recommendations for fluid management that are feasible for the physician or paramedic attending such an emergency. A nonsystematic literature search was performed; the results and recommendations were discussed among the authors and accepted by the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are discussed, as well as limitations on therapy in mountain rescue. An algorithm for fluid resuscitation, derived from the recommendations, is presented in Fig. 1. Focused on the key criterion of traumatic brain injury, different levels of blood pressure are presented as a goal of therapy, and the practical means for achieving these are given.

  13. Comparative analysis of transcript abundance in Pinus sylvestris after challenge with a saprotrophic, pathogenic or mutualistic fungus.

    PubMed

    Adomas, Aleksandra; Heller, Gregory; Olson, Ake; Osborne, Jason; Karlsson, Magnus; Nahalkova, Jarmila; Van Zyl, Len; Sederoff, Ron; Stenlid, Jan; Finlay, Roger; Asiegbu, Frederick O

    2008-06-01

    To investigate functional differences in the recognition and response mechanisms of conifer roots to fungi with different trophic strategies, Pinus sylvestris L. was challenged with a saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma aureoviride Rifai. The results were compared with separate studies investigating pine interactions with a pathogen, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu stricto and an ectomycorrhizal symbiont, Laccaria bicolor Maire (Orton). Global changes in the expression of 2109 conifer genes were assayed 1, 5 and 15 days after inoculation. Gene expression data from a cDNA microarray were analyzed by the 2-interconnected mixed linear model statistical approach. The total number of genes differentially expressed compared with the uninfected control was similar after challenge with the pathogen and the ectomycorrhizal symbiont, but the number of differentially expressed genes increased over time for H. annosum, and decreased for L. bicolor. Inoculation of pine roots with T. aureoviride resulted overall in a much lower number of genes with changed transcript levels compared with inoculation with H. annosum or L. bicolor. Functional classification of the differentially expressed genes revealed that the ectomycorrhizal fungus triggered transient induction of defence-related genes. The response and induction of defence against the pathogen was delayed and the magnitude increased over time. Thus, there were specific transcriptional responses depending on whether the conifer roots were challenged with mutualistic, saprotrophic or pathogenic fungi. This suggests that pine trees are able to recognize diverse fungal species and specifically distinguish whether they are pathogenic, neutral or beneficial microbial agents.

  14. High- and low-frequency noise in Cs and in liquid metal ion sources.

    PubMed

    Rüdenauer, F; Mitterauer, J; Genovese, A

    2009-04-01

    Fundamental Physics space missions set rigid thrust noise limits for liquid metal ion thrusters used as actuators on drag-free platforms aboard the spacecraft. We have measured current-, voltage- and thrust noise of Cs and In LMIS, foreseen as prime candidates in these missions. In the high-frequency range, quasiperiodic oscillations around approximately 10(5)Hz can be observed for both types of emitters with frequency depending on emission current. In the low-frequency range (1-10(-3)Hz), which is particularly important for drag-free control, different types of noise events are observed, which in some instances show definite signs of deterministic chaos (period doubling, self-similarity). High-frequency current oscillations are generally ascribed to electro-hydrodynamic oscillations of the TAYLOR cone and the jet at its apex, with concomitant emission of charged nanodroplets. Comparison of theory and experiment shows unsatisfactory agreement in predicted vs. measured current oscillation frequencies and large disagreement in droplet emission frequencies. No theory is presently available for describing low-frequency noise events. In terms of a linearized Mair theory it is, however, shown that these noise events can be efficiently described by spontaneous variations in electrical emitter impedance. In spite of this impedance noise, the mission requirements for thrust noise (<0.1microN/Hz(1/2)) can be met by a thrust-stabilized In emitter.

  15. Characterization of natural habitats and diversity of Libyan desert truffles.

    PubMed

    Bouzadi, Mozidi; Grebenc, Tine; Turunen, Ossi; Kraigher, Hojka; Taib, Hassan; Alafai, Abdulhafied; Sbissi, Imed; Assad, Mamdouh El Haj; Bedade, Dattatray; Shamekh, Salem

    2017-10-01

    Desert truffles have traditionally been used as food in Libya. Desert truffle grows and gives fruit sporadically when adequate and properly distributed rainfall occurs with existence of suitable soil and mycorrhizal host plant. The present study aimed to identify and characterize two kinds of wild desert truffles from ecological and nutritional points that were collected from the studied area. The truffle samples were identified as Terfezia (known as red or black truffle) and Tirmania (known as white truffle). The nutritional values (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) of both Libyan wild truffle (Terfezia and Tirmania) were determined on a dry weight basis and result showed that Tirmania and Terfezia contained 16.3 and 18.5% protein, 6.2 and 5.9% lipid, 67.2 and 65% carbohydrate, respectively, in ascocarp biomass. The soil pH of the upper and lower regions of the Hamada Al-Hamra ranged between 8.2 and 8.5 giving suitable conditions for fructification. The plants, Helianthemum kahiricum and Helianthemum lippii were the dominant plants in Hamada Al-Hamra region found to form a mycorrhiza with desert truffles. The phylogenetic analysis of the genomic rDNA ITS region showed that, out of five collections three represented Tirmania pinoyi (Maire) Malencon, one Tirmania nivea (Desf.) Trappe, and one Terfezia boudieri Chatin.

  16. Accessing Recent Trend of Land Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Romanov, P.

    2011-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important element to measure the state of the terrestrial ecosystems and to study the surface energy budgets. In support of the land cover/land use change related international program MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study), we have collected the global monthly LST measured by MODIS since the beginning of the missions. The MODIS LST time series have ~11 years of data from Terra since 2000 and ~9 years of data from Aqua since 2002, which makes possible to study the recent climate, such as trend and variability. In this study, monthly climatology from two satellite platforms are calculated and compared. The spatial patterns of LST trends are accessed, focusing on the Asian Monsoon region. Furthermore, the MODIS LST trends are compared with the skin temperature trend from the NASA's atmospheric assimilation model, MERRA (MODERN ERA RETROSPECTIVE-ANALYSIS FOR RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS), which has longer data record since 1979. The calculated climatology and anomaly of MODIS LST will be integrated into the online visualization system, Giovanni, at NASA GES DISC for easy access and use by scientists and general public.

  17. What Does It Mean to be Central? A Botanical Geography of Paris 1830-1848.

    PubMed

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the geography of the botanical community in Paris, under the July Monarchy (1830-1848). At that time, the Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (MHN) was at its institutional acme and, under the impulse of François Guizot, its budget was increasing dramatically. However, closer attention to manuscript sources (correspondence, travel diaries) reveals that the botanists of the time favoured other private institutions, located both on the Right and Left Banks of the Seine. The MHN was prestigious for its collections and professors but it was relatively remote from the centre of Paris, and its plant samples were sometimes difficult to access. Several other first-class private herbaria granted liberal access to botanists: those of Jacques Gay, Phillip Barker Webb, and Benjamin Delessert. Thanks to their wealth, these plant amateurs had ownership of historical herbaria consisting of species types alongside rich botanical libraries. Botanists visiting Paris from foreign countries or other provinces of France also spent some time studying less general plant collections, like those of Count Jaubert, or specialized collections, like Montagne's or Léveillé's on cryptogams. Other botanists also enjoyed renown at the time, although they published little, if anything (like Maire). Living in crammed apartments, literally in the middle of their plant samples, these botanists were key nodes in botanical networks, although they had no relation with the prestigious MHN.

  18. Multi-modal defenses in aphids offer redundant protection and increased costs likely impeding a protective mutualism.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Adam J; Doremus, Matthew R; Kraft, Laura J; Kim, Kyungsun L; Oliver, Kerry M

    2017-04-05

    1.The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, maintains extreme variation in resistance to its most common parasitoid wasp enemy, Aphidius ervi, which is sourced from two known mechanisms: protective bacterial symbionts, most commonly Hamiltonella defensa, or endogenously encoded defenses. We have recently found that individual aphids may employ each defense individually, occasionally both defenses together, or neither. 2.In field populations, Hamiltonella-infected aphids are found at low to moderate frequencies and while less is known about the frequency of resistant genotypes, they show up less often than susceptible genotypes in field collections. To better understand these patterns, we sought to compare the strengths and costs of both types of defense, individually and together, in order to elucidate the selective pressures that maintain multi-modal defense mechanisms or that may favor one over the other. 3.We experimentally infected five aphid genotypes (two lowly and three highly resistant), each with two symbiont strains, Hamiltonella-APSE8 (moderate protection) and Hamiltonella-APSE3 (high protection). This resulted in three sublines per genotype: uninfected, +APSE8, and +APSE3. Each of the fifteen total sublines was first subjected to a parasitism assay to determine its resistance phenotype and in a second experiment a subset were chosen to compare fitness (fecundity and survivorship) in presence and absence of parasitism. 4.In susceptible aphid genotypes, parasitized sublines infected with Hamiltonella generally showed increased protection with direct fitness benefits, but clear infection costs to fitness in the absence of parasitism. In resistant genotypes, Hamiltonella infection rarely conferred additional protection, often further reduced fecundity and survivorship when enemy challenged, and resulted in constitutive fitness costs in the absence of parasitism. We also identified strong aphid-genotype X symbiont-strain interactions, such that the best defensive

  19. Radiological investigation of phosphate fertilizers: Leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Németh, Szabolcs; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-07-01

    The raw materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry are the various apatite minerals. Some of these have high levels of natural radionuclides, and thus phosphate fertilizers contain significant amounts of U-238, K-40 and Ra-226. These can leach out of the fertilizers used in large quantities for resupplying essential nutrients in the soil and can then enter the food chain through plants, thereby increasing the internal dose of the affected population. In the current study, the radiological risk of eight commercially available phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, NPK, PK) and their leaching behaviours were investigated using different techniques (gamma and alpha spectrometry), and the dose contributions of using these fertilizers were estimated. To characterize the leaching behaviour, two leaching procedures were applied and compared -the MSZ 21470-50 (Hungarian standard) and the Tessier five-step sequential extraction method. Based on the evaluation of the gamma-spectra, it is found that the level of Th-232 in the samples was low (max.7 ± 6 Bq kg(-1)), the average Ra-226 activity concentration was 309 ± 39 Bq kg(-1) (min. 10 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), max. 570 ± 46 Bq kg(-1)), while the K-40 concentrations (average 3139 ± 188 Bq kg(-1), min. 51 ± 36 Bq kg(-1)) could be as high as 7057 ± 427 Bq kg(-1). The high K-40 can be explained by reference to the composition of the investigated fertilizers (NPK, PK). U concentrations were between 15 and 361 Bq kg(-1), with the average of 254 Bq kg(-1), measured using alpha spectrometry. The good correlation between P2O5 content and radioactivity reported previously is not found in our data. The leaching studies reveal that the mobility of the fertilizer's uranium content is greatly influenced by the parameters of the leaching methods. The availability of U to water ranged between 3 and 28 m/m%, while the Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized between 10 and 100% of the U content. Copyright © 2016

  20. Topsoil investigation on two different urban areas in West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal contents of urban soils in two different urban areas have been investigated in Sopron town (169.01 km2) and in Szombathely town 97.50 km2) in Hungary. In a standard network 208 samples have been collected Sopron from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth. 164 samples have been taken on 88 points in the area of Szombathely. We analysed all of the soil samples with ICP equipment applying Lakanen-Erviö method (Ammonium Acetate - EDTA (pH 4.65)) and we focused on Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn during the evaluation. The soils of suburb are determined largely by the bedrock, but in the downtown the soil pH was alkaline in soils of Sopron. Therefore, the toxic elements are still accumulated in the topsoil. The lead content was very high (suggested pollution limit >25 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas. According to our measurements we found the highest average values in the soils of parks. The pH of urban topsoils of Szombathely was mostly neutral and it was lower in soil of agricultural areas on the suburb, where the artificial fertiliser is still used. The Pb content was high (more than 25 mg Pb/kg) in case of 13 samples next to traffic roads of the town. The Co, Cu and Ni results were below the suggested Hungarian background limits. The Zn values were above the suggested Hungarian pollution (20 mg Zn/kg) and interventional limits (>40 mg Zn/kg) in most cases. According to the results we found the highest average values of heavy metals in the soil of traffic areas or next to the Gyöngyös creek, which could be originated from traffic contamination, binding in the soil of urban green spaces, thus possibly affects human health. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Keywords: anthropogenic effects, heavy metal content, lead pollution, polluted urban soils

  1. Updating soil CO2 emission experiments to assess climate change effects and extracellular soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vazquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Experimental work is an essential component in training future soil scientists. Soil CO2 emission is a key issue because of the potential impacts of this process on the greenhouse effect. The amount of organic carbon stored in soils worldwide is about 1600 gigatons (Gt) compared to 750 Gt in the atmosphere mostly in the form of CO2. Thus, if soil respiration increased slightly so that just 10% of the soil carbon pool was converted to CO2, atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere could increase by one-fifth. General circulation model predictions indicate atmosphere warming between 2 and 5°C (IPCC 2007) and precipitation changes ranging from about -15 to +30%. Traditionally, release of CO2 was thought to occur only in an intracellular environment; however, recently CO2 emissions have been in irradiated soil, in the absence of microorganisms (Maire et al., 2013). Moreover, soil plays a role in the stabilization of respiration enzymes promoting CO2 release after microorganism death. Here, we propose to improve CO2 emission experiments commonly used in soil biology to investigate: 1) effects of climatic factors on soil CO2 emissions, and 2) rates of extracellular respiration in soils and how these rates are affected by environmental factors. Experiment designed to assess the effect of climate change can be conducted either in field conditions under different ecosystems (forest, grassland, cropland) or in a greenhouse using simple soil chambers. The interactions of climate change in CO2 emissions are investigated using climate-manipulation experiment that can be adapted to field or greenhouse conditions (e.g. Mc Daniel et al., 2013). The experimental design includes a control plot (without soil temperature and rain manipulation) a warming treatment as well as wetting and/or drying treatments. Plots are warmed to the target temperature by procedures such as infrared heaters (field) or radiant cable (greenhouse). To analyze extracellular respiration, rates of CO2

  2. Aqueous benzene-diols react with an organic triplet excited state and hydroxyl radical to form secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremy D; Kinney, Haley; Anastasio, Cort

    2015-04-21

    Chemical processing in atmospheric aqueous phases, such as cloud and fog drops, can play a significant role in the production and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this work we examine aqueous SOA production via the oxidation of benzene-diols (dihydroxy-benzenes) by the triplet excited state of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, (3)DMB*, and by hydroxyl radical, ˙OH. Reactions of the three benzene-diols (catechol (CAT), resorcinol (RES) and hydroquinone (HQ)) with (3)DMB* or ˙OH proceed rapidly, with rate constants near diffusion-controlled values. The two oxidants exhibit different behaviors with pH, with rate constants for (3)DMB* increasing as pH decreases from pH 5 to 2, while rate constants with ˙OH decrease in more acidic solutions. Mass yields of SOA were near 100% for all three benzene-diols with both oxidants. We also examined the reactivity of atmospherically relevant mixtures of phenols and benzene-diols in the presence of (3)DMB*. We find that the kinetics of phenol and benzene-diol loss, and the production of SOA mass, in mixtures are generally consistent with rate constants determined in experiments containing a single phenol or benzene-diol. Combining our aqueous kinetic and SOA mass yield data with previously published gas-phase data, we estimate a total SOA production rate from benzene-diol oxidation in a foggy area with significant wood combustion to be nearly 0.6 μg mair(-3) h(-1), with approximately half from the aqueous oxidation of resorcinol and hydroquinone, and half from the gas-phase oxidation of catechol.

  3. Online Time Series Analysis of Land Products over Asia Monsoon Region via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Time series analysis is critical to the study of land cover/land use changes and climate. Time series studies at local-to-regional scales require higher spatial resolution, such as 1km or less, data. MODIS land products of 250m to 1km resolution enable such studies. However, such MODIS land data files are distributed in 10ox10o tiles, due to large data volumes. Conducting a time series study requires downloading all tiles that include the study area for the time period of interest, and mosaicking the tiles spatially. This can be an extremely time-consuming process. In support of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) has processed MODIS land products at 1 km resolution over the Asia monsoon region (0o-60oN, 60o-150oE) with a common data structure and format. The processed data have been integrated into the Giovanni system (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) that enables users to explore, analyze, and download data over an area and time period of interest easily. Currently, the following regional MODIS land products are available in Giovanni: 8-day 1km land surface temperature and active fire, monthly 1km vegetation index, and yearly 0.05o, 500m land cover types. More data will be added in the near future. By combining atmospheric and oceanic data products in the Giovanni system, it is possible to do further analyses of environmental and climate changes associated with the land, ocean, and atmosphere. This presentation demonstrates exploring land products in the Giovanni system with sample case scenarios.

  4. Antioxidant, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of compounds isolated from the Ferula lutea flowers.

    PubMed

    Znati, Mansour; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Cazaux, Sylvie; Souchard, Jean Pierre; Harzallah Skhiri, Féthia; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2014-10-22

    A phytochemical investigation of the Ferula lutea (Poir.) Maire flowers has led to the isolation of a new compound, (E)-5-ethylidenefuran-2(5H)-one-5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), designated ferunide, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enoic acid (2), reported for the first time as a natural product, together with nine known compounds, verbenone-5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), methyl caffeate (5), methyl 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinate (6), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7), isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside, narcissin (8), (-)-marmesin (9), isoimperatorin (10) and 2,3,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (11). Compounds 3-10 were identified for the first time in Ferula genus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (compound 2), as well as by comparison with literature data. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated. Results showed that compound 7 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 18 ± 0.5 µmol/L and 19.7 ± 0.7 µmol/L by DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation, respectively. The compound 6 exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 5.3 ± 0.1 µmol/L against 5-lipoxygenase. In addition, compound 5 was found to be the most cytotoxic, with IC50 values of 22.5 ± 2.4 µmol/L, 17.8 ± 1.1 µmol/L and 25 ± 1.1 µmol/L against the HCT-116, IGROV-1 and OVCAR-3 cell lines, respectively.

  5. Sonification for geoscience: Listening to faults from the inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Natasha; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Here we investigate the use of sonification for geoscience by sonifying the data generated in computer models of earthquake processes. Using mainly parameter mapping sonification, we explore data from our recent 3D DEM (discrete element method) models where granular debris is sheared between rough walls to simulate an evolving fault (e.g. Mair and Abe, 2011). To best appreciate the inherently 3D nature of the crushing and sliding events (continuously tracked in our models) that occur as faults slip, we use Ambisonics (a sound field recreation technology). This allows the position of individual events to be preserved generating a virtual 3D soundscape so we can explore faults from the inside. The addition of 3D audio to the sonification tool palate further allows us to more accurately connect to spatial data in a novel and engaging manner. During sonification, events such as grain scale fracturing, grain motions and interactions are mapped to specific sounds whose pitch, timbre, and volume reflect properties such as the depth, character, and size of the individual events. Our interactive and real-time approaches allow the listener to actively explore the data in time and space, listening to evolving processes by navigating through the spatial data via a 3D mouse controller. The soundscape can be heard either through an array of speakers or using a pair of headphones. Emergent phenomena in the models generate clear sound patterns that are easily spotted. Also, because our ears are excellent signal-to-noise filters, events are recognizable above the background noise. Although these features may be detectable visually, using a different sense (and part of the brain) gives a fresh perspective and facilitates a rapid appreciation of 'signals' through audio awareness, rather than specific scientific training. For this reason we anticipate significant potential for the future use of sonification in the presentation, interpretation and communication of geoscience datasets

  6. [Medicine and humanism: insights of the Nürnberg city physician Theodericus Ulsenius regarding Morbus Gallicus].

    PubMed

    Santing, C G

    1995-01-01

    The Nuremberg physician and humanist Theodericus Ulsenius (c. 1460-1508) was the author of two works on the so-called Morbus Gallicus. In 1496 he published a Vaticinium in epidemicam scabiem, and he also wrote fifty aphorisms, entitled Cura mali francici. In this article I will characterize Ulsenius' ideas and compare these to the measures the Nuremberg town government took to diminish the dangerous effects of the epidemic. In the function of official town physician, Ulsenius was one of the chief advisers and executives of the Nuremberg health policy. As the 'Ratsverlässe' (records of the town-council meetings) give detailed information, the reactions of senate and physicians can be followed from day to day. The Vaticinium a poem of 100 hexameters was printed at the office of Hans Mair and presented as a pamphlet with a woodcut from the workshop of Albrecht Dürer. The verses refer to a dream of the poet, in which the God Apollo addresses him and talks about the terrible disease. The origin and symptoms of the illness are discussed extensively, in accordance with the prevailing medico-astrological conceptions. Nevertheless, the poem ist not a medical piece of work, but a literary-styled and humanistically appropriate description of the recent epidemic, meant for fellow members of the German respublica litteraria. Like most of Ulsenius' writings, the Cura mali francici only survived as a copy made by his colleague Hartmann Schedel. It seems that the author had different types of audience in mind. The aphorisms refer to the Aphorisms of his great example, the famous Ancient medical doctor Hippocrates of Kos. The addresses of the Cura are obviously medical professionals: the physician in the towns harassed by the Morbus Gallicus and especially the medical professors who hat to lecture on the new ailment.

  7. Deformation and Fluid Flow in the Etendeka Plateau, NW Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Eric; Koehn, Daniel; Passchier, Cees; Davis, Jennifer; Salvona, Aron; Chung, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We studied deformation bands in sandstone and breccia veins in overlying basalts of the Etendeka Plateau, NW Namibia, regarding their development and history of fluid flow within. The studied deformation bands can be divided into disaggregation bands and cataclastic bands. The former appear to develop in unsorted sandstone, whereas the latter form in well sorted sandstone. We estimated the porosity of the bands and host rock in thin sections using a simple image analysis software (ImageJ). Results show, that no or only a minor decrease in porosity occur in disaggregation bands, while the porosity in cataclastic bands is decreased by up to 82 % with respect to the host rock. These observations are in agreement with results of existing studies (e.g. Fossen et al., 2007). Hence the cataclastic bands form a seal to fluid flow in the host rock, yet it is observed in outcrops that deformation bands can develop into open fractures which in turn increase the permeability of the rock. Breccia veins in the overlying basalts show intense fracturing where the basalt is locally fractured into elongated chips. Mineral precipitation in these breccia veins indicates a hydrothermal origin of the fluids since the precipitates consist of extremely fine-grained quartz aggregates. Secondary mineralization with large crystals indicates that a long-lived fluid circulation through tubular networks was active at a later stage, which eventually sealed the veins completely. We propose that the Etendeka basalts on top of the sandstone formation produced a localized deformation along deformation bands and heated up fluid below the lavas. At a later stage fluid pressures were either high enough to break through the basalt or fracturing due to ongoing extension produced fluid pathways. References Fossen, H., Schultz, R., Shipton, Z. and Mair, K. (2007). Deformation bands in sandstone: a review. J. Geol. Soc., 164, 755-769.

  8. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity.

    PubMed

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Treebak, Jonas T; Pehmøller, Christian; Sanz, Nieves; Sakakibara, Iori; Saint-Amand, Emmanuelle; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Maire, Pascal; Marette, André; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Ferry, Arnaud; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2014-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Exercise performance was significantly reduced in the mdKO mice, with a reduction in maximal force production and fatigue resistance. An increase in the proportion of myofibers with centralized nuclei was noted, as well as an elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA, possibly consistent with mild skeletal muscle injury. Notably, we found that AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 isoforms are dispensable for contraction-induced skeletal muscle glucose transport, except for male soleus muscle. However, the lack of skeletal muscle AMPK diminished maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration, showing an impairment at complex I. This effect was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial number, indicating that AMPK regulates muscle metabolic adaptation through the regulation of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and mitochondrial substrate utilization but not baseline mitochondrial muscle content. Together, these results demonstrate that skeletal muscle AMPK has an unexpected role in the regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that contributes to the energy demands of the exercising muscle.-Lantier, L., Fentz, J., Mounier, R., Leclerc, J., Treebak, J. T., Pehmøller, C., Sanz, N., Sakakibara, I., Saint-Amand, E., Rimbaud, S., Maire, P., Marette, A., Ventura-Clapier, R., Ferry, A., Wojtaszewski, J. F. P., Foretz, M., Viollet, B. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity. © FASEB.

  9. Future Earth, Global Science and Regional Programs: Building regional integrated science capacities in a global science organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewksbury, J.

    2016-12-01

    Future Earth has emerged from the more than 30-year history of Global Change Research Programs, including IGBP, DIVERSITAS and IHDP. These programs supported interdisciplinary science in service of societies around the world. Now, their focus on building a greater understanding of changing Earth systems and their couplings with society has passed to Future Earth - with an important addition: Future Earth was also established to focus global change efforts around key societal challenges. The implications for the structure of Future Earth are large. Many challenges within topics, such as the water, energy, food nexus or the future of cities, are manifested within local, national, and regional contexts. How should we organize globally to most effectively confront these multi-scale challenges? The solution proposed in the framing of Future Earth was the formation of regional as well as national committees, as well as the formation of regional centers and offices. Regional Committees serve to both advocate for Future Earth in their regions and to advocate for regional interests in the global Future Earth platform, while regional Centers and offices are built into the Future Earth secretariat to perform a parallel regional implementation function. Implementation has not been easy, and the process has placed regionally-focused projects in an awkward place. Programs such as the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the South/Southeast Asia Research Initiative (SARI) represent some of the best global change communities in the world, but by design, their focus is regional. The effective integration of these communities into the Future Earth architecture will be critical, and this integration will require the formation of strong regional committees and regional centers.

  10. Influence of elevated CO2 and mycorrhizae on nitrogen acquisition: contrasting responses in Pinus taeda and Liquidambar styraciflua.

    PubMed

    Constable, J V; Bassirirad, H; Lussenhop, J; Zerihun, A

    2001-02-01

    An understanding of root system capacity to acquire nitrogen (N) is critical in assessing the long-term growth impact of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on trees and forest ecosystems. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and elevated [CO2] on root ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) uptake capacity in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Mycorrhizal treatments included inoculation of seedlings with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith in sweetgum and the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus Laccaria bicolor (Maire) Orton in loblolly pine. These plants were then equally divided between ambient and elevated [CO2] treatments. After 6 months of treatment, root systems of both species exhibited a greater uptake capacity for NH4+ than for NO3-. In both species, mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased uptake capacity for NO3-, but not for NH4+. In sweetgum, the mycorrhizal effect on NO3- and NH4+ uptake capacity depended on growth [C02]. Similarly, in loblolly pine, the mycorrhizal effect on NO3- uptake capacity depended on growth [CO2], but the effect on NH4+ uptake capacity did not. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly enhanced root nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in both species, but elevated [CO2] increased root NRA only in sweetgum. Leaf NRA in sweetgum did not change significantly with mycorrhizal inoculation, but increased in response to [CO2]. Leaf NRA in loblolly pine was unaffected by either treatment. The results indicate that the mycorrhizal effect on specific root N uptake in these species depends on both the form of inorganic N and the mycorrhizal type. However, our data show that in addressing N status of plants under high [CO2], reliable prediction is possible only when information about other root system adjustments (e.g., biomass allocation to fine roots) is simultaneously considered.

  11. A global distribution of the ignitability component of flammability based on climatic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karali, Anna; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Hatzaki, Maria; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2017-04-01

    Fire regime is the result of complex interactions among ignition, topography, weather and vegetation. Even though the influence of vegetation varies regionally, it remains the only component that can be directly managed in order to reduce the negative impacts of wildland fires. Therefore, reliable information on vegetation flammability is required, making it one of the essential components of fire risk assessment and management. Specific Leaf Area (SLA [cm2 g-1], the ratio of leaf area to leaf dry mass) has received little attention regarding its relationship with ignitability and, thus, flammability. However, recent studies on a regional scale have shown that leaves of higher SLA are more ignitable. Thus, in the framework of the current study, the ignitability, as a function of SLA on global scale, is explored. In order to calculate SLA, a linear regression model combining SLA and climate data has been used (Maire et al., 2015). The climate data used for its calculation include the maximum monthly fractional sunshine duration, the maximum monthly temperature and the number of days with daily mean temperature above 0°C for each grid cell, obtained from the ERA-Interim gridded observations database. Subsequently, the ignitability component of flammability is calculated on a global scale using a bivariate regression relationship with SLA based on experimental burns of leaf materials (Grootemaat et al., 2015). The global distribution of ignitability can subsequently be combined with fire weather index (FWI) values for the development of an integrated index of forest fire vulnerability for the current and future climate, using CMIP5 climate model outputs. This will enable the integration of functional biogeographic data with widely applied fire risk assessment methodologies at regional to global spatial scales.

  12. Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) Heavy Metal Uptake in Eastern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: Soil condition, plant production and ecological protection are most important parts of the sustainable agricultural activity on all over the world nowadays. Soils, their fertility, their content of different macro-, mezo-, micro-, trace elements have almost always dictated the spread of agricultural farmlands, including the plant production-, yield harvest levels and yield element contents possible. The success of agriculturists in the 20th and 21th century, particularly in the Europe has relied on inproved soil fertility managements, appropriate crop production and environmental protection. We can test and improve the situations by using different plant species (Crotalaria juncea L.) x macro nutrients (nitrogen) x chelating agents (Desferal as deferoxamine-mesilate: C25H48N6O8-CH4O3S) methods. Crotalaria has a very potential and important role in soil fertility as a green manure crop in the design of plant rotation to field plant production, in the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high protein content (30%) and in the pytoremediation possibilities. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem meadow soil (Kunság-region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of crotalaria experiment series (5 years) in 2001. The agrochemical parameters of the ploughed layer of the region soils were as follows: humus 2.5-3.0%, pH (H2O) 7.7, pH (KCl) 7.0, LE (Lakanen & Erviö 1971 [3])-P2O5 183-218 mg kg-1, LE-K2O 82-115 mg kg-1, LE-Ca 1.3%, LE-Mg 56-60 mg kg-1, LE-Mn 45 mg kg-1 according to soil analysis. Nitrogen (N) x Desferal ("D"-Novartis Pharma AG Basie [7], Switzerland, Suiza 500 mg) x Genotype ("G"-India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time (T) experiment involved The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and Desferal 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2. Experimental datas were estimated by MANOVA of SPSS. The main results can be summarised as follows: a., At harvest, total air dry phytomass

  13. Unusual isotopic composition of C-CO2 from sterilized soil microcosms: a new way to separate intracellular from extracellular respiratory metabolisms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kéraval, Benoit; Alvarez, Gaël; Lehours, Anne Catherine; Amblard, Christian; Fontaine, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The mineralization of organic C requires two main steps. First, microorganisms secrete exoenzymes in soil in order to depolymerize plant and microbial cell walls and release soluble substrates for microbial assimilation. The second step of mineralization, during which C is released as CO2, implies the absorption and utilization of solubilized substrates by microbial cells with the aim to produce energy (ATP). In cells, soluble substrates are carried out by a cascade of respiratory enzymes, along which protons and electrons are transferred from a substrate to oxygen. Given the complexity of this oxidative metabolism and the typical fragility of respiratory enzymes, it is traditionally considered that respiration (second step of C mineralization process) is strictly an intracellular metabolism process. The recurrent observations of substantial CO2 emissions in soil microcosms where microbial cells have been reduced to extremely low levels challenges this paradigm. In a recent study where some respiratory enzymes have shown to function in an extracellular context in soils, Maire et al. (2013) suggested that an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET) substantially contributes to CO2 emission from soils. This idea is supported by the recent publication of Blankinship et al., 2014 who showed the presence of active enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle on soil particles. Many controversies subsist in the scientific community due to the presence of non-proliferating but morphologically intact cells after irradiation that could substantially contribute to those soil CO2 emissions. To test whether a purely extracellular oxidative metabolism contribute to soil CO2 emissions, we combined high doses of gamma irradiations to different time of soil autoclaving. The presence of active and non-active cells in soil was checked by DNA and RNA extraction and by electronic microscopy. None active cells (RNA-containing cells) were detectable after irradiation, but some morphological

  14. Assessment of the thermal and dynamic reaction scenarios of different permafrost typologies in the European Alps: A PermaNET initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A.

    2009-04-01

    (Murtèl/Corvatsch, Schilthorn, Matterhorn), in Germany (Zugspitze) and in France (Haute-Savoie, Rhône-Alpes, Mont Blanc massif, Combe du Laurichard, Deux-Alpes ski resort, Orelle-Plan Bouchet ski resort, Bérard valley). The study sites will be presented and some preliminary results will be discussed on the poster. (* E. Cremonese, M. Dall'Amico, P. Deline, A. Galuppo, S. Gruber, J.-M. Krysiecki, G.K. Lieb, V. Mair, M. Maukisch, U. Morra di Cella, P. Pogliotti, A. von Poschinger, L. Ravanel, C. Riedl, P. Schoeneich, R. Seppi, M. Staudinger, G. Zampedri)

  15. The Impact of Biofuels on Climate Change from Marginal Land over East Asia using the RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Biofuel crop, in particular, miscanthus is a promising alternative clean energy source to fossil fuel for reducing net carbon dioxide emissions in China. However, conversion of current land use for miscanthus production is practically impossible due to intensive land use. Thus, the marginal land can be utilized as a miscanthus cropland. The impact of miscanthus crop conversion on regional climate is still unclear especially in East Asia. In this study, the ICTP Regional Climate Model Version 4.3.4 coupled with Community land model Version 3.5 including representations of carbon-nitrogen dynamics (CN) and dynamic vegetation (DV) (RegCM4.3.4-CLM3.5-CNDV) is used to investigate the impact of land use conversion of biofuel within marginal land on projected changes of regional climate over CORDEX East Asia. With boundary condition from the Era-Interim 1.5° gridded (EIN15), control and several modified experiments are conducted under different conditions of PFTs and vegetation phenology. Control run (CTL) is forced by original PFTs and LAI without any alternation. While modified experiments (double, expand) include sum of marginal land PFTs into miscanthus level, and double LAI (double) and expand LAI (expand), respectively. Differences among the experiments are compared to examine the impact of miscanthus conversion of Chinese marginal land on biogeophysical properties in land surface and consequently land-atmosphere processes over east Asia. All the modified experiments that including miscanthus land conversion represent changes of several variables such as precipitation, 2m-air temperature, ET and net radiation. The physical consistency between the variables and the impact of miscanthus land cover change within marginal land which is examined in this study will serve as one potential approach to quantify the impact of land conversion in China. Keywords: Biofuels; Miscanthus; Land use change; Regional Climate Modeling; RegCM4; East AsiaAcknowledgementsThis work was

  16. The Effect of Fracture Filler Composition on the Parameters of Shear Deformation Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, D.; Ostapchuk, A.; Batuhtin, I.

    2015-12-01

    RFBR (grant no. 13-05-00780). 1. Mair, K., K. M. Frye, and C. Marone (2002), J.Geophys.Res., 107(B10), 2219. 2. G.G. Kocharyan, V.K. Markov, A.A. Ostapchuk, and D.V. Pavlov (2014), Phys.Mes, 17(2), 123-133.

  17. Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

    2011-12-01

    Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly

  18. Jurassic to Present Evolution of the Arctic Ocean Region: Questions for IPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawver, L. L.; Gahagan, L. M.; Childers, V. A.; Brozena, J. M.; Grantz, A.

    2007-12-01

    In 1955, Carey first suggested a rotational opening of the Arctic Ocean based on his theories concerning oroclinal bending. It was only with the plate tectonic revolution in the next decade that there were a number of seminal abstracts and papers concerning the tectonic evolution of the Canada Basin. Grantz in 1966, Hamilton in 1967 and Tailleur in 1969 formulated the idea that the Canada Basin may have opened about a pivot point in the Mackenzie Delta. In 1968, Karasik first published his revolutionary idea that aeromagnetic anomalies collected over the Gakkel Ridge in the Eurasian Basin suggested that seafloor spreading during the Tertiary accounted for most of the oceanic crust between the Lomonosov Ridge and the Barents and Kara shelves. From the results of the 1979 Lomonosov Ridge experiment by Forsyth and Mair, it was established that the deep crustal velocities of the Lomonosov Ridge are remarkably similar to those of the Kara Sea shelf at 82°N, making it a continental sliver that rifted off the Barents and Kara Sea shelves. Consequently, the Arctic Ocean can be divided into a mostly Tertiary to present Eurasian Basin, and the older Mesozoic Amerasian Basin. Even with additional data from the Amerasian Basin including extensive airborne, ship-based, and satellite magnetics and gravity, the tectonic evolution of the Canada and Makarov components of the Amerasian Basin are still controversial. While the final phase of opening of the Amerasian Basin may have been rotational about a pivot point near or south of the Mackenzie Delta, the earlier phases and even the directions of the initial basin formation are still in doubt. Vogt and others first suggested a possible hotspot origin for the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges and related them to the Iceland hotspot. Age versus depth and heat flow versus depth give a tentative age for the Amerasian Basin of latest Jurassic to early Cretaceous with seafloor spreading ending prior to the beginning of the Cretaceous Normal

  19. Rising CO2 widens the transpiration-photosynthesis optimality space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2016-04-01

    ). Measurements of gs and V cmax were obtained with a portable photosynthesis system. Our empirical results support the prediction that the V cmax:gs-ratio increases with higher CO2 in both Solanum genotypes. The 'dry' genotype revealed a significantly higher Huber value and lower V cmax than the 'wet' genotype at each CO2 growth level. Moreover, we found that the down-regulation of V cmax under higher CO2 was stronger in the 'dry' genotype than in the 'wet' genotype, whereas no change in the Huber value was observed between CO2 levels. Consistent with the theoretical trade-off between the resulting costs of transpiration and photosynthesis, we found that the CO2-induced increase in the V cmax:gs-ratio was stronger in the 'wet' genotype than in the 'dry' genotype. Given the divergence of V cmax:gs relationships observed, we conclude that rising atmospheric CO2 may widen the V cmax - gs optimality space available for plants to achieve an optimal trade-off between photosynthesis and transpiration. References Prentice, I. C., Dong, N., Gleason, S. M., Maire, V. and Wright, I. J.: Balancing the costs of carbon gain and water transport: testing a new theoretical framework for plant functional ecology, Ecol. Lett., 17(1), 82-91, 2014.

  20. 3D analysis of deformation bands in unconsolidated Pleistocene sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, David C.; Brandes, Christian

    2010-05-01

    .5 cm. Analysis of along-strike fault displacement proves that fault thickness is inversely proportional to fault displacement. We calculated horizontal extension along three sections, perpendicular to the strike of the faults. Because fault displacement varies so much along-strike, extension ranges from 30 to 60%. Clearly the deformation is unevenly distributed on this scale. Nevertheless, these are very high amounts of deformation and this has wide implications when upscaled to the whole outcrop or locality. Aydin, A., 1978, Small faults formed a deformation bands in sandstone: Pure and Applied Geophysics 116, 913-930. Draganits, E., Grasemann, B. & Hager, C., 2005, Conjugate deformation band faults in the Lower Devonian Muth Formation (Tethyan Zone, NW India): evidence for pre-Himalayan deformation structures. Geological Magazine 142, 765-781. Fossen, H. & Bale, A., 2007, Deformation bands and their influence on fluid flow: Association of American Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 91, 1685-1700. Fossen, H., Schultz, R.A., Shipton, Z.K. & Mair, K., 2007, Deformation bands in sandstone: a review: Journal of the Geological Society, 164, 755-769. Midland Valley Exploration Ltd, 2009, Move2009.1 suite: Glasgow.

  1. Ultra-Pure Water and Extremophilic Bacteria interactions with Germanium Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, Vasu R.

    Supported by a consortium of semiconductor industry sponsors, an international "TIE" project among 5 National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry/university Cooperative Research Centers discovered that a particular extremophilic microbe, Pseudomonas syzygii, persists in the UltraPure Water (UPW) supplies of chip fabrication facilities (FABs) and can bio-corrode germanium wafers to produce microbe-encased optically transparent crystals. Considered as potentially functional "biochips", this investigation explored mechanisms for the efficient and deliberate production of such microbe-germania adducts as a step toward later testing of their properties as sensors or switches in bioelectronic or biophotonic circuits. Recirculating UPW (Ultra-Pure Water) and other purified water, laminar-flow loops were developed across 50X20x1mm germanium (Ge) prisms, followed by subsequent examination of the prism surfaces using Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection InfraRed (MAIR-IR) spectroscopy, Contact Potential measurements, Differential Interference Contrast Light Microscopy (DICLM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDS), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA; XPS). P. syzygii cultures originally obtained from a working FAB at University of Arizona were successfully grown on R2A minimal nutrient media. They were found to be identical to the microbes in stored UPW from the same facility, such microbes routinely capable of nucleation and entrapment within GeO2 crystals on the Ge flow surfaces. Optimum flow rates and exposure times were 1 ml/minute (3.2 s-1 shear rate) for 4 days at room temperature, producing densest crystal arrays at the prism central zones 2-3 cm from the flow inlets. Other flow rates and exposure times have higher shear rate which induces a different nucleation mechanism and saturation of crystal formation. Nucleation events began with square and circular oxide deposits surrounding active attached bacteria

  2. Plasma Heating in Highly Excited GaN/AlGaN Multiple Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Botchkarev, A; Chow, W W; Jiang, H X; Lin, J Y; Mair, R; Morkoc, H; Zeng, K C

    1998-10-09

    Plasma Heating in Highly Excited GaN/AIGaN Multiple Quantum @@lvEu Wells w f + 1998 %p, K. C. Zeng, R. Mair, J. Y. Liz and H. X. Jiang a) ` fabrication and understanding of MQW lasers [2-5]. For the design of these lasers, one on RT optical studies. Our results revealed that in the GaN/AIGaN MQWS, plasma heating strongly effects the carrier distribution between the confined and unconfined band-to-band and fke excitonic transitions [7]. In the MQW sample under low the unconfined states as determined from the band structure. sample under high Lxc, we varied the excitation intensity by one order of magnitude from 0.110 to IO. The carrier density is estimated to be about N=1012/cm2 (at UC= 0.1 Io) to 1013/cm2 (at 1=== l.). We plotted the PL spectra for four representative excitation fimction of injected carrier density N (open squares). The ratio starts at a value of about 18% for N=1012/cm2 (& = O. lb), and reaches a value over 64 `XO for N=1013/cm2 (& = regions is a loss to optical gain. The carrier density is ve~ high in our experiment and an electron-hole plasma (EHP) state is expected. Because the carrier transfer process plasma temperature. The laser pump energy is about 4.3 eV, which is far above the energy band gap of the sample studied here. This may result in a hot carrier population carrier densities and plasma temperatures. Using a phenomenological expression based The calculated ratio of carriers in the unconfked to the confined states (Ima~ kf) as a finction of carrier density at different temperatures are plotted in Fig. 3 (solid lines). The figure shows that the experiment results can only be explained by plasma heating of the injected carriers at high & ( TP > TJ. The transparency carrier densities for GaN/AIXGal.XN MQW structures with well thickness from 2 to 4 nm were calculated to be around 1x 1012/cm2 [10]. It is thus obvious from Fig. 3 that under high carrier injection density above the transparency density, the plasma temperature, TP, is no

  3. The Joint Aerosol-Monsoon Experiment (JAMEX): A Core Element for the Asian Monsoon Year (2008-2009)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tropospheric Aerosol: an International Regional Experiment (East-AIRE), and Radiation Aerosol Joint Observations - Monsoon Experiments over the Gangetic Himalayas Area (Rajo-Megha: dust cloud in Sanskrit) from the US, and Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIR) under the Earth Systems I Science Partnership (ESSP) and WCRP. For JAMEX to succeed, it is crucial for an international body, such as CEOP or an organization under WCRP to provide the science oversight, data policy and stewardship, and to promote collaboration and partnership among national programs. It makes eminent sense for WCRP to expand the concept and the prototype proposed by JAMEX to include all monsoon countries to expand AMY08-09 into an International Monsoon Era (2008- 2013). Such an establishment followed by establishment of an international body for science oversight, and data stewardship will go a long way in promoting coordination and connection among various existing monsoon research programs within WCRP, and with burgeoning national programs on monsoon and aerosol research.

  4. The Joint Aerosol-Monsoon Experiment (JAMEX): A Core Element for the Asian Monsoon Year (2008-2009)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, WIlliam K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Tropospheric Aerosol: an International Regional Experiment (East-AIRE), and Radiation Aerosol Joint Observations - Monsoon Experiments over the Gangetic Himalayas Area (Rajo-Megha: dust cloud in Sanskrit) from the US, and Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIR) under the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP) and WCRP. For JAMEX to succeed, it is crucial for an international body, such as CEOP or an organization under WCRP to provide the science oversight, data policy and stewardship, and to promote collaboration and partnership among national programs. It makes eminent sense for WCRP to expand the concept and the prototype proposed by JAMEX to include all monsoon countries to expand AMY08-09 into an International Monsoon Era (2008- 2013). Such an establishment followed by establishment of an international body for science oversight, and data stewardship will go a long way in promoting coordination and connection among various existing monsoon research programs within WCRP, and with burgeoning national programs on monsoon and aerosol research.

  5. The Joint Aerosol-Monsoon Experiment (JAMEX): A Core Element for the Asian Monsoon Year (2008-2009)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tropospheric Aerosol: an International Regional Experiment (East-AIRE), and Radiation Aerosol Joint Observations - Monsoon Experiments over the Gangetic Himalayas Area (Rajo-Megha: dust cloud in Sanskrit) from the US, and Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIR) under the Earth Systems I Science Partnership (ESSP) and WCRP. For JAMEX to succeed, it is crucial for an international body, such as CEOP or an organization under WCRP to provide the science oversight, data policy and stewardship, and to promote collaboration and partnership among national programs. It makes eminent sense for WCRP to expand the concept and the prototype proposed by JAMEX to include all monsoon countries to expand AMY08-09 into an International Monsoon Era (2008- 2013). Such an establishment followed by establishment of an international body for science oversight, and data stewardship will go a long way in promoting coordination and connection among various existing monsoon research programs within WCRP, and with burgeoning national programs on monsoon and aerosol research.

  6. The Joint Aerosol-Monsoon Experiment (JAMEX): A Core Element for the Asian Monsoon Year (2008-2009)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, WIlliam K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Tropospheric Aerosol: an International Regional Experiment (East-AIRE), and Radiation Aerosol Joint Observations - Monsoon Experiments over the Gangetic Himalayas Area (Rajo-Megha: dust cloud in Sanskrit) from the US, and Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIR) under the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP) and WCRP. For JAMEX to succeed, it is crucial for an international body, such as CEOP or an organization under WCRP to provide the science oversight, data policy and stewardship, and to promote collaboration and partnership among national programs. It makes eminent sense for WCRP to expand the concept and the prototype proposed by JAMEX to include all monsoon countries to expand AMY08-09 into an International Monsoon Era (2008- 2013). Such an establishment followed by establishment of an international body for science oversight, and data stewardship will go a long way in promoting coordination and connection among various existing monsoon research programs within WCRP, and with burgeoning national programs on monsoon and aerosol research.

  7. EDITORIAL: Slow light Slow light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Robert; Hess, Ortwin; Denz, Cornelia; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    storage, optical memories, quantum information devices, and optical communication systems in which the use of slow light will allow all-optical processing with less wasted heat. To implement these applications, devices such as buffers, memories, interferometers and switches that utilize slow light need to be developed. Future challenges include the need for improved coupling of light into slow light modes, overcoming propagation losses, and mitigating the influence of large dispersion of the group velocity. The collection of papers in this special issue of Journal of Optics features a broad spectrum of articles that highlight actual developments in many of the material types and schemes described above. It represents therefore an excellent up to date snapshot of the current state of the field of slow light research. References [1] Lorentz H A 1880 Uber die Beziehung zwischen der Fortpflanzung des Lichtes und der Körperdichte Wiedemann Ann. 9 641-64 [2] McCall S L and Hahn E L 1967 Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light Phys. Rev. Lett. 18 908-11 [3] Vestergaard Hau L, Harris S E, Dutton Z and Behroozi C H 1999 Nature 397 594 [4] Philips D F, Fleischhauer A, Mair A, Walsworth R L and Lukin M D 2001 Storage of light in atomic vapor Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 783-6

  8. A new rock glacier inventory of the Lombardy, Central Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, R.; Brardinoni, F.; Alberti, S.; Frattini, P.; Crosta, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    lower limit, sets respectively at 2590 m a.s.l. and 2200 m a.s.l. for intact and relict types. The majority of the inventoried landforms sits within the 2000-2500 m (53 %) and 2500-3000 m (39%) elevations belts. In order to explore potential lithologic controls on rock glacier abundance, we calculate surface ratios across major lithological categories. This attribute for a given lithology is the ratio between the combined surface of the inventoried landforms and the relevant terrain surface over the 1460 m a.s.l. (i.e. minimum elevation of the lowest relict rock glacier). Higher rock glacier densities are found in intrusive (0.032) and metamorphic (0.031) rocks, followed by extrusive (0.017) and sedimentary ones (0.012). This inventory represents a necessary preliminary step for modelling the spatial distribution of permafrost at the regional scale. We believe the inventory integrates well with prior and ongoing research on the cryosphere of the Alps. In particular, our research effort fills a strategic geographic gap in the context of the PermaNET initiative. - Cremonese, E., Gruber, S., Phillips, M., Pogliotti, P., Boeckli, L., Noetzli, J., Suter, C., Bodin, X., Crepaz, A., Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A., Lang, K., Letey, S., Mair, V., Morra di Cella, U., Ravanel, L., Scapozza, C., Seppi, R., and Zischg, A. 2011, Brief Communication: "An inventory of permafrost evidence for the European Alps", The Cryosphere Discuss., 5, 1201-1218. - Scapozza, C., Mari, S. 2010, Catasto, caratteristiche e dinamica dei rock glaciers delle Alpi Ticinesi. Bollettino della società ticinese di Scienze Naturali - 98, 2010 pp 15-29.

  9. Influence of elastomeric seal plate surface chemistry on interface integrity in biofouling-prone systems: Evaluation of a hydrophobic "easy-release" silicone-epoxy coating for maintaining water seal integrity of a sliding neoprene/steel interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andolina, Vincent L.

    Attenuated Internal Reflection (MAIR-IR) and Microscopic Infrared Spectroscopy for organic surface compositional details, light microscopy for wear area quantification, and profilometry for surface roughness estimation and wear depth quantification. Pin-on-disc dynamic Coefficient of Friction (CoF) measurements provided data relevant to forecasts of seal integrity in dry, wet and biofouling-influenced sliding contact. Actual wear of neoprene seal material against uncoated and coated steel surfaces, wet and dry, was monitored after both rotary and linear cyclic wear testing, demonstrating significant reductions in elastomer wear areas and depths (and resultant volumes) when the coating was present. Coating the steel eliminated a 270% increase in neoprene surface area wear and an 11-fold increase in seal abrasive volume loss associated with underwater rusting in rotary experiments. Linear testing results confirm coating efficacy by reducing wear area in both loading regimes by about half. No coating delamination was observed, apparently due to a differential distribution of silicone and epoxy ingredients at the air-exposed vs. steel-bonded interfaces demonstrated by IR and EDS methods. Frictional testing revealed higher Coefficients of Friction (CoF) associated with the low-speed sliding of Neoprene over coated rather than uncoated steel surfaces in a wet environment, indicating better potential seal adhesion between the hydrophobic elastomer and coating than between the elastomer and intrinsically hydrophilic uncoated steel. When zebra mussel biofouling debris was present in the articulating joints, CoF was reduced as a result of a water channel path produced between the articulating surfaces by the retained biological matter. Easier release of the biofouling from the low-CST coated surfaces restored the seal integrity more rapidly with further water rinsing. Rapid sliding diminished these biofouling-related differences, but revealed a significant advantage in reducing the Co

  10. Dual-sensor mapping of mass balance on Russia's northernmost ice caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolskiy, D.; Malinnikov, V.; Sharov, A.; Ukolova, M.

    2012-04-01

    th century. Hence only net balance values were determined for those ice caps. Other ice caps belong to the category of slow-moving or passive glaciers with simpler estimation of mass balance characteristics. Glacier elevation changes on several study glaciers were repeatedly determined with ICESat GLA06 data releases 28 and 29, and statistically compared. The root mean square difference between test determinations was given as less than 1 m rms and the lidar oversaturation effect was neglected in further work. Modern outlines of maritime glacier faces were corrected with the high-resolution optical quicklook imagery obtained from WorldView and QuickBird satellites. The research revealed the reduction of glacier area and general lowering of the glacier surface on most ice caps. Several new islets were discovered due to the glacial retreat in northern parts of Eva-Liv, Schmidt and Komsomolets islands. The cumulative mass budget in the study region remained negative while individual rates of volume change varied from -0.09 km3/a to +0.04 km3/a. Positive values of average mass balance with the maximum accumulation signal of approx. 0.9 m/a were determined on Ushakova, Schmidt and Henrietta ice caps. The results were represented in the form of glacier change maps with 50-m grid at 1:200,000 scale. The vertical accuracy of glacier change maps proved on several small and large ice caps was given as ± 0.3 m/a rms. Several resultant maps can be accessed at http://dib.joanneum.at/MAIRES/index.php?page=products. Further sub-regional comparison of glacier change maps with climatological, oceanographic, rheological, gravimetric and other ground-truth and EO data showed that spatial changes of insular glaciers are closely dependent on the frequency of precipitation events, water depth, sea ice regime, polynyas and gravity anomalies nearby. New opportunities for validating mass changes on the largest study glaciers and determining their bulk density are expected from the next

  11. Trace element mobility at the slab-mantle interface: constraints from "hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocchi, M.; Tropper, P.; Mair, V.; Bargossi, G. M.; Hermann, J.

    2009-04-01

    the phlogopite-rich zone suggests that the trace element signature of subduction zone fluids may be fractionated in this zone. The progressive depletion in some trace elements (LREE and LILE) and enrichment in Li from the gneiss towards the peridotite suggests a strong influence of bulk composition on the trace element budget of hydrous minerals. Since these metasomatic zones can be representative of the processes occurring at the slab-mantle interface, we can infer that metasomatic reactions between slab-derived fluids and ultramafic mantle wedge will follow a specific series of reactions and create mineral zones similar to those observed in this study. Despite the mobility of many elements, in the trace element profiles for amphibole and phlogopite across the different zones, we observe a rapid decrease even of the "fluid mobile" element contents within the reaction zone. With the exception of Li, we assist to an abrupt decrease of most of trace element concentrations going towards the peridotite side contact. Thus, according to the present study, it is not likely that the "crustal trace element signature" (i.e. LILE and LREE-enriched) could be able to travel far into the mantle. Our results further favour the evidence that the primary composition of subduction zone fluids reaching the source region of arc magmas is substantially modified by metasomatic reactions occurring in the mantle wedge. Furthermore, we underline that metasomatic rocks such as those observed at Mt. Hochwart are potentially able to transport H2O and other trace elements to greater depths in subduction zones. References: Marocchi M, Hermann J, Morten L (2007)-Lithos 99: 85-104. Marocchi M, Mair V, Tropper P, Bargossi GM (2009)-Mineral Petrol, in press Miller DP, Marschall RH, Schumacher JC (2009)- Lithos 107: 53-67. Scambelluri M, Hermann J, Morten L, Rampone E (2006)- Contrib Mineral Petrol 151:372-394. Spandler CJ, Hermann J, Faure K, Mavrogenes JA, Arculus RJ (2008)- Contrib Mineral Petrol

  12. Foreword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutron, Claude; Ferrari, Christophe

    2003-05-01

    Informatique, Biologie et Médecine, et Sciences de la Terre et de l'Univers. Il y a deux grandes Universités Scientifiques de renommée internationale: l'Université Joseph Fourier (UJF) et l'Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG). Il y a aussi d'importants laboratoires de différents organismes publics français et européen comme le Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (CEA), le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), l'Institut Laue Langevin (ILL), l'European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) et l'Institut de Radio-Astronomie Millimètrique (IRAM). C'est aussi le lieu d'implantation de nombreuses sociétés de haute technologie comme Hewlett Packard, ST Microelectronics, Schneider Electric and SGS-Thomson. Il a à Grenoble une longue tradition de recherches dans le domaine des métaux lourds dans l'environnement, notamment au Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement et au Laboratoire de Géophysique Interne et Tectonophysique. Ces deux volumes regroupent les articles issus de communication présentées aussi bien au cours des sessions orales que des sessions posters. Ces articles sont classés selon l'ordre alphabétique du nom de famille du premier auteur. Nous remercions vivement les auteurs pour l'excellente qualité de ces articles. Nous remercions aussi tout particulièrement Isabelle Houlbert et Laurence Castagné pour leur collaboration. Nous aimerions aussi remercier les membres du comité d'organisation ainsi que Jerome Nriagu (organisateur de la 11e conférence) pour l'aide apportée à l'organisation de cette conférence. Nous remercions aussi tout spécialement Christine Echevet qui n'a pas ménagé ses efforts pour faire de cette conférence un succés, ainsi que de nombreux collègues du Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, en particulier Jocelyne Roquemora. Nous tenons également à remercier le Président de Grenoble Alpes Métropole et le Maire de la Ville de Grenoble pour leur

  13. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    agricultural production becomes a great possibility for Hungary and the international community. In this process a green manure crop application for example crotalaria get a great chance for improvement process on soil fertility and soil coservation (Lazányi 1998, Márton 1999). This paper briefly outlines the major effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and soil conservation. MATERIAL AND METHOD Field experiment were carried out on a calcareous chernozem soil at Hungary (Experiment station Nagyhörcsök of Research Iinstitute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) in partly of experiments series (3 years) in 1998. The soil with about 20% clay, 3% humus, 5 Ca CO3 in its ploughed layer. To ensure a sufficient macronutrient supply in the whole experiment, 100 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O are given hectare in autumn of 1997. The Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH were applied with 2 replications. Each plot has an area of 45 m2 with 230-230 individual plants. Winter wheat was grown as a green crop (preceding the main product of a field) with commonly used agrotechnic. Soil samples are taken before the experiment set up on 27.04. 1998. Each composite sample consist of 20 subsamples drawn from the plow layer of each plot. Plant samples are taken during the vegetation period at least twice (20.07. 1998 and 02.11. 1998), using 5-5 plants per plot randomly. Plant material is dried, milled and digested in teflon bombs using cc.HNO3+cc.H2O2 and their total macro and microelement content with the exception of N was determined by ICP technics (JY 238 ULTRACE). N-content were determined by titration of hypobromit after the cc.H2SO4+cc.H2O2 digestion, N-NO3 content were determined by Griess-Ilosvai reaction after water extraction. Soil samples are extracted by ammonium-acetate+EDTA (Lakanen and Erviö 1971) and their available element content with the exception of N is mesaured using

  14. Extrasolar Planet in Double Star System Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    fact a long-period "spectroscopic" binary system. The separation between the two stars is probably more than one hundred times larger than that between the planet and the star it revolves around. The observed characteristics of the new planet, e.g., its rather large mass and almost circular orbit, associated with this double-star nature, indicate that planetary systems may form in other ways than the standard agglomeration scheme. For instance, recent theoretical calculations by Alan Boss (Carnegie Institute of Washington, USA) suggest that multi-Jupiter-mass planets may be formed through dynamical instabilities in a protoplanetary disk that are induced by the gravitational action of a nearby stellar companion. One important result of this new, extensive survey carried out in the southern sky will be to provide potential targets for the VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer), presently being built by ESO on Cerro Paranal. When it enters into operation some years from now, it will be able to provide exciting additional information about these planets and their nature. Note: [1] The team consists of Didier Queloz (also Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, USA), Michel Mayor, Luc Weber, Dominique Naef, Stephane Udry, Nuno Santos, Andre Blecha and Michel Burnet (Geneva Observatory, Switzerland) and Bastien Confino (St. Luc Observatory, Switzerland). The members of team want to express their gratitude to all the technical staff of the Geneva Observatory, in particular Daniel Huguenin, Rene Dubosson, Giovanni Russiniello and Charles Maire for their great efforts, from the design to the final installation of the Swiss Leonard Euler telescope at La Silla. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  15. Greenland plays a large role in the gloomy picture painted of probable future sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Edward

    2012-12-01

    very coarse at 5.625° latitude/longitude resolution. There appears to be a cancelling out of errors in LOVECLIM, where its climate sensitivity seems quite low (in comparison with other models) but the simulated enhanced high-latitude warming—often termed Arctic amplification and evident in observed climate data for the last 30 years—is quite high. It would be good to include precipitation as well as temperature changes when modelling the future response of glaciers, even though the former is likely to be less important. I do not agree that uncertainties in climate sensitivity can be adequately accounted for by varying boundary and initial conditions in ensembles of models, as all of the model simulations may be systematically biased due to some physical effect that is improperly considered—or unrepresented—by all of the models, but this is a widely used technique and probably the best that can be done here. Despite these caveats, Goelzer et al 's (2012) results will undoubtedly prove useful for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)'s upcoming Fifth Assessment Report due to be released in 2014. The key challenge remains to further improve the individual components of the Earth system model, especially those concerning ice-sheet dynamics. Acknowledgments EH thanks Ben Brock, Amy Jowett and Andrew Sole for useful editorial suggestions to the text. References Barletta V R, Sørensen L S and Forsberg R 2012 Variability of mass changes at basin scale for Greenland and Antarctica Cryosp. Discuss. 6 3397-446 Bartholomew I, Nienow P, Sole A, Mair D, Cowton T and King M A 2011 Seasonal variations in Greenland ice sheet motion: inland extent and behaviour at higher elevations Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 307 271-8 Goelzer H, Huybrechts P, Raper S C B, Loutre M -F, Goosse H and Fichefet T 2012 Millennial total sea-level commitments projected with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM Environ. Res. Lett. 7 045401 Hanna E, Huybrechts P

  16. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ' work; point out any problems in organization or grammar; and suggest the steps necessary to complete the paper. They then go over the peer review form with the writer, referring any questions or disagreements to the instructor. It is most helpful if the instructor can also read and comment on the draft. General comments on the level of detail included and any problems with the reasoning come more appropriately from the instructor than from peers. The paper is then revised and handed in on the following week. The final draft is accompanied by a summary of revisions and copies of all peer reviews. Students are graded on peer reviews and summaries of revisions and cover letters, as well as on the final paper. Acknowledgments The molecular modeling workstations and associated software were purchased with funding from NSF, Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement program, grant DUE-9350843 to AJW, with matching funds from Wellesley College. Some of the equipment for protein purification was funded by a grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to Wellesley College. The authors are grateful to Paul Reisberg for helpful discussions in the early stages of this project and to Margaret Merritt for a critical review of the manuscript. Literature Cited 1. Blake, C. C. F.; Jonhson, L. N.; Mair, G. A.; North, A. C. T.; Phillips. D. C.; Sarma, V. R. Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. B 1967, 167, 378 - 388. 2. Hendrickson, H. S.; Giannini, J. L.; Bergstrom, J. P.; Johnson, S. N.; Leland, P. A. Biochem. Educ. 1995, 23, 14 - 17. 3. Miranker, A., Robinson, C. V.; Radford, S. E.; Aplin, R. T.; Dobson, C. M. Science 1993, 262, 896 - 900. 4. Turner, M. A.; Howell, P. L. Prot. Sci. 1995, 4, 442 - 449. 5. Radmacher, M.; Fritz, M.; Hansma, H. G.; Hansma, P. Science 1994, 265, 1577 - 1579. 6. Shugar, D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1952, 8, 302 - 309. 7. Bradford, M. M. Anal. Biochem. 1976, 72, 248 - 254. 8. Strang, R. H. C. In Practical Biochemistry for Colleges; Wood, E. J., Ed.; Pergamon: Oxford